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Sample records for 8-year-old children findings

  1. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  2. Developing the IDEFICS community-based intervention program to enhance eating behaviors in 2- to 8-year-old children: findings from focus groups with children and parents.

    PubMed

    Haerens, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Fernandez, J; Hebestreit, A; Kovács, E; Lasn, H; Regber, S; Shiakou, M; De Henauw, S

    2009-06-01

    One purpose of 'identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants' (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary behaviors among children aged 2-8 years old in order to determine the best approaches for developing the dietary components of the standardized intervention. Twenty focus groups with children (74 boys, 81 girls) and 36 focus groups with 189 parents (28 men, 161 women) were conducted. Only in two countries, children mentioned receiving nutrition education at school. Rules at home and at school ranged from not allowing the consumption of unhealthy products to allowing everything. The same diversity was found for availability of (un)healthy products at home and school. Parents mentioned personal (lack of time, financial constraints, preferences), socio-environmental (family, peer influences), institutional (school policies) and physical-environmental (availability of unhealthy products, price, season) barriers for healthy eating. This focus group research provided valuable information to guide the first phase in the IDEFICS intervention development. There was a large variability in findings within countries. Interventions should be tailored at the personal and environmental level to increase the likelihood of behavioral change. PMID:18603656

  3. Developing the IDEFICS Community-Based Intervention Program to Enhance Eating Behaviors in 2- to 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from Focus Groups with Children and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haerens, L.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Barba, G.; Eiben, G.; Fernandez, J.; Hebestreit, A.; Kovacs, E.; Lasn, H.; Regber, S.; Shiakou, M.; De Henauw, S.

    2009-01-01

    One purpose of "identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants" (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary…

  4. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  5. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.

    PubMed

    Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range.

  6. Racial Differences in Reported Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in 2- to 8-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Brian; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep of 2- to 8-year-old children, to identify factors accounting for these differences, and to determine if variability in napping was related to psychosocial functioning. Methods Caretakers of 1043 children (73.5% non-Hispanic white; 50.4% male) 2 to 8 years old from a community sample reported on their children’s napping behavior and nighttime sleep. Caretakers of 255 preschool children (3–5 years old) also completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children. Results A more gradual age-related decline in napping was found for black children. At age 8, 39.1% of black children were reported to nap, compared with only 4.9% of white children. Black children also napped significantly more days per week, had shorter average nocturnal sleep durations, and slept significantly less on weekdays than on weekend nights. Despite differences in sleep distribution, total weekly sleep duration (diurnal and nocturnal) was nearly identical for the 2 racial groups at each year of age. Logistic regression analysis revealed that demographic variables were related to but did not fully explain napping differences. Napping in a subset of preschoolers was not significantly related to psychosocial functioning. Conclusions There are remarkable racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep patterns beginning as early as age 3 and extending to at least 8 years of age. These differences are independent of commonly investigated demographic factors. Differences in napping behavior do not seem to have psychosocial significance in a sample of preschool children. PMID:15866856

  7. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test’s intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the “Test of Gross Motor Development” (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key points All 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98). A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test’s concurrent validity. The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas. New and validated test can be

  8. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation.

    PubMed

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key pointsAll 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98).A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test's concurrent validity.The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas.New and validated test can be of great use

  9. The Effect of Action Valence and Race on 3- to 8-Year-Old Children's Social Cognitive Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Hughes, Brittany C.; Mejia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated children's judgments of actions as a function of the valence of the action and the race of the actor. Three- to 8-year-old children were read an illustrated storybook in which 1 character did not share (a negatively valenced action) and the other character was helpful (a positively valenced action). The race of the…

  10. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  11. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Steven A; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age. Mg absorption was determined using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique, with (25) Mg given intravenously and (26) Mg given orally. We found a small, but significantly greater Mg absorption efficiency (percentage absorption) in males than females (67% ± 12% versus 60% ± 8%, p = 0.02) but no difference in estimated net Mg retention (average of 37 mg/d in both males and females). Relating dietary Mg intake to estimated Mg retention showed that an intake of 133 mg/d, slightly above the current estimated average requirement (EAR) of 110 mg/d, led to a net average retention of 10 mg/d, the likely minimum growth-related need for this age group. Covariate analysis showed that Mg intake and total Mg absorption, but not calcium intake or total absorption were significantly associated with both total body BMC and BMD. These results suggest that usual Mg intakes in small children in the United States meet dietary requirements in most but not all children. Within the usual range of children's diets in the United States, dietary Mg intake and absorption may be important, relatively unrecognized factors in bone health.

  12. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  13. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  14. Occlusal and oral health status of a group of 3-8-year-old South African black children.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, C E; Wiltshire, W A

    2000-05-01

    This study determined the oral health status of a group of 3-8-year-old South African black children, comprising a total of 214 children from the townships of Garankuwa, Shosanguwe, Mabopane, Hebron and Erasmus who attended a school in Akasia, Greater Pretoria Metropolitan Substructure. The decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft), oral hygiene status, dental IQ and malocclusion status were determined. The study found that the children's oral health status and occlusal status were unacceptable. The level of their dental IQ scores was low, their oral hygiene poor, and they were in urgent need of primary and secondary dental care. In addition they were in need of both preventive and interceptive orthodontic care. A national strategy to address primary dental health care is recommended. PMID:12608266

  15. Dietary Patterns and Their Socioeconomic and Behavioral Determinants in 6- to 8-Year-Old Portuguese Children.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, D; Muc, M; Rodrigues, P R M; Pinto, A Mota; Padez, C

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to a healthier diet is declining, with children consuming more saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. Factors influencing this choice were studied using a cross-sectional study with children (6 to 8 years old) living in Coimbra. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors were obtained from the parents. Dietary patterns of 1,063 children were identified: Mediterranean (MedDiet), saturated fats (SFatDiet), and base of Portuguese diet (BPDiet). Their relationship with socioeconomic and behavioral determinants was analyzed. SES determined strongly the dietary choices with lower SES being associated with higher consumption of SFatDiet and higher SES with BPDiet. Worse diet quality was shown to coexist with other unhealthy behaviors. PMID:27398743

  16. The end-state comfort effect in 3- to 8-year-old children in two object manipulation tasks.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Birgit; Henning, Anne; Wunsch, Kathrin; Weigelt, Matthias; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare 3- to 8-year-old children's propensity to anticipate a comfortable hand posture at the end of a grasping movement (end-state comfort effect) between two different object manipulation tasks, the bar-transport task, and the overturned-glass task. In the bar-transport task, participants were asked to insert a vertically positioned bar into a small opening of a box. In the overturned-glass task, participants were asked to put an overturned-glass right-side-up on a coaster. Half of the participants experienced action effects (lights) as a consequence of their movements (AE groups), while the other half of the participants did not (No-AE groups). While there was no difference between the AE and No-AE groups, end-state comfort performance differed across age as well as between tasks. Results revealed a significant increase in end-state comfort performance in the bar-transport task from 13% in the 3-year-olds to 94% in the 8-year-olds. Interestingly, the number of children grasping the bar according to end-state comfort doubled from 3 to 4 years and from 4 to 5 years of age. In the overturned-glass task an increase in end-state comfort performance from already 63% in the 3-year-olds to 100% in the 8-year-olds was significant as well. When comparing end-state comfort performance across tasks, results showed that 3- and 4-year-old children were better at manipulating the glass as compared to manipulating the bar, most probably, because children are more familiar with manipulating glasses. Together, these results suggest that preschool years are an important period for the development of motor planning in which the familiarity with the object involved in the task plays a significant role in children's ability to plan their movements according to end-state comfort.

  17. Interference between oculomotor and postural tasks in 7-8-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Agathe; Doré Mazars, Karine; Lemoine, Christelle; Nougier, Vincent; Olivier, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Several studies in adults having observed the effect of eye movements on postural control provided contradictory results. In the present study, we explored the effect of various oculomotor tasks on postural control and the effect of different postural tasks on eye movements in eleven children (7.8 ± 0.5 years) and nine adults (30.4 ± 6.3 years). To vary the difficulty of the oculomotor task, three conditions were tested: fixation, prosaccades (reactive saccades made toward the target) and antisaccades (voluntary saccades made in the direction opposite to the visual target). To vary the difficulty of postural control, two postural tasks were tested: Standard Romberg (SR) and Tandem Romberg (TR). Postural difficulty did not affect oculomotor behavior, except by lengthening adults' latencies in the prosaccade task. For both groups, postural control was altered in the antisaccade task as compared to fixation and prosaccade tasks. Moreover, a ceiling effect was found in the more complex postural task. This study highlighted a cortical interference between oculomotor and postural control systems.

  18. Relationships of objectively measured physical activity and sleep with BMI and academic outcomes in 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Susan Ann

    2013-05-01

    Current guidelines in place for sleep and physical activity in childhood are the result of data collected in the form of self-reports. Exact measurement of activity dimensions and sleep characteristics are essential. The purpose of clearly established parameters is for the intent of verifying health outcomes and evaluating interventions. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationships between the objective dimensions of physical activity, sleep, weight status, academic achievement, and academic behavior. This cross-sectional correlational descriptive design examined the activity and sleep patterns continuously for 24 hours/7 days with triaxial accelerometers in a low income African American sample of 8-year-olds. A qualitative component gathered additional identifiers. This sample was overweight/obese, inactive, and sleep-deprived. Moderate-vigorous activity was correlated with reading scores. Confirmed in this research was the association between sleep duration, physical activity intensities, and academics. Positive health outcomes in children are endorsed by an energy balance.

  19. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Eisenmann, Joey C; Froberg, Karsten; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing accuracy test was used to assess MP. PA was not correlated with %BF, but was significantly correlated with MP. The strongest correlations existed between %BF and MP. Low %BF/High PA had higher MP scores compared with High %BF/Low PA, and within the High %BF groups MP was higher in the High PA versus Low PA group. When comparing PA by %BF and MP groups, boys in the Low %BF/High MP had higher PA than both the Low %BF/Low MP and High %BF/Low MP groups. In girls, PA was highest in the High %BF/High MP group. This study highlights the complex interrelationships among PA, %BF, and MP in children and the need to develop fundamental motor skills during childhood.

  20. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, p<0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r=0.019, p=0.864). Conclusion This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on

  1. [The functional state of the cardiovascular system and the level of physical performance in 7-8-year-old children under conditions of aerotechnogenic pollution].

    PubMed

    Tuliakova, O V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the functional state of the cardiovascular system and the level of physical performance in 7-8-year-old children living in the urban area where air pollution caused by heavy vehicle traffic is high. The cardiovascular system and physical performance were evaluated using the conventional methods in 7-8-year-old 1097 children: a control group included 652 children (363 boys and 289 girls) and a comparison group consisted of 445 persons (239 boys and 206 girls). Under aerotechnogenic pollution, diastolic and mean blood pressures were found to be higher in both groups; the maximum oxygen consumption was lower in the boys and the girls had a decreased heart rate following 4-minute exercise.

  2. Higher Weight Status of Only and Last-Born Children: Maternal Feeding and Child Eating Behaviors as Underlying Processes among 4-8 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Mosli, Rana H.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E.; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behaviors, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions. PMID:26009204

  3. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  4. Mental Rotation with Tangible Three-Dimensional Objects: A New Measure Sensitive to Developmental Differences in 4- to 8-year-old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Zachary; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Xu, Chang; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that spatial thinking is fundamental to later success in math and science. The goals of this study were to design and evaluate a novel test of three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation for 4- to 8-year-old children (N?=?165) that uses tangible 3D objects. Results revealed that the measure was both valid and reliable and…

  5. The Art of Teaching Children the Arts: Music, Dance and Poetry with Children Aged 2-8 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Olsson, Bengt; Pramling, Niklas; Wallerstedt, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the theoretical framework of developmental pedagogy is presented as a tool in studying and developing children's knowing within the arts. The domains of art focused on are music, poetry and dance/aesthetic movement. Through empirical examples from a large-scale research project, we illustrate the tools of developmental pedagogy…

  6. Neuropsychological Measures of Attention and Impulse Control among 8-Year-Old Children Exposed Prenatally to Organochlorines

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Sally W.; Bellinger, David C.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We previously reported associations between organochlorines and behaviors related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among boys and girls at 8 years of age using a teacher’s rating scale for a birth cohort in New Bedford, Massachusetts (USA). Objectives: Our goal was to corroborate these findings using neuropsychological measures of inattentive and impulsive behaviors. Methods: We investigated the association between cord serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p´-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) and attention and impulse control using a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and components of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition (WISC-III). Participants came from a prospective cohort of children born during 1993–1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor in New Bedford. Median (range) cord serum levels for the sum of four prevalent PCBs [congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180 (ΣPCB4)] and p,p´-DDE were 0.19 (0.01–2.59) and 0.31 (0–14.93) ng/g serum, respectively. Results: We detected associations between PCBs and neuropsychological deficits for 578 and 584 children with CPT and WISC-III measures, respectively, but only among boys. For example, boys with higher exposure to ΣPCB4 had a higher rate of CPT errors of omission [rate ratio for the exposure interquartile range (IQR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.27] and slower WISC-III Processing Speed (change in score for the IQR = –2.0; 95% CI: –3.5, –0.4). Weaker associations were found for p,p´-DDE. For girls, associations were in the opposite direction for the CPT and null for the WISC-III. Conclusions: These results support an association between organochlorines (mainly PCBs) and neuropsychological measures of attention among boys only. Sex-specific effects should be considered in studies of organochlorines and neurodevelopment. PMID:22357172

  7. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning. PMID:26122202

  8. Children's Teleological Intuitions: What Kind of Explanations Do 7-8 Year Olds Give for the Features of Organisms, Artifacts and Natural Objects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampourakis, Kostas; Pavlidi, Vasiliki; Papadopoulou, Maria; Palaiokrassa, Eirini

    2012-08-01

    Research has shown that children usually provide teleological explanations for the features of organisms from a very early age (3-4 years old). However, it is not clear if teleology is applied selectively for organisms, or if it is generally applied to other objects as well (artifacts and non-living natural objects). The present study examined whether 7-8 year old students provided teleological explanations for particular organisms, artifacts and natural objects. We investigated whether children's familiarity with these objects influenced the types of explanations they gave. Finally, we also investigated correlations between 'teleology' and 'usefulness' in children's explanations. The results indicate that 7-8 year olds are able to distinguish between living and non-living entities, as well as that they provide teleological explanations mostly for organisms and artifacts. This may have important implications for biological education, since teleological explanations in classrooms are likely to pose important conceptual obstacles to the development of a scientific understanding of evolution.

  9. The Role of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Processing Empathy Stories in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Tila Tabea; Urton, Karolina; Held, Dada; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Hofmann, Markus J.; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kuchinke, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4–8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person's inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of preschool and school children (N = 48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. To control for the two types of empathy, children were presented blocks of stories eliciting either affective or cognitive empathy, or neutral scenes which relied on the understanding of physical causalities. By contrasting the activations of the younger and older children, we expected to observe developmental changes in brain activations when children process stories eliciting empathy in either stimulus modality toward a greater involvement of anterior frontal brain regions. Our results indicate that children's processing of stories eliciting affective and cognitive empathy is associated with medial and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation. In contrast to what is known from studies using adult participants, no additional recruitment of posterior brain regions was observed, often associated with the processing of stories eliciting empathy. Developmental changes were found only for stories eliciting affective empathy with increased activation, in older children, in medial OFC, left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Activations for the two modalities differ only little, with non-verbal presentation of the stimuli having a greater impact on empathy processing in children, showing more similarities to adult processing than the verbal one. This might be caused by the fact that non-verbal processing develops earlier in life and is more

  10. Narrative Skills, Cognitive Profiles and Neuropsychiatric Disorders in 7-8-Year-Old Children with Late Developing Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Hagberg, Bibbi; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Westerlund, Monica; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background: A community-representative sample of screened and clinically examined children with language delay at 2.5 years of age was followed up at school age when their language development was again examined and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental disorder (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism…

  11. The ability of 6- to 8-year-old children to use motor imagery in a goal-directed pointing task.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Steffie; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that motor imagery ability develops gradually between 5 and 12 years of age, but ambiguity remains over the precise developmental course before 9 years. Hence, we determined the age-related differences in the use of motor imagery by children on the mental chronometry paradigm. In addition, we examined whether the use of motor imagery is related to cognitive and hand abilities. To this end, we compared duration of actual pointing and imagined pointing on a radial Fitts' task in 82 children (three age groups; 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds). In line with previous studies, we found an age-related increase in temporal congruence between actual and imagined pointing and compliance with Fitts' law. Importantly, however, we showed that only a limited number of 7- and 8-year-olds were actually using motor imagery to perform the imagined pointing task, whereas the 6-year-olds did not employ motor imagery to perform the task. The current results extend previous research by establishing that the age of onset to use motor imagery in the mental chronometry paradigm is not prior to 7 years. PMID:26163179

  12. Direct diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty acids in children 4 to 8 years old.

    PubMed

    Madden, Sarah M M; Garrioch, Colin F; Holub, Bruce J

    2009-03-01

    Estimates of essential fatty acid intakes, including (n-3) PUFA, are available in pediatric populations based on limited indirect approaches. Furthermore, recommended intakes for short- and long-chain (LC) (n-3) PUFA have emerged for this population. This study provides direct quantification of fatty acid intakes in children aged 4-8 y. Identical portions of all food and natural health products consumed over 3 d were collected. Duplicate samples were analyzed for energy, macronutrients, and fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by high performance capillary GLC. The results for 41 children [25 females, 16 males; 5.8 +/- 0.2 y (mean age +/- SEM)] showed daily energy intakes of 5879 +/- 211 kJ (mean +/- SEM) and (n-3) PUFA intakes in mg/d as follows: ALA, 1161 +/- 108; EPA, 38.4 +/- 9.3; DPA, 26.3 +/- 3.9; and DHA, 54.1 +/- 11.4. Based on the Dietary Reference Intakes from the Institute of Medicine, 61% of the children met the adequate intake for ALA and 22% met the suggested adequate intake for DHA+EPA (10% of the adequate intake for ALA). These intakes were also compared with the recent Australia/New Zealand recommendations for children, where only 51% met the recommended intake for EPA+DPA+DHA. These results demonstrate a moderate shortfall in ALA intake in Canadian children and a nutrient gap for the LC (n-3) PUFA, including DHA, when comparing intakes for this population to suggested and recommended intakes.

  13. [Study of factors influencing hepatitis B immunization coverage in 1 to 8-years-old children in the Ouidah health district in Benin in 2007].

    PubMed

    Bossali, F; Paraiso, M; Bokossa, A; Fourn, L

    2010-04-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem in Africa. The estimated prevalence in Benin is between 5.2% and 8.3%. Since 1992, the WHO has recommended immunization of all children between 0 and 12-months-old all around the world. Benin has been vaccinating children from 0 to 11 months since 1999. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing hepatitis B immunization coverage in children from 1 to 8-years-old in the Ouidah health district. This descriptive and analytical cross sectional study was carried out from October 25 to 31, 2007. The primary study targets were children from 1 to 8 years. Secondary targets were mothers and healthcare workers. A three-degree cluster sampling technique was used. Hepatitis immunization coverage was 72.2% (95%CI, 65.4 - 78.3). The negative factor influencing coverage in children was age over 5 years reflecting the absence of catch-up sessions for untargeted children overlooked for hepatitis B immunization. The negative factor in mothers was age over 30 years pending multivariate analysis that was not performed in this study. Regarding healthcare workers, understaffing was noted at this level of the health system. Hepatitis B immunization coverage in untargeted children was lower than in children between 0 and 11 months. In 2007, hepatitis B immunization coverage in the Ouidah health district was lower in untargeted children than children of 0 to 11 months. This study showed that immunization coverage decreased with age, thus underlining the need for catch-up sessions to ensure hepatitis B immunization in high prevalence areas.

  14. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

  15. Retro- and prospection for mental time travel: emergence of episodic remembering and mental rotation in 5- to 8-year old children.

    PubMed

    Perner, Josef; Kloo, Daniela; Rohwer, Michael

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the common development of children's ability to "look back in time" (retrospection, episodic remembering) and to "look into the future" (prospection). Experiment 1 with 59 children 5 to 8.5 years old showed mental rotation, as a measure of prospection, explaining specific variance of free recall, as a measure of episodic remembering (retrospection) when controlled for cued recall. Experiment 2 with 31 children from 5 to 6.5 years measured episodic remembering with recall of visually experienced events (seeing which picture was placed inside a box) when controlling for recall of indirectly conveyed events (being informed about the pictures placed inside the box by showing the pictures on a monitor). Quite unexpectedly rotators were markedly worse on indirect items than non-rotators. We speculate that with the ability to rotate children switch from knowledge retrieval to episodic remembering, which maintains success for experienced events but has detrimental effects for indirect information. PMID:20650660

  16. [Significance of pregnancy and labor complications for the genesis of brain function disorders. Results of an epidemiologic study of 8-year-old children].

    PubMed

    Esser, G; Schmidt, M H

    1985-03-01

    An epidemiological and a clinical study were conducted to examine the importance of pregnancy and delivery complications in the genesis of cerebral dysfunction, the studies comprising a total of 495 children of 8 years of age. In the case definition of cerebral dysfunction, methodic improvements were used that had been demanded by those who had been critical of the clinical procedure. The results showed that clinical dysfunction is a risk factor for diseases in child psychiatry. There were no signs pointing to uniform psychopathological patterns (on the lines of a hyperkinetic syndrome) in children with cerebral dysfunction. There was no enhanced incidence of other diseases in the anamnesis of children with cerebral dysfunction. On the whole, the concept of cerebral dysfunction cannot be upheld at least to the extent presumed so far. A comparison between field study random samples and clinical study random samples showed that the classical postulates of the concept apply at most to a negligible minority only.

  17. Children's Teleological Intuitions: What Kind of Explanations Do 7-8 Year Olds Give for the Features of Organisms, Artifacts and Natural Objects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas; Pavlidi, Vasiliki; Papadopoulou, Maria; Palaiokrassa, Eirini

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children usually provide teleological explanations for the features of organisms from a very early age (3-4 years old). However, it is not clear if teleology is applied selectively for organisms, or if it is generally applied to other objects as well (artifacts and non-living natural objects). The present study examined…

  18. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning in 7- and 8-Year-Old Children: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Lindsay C.; Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Theory of mind requires belief- "and" desire-understanding. Event-related brain potential (ERP) research on belief- and desire-reasoning in adults found mid-frontal activations for both desires and beliefs, and selective right-posterior activations "only" for beliefs. Developmentally, children understand desires before beliefs; thus, a critical…

  19. Effectiveness of different tooth brushing techniques on the removal of dental plaque in 6–8 year old children of Gulbarga

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Smita P.; Patil, Prashant B.; Kashetty, Meena V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the respective effectiveness of the horizontal scrub, Fones, and modified Bass methods demonstrated on the cast to individual child within the classroom setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 healthy children studying in 1st and 2nd grades in the age range of 6-8 years were randomly selected from various schools of Gulbarga district, Karnataka, India. They were equally divided into three groups. Children in each group were demonstrated only one of the three brushing techniques, viz. horizontal scrub technique to group A, Fones technique to group B, and modified Bass technique to group C, using a cast model. All the children were re-examined and reviewed after 24 h and plaque index was re-assessed to obtain the follow-up data. The results were compared with the baseline data, and statistical analysis was carried out using paired t-test and intergroup comparison was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: Statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in plaque score was seen in modified Bass technique followed by horizontal scrub technique and the least efficacy was seen in Fones technique. Conclusion: This study showed that modified Bass technique was the most effective brushing technique in children. PMID:25254196

  20. Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in a population-based sample of 5- to 8-year-old children: the impact of impairment criteria.

    PubMed

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-11-01

    This study determined the impact of impairment criteria on the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity of child DSM-IV disorders. The validity of these impairment criteria was tested against different measures of mental health care referral and utilization. We interviewed parents of 1,154 children aged 5-8 years in-depth using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to establish DSM-IV diagnosis. These children were randomly selected or oversampled based on Child Behavior Checklist ratings from a large population-based study (N = 6,172). Referral data were extracted from the psychiatric interview as well as from a follow-up questionnaire. The results showed an overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders of 31.1 % when impairment was not considered. This rate declined to 22.9 % when mild impairment was required and declined even further, to 10.3 %, for more severe levels of impairment. Similarly, the overall comorbidity rate declined from 8.5 to 6.7 and 2.7 % when mild and severe impairment were required, respectively. Virtually all children who attained symptom thresholds for a specific disorder, and had been referred to a mental health care professional because of the associated symptoms, also had mild impairment. The requirement of severe impairment criteria significantly increased diagnostic thresholds, but for most disorders, this definition captured only half of the clinically referred cases. In conclusion, prevalence was highly dependent upon the criteria used to define impairment. If severe impairment is made a diagnostic requirement, many children with psychiatric symptoms and mild impairment seeking mental health care will be undiagnosed and possibly untreated.

  1. Micronutrient deficiencies are common in 6- to 8-year-old children of rural Nepal, with prevalence estimates modestly affected by inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Kerry J; Christian, Parul; Wu, Lee S F; Arguello, Margia; Cui, Hongjie; Nanayakkara-Bind, Ashika; Stewart, Christine P; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven; West, Keith P

    2014-06-01

    Subclinical micronutrient deficiencies remain a hidden aspect of malnutrition for which comprehensive data are lacking in school-aged children. We assessed the micronutrient status of Nepalese children, aged 6 to 8 y, born to mothers who participated in a community-based antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial from 1999 to 2001. Of 3305 participants, plasma indicators were assessed in a random sample of 1000 children. Results revealed deficiencies of vitamins A (retinol <0.70 μmol/L, 8.5%), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/L, 17.2%), E (α-tocopherol <9.3 μmol/L, 17.9%), K (decarboxy prothombin >2 μg/L, 20%), B-12 (cobalamin <150 pmol/L, 18.1%), B-6 [pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) <20 nmol/L, 43.1%], and β-carotene (41.5% <0.09 μmol/L), with little folate deficiency (6.2% <13.6 nmol/L). Deficiencies of iron [ferritin <15 μg/L, 10.7%; transferrin receptor (TfR) >8.3 mg/L, 40.1%; TfR:ferritin >500 μg/μg, 14.3%], iodine (thyroglobulin >40 μg/L, 11.4%), and selenium (plasma selenium <0.89 μmol/L, 59.0%) were observed, whereas copper deficiency was nearly absent (plasma copper <11.8 μmol/L, 0.7%). Hemoglobin was not assessed. Among all children, 91.7% experienced at least 1 micronutrient deficiency, and 64.7% experienced multiple deficiencies. Inflammation (α-1 acid glycoprotein >1 g/L, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, or both) was present in 31.6% of children, affecting the prevalence of deficiency as assessed by retinol, β-carotene, PLP, ferritin, TfR, selenium, copper, or having any or multiple deficiencies. For any nutrient, population deficiency prevalence estimates were altered by ≤5.4% by the presence of inflammation, suggesting that the majority of deficiencies exist regardless of inflammation. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist in school-aged children in rural Nepal, meriting more comprehensive strategies for their assessment and prevention. PMID:24744314

  2. Persistence of antibodies in 4-8 year old Austrian children after vaccination with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib and MMR vaccines.

    PubMed

    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Fischmeister, Gustav; Grac, Ana; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Kundi, Michael; Mohsenzadeh-Rabbani, Afsaneh; Moritz, Katharina; Fenninger, Beate; Jarisch, Reinhart; Jasinska, Joanna; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Wiedermann, Ursula; Kollaritsch, Herwig

    2011-07-18

    To determine the proficiency of the Austrian childhood vaccination schedule to induce long lasting seroprotection against vaccine preventable diseases a seroepidemiological study in 348 children between four and eight years of age was conducted. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and rubella antigens were assessed in children, who had been vaccinated with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines at three, four, five months and in the second year of life and/or MMR vaccines in the second year of life at least once, but mostly twice. High seroprotection rates (SPRs) were detected for tetanus (96%) and measles (90%). SPRs regarding diphtheria and mumps were 81% and 72%, respectively. Rubella-SPRs were 68% in females and 58% in males. Hepatitis B-antibody levels ≥10 mIU/mL were present in 52%; antibodies against pertussis were detected in 27% of the children. SPRs for measles and rubella depended on the interval since last vaccination; mumps-antibodies were significantly lower after one MMR-vaccination only. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis depended on the interval since last vaccination while HBs-antibodies did not. The low levels of antibodies 1-7 years after vaccination against pertussis, rubella and mumps after only one vaccination should be considered when recommending new vaccination schedules.

  3. Balancing on a Slackline: 8-Year-Olds vs. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schärli, Andrea Melanie; Keller, Melanie; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Murer, Kurt; van de Langenberg, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Children are less stable than adults during static upright stance. We investigated whether the same holds true for a task that was novel for both children and adults and highly dynamic: single-legged stance on a slackline. We compared 8-year-olds with young adults and assessed the following outcome measures: time on the slackline, stability on the slackline (calculated from slackline reaction force), gaze movement, head-in-space rotation and translation, trunk-in-space rotation, and head-on-trunk rotation. Eight-year-olds fell off the slackline quicker and were generally less stable on the slackline than adults. Eight-year-olds also showed more head-in-space rotation and translation, and more gaze variability around a visual anchor point they were instructed to fixate. Trunk-in-space and head-on-trunk rotations did not differ between groups. The results imply that the lower postural stability of 8-year-olds compared to adults – as found in simple upright stance – holds true for dynamic, novel tasks in which adults lack the advantage of more practice. They also suggest that the lack of head and gaze stability constitutes an important limiting factor in children’s ability to master such tasks. PMID:23626583

  4. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    MedlinePlus

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... All parents and those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they ...

  5. CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100215.htm CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - series—Check for responsiveness ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 3 Go to slide 2 out ...

  6. Conjunctival fibrous histiocytoma in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Austen N; Samara, Wasim A; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A; Eagle, Ralph C

    2016-08-01

    An 8-year-old healthy boy underwent surgery for excision of a painless, enlarging vascularized conjunctival tumor. Histopathology disclosed a mass comprised of interweaving spindle cells and scattered histiocytes in a fibrous matrix, consistent with benign fibrous histiocytoma. This rare tumor can resemble several conditions, including scleritis/episcleritis, inflamed pterygium, juvenile xanthogranuloma, foreign body granuloma, solitary fibrous tumor, amelanotic melanoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Validation of a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities in 6 to 8 year old Zimbabwean school children: a cross section study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of cognitive impairment among school children from developing communities is under reported due to lack of culturally appropriate screening tools. The objective of this study was to validate a culturally modified short form of the McCarthy Scales of Children Abilities (MSCA) in school children aged 6–8 years from varied backgrounds. Methods One hundred and one children aged 6–8 years attending mainstream classes were enrolled cross-sectionally from three schools: one rural and two urban. Two assessments were conducted on each child and the Short form MSCA was compared to an independent assessment by the educational psychologist. Results When comparing the results of the MSCA to local standard at -2SD, -1.5 SD and -1SD the sensitivity rates ranged from 17 to 50% with lower sensitivity at -2SD cut-off point. Specificity rates had less variation ranging from 95% to 100%. The number of children identified with cognitive impairment using -2SD, -1.5SD and -1SD below the mean for MSCA as a cut-off point were 3(3%), 7(7%) and 13(13%) respectively while the psychologist identified 18 (18%). The overall mean score on MSCA was 103 (SD 15). The rural children tended to score significantly lower marks compared to their peers from urban areas, mean (SD) 98(15) and 107(15) respectively, p=0.006. There was no difference in the mean (SD) scores between boys and girls, 103(17) and 103(15) respectively, p=0.995. Conclusion The culturally modified short form MSCA showed high specificity but low sensitivity. Prevalence of cognitive impairment among 6 to 8 year children was 3%. This figure is high when compared to developed communities. PMID:23190558

  8. Infratentorial meningioma in an 8-year-old child as first sign of neurofibromatosis type 2.

    PubMed

    Stettner, G M; Rostasy, K M; Ludwig, H C; Merkler, D; Fahsold, R; Gärtner, J

    2007-02-01

    Meningiomas are rare intracranial tumors in pediatric patients. In contrast to meningiomas in adults, childhood ones have a poorer prognosis because of their high growth potential and tendency to recur. Meningiomas are often associated with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) which is an autosomal-dominant disorder. In contrast to adults who primarily present with symptoms due to vestibular tumors, the initial symptoms in children with NF2 are subtle skin tumors, posterior capsular cataracts, or neurological signs secondary to cranial nerve(s) schwannoma excluding vestibular nerve, and/or brainstem or spinal cord compression. Here we report on the clinical, radiological, and histological findings in an 8-year-old boy who was diagnosed with an isolated infratentorial meningioma and a novel splice site mutation in the NF2 gene. The same mutation was detected in the boy's mother who suffered from hearing loss and tinnitus due to a bilateral vestibular schwannoma. Our patient demonstrates the need for molecular testing for NF2 gene mutations even in isolated childhood meningiomas although they do not fulfill the clinical criteria of NF2.

  9. Neuroleptic withdrawal versus serotonergic syndrome in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Elsa M M; Thompson, Anne E; Bramble, David J

    2002-01-01

    There appears to be considerable symptomatic overlap between neuroleptic withdrawal reactions and the serotonin syndrome. This case report is of an 8-year-old boy who developed symptoms compatible with both conditions while discontinuing pimozide and starting fluoxetine. It illustrates how the use of neuroleptic medication in young children is not without the risk of serious adverse drug events and can complicate diagnostic issues. This case report supports the suggestion that adverse drug reactions related to neuroleptics and serotonergic agents could be part of the same clinical and neurophysiological spectrum.

  10. Neuroleptic withdrawal versus serotonergic syndrome in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Elsa M M; Thompson, Anne E; Bramble, David J

    2002-01-01

    There appears to be considerable symptomatic overlap between neuroleptic withdrawal reactions and the serotonin syndrome. This case report is of an 8-year-old boy who developed symptoms compatible with both conditions while discontinuing pimozide and starting fluoxetine. It illustrates how the use of neuroleptic medication in young children is not without the risk of serious adverse drug events and can complicate diagnostic issues. This case report supports the suggestion that adverse drug reactions related to neuroleptics and serotonergic agents could be part of the same clinical and neurophysiological spectrum. PMID:12427301

  11. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Forouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Mazdaee, Behnaz; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Ravari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT) scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  12. An Exploratory Study on the Junior Brixton Spatial Rule Attainment Test in 6- to 8-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senturk, Nilay; Yeniceri, Nur; Alp, I. Ercan; Altan-Atalay, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the Junior Brixton Test (JBT), an executive function (EF) measure for children, in comparison to the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in a sample of 6- to 8-year-olds, all attending the first 2 years of elementary school. Factor analyses indicated two main domains in both measures, namely concept formation and cognitive…

  13. Developing formal mathematical assessment for 4- to 8-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, Brian

    2005-10-01

    The assessment of children in their years before school and their first years of school has been, traditionally, informal. Further, assessment of children's mathematical skills at this level has been infrequent compared to social, emotional and physical assessments. However, there are contexts where reliable, valid, standardised data from assessment in mathematics are required. This paper outlines the development of two assessment tools for mathematics that were originally developed for such contexts. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses enabled the construction of assessment forms that address the range of abilities of 4- to 8-year-old children, and provided the scales used for constructing formative and summative reports of achievement. A description of the development of the assessment tools and the IRT analysis that provides the reporting formats are presented together with some research uses of the tools.

  14. Indicators of fetal growth do not independently predict blood pressure in 8-year-old Australians: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Burke, Valerie; Beilin, Lawrie J; Blake, Kevin V; Doherty, Dorota; Kendall, Garth E; Newnham, John P; Landau, Louis I; Stanley, Fiona J

    2004-02-01

    Inverse associations between size at birth and blood pressure (BP) in later life are commonly statistically significant only after adjustment for current size, consistent with change in size as the determinant. Few studies have been prospective or have included a range of potential confounders. Using regression models, including maternal and demographic variables, we examined associations between size at birth and BP in Australian children followed from week 16 of gestation to the age of 8 years. BP measurements were available from 1417 children born after 37 weeks gestation without congenital abnormalities. In models adjusted only for sex, the birthweight (BW), birth length, ponderal index, head circumference, chest circumference, abdominal girth, mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold, placental weight, or BW/placental weight ratio did not significantly predict SBP in 8-year-olds. With adjustment for current size, associations were inverse but not statistically significant (regression coefficients: BW, -1.11; 95% confidence limits [CL], -2.22, 0.01; birth length, -0.25; 95% CL, -0.52, 0.24) and remained nonsignificant after adjustment for confounders. Current weight, height, or body mass index significantly predicted SBP and DBP (P<0.001) with differences of 8/4 mm Hg between upper and lower quartiles; effects were similar in infants with lower and higher BW. These findings are consistent with postnatal change in size as the major determinant of BP in 8-year-olds and are important in the context of the worldwide "epidemic" of obesity in childhood as a likely precursor of increasing rates of hypertension in adults. PMID:14718353

  15. Interpreting Weather for 3 to 8 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren-Scaffidi, Lynette

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the interpretation of weather for children and shares program ideas to interpret the water cycle, thunderstorms (including fear of thunderstorms), and rainbows (including the colors of the rainbow). (MKR)

  16. A Doctor Talks to 5-to-8-Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.; Mandel, Elias

    One of a series of books written by doctors for their patients, this publication gives information about life in casual and straightforward children's language. Birds, fish and other animals are compared to humans and are used as examples to explain conception, birth and the development of babies to adulthood. To illustrate important concepts,…

  17. Cycling peak power in obese and lean 6- to 8-year-old girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Aucouturier, Julien; Lazaar, Nordine; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Ratel, Sebastien; Duché, Pascale

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effect of the difference in percentage body fat (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) on cycling peak power (CPP) in 6- to 8-year-old obese and lean untrained girls and boys. Obese (35 girls, 35 boys) and lean (35 girls, 35 boys) children were measured for obesity, %BF, calculated from skinfold measurements. FFM was calculated as body mass (BM) minus body fat. A force-velocity test on a cycle ergometer was used to measure CPP. CPP was related to anthropometric variables using standard and allometric models. CPP in absolute terms was higher in obese children than in lean children irrespective of gender. BM-related CPP was significantly lower in obese children than in lean ones, whereas no effect of obesity appeared on FFM-related CPP. Velocity at CPP (Vopt) was significantly lower and force at CPP (Fopt) was significantly higher in girls than in boys. Muscle power production was unaffected by obesity in children. Low BM-related CPP could explain the difficulty of taking up physical activities that are body-mass related in obese children. Gender difference for Vopt and Fopt shows that girls and boys may have different maturation patterns affecting CPP. PMID:17510670

  18. No childhood development of viewpoint-invariant face recognition: evidence from 8-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Crookes, Kate; Robbins, Rachel A

    2014-10-01

    Performance on laboratory face tasks improves across childhood, not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Debate surrounds the source of this development, with recent reviews suggesting that underlying face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood and that the improvement seen on experimental tasks instead results from general cognitive/perceptual development. One face processing mechanism that has been argued to develop slowly is the ability to encode faces in a view-invariant manner (i.e., allowing recognition across changes in viewpoint). However, many previous studies have not controlled for general cognitive factors. In the current study, 8-year-olds and adults performed a recognition memory task with two study-test viewpoint conditions: same view (study front view, test front view) and change view (study front view, test three-quarter view). To allow quantitative comparison between children and adults, performance in the same view condition was matched across the groups by increasing the learning set size for adults. Results showed poorer memory in the change view condition than in the same view condition for both adults and children. Importantly, there was no quantitative difference between children and adults in the size of decrement in memory performance resulting from a change in viewpoint. This finding adds to growing evidence that face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood.

  19. Rapunzel Syndrome Causing Appendicitis in an 8-year-old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Shruti; Yadav, Yogesh Kumar; Sharma, Uma; Gupta, Kusum

    2012-01-01

    Rapunzel syndrome is a rare type of presentation of trichobezoar, an extension of hair fibers into the small bowel and rarely beyond the ileocecal valve. Its clinical presentation is deceptive ranging from abdominal mass to symptoms of obstruction. We report a 8-year-old girl admitted with a history of abdominal pain and vomiting off and on for a period of 1 year. Ultrasound findings were suggestive of subacute intestinal obstruction. On laparotomy, trichobezoar was found in the stomach extending into small bowel and was removed. Appendix was inflammed hence it was also resected. Microscopic evidence of a hair shaft was seen in the appendix indicating appendicitis was due to luminal obstruction by hair concretions. PMID:23766615

  20. Stabbing headache in an 8-year-old girl: primary or drug induced headache?

    PubMed

    Biedroł, Agnieszka; Kaciłski, Marek; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of stabbing headaches in children requires a thorough diagnostic approach that excludes secondary headaches. The organic background should be taken into consideration when alarming symptoms occur, such as a purely 1-sided location, a change in the character of the headache, or possibly a link to physical activity. The current study describes the case of an 8-year-old girl who suffered short-lasting stabbing headache attacks. The headaches with increasing intensity and frequency started 1 month before her hospitalization and were usually preceded by physical activity (dancing, running). The pain, which was located in the right supraorbital region, lasted 1 second and occurred several times during the day. No associated symptoms were observed. In addition, the girl suffered from allergic rhinitis and was on antiallergic treatment (levocetirizine, fluticasone nasal spray). On admission she was in good general condition, and a pediatric and neurologic examination revealed no abnormalities. Her brain MRI was normal. The initial diagnosis was that the patient was suffering from primary stabbing headaches. However, during a follow-up visit 4 months later, a relationship was observed between the cessation of the headache attacks and the discontinuation of an antihistaminic drug. Six months later, the girl remained headache free. In cases involving differential diagnoses of stabbing headaches, it is important to consider the adverse reactions of the drugs used.

  1. Stabbing headache in an 8-year-old girl: primary or drug induced headache?

    PubMed

    Biedroł, Agnieszka; Kaciłski, Marek; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of stabbing headaches in children requires a thorough diagnostic approach that excludes secondary headaches. The organic background should be taken into consideration when alarming symptoms occur, such as a purely 1-sided location, a change in the character of the headache, or possibly a link to physical activity. The current study describes the case of an 8-year-old girl who suffered short-lasting stabbing headache attacks. The headaches with increasing intensity and frequency started 1 month before her hospitalization and were usually preceded by physical activity (dancing, running). The pain, which was located in the right supraorbital region, lasted 1 second and occurred several times during the day. No associated symptoms were observed. In addition, the girl suffered from allergic rhinitis and was on antiallergic treatment (levocetirizine, fluticasone nasal spray). On admission she was in good general condition, and a pediatric and neurologic examination revealed no abnormalities. Her brain MRI was normal. The initial diagnosis was that the patient was suffering from primary stabbing headaches. However, during a follow-up visit 4 months later, a relationship was observed between the cessation of the headache attacks and the discontinuation of an antihistaminic drug. Six months later, the girl remained headache free. In cases involving differential diagnoses of stabbing headaches, it is important to consider the adverse reactions of the drugs used. PMID:24664098

  2. Complicated Varicella Infection at 8-year-old Boy with Pulmonary Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hadzovic–Cengic, Meliha; Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzic, Amir; Lukovac, Enra; Mehanic, Snjezana; Ahmetspahic-Begic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Varicella or chickenpox is highly contagious, childhood infectious disease caused by primary infection with varicella – zoster virus from the herpes family of viruses. Usually it has a mild clinical course, rarely with described complication, mostly affecting respiratory tract and rarely the central nervous system. Case report The case present 8 year old boy hospitalized eighth day of disease with clinical pictures of varicella complication. Upon receipt tachydyspnea, high fever, tachycardia, hypotensive with positive findings on lung auscultation in the sense of pneumonia. Extremely high values of non-specific inflammatory parameters are implied on bacterial infection which is treated using triple antimicrobial therapy and antiviral. A detailed clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation is determined of clinical disease complication under a picture of MODS that required prolonged multidisciplinary treatment in ICU. Conclusion The disease had a favorable clinical outcome in terms of training completely without consequences but, with the detected congenital absence lower lobe of right lung and transposition of the brachiocephalic trunk. PMID:24493991

  3. The Development of Norm-Based Coding and Race-Specific Face Prototypes: An Examination of 5- and 8-Year-Olds' Face Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Lindsey A.; Hatry, Alexandra J.; Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2011-01-01

    The current research investigated the organization of children's face space by examining whether 5- and 8-year-olds show race-contingent aftereffects. Participants read a storybook in which Caucasian and Chinese children's faces were distorted in opposite directions. Before and after adaptation, participants judged the normality/attractiveness of…

  4. Why Won't My Torch Work? Physics for 4 to 8 Year Olds. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    Young children in Australia enter early childhood education settings eager to make sense of the world that surrounds them. Their interest in every day experiences is evident in the range of questions asked, many of which are scientific in nature. Intended as a resource for adults working with 4-to 8-year-old children, this booklet provides an…

  5. Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…

  6. Radiator-induced erythema ab igne in 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Ismail, Samir; Chiriac, Anca

    2014-04-01

    The cutaneous lesion of erythema ab Igne are characterized by a reticulate erythema, hyperpigmentation, fine scaling, epidermal atrophy and telangiectasias, and reticulated erythema. We report a case of erythema ab igne on the hands of a 8-year-old girl, induced by classic homemade radiator.

  7. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, in an 8-year-old girl, complicated by deafness and kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Vesna D; Doronjski, Aleksandra R; Spasojevic, Slobodan D; Pavlovic, Vesna S; Nikolic, Marko M; Kovacevic, Branka B

    2009-08-01

    Based on case history and clinical and electrophysiological examinations, the authors report on a case of an 8-year-old girl who was diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. The disease was complicated by deafness and kidney fibrosis. During treatment with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin, followed by mycophenolate mofetil, prompt improvement of neurological findings occurred. The improvement of hearing was poor. Because the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy has still not been clear, and on the grounds of several cases of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy conjoined with the kidney disease described in literature (glomerulopathy, interstitial nephritis), every patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy needs to undergo the urinalyses.

  8. Acute chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy treated with intracorporeal left ventricular assist device in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Martin; Dave, Hitendu; Lemme, Frithjof; Cavigelli-Brunner, Anna; Romanchenko, Olga; Heineking, Bea; Hofmann, Michael; Bürki, Chrstoph; Stiasny, Brian; Hübler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of ventricular assist devices (VADs) leading to miniaturization has made intracorporeal implantation in children feasible. Ventricular assist device therapy for anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy (CMP) in adults has been reported. We report the case of an 8-year-old child (body surface area 0.97 m) presenting with anthracycline-induced CMP being successfully treated with an intracorporeal left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as a bridge to candidacy/recovery. We present our institutional algorithm, which advises intracorporeal LVAD implantation for long-term ventricular assist, in children with a body surface area >0.6 m. Advantages are better mobilization and the possibility to discharge home, leading to enhanced quality of life.

  9. Seizures triggered by July 4th fireworks in an 8-year-old girl with perinatal stroke.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Jared R; Golomb, Meredith R

    2011-05-01

    Warnings regarding fireworks displays as a possible seizure-producing stimulus have been around for several years, but there is a lack of well-documented cases. This case describes photic- and/or pattern-induced seizures that appeared to be triggered by July 4 fireworks. This 8-year-old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and known seizure disorder because of perinatal right middle cerebral artery stroke had a cluster of seizures within minutes of the onset of a professional fireworks display. The seizures stopped when the child's eyes were covered and she was taken away from the scene. The importance of photic- and pattern-induced seizures in children is discussed.

  10. Gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty in an 8-year-old boy with leydig cell testicular tumor.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, Rita; Bonito-Vítor, Artur; Campos, Miguel; Fontoura, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Leydig cell testicular tumors are very rare in children. They can present as gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty due to excess androgen secretion. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with isosexual precocity whose hormonal investigation showed luteinizing hormone-independent testosterone hypersecretion. Although no palpable mass was present, scrotal ultrasound revealed a testicular tumor. Testis-sparing tumor resection was performed and the histopathology analysis showed a Leydig cell tumor. After surgery the testosterone levels remained high and further examination showed gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty, which is believed to be likely caused by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to a long-term exposition to sex steroids. He is currently being treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and the process of sexual precocity has until now been suppressed.

  11. Poststroke psychosis in an 8-year-old child with moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Gnanavel, Sundar

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric illnesses following cerebrovascular accidents has been a popular area of research in recent times. Though poststroke anxiety and mood disorders including depression have been reported often, reports of poststroke psychosis have been considerably rarer. This case report documents an even rarer occurrence of a psychotic disorder in an 8-year-old child with moyamoya disease following a cerebrovascular accident. The child was managed with low-dose atypical antipsychotic, risperidone and the psychotic symptoms eventually were under control around 3 weeks following the initiation of psychotropic medication.

  12. Teaching 4- to 8-Year-Olds: Literacy, Math, Multiculturalism, and Classroom Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee

    The next decade will see a dramatic increase in public finding for programs serving young children. Prekindergarten and early elementary programs will received more scrutiny in line with a growing awareness that school success is heavily influenced by the skills and attitudes children have when they enter school and quality of initial school…

  13. Contextualised Learning for 5- 8-Year-Olds. 5-14 Teacher Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabian, Hilary

    Noting that play provides opportunities for children to develop adaptability, flexibility, and creativity, this paper links the findings of educational research on play and the work of teachers in primary classrooms in Scotland following the 5-14 curriculum. The paper's introduction provides information on historical and contemporary theories of…

  14. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour of the vagina in an 8 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Ong, Lin Yin; Hwang, Wei Sek; Wong, Adelina; Chan, Mei Yoke; Chui, Chan Hon

    2007-03-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal tumor with an unpredictable natural history. We present the first reported case of PEComa of the vagina diagnosed in an 8-year-old girl. This was initially diagnosed on biopsy as an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and the patient underwent 3 cycles of chemotherapy according to the Mesenchymal Malignant Tumour 1989 protocol. A repeat scan, however, revealed an increase in tumor size. Total resection was achieved via a transvaginal (vertical sleeve) partial vaginectomy. The resected tumor had the typical appearance of a PEComa. Immunostains showed positive staining of tumor cells for HMB45, neuron-specific enolase, and calponin but were negative for S100 protein, melaninA, chromogranin, smooth muscle actin, desmin, caldesmon, epithelial membrane antigen, AE1/3, and synaptophysin. Six months after surgery, she remains free of tumor and is on follow-up with regular local examinations under anesthesia and computed tomography scans. Our case highlights the importance of an accurate initial diagnosis, and we stress the importance of regular surveillance over a significant period. PMID:17336201

  15. Explaining Variability: Numerical Representations in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friso-van den Bos, Ilona; Kolkman, Meijke E.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to examine relations between number representations and various sources of individual differences within early stages of development of number representations. The mental number line has been found to develop from a logarithmic to a more linear representation. Sources under investigation are counting skills and executive…

  16. Why 8-Year-Olds Cannot Tell the Difference between Steve Martin and Paul Newman: Factors Contributing to the Slow Development of Sensitivity to the Spacing of Facial Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Dobson, Kate S.; Parsons, Julie; Maurer, Daphne

    2004-01-01

    Children are nearly as sensitive as adults to some cues to facial identity (e.g., differences in the shape of internal features and the external contour), but children are much less sensitive to small differences in the spacing of facial features. To identify factors that contribute to this pattern, we compared 8-year-olds' sensitivity to spacing…

  17. The development of norm-based coding and race-specific face prototypes: an examination of 5- and 8-year-olds' face space.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Hatry, Alexandra J; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2011-02-01

    The current research investigated the organization of children's face space by examining whether 5- and 8-year-olds show race-contingent aftereffects. Participants read a storybook in which Caucasian and Chinese children's faces were distorted in opposite directions. Before and after adaptation, participants judged the normality/attractiveness of expanded, compressed, and undistorted Caucasian and Chinese faces. The method was validated with adults and then refined to test 8- and 5-year-olds. The 5-year-olds were also tested in a simple aftereffects paradigm. The current research provides the first evidence for simple attractiveness aftereffects in 5-year-olds and for race-contingent aftereffects in both 5- and 8-year-olds. Evidence that adults and 5-year-olds may possess only a weak prototype for Chinese children's faces suggests that Caucasian adults' prototype for Chinese adult faces does not generalize to child faces and that children's face space undergoes a period of increasing differentiation between 5 and 8 years of age.

  18. Associations among different orofacial dysfunctions in 6-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Laine, M T; Pahkala, R H; Jaroma, S M; Qvarnström, M J

    1992-11-01

    Associations among several orofacial dysfunctions such as articulatory speech disorders, craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and problems in coordinating the orofacial muscles were examined in two groups of Finnish first-graders, i.e. children with and without speech disorders. In the whole sample of 287 subjects the mean age was 7.5 yr. A speech therapist diagnosed articulatory speech disorders and a phoniatrician examined the morphology and function of the articulators. Signs and symptoms of CMD, capacity for mandibular movement, and prevalence of occlusal interferences were examined by a dentist. Deviations in motor skills, but not in morphology of the articulators, were associated with speech disorders. The findings also suggested that capacity for mandibular movement, deviation of the jaw during maximal mouth opening and occlusal interferences were related to certain speech disorders among these 6-8 yr olds. Different orofacial dysfunctions appear to be associated with each other during growth. PMID:1466638

  19. Associations among different orofacial dysfunctions in 6-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Laine, M T; Pahkala, R H; Jaroma, S M; Qvarnström, M J

    1992-11-01

    Associations among several orofacial dysfunctions such as articulatory speech disorders, craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and problems in coordinating the orofacial muscles were examined in two groups of Finnish first-graders, i.e. children with and without speech disorders. In the whole sample of 287 subjects the mean age was 7.5 yr. A speech therapist diagnosed articulatory speech disorders and a phoniatrician examined the morphology and function of the articulators. Signs and symptoms of CMD, capacity for mandibular movement, and prevalence of occlusal interferences were examined by a dentist. Deviations in motor skills, but not in morphology of the articulators, were associated with speech disorders. The findings also suggested that capacity for mandibular movement, deviation of the jaw during maximal mouth opening and occlusal interferences were related to certain speech disorders among these 6-8 yr olds. Different orofacial dysfunctions appear to be associated with each other during growth.

  20. Teaching Number in the Classroom with 4-8 Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.; Stanger, Garry; Stafford, Ann K.; Martland, Jim

    2006-01-01

    This book sets out a constructivist, inquiry-based approach to instruction. The approach builds on clear understandings of children's current levels of knowledge, where their learning should progress to, and the means by which children learn early numeracy topics. The methods presented in this book have been used extensively by practitioners in…

  1. Speech Reading and Learning to Read: A Comparison of 8-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Margaret; Moreno, Constanza

    2006-01-01

    Nine children with severe-profound prelingual hearing loss and single-word reading scores not more than 10 months behind chronological age (Good Readers) were matched with 9 children whose reading lag was at least 15 months (Poor Readers). Good Readers had significantly higher spelling and reading comprehension scores. They produced significantly…

  2. Chiropractic Care of an 8-Year-Old Girl With Nonorganic, Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Instebø, Eigil; Lystad, Reidar P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of an 8-year-old girl with nonorganic, primary nocturnal enuresis. Clinical Features An 8-year-old female patient presented to a chiropractic clinic with persistent nighttime bedwetting. The patient experienced enuresis, on average, 7 nights per week. The patient presented with no other comorbidities or complaints, such as low back or pelvic pain. Intervention and Outcomes Chiropractic treatment included high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation of the left sacroiliac joint over 3 visits. Follow-up at 3 months revealed only 3 subsequent episodes of nocturnal enuresis. Conclusion This patient reported the resolution of nonorganic, primary nocturnal enuresis after receiving a series of side-posture chiropractic manipulations of the left sacroiliac joint. PMID:27069432

  3. A Right Middle Cerebral Artery Infarct After Frontal Eosinophilic Granuloma Resection in an 8-Year-Old Boy with Factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Ertugrul; Arslan, Erhan; Yazar, Ugur; Reis, Gokce Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Stroke in children is relatively uncommon. We describe an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with primary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of the frontal bone. After excision of the EG, the postoperative course was eventful. The patient had an acute right middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct and had been comatose with a diminished Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 5. Urgent decompressive hemicraniectomy with duraplasty was performed. The postoperative course after the second operation was uneventful. Hematological tests revealed a diagnosis of factor V Leiden. The patient was discharged with left hemiparesis and GCS of 15. To the best of our knowledge, no such clinical picture of MCA infarction after EG excision has been described before. Neurosurgeons should be aware of inherited thrombophilias, such as factor V Leiden, if the postoperative clinical course worsens because of cerebral artery thrombosis. Also, decompressive hemicraniectomy could be life saving and should be performed urgently without any hesitation. PMID:26442559

  4. Choroidal neovascularisation as an unusual ophthalmic manifestation of cat-scratch disease in an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Latanza, L; Viscogliosi, F; Solimeo, A; Calabrò, F; De Angelis, V; De Rosa, P

    2015-10-01

    To report the first case of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) that appeared during the primary Bartonella henselae infection in an 8-year-old girl. An 8-year-old girl was referred to our clinic complaining of a central scotoma in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed a bilateral disc oedema and in the right eye neuroretinitis with macular star and CNV, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. The optical coherence tomography revealed the presence of macular serous retinal detachment. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgM and IgG titres for B. henselae. Cat-scratch disease was diagnosed, and an 8-week treatment with azithromycin was initiated. In addition, an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was performed in the right eye to treat the CNV. A month later, we decided to administer a systemic antibiotic again for an additional 5 months, due to the persistence of papillitis. Cat-scratch disease should be considered among the different causes of inflammatory CNV secondary to infectious uveitis. Our case was the first described in the literature in which a CNV appeared during the primary infection and not as a later complication. The combination of systemic antibiotic treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy was a successful choice because it allowed us to obtain the complete resolution of neuroretinitis, associated with the scarring of the choroidal neovascular membrane, with a final visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes.

  5. Fiber tracking of the frontal aslant tract and subcomponents of the arcuate fasciculus in 5-8-year-olds: Relation to speech and language function.

    PubMed

    Broce, Iris; Bernal, Byron; Altman, Nolan; Tremblay, Pascale; Dick, Anthony Steven

    2015-10-01

    Long association cortical fiber pathways support developing networks for speech and language, but we do not have a clear understanding of how they develop in early childhood. Using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) we tracked the frontal aslant tract (FAT), arcuate fasciculus (AF), and AF segments (anterior, long, posterior) in 19 typical 5-8-year-olds, an age range in which significant improvement in speech and language function occurs. While the microstructural properties of the FAT and the right AF did not show age-related differences over the age range we investigated, the left AF evidenced increasing fractional anisotropy with age. Microstructural properties of the AF in both hemispheres, however, predicted receptive and expressive language. Length of the left FAT also predicted receptive language, which provides initial suggestion that this pathway is important for language development. These findings have implications for models of language development and for models of the neurobiology of language more broadly.

  6. A case of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, Jun; Yokoyama, Yoshiki; Sekine, Takashi; Igarashi, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremic dehydration occur in patients with intracranial diseases. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome often develops in patients with severe neurosurgical disorders, such as hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, and tuberculous meningitis. Here, we report on the case of an 8-year-old boy with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis. He showed mild developmental retardation and had a history of convulsion. Four days after his admission, cerebral salt-wasting syndrome abruptly started: natriuresis and hyponatremia gradually improved over 10 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with clinically benign aseptic meningitis.

  7. The impact of doll style of dress and familiarity on body dissatisfaction in 6- to 8-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Rebecca D; Myers, Taryn A; Keller, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    We tested the impact of exposure to dolls of different body types and wardrobes on girls' body dissatisfaction. In Study 1, 112 girls (6 to 8 years old) were randomized to one of four conditions: thin (Barbie™) or full-figured (Tracy™) dolls dressed in a swimsuit or modest clothing. In Study 2, a different cohort of girls (n=112) was exposed to one of four conditions containing unfamiliar dolls of different body size (thin vs. full-figured) and dress (modest vs. swimsuit). In both studies, girls who played with thin dolls experienced higher body size discrepancies than girls who played with full-figured dolls. Girls who played with full-figured dolls showed less body dissatisfaction after doll exposure compared to girls who played with thin dolls. Playing with unrealistically thin dolls may encourage motivation for a thinner shape in young girls.

  8. The impact of doll style of dress and familiarity on body dissatisfaction in 6- to 8-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Rebecca D; Myers, Taryn A; Keller, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    We tested the impact of exposure to dolls of different body types and wardrobes on girls' body dissatisfaction. In Study 1, 112 girls (6 to 8 years old) were randomized to one of four conditions: thin (Barbie™) or full-figured (Tracy™) dolls dressed in a swimsuit or modest clothing. In Study 2, a different cohort of girls (n=112) was exposed to one of four conditions containing unfamiliar dolls of different body size (thin vs. full-figured) and dress (modest vs. swimsuit). In both studies, girls who played with thin dolls experienced higher body size discrepancies than girls who played with full-figured dolls. Girls who played with full-figured dolls showed less body dissatisfaction after doll exposure compared to girls who played with thin dolls. Playing with unrealistically thin dolls may encourage motivation for a thinner shape in young girls. PMID:27344610

  9. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention. PMID:27203569

  10. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention.

  11. Executive Function Skills of 6 to 8 Year Olds: Brain and Behavioral Evidence and Implications for School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Molfese, Peter J.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Rudasill, Kathleen M.; Armstrong, Natalie; Starkey, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Academic and social success in school has been linked to children’s self-regulation. This study investigated the assessment of the executive function (EF) component of self-regulation using a low-cost, easily administered measure to determine whether scores obtained from the behavioral task would agree with those obtained using a laboratory-based neuropsychological measure of EF skills. The sample included 74 children (37 females; M = 86.2 months) who participated in two assessments of working memory and inhibitory control: Knock-Tap (NEPSY: Korkman, Kirk, and Kemp, 1998), and participation in event-related potential (ERP) testing that included the Directional Stroop Test (Davidson, Cruess, Diamond, O’Craven, & Savoy, 1999). Three main findings emerged. First, children grouped as high versus low performing on the NEPSY Knock-Tap Task were found to performed differently on the more difficult conditions of the DST (the Incongruent and Mixed Conditions), suggesting that the Knock-Tap Task as a low-cost and easy to administer assessment of EF skills may be one way for teachers to identify students with poor inhibitory control skills. Second, children’s performance on the DST was strongly related to their ERP responses, adding to evidence that differences in behavioral performance on the DST as a measure of EF skills reflect corresponding differences in brain processing. Finally, differences in brain processing on the DST task also were found when the children were grouped based on Knock-Tap performance. Simple screening procedures can enable teachers to identify children whose distractibility, inattentiveness, or poor attention spans may interfere with classroom learning. PMID:20798857

  12. Changes in dental caries and oral hygiene among 7-8 year-old schoolchildren in different regions of Lithuania 1983-2009.

    PubMed

    Matulaitiene, Zivilė Kristina; Zemaitiene, Migle; Zemgulyte, Sandra; Milciuviene, Simona

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the changes of the dental caries prevalence and severity of 7 to 8 year old schoolchildren in six Lithuanian regions over the past 26 years (1983-2009) and to propose recommendations based on the results of the study. The study is based on the analysis of data, containing 576 cases of children examined in 1983 and comparison with data containing 531 cases added in 2009. The studies were conducted in the same six regions of Lithuania among the children from 7 to 8 years of age. For the study of children the WHO oral assessment methodology was used (WHO Basic methods 1997). Severity of dental caries was described by df-t and DMF-T index. The average of individual df-t and DMF-T indices was calculated for all subjects and sorted by gender. Oral hygiene status was evaluated by applying the simplified Green-Vermilion index-OHI-S (1964) The prevalence of primary dental caries among the children 7 to 8 years of age was 92.4% in 1983 and 88.7% (p=0.43) in 2009. The prevalence of permanent dental caries decreased from 49.6% in 1983 to 29.7% (p<0.001) in 2009. Mean df-t score decreased from 4.9±3.4 in 1983 to 4.1±2.7 in 2009 and DMF-T index decreased from 1.1±1.7 in 1983 to 0.5±1.0 in 2009 (p<0.001). The OHI-S index was not significantly different during 1983-2009. In the period of last 26 years a tendency towards the decrease in the prevalence and severity of dental caries was observed. That could be related to the frequent using of the toothpastes with fluoride, as well as implementation of the caries prevention program with sealants among the children of that age. The poor oral hygiene and comparatively high caries prevalence in schoolchildren show that it is still necessary to improve preventive measures in Lithuania.

  13. Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome Presenting as a Nevus Comedonicus-Like Lesion in an 8-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Jessica; Landau, Joseph W

    2016-09-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an uncommon genodermatosis characterized by hair follicle hamartomas and an increased risk of pneumothorax and renal cell carcinoma. Recognition of cutaneous manifestations is essential because it allows for early screening and management of systemic complications. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy with a recently described cystic and comedonal variant of the classic fibrofolliculoma, which had been present since birth.

  14. Executive Function Skills of 6-8 Year Olds: Brain and Behavioral Evidence and Implications for School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Molfese, Peter J.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Armstrong, Natalie; Starkey, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Academic and social success in school has been linked to children's self-regulation. This study investigated the assessment of the executive function (EF) component of self-regulation using a low-cost, easily administered measure to determine whether scores obtained from the behavioral task would agree with those obtained using a laboratory-based…

  15. Training 8-Year-Old French Immersion Students in Metalinguistic Analysis: An Innovation in Form-Focused Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Laura Annie; Sarkar, Mela

    2008-01-01

    Most research on language awareness in a second language (L2) has been carried out with adult learners. This research presents data showing that pedagogical techniques can be devised enabling children as young as 8 to develop metalinguistic awareness of their emerging L2 system. Building on existing work by Canadian researchers, this…

  16. Manually segmented template library for 8-year-old pediatric brain MRI data with 16 subcortical structures

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Amanmeet; Wong, Darren; Popuri, Karteek; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Bjornson, Bruce; Grunau, Ruth E.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Manual segmentation of anatomy in brain MRI data taken to be the closest to the “gold standard” in quality is often used in automated registration-based segmentation paradigms for transfer of template labels onto the unlabeled MRI images. This study presents a library of template data with 16 subcortical structures in the central brain area which were manually labeled for MRI data from 22 children (8 male, mean age=8±0.6  years). The lateral ventricle, thalamus, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum, third vevntricle, fourth ventricle, brainstem, and corpuscallosum were segmented by two expert raters. Cross-validation experiments with randomized template subset selection were conducted to test for their ability to accurately segment MRI data under an automated segmentation pipeline. A high value of the dice similarity coefficient (0.86±0.06, min=0.74, max=0.96) and small Hausdorff distance (3.33±4.24, min=0.63, max=25.24) of the automated segmentation against the manual labels was obtained on this template library data. Additionally, comparison with segmentation obtained from adult templates showed significant improvement in accuracy with the use of an age-matched library in this cohort. A manually delineated pediatric template library such as the one described here could provide a useful benchmark for testing segmentation algorithms. PMID:26158067

  17. Manually segmented template library for 8-year-old pediatric brain MRI data with 16 subcortical structures.

    PubMed

    Garg, Amanmeet; Wong, Darren; Popuri, Karteek; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Bjornson, Bruce; Grunau, Ruth E; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2014-10-01

    Manual segmentation of anatomy in brain MRI data taken to be the closest to the "gold standard" in quality is often used in automated registration-based segmentation paradigms for transfer of template labels onto the unlabeled MRI images. This study presents a library of template data with 16 subcortical structures in the central brain area which were manually labeled for MRI data from 22 children (8 male, [Formula: see text]). The lateral ventricle, thalamus, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum, third vevntricle, fourth ventricle, brainstem, and corpuscallosum were segmented by two expert raters. Cross-validation experiments with randomized template subset selection were conducted to test for their ability to accurately segment MRI data under an automated segmentation pipeline. A high value of the dice similarity coefficient ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and small Hausdorff distance ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) of the automated segmentation against the manual labels was obtained on this template library data. Additionally, comparison with segmentation obtained from adult templates showed significant improvement in accuracy with the use of an age-matched library in this cohort. A manually delineated pediatric template library such as the one described here could provide a useful benchmark for testing segmentation algorithms.

  18. Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome with Precocious Puberty in an 8-Year-Old Boy due to a Large Unilateral Adrenal Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Muhammad Rajib; Alam, Md. Mashiul; Nabi, Junaid; Kibria, Mahzabin

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) causing Cushing's syndrome are extremely rare in children and adolescents. Bilateral macronodular adrenocortical disease which is a component of the McCune-Albright syndrome is the most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. We report the case of a boy with Cushing's syndrome who presented with obesity and growth retardation. The child was hypertensive. The biochemical evaluation revealed that his serum cortisol levels were 25.80 μg/dL, with a concomitant plasma ACTH level of 10.0 pg/mL and nonsuppressed serum cortisol on high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) to be 20.38 μg/dL. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated a 8 × 6 × 5 cm left adrenal mass with internal calcifications. Following preoperative stabilization, laparotomy was carried out which revealed a lobulated left adrenal mass with intact capsule weighing 120 grams. Histopathological examination revealed a benign cortical neoplastic lesion, suggestive of adrenal adenoma; composed of large polygonal cells with centrally placed nuclei and prominent nucleoli without capsular and vascular invasion. On the seventh postoperative day, cortisol levels were within normal range indicating biochemical remission of Cushing's syndrome. On followup after three months, the patient showed significant clinical improvement and had lost moderate amount of weight and adrenal imaging was found to be normal. PMID:23533838

  19. Serum fatty acids in 8-year-old Finnish boys: correlations with qualitative dietary data and other serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Nikkari, T; Räsänen, L; Viikari, J; Akerblom, H K; Vuori, I; Pyörälä, K; Uhari, M; Dahl, M; Lähde, P L; Pesonen, E; Suoninen, P

    1983-05-01

    To survey risk factors in coronary heart disease in Finnish children, fasting serum specimens from 244 healthy 8-yr-old boys were analyzed for the fatty acid composition of cholesterol esters (CE), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and phospholipids (PL). A qualitative dietary survey was made by asking parents to answer a questionnaire including, among others, a question on the kind of fat usually used on bread by the child. The mean percentages of linoleate (18:2) in serum cholesterol esters, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids were 53.1, 13.5, 11.5, and 22.7%, respectively, which represent an international average. The quality of dietary fat had a clear influence on serum fatty acids, eg, the content of 18:2 in CE was 56.8 +/- 3.6% in boys using soft vegetable margarine and 50.5 +/- 3.6% in those using butter. The former had also a marginally lower serum total cholesterol (4.87 +/- 0.86 mmol/l) than the latter (5.08 +/- 0.80 mmol/l). Serum total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the percentage of 18:2 in all four lipid fractions, the highest r values being with PL-18:2 (-0.41) and CE-18:2 (-0.24). Accordingly, serum cholesterol was lower in the highest CE-18:2 quartile (4.67 +/- 0.76 mmol/l) compared with the lowest (5.30 +/- 0.70 mmol/l; p less than 0.001). The results indicate that when serum fatty acids are used as indicators of the quality of dietary fat, a negative association between polyunsaturated fat and serum cholesterol may be demonstrable even within a free-living population.

  20. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed

    Hakim Shoushtari, Mitra; Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Tavasoli, Azita; Pourshams, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies.

  1. Determination of tissue equivalent materials of a physical 8-year-old phantom for use in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the methodology applied to select suitable tissue equivalent materials of an 8-year phantom for use in computed tomography (CT) examinations. To find the appropriate tissue substitutes, first physical properties (physical density, electronic density, effective atomic number, mass attenuation coefficient and CT number) of different materials were studied. Results showed that, the physical properties of water and polyurethane (as soft tissue), B-100 and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (as bone) and polyurethane foam (as lung) agree more with those of original tissues. Then in the next step, the absorbed doses in the location of 25 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as well as dose distribution in one slice of phantom were calculated for original and these proposed materials by Monte Carlo simulation at different tube voltages. The comparisons suggested that at tube voltages of 80 and 100 kVp using B-100 as bone, water as soft tissue and polyurethane foam as lung is suitable for dosimetric study in pediatric CT examinations. In addition, it was concluded that by considering just the mass attenuation coefficient of different materials, the appropriate tissue equivalent substitutes in each desired X-ray energy range could be found.

  2. Finding Creativity for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Rebecca

    This paper examines the nature of creativity and the nourishing of children's creativity. One definition of creativity focuses on two of its aspects, of novelty and usefulness. Other definitions that stress one or the other of these aspects are discussed. According to M. Rhoades (1961), the four components of creativity are: (1) people--their…

  3. Linguistic skills in relation to neurological findings at 8 years of age in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Yliherva, A; Olsén, P; Järvelin, M R

    2001-01-01

    The linguistic skills of 8-year-old children born preterm (n = 42) with birthweight < 1750 grams from a 1-year birth cohort for 1985-86 in northern Finland were studied with three different language tests, namely the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), the Token Test for Children (TTC) and the Morphological Test (MT) for Finnish children. Full-term control children (n = 42) with birthweight > or = 2500 grams from the same birth cohort were matched individually with their preterm pairs for age, sex, twinship, mother's education, place of residence, birth order and family type. The preterm children's language abilities were studied in relation to their neurological status and to the periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunctions (MND) scored worst and differed significantly from their matched controls in TTC. They also differed significantly from other preterm subgroups, namely healthy preterm and preterm children with cerebral palsy (CP), in verbal comprehension measured by TTC. PVL findings were not associated with performance in the language ability tests. A closer and regular follow-up of language development in the MND-disabled group among the low-birthweight preterm children is recommended.

  4. Exploring the association between household food insecurity, parental self-efficacy, and fruit and vegetable parenting practices among parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity may negatively impact children’s nutritional status by affecting parenting quality. Because parents have a strong influence on their children’s eating and food choices, examining the effects of food insecurity on parenting may provide important insights into obesity prevention effort...

  5. Assessing type a behavior in 8-year-olds: exploring the overlap between the constructs of type a behavior and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Eninger, L; Bohlin, G; Hagekull, B

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to examine, by using behavioral observations, the overlap found between Type A behavior, as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) questionnaire, and measures of hyperactivity in children. The sample consisted of 91 children (46 boys and 45 girls) between the ages of 8 and 9 who were part of a longitudinal study in Uppsala, Sweden. Behavioral observations of Type A behavior and various questionnaire data were used. The behaviorally observed Type A behavior correlated significantly with MYTH Type A behavior, whereas only the MYTH Type A behavior correlated with hyperactivity measured by questionnaires. The results indicated that behavioral observations make it possible to measure Type A behavior as distinct from hyperactivity, implying that the MYTH is too indiscriminate a measure of Type A behavior. This has implications for future measurement and perhaps conceptualization of Type A behavior in children, and thereby also for studying the developmental aspects of Type A behavior. PMID:16250720

  6. Assessing type a behavior in 8-year-olds: exploring the overlap between the constructs of type a behavior and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Eninger, L; Bohlin, G; Hagekull, B

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to examine, by using behavioral observations, the overlap found between Type A behavior, as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) questionnaire, and measures of hyperactivity in children. The sample consisted of 91 children (46 boys and 45 girls) between the ages of 8 and 9 who were part of a longitudinal study in Uppsala, Sweden. Behavioral observations of Type A behavior and various questionnaire data were used. The behaviorally observed Type A behavior correlated significantly with MYTH Type A behavior, whereas only the MYTH Type A behavior correlated with hyperactivity measured by questionnaires. The results indicated that behavioral observations make it possible to measure Type A behavior as distinct from hyperactivity, implying that the MYTH is too indiscriminate a measure of Type A behavior. This has implications for future measurement and perhaps conceptualization of Type A behavior in children, and thereby also for studying the developmental aspects of Type A behavior.

  7. Retro- and prospection for mental time travel: Emergence of episodic remembering and mental rotation in 5- to 8-year old children☆

    PubMed Central

    Perner, Josef; Kloo, Daniela; Rohwer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the common development of children’s ability to “look back in time” (retrospection, episodic remembering) and to “look into the future” (prospection). Experiment 1 with 59 children 5 to 8.5 years old showed mental rotation, as a measure of prospection, explaining specific variance of free recall, as a measure of episodic remembering (retrospection) when controlled for cued recall. Experiment 2 with 31 children from 5 to 6.5 years measured episodic remembering with recall of visually experienced events (seeing which picture was placed inside a box) when controlling for recall of indirectly conveyed events (being informed about the pictures placed inside the box by showing the pictures on a monitor). Quite unexpectedly rotators were markedly worse on indirect items than non-rotators. We speculate that with the ability to rotate children switch from knowledge retrieval to episodic remembering, which maintains success for experienced events but has detrimental effects for indirect information. PMID:20650660

  8. Help for Finding Missing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Efforts to locate missing children have expanded from a federal law allowing for entry of information into an F.B.I. computer system to companion bills before Congress for establishing a national missing child clearinghouse and a Justice Department center to help in conducting searches. Private organizations are also involved. (KS)

  9. Contribution of temporal processing skills to reading comprehension in 8-year-olds: evidence for a mediation effect of phonological awareness.

    PubMed

    Malenfant, Nathalie; Grondin, Simon; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Robaey, Philippe; Dionne, Ginette

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether the association between temporal processing (TP) and reading is mediated by phonological awareness (PA) in a normative sample of 615 eight-year-olds. TP was measured with auditory and bimodal (visual-auditory) temporal order judgment tasks and PA with a phoneme deletion task. PA partially mediated the association between both auditory and bimodal TP and reading, above nonverbal abilities, vocabulary, and processing speed. PA explained a larger proportion of the association between auditory TP and reading (56% vs. 39% for bimodal TP), and most of the association between bimodal TP and reading was direct. This finding is consistent with a dual-phonological and visual-pathway model of the association between TP and reading in normative reading skills.

  10. [Typical findings of maltreated children].

    PubMed

    Rauch, E; Zinka, B; Schneider, K; Penning, R; Eisenmenger, W

    2006-06-15

    Childhood maltreatment manifests in a variety of forms and the underlying causes are manifold. In contrast to other offences involving physical injury, reporting behavior has, statistically speaking, remained unchanged. Patterns of injury must first be established and documented, and this involves a complete examination of the child's body. Depending on the constellation of findings, a radiological diagnosis is usually necessary. When all the findings have been collected, the further steps to be taken--where indicated a report to the police--must be discussed. All the evidence must be recorded, and photos obtained of all externally visible injuries before they fade. It is not the task of the physician to develop criminalistic ambitions, for example, by grilling (a parent) on the cause of the injuries. However, he/she has a duty to do everything necessary to protect the well-being of the child. PMID:16850804

  11. Finding More Joy in Teaching Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Apavaloaie, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood professionals are familiar with finding and appreciating daily moments of joy. Teachers smile inside and out when toddlers are able to pull up their own pants, preschoolers write their names for the first time, or kindergarteners figure out how to make complicated patterns with blocks. Working with young children can also be very…

  12. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4-13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9-13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4-8 years old (92%-98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. PMID:27618092

  13. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4–13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. PMID:27618092

  14. Children and lead: new findings and concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Lin-Fu, J.S.

    1982-09-02

    An editorial dealing with lead in the environment and its health risks to children is presented. Young children are particularly vulnerable to lead exposure. Through hand-to-mouth activities, such as thumb sucking, nail biting, or eating with dirty hands, lead in house dust and garden soil readily enters their bodies. Children with pica are exposed to more lead because they eat such items as paint chips, broken plaster, and dirt. Moreover, intestinal lead absorption is greater in children than in adults. The author recommends a concerted effort to reduce undue lead absorption in children. (JMT)

  15. Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esserman, June F., Ed.

    This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

  16. "Roots" Touched Children: Planned or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greathouse, Betty

    1977-01-01

    Explores children's reactions to the televised version of Alex Haley's "Roots" through interviews with thirty 8-year-old third-graders (10 Black, 10 Mexican-American, 10 White) from two classrooms in South Phoenix, Arizona. (BF/JH)

  17. Mirror-Image Reversals in Children's Printing: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simner, Marvin L.

    Children from kindergarten through grade 2 were asked to copy, then print from memory, each of the 41 reversible letters and numbers administered individually on slides presented in random order. The main findings of an experiment with 179 children drawn from two elementary schools show that mirror-image reversals and other errors (1) take place…

  18. Mothers' and Their Children's Self-Concepts: A Serendipitous Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocco, Thomas S.

    1975-01-01

    Findings of the study resubstantiate earlier results: a) mother's self-concept measures are related to children's self-concept measures, and b) mother's self-concept measures at the beginning of the school year are related to change in children's self-concept measures over the course of the school year as well as to latter's end-of-school-year…

  19. Medical findings and legal outcomes in sexually abused children.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lene Aagaard; Mikkelsen, Søren Johan; Sabroe, Svend; Charles, Annie Vesterby

    2010-01-01

    A previous study published in 2000 on a small group of children concluded that the medical examination in cases of sexual child abuse seldom provided legal proof of sexual abuse [J Forensic Sci 45(2000):115-7]. The present consecutive study included children referred to the police for a forensic medical examination. A colposcope was used to evaluate the anogenital findings which were classified as normal, nonspecific, and abnormal. Four hundred and eighty-two children were included. Abnormal anogenital findings were found in 38% of the girls and 20% of the boys, but there was no relation between abnormal anogenital findings and the two legal outcomes: "appearing in court" and "being convicted." However, the age of the child turned out to be a more important factor in relation to legal outcome than the physical findings. The results of this study suggest that the child's statement and not the physical findings were important for legal outcome.

  20. Does Barbie make girls want to be thin? The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne

    2006-03-01

    The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported lower body esteem and greater desire for a thinner body shape than girls in the other exposure conditions. However, this immediate negative impact of Barbie doll was no longer evident in the oldest girls. These findings imply that, even if dolls cease to function as aspirational role models for older girls, early exposure to dolls epitomizing an unrealistically thin body ideal may damage girls' body image, which would contribute to an increased risk of disordered eating and weight cycling. PMID:16569167

  1. Reasoning about knowledge: Children's evaluations of generality and verifiability.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Melissa A; Cole, Caitlin A; Meyer, Meredith; Ridge, Katherine E; Kushnir, Tamar; Gelman, Susan A

    2015-12-01

    In a series of experiments, we examined 3- to 8-year-old children's (N=223) and adults' (N=32) use of two properties of testimony to estimate a speaker's knowledge: generality and verifiability. Participants were presented with a "Generic speaker" who made a series of 4 general claims about "pangolins" (a novel animal kind), and a "Specific speaker" who made a series of 4 specific claims about "this pangolin" as an individual. To investigate the role of verifiability, we systematically varied whether the claim referred to a perceptually-obvious feature visible in a picture (e.g., "has a pointy nose") or a non-evident feature that was not visible (e.g., "sleeps in a hollow tree"). Three main findings emerged: (1) young children showed a pronounced reliance on verifiability that decreased with age. Three-year-old children were especially prone to credit knowledge to speakers who made verifiable claims, whereas 7- to 8-year-olds and adults credited knowledge to generic speakers regardless of whether the claims were verifiable; (2) children's attributions of knowledge to generic speakers was not detectable until age 5, and only when those claims were also verifiable; (3) children often generalized speakers' knowledge outside of the pangolin domain, indicating a belief that a person's knowledge about pangolins likely extends to new facts. Findings indicate that young children may be inclined to doubt speakers who make claims they cannot verify themselves, as well as a developmentally increasing appreciation for speakers who make general claims. PMID:26451884

  2. Reasoning about knowledge: Children's evaluations of generality and verifiability.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Melissa A; Cole, Caitlin A; Meyer, Meredith; Ridge, Katherine E; Kushnir, Tamar; Gelman, Susan A

    2015-12-01

    In a series of experiments, we examined 3- to 8-year-old children's (N=223) and adults' (N=32) use of two properties of testimony to estimate a speaker's knowledge: generality and verifiability. Participants were presented with a "Generic speaker" who made a series of 4 general claims about "pangolins" (a novel animal kind), and a "Specific speaker" who made a series of 4 specific claims about "this pangolin" as an individual. To investigate the role of verifiability, we systematically varied whether the claim referred to a perceptually-obvious feature visible in a picture (e.g., "has a pointy nose") or a non-evident feature that was not visible (e.g., "sleeps in a hollow tree"). Three main findings emerged: (1) young children showed a pronounced reliance on verifiability that decreased with age. Three-year-old children were especially prone to credit knowledge to speakers who made verifiable claims, whereas 7- to 8-year-olds and adults credited knowledge to generic speakers regardless of whether the claims were verifiable; (2) children's attributions of knowledge to generic speakers was not detectable until age 5, and only when those claims were also verifiable; (3) children often generalized speakers' knowledge outside of the pangolin domain, indicating a belief that a person's knowledge about pangolins likely extends to new facts. Findings indicate that young children may be inclined to doubt speakers who make claims they cannot verify themselves, as well as a developmentally increasing appreciation for speakers who make general claims.

  3. Rich Discussions by 7- and 8-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlfeld, Carol

    2008-01-01

    In the author's second grade maths class, the students were excited and energised after discovering, understanding and learning an advanced mathematical concept. In the class, the second-graders spent a great deal of time discussing how they used the number grid to work out 96 - 7. In this article, the author presents a portion of the class…

  4. "Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmor, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

  5. Single-Parent Children and Middle Schools. Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanat, Carolyn L.

    This study examined the needs of single-parent children in the seventh and eighth grades and the schools' response to those needs. Thirty principals, single parents, and experts were interviewed; their opinions suggested questions for a survey that was mailed to principals (N=391) and single parents (N=253). The findings indicated that principals…

  6. Target-distractor similarity has a larger impact on visual search in school-age children than spacing.

    PubMed

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2015-01-22

    In typically developing children, crowding decreases with increasing age. The influence of target-distractor similarity with respect to orientation and element spacing on visual search performance was investigated in 29 school-age children with normal vision (4- to 6-year-olds [N = 16], 7- to 8-year-olds [N = 13]). Children were instructed to search for a target E among distractor Es (feature search: all flanking Es pointing right; conjunction search: flankers in three orientations). Orientation of the target was manipulated in four directions: right (target absent), left (inversed), up, and down (vertical). Spacing was varied in four steps: 0.04°, 0.5°, 1°, and 2°. During feature search, high target-distractor similarity had a stronger impact on performance than spacing: Orientation affected accuracy until spacing was 1°, and spacing only influenced accuracy for identifying inversed targets. Spatial analyses showed that orientation affected oculomotor strategy: Children made more fixations in the "inversed" target area (4.6) than the vertical target areas (1.8 and 1.9). Furthermore, age groups differed in fixation duration: 4- to 6-year-old children showed longer fixation durations than 7- to 8-year-olds at the two largest element spacings (p = 0.039 and p = 0.027). Conjunction search performance was unaffected by spacing. Four conclusions can be drawn from this study: (a) Target-distractor similarity governs visual search performance in school-age children, (b) children make more fixations in target areas when target-distractor similarity is high, (c) 4- to 6-year-olds show longer fixation durations than 7- to 8-year-olds at 1° and 2° element spacing, and (d) spacing affects feature but not conjunction search-a finding that might indicate top-down control ameliorates crowding in children.

  7. Neurophysiologic findings in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ruchi; Singh, Ramji; Singh, Smita; Jain, Manish; Bokariya, Pradeep; Khatoon, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Context: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a heterogeneous group of permanent, non-progressive motor disorders of movement and posture caused by chronic brain injuries. It is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood; spastic cerebral palsy being the most prevalent of its various forms. There is scanty information about the neurophysiologic investigations in children diagnosed as having spastic CP. Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between abnormal VEP and BAEP findings with different clinical parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Materials and Methods: Fifteen children with spastic CP in the age range 4 months to 10 years participated in this study. Evaluation of VEPs, brainstem evoked potentials (BAEPs) were performed in all study patients as well as 35 healthy children as controls. The study was conducted after obtaining ethics committee approval and informed consent of parents. Statistical Analysis Used: Significance of difference in the mean values of different parameters in different groups was assessed by Student’s “t” test and the P value <0.05 was considered to be significant. All the values were expressed as mean ± 1 Std. Deviation. Results: A significant difference was found in the VEP latencies and amplitude between the subjects with CP and controls. Striking BAEP abnormalities in CP patients include prolongation of absolute latency of wave V, interpeak latencies of III-V and lowered I-V ratio. Abnormal VEPs and BAEPs in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy demonstrated a correlation with the presence of moderate to severe developmental delay. Conclusions: The differences in VEPs and BAEPs were determined between CP children and healthy children. The abnormalities found are probably linked to the neurological deficits present in cases of cerebral palsy. PMID:21042499

  8. Quechua Children's Theory of Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Penelope G.; Olson, David R.

    Three different theory of mind tasks were conducted with 4- to 8-year-old Quechua peasant children in the Peruvian Andes. The study investigated the ways in which children in preliterate cultures think and the possibility that they think differently than children in literate cultures. The tasks included: (1) a false-belief task, which tested the…

  9. Reward sensitivity to faces versus objects in children: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Leslie J.

    2014-01-01

    How children respond to social and nonsocial rewards has important implications for understanding social cognitive development. Adults find faces intrinsically rewarding. However, little is known about how children respond to face vs nonface rewards. We utilized event-related potentials (the stimulus-preceding negativity, SPN) to measure differences in reward anticipation during a guessing game in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were presented with reward indicators accompanied by incidental face or nonface stimuli. Nonface stimuli were comprised of scrambled faces in the shape of arrows, controlling for low-level properties of the two conditions. Children showed an increased SPN when the reward stimuli were accompanied by faces, relative to nonface stimuli. This suggests that children find a face stimulus more rewarding than a nonface stimulus. The results have important implications for processing social vs nonsocial rewards in typically developing children, and allow testing of populations with deficits in social reward processing, such as autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24036961

  10. Children's recognition of fairness and others' welfare in a resource allocation task: Age related changes.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Michael T; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns, children were asked to allocate, judge, and reason about allocations of necessary (needed to avoid harm) and luxury (enjoyable to have) resources to a hardworking and a lazy character. While 3- to 5-year-olds did not differentiate between distributing luxury and necessary resources, 6- to 8-year-olds allocated luxury resources more meritoriously than necessary resources. Further, children based their allocations of necessary resources on concerns for others' welfare, rather than merit, even when one character was described as working harder. The findings revealed that, with age, children incorporated the concerns for others' welfare and merit into their conceptions of fairness in a resource allocation context, and prioritized these concerns differently depending on whether they were allocating luxury or necessary resources. Further, with age, children weighed multiple moral concerns including equality, merit, and others' welfare, when determining the fair allocation of resources. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27455189

  11. Memories of good deeds past: The reinforcing power of prosocial behavior in children.

    PubMed

    Tasimi, Arber; Young, Liane

    2016-07-01

    Does considering one's past prosociality affect future behavior? Prior research has revealed instances in which adults engage in additional prosocial behavior-moral reinforcement-as well as instances in which adults engage in worse behavior-moral licensing. The current study examined the developmental origins of these effects by testing whether 6- to 8-year-old children (N=225) are more or less generous after recalling their own good deeds. Children were asked to recount a time when they were nice, were mean, or watched a movie. Children behaved more generously after recalling a time when they were nice. We show that this boost in generosity was not simply the result of instructing children to consider nice behavior; children's giving did not increase after recalling others' good deeds. We also show that, even after recounting multiple instances of their past goodness, children continue to behave more generously. These findings suggest that doing good leads to more good in children. PMID:27036619

  12. Memories of good deeds past: The reinforcing power of prosocial behavior in children.

    PubMed

    Tasimi, Arber; Young, Liane

    2016-07-01

    Does considering one's past prosociality affect future behavior? Prior research has revealed instances in which adults engage in additional prosocial behavior-moral reinforcement-as well as instances in which adults engage in worse behavior-moral licensing. The current study examined the developmental origins of these effects by testing whether 6- to 8-year-old children (N=225) are more or less generous after recalling their own good deeds. Children were asked to recount a time when they were nice, were mean, or watched a movie. Children behaved more generously after recalling a time when they were nice. We show that this boost in generosity was not simply the result of instructing children to consider nice behavior; children's giving did not increase after recalling others' good deeds. We also show that, even after recounting multiple instances of their past goodness, children continue to behave more generously. These findings suggest that doing good leads to more good in children.

  13. Intravesical oxybutinin chloride in children with intermittent catheterization: sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Zerin, J M; DiPietro, M A; Ritchey, M L; Bloom, D A

    1994-01-01

    The sonographic findings in the bladder are presented in four children with myelomeningocele and neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder, who were treated with intermittent self-catheterization and intravesical oxybutinin chloride. All were referred for routine sonography of the urinary tract. Each had infused a crushed tablet of oxybutinin chloride intravesically 30-120 min before the examination. In two children, brightly echogenic, non-shadowing particles were suspended in the bladder urine. In one of these, the particles swirled giving the impression of a "snowstorm"; in the other, most of the particles gradually settled forming an irregular clump on the bladder base. In the remaining two children, the urine appeared diffusely hazy with innumerable tiny particles giving the impression of a fine mist filling the bladder. The sonographic appearance of the urine in the bladder after intravesical instillation of crushed tablets can be dramatic and can simulate pus, blood, fungus, or other debris in the bladder lumen. In the absence of clinical symptoms or hematuria, a history of recent infusion of medication into the bladder should be sought. PMID:7824373

  14. Intravesical oxybutinin chloride in children with intermittent catheterization: sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Zerin, J M; DiPietro, M A; Ritchey, M L; Bloom, D A

    1994-01-01

    The sonographic findings in the bladder are presented in four children with myelomeningocele and neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder, who were treated with intermittent self-catheterization and intravesical oxybutinin chloride. All were referred for routine sonography of the urinary tract. Each had infused a crushed tablet of oxybutinin chloride intravesically 30-120 min before the examination. In two children, brightly echogenic, non-shadowing particles were suspended in the bladder urine. In one of these, the particles swirled giving the impression of a "snowstorm"; in the other, most of the particles gradually settled forming an irregular clump on the bladder base. In the remaining two children, the urine appeared diffusely hazy with innumerable tiny particles giving the impression of a fine mist filling the bladder. The sonographic appearance of the urine in the bladder after intravesical instillation of crushed tablets can be dramatic and can simulate pus, blood, fungus, or other debris in the bladder lumen. In the absence of clinical symptoms or hematuria, a history of recent infusion of medication into the bladder should be sought.

  15. Does parental migration really benefit left-behind children? Comparative evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Viet Nguyen, Cuong

    2016-03-01

    Millions of children are left behind when their parents migrate from home to another place. This study examines whether parental migration can affect health and cognitive ability of left-behind children aged at 5-8 years old in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. It uses data on 7725 children in the four countries collected from Young Lives surveys in 2007 and 2009. It finds that although parental migration helps families increase per capita consumption, it does not improve health and cognitive ability of children. The effect of parental migration varies across different countries and different types of migration. In Ethiopia, parental migration does not have a significant effect on children. However, parental migration reduces health outcomes of children in other three countries and decreases cognitive ability test scores in India and Vietnam. The negative effect on children tends to be higher for long-term parental migration than short-term parental migration. PMID:26921838

  16. Does parental migration really benefit left-behind children? Comparative evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Viet Nguyen, Cuong

    2016-03-01

    Millions of children are left behind when their parents migrate from home to another place. This study examines whether parental migration can affect health and cognitive ability of left-behind children aged at 5-8 years old in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. It uses data on 7725 children in the four countries collected from Young Lives surveys in 2007 and 2009. It finds that although parental migration helps families increase per capita consumption, it does not improve health and cognitive ability of children. The effect of parental migration varies across different countries and different types of migration. In Ethiopia, parental migration does not have a significant effect on children. However, parental migration reduces health outcomes of children in other three countries and decreases cognitive ability test scores in India and Vietnam. The negative effect on children tends to be higher for long-term parental migration than short-term parental migration.

  17. ECG findings after myocardial infarction in children after Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, T.; Takao, A.; Kondoh, C.; Nakazawa, M.; Hiroe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.

    1988-10-01

    Standard 12-lead ECGs were evaluated in 17 children with myocardial infarction and 78 children without myocardial infarction after Kawasaki disease; sensitivity and specificity of the ECG infarction criteria were determined. The presence or absence of myocardial infarction was determined from either clinical examination results (coronary angiography, ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial imaging) or autopsy findings. Of seven patients with inferior infarction, abnormally deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF were observed in six, but the duration was greater than 0.04 second in only one (14%). The sensitivity and specificity of inferior infarction criteria based on Q wave amplitude were 86% and 97%, respectively. Of eight patients with anterior infarction, seven (88%) had abnormally deep and wide (greater than or equal to 0.04 second) Q waves in anterior chest leads. The sensitivity and specificity of the infarction criteria based on the amplitude and duration of the Q wave were 75% and 99%, respectively. Of seven patients with lateral infarction, Q waves were observed in lead I, aVL, or both in four patients, and in all of these patients Q waves were wider than 0.04 second. In two patients with both inferior and anterior infarction, Q waves were observed only in leads II, III, and aVF; in only one patient were the Q waves wider than 0.04 second. Thus deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF that are not wider than 0.04 second may indicate inferior infarction in children. Q waves in lead I, aVL, and chest leads associated with anterolateral infarction are in most instances deep and wide.

  18. Joint Attention Revisited: Finding Strengths among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Sarah; Watson, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    Differences in joint attention are prominent for some children with autism and are often used as an indicator of the disorder. This study examined the joint attention competencies of young children with autism who demonstrated joint attention ability and compared them to children with developmental delays. A total of 40 children with autism and…

  19. Children's Contact with Their Incarcerated Parents: Research Findings and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children,…

  20. Improving Treatment Outcome for Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Elizabeth P.

    2007-01-01

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is relatively common among 3-8 year-old children and its presence puts children at risk for more serious and stable behavior problems. Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) as the most empirical support as a treatment for children with ODD as well as for children with clinically significant conduct problems. The…

  1. Teaching Children about the Inverse Relation between Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Hallett, Darcy; Bell, Daniel; Evans, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Two intervention studies are described. Both were designed to study the effects of teaching children about the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. The interventions were successful with 8-year-old children in Study 1 and to a limited extent with 5-year-old children in Study 2. In Study 1 teaching children about inversion increased…

  2. Finding Common Concerns for the Children We Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Mainstream education often misunderstands the ways that some rural black families display involvement in their children's lives. Teachers may tend to attribute children's academic struggles to what they perceived as a lack of care, concern, and involvement of the families. Such views could keep children from reaching and exceeding their…

  3. How to Find the Live Ones on Children's TV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Christopher S.

    1972-01-01

    By phasing out the superheroes of violence, attempting to involve children in constructive projects and reexamining their commitment to children's programming, the major commercial networks are gradually changing children's television. Together with non-commercial television networks they are striving for greater quality control. (Author/RK)

  4. Academic Attainment Findings in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epping, Amanda S.; Myrvik, Matthew P.; Newby, Robert F.; Panepinto, Julie A.; Brandow, Amanda M.; Scott, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) demonstrate deficits in cognitive and academic functioning. This study compared the academic attainment of children with SCD relative to national, state, and local school district rates for African American students. Methods: A retrospective chart review of children with SCD was completed and…

  5. Observational assessment and maternal reports of motivation in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica

    2011-03-01

    Despite a lack of consistent empirical evidence, there has been an ongoing assumption that intellectual disability is associated with reduced levels of motivation. The participants in this study were 33 children with Down syndrome ages 10-15 years and 33 typically developing 3-8-year-old children. Motivation was measured through observational assessments of curiosity, preference for challenge, and persistence, as well as maternal reports. There were no significant group differences on motivation tasks, but mothers of children with Down syndrome rated their children significantly lower on motivation than did parents of typically developing children. There were some intriguing group differences in the pattern of correlations among observations and parent reports. The findings challenge long-held views that individuals with intellectual disability are invariably deficient in motivation.

  6. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  7. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Child find for parentally-placed private school children... ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Children with Disabilities Enrolled by Their Parents in Private Schools § 300.131 Child find for parentally-placed...

  8. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Child find for parentally-placed private school children... ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Children with Disabilities Enrolled by Their Parents in Private Schools § 300.131 Child find for parentally-placed...

  9. Initial Ophthalmic Findings in Turkish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabatas, Emrah Utku; Ozer, Pinar Altiaylik; Ertugrul, Gokce Tasdemir; Kurtul, Bengi Ece; Bodur, Sahin; Alan, Burcu Ersoz

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently have ophthalmologic disorders. Due to poor cooperation with ophthalmological examination, ocular abnormalities in such children may be overlooked. We retrospectively studied the records of 324 patients diagnosed as ASD that underwent ophthalmological examination between January 2011 and…

  10. Finding Community: Helping Children of Military Families Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Daniel P.; Ybanez, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Envision the military family, being given as few as 30 days to pack, take their children out of school, leave their residence, settle in a new home, enroll the children in a new school, and take care of the myriad details for the military parent's relocation or deployment. Military families undergo this process over and over. The moves can affect…

  11. Variation in Children's Understanding of Fractions: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Tran, Dung; Elliott, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    This research targets children's informal strategies and knowledge of fractions by examining their ability to create, interpret, and connect representations in doing and communicating mathematics when solving fractions tasks. Our research group followed a constant comparative method to analyze clinical interviews of children in grades 2-6 solving…

  12. Middle Latency Response in Children with Learning Disabilities: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehole, Shalini; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous recordings of auditory brainstem and middle latency responses were obtained in both vertex-ipsilateral and vertex-contralateral derivations in 22 children, ages 8-12. For specific recording conditions, the latencies of middle latency responses differ significantly between children with and without learning disabilities, offering…

  13. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  14. Cranial Nerve Disorders in Children: MR Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yoon, Hee Mang; Jung, Ah Young; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Cranial nerve disorders are uncommon disease conditions encountered in pediatric patients, and can be categorized as congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, or tumorous conditions that involve the cranial nerve itself or propagation of the disorder from adjacent organs. However, determination of the normal course, as well as abnormalities, of cranial nerves in pediatric patients is challenging because of the small caliber of the cranial nerve, as well as the small intracranial and skull base structures. With the help of recently developed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that provide higher spatial resolution and fast imaging techniques including three-dimensional MR images with or without the use of gadolinium contrast agent, radiologists can more easily diagnose disease conditions that involve the small cranial nerves, such as the oculomotor, abducens, facial, and hypoglossal nerves, as well as normal radiologic anatomy, even in very young children. If cranial nerve involvement is suspected, careful evaluation of the cranial nerves should include specific MR imaging protocols. Localization is an important consideration in cranial nerve imaging, and should cover entire pathways and target organs as much as possible. Therefore, radiologists should be familiar not only with the various diseases that cause cranial nerve dysfunction, and the entire course of each cranial nerve including the intra-axial nuclei and fibers, but also the technical considerations for optimal imaging of pediatric cranial nerves. In this article, we briefly review normal cranial nerve anatomy and imaging findings of various pediatric cranial nerve dysfunctions, as well as the technical considerations of pediatric cranial nerve imaging. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27399242

  15. Cranial Nerve Disorders in Children: MR Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yoon, Hee Mang; Jung, Ah Young; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Cranial nerve disorders are uncommon disease conditions encountered in pediatric patients, and can be categorized as congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, or tumorous conditions that involve the cranial nerve itself or propagation of the disorder from adjacent organs. However, determination of the normal course, as well as abnormalities, of cranial nerves in pediatric patients is challenging because of the small caliber of the cranial nerve, as well as the small intracranial and skull base structures. With the help of recently developed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that provide higher spatial resolution and fast imaging techniques including three-dimensional MR images with or without the use of gadolinium contrast agent, radiologists can more easily diagnose disease conditions that involve the small cranial nerves, such as the oculomotor, abducens, facial, and hypoglossal nerves, as well as normal radiologic anatomy, even in very young children. If cranial nerve involvement is suspected, careful evaluation of the cranial nerves should include specific MR imaging protocols. Localization is an important consideration in cranial nerve imaging, and should cover entire pathways and target organs as much as possible. Therefore, radiologists should be familiar not only with the various diseases that cause cranial nerve dysfunction, and the entire course of each cranial nerve including the intra-axial nuclei and fibers, but also the technical considerations for optimal imaging of pediatric cranial nerves. In this article, we briefly review normal cranial nerve anatomy and imaging findings of various pediatric cranial nerve dysfunctions, as well as the technical considerations of pediatric cranial nerve imaging. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  16. Children's Practice of Computer-Based Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Bo; Folkestad, Goran

    2005-01-01

    Today's children live in a world where music in all its different forms has become a significant factor in their everyday life. This article describes a 2-year empirical study of nine 8-year-old Swedish children creating music with synthesiser and computer software. The aim of the study is to describe and clarify the creative processes of…

  17. Making the Tacit Explicit: Children's Strategies for Classroom Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silby, Alison; Watts, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A key highlight of this study is generating evidence of children "making aware the unaware", making tacit knowledge explicit. The research explores the levels of awareness in thinking used by eight 7-8 year-old children when engaged in school-based genre writing tasks. The focus is on analysing children's awareness of their thought…

  18. Implementing and Assessing 4-H Educational Activity Kits for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Yeske, Janine; Zimmer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Educational activity kits were developed and implemented through a statewide effort for 4-H Youth Development Extension programs serving 5-8 year-old children. The purpose of the kits was to promote life skills in children and assess the learning environment. Data was collected based on the observations of 577 children across 22 counties. Findings…

  19. Hispanic parents of overweight and obese children and their outcome expectations for children's television viewing: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to explore parental outcome expectations (OE) regarding children's television (TV) viewing among parents of overweight or obese children. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight or obese children. We found tha...

  20. Resilience in highly stressed urban children: concepts and findings.

    PubMed Central

    Cowen, E. L.; Wyman, P. A.; Work, W. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Rochester Child Resilience Project is a coordinated set of studies of the correlates and antecedents of outcomes relating to resilience among profoundly stressed urban children. The studies have been conducted over the course of the past decade. Based on child test data, parent, teacher, and self ratings of child adjustment, and in-depth individual interviews with parents and children, a cohesive picture has developed of child and family milieu variables that consistently differentiate children with resilient versus stress-affected outcomes within this highly stressed sample. Resilient children are characterized by an easy temperament and higher IQ; sound parent/child relationships; a parent's sense of efficacy; the parent's own wellness, especially mental health; and the child's perceived competence, realistic control, empathy, and social problem-solving. PMID:8982521

  1. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  2. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  3. "Finding a Life" among Undocumented Congolese Refugee Children in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The majority of undocumented Congolese refugee children living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, experience extreme poverty and social exclusion, harassment and discrimination. Their fear of deportation, forcible removal to refugee camps and imprisonment is coupled with a strong feeling that they are unwelcome in Tanzania. These realities require that…

  4. Democratic Life Skill 1: Guiding Children to Find a Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2012-01-01

    "Democratic life skills" are social-emotional capacities that children need to be productive citizens and healthy individuals in a modern, diverse society. The construct for these skills comes from many sources. One helpful source is Maslow's concept of two coexisting sets of motivational needs in each individual: one set for security, belonging,…

  5. Unexpected Findings in Interviews with Parents of Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Sandra R.

    Views of parents of children, ages 3-37, with disabilities were investigated. Interviews with 51 families addressed a number of questions, including the following: how they learned of their child's disabilities; the best times for the family; reactions of others to their child; what they think their child might not be able to do; and the hardest…

  6. Angiographic findings in 2 children with cerebral paragonimiasis with hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jingyu; Miao, Hongpin; Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Zhu, Gang

    2013-05-01

    Hemorrhagic events associated with cerebral paragonimiasis are not rare, especially in children and adolescents; however, angiographic evidence of cerebrovascular involvement has not been reported. The authors describe angiographic abnormalities of the cerebral arteries seen in 2 children in whom cerebral paragonimiasis was associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The patients presented with acute intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed a beaded appearance and long segmental narrowing of arteries, consistent with arteritis. In both patients, involved vessels were seen in the area of the hemorrhage. The vascular changes and the hemorrhage, together with new lesions that developed close to the hemorrhage and improved after praziquantel treatment, were attributed to paragonimiasis. Further study of the frequency and mechanism of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications associated with cerebral paragonimiasis is needed.

  7. Development in Children with Down Syndrome: Facts, Findings, the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Jennifer G.

    1998-01-01

    Shares findings from past and current research into Down syndrome and makes suggestions for future research. The contributions of medical, genetic, and psychological research are reviewed, along with findings relating to the neuropathology of Down syndrome, prenatal screening for Down syndrome, life expectancy, and obstacles to learning. (CR)

  8. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology.

  9. Precocious puberty in children: A review of imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Faizah, MZ; Zuhanis, AH; Rahmah, R; Raja, AA; Wu, LL; Dayang, AA; Zulfiqar, MA

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This review was aimed at determining the imaging findings in patients with precocious puberty. Results: Within a period of 8 years (from 2002 to 2010) there were 53 patients diagnosed with precocious puberty. Out of the 53 patients, 37 had undergone diagnostic imaging to detect the possible organic causes of precocious puberty. Imaging findings were positive in 31 patients and out of that, 3 patients had 2 findings each (34 abnormalities). Of the patients with positive imaging findings, central precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-dependent) was more common (81%; 25/31) and the causes included: tuber cinereum hamartoma (n = 10), glioma (n = 6), pineal gland tumour (n = 4), hydrocephalous (n = 3), arachnoid cyst (n = 2) and others (n = 3). Peripheral precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-independent) causes included: testicular adrenal rest tumour (n = 3), adrenal carcinoma (n = 1), ovarian granulosa thecal cell tumour (n = 1), and tuberous sclerosis (n = 1). Conclusion: Positive imaging findings were observed in 84% (31/37) of the subjects. Hypothalamic hamartoma was the most common imaging finding in central precocious puberty while testicular adrenal rest tumour was the most common imaging finding in peripheral precocious puberty. PMID:22970062

  10. Mitochondrial diabetes in children: seek and you will find it.

    PubMed

    Mazzaccara, Cristina; Iafusco, Dario; Liguori, Rosario; Ferrigno, Maddalena; Galderisi, Alfonso; Vitale, Domenico; Simonelli, Francesca; Landolfo, Paolo; Prisco, Francesco; Masullo, Mariorosario; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Maternally Inherited Diabetes and Deafness (MIDD) is a rare form of diabetes due to defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). 3243 A>G is the mutation most frequently associated with this condition, but other mtDNA variants have been linked with a diabetic phenotype suggestive of MIDD. From 1989 to 2009, we clinically diagnosed mitochondrial diabetes in 11 diabetic children. Diagnosis was based on the presence of one or more of the following criteria: 1) maculopathy; 2) hearing impairment; 3) maternal heritability of diabetes/impaired fasting glucose and/or hearing impairment and/or maculopathy in three consecutive generations (or in two generations if 2 or 3 members of a family were affected). We sequenced the mtDNA in the 11 probands, in their mothers and in 80 controls. We identified 33 diabetes-suspected mutations, 1/33 was 3243A>G. Most patients (91%) and their mothers had mutations in complex I and/or IV of the respiratory chain. We measured the activity of these two enzymes and found that they were less active in mutated patients and their mothers than in the healthy control pool. The prevalence of hearing loss (36% vs 75-98%) and macular dystrophy (54% vs 86%) was lower in our mitochondrial diabetic adolescents than reported in adults. Moreover, we found a hitherto unknown association between mitochondrial diabetes and celiac disease. In conclusion, mitochondrial diabetes should be considered a complex syndrome with several phenotypic variants. Moreover, deafness is not an essential component of the disease in children. The whole mtDNA should be screened because the 3243A>G variant is not as frequent in children as in adults. In fact, 91% of our patients were mutated in the complex I and/or IV genes. The enzymatic assay may be a useful tool with which to confirm the pathogenic significance of detected variants.

  11. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children

    PubMed Central

    KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; BAKHSHANDEH BALI, Mohammad Kazem; NASEHI, Mohammad Mehdi; TAHERI OTAGHSARA, Seyyed Mohaddeseh; Ghofrani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Objective Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy that occurs mostly after prior infection. The diagnosis of this syndrome is dependent heavily on the history and examination, although cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrodiagnostic testing usually confirm the diagnosis. This is a retrospective study which was performed to investigate the atypical features of GBS. Materials & Methods Thirty three patients (21/63.6% males and 12/36.4% females) with GBS were retrospectively studied and prospectively evaluated at the Child Neurology institute of Mofid Children Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences between May 2011 and September 2012. Results The mean age was 5.4 years (range, 1.5-10.5).Twenty one patients (87.9%) had previous history of infections. Eight patients (24.2%) admitted with atypical symptoms like upper limb weakness (3%), ptosis (3%), neck stiffness (3%), inability to stand (proximal weakness) (9.1%), headache (3%) and dysphagia (3%).According to disease process, weakness was ascending in 26 (78.8%), descending in 5 (15.2%) and static in 2 (6.1%) patients. Cranial nerve involvement was found in 8(24.3%) children, most commonly as facial palsy in 3 (9.1%). Conclusion In this study, 24.3% of our patients presented with atypical symptoms of GBS as upper limb weakness, ptosis, neck stiffness, inability to stand (proximal weakness), headache and dysphagia. PMID:24665275

  12. Lexical Development in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Lu, Ying; Kan, Pui Fong

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of Mandarin-English bilingual children (3-5-year-olds, 6-8-year-olds) participated in a picture identification task and a picture naming task in both languages. Results revealed age-related growth in English, but not Mandarin vocabulary. Composite vocabulary was larger than either single-language vocabulary in the younger children but…

  13. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  14. It Is All Relative: How Young Children Encode Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments tested the ability of 4- and 8-year-old children to encode the extent of a target dowel and later discriminate between the target and a foil having a novel extent. By manipulating the heights of containers in which we presented the stimuli we tested whether children used the relation between the dowels and containers for encoding…

  15. Spatial Training Improves Children's Mathematics Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether mental rotation training improved math performance in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were pretested on a range of number and math skills. Then one group received a single session of mental rotation training using an object completion task that had previously improved spatial ability in children this age (Ehrlich, Levine, &…

  16. Children's Preference for Social Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jennifer L.; Bloom, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have proposed theories to explain the appeal of fictional stories, but relatively little research has examined this issue from a developmental perspective. Here, we investigate the role that social and mental content play in attracting children to stories. In Experiment 1, 4- to 8-year-old children preferred stories that contained…

  17. How Children Use Examples to Make Conditional Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments explored children's and adults' use of examples to make conditional predictions. In Experiment 1 adults (N = 20) but not 4-year-olds (N = 21) or 8-year-olds (N =1 8) distinguished predictable from unpredictable features when features were partially correlated (e.g., necessary but not sufficient). Children did make reliable…

  18. Spatial Deficit in Familial Left-Handed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Eme, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The study evaluated the hypothesis that familial left-handed children, who presumably have bilateral representation of language ability, should show an impairment in spatial abiblity on 44 children (22 right handed, 11 familial left handed, and 11 nonfamilial left handed) whose average age was 8 years old. (Author/PHR)

  19. Normal Rates of Neuroradiological Findings in Children with High Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ranta, Marin; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Pinto, Pedro S.; Tillman, Rachael M.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to analyze highly specific volumetric and morphological features of the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, there are few comprehensive studies examining the prevalence of neuroradiologic findings seen on routine MRI scans in children with ASD. This study examined the prevalence of neuroradiologic findings in children with high functioning ASD, and compared these rates to those in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children who are typically developing (TD). Results showed that approximately 90% of children had normal MRI scans. There was no significant effect of diagnosis on the total number of neuroradiological findings or the number of specific brain findings. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:22105143

  20. Interactions between Knowledge and Testimony in Children's Reality-Status Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Mobilia, Gabriel; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2 studies, we attempted to capture the information-processing abilities underlying children's reality-status judgments. Forty 5- to 6-year-olds and 53 7- to 8-year-olds heard about novel entities (animals) that varied in their fit with children's world knowledge. After hearing about each entity, children could either guess reality status…

  1. TV's Influence on Children: The Long and the Short of It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorn, Gerald J.; Goldberg, Marvin E.

    This study was conducted in order to assess the link between exposure to television advertising for snack foods and children's actual snack choices. One hundred and forty 5-to 8-year-old low income children attending summer camp were randomly divided into two experimental groups each of which contained equal numbers of younger and older children.…

  2. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-12-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals.

  3. Biases in Children's and Adults' Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nina L.; Derbyshire, Stuart W. G.; Guttentag, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined biases in children's (5/6- and 7/8-year-olds) and adults' moral judgments. Participants at all ages judged that it was worse to produce harm when harm occurred (a) through action rather than inaction (omission bias), (b) when physical contact with the victim was involved (physical contact principle), and (c) when the harm…

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old.

  5. Spanking children: the controversies, findings, and new directions.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Kazdin, Alan E

    2003-03-01

    The use of spanking as a discipline technique is quite prevalent, even though whether or not to spank children is controversial among lay and professional audiences alike. Considerable research on the topic has been analyzed in several reviews of the literature that often reach different and sometimes opposite conclusions. Opposing conclusions are not inherently problematic as research develops in an area. However, we propose that both methodological limitations of the research to date as well as the limited focus of the research questions have prevented a better understanding of the impact of parental spanking on child development. The purpose of this article is to convey the basis for limited progress to date and, more importantly, to reformulate the research agenda. The goal is to move toward a resolution of the most relevant questions to parents, professionals, and policymakers. We propose an expanded research agenda that addresses the goals of parental discipline, the direct and concomitant effects of spanking, the influences that foster and maintain the use of spanking, and the processes through which spanking operates.

  6. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  7. The Effectiveness of Supermarket Posters in Helping to Find Missing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampinen, James Michael; Arnal, Jack; Hicks, Jason L.

    2009-01-01

    One approach used to help find missing children is to place posters of them at the exits of supermarkets. The present research addresses the question of how effective that approach is likely to be. Posters of 8 missing children were displayed on a bulletin board at a cooperating grocery store. Customers leaving the store completed a survey and…

  8. Home Literacy Environments of Young Children with Down Syndrome: Findings from a Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lewis, Sandra; Whalon, Kelly; Dyrlund, Allison; McKenzie, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Early home literacy experiences, including parent--child book reading, account for a significant amount of children's later reading achievement. Yet there is a very limited research base about the home literacy environments and experiences of children with cognitive disabilities. The purpose of this study is to describe findings from a Web-based…

  9. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities. 300.131 Section 300.131 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility...

  10. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities. 300.131 Section 300.131 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility...

  11. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities. 300.131 Section 300.131 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility...

  12. Similarities and Differences between Children with and without Disabilities on Identified Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Diane C.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the types and proportions of identified clinical findings among children with and without disabilities. Using data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS), this study compared 7672 children aged 0 to 15 years (n=1067 with disabilities and n=6605 without disabilities) who were…

  13. The predominant forms of vertigo in children and their associated findings on balance function testing.

    PubMed

    McCaslin, Devin L; Jacobson, Gary P; Gruenwald, Jill M

    2011-04-01

    This article reports vestibular laboratory findings from the most common disorders known to cause dizziness and vertigo in children. Specific information regarding migraine, trauma, benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood, vestibular neuritis, and otitis media is reviewed, along with indications for balance function testing in children.

  14. Consequences of Family Literacy for Adults and Children: Some Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philliber, William W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from a family literacy program, called the Toyota Families for Learning Program, and compares it to data from programs that focus primarily on adults or on children, but not both. Discusses outcomes for adults, and outcomes for children, and finds results to be promising but not definitive. (SR)

  15. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. PMID:22138311

  16. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals.

  17. Production and On-Line Comprehension of Definiteness in English and Dutch by Monolingual and Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Vasic, Nada; Marinis, Theodoros; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    The present article examines production and on-line processing of definite articles in Turkish-speaking sequential bilingual children acquiring English and Dutch as second languages (L2) in the UK and in the Netherlands, respectively. Thirty-nine 6-8-year-old L2 children and 48 monolingual (L1) age-matched children participated in two separate…

  18. Young children's acceptance of within-species variation: Implications for essentialism and teaching evolution.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Natalie A; Kelemen, Deborah A

    2015-11-01

    Neglecting within-species variation plays a crucial role in students' misconceptions about adaptation by natural selection. Prior research on the development of this propensity suggests that this neglect is due to a strong early-arising essentialist bias to treat species as invariant. Across two studies, we examined the strength of this bias by exploring 5- and 6-year-olds' and 7- and 8-year-olds' assumptions about variation in contexts similar to those used in a recent early educational intervention teaching adaptation. In Study 1, children heard about fictitious animals' physical and behavioral traits and their beneficial functions. They then judged whether all other species members would vary or be invariant on those traits. Across age groups, children showed a marginal essentialist tendency to reject variation. In Study 2, the same method was used, but all references to beneficial trait functions were removed. The 5- and 6-year-olds' responding did not differ from Study 1, but the 7- and 8-year-olds' acceptance of variation increased to above chance rates. Parental religious and evolution beliefs correlated with younger children's responses but not with older children's responses. Together, the findings suggest that under certain facilitative contexts children display greater abilities to represent variation than assumptions of a robust and inflexible essentialist bias would predict. By 7 to 8 years of age, children displayed autonomy from their parents' beliefs and tended to expect variation. However, priming their teleological intuitions undermined their non-essentialist expectations. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed. PMID:26101878

  19. Young children can be taught basic natural selection using a picture-storybook intervention.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Deborah; Emmons, Natalie A; Seston Schillaci, Rebecca; Ganea, Patricia A

    2014-04-01

    Adaptation by natural selection is a core mechanism of evolution. It is also one of the most widely misunderstood scientific processes. Misconceptions are rooted in cognitive biases found in preschoolers, yet concerns about complexity mean that adaptation by natural selection is generally not comprehensively taught until adolescence. This is long after untutored theoretical misunderstandings are likely to have become entrenched. In a novel approach, we explored 5- to 8-year-olds' capacities to learn a basic but theoretically coherent mechanistic explanation of adaptation through a custom storybook intervention. Experiment 1 showed that children understood the population-based logic of natural selection and also generalized it. Furthermore, learning endured 3 months later. Experiment 2 replicated these results and showed that children understood and applied an even more nuanced mechanistic causal explanation. The findings demonstrate that, contrary to conventional educational wisdom, basic natural selection is teachable in early childhood. Theory-driven interventions using picture storybooks with rich explanatory structure are beneficial.

  20. Word Finding in Children and Adolescents with a History of Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Maureen

    1992-01-01

    Word finding in relation to brain injury is discussed for children and adolescents with unilateral congenital malformations of the brain, early hydrocephalus, childhood-acquired left hemisphere stroke, and acquired traumatic head injury. Studies examining the recovery of word-finding deficits after brain injury are discussed, along with…

  1. Children's and Young People's Reading in 2013: Findings from the 2013 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines findings about children's and young people's reading from our fourth annual literacy survey conducted in November/December 2013. 29,422 young people aged eight to 16 participated. Some of the key findings for 2013 include: (1) Levels of reading enjoyment have improved for the first time since 2005 (see Figure 2, p. 9); (2)…

  2. Sleep quantity, quality and optimism in children.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Räikkönen, Katri; Scheier, Michael F; Matthews, Karen A; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Komsi, Niina; Paavonen, Juulia E; Kajantie, Eero

    2011-03-01

    We tested the relationship of objectively measured sleep quantity and quality with positive characteristics of the child. Sleep duration, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were measured by an actigraph for an average of seven (range = 3-14) consecutive nights in 291 8-year-old children (standard deviation = 0.3 years). Children's optimism, self-esteem and social competence were rated by parents and/or teachers. Sleep duration showed a non-linear, reverse J-shaped relationship with optimism (P = 0.02), such that children with sleep duration in the middle of the distribution scored higher in optimism compared with children who slept relatively little. Shorter sleep latency was related to higher optimism (P = 0.01). The associations remained when adjusting for child's age, sex, body mass index, and parental level of education and optimism. In conclusion, sufficient sleep quantity and good sleep quality are related to children's positive characteristics. Our findings may inform why sleep quantity and quality and positive characteristics are associated with wellbeing in children.

  3. The Development of Children's Ability to Use Evidence to Infer Reality Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullos, Ansley; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    These studies investigate children's use of scientific reasoning to infer the reality status of novel entities. Four- to 8-year-olds heard about novel entities and were asked to infer their reality status from 3 types of evidence: supporting evidence, irrelevant evidence, and no evidence. Experiment 1 revealed that children used supporting versus…

  4. Assessment of Second Language Proficiency in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Clinical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing…

  5. Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

  6. Children's Recognition of Fairness and Others' Welfare in a Resource Allocation Task: Age Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns,…

  7. Is It Real or Is It Fiction? Children's Bias toward Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martarelli, Corinna S.; Mast, Fred W.

    2013-01-01

    Children aged 3 to 8 years old and adults were tested on a reality–fantasy distinction task. They had to judge whether particular entities were real or fantastical, and response times were collected. We further manipulated whether the entity is a specific character or a generic fantastical entity. The results indicate that children, unlike adults,…

  8. Aiming to Complete the Matrix: Eye-Movement Analysis of Processing Strategies in Children's Relational Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhe; Honomichl, Ryan; Kennedy, Diane; Tan, Enda

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines 5- to 8-year-old children's relation reasoning in solving matrix completion tasks. This study incorporates a componential analysis, an eye-tracking method, and a microgenetic approach, which together allow an investigation of the cognitive processing strategies involved in the development and learning of children's…

  9. Children's Response to First Dental Visit as a Function of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Console, Cara M.; Chambliss, Catherine A.

    This study was designed to identify the age at which children who are between 1 and 8 years old display the least anxiety during their first dental visit. Parents completed a survey that asked for the child's gender, age at first dental visit, and general reaction to the first visit. Children's reactions were classified as resistant, anxious,…

  10. What Children Recall about a Repeated Event When One Instance Is Different from the Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Deborah A.; Gordon, Heidi M.; Woiwod, Dayna M.; Price, Heather L.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined whether a memorable and unexpected change (deviation details) presented during 1 instance of a repeated event facilitated children's memory for that instance and whether a repeated event facilitated children's memory for deviation details. In Experiments 1 and 2, 8-year-olds (N = 167) watched 1 or 4 live magic shows.…

  11. ''It's Magic!'' the Effects of Presentation Modality on Children's Event Memory, Suggestibility, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Gelhaar, Tim; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of presentation modality (live, video, and slide show) on children's memory, suggestibility, recognition, and metamemorial monitoring processes. A total of 270 children in three age groups (5- and 6-year-olds, 7- and 8-year-olds, and 9- and 10-year-olds) watched a magic show and were questioned about it…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Performance on Simple Multiplication and Division Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Brauwer, Jolien; Fias, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the performance on simple multiplication and division problems of 8-year-old children longitudinally to determine the developmental trajectories of both operations. Twice a year, during 2 consecutive school years, children performed a multiplication and division verification task and a number-matching task. All effects…

  13. The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Resiliency and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark; Cumberland, Amanda; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Valiente, Carlos; Losoya, Andra H.; Guthrie, Vanna K.; Thompson, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The unique relations of effortful control and impulsivity to resiliency and adjustment were examined when children were 4.5 to 8 years old, and 2 years later. Parents and teachers reported on all constructs and children's attentional persistence was observed. In concurrent structural equation models, effortful control and impulsivity uniquely and…

  14. Emotion Discourse, Social Cognition, and Social Skills in Children with and without Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Bruce L.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parent-child emotion discourse, children's independent social information processing, and social skills outcomes in 146 families of 8-year-olds with and without developmental delays. Children's emergent social-cognitive understanding (internal state understanding, perspective taking, and causal reasoning and problem solving)…

  15. Open the Door Let's Explore: Neighborhood Field Trips for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redleaf, Rhoda

    Designed as a resource for teachers and parents, this guide contains activities to help children from 2 to 8 years old learn from neighborhood walks and field trips. Information is presented on: field trips as an approach to learning, learning processes of children, and techniques to make trips meaningful. Teaching material for each trip includes…

  16. Dialect Awareness and Lexical Comprehension of Mainstream American English in African American English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan; Gross, Megan; Chen, Jianshen; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Kaplan, David; Brown, Megan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationships among minority dialect use, language ability, and young African American English (AAE)-speaking children's understanding and awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE). Method: Eighty-three 4- to 8-year-old AAE-speaking children participated in 2 experimental tasks. One task…

  17. [A classification system of anogenital findings. A diagnostic tool in the assessment of sexually abused children].

    PubMed

    Myhre, A K; Berntzen, K; Selvaag, E; Normann, E K; Ruud, B; Borgen, G

    1998-01-10

    The assessment of suspected sexual child abuse demands teamwork where the paediatrician plays a central role. From a juridical point of view, the task of the paediatrician is to evaluate the anatomic, microbiologic and forensic medical findings. In 1995, in order to improve the quality of this work, Norwegian paediatricians established a peer review group which meets on a regular basis. Based on available literature and the experience of the individual members, a classification system for anogenital findings has been developed. The findings are divided into five classes. Class one comprises findings frequently seen in children who have not been abused. Class two comprises findings not considered to be normal, but for which there could be many different causes. Classes three, four and five represent findings which are increasingly predictive with respect to injury penetration or attempted penetration. Since our knowledge of anogenital anatomy in children who have not been abused is limited, our classification system should be updated regularly. PMID:9481915

  18. Children's and Young People's Reading Today: Findings from the 2011 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This research was funded by law firm Slaughter and May and carried out with 21,000 children and young people across the UK. One of its key findings is that children and young people are reading less as their lives get more crowded. In 2005 the researchers found that four young people in 10 read daily outside of class. This research carried out at…

  19. Young children's ability to recognize advertisements in web page designs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moondore; Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Blumberg, Fran

    2009-03-01

    Identifying what is, and what is not an advertisement is the first step in realizing that an advertisement is a marketing message. Children can distinguish television advertisements from programmes by about 5 years of age. Although previous researchers have investigated television advertising, little attention has been given to advertisements in other media, even though other media, especially the Internet, have become important channels of marketing to children. We showed children printed copies of invented web pages that included advertisements, half of which had price information, and asked the children to point to whatever they thought was an advertisement. In two experiments we tested a total of 401 children, aged 6, 8, 10 and 12 years of age, from the United Kingdom and Indonesia. Six-year-olds recognized a quarter of the advertisements, 8-year-olds recognized half the advertisements, and the 10- and 12-year-olds recognized about three-quarters. Only the 10- and 12-year-olds were more likely to identify an advertisement when it included a price. We contrast our findings with previous results about the identification of television advertising, and discuss why children were poorer at recognizing web page advertisements. The performance of the children has implications for theories about how children develop an understanding of advertising. PMID:19972663

  20. Young children's ability to recognize advertisements in web page designs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moondore; Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Blumberg, Fran

    2009-03-01

    Identifying what is, and what is not an advertisement is the first step in realizing that an advertisement is a marketing message. Children can distinguish television advertisements from programmes by about 5 years of age. Although previous researchers have investigated television advertising, little attention has been given to advertisements in other media, even though other media, especially the Internet, have become important channels of marketing to children. We showed children printed copies of invented web pages that included advertisements, half of which had price information, and asked the children to point to whatever they thought was an advertisement. In two experiments we tested a total of 401 children, aged 6, 8, 10 and 12 years of age, from the United Kingdom and Indonesia. Six-year-olds recognized a quarter of the advertisements, 8-year-olds recognized half the advertisements, and the 10- and 12-year-olds recognized about three-quarters. Only the 10- and 12-year-olds were more likely to identify an advertisement when it included a price. We contrast our findings with previous results about the identification of television advertising, and discuss why children were poorer at recognizing web page advertisements. The performance of the children has implications for theories about how children develop an understanding of advertising.

  1. MRI findings and sleep apnea in children with Chiari I malformation.

    PubMed

    Khatwa, Umakanth; Ramgopal, Sriram; Mylavarapu, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Smith, Edward; Proctor, Mark; Scott, Michael; Pai, Vidya; Zarowski, Marcin; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-04-01

    Chiari I malformation is characterized by downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Scant data are available on the clinical course, relationship to the extent of herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in Chiari I malformation and the presence of sleep-disordered breathing on polysomnography. Retrospective analysis was performed looking at polysomnographic findings of children diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. Details on how Chiari I malformation was diagnosed, brainstem magnetic resonance imaging findings, and indications for obtaining the polysomnogram in these patients were reviewed. We also reviewed available data on children who had decompression surgery followed by postoperative polysomnography findings. Twenty-two children were identified in our study (11 males, median age 10 years, range 1 to 18). Three had central sleep apnea, five had obstructive sleep apnea, and one had both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Children with sleep-disordered breathing had excessive crowding of the brainstem structures at the foramen magnum and were more likely to have a greater length of herniation compared with those children without sleep-disordered breathing (P = 0.046). Patients with central sleep apneas received surgical decompression, and their conditions were significantly improved on follow-up polysomnography. These data suggest that imaging parameters may correlate with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Chiari I malformation.

  2. Sentence Interpretation by Typically Developing Vietnamese-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    We examined developing bilinguals' use of animacy and word order cues during sentence interpretation tasks administered in each of their languages. Participants were 6- to 8-year-old children who learned Vietnamese as a first language and English as a second language (n = 23). Participants listened to simple sentences and identified the agent or…

  3. Audiovisual Integration in Noise by Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barutchu, Ayla; Danaher, Jaclyn; Crewther, Sheila G.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multisensory facilitation in primary school-age children under conditions of auditory noise. Motor reaction times and accuracy were recorded from 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults during auditory, visual, and audiovisual detection tasks. Auditory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 30-,…

  4. Young Children's Memory for the Times of Personal Past Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Larkina, Marina; Burch, Melissa M.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Remembering the temporal information associated with personal past events is critical for autobiographical memory, yet we know relatively little about the development of this capacity. In the present research, we investigated temporal memory for naturally occurring personal events in 4-, 6-, and 8-year-old children. Parents recorded unique events…

  5. Coordination of Executive Functions in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of 8-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual completed a complex classification task in which they made semantic judgments on stimuli that were presented either visually or auditorily. The task requires coordinating a variety of executive control components, specifically working memory, inhibition, and shifting. When each of…

  6. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N = 68)…

  7. Bidirectional Interference between Timing and Concurrent Memory Processing in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattat, Anne-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of resources involved in duration processing in 5- and 8-year-olds. The children were asked to reproduce the duration of a visual or auditory stimulus. They performed this task either alone or concurrently with an executive task (Experiment 1) or with a digit or visuospatial memory task (Experiment 2). The…

  8. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings.

  9. Validating the Children's Behavior Questionnaire in Dutch Children: Psychometric Properties and a Cross-Cultural Comparison of Factor Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Candel, Math J. J. M.; De Vries, Nanne N. K.; Thijs, Carel

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examined the factorial validity of the Dutch translation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) and the Very Short Form scores. In addition, we conducted cross-cultural comparisons of temperament structure. In total, 353 parents of 6- to 8-year-olds completed the instrument. The original higher order factor structure of…

  10. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-28

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children.

  11. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  12. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-28

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children. PMID:27093345

  13. Refractive errors and ocular findings in children with intellectual disability: A controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Akinci, Arsen; Oner, Ozgur; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Guven, Alev; Degerliyurt, Aydan; Munir, Kerim

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the ocular findings and refractive errors in children with intellectual disability and in controls of average intellectual development of similar socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS The study was conducted at Diskapi Children’s Hospital in Ankara, Turkey: 724 subjects with intellectual disability and 151 control subjects were evaluated. The subjects with intellectual disability were subdivided into mild (IQ 50–69, n = 490), moderate (IQ 35–49, n = 164), and severe (IQ <34, n = 70) groups, and syndromic (n = 138) versus nonsyndromic (n = 586) disability. All children underwent cycloplegic autorefraction or retinoscopy, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and dilated fundus examination. Ocular alignment was assessed by Hirschberg, Krimsky, or prism cover test. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of refractive errors and ocular findings. RESULTS Seventy-seven percent of subjects with intellectual disability, and 42.4% of controls, had ocular findings. The children with intellectual disability had significantly more nystagmus, strabismus, astigmatism, and hypermetropia than controls. Children with syndromic intellectual disability had significantly more nystagmus, strabismus, astigmatism, and hypermetropia than subjects with nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Increasing severity of intellectual disability was related to higher prevalence of nystagmus, strabismus, astigmatism, hypermetropia, and anisometropia. CONCLUSIONS From a public health perspective, evaluation and treatment of ocular and refractive findings in children with moderate, severe, and syndromic intellectual disability categories is urgently needed and likely to be highly effective in alleviating future health and social care costs, as well as improving the productive lives of individuals with intellectual disability. PMID:18595752

  14. Finding Federal Money for Children's Services: Financing Services for Children through Title XX and Other Programs. Manual 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William C.

    This is the first manual of a 4-part series on how to find, obtain, contract for and manage Federal money for children's services. The first manual concentrates on ways to locate funds for new and existing programs. Emphasis is on Title XX of the Social Security Act, but attention is given also to alternative sources where Title XX funds are not…

  15. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach – Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom’ teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. Results: The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development. PMID:27512323

  16. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  17. Epistemologies in the Text of Children's Books: Native-and Non-Native-Authored Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehghani, Morteza; Bang, Megan; Medin, Douglas; Marin, Ananda; Leddon, Erin; Waxman, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    An examination of artifacts provides insights into the goals, practices, and orientations of the persons and cultures who created them. Here, we analyze storybook texts, artifacts that are a part of many children's lives. We examine the stories in books targeted for 4-8-year-old children, contrasting the texts generated by Native American…

  18. Academic Outcomes for School-Aged Children with Severe-Profound Hearing Loss and Early Unilateral and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarant, Julia Z.; Harris, David C.; Bennet, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to (a) determine whether academic outcomes for children who received early cochlear implants (CIs) are age appropriate, (b) determine whether bilateral CI use significantly improves academic outcomes, and (c) identify other factors that are predictive of these outcomes. Method: Forty-four 8-year-old children with…

  19. Methods of, and Reasons for, Emotional Expression and Control in Children with Internalizing, Externalizing, and Somatic Problems in Urban India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Martini, Tanya S.; Raval, Pratiksha H.

    2010-01-01

    Although cross-cultural research concerning children's emotions is growing, few studies have examined emotion dysregulation in culturally diverse populations. This study compared 6- to 8-year-old children's reported methods of expressing and controlling anger, sadness, and physical pain, and their justifications for doing so across four groups in…

  20. Getting Children to Do More Academic Work: Foot-in-the-Door versus Door-in-the-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Annie Cheuk-ying; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2011-01-01

    In this study we explored whether compliance-without-pressure techniques, known to encourage adults to behave more altruistically, can be used to encourage children to do more academic work. Using three different approaches--Foot-in-the-Door, Door-in-the-Face, and Single-Request--we asked 60 6- to 8-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children to complete…

  1. The Association between Academic Self-Beliefs and Reading Achievement among Children at Risk of Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn; Russell, Dan; Kearns, Norean; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; Canavan, John; Devaney, Carmel; O'Brien, Aoife

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates whether children's academic self-beliefs are associated with reading achievement and whether the relationship is modified by gender and/or age. Data were collected from children at risk of reading failure, that is, emergent readers (6- to 8-year-olds) in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas reading at a level below…

  2. Sex-specific association between infant diet and white matter integrity in 8-y-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate brain white matter integrity in 8-year-old children who had predominant breast milk feeding or formula feeding as infants. Fifty-six healthy children were included in this study, including 22 breast-fed (BF, 12 females, 10 males) and 34 formula-fed (FF, 18 f...

  3. Cystic and cavitary lung lesions in children: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Odev, Kemal; Guler, Ibrahim; Altinok, Tamer; Pekcan, Sevgi; Batur, Abdussamed; Ozbiner, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc.), hydatid cysts, destroid lung, and traumatic pseudocyst. For the evaluation of cystic or cavitary lung lesion in infants and children, imaging plays an important role in accurate early diagnosis and optimal patient management. Therefore, a practical imaging approach based on the most sensitive and least invasive imaging modality in an efficient and cost-effective manner is paramount. We reviewed the conventional radiographs and computed tomography findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions in infants and children. PMID:24605255

  4. Oral Reading Skills of Children with Oral Language (Word-Finding) Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Diane J.; Newman, Rochelle S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined how children with and without oral language (word-finding) difficulties (WFD) perform on oral reading (OR) versus silent reading recognition (SRR) tasks when reading the same words and how lexical factors influenced OR accuracy, error patterns, and nature of miscues. Primary-grade students were administered an experimental reading…

  5. Normal Rates of Neuroradiological Findings in Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasa, Roma A.; Ranta, Marin; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Pinto, Pedro S.; Tillman, Rachael M.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to analyze highly specific volumetric and morphological features of the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, there are few comprehensive studies examining the prevalence of neuroradiologic findings seen on routine MRI scans in children with ASD. This study examined the…

  6. Self-Regulation across Different Contexts: Findings in Young Albanian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Uka, Fitim; Larsen, Ross A. A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The importance of self-regulation for children's successful academic performance has led to greatly increased interest in this topic in recent years. However, less is known about the interrelations among self-regulatory processes across different contexts. The present study investigated the structure of self-regulation in young…

  7. Elevated titanium levels in Iraqi children with neurodevelopmental disorders echo findings in occupation soldiers.

    PubMed

    Savabieasfahani, M; Alaani, S; Tafash, M; Dastgiri, S; Al-Sabbak, M

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic release of pollutants into the environment is especially harmful to growing fetuses and young children. These populations are at an increased risk of damage because exposure to pollutants during critical periods of development can cause many impairments. Children's exposure to mixtures of metals could be responsible for the rising numbers of neurological disorders surfacing in Iraqi children. Titanium (Ti) and magnesium (Mg) are heavily used in war industries. Exposure to Ti and Mg has been linked to the dust in occupation soldiers' lungs. Hair samples of children in Hawija, Iraq (n = 13) contained significantly higher levels of Ti compared to Iranian children (n = 13) living near the Iraqi border (2080 ± 940 vs 707 ± 421 μg/kg, p < 0.0001). Magnesium was 1.7 times higher in Hawija children compared to Iranian children (115,763 ± 118,155 vs 67,650 ± 46,729 μg/kg). In samples from Hawija, Ti was 1.3 times higher in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (2198 ± 1108 vs 1942 ± 779 μg/kg), and Mg was 1.9 times higher in children without neurodevelopmental disorders (155,618 ± 140,791 vs 81,602 ± 91,940 μg/kg). Lead, arsenic, and cadmium in Hawija children with neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 6) were 2.5, 2.2, and 1.37 times higher compared to non-disabled children (n = 7). To get a clear understanding of the current status of neurodevelopmental disorders in Iraqi children and to determine the magnitude of this suspected global health issue, registries should be set up to compile and aggregate data from hospitals, clinics, and health centers across the country. Functional registries can develop collaborations with researchers toward finding causes of these disorders in Iraqi children and toward preventing them. PMID:25446717

  8. Returning incidental findings from genetic research to children: views of parents of children affected by rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kleiderman, Erika; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Fernandez, Conrad V; Boycott, Kym M; Ouellette, Gail; Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Adam, Shelin; Richer, Julie; Avard, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore parental perceptions and experiences regarding the return of genomic incidental research findings in children with rare diseases. Methods Parents of children affected by various rare diseases were invited to participate in focus groups or individual telephone interviews in Montreal and Ottawa. Fifteen participants were interviewed and transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Four emergent themes underscored parental enthusiasm for receiving incidental findings concerning their child's health: (1) right to information; (2) perceived benefits and risks; (3) communication practicalities: who, when, and how; and (4) service needs to promote the communication of incidental findings. Parents believed they should be made aware of all results pertaining to their child's health status, and that they are responsible for transmitting this information to their child, irrespective of disease severity. Despite potential negative consequences, respondents generally perceived a favourable risk-benefit ratio in receiving all incidental findings. Conclusions Understanding how parents assess the risks and benefits of returning incidental findings is essential to genomic research applications in paediatric medicine. The authors believe the study findings will contribute to establishing future best practices, although further research is needed to evaluate the impact of parental decisions on themselves and their child. PMID:24356209

  9. Physical Examination Findings Among Children and Adolescents With Obesity: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Sarah; Lazorick, Suzanne; Hampl, Sarah; Skelton, Joseph A; Wood, Charles; Collier, David; Perrin, Eliana M

    2016-02-01

    Overweight and obesity affects 1 in 3 US children and adolescents. Clinical recommendations have largely focused on screening guidelines and counseling strategies. However, the physical examination of the child or adolescent with obesity can provide the clinician with additional information to guide management decisions. This expert-based review focuses on physical examination findings specific to children and adolescents with obesity. For each physical examination element, the authors define the finding and its prevalence among pediatric patients with obesity, discuss the importance and relevance of the finding, describe known techniques to assess severity, and review evidence regarding the need for additional evaluation. The recommendations presented represent a comprehensive review of current evidence as well as expert opinion. The goal of this review is to highlight the importance of conducting a targeted physical examination during pediatric weight management visits.

  10. Perianal findings in prepubertal children selected for nonabuse: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    McCann, J; Voris, J; Simon, M; Wells, R

    1989-01-01

    The results of the perianal portion of a project designed to collect normative data of the anogenital anatomy from a representative sample of prepubertal children is presented. A total of 318 children were examined by three physicians from a child sexual abuse evaluation program. After screening for the onset of puberty and the possibility of undetected abuse, 267 subjects remained. The sample included 161 girls and 106 boys ranging in age from 2 months to 11 years. The perianal findings that were encountered with the greatest frequency included erythema (41%), increased pigmentation (30%), and venous engorgement (52%) after two minutes in the knee-chest position. Wedge-shaped smooth areas in the midline, with or without depressions, were found both anterior and posterior to the anus in 26% of the children. Anal skin tags/folds were discovered anterior to the anus in 11%. In 49% of the children there was some dilatation of the anus which opened and closed intermittently in 62%. Flattening of the anal verge and rugae occurred during dilatation by the midpoint of the examination in 44% and 34%, respectively. Perianal findings that were found infrequently in all subgroups included skin tags/folds (0%) and scars (1%) outside the midline, anal dilatation greater than 20 mm without the presence of stool in the rectal ampulla (1.2%), irregularity of the anal orifice after complete dilatation (3%), and prominence of the anal verge (3%). No abrasions, hematomas, fissures, or hemorrhoids were encountered. Less commonly detected findings within specific subgroups included perianal erythema in girls (32%) as compared to boys (57%), pigmentation in the lighter skinned white children (22%) when compared to black (53%) and Hispanic (58%) children, and venous congestion at the beginning of the examination (7%) when compared to the same findings after four minutes in the knee-chest position (73%). There were no perianal skin tags/folds found in the boys. The relatively high

  11. Computed tomographic findings in children with spastic diplegia: correlation with the severity of their motor abnormality.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, K; Horie, M; Inukai, K; Kito, H; Shimabukuro, S; Kodama, K

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomographic findings of 46 children with spastic diplegia examined at nine months to three years of age corrected for preterm births were analyzed. Both the size of the lateral ventricles measured by the width of the anterior horns, and the volume of the extracerebral low-density areas were enlarged in some patients. Both enlargements did not, however, correlate to the severity of the motor abnormality in the patients. The low-density areas of the periventricular white matter, especially adjacent to the trigone, were reduced in many children, probably due to the atrophy of the cerebral white matter having periventricular leukomalacia. The anterior expansion of the white matter reduction from the trigone corresponded to the severe motor abnormality in the children with spastic diplegia. PMID:2774092

  12. Effects of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Intervention Principles in Emergent Literacy in Children at Risk of Developmental Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Tjus, Tomas; Hovden, Marit; Ofte, Sonja; Heimann, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on the effects of two different principles of intervention in children at risk of developing dyslexia from 5 to 8 years old. The children were selected on the basis of a background questionnaire given to parents and preschool teachers, with cognitive and functional magnetic resonance imaging results substantiating…

  13. Testing for Near and Far Transfer Effects with a Short, Face-to-Face Adaptive Working Memory Training Intervention in Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy A.; Messer, David J.; Nash, Gilly

    2014-01-01

    A relatively quick, face-to-face, adaptive working memory training intervention was assessed in 5-to 8-year-old typically developing children, randomly allocated to a 6-week intervention condition, or an active control condition. All children received 18 sessions of 10?minutes, three times/week for 6?weeks. Assessments of six working memory…

  14. Voxel-based morphometry and fMRI revealed differences in brain gray matter in breastfed and milk formula–fed children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Purpose: Infant diets may have significant impact on brain development in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain grey matter structure and function in 8-year-old children who were predominantly breastfed (BF) or fed cow’s milk formula (MF) as infants. Materials and Me...

  15. Genetic polymorphisms affecting susceptibility to mercury neurotoxicity in children: summary findings from the Casa Pia Children's Amalgam clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Woods, James S; Heyer, Nicholas J; Russo, Joan E; Martin, Michael D; Farin, Federico M

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic, and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic predisposition. We examined the possibility that common genetic variants that are known to affect neurologic functions or Hg handling in adults would modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Three hundred thirty subjects who participated as children in the recently completed Casa Pia Clinical Trial of Dental Amalgams in Children were genotyped for 27 variants of 13 genes that are reported to affect neurologic functions and/or Hg disposition in adults. Urinary Hg concentrations, reflecting Hg exposure from any source, served as the Hg exposure index. Regression modeling strategies were employed to evaluate potential associations between allelic status for individual genes or combinations of genes, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes assessed at baseline and for 7 subsequent years during the clinical trial. Among boys, significant modification of Hg effects on neurobehavioral outcomes over a broad range of neurologic domains was observed with variant genotypes for 4 of 13 genes evaluated. Modification of Hg effects on a more limited number of neurobehavioral outcomes was also observed for variants of another 8 genes. Cluster analyses suggested some genes interacting in common processes to affect Hg neurotoxicity. In contrast, significant modification of Hg effects on neurobehavioral functions among girls with the same genotypes was substantially more limited. These observations suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children, particularly boys, with genetic variants that are relatively common to the general human population. These findings advance public health goals to identify factors underlying susceptibility to Hg toxicity and may contribute to strategies for preventing

  16. Research on the Caretaking of Children of Incarcerated Parents: Findings and Their Service Delivery Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Thomas E.; Carswell, Steven B.; Rose, Marc

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research findings on caretaking-related problems associated with the absence of parents from the home following incarceration. It focuses on the impact of incarceration on the welfare and adjustment of urban African American children and on the assumption of caretaking responsibilities by other caretakers, principally maternal grandmothers. Noting the complex situational difficulties involved and the potential burdens associated with surrogate parenting in general, and with this population in particular, the service-provider implications of this parenting arrangement are considered in this review. Findings indicate that problems associated with incarceration of parents tend to be intergenerational and vary considerably in complexity and severity. To the extent that they impact the children involved, these issues should be addressed in coordinated service delivery focusing on prevention. PMID:18311320

  17. Is Children's Naive Knowledge Consistent?: A Comparison of the Concepts of Sound and Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautrey, Jacques; Mazens, Karine

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed some light on the organization of naive knowledge, and on the process of conceptual change in everyday physics, more specifically regarding the concepts of sound and heat. Eighty-three 8-year-old children were interviewed individually in order to see if they attributed the properties of objects (such as…

  18. "Who Is Worthy of My Generosity?" Recipient Characteristics and the Development of Children's Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Ongley, Sophia; Chaparro, Maria; Nola, Marta; Bae, Na Young

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the majority of 8-year-old children share valuable resources equally with others, whereas 4-year-olds are more likely to favor themselves in their sharing allocations. In this study, we examine whether these patterns of sharing behavior are affected by the needs of the recipient or by the recipient's previous moral…

  19. A Study of Arithmetical Problem Solving Abilities of Young Children through the Use of Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNicol, Shirley; And Others

    A study was conducted to: (1) observe through a case study approach the exploratory behavior exhibited by 8-year-old boys and girls when calculators were made available in problem-solving situations; (2) investigate changes that occur in the kinds of arithmetical problems children construct following the introduction of calculators; and (3)…

  20. Physical Activity of Children Ages 6-8: The Beginning of School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromel, Karel; Stelzer, Jiri; Groffik, Dorota; Ernest, James

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the physical activity (PA) levels of 6- to 8-year-old children over a seven-day period. The participants consisted of 35 girls and 36 boys in kindergarten and 113 girls and 131 boys in 1st grade. Physical activity (PA) is defined as "any body movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy expenditure" and…

  1. A New Look at Children's Understanding of Mind and Emotion: The Case of Prayer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Christi; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple methods were used to examine children's awareness of connections between emotion and prayer. Four-, 6-, and 8-year-olds and adults (N = 100) predicted whether people would pray when feeling different emotions, explained why characters in different situations decided to pray, and predicted whether characters' emotions would change after…

  2. I Can Talk You into It: Theory of Mind and Persuasion Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Moore, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We investigated links between persuasive behavior and theory of mind (ToM) understanding using a novel naturalistic peer persuasion task in which children were invited to convince an interactive puppet to eat raw broccoli or brush his teeth. Sixty-three 3- to 8-year-olds (M age = 6 years, 6 months) took part in the persuasion task and were also…

  3. Young Children's Ideas about the Nature, Causes, Justification, and Alleviation of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A.; Neitzel, Carin

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-four 8-year-old boys and girls from urban and rural settings and representing different races and socioeconomic status backgrounds responded to questions about the nature, causes, justification, and alleviation of poverty. Much of what the children said indicated that they had not yet internalized prevailing adult norms and values about the…

  4. Creative Play Activities for Children with Disabilities: A Resource Book for Teachers and Parents. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lisa Rappaport; Schulz, Linda

    This book provides 250 games and activities designed to help infants to 8-year-olds with all types of disabilities grow through play. Many activities come with special adaptations for children with physical, visual, hearing, emotional, and cognitive impairments. Each chapter focuses on a particular "world" or activity theme. Topics of individual…

  5. Treating Children With Early-Onset Conduct Problems: Intervention Outcomes for Parent, Child, and Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Hammond, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Families of 159, 4- to 8-year-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were randomly assigned to parent training (PT); parent plus teacher training (PT + TT); child training (CT); child plus teacher training (CT + TT); parent, child, plus teacher training (PT + CT + TT); or a waiting list control. Reports and independent observations…

  6. Structural brain imaging in children and adolescents following prenatal cocaine exposure: preliminary longitudinal findings.

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Kekatpure, Minal V; Liu, Jie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Quinn, Brian T; Lala, Meenakshi D; Kennedy, David; Makris, Nikos; Lester, Barry M; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    The brain morphometry of 21 children, who were followed from birth and underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 8-10 years, was studied. This cohort included 11 children with prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and 10 noncocaine-exposed children (NCE). We compared the CE versus NCE groups using FreeSurfer to automatically segment and quantify the volume of individual brain structures. In addition, we created a pediatric atlas specifically for this population and demonstrate the enhanced accuracy of this approach. We found an overall trend towards smaller brain volumes among CE children. The volume differences were significant for cortical gray matter, the thalamus and the putamen. Here, reductions in thalamic and putaminal volumes showed a robust inverse correlation with exposure levels, thus highlighting effects on dopamine-rich brain regions that form key components of brain circuitry known to play important roles in behavior and attention. Interestingly, head circumferences (HCs) at birth as well as at the time of imaging showed a tendency for smaller size among CE children. HCs at the time of imaging correlated well with the cortical volumes for all subjects. In contrast, HCs at birth were predictive of the cortical volume only for the CE group. A subgroup of these subjects (6 CE, 4 NCE) was also scanned at 13-15 years of age. In subjects who were scanned twice, we found that the trend for smaller structures continued into teenage years. We found that the differences in structural volumes between the CE and NCE groups are largely diminished when the HCs are controlled for or matched by study design. Participants in this study were drawn from a unique longitudinal cohort and, while the small sample size precludes strong conclusions regarding the longitudinal findings reported, the results point to reductions in HCs and in specific brain structures that persist through teenage years in children who were exposed to cocaine in utero. PMID:24994509

  7. Subclinical fungal endometritis in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical endometritis are leading causes of reduced reproductive efficiency in the mare. Clinical endometritis is relatively easy to diagnose during routine physical and ultrasonographic reproductive examinations, whereas the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis requires a more detailed work-up. The goal of this paper is to review the various options, and describe the regimen chosen in a mare with subclinical fungal endometritis. PMID:22851785

  8. Face Adaptation and Attractiveness Aftereffects in 8-Year-Olds and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lackner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    A novel method was used to investigate developmental changes in face processing: attractiveness aftereffects. Consistent with the norm-based coding model, viewing consistently distorted faces shifts adults' attractiveness preferences toward the adapting stimuli. Thus, adults' attractiveness judgments are influenced by a continuously updated face…

  9. Challenges of banding jejunal varices in an 8-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Belsha, Dalia; Thomson, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Endoscoic variceal ligation (EVL) by the application of bands on small bowel varices is a relatively rare procedure in gastroenterology and hepatology. There are no previously reported paediatric cases of EVL for jejunal varices. We report a case of an eight-year-old male patient with a complex surgical background leading to jejunal varices and short bowel syndrome, presenting with obscure but profound acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Wireless capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) confirmed jejunal varices as the source of bleeding. The commercially available variceal banding devices are not long enough to be used either with DBE or with push enteroscopes. With the use of an operating gastroscope, four bands were placed successfully on the afferent and efferent ends of the leads of the 2 of the varices. Initial hemostasis was achieved with obliteration of the varices after three separate applications. This case illustrates the feasibility of achieving initial hemostasis in the pediatric population. PMID:26722617

  10. Ferritin Levels in Colombian Children: Findings from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey (ENSIN)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martínez-Torres, Javier; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Low ferritin is associated with many adverse health outcomes and is highly prevalent worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the key findings related to plasma ferritin levels to identify the prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in a representative sample of children in Colombia, based on the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6650 Colombian children between the ages of 5 and 12. Plasma ferritin levels were determined by chemiluminescence. Sociodemographic data was assessed by computer-assisted personal interview technology. All analyses were conducted considering the complex nature of the sample. Of the children assessed, 3.5% had low ferritin, defined as levels <12 µg/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed increased risks for low ferritin levels among black or Afro-Colombian ethnic group and for those living in the northern, western and southern regions of the country. In conclusion, a significant prevalence of anemia caused by low ferritin levels was found and various sociodemographic factors were associated with this finding in Colombia. Continued surveillance and implementation of interventions to improve dietary patterns among the identified high-risk groups should be considered. Implementing these recommendations can help reduce manifestations of iron deficiency (e.g., delays in infant and child development) and thus improve public health. PMID:27058547

  11. Ferritin Levels in Colombian Children: Findings from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey (ENSIN).

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martínez-Torres, Javier; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-04-01

    Low ferritin is associated with many adverse health outcomes and is highly prevalent worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the key findings related to plasma ferritin levels to identify the prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in a representative sample of children in Colombia, based on the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6650 Colombian children between the ages of 5 and 12. Plasma ferritin levels were determined by chemiluminescence. Sociodemographic data was assessed by computer-assisted personal interview technology. All analyses were conducted considering the complex nature of the sample. Of the children assessed, 3.5% had low ferritin, defined as levels <12 µg/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed increased risks for low ferritin levels among black or Afro-Colombian ethnic group and for those living in the northern, western and southern regions of the country. In conclusion, a significant prevalence of anemia caused by low ferritin levels was found and various sociodemographic factors were associated with this finding in Colombia. Continued surveillance and implementation of interventions to improve dietary patterns among the identified high-risk groups should be considered. Implementing these recommendations can help reduce manifestations of iron deficiency (e.g., delays in infant and child development) and thus improve public health. PMID:27058547

  12. [Neurological findings in a group of children and adolescents exposed and infected by HIV-1].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristiane; Gouvêa, Aída; Machado, Daisy; Cunegundes, Kelly; Beltrão, Suênia; Bononi, Fabiana; Succi, Regina Célia

    2005-09-01

    The CNS infection by HIV-1 in infancy could be present immediately after infection or became manifest later. Microcephalia, mental retardation, pyramidal signs, humor and behavioral disorders and antiretroviral therapy complications are common. This is an observational, sectional and descriptive study about findings on neurological examination of 173 patients in a group of children and adolescents infected and exposed to HIV-1 in perinatal period. Most of them had more than one neurological finding or different diagnosis. The more common findings were: encephalopathy, mental retardation, language delay, pyramidal signs, hyporeflexia. The neurological examination was abnormal in 67% of all patients even in seroreverters. We suggest that this group has a high risk to neurological disease and the development of co-morbidity is directly correlated to clinical deterioration by HIV-1 infection.

  13. Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities and computerised tomography findings in children with seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, J; Appleton, R E; Carty, H; Beirne, M; Acomb, B A

    1993-01-01

    A persistent focal abnormality was observed in 157 (16%) electroencephalograms undertaken in 964 consecutive children with epileptic and non-epileptic seizures seen over one year. CT head scans were performed in 121 (77%) of the 157 children with a focus on the EEG; 26 (21%) showed an abnormality, and 21 (81%) of the abnormalities were localised. There was no difference in the proportion of abnormal scans associated with a delta or slow wave focus compared with a spike or sharp wave focus. An abnormal scan was uncommon after a single seizure. In only two patients (1.7% of all scans) did the findings on CT alter or greatly influence subsequent management. PMID:8482957

  14. Relationships between children's exposure to ethnic produce and their dietary behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Zhao, Yanling

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined relationships between children's ethnic produce exposure and healthy dietary practices among Latino, Hmong and non-Hispanic white children. One hundred Latino, 100 Hmong, and 92 non-Hispanic white parents of children ages 5-8 years old in northern California completed a cross-sectional survey. Children's exposure to ethnic produce from Hmong and Latino cultures, overall fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food and ethnic restaurant use were measured. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare variables across different ethnic groups. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between variables. Children's overall ethnic produce exposure, as well as exposure to produce from other cultures, was significantly correlated with overall fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a marginal (p = 0.053) negative association between ethnic produce exposure and fast food restaurant use among Latino children. These findings suggest that promoting ethnic produce is an effective strategy for enhancing healthy dietary practices among children. PMID:24817576

  15. The Better Beginnings, Better Futures project: findings from grade 3 to grade 9.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ray DeV; Bradshaw, Alison J; Petrunka, Kelly; Nelson, Geoffrey; Herry, Yves; Craig, Wendy M; Arnold, Robert; Parker, Kevin C H; Khan, Shahriar R; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Pancer, S Mark; Loomis, Colleen; Bélanger, Jean-Marc; Evers, Susan; Maltais, Claire; Thompson, Katherine; Rossiter, Melissa D

    2010-12-01

    Although comprehensive and ecological approaches to early childhood prevention are commonly advocated, there are few examples of long-term follow-up of such programs. In this monograph, we investigate the medium- and long-term effects of an ecological, community-based prevention project for primary school children and families living in three economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Ontario, Canada. The Better Beginnings, Better Futures (BBBF) project is one of the most ambitious Canadian research projects on the long-term impacts of early childhood prevention programming to date. Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development informed program planning, implementation, and evaluation. Using a quasi-experimental design, the BBBF longitudinal research study involved 601 children and their families who participated in BBBF programs when children were between 4 and 8 years old and 358 children and their families from sociodemographically matched comparison communities. We collected extensive child, parent, family, and community outcome data when children were in Grade 3 (age 8–9), Grade 6 (age 11–12), and Grade 9 (age 14–15). The BBBF mandate was to develop programs that would positively impact all areas of child's development; our findings reflect this ecological approach. We found marked positive effects in social and school functioning domains in Grades 6 and 9 and evidence of fewer emotional and behavioral problems in school across the three grades. Parents from BBBF sites reported greater feelings of social support and more positive ratings of marital satisfaction and general family functioning, especially at the Grade 9 follow-up. Positive neighborhood-level effects were also evident. Economic analyses at Grade 9 showed BBBF participation was associated with government savings of $912 per child. These findings provide evidence that an affordable, ecological, community-based prevention program can promote long-term development of children living

  16. Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Preschool Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kia N.; Walden, Tedra A.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Emotional regulation of preschool children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) was assessed using a disappointing gift (DG) procedure (Cole, 1986; Saarni, 1984, 1992). Method Participants consisted of 16 3- to 5-year-old CWS and CWNS (11 boys and 5 girls in each talker group). After assessing each child’s knowledge of display rules about socially-appropriate expression of emotions, children participated in a DG procedure and received a desirable gift preceding a free-play task and a disappointing gift preceding a second free-play task. Dependent variables consisted of participants’ positive and negative expressive nonverbal behaviors exhibited during receipt of a desirable gift and disappointing gift, as well as conversational speech disfluencies exhibited following receipt of each gift. Results Findings indicated that CWS and CWNS exhibited no significant differences in amount of positive emotional expressions after receiving the desired gift; however, CWS, when compared to CWNS, exhibited more negative emotional expressions after receiving the undesirable gift. Furthermore, CWS were more disfluent after receiving the desired gift when compared to receiving the disappointing gift. Ancillary findings also indicated that CWS and CWNS had equivalent knowledge of display rules. Conclusion Findings suggest that efforts to concurrently regulate emotional behaviors and (non)stutterings may be problematic for preschool-age CWS. PMID:20643793

  17. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  18. Once in Contact, Always in Contact: Contagious Essence and Conceptions of Purification in American and Hindu Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejmadi, Ahalya; Rozin, Paul; Siegal, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Cultural and age differences in responses to contamination and conceptions of purification were examined in Hindu Indian (N = 125) and American (N = 106) 4- to 5-year-olds and 8-year-olds, who were provided with stories of juice contaminated by contact with a cockroach, a human hair, and a stranger (via sipping). Children who rejected the juice as…

  19. The Development of Memory Maintenance: Children's Use of Phonological Rehearsal and Attentional Refreshment in Working Memory Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Helen; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Past research suggests that children begin to phonologically rehearse at around 7 years of age. Less is known regarding the development of refreshment, an attention-based maintenance mechanism. Therefore, the use of these two maintenance methods by 6- and 8-year-olds was assessed using memory span tasks that varied in their opportunities for…

  20. Factors and processes in children's transitive deductions

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barlow C.; Smailes, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Transitive tasks are important for understanding how children develop socio-cognitively. However, developmental research has been restricted largely to questions surrounding maturation. We asked 6-, 7- and 8-year-olds (N = 117) to solve a composite of five different transitive tasks. Tasks included conditions asking about item-C (associated with the marked relation) in addition to the usual case of asking only about item-A (associated with the unmarked relation). Here, children found resolving item-C much easier than resolving item-A, a finding running counter to long-standing assumptions about transitive reasoning. Considering gender perhaps for the first time, boys exhibited higher transitive scores than girls overall. Finally, analysing in the context of one recent and well-specified theory of spatial transitive reasoning, we generated the prediction that reporting the full series should be easier than deducing any one item from that series. This prediction was not upheld. We discuss amendments necessary to accommodate all our earlier findings. PMID:26635950

  1. Clinical findings in children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure: a study of 38 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vendramini-Pittoli, Siulan; Guion-Almeida, Maria L.; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Santos, Juliana M.; Kokitsu-Nakata, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the clinical findings of 38 children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure. This study included 38 cases, ascertained from case series of the Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies from University of São Paulo, with evidence of intrauterine exposure to misoprostol in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Information about misoprostol intake and drug administration route was obtained through interviews with mothers. Clinical evaluation showed 18 individuals with facial phenotype compatible with Moebius syndrome; 11 individuals with multiple congenital anomalies; and nine individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate. This study showed a widening of the phenotypic spectrum associated with misoprostol embryotoxicity.

  2. Clinical findings in children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure: a study of 38 cases.

    PubMed

    Vendramini-Pittoli, Siulan; Guion-Almeida, Maria L; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Santos, Juliana M; Kokitsu-Nakata, Nancy M

    2013-12-01

    The authors describe the clinical findings of 38 children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure. This study included 38 cases, ascertained from case series of the Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies from University of São Paulo, with evidence of intrauterine exposure to misoprostol in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Information about misoprostol intake and drug administration route was obtained through interviews with mothers. Clinical evaluation showed 18 individuals with facial phenotype compatible with Moebius syndrome; 11 individuals with multiple congenital anomalies; and nine individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate. This study showed a widening of the phenotypic spectrum associated with misoprostol embryotoxicity. PMID:27625856

  3. Post intubation tracheal stenosis in children.

    PubMed

    Caruselli, Marco; Amici, Mirco; Galante, Dario; Paut, Olivier; De Francisci, Giovanni; Carboni, Laura

    2014-08-12

    Many authors have reported that tracheal stenosis is a complication that can follow tracheal intubation in both adults and children. The symptoms, when they do appear, can be confused with asthma, with subsequent treatment providing only mild and inconsistent relief. We report here the case of an 8 year old girl admitted to our hospital for whooping cough that was not responding to therapy. PMID:25635215

  4. Tympanometric Findings among Children with Adenoid Hypertrophy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Chibuike; Uju Ibekwe, Mathilda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is a common childhood disorder. Adenoid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME). The aim of this study is to critically appraise the tympanometric finding among children with adenoid hypertrophy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methodology. A Prospective, controlled study carried out among newly diagnosed cases of adenoid hypertrophy at the ENT clinic of the UPTH, between November 2014 and June 2015. Tympanometry was done on each child and each ear was considerably studied as a single entity. Types B and C tympanograms were used as indicators of OME. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. Sixty-eight cases of adenoid hypertrophy were seen within the study period and 136 ears were studied. Forty (29.4%) ears had type B tympanogram, while 36 (26.5%) ears had type C. The incidence of OME was 55.9%; there were 12 (17.6%) unilateral OME, while bilateral OME was 32 (47.1%). Grade 3 AH was prevalent and was statistically significant with the OME. Conclusion. This study had shown adenoidal hypertrophy as a significant risk factor for OME in children. There was more bilateral OME than unilateral. The more severe grade of AH was more prevalent and it was shown to be statistically significant with OME, thus being a significant risk factor for OME in children. This establishes the need for prompt hearing evaluation and management. PMID:27563311

  5. Tympanometric Findings among Children with Adenoid Hypertrophy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Chibuike; Uju Ibekwe, Mathilda; Obukowho Onotai, Lucky

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is a common childhood disorder. Adenoid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME). The aim of this study is to critically appraise the tympanometric finding among children with adenoid hypertrophy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methodology. A Prospective, controlled study carried out among newly diagnosed cases of adenoid hypertrophy at the ENT clinic of the UPTH, between November 2014 and June 2015. Tympanometry was done on each child and each ear was considerably studied as a single entity. Types B and C tympanograms were used as indicators of OME. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. Sixty-eight cases of adenoid hypertrophy were seen within the study period and 136 ears were studied. Forty (29.4%) ears had type B tympanogram, while 36 (26.5%) ears had type C. The incidence of OME was 55.9%; there were 12 (17.6%) unilateral OME, while bilateral OME was 32 (47.1%). Grade 3 AH was prevalent and was statistically significant with the OME. Conclusion. This study had shown adenoidal hypertrophy as a significant risk factor for OME in children. There was more bilateral OME than unilateral. The more severe grade of AH was more prevalent and it was shown to be statistically significant with OME, thus being a significant risk factor for OME in children. This establishes the need for prompt hearing evaluation and management. PMID:27563311

  6. Educating K-12 Professionals and Parents: Finding Health Information for Special Needs Children*, †

    PubMed Central

    Irish, D. Elizabeth; Lyman, Deborah M.; Squillace, Helen A.; Geyer, Enid M.; Cosgrove, Tammy D.; Hagzan, Amanda; Leinung, Jill; Tosh, Traci

    2014-01-01

    A successful partnership model between an academic health sciences library and a K-12 school district to provide librarians, nurses, and special education staff with access to health information to support special needs children and their parents is presented. Train-the-trainer staff sessions and a parent session were collaboratively developed. Funding support was used to purchase iPads for librarians and nurses to deliver mobile support. The results indicate the resources taught are being used to find health information and the school librarians and nurses are being sought after to assist in finding health information. Positive feedback from the school district indicates this model could be replicated in similar settings. PMID:25983666

  7. In courtroom 7--the Children's Koori Court at work: findings from an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Allan

    2011-10-01

    This article reports some of the findings of an evaluation of the Children's Koori Court (CKC)--the first legislated effort in Australia to involve the Indigenous community in the sentencing of young Aboriginal offenders as a strategy for reducing their overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system. A prominent feature of this court of summary jurisdiction is that the presiding magistrate, while remaining the sentencing authority, is assisted by Aboriginal Elders. This article focuses on the evaluation findings that were derived from observations of the CKC in action. They indicate that the operational objective of cultural responsiveness was realized. They also point to realization of the community-building goal-fostering Indigenous ownership of the administration of the law. Little slippage was found between the CKC's design and operation, although some areas of improvement were identified. Nevertheless, the scope for the CKC by itself to significantly reduce overrepresentation is limited. PMID:20962106

  8. School based working memory training: Preliminary finding of improvement in children's mathematical performance.

    PubMed

    Witt, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is a complex cognitive system responsible for the concurrent storage and processing of information. Ggiven that a complex cognitive task like mental arithmetic clearly places demands on working memory (e.g., in remembering partial results, monitoring progress through a multi-step calculation), there is surprisingly little research exploring the possibility of increasing young children's working memory capacity through systematic school-based training. Tthis study reports the preliminary results of a working memory training programme, targeting executive processes such as inhibiting unwanted information, monitoring processes, and the concurrent storage and processing of information. Tthe findings suggest that children who received working memory training made significantly greater gains in the trained working memory task, and in a non-trained visual-spatial working memory task, than a matched control group. Moreover, the training group made significant improvements in their mathematical functioning as measured by the number of errors made in an addition task compared to the control group. Tthese findings, although preliminary, suggest that school-based measures to train working memory could have benefits in terms of improved performance in mathematics. PMID:21818243

  9. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B; Samuel, Priscilla

    2005-08-01

    The relationship between breakfast composition and cognitive performance was examined in elementary school children. Two experiments compared the effects of two common U.S. breakfast foods and no breakfast on children's cognition. Using a within-participant design, once a week for 3 weeks, children consumed one of two breakfasts or no breakfast and then completed a battery of cognitive tests. The two breakfasts were instant oatmeal and ready-to-eat cereal, which were similar in energy, but differed in macronutrient composition, processing characteristics, effects on digestion and metabolism, and glycemic score. Results with 9 to 11 year-olds replicated previous findings showing that breakfast intake enhances cognitive performance, particularly on tasks requiring processing of a complex visual display. The results extend previous findings by showing differential effects of breakfast type. Boys and girls showed enhanced spatial memory and girls showed improved short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Results with 6 to 8 year-olds also showed effects of breakfast type. Younger children had better spatial memory and better auditory attention and girls exhibited better short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Due to compositional differences in protein and fiber content, glycemic scores, and rate of digestion, oatmeal may provide a slower and more sustained energy source and consequently result in cognitive enhancement compared to low-fiber high glycemic ready-to-eat cereal. These results have important practical implications, suggesting the importance of what children consume for breakfast before school.

  10. Priming Children's Use of Intentions in Moral Judgement with Metacognitive Training.

    PubMed

    Gvozdic, Katarina; Moutier, Sylvain; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Buon, Marine

    2016-01-01

    Typically, adults give a primary role to the agent's intention to harm when performing a moral judgment of accidental harm. By contrast, children often focus on outcomes, underestimating the actor's mental states when judging someone for his action, and rely on what we suppose to be intuitive and emotional processes. The present study explored the processes involved in the development of the capacity to integrate agents' intentions into their moral judgment of accidental harm in 5 to 8-year-old children. This was done by the use of different metacognitive trainings reinforcing different abilities involved in moral judgments (mentalising abilities, executive abilities, or no reinforcement), similar to a paradigm previously used in the field of deductive logic. Children's moral judgments were gathered before and after the training with non-verbal cartoons depicting agents whose actions differed only based on their causal role or their intention to harm. We demonstrated that a metacognitive training could induce an important shift in children's moral abilities, showing that only children who were explicitly instructed to "not focus too much" on the consequences of accidental harm, preferentially weighted the agents' intentions in their moral judgments. Our findings confirm that children between the ages of 5 and 8 are sensitive to the intention of agents, however, at that age, this ability is insufficient in order to give a "mature" moral judgment. Our experiment is the first that suggests the critical role of inhibitory resources in processing accidental harm. PMID:27047402

  11. Priming Children's Use of Intentions in Moral Judgement with Metacognitive Training.

    PubMed

    Gvozdic, Katarina; Moutier, Sylvain; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Buon, Marine

    2016-01-01

    Typically, adults give a primary role to the agent's intention to harm when performing a moral judgment of accidental harm. By contrast, children often focus on outcomes, underestimating the actor's mental states when judging someone for his action, and rely on what we suppose to be intuitive and emotional processes. The present study explored the processes involved in the development of the capacity to integrate agents' intentions into their moral judgment of accidental harm in 5 to 8-year-old children. This was done by the use of different metacognitive trainings reinforcing different abilities involved in moral judgments (mentalising abilities, executive abilities, or no reinforcement), similar to a paradigm previously used in the field of deductive logic. Children's moral judgments were gathered before and after the training with non-verbal cartoons depicting agents whose actions differed only based on their causal role or their intention to harm. We demonstrated that a metacognitive training could induce an important shift in children's moral abilities, showing that only children who were explicitly instructed to "not focus too much" on the consequences of accidental harm, preferentially weighted the agents' intentions in their moral judgments. Our findings confirm that children between the ages of 5 and 8 are sensitive to the intention of agents, however, at that age, this ability is insufficient in order to give a "mature" moral judgment. Our experiment is the first that suggests the critical role of inhibitory resources in processing accidental harm.

  12. Increasing children's consumption of fruit and vegetables: does the type of exposure matter?

    PubMed

    Osborne, Chelsea L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-06-01

    This study sought to determine how eight days of home exposure to information about healthful foods and eating behaviors in the form of children's books and a variety of fruit and vegetables interacted to affect 4- to 8-year-old children's (N=59) consumption of fruit and vegetables. Before and after the home exposure, children participated in a task in which their consumption of a variety of fruit and vegetables that ranged in familiarity was measured. Results indicated that exposure to food and books were both effective at increasing consumption of fruit, but not vegetables. Additionally, children who were exposed to books consumed more of an infrequently consumed fruit presented during the post-test, but only if they had not been exposed to food during the home exposure. Overall, children's fruit consumption increased more if their mothers did not pressure them to eat, and those who were less neophobic were more likely to try a novel fruit or vegetable during the post-test. These findings suggest that information and food variety both can be effective for increasing acceptance of fruit, and highlight the need for more research that investigates the efficacy of intervention strategies that promote vegetable consumption in young children.

  13. Parents’ Education Shapes, but Does Not Originate, the Disability Representations of Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Fabio; Federici, Stefano; Dennis, John Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested whether children’s disability representations are influenced by cultural variables (e.g., social activities, parent education, custom complex variables) or by cognitive constraints. Four questionnaires were administered to a sample of 76 primary school aged children and one of their parents (n = 152). Questionnaires included both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The open-ended questions were created to collect uncensored personal explanations of disability, whereas the closed-ended questions were designed to elicit a response of agreement for statements built on the basis of the three most widespread disability models: individual, social, and biopsychosocial. For youngest children (6–8 years old), people with disabilities are thought of as being sick. This early disability representation of children is consistent with the individual model of disability and independent from parents’ disability explanations and representations. As children grow older (9–11 years old), knowledge regarding disability increases and stereotypical beliefs about disability decrease, by tending to espouse their parents representations. The individual model remains in the background for the adults too, emerging when the respondents rely on their most immediately available mental representation of disability such as when they respond to an open-ended question. These findings support that the youngest children are not completely permeable to social representations of disability likely due to cognitive constraints. Nevertheless, as the age grows, children appear educable on perspectives of disability adhering to a model of disability representation integral with social context and parent perspective. PMID:26053585

  14. What children recall about a repeated event when one instance is different from the others.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Deborah A; Gordon, Heidi M; Woiwod, Dayna M; Price, Heather L

    2016-07-01

    This research examined whether a memorable and unexpected change (deviation details) presented during 1 instance of a repeated event facilitated children's memory for that instance and whether a repeated event facilitated children's memory for deviation details. In Experiments 1 and 2, 8-year-olds (N = 167) watched 1 or 4 live magic shows. Children were interviewed about the last or only show, which did or did not contain deviation details. Children reported more accurate information about the instance when deviation details were presented than when they were not, but repeated experience did not improve memory for deviation details. In Experiment 3, children (N = 145; 6- to 11-year-olds) participated in 4 magic shows and answered questions about each one. Deviation details were manipulated such that they caused a change in how the show was experienced (continuous) or had no such effect on the rest of the show (discrete). Younger, but not older, children's recall of all instances improved when a continuous deviation occurred compared to no deviation. Implications for how deviation details are represented in memory, as well as forensic applications of the findings, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337511

  15. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  16. A developmental study of the own-age face recognition bias in children.

    PubMed

    Hills, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    The own-age bias is one in which people recognize faces of people their own age more accurately than faces of other ages (e.g., Anastasi & Rhodes, 2005, 2006) and appears to be, at least, partially based on experience (Harrison & Hole, 2009). Indeed, Hills and Lewis (2011a) have shown that 8-year-old faces are more accurately recognized by 8-year-old children than by 6- or 11-year-old children, suggesting the own-age bias develops rapidly. The present study explores the own-age bias in a developmental study in participants aged 6-10 years. Ninety participants (divided into 3 groups of 30 on the basis of their age at the first time of testing) undertook a standard old/new recognition paradigm in which their recognition accuracy was measured for 8- and 20-year-old faces. Results showed that when the participants were 8 years old, they recognized 8-year-old faces more accurately than when they were 7 or 9 years old. This effect was found to be based on mechanisms that differ from simple developmental improvement. This is the first study to show the development of the own-age bias in face recognition using a longitudinal design. These results show that the face recognition system is updated on the basis of recent experience and/or motivation to process faces, creating recognition biases.

  17. Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neural development status of the visual system of children (around 8 years old) using contrast sensitivity. We achieved this by eliminating the influence of higher order aberrations (HOAs) with adaptive optics correction. We measured HOAs, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of six children and five adults with both corrected and uncorrected HOAs. We found that when HOAs were corrected, children and adults both showed improvements in MTF and CSF. However, the CSF of children was still lower than the adult level, indicating the difference in contrast sensitivity between groups cannot be explained by differences in optical factors. Further study showed that the difference between the groups also could not be explained by differences in non-visual factors. With these results we concluded that the neural systems underlying vision in children of around 8 years old are still immature in contrast sensitivity. PMID:24732728

  18. Co-Operative Learning for Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Mainstream and Special Class Settings: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Ian M.; Bruton, Cora; Honan, Rita; McGuinness, Roisin; Daly, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a cooperative learning (CL) intervention on the levels of social and task engagement of a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) conducted in a mainstream class setting and a child with ASD implemented in a special needs class setting. The target children were two 8-year-old boys…

  19. Prevalence and Functioning of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Four Areas of the United States in 2006: A Report from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Russell S.; Wingate, Martha S.; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Doernberg, Nancy S.; Arneson, Carrie L.; Benedict, Ruth E.; Mulvihill, Beverly; Durkin, Maureen S.; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Maenner, Matthew J.; Patz, Jean A.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) and the frequency of co-occurring developmental disabilities (DDs), gross motor function (GMF), and walking ability using the largest surveillance DD database in the US. Methods: We conducted population-based surveillance of 8-year-old children in 2006 (N = 142,338), in areas of Alabama,…

  20. Brief Report: The Prevalence of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilder, Deborah A.; Bakian, Amanda V.; Stevenson, David A.; Carbone, Paul S.; Cunniff, Christopher; Goodman, Alyson B.; McMahon, William M.; Fisher, Nicole P.; Viskochil, David

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The frequency of ASD/NF1 co-occurrence has been subject to debate since the 1980s. This relationship was investigated in a large population-based sample of 8-year-old children identified with…

  1. False belief understanding in maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Maughan, Angeline; Toth, Sheree L; Bruce, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    False belief understanding was investigated in maltreated (N = 203), low socioeconomic status (SES) nonmaltreated (N = 143), and middle SES nonmaltreated (N = 172) 3- to 8-year-old children. Contrasts among the three groups provided an opportunity to examine the impact of family contextual influences on theory of mind development. Specifically, child maltreatment served as an "experiment of nature" in order to elucidate theory of mind abilities. Two false belief tasks and language assessments were administered. Among children with a verbal mental age of 49 months or greater, maltreatment was related to delays in the development of theory of mind, beyond the influence of chronological age and SES. The occurrence of maltreatment during the toddler period, onset during the toddler years, and physical abuse were features of maltreatment associated with delay in the development of theory of mind. Findings are discussed in terms of the influence of harsh caregiving on the development of theory of mind. Implications for the understanding of normal developmental processes are highlighted. PMID:14984138

  2. Endoscopic and histopathologic findings associated with H. pylori infection in very young children.

    PubMed

    Tutar, Engin; Ertem, Deniz; Kotiloglu Karaa, Esin; Pehlivanoglu, Ender

    2009-01-01

    Most of the individuals infected with H. pylori acquire the infection early in life. However, there is limited data regarding endoscopic and histopathologic findings of H. pylori infection when it is acquired during infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the H. pylori-related endoscopic and histopathological findings in children younger than 2 years of age. One hundred and fifty-two infants who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were included in the study. The diagnosis of H. pylori infection was based on histopathology and a positive rapid urease test. Forty of 152 (26.3%) infants were infected with H. pylori, and 65% of the infected infants had histopathologic gastritis. There were no clinical or endoscopic findings suggestive of H. pylori infection. No correlation could be found between the density of H. pylori and the severity of gastritis. H. pylori infection is associated with various degrees of gastritis in more than half of the infected infants. Since the likelihood of normal histopathology is rare in H. pylori-infected infants, its long-term complications should be cautiously followed up in endemic areas. PMID:18594977

  3. Eye tracking indices of attentional bias in children of depressed mothers: Polygenic influences help to clarify previous mixed findings.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max; Harrison, Ashley J; Burkhouse, Katie L; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Palmer, Rohan H C; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-05-01

    Information-processing biases may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depression. There is growing evidence that children of depressed mothers exhibit attentional biases for sad faces. However, findings are mixed as to whether this bias reflects preferential attention toward, versus attentional avoidance of, sad faces, suggesting the presence of unmeasured moderators. To address these mixed findings, we focused on the potential moderating role of genes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Participants included children (8-14 years old) of mothers with (n = 81) and without (n = 81) a history of depression. Eye movements were recorded while children passively viewed arrays of angry, happy, sad, and neutral faces. DNA was obtained from buccal cells. Children of depressed mothers exhibited more sustained attention to sad faces than did children of nondepressed mothers. However, it is important that this relation was moderated by children's genotype. Specifically, children of depressed mothers who carried reactive genotypes across the corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CHRH1) TAT haplotype and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) rs1360780 (but not the solute carrier family C6 member 4 [SLC6A4] of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region [5-HTTLPR]) exhibited less sustained attention to sad faces and more sustained attention to happy faces. These findings highlight the role played by specific genetic influences and suggest that previous mixed findings may have been due to genetic heterogeneity across the samples. PMID:26030911

  4. Parental predictors of children's animal abuse: findings from a national and intergenerational sample.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kelly E; Ellis, Colter; Simmons, Sara B

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the intra- and intergenerational links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal abuse by analyzing a national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,614 individuals collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study from 1990 to 2004. Using multilevel random-intercept regression modeling, parents' own history of animal abuse is predictive of their later involvement in IPV perpetration and victimization, net of important controls. In turn, parents' IPV violent perpetration (but not violent victimization) is predictive of their children's history of animal abuse-measured 14 years later. Intergenerational continuity of animal abuse, however, is not significant. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are the study's limitations, and future research directions.

  5. Effectiveness of an intensive outpatient program for disruptive children: initial findings.

    PubMed

    Cook, Mary N; Crisostomo, Patrice S; Simpson, Tess S; Williams, Jason D; Wamboldt, Marianne Z

    2014-02-01

    There are currently no manualized, intensive outpatient programs (IOP), for diagnostically heterogeneous pediatric samples that simultaneously intervene with youth and parents. Such a program was developed and has been operating at Children's Hospital Colorado since January 2006. The current study was conducted to characterize the patient sample and evaluate clinical outcomes for this novel program. The study used a method of retrospective chart review to examine demographic and diagnostic information of youth and their families, who participated in IOP. Clinical outcomes were similarly assessed, using paired-samples t test comparisons of the baseline and endpoint parent-report versions of the Ohio Youth Outcome Scales. Results indicated that there were statistically significant differences in each of the Subscale scores on the Ohio Youth Scales from baseline to endpoint of IOP. Preliminary findings suggest that participation in the IOP program was associated with improved clinical outcomes, at the end of treatment.

  6. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  7. Evaluation of neurological and cardiological findings in carbonmonoxide poisoning in children

    PubMed Central

    Boztepe, Hatice; Yalaki, Zahide; Bilge, Yıldız Dallar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the relation of blood carboxyhemoglobin level with presentation finding and clinical properties and to demonstrate neurological and cardiological findings which are indicators of tissue hypoxia in patients followed up because of carbonmonoxide (CO) poisoning. Material and Methods: Three hundred and twenty-five patients who were followed up because of carbonmonoxide poisoning between 2011 and 2013 in our pediatric emergency department were evaluated prospectively. Ethics committee approval was obtained for the study on 10.19.2011 (number: 0437). The carbonmonoxide levels, source of intoxication, neurological and cardiological findings and treatment methods were recorded. Blood gases and cardiac enzymes were studied and electrocardiography (ECG) was performed. The data were analysed using SPSS for windows 16.0 package program. Results: One hundred and sixty-eight (51.7%) of the patients were female and the median age was 9 years (11 days–17 years). Two hundred and twenty-eight (70.2%) of the patients were poisoned while using heater and 78.1% presented during winter months. The median carbonmonoxide level of the patients was found to be 24.8%. Cardiac enzymes were found to be increased in 10.5% of the patients, first degree A-V block was found in 0.6% and negative T wave was found in 0.3%. Glasgow coma score was found to be below 14 in 4.6% of the patients. A significant correlation was found between the carboxyhemoglobin levels and neurological findings, cardiological findings and lactate (p<0.05). Normobaric oxygen treatment was given to 76.3% of the patients and hyperbaric oxygen treatment was given to 23.7%. Conclusions: We think that neurological disorders and cardiac findings may be closely related, since systemic involvement may be easier in carbonmonoxide poisoning in children, Glasgow coma score should be assessed in the follow-up of the patients and cardiac enzymes and serum lactate levels should be monitored

  8. Assessment of Bilingual Children for Identification of Language Impairment: Current Findings and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Children from bilingual backgrounds are sometimes overidentified with language impairment (LI) because educators do not have appropriate developmental expectations. At other times bilingual children are underidentified because educators wait to identify difficulties while children learn the second language. In this review we discuss data on…

  9. The use of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and viral findings in the nasopharynx of children attending day care.

    PubMed

    Kumpu, Minna; Lehtoranta, Liisa; Roivainen, Merja; Rönkkö, Esa; Ziegler, Thedi; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Kautiainen, Hannu; Järvenpää, Salme; Kekkonen, Riina; Hatakka, Katja; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of probiotics on the nasopharyngeal presence of respiratory viruses in children attending day care. In this substudy of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 28-week intervention study, nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected, on visits to a physician due to symptoms of infection, from children receiving control milk (N = 97) and children receiving the same milk supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (N = 97). The presence of 14 respiratory viruses was assessed by PCR methods, and viral findings were compared with symptom prevalences in the intervention groups. Rhinovirus was identified in 28.6% of 315 swab samples, followed by respiratory syncytial virus (12.4%), parainfluenza virus 1 (12.1%), enterovirus (8.9%), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (7.9%), human bocavirus 1 (3.8%), parainfluenza virus 2 (3.2%), adenovirus (2.9%), and influenza A(H3N2) (0.6%). The children in the probiotic group had less days with respiratory symptoms per month than the children in the control group (6.48 [95% CI 6.28-6.68] vs. 7.19 [95% CI 6.98-7.41], P < 0.001). Probiotic intervention did not reduce significantly the occurrence of the examined respiratory viruses, or have an effect on the number of respiratory symptoms observed at the time of a viral finding. Rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus 1 were the most common respiratory viruses in symptomatic children. Children receiving Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG had fewer days with respiratory symptoms than children in the control group, although probiotic intervention was not effective in reducing the amount of viral findings or the respiratory symptoms associated with viral findings.

  10. Lyme disease in children.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sunil K

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and family practitioners should be familiar with the prevention and management of tick bites, which are common in children.

  11. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    PubMed

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. PMID:27307424

  12. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    PubMed

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age.

  13. Chinese Immigrant Families and Bilingualism among Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-five children (17 boys and 18 girls, 4 to 8 years old) in 2-parent Chinese immigrant families had attended English-speaking facilities for 35.0 months (boys) and 32.9 months (girls), respectively. They were tested at home with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Mandarin version of PPVT-R. No gender differences were…

  14. Ophthalmologic Findings in Children with Leukemia: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Betül; Malbora, Barış; Akça Bayar, Sezin; Avcı, Zekai; Alioğlu, Bülent; Özbek, Namık

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ophthalmologic disease in patients with acute leukemia occurs due to primary leukemic infiltration (involvement), or secondary to the disease and its treatment. In recent years the life expectancy of acute leukemia patients has increased with the advent of modern therapies. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of ocular manifestations in children with acute leukemia. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 patients diagnosed with acute leukemia at Başkent University Hospital, Pediatric Hematology Department between 1995 and 2010. All the patients were examined by an ophthalmologist via direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results: Among the patients, 83 (69.2%) were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 35 (29.1%) with acute myeloblastic leukemia, and 2 (1.7%) with mixed-lineage leukemia. In all, 58 ophthalmic manifestations were noted in 41 patients (34.2%). In our patients, 12 ophthalmologic involvements were present at admission and 46 ocular findings occurred during follow-up. The incidence of these manifestations increased with age. Conclusion: Ophthalmologic manifestations were not correlated with gender, hematological parameters at disease onset, type of leukemia, or the frequency of relapse and survival. To more clearly determine the effect of ophthalmologic manifestations on the prognosis of leukemia, larger scale and multi-center studies are needed. PMID:27800262

  15. Clinical and Radiographic Findings and Usefulness of Computed Tomographic Assessment in Two Children with Regional Odontodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Junko; Tanaka, Ray; Iizawa, Futabako; Sano, Tomiko; Kinoshita-Kawano, Shoko; Hayashi-Sakai, Sachiko; Mitomi, Tomoe

    2014-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is a rare, severe, and nonhereditary developmental disorder in tooth formation and involves epithelial and mesenchymal-derived dental tissue. On radiographs, affected teeth have an abnormal morphology, a hypoplastic crown, and only a faint outline of hard tissue, a condition termed “ghost teeth.” We report clinical and radiographic findings from two children with regional odontodysplasia. Using computed tomography (CT), we calculated attenuation coefficients (i.e., Hounsfield units) for affected teeth and assessed the condition of dental follicles. To measure density, regions of interest were delimited and CT values were calculated. In our two patients, the CT values for enamel were lower in affected teeth than in sound teeth, while CT values for dentin were similar for affected and sound teeth. The average CT value for dental follicles in affected teeth was about 65 to 120, which suggests that dense fibrous connective tissues or hard tissue-like structures might be present in dental follicles. Analysis of CT values may be quite useful in the diagnosis and treatment of regional odontodysplasia. PMID:25250179

  16. Pathological findings in hanging and wedging deaths in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Moore, L; Byard, R W

    1993-12-01

    Records of the Adelaide Children's Hospital Histopathology Department were reviewed for cases of deaths resulting from hanging or wedging occurring in early childhood and infancy. The 14 cases identified were analyzed with respect to age, sex, circumstances of death, and postmortem findings. The mean age at death was 14 months (range, 6-36 months) and the male to female ratio was 9:5. In one case, death occurred in a baby car seat, another in a pram/stroller, and in another a curtain cord was responsible. In the remaining 11 cases, death occurred in the baby's crib. In eight cases the mechanism of death was hanging with partial suspension, including six cases in which part of the infant's clothing became caught on the crib. Petechial hemorrhages on the face were found in all of the hanging deaths whereas intrathoracic petechiae were identified in only two cases. Only one of the wedging deaths showed facial petechiae whereas intrathoracic petechiae were identified in four of the six cases. Conjunctival hemorrhages were only recorded in only two of the 14 cases.

  17. Preliminary findings of similarities and differences in the signed and spoken language of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication. Though the underlying disorder is presumed to be the same in children who are deaf and children who hear, the structures of signed and spoken languages differ in key ways. This article describes similarities and differences between the signed and spoken language acquisition of children on the spectrum. Similarities include echolalia, pronoun avoidance, neologisms, and the existence of minimally verbal children. Possible areas of divergence include pronoun reversal, palm reversal, and facial grammar. PMID:25321855

  18. Preliminary findings of similarities and differences in the signed and spoken language of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication. Though the underlying disorder is presumed to be the same in children who are deaf and children who hear, the structures of signed and spoken languages differ in key ways. This article describes similarities and differences between the signed and spoken language acquisition of children on the spectrum. Similarities include echolalia, pronoun avoidance, neologisms, and the existence of minimally verbal children. Possible areas of divergence include pronoun reversal, palm reversal, and facial grammar.

  19. Word reading skill predicts anticipation of upcoming spoken language input: a study of children developing proficiency in reading.

    PubMed

    Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words. PMID:24955519

  20. Word reading skill predicts anticipation of upcoming spoken language input: a study of children developing proficiency in reading.

    PubMed

    Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words.

  1. The development of numerical magnitude processing and its association with working memory in children with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2013-10-01

    The present research examined numerical magnitude processing and its association with working memory in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). We investigated the performance of 8-year-old children with MID on a symbolic (Arabic digits) and non-symbolic (dot patterns) magnitude comparison task by means of a chronological-age/ability-level-match design. We also examined whether the predicted problems with numerical magnitude comparison could be explained by working memory by using three working memory tasks. Findings revealed that children with MID performed more poorly than their chronological age-matched peers on both the symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison tasks, suggesting impairments in these children's ability to represent numerical magnitudes. They also performed more poorly on working memory compared to their typically developing age- and ability-matched peers, but when these differences in working memory performance were additionally controlled for, the group differences on the numerical magnitude comparison tasks remained. Both symbolic numerical magnitude processing and central executive functioning predicted addition performance in children with MID.

  2. Phonological, visual, and semantic coding strategies and children's short-term picture memory span.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David; Luger-Klein, Scarlett; Crane, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments addressed controversies in the previous literature on the development of phonological and other forms of short-term memory coding in children, using assessments of picture memory span that ruled out potentially confounding effects of verbal input and output. Picture materials were varied in terms of phonological similarity, visual similarity, semantic similarity, and word length. Older children (6/8-year-olds), but not younger children (4/5-year-olds), demonstrated robust and consistent phonological similarity and word length effects, indicating that they were using phonological coding strategies. This confirmed findings initially reported by Conrad (1971), but subsequently questioned by other authors. However, in contrast to some previous research, little evidence was found for a distinct visual coding stage at 4 years, casting doubt on assumptions that this is a developmental stage that consistently precedes phonological coding. There was some evidence for a dual visual and phonological coding stage prior to exclusive use of phonological coding at around 5-6 years. Evidence for semantic similarity effects was limited, suggesting that semantic coding is not a key method by which young children recall lists of pictures.

  3. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

  4. Nondecomposable idiom understanding in children: recursive theory of mind and working memory.

    PubMed

    Caillies, Stéphanie; Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine

    2013-06-01

    Which skills are required to start understanding ambiguous, unfamiliar nondecomposable idioms in context? In this study, we examined the contributions of both second-order false-belief understanding and working memory to the understanding of unfamiliar nondecomposable idioms in children aged 6, 7 and 8 years old. We assumed that, in order to process these idioms, children would have to be able to (a) take a double perspective (Perner & Wimmer, 1985), (b) maintain both literal and figurative meanings as being different from the expression itself, and (c) take the context into account. Six-, 7- and 8-year-old children performed three, second-order false-belief tasks and three working-memory tasks, and listened to 15 nondecomposable idioms inserted into a context, before performing a multiple-choice task. Results indicated that nondecomposable idiom understanding was explained by theory-of-mind skills.

  5. Home-based DIR/Floortime intervention program for preschool children with autism spectrum disorders: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shu-Ting; Hwang, Yea-Shwu; Chen, Yung-Jung; Lee, Peichin; Chen, Shin-Jaw; Lin, Ling-Yi

    2014-11-01

    Improving parent-child interaction and play are important outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Play is the primary occupation of children. In this pilot study conducted in Taiwan, we investigated the effects of the developmental, individual difference, and relationship-based (DIR)/Floortime home-based intervention program on social interaction and adaptive functioning of children with ASD. The participants were 11 children with ASD, ages from 45-69 months, and their mothers. Mothers were instructed the principles of the approach by an occupational therapist. All 11 children and their mothers completed the 10-week home-based intervention program, undergoing an average of 109.7 hr of intervention. Children made significant changes in mean scores for emotional functioning, communication, and daily living skills. Moreover, the mothers perceived positive changes in their parent-child interactions. The findings of this pilot study contribute to knowledge regarding the effects of home-based DIR/Floortime intervention program on increasing the social interaction and adaptive behaviors of children with ASD in Taiwan. PMID:24865120

  6. Caregivers of School Children with Epilepsy: Findings of a Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jillian; Whiting, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequently diagnosed neurological disorders among children. Epilepsy is continuously linked with academic underachievement and social challenges. Despite the implications that these difficulties have for a child's educational success, little is known of how children with epilepsy experience school. Understanding how to…

  7. Why Do Disadvantaged Filipino Children Find Word Problems in English Difficult?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Debbie; Mulligan, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Young Filipino students are expected to solve mathematical word problems in English, a language that many encounter only in schools. Using individual interviews of 17 Filipino children, we investigated why word problems in English are difficult and the extent to which the language interferes with performance. Results indicate that children could…

  8. Health Education Video Games for Children and Adolescents: Theory, Design, and Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Debra A.

    This study examined whether video games could be effective health education and therapeutic interventions for children and adolescents with diabetes. KIDZ Health Software developed a game about diabetes self-management, and tested its effectiveness for children with diabetes. The Packy and Marlon Super Nintendo video game promotes fun,…

  9. Event-related potentials findings differ between children and adults during arithmetic-fact retrieval.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Corona, Belén; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Marosi, Erzsébet; Fernández, Thalía; Guerrero, Vicente

    2010-01-14

    Some cognitive abilities of arithmetical calculation depend on retrieval of arithmetic facts from long-term memory. Arithmetic-fact retrieval has been studied in adults through Event-Related Potentials (ERP) experiments. Such information in children, however, has been scarce. It has been reported that from the age of 9 years, children employ a memory retrieval strategy for solving simple multiplication problems. The present study compared arithmetical-fact retrieval in children and adults while they were being subjected to ERP recording. The subjects were asked to make judgments about solutions to simple multiplication problems. Both groups of participants displayed the so-called arithmetic N400 effect for incorrect solutions relative to correct solutions. Adults showed a posterior N400 effect, while children showed a widely distributed N400 effect. Children displayed a larger amplitude and longer latency arithmetic N400 component than adults; this observation could be due to children exerting greater effort involving more widespread cortical activation than adults to solve the experimental problems. The Late Positive Component (LPC), which follows the arithmetic N400 and has been described previously in adult subjects, was observed in the present adult subjects, but was present in children only for correct solutions. These results may indicate that, relative to adults, children showed slower memory retrieval and a different pattern of a verification mechanism for correct and incorrect solutions. PMID:19897015

  10. Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Preschool Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Walden, Tedra A.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Emotional regulation of preschool children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) was assessed through use of a disappointing gift (DG) procedure (P. M. Cole, 1986; C. Saarni, 1984, 1992). Method: Participants consisted of 16 CWS and CWNS (11 boys and 5 girls in each talker group) who were 3 to 5 years of age. After…

  11. Children's and Young People's Reading in 2012: Findings from the 2012 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This report reveals that children and young people are reading less and more are embarrassed to be seen reading, while many also believe that their parents don't care if they spend time reading. However, not only are children and young people reading less and developing more negative attitudes towards reading, but there is also a clear correlation…

  12. The Ethical Maze: Finding an Inclusive Path towards Gaining Children's Agreement to Research Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Alison J.

    2006-01-01

    In the UK, the ethics of engaging in sociological research directly involving children have primarily been shaped by definitions of "competence". While this has been a crucial guideline for researchers in shaping the concept of informed consent, it has also acted, perhaps inadvertently, as a way of excluding particular children from the research…

  13. Augmentative Communication Modes Taught to Cerebral Palsied Children: Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udwin, Orlee; Yule, William

    1987-01-01

    The impact of augmentative systems on the communicative abilities of two groups of young cerebral palsied children (total N=40) who were learning either Blissymbols or Makaton Signing was evaluated. Results indicated no significant differences between the systems and slow progress and severe limitations in sign/symbol repertoires of most children.…

  14. Families Finding the Balance: A Parent Handbook. We Can! Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    We Can! (Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition) is a new public education outreach program designed to help children 8-13 years old stay at a healthy weight through improving food choices, increasing physical activity, and reducing screen time. The program is a collaboration of four Institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH):…

  15. Intensive Dysarthria Therapy for Older Children with Cerebral Palsy: Findings from Six Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Lindsay; Smallman, Claire; Farrier, Faith

    2006-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy often have speech, language and communication difficulties that affect their access to social and educational activities. Speech and language therapy to improve the intelligibility of the speech of children with cerebral palsy has long been advocated, but there is a dearth of research investigating therapy…

  16. Children with Special Needs Find Comfort & Learn Lessons through Exceptional Quilts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiatuau, Leilani

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how the quilts fashioned by Joanne Marian of Boswell have helped children with exceptional needs. Marian's quilts, which are freely given, are created using donated scraps of texture-rich fabrics, patterns, and embellishments to heighten the intensity of tactile detail for exceptional children who may be visually impaired or…

  17. Self-Regulation Advantage for High-IQ Children: Findings from a Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Garcia-Martin, Maria Belen; Jimenez, Maria Isabel; Kazen, Miguel; Araque, Arsenio

    2007-01-01

    Current approaches in intelligence research indicate the need for a more extensive determination of characteristics of children with possible giftedness, not only at an intellectual level, but also at the level of self-regulation and motivation. The present study compares self-regulation efficiency between high-IQ and average-ability children aged…

  18. Phonological short-term memory impairment and the word length effect in children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Poloczek, Sebastian; Büttner, Gerhard; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) of nonspecific aetiology perform poorer on phonological short-term memory tasks than children matched for mental age indicating a structural deficit in a process contributing to short-term recall of verbal material. One explanation is that children with ID of nonspecific aetiology do not activate subvocal rehearsal to refresh degrading memory traces. However, existing research concerning this explanation is inconclusive since studies focussing on the word length effect (WLE) as indicator of rehearsal have revealed inconsistent results for samples with ID and because in several existing studies, it is unclear whether the WLE was caused by rehearsal or merely appeared during output of the responses. We assumed that in children with ID only output delays produce a small WLE while in typically developing 6- to 8-year-olds rehearsal and output contribute to the WLE. From this assumption we derived several predictions that were tested in an experiment including 34 children with mild or borderline ID and 34 typically developing children matched for mental age (MA). As predicted, results revealed a small but significant WLE for children with ID that was significantly smaller than the WLE in the control group. Additionally, for children with ID, a WLE was not found for the first word of each trial but the effect emerged only in later serial positions. The findings corroborate the notion that in children with ID subvocal rehearsal does not develop in line with their mental age and provide a potential explanation for the inconsistent results on the WLE in children with ID.

  19. Training to improve manual control in 7-8 and 10-12 year old children: Training eliminates performance differences between ages.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2015-10-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7-8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7-8 and 10-12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7-8 year olds was worse than that of the 10-12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7-8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10-12 year olds.

  20. Training To Improve Manual Control In 7–8 And 10–12 Year Old Children: Training Eliminates Performance Differences Between Ages

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J.; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7–8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7–8 and 10–12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7–8 year olds was worse than that of the 10–12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7–8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10–12 year olds. PMID:26241334

  1. Prevention Work with Children Disaffected from School: Findings from the Evaluation of Two Innovative Community-Based Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Paul; Seddon, Toby

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To report on findings from the evaluation of two innovative community-based prevention projects in the UK targeted at children disaffected from school, one involving football the other horticulture. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative inquiry focusing on three areas: "theories of change" underpinning the projects; referral and…

  2. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  3. Preliminary Findings of a Format-based Foreign Language Teaching Method for School Children in the Basque Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azpillaga, Beronika; Arzamendi, Jesus; Etxeberria, Feli; Garagorri, Xabier; Lindsay, Diana; Joaristi, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the preliminary findings in the Basque Country of a project shared by four European countries to teach a second language or a foreign language to preschool and school-age children. The method used to teach the foreign language--English--is based on the use of dramatized formats. Examines level of language proficiency achieved with each…

  4. Developmental Coordination Disorder in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Co-Morbidity and Impact on Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flapper, Boudien C. T.; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2013-01-01

    Co-morbidity of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and the impact of DCD on quality-of-life (QOL) was investigated in 65 5-8 year old children with SLI (43 boys, age 6.8 [plus or minus] 0.8; 22 girls, age 6.6 [plus or minus] 0.8). The prevalence of DCD was assessed using DSM-IV-TR criteria…

  5. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act Evaluation Findings on Children's Health Insurance Coverage in an Evolving Health Care Landscape.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) reauthorized CHIP through federal fiscal year 2019 and, together with provisions in the Affordable Care Act, federal funding for the program was extended through federal fiscal year 2015. Congressional action is required or federal funding for the program will end in September 2015. This supplement to Academic Pediatrics is intended to inform discussions about CHIP's future. Most of the new research presented comes from a large evaluation of CHIP mandated by Congress in the CHIPRA. Since CHIP started in 1997, millions of lower-income children have secured health insurance coverage and needed care, reducing the financial burdens and stress on their families. States made substantial progress in simplifying enrollment and retention. When implemented optimally, Express Lane Eligibility has the potential to help cover more of the millions of eligible children who remain uninsured. Children move frequently between Medicaid and CHIP, and many experienced a gap in coverage with this transition. CHIP enrollees had good access to care. For nearly every health care access, use, care, and cost measure examined, CHIP enrollees fared better than uninsured children. Access in CHIP was similar to private coverage for most measures, but financial burdens were substantially lower and access to weekend and nighttime care was not as good. The Affordable Care Act coverage options have the potential to reduce uninsured rates among children, but complex transition issues must first be resolved to ensure families have access to affordable coverage, leading many stakeholders to recommend funding for CHIP be continued. PMID:25906953

  6. The development of young children's memory strategies: First findings from the Würzburg Longitudinal Memory Study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Wolfgang; Kron, Veronika; Hünnerkopf, Michael; Krajewski, Kristin

    2004-06-01

    This article reports the first findings of the Würzburg Longitudinal Memory Study, which focuses on children's verbal memory development, particularly the acquisition of memory strategies. At the beginning of the study, 100 kindergarten children (mean age 6 1/2 years) were tested on various memory measures, including sort-recall, text recall, short-term memory capacity, and metamemory. Assessments were repeated twice, with adjacent measurement points separated by 6-month time intervals. One major goal of the initial phase of the study concerned the exploration of the utilization deficiency phenomenon, which refers to the fact that young children who spontaneously use a memory strategy for the first time do not experience immediate memory benefits. Results obtained for the sort-recall task showed that, among those children who acquired a sorting strategy between Times 1 and 2, only a small proportion experienced the utilization deficiency problem. Additional analyses demonstrated that these few children also performed more poorly on the short-term memory tasks and the text recall measure when compared with the groups of efficient strategy users, suggesting that utilization deficiency is accompanied by a more general memory capacity problem. Overall, the findings revealed enormous variability in the early acquisition of memory strategies, indicating that the utilization deficiency phenomenon might not be as frequent as is assumed in the relevant literature.

  7. Visual outcome in children with congenital hemiplegia: correlation with MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, E; Spanò, M; Bruccini, G; Frisone, M F; Trombetta, J C; Blandino, A; Longo, M; Guzzetta, F

    1996-08-01

    Fourteen children with congenital hemiplegia were studied with a detailed assessment of various aspects of vision (linear acuity, stereopsis, visual fields) and MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a congenital lesion on visual function. The results showed a very high incidence (78%) of children who had abnormal results on at least one of the visual tests. Visual abnormalities were not correlated with the clinical severity of hemiplegia or with a specific pattern of lesion on MRI. Similarly no constant association could be found between visual structures (optic radiations and primary visual cortex) and visual function. Finally, our results would suggest that all the children with congenital hemiplegia need to be investigated irrespective of the clinical severity or of the type or the extent of the lesion. This would help to identify children with minor visual abnormalities which can affect everyday life performance. PMID:8892366

  8. Developing clinically suitable measures of social cognition for children: initial findings from a normative sample.

    PubMed

    Saltzman-Benaiah, Jennifer; Lalonde, Christopher E

    2007-03-01

    Our understanding of children's social competence has increased tremendously over the past two decades. There is increasing evidence to suggest that social-cognitive impairments are not restricted to children on the autistic spectrum, but rather may be associated with a host of developmental and acquired neurological conditions including learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Although many investigators have begun to bridge the gap between clinical practice and research by applying experimental tasks to clinical populations, few tools are available for the clinical evaluation of social competence, particularly in children. This study marks a series of first steps in the development of measures suitable for the assessment of children between 6 and 12 years of age. The results of the study provide data for a number of experimental tasks that have been adapted with clinical practice in mind. A discussion of the developmental progressions and the relationships among the measures is also included.

  9. Canine-Assisted Therapy for Children With ADHD: Preliminary Findings From The Positive Assertive Cooperative Kids Study

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Sabrina E. B.; Emmerson, Natasha A.; Fine, Aubrey H.; Lakes, Kimberley D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to provide preliminary findings from an ongoing randomized clinical trial using a canine-assisted intervention (CAI) for 24 children with ADHD. Method Project Positive Assertive Cooperative Kids (P.A.C.K.) was designed to study a 12-week cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered with or without CAI. Children were randomly assigned to group therapy with or without CAI. Parents of children in both groups simultaneously participated in weekly parent group therapy sessions. Results Across both treatment groups, parents reported improvements in children’s social skills, prosocial behaviors, and problematic behaviors. In both groups, the severity of ADHD symptoms declined during the course of treatment; however, children who received the CAI model exhibited greater reductions in the severity of ADHD symptoms than did children who received cognitive-behavioral therapy without CAI. Conclusion Results suggest that CAI offers a novel therapeutic strategy that may enhance cognitive-behavioral interventions for children with ADHD. PMID:24062278

  10. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  11. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Children of divorce: recent findings regarding long-term effects and recent studies of joint and sole custody.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, J S; Johnston, J R

    1990-01-01

    The 10-year study revealed that the effects of divorce on children are often long lasting. Children are especially affected because divorce occurs within their formative years. What they see and experience during the failing marriage becomes a part of their view of themselves and of society. Although the findings from the study are, in some respects, dismaying, what emerges clearly is that a successfully reestablished family or a successful remarriage can improve the quality of life for both adults and children. The divorce may resolve the family conflict and allow the children to preserve a relationship with both parents. Divorce may also be useful in putting some distance between a child and a disturbed parent. Under these conditions, children may show accelerated maturity and independence. They may also bring to young adulthood a morality that places high value on sustaining relationships and on love, fidelity, and compassion. The results of the longitudinal study, as well as those of the two joint custody studies, indicate that ongoing conflict between divorced parents has especially detrimental effects on the children and that children are particularly at risk when they have frequent and continuing access to both parents who are hostile and uncooperative with each other. Mandated joint custody and frequent visitation in these situations may not be advisable. On the other hand, among children in chronically disturbed and disputing families, there is a wide range of individual coping responses and degrees of resilience. In the final analysis, individual temperaments should be considered and a careful evaluation made of how each child is coping in his or her own particular family environment.

  13. Disentangling component learning and executive processes in hidden pathway maze learning in children: a process-based approach.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Reeve, Robert; Pietrzak, Robert; Maruff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Identification of cognitive processes that affect children's ability to manage complex information is critical to understanding the development of executive functions. However, characterization of these processes is hampered by a lack of appropriate tasks and reliance on single outcome measures that are unsuitable for studying complex aspects of executive function. The current study aimed to circumvent these limitations by employing a hidden maze learning paradigm (Groton Maze Learning Test; independence of component cognitive GMLT) to evaluate the processes--spatial memory and rule use--that underlie hidden pathway maze learning in children. Specifically, we investigated the impact of withholding rule instructions (Study 1) and nonrepeating pathways on each trial (Study 2) on the ability to use rules and to locate pathways in 10 × 10 mazes in a sample of 8-year-old children. Results of these studies suggested that manipulations of task rules did not affect spatial memory and that manipulations of the maze pathway did not affect rule use. These findings demonstrate the independence of spatial memory and rule use on the GMLT and provide evidence of a "double dissociation" of cognitive processes that underlie hidden maze learning in children. Implications for understanding the coordination of component cognitive processes that underlie executive function in childhood are discussed.

  14. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  15. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  16. Inconsistent findings for the eyes closed effect in children: the implications for interviewing child witnesses.

    PubMed

    Kyriakidou, Marilena; Blades, Mark; Carroll, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A child who alleges that they have been the victim of a crime will be interviewed by police officers. During a police interview it is important that the interviewer obtains the most accurate testimony possible from the child. Previous studies have shown that if children have their eyes closed during an interview they sometimes report more correct information. This paper includes two studies. In Experiment 1 156 children experienced an event and were then questioned about it. Half the children answered with their eyes open and half with their eyes closed. The participants with eyes closed provided more correct information. In Experiment 2 152 children answered questions in different conditions including eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In contrast to Experiment 1 there was no beneficial effect for the eyes closed condition. These inconsistent results are discussed with reference to actual police interviews. It is suggested that until there has been more research into eyes closed procedures caution should be taken in recommending such procedures for police interviews with children. PMID:24999333

  17. Inconsistent findings for the eyes closed effect in children: the implications for interviewing child witnesses

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakidou, Marilena; Blades, Mark; Carroll, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A child who alleges that they have been the victim of a crime will be interviewed by police officers. During a police interview it is important that the interviewer obtains the most accurate testimony possible from the child. Previous studies have shown that if children have their eyes closed during an interview they sometimes report more correct information. This paper includes two studies. In Experiment 1 156 children experienced an event and were then questioned about it. Half the children answered with their eyes open and half with their eyes closed. The participants with eyes closed provided more correct information. In Experiment 2 152 children answered questions in different conditions including eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In contrast to Experiment 1 there was no beneficial effect for the eyes closed condition. These inconsistent results are discussed with reference to actual police interviews. It is suggested that until there has been more research into eyes closed procedures caution should be taken in recommending such procedures for police interviews with children. PMID:24999333

  18. Reducing Child Witnesses' False Reports of Misinformation from Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Debra Ann; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Explored whether source-monitoring training (SMT) would help 3- to 8-year-olds report only experienced events during a target interview. Found that SMT reduced 7- and 8- year-olds' false reports in response to direct questions but had no impact on younger children's performance. Findings suggest a transition between 3 and 8 years in strategic use…

  19. Spirituality in children and adolescents: research findings and implications for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Houskamp, Beth M; Fisher, Lynne A; Stuber, Margaret L

    2004-01-01

    Spirituality is a powerful force in the lives of children. Although spirituality has only recently begun to be a focus for psychiatric research, initial qualitative data suggest that children experience themselves as spiritual beings and that understanding and connecting with them around their spiritual lives can be an important adjunct to treatment. Clinicians should feel free to ask about a child's spiritual life and to work with the family using their spiritual resources if they are perceived to be beneficial in helping the child and family cope with their current situation. Because the work with children's spirituality is in its preliminary stages, qualitative methodology is still the recommended research method for investigating questions in this research area.

  20. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Eckel, Sandrah P; Breton, Carrie V; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children's Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children's health while control measures are being implemented.

  1. Visual relations children find easy and difficult to process in figural analogies.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Claire E; Alberto, Rosa A; van den Boom, Max A; de Boeck, Paul A L

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to learn about novel phenomena by relating it to structurally similar knowledge, develops with great variability in children. Furthermore, the development of analogical reasoning coincides with greater working memory efficiency and increasing knowledge of the entities and relations present in analogy problems. In figural matrices, a classical form of analogical reasoning assessment, some features, such as color, appear easier for children to encode and infer than others, such as orientation. Yet, few studies have structurally examined differences in the difficulty of visual relations across different age-groups. This cross-sectional study of figural analogical reasoning examined which underlying rules in figural analogies were easier or more difficult for children to correctly process. School children (N = 1422, M = 7.0 years, SD = 21 months, range 4.5-12.5 years) were assessed in analogical reasoning using classical figural matrices and memory measures. The visual relations the children had to induce and apply concerned the features: animal, color, orientation, position, quantity and size. The role of age and memory span on the children's ability to correctly process each type of relation was examined using explanatory item response theory models. The results showed that with increasing age and/or greater memory span all visual relations were processed more accurately. The "what" visual relations animal, color, quantity and size were easiest, whereas the "where" relations orientation and position were most difficult. However, the "where" visual relations became relatively easier with age and increased memory efficiency. The implications are discussed in terms of the development of visual processing in object recognition vs. position and motion encoding in the ventral ("what") and dorsal ("where") pathways respectively. PMID:25140160

  2. Visual relations children find easy and difficult to process in figural analogies

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Claire E.; Alberto, Rosa A.; van den Boom, Max A.; de Boeck, Paul A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to learn about novel phenomena by relating it to structurally similar knowledge, develops with great variability in children. Furthermore, the development of analogical reasoning coincides with greater working memory efficiency and increasing knowledge of the entities and relations present in analogy problems. In figural matrices, a classical form of analogical reasoning assessment, some features, such as color, appear easier for children to encode and infer than others, such as orientation. Yet, few studies have structurally examined differences in the difficulty of visual relations across different age-groups. This cross-sectional study of figural analogical reasoning examined which underlying rules in figural analogies were easier or more difficult for children to correctly process. School children (N = 1422, M = 7.0 years, SD = 21 months, range 4.5–12.5 years) were assessed in analogical reasoning using classical figural matrices and memory measures. The visual relations the children had to induce and apply concerned the features: animal, color, orientation, position, quantity and size. The role of age and memory span on the children's ability to correctly process each type of relation was examined using explanatory item response theory models. The results showed that with increasing age and/or greater memory span all visual relations were processed more accurately. The “what” visual relations animal, color, quantity and size were easiest, whereas the “where” relations orientation and position were most difficult. However, the “where” visual relations became relatively easier with age and increased memory efficiency. The implications are discussed in terms of the development of visual processing in object recognition vs. position and motion encoding in the ventral (“what”) and dorsal (“where”) pathways respectively. PMID:25140160

  3. Distance to School is Associated with Sedentary Time in Children: Findings from the URBAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Hinckson, Erica A.; McGrath, Les; Hopkins, Will; Oliver, Melody; Badland, Hannah; Mavoa, Suzanne; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin A.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is associated with overweight and obesity in children, and distance to school has been negatively associated with active commuting to school. It is not known how distance to school relates to sedentary behavior in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between distance to school and children’s sedentary behavior during weekdays at times where children interact with the neighborhood environment. Children (5–13 years, n = 295) who participated in the understanding relationships between activity and neighborhoods study (2008–2010) across four New Zealand cities wore a hip-mounted accelerometer for 7 days. Minutes spent sedentary (accelerometer count <100 min−1) were derived for the school travel periods (0800–0859 and 1500–1559) and after school discretionary time (1600–1759). Shortest street network distance to school was calculated from residential addresses using geographical information systems and parsed into tertiles for analysis. Children completed a daily travel log including mode of transport to and from school, which was dichotomized into active (walking and cycling) and passive (motorized) modes. Children living in the second tertile of distance from school were the least sedentary during the school traveling periods (42 ± 10%, mean ± true between-child SD) compared to those living in the first or third distance tertiles (47 ± 10 and 49 ± 10%, respectively); the differences were clear and likely substantial (90% confidence limits ± 6%). Children who traveled by motorized transport were more sedentary for each of the distance tertiles (50 versus 44%, 46 versus 39%, and 54 versus 27% for first, second, and third tertiles, respectively; 90% confidence limits ± 7%). In the period of 1600–1759, girls in the third distance tertile were the most sedentary. The combined effects of 1–2 km distance from school and active commuting to school contributed to least

  4. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  5. Food Perceptions and Dietary Behavior of American-Indian Children, Their Caregivers, and Educators: Formative Assessment Findings from Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Toporoff, Elanah Greer; Story, Mary; Evans, Marguerite; Anliker, Jean; Davis, Sally; Sharma, Anjali; White, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Dietary findings from a school-based obesity prevention project (Pathways) are reported for children from six different American-Indian nations. A formative assessment was undertaken with teachers, caregivers, and children from nine schools to design a culturally appropriate intervention, including classroom curriculum, food service, physical education, and family components. This assessment employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods (including direct observations, paired-child in-depth interviews, focus groups with child caregivers and teachers, and semistructured interviews with caregivers and foodservice personnel) to query local perceptions and beliefs about foods commonly eaten and risk behaviors associated with childhood obesity at home, at school, and in the community. An abundance of high-fat, high-sugar foods was detected in children's diets described by caregivers, school food-service workers, and the children themselves. Although children and caregivers identified fruits and vegetables as healthy food choices, this knowledge does not appear to influence actual food choices. Frequent high-fat/high-sugar food sales in the schools, high-fat entrees in school meals, the use of food rewards in the classroom, rules about finishing all of one's food, and limited family resources are some of the competing factors that need to be addressed in the Pathways intervention. PMID:27667857

  6. The "RAPID" Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Inattentive Children: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…

  7. School Desegregation: Outcomes for Children. Findings in Search of a Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Nancy H.; Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This article examines nine dimensions to the meaning of school desegregation for black children and analyzes one attitudinal outcome related to each dimension. The dimensions (listed first) and corresponding outcomes are as follows: (1) symbolic message and sense of control; (2) borrowed stigma aura and self esteem; (3) relative deprivation and…

  8. Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

  9. Neurocognitive Outcomes in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Current Findings and Contemporary Endeavors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Arlene C.; Butler, Robert; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Wentz, Alicia; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Mendley, Susan R.; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Given the rise in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both children and adults, CKD has recently been targeted as a public health priority. Childhood onset kidney disease is generally a noncurable and progressive condition that leads to kidney failure by early adulthood. Fortunately, improved identification of kidney problems allows for early…

  10. Outcomes of Children Participating in Mental Health Residential and Intensive Family Services: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preyde, Michele; Adams, Gerald; Cameron, Gary; Frensch, Karen

    2009-01-01

    It has been estimated that approximately 20% of children experience some form of mental health problem, with 14% in the clinical range. Residential mental health treatment is often reserved for those with the most severe presentation of disorder, and intensive home-based alternatives have been developed to cope with increasing demand. The purpose…

  11. Children's Perceptions of Learning Braille: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of the ABC Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Sharon Z.; Hannan, Cheryl K.; Erin, Jane N.

    2011-01-01

    Children's perceptions of learning to read and write braille were measured using an open ended 10-item questionnaire. The data were evaluated by amount of time, level of contractedness, and level of achievement. No differences were found with respect to time or the introduction of contractions. Differences were apparent between the high- and…

  12. Influence of Stuttering Variation on Talker Group Classification in Preschool Children: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…

  13. Social inequalities in wheezing in children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Smyth, Rosalind; Law, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Wheezing in childhood is socially patterned, but it is unclear what factors explain the social differences.Regression analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study, based on 11 141 singleton children who participated at ages 9 months and 3, 5 and 7 years. Relative risk ratios (RRR) for early and persistent/relapsing wheeze were estimated using multinomial regression, according to measures of socioeconomic circumstances. Maternal, antenatal and early-life characteristics were assessed as potential mediators.Children of mothers with no educational qualifications were more likely to have both wheeze types, compared to children of mothers with degree-level qualifications (RRR 1.53, 95% CI 1.26-1.86 for early wheeze; 1.32 95% CI 1.04-1.67 for persistent/relapsing wheeze). Controlling for maternal age, smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding removed the elevated risk of wheezing. Male sex, maternal age, body mass index, atopy, smoking during pregnancy, preterm birth, breastfeeding, exposure to other children and furry pets were independently associated with wheezing, but the pattern of association varied between wheezing types.In this representative UK cohort, adjustment for maternal smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding removed the socioeconomic inequalities in common wheezing phenotypes. Policies to reduce the social gradient in these risk factors may reduce inequalities in wheezing and asthma.

  14. Finding the Cause: Verbal Framing Helps Children Extract Causal Evidence Embedded in a Complex Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lucas P.; Markman, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    In making causal inferences, children must both identify a causal problem and selectively attend to meaningful evidence. Four experiments demonstrate that verbally framing an event ("Which animals make Lion laugh?") helps 4-year-olds extract evidence from a complex scene to make accurate causal inferences. Whereas framing was unnecessary when…

  15. Health-Promoting Changes with Children as Agents: Findings from a Multiple Case Study Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled "Shape Up: a school-community approach to influencing determinants of…

  16. Young Children's Block Construction Activities: Findings from 3 Years of Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanline, Mary Frances; Milton, Sande; Phelps, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study explored the development of the complexity of block constructions of 65 preschool children. Results indicated that the complexity of block constructions increased with age, the time the child was involved with block construction activities had a positive effect on complexity, and gender did not influence block construction…

  17. Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

  18. New Findings on Children, Families, and Economic Self-Sufficiency: Summary of a Research Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah, Ed.; Bridgman, Anne, Ed.

    This report is a summary of a December, 1994 research briefing presented by the Board on Children and Families of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, and the Family and Child Well-Being Research Network of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This…

  19. Public Policies Affecting Chronically Ill Children and Their Families. Summary of Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nicholas; And Others

    The complex special needs of families with chronically ill children will be best met through the development of regionalized systems of care. A national program is proposed in the context of a generic definition of chronic childhood illness, emphasizing coordinated regional efforts which provide services as close to a child's home as possible. The…

  20. Children's abilities to distinguish novel languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna

    2005-04-01

    When adults hear spoken samples of a language which they do not know, they can often identify it and discriminate between languages even when produced by the same talkers. Children have much less experience making metalinguistic judgments. How do children respond to languages which they do not know? We have conducted three experiments examining the abilities of 4-year old and 8-year old children to discriminate between spoken samples of different languages produced by bilingual talkers. We constructed listening tests from 5-second phrases excerpted from fluent reading provided by the talkers. In the three experiments, we progressively simplified the response mode employed by the children as well as the cognitive load of the task. Even in the simplest version, only a third of the 4-year-olds could do the task while the 8-year old children performed above chance in all three experiments. The younger children tended to respond different more than same, as if their criterion for same was identify.

  1. The Moral Choices Children Attribute to Adults and to Peers: Implications for Moral Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzstein, Herbert D.; Roazzi, Antonio; Dias, Maria da G.

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-six children (half 6-8 years old and half 10-12) in Northeast Brazil heard three hypothetical dilemmas featuring a choice between telling the truth and keeping a promise. Each dilemma was initiated by a different kind of lie: an exculpable pro-social lie (teasing), a lie in the personal domain (hiding) and a lie in the service of an…

  2. Structural Priming of Adjective-Noun Structures in Hearing and Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beijsterveldt, Liesbeth M.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2009-01-01

    We examined priming of adjective-noun structures in Dutch hearing and deaf children. In three experiments, hearing 7- and 8-year-olds, hearing 11- and 12-year-olds, and deaf 11- and 12-year-olds read a prenominal structure (e.g., "the blue ball"), a relative clause structure (e.g., "the ball that is blue"), or a main clause (e.g., "the ball is…

  3. Biomarkers of kidney integrity in children and adolescents with dental amalgam mercury exposure: findings from the Casa Pia children's amalgam trial.

    PubMed

    Woods, James S; Martin, Michael D; Leroux, Brian G; DeRouen, Timothy A; Bernardo, Mario F; Luis, Henrique S; Leitão, Jorge G; Kushleika, John V; Rue, Tessa C; Korpak, Anna M

    2008-11-01

    Mercury is toxic to the kidney, and dental amalgam is a source of mercury exposure. Few studies have evaluated the effects of dental amalgam on kidney function in a longitudinal context in children. Here, we evaluated urinary concentrations of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) alpha and pi as biomarkers of renal proximal and distal tubular integrity, respectively, and albumin as a biomarker of glomerular integrity in children and adolescents 8-18 years of age over a 7-year course of dental amalgam treatment. Five hundred seven children, 8-12 years of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral and renal effects of dental amalgam in children. Subjects were randomized to either dental amalgam or resin composite treatments. Urinary GSTs alpha and pi, albumin, and creatinine concentrations were measured at baseline and annually in all subjects. Results were evaluated using linear regression analysis. GST-alpha concentrations were similar between treatment groups and in each sex and race (white vs. non-white) group in each follow-up year. GST-pi levels tended upward over the course of follow-up by four- to six-fold. This increase was seen in all groups irrespective of the treatment, race, or gender. Females had GST-pi levels approximately twice those of males at all ages. Albumin concentrations were constant throughout the follow-up period and did not differ by treatment, although females had 39% higher albumin levels than males. Additionally, we found no significant effects of amalgam treatment on the proportion of children with microalbuminuria (>30 mg/g creatinine). These findings are relevant within the context of children's health risk assessment as relates to the safety of mercury exposure from dental amalgam on kidney function. These data also provide normative values for sensitive indices of renal functional integrity that may serve in the evaluation of children and adolescents with renal disorders.

  4. Biomarkers of kidney integrity in children and adolescents with dental amalgam mercury exposure: Findings from the Casa Pia children's amalgam trial

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, James S. Martin, Michael D.; Leroux, Brian G.; DeRouen, Timothy A.; Bernardo, Mario F.; Luis, Henrique S.; Leitao, Jorge G.; Kushleika, John V.; Rue, Tessa C.; Korpak, Anna M.

    2008-11-15

    Mercury is toxic to the kidney, and dental amalgam is a source of mercury exposure. Few studies have evaluated the effects of dental amalgam on kidney function in a longitudinal context in children. Here, we evaluated urinary concentrations of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) {alpha} and {pi} as biomarkers of renal proximal and distal tubular integrity, respectively, and albumin as a biomarker of glomerular integrity in children and adolescents 8-18 years of age over a 7-year course of dental amalgam treatment. Five hundred seven children, 8-12 years of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral and renal effects of dental amalgam in children. Subjects were randomized to either dental amalgam or resin composite treatments. Urinary GSTs {alpha} and {pi}, albumin, and creatinine concentrations were measured at baseline and annually in all subjects. Results were evaluated using linear regression analysis. GST-{alpha} concentrations were similar between treatment groups and in each sex and race (white vs. non-white) group in each follow-up year. GST-{pi} levels tended upward over the course of follow-up by four- to six-fold. This increase was seen in all groups irrespective of the treatment, race, or gender. Females had GST-{pi} levels approximately twice those of males at all ages. Albumin concentrations were constant throughout the follow-up period and did not differ by treatment, although females had 39% higher albumin levels than males. Additionally, we found no significant effects of amalgam treatment on the proportion of children with microalbuminuria (>30 mg/g creatinine). These findings are relevant within the context of children's health risk assessment as relates to the safety of mercury exposure from dental amalgam on kidney function. These data also provide normative values for sensitive indices of renal functional integrity that may serve in the evaluation of children and adolescents with renal disorders.

  5. Benefits for employees with children with ADHD: findings from the Collaborative Employee Benefit Study.

    PubMed

    Perrin, James M; Fluet, Chris; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Anderson, Betsy; Wells, Nora; Epstein, Susan; Allen, Debby; Tobias, Carol

    2005-02-01

    Parents of most children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are employed. Employers have interest in decreasing employee absenteeism and improving workplace productivity, partly through employee benefits. The authors interviewed employers to (1) determine how they view the needs of employees with children with ADHD and (2) identify benefits that might help employees with children with ADHD. The authors carried out a systematic interview study of mainly family-friendly, large employers in four U.S. urban markets (Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle). Multidisciplinary interview teams used a protocol to gather basic company information, benefit philosophy, current insurance and other employee benefits, and knowledge of ADHD and its impacts on employees. Initially, the interview team and then the larger project team reviewed all protocols for common themes. The authors interviewed staff of 41 employers (human resource managers, work/life program directors, benefits directors). Only 15 of 41 interviewees knew about ADHD, its prevalence, or its effects on parents. They had little knowledge of how differences in managed behavioral health may affect families' access to diagnostic and treatment services for ADHD, although most had experience with primary care management of depression among employees. Employers offer a variety of other benefits, including work/life and employee assistance programs, occasionally providing employees help with caring for a child with a mental health condition, on-site parent training programs, or assistance with child care. Other potentially useful employee benefits include flexible work and leave policies and information and referral services that can link parents with community programs. Although employers have limited awareness of ADHD and its potential effect on employees' work, this study identified opportunities to improve both health insurance and other benefits for employees with children with ADHD.

  6. Use of oral health care services and oral findings in children with special needs in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oredugba, Folakemi A

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the use of oral healthcare services by children with special needs in Lagos, Nigeria. In this study, 125 structured questionnaires were sent to parents of children in two public day schools for CSN in Lagos. Once the questionnaires were returned, oral examinations were scheduled. The findings were compared to a control group of healthy children from two public schools in the same environment. One hundred and nine CSN and 134 controls, aged 5 to 19 years, participated in the study. The majority of the children had parents who had a low educational level. Fewer than 5% of the children had ever been to the dentist, and had only attended because of some symptoms. Non-attendance in 59.6% and 58% of CSN and controls respectively was reported to be due to absence of dental problem, 28% and 33.5% expressed ignorance about dentists and 8% of the parents of CSN identified finance and transportation as a problem. There were no significant differences between the two groups (p>0.05). It was found that 54% of CSN and 9% of controls had poor oral hygiene (p<0.05); dmft/DMFT was 0.25 in the controls and 0.12 in CSN (p>0.05). Untreated fractured teeth and missing teeth were more prevalent in CSN (p<0.05), while enamel hypoplasia was more prevalent in the controls (p<0.05). This study concluded that CSN and children from lower socioeconomic levels did not adequately utilize dental facilities in Lagos. Preventive programs in schools and the development of dental clinics in or near their schools could help.

  7. The Effects of Activating the Money Concept on Perseverance and the Preference for Delayed Gratification in Children.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Agata; Sekścińska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behavior and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investigate the positive influence of money activation on children's behavior. The participants were 6-8 year old children who do not yet fully understand the instrumental function of money due to their young age. Two experimental studies were performed, the first of which analyzed the effect of perseverance and performance on a challenging task and the second investigated preferences with respect to delaying gratification. Sixty-one children aged 6 took part in the first study and forty-six scout camp participants 6-8 years of age were involved in the second experiment. The results support the hypotheses concerning the effects of money activation stating that (1) money activation influences children's perseverance and effectiveness in difficult individual tasks, and that (2) it increases children's preferences for delayed gratification. These results suggest that money has a symbolic power which may exert both positive and negative effects on children's behavior. Since children between the ages of 6 and 8 do not understand the instrumental function of money fully, certain symbolic meanings of money may have been responsible for the money priming effects. The findings suggest that the symbolic function of money is more primal than its instrumental function and that it probably develops at an earlier stage in life. PMID:27199842

  8. The Effects of Activating the Money Concept on Perseverance and the Preference for Delayed Gratification in Children.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Agata; Sekścińska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behavior and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investigate the positive influence of money activation on children's behavior. The participants were 6-8 year old children who do not yet fully understand the instrumental function of money due to their young age. Two experimental studies were performed, the first of which analyzed the effect of perseverance and performance on a challenging task and the second investigated preferences with respect to delaying gratification. Sixty-one children aged 6 took part in the first study and forty-six scout camp participants 6-8 years of age were involved in the second experiment. The results support the hypotheses concerning the effects of money activation stating that (1) money activation influences children's perseverance and effectiveness in difficult individual tasks, and that (2) it increases children's preferences for delayed gratification. These results suggest that money has a symbolic power which may exert both positive and negative effects on children's behavior. Since children between the ages of 6 and 8 do not understand the instrumental function of money fully, certain symbolic meanings of money may have been responsible for the money priming effects. The findings suggest that the symbolic function of money is more primal than its instrumental function and that it probably develops at an earlier stage in life.

  9. Cytogenetic and Molecular Findings in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Experience of a Single Institution in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Coccé, Mariela C.; Alonso, Cristina N.; Rossi, Jorge G.; Bernasconi, Andrea R.; Rampazzi, Maria A.; Felice, Maria S.; Rubio, Patricia L.; Eandi Eberle, Silvia; Medina, Adriana; Gallego, Marta S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the cytogenetic findings in 1,057 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) referred to the cytogenetics laboratory at the Hospital de Pediatría Dr. Juan P. Garrahan, between 1991 and 2014. Chromosomal abnormalities were evaluated by G-banding and FISH. Since December 2002, RT-PCR determinations were systematically carried out for BCR-ABL1, KMT2A-AFF1, ETV6-RUNX1, and TCF3-PBX1 rearrangements in children, adding KMT2A-MLLT3 and KMT2A-MLLT1 in infants. The percentage of abnormalities detected by cytogenetics was 70.1%. Four novel abnormalities, t(2;8)(p11.2;p22), inv(4)(p16q25), t(1;7)(q25;q32), and t(5;6)(q21;q21), were found in this cohort. We compared cytogenetic and RT-PCR results for BCR-ABL1, KMT2A-AFF1 and TCF3-PBX1 rearrangements in 497 children evaluated by both methods. The results were highly concordant (p < 0.7), and interestingly, FISH was relevant to confirm G-banding findings that were discordant with RT-PCR studies. This study showed the importance of performing G-banding, FISH and RT-PCR simultaneously to improve the detection of chromosomal abnormalities considering their important value in the diagnosis and prognosis of childhood ALL patients. Finally, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first series of cytogenetic findings in children with ALL reported in Argentina. PMID:26648836

  10. Brief Report: The Prevalence of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Deborah A; Bakian, Amanda V; Stevenson, David A; Carbone, Paul S; Cunniff, Christopher; Goodman, Alyson B; McMahon, William M; Fisher, Nicole P; Viskochil, David

    2016-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The frequency of ASD/NF1 co-occurrence has been subject to debate since the 1980s. This relationship was investigated in a large population-based sample of 8-year-old children identified with ASD (N = 12,271) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network. Twenty-two (1-in-558) children with ASD had diagnosed NF1, exceeding NF1 general population estimates by four to five fold. Children with ASD/NF1 versus ASD without NF1 were significantly less likely to receive a community-based ASD diagnosis (p = 0.04) and understand non-verbal communication (p = 0.001). These findings underscore the importance of including social-communication ability among relevant developmental concerns in children with NF1.

  11. Cost-Savings Analysis of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures Community-Based Project for Young Children and Their Families: A 10-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ray DeV; Petrunka, Kelly; Khan, Shahriar; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Nelson, Geoffrey; Pancer, S Mark; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the long-term cost-savings of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures (BBBF) initiative, a community-based early intervention project for young children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods during their transition to primary school. A quasi-experimental, longitudinal two-group design was used to compare costs and outcomes for children and families in three BBBF project neighborhoods (n = 401) and two comparison neighborhoods (n = 225). A cost-savings analysis was conducted using all project costs for providing up to 4 years of BBBF programs when children were in junior kindergarten (JK) (4 years old) to grade 2 (8 years old). Data on 19 government service cost measures were collected from the longitudinal research sample from the time the youth were in JK through to grade 12 (18 years old), 10 years after ending project participation. The average family incremental net savings to government of providing the BBBF project was $6331 in 2014 Canadian dollars. When the BBBF monetary return to government as a ratio of savings to costs was calculated, for every dollar invested by the government, a return of $2.50 per family was saved. Findings from this study have important implications for government investments in early interventions focused on a successful transition to primary school as well as parenting programs and community development initiatives in support of children's development.

  12. Normal versus Abnormal Genital Findings in Children: How Well Do Examiners Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Joyce A.; Wells, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Preselected colposcopic photographs of the anogenital area of 16 patients were shown to 170 medical examiners, who rated their level of suggestion or indication of penetrating injury. Agreement between the participants and experts was higher on the abnormal cases than on the normal cases, and higher on genital findings than on anal findings.…

  13. Low Positive Affectivity and Behavioral Inhibition in Preschool-Age Children: A Replication and Extension of Previous Findings

    PubMed Central

    Laptook, Rebecca S.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Carlson, Gabrielle

    2009-01-01

    The present report replicates and extends our previous study using a laboratory assessment of child temperament and behavior to distinguish the affective component, low positive affect (PA), of the broader positive emotionality construct from behavioral inhibition (BI) in a larger, independent sample. Additionally, we examined whether laboratory-assessed traits could be distinguished on parent/teacher reports of related constructs. Low positive emotionality and BI share the core feature of low approach/engagement and are often not distinguished in the literature, despite presumed differences in underlying motivation. We examined these traits in novel and non-novel laboratory contexts. Similar to previous findings, we found that in novel situations, children with low PA and children with high BI exhibited similar levels of approach, and both groups exhibited lower approach than controls. In contrast, in non-novel situations, children with low PA exhibited significantly lower levels of approach than children with high BI and controls. Finally, we also found external evidence for the distinction between laboratory-defined low PA and high BI on parent and teacher reports of child temperament. PMID:20224804

  14. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented. PMID:27587920

  15. Acute Brain MRI Findings in 120 Malawian Children with Cerebral Malaria: New Insights into an Ancient Disease

    PubMed Central

    Potchen, Michael J.; Kampondeni, Sam D.; Seydel, Karl B.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Hammond, Colleen A.; Bradley, William G.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Glover, Simon J.; Ugorji, Joseph O.; Latourette, Matt; Siebert, James; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose There have been few neuroimaging studies of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM), a common, often fatal tropical condition. We undertook a prospective study of pediatric CM to better characterize the MRI features of this syndrome, comparing findings in children meeting a stringent definition of CM to those in a control group who were infected with malaria but who were likely to have a non-malarial cause of coma. Materials and Methods Consecutive children admitted with traditionally defined CM (parasitemia, coma and no other coma etiology evident) were eligible for this study. The presence or absence of malaria retinopathy was determined. MRI findings in patients with retinopathy-positive (ret+) CM (cases) were compared to those with retinopathy-negative (ret−) CM (controls). Two radiologists blinded to retinopathy status jointly developed a scoring procedure for image interpretation and provided independent reviews. MRI findings were compared between patients with and without retinopathy, to assess the specificity of changes for patients with very strictly defined CM. Results Of 152 children with clinically defined CM, 120 were ret+, and 32 were ret −. Abnormalities were much more common in the ret + cases, and included severe edema, abnormal T2 signal, and DWI abnormalities in the cortical, deep gray and white matter structures. Focal abnormalities rarely respected vascular distributions. Most of the scans in the more clinically heterogeneous ret− group were normal, and none of the abnormalities noted were more prevalent in controls. Conclusions Distinctive MRI findings present in patients meeting a stringent definition of CM may offer insights into disease pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:22517285

  16. Demographic and Clinical Findings in Children Undergoing Bronchoscopy for Foreign Body Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mojgan; Manesh, Mohammad Reza Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a significant cause of airway distress, mortality, and morbidity in children. Diagnosis of FBA can be challenging and is sometimes delayed for weeks or even months. If not diagnosed and treated promptly, FBA can result in serious consequences. Methods: For this retrospective study, we investigated the medical records of 89 children who underwent bronchoscopy for suspected FBA and recorded relevant demographic, clinical, and treatment data. Results: Of the 89 patients identified for this study, 51 had a definitive diagnosis of FBA. Among these patients, choking, chronic cough and wheezing, cyanosis, and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms of FBA. The foreign bodies were located in the left bronchus (45.1%), the right bronchus (35.3%), the trachea (15.7%), and in both the right and left bronchi (3.9%). Seeds were the most prevalent foreign body, found in 39.2% of the patients. Conclusion: Lack of complete medical history in patients with suspected FBA is one of the main causes of delayed FBA diagnosis. Bronchoscopy is considered the definitive diagnostic method for FBA and should be conducted in all patients with suspected FBA because of the low risk of complications and reduced probability that FBA diagnosis and treatment will be delayed. PMID:27303219

  17. New Approaches for Working with Children and Families Involved in Family Treatment Drug Courts: Findings from the Children Affected by Methamphetamine Program.

    PubMed

    Rodi, Michael S; Killian, Colleen M; Breitenbucher, Philip; Young, Nancy K; Amatetti, Sharon; Bermejo, Russ; Hall, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study of the Children Affected by Methamphetamine (CAM) grant program, a federally funded effort to improve outcomes through the addition of targeted interventions for 1,940 families, including 2,596 adults and 4,245 children involved in 12 diverse Family Treatment Drug Courts (FTDCs) located across six U.S. states. The majority were children of parents with a primary methamphetamine use disorder. Findings reflect grantees' reporting on 18 performance indicators of child safety and permanency, adult recovery, and family well-being. Additional information gleaned from grantees' biannual reports provides insights about program implementation. Results, drawn from this large and complex dataset, indicate that comprehensively addressing families' needs is associated with better outcomes than those experienced by similarly situated families in grantees' communities and the nation overall. In addition to describing common program components and outcomes, this article presents important lessons learned about implementing evidence-based children's services in the FTDC context, as well as future directions for research and evaluation in this arena. PMID:26827483

  18. Early visual language exposure and emergent literacy in preschool deaf children: findings from a national longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas E; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian

    2014-01-01

    Brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of literacy. Four analyses of data from the Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) Early Education Longitudinal Study are summarized. Each confirms findings from previously published laboratory findings and points to the positive effects of early sign language on, respectively, letter knowledge, social adaptability, sustained visual attention, and cognitive-behavioral milestones necessary for academic success. The article concludes with a consideration of the qualitative similarity hypothesis and a finding that the hypothesis is valid, but only if it can be presented as being modality independent. PMID:25669017

  19. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance.

  20. Prevalence of obesity and acanthosis nigricans among young children in the children's healthy living program in the United States Affiliated Pacific.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Rachel; Li, Fenfang; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Bersamin, Andrea; Tufa, Aifili; Deenik, Jonathan; Coleman, Patricia; Guerrero, Rachael Leon; Wilkens, Lynne R

    2016-09-01

    Estimate prevalence of obesity and acanthosis nigricans (AN) among children in United States Affiliated Pacific (USAP) jurisdictions.Cross-sectional measurement of weight, height, and AN in 5775, 2 to 8 years old in 51 communities-Hawai'i, Alaska, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Palau, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), 4 Federated States of Micronesia (Pohnpei, Yap, Kosrae, Chuuk). Analyses weighted to jurisdiction-specific sex and age distributions accounting for clustering of communities within jurisdictions.Prevalence of obesity was 14.0%, overweight 14.4%, healthy weight 68.9%, and underweight 2.6%, higher in males (16.3%) than females (11.6%), higher among 6 to 8 years old (16.3%) than 2 to 5 years old (12.9%), highest in American Samoa (21.7%), and absent in RMI. In total, 4.7% of children had AN, with no sex difference, higher in 6 to 8 years old (6.8%) than 2 to 5 years old (3.5%) and highest in Pohnpei (11.9%), and absent in Alaska. Obesity was highly associated with AN (odds ratio = 9.25, 95% confidence interval = 6.69-12.80), with the strongest relationships among Asians, followed by Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI).Obesity, age, and Asian and NHPI race were positively associated with AN. PMID:27631218

  1. Prevalence of obesity and acanthosis nigricans among young children in the children's healthy living program in the United States Affiliated Pacific.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Rachel; Li, Fenfang; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Bersamin, Andrea; Tufa, Aifili; Deenik, Jonathan; Coleman, Patricia; Guerrero, Rachael Leon; Wilkens, Lynne R

    2016-09-01

    Estimate prevalence of obesity and acanthosis nigricans (AN) among children in United States Affiliated Pacific (USAP) jurisdictions.Cross-sectional measurement of weight, height, and AN in 5775, 2 to 8 years old in 51 communities-Hawai'i, Alaska, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Palau, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), 4 Federated States of Micronesia (Pohnpei, Yap, Kosrae, Chuuk). Analyses weighted to jurisdiction-specific sex and age distributions accounting for clustering of communities within jurisdictions.Prevalence of obesity was 14.0%, overweight 14.4%, healthy weight 68.9%, and underweight 2.6%, higher in males (16.3%) than females (11.6%), higher among 6 to 8 years old (16.3%) than 2 to 5 years old (12.9%), highest in American Samoa (21.7%), and absent in RMI. In total, 4.7% of children had AN, with no sex difference, higher in 6 to 8 years old (6.8%) than 2 to 5 years old (3.5%) and highest in Pohnpei (11.9%), and absent in Alaska. Obesity was highly associated with AN (odds ratio = 9.25, 95% confidence interval = 6.69-12.80), with the strongest relationships among Asians, followed by Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI).Obesity, age, and Asian and NHPI race were positively associated with AN.

  2. Age, Predisposing Diseases, and Ultrasonographic Findings in Determining Clinical Outcome of Acute Acalculous Inflammatory Gallbladder Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated clinical factors such as age, gender, predisposing diseases and ultrasonographic findings that determine clinical outcome of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder diseases in children. The patients were divided into the four age groups. From March 2004 through February 2014, clinical data from 131 children diagnosed as acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease by ultrasonography were retrospectively reviewed. Systemic infectious diseases were the most common etiology of acute inflammatory gallbladder disease in children and were identified in 50 patients (38.2%). Kawasaki disease was the most common predisposing disease (28 patients, 21.4%). The incidence was highest in infancy and lowest in adolescence. The age groups were associated with different predisposing diseases; noninfectious systemic disease was the most common etiology in infancy and early childhood, whereas systemic infectious disease was the most common in middle childhood and adolescence (P = 0.001). Gallbladder wall thickening was more commonly found in malignancy (100%) and systemic infection (94.0%) (P = 0.002), whereas gallbladder distension was more frequent in noninfectious systemic diseases (60%) (P = 0.000). Ascites seen on ultrasonography was associated with a worse clinical course compared with no ascites (77.9% vs. 37.7%, P = 0.030), and the duration of hospitalization was longer in patients with ascites (11.6 ± 10.7 vs. 8.0 ± 6.6 days, P = 0.020). In conclusion, consideration of age and predisposing disease in addition to ultrasonographic gallbladder findings in children suspected of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease might result in better outcomes. PMID:27550491

  3. Age, Predisposing Diseases, and Ultrasonographic Findings in Determining Clinical Outcome of Acute Acalculous Inflammatory Gallbladder Diseases in Children.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dae Yong; Chang, Eun Jae; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated clinical factors such as age, gender, predisposing diseases and ultrasonographic findings that determine clinical outcome of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder diseases in children. The patients were divided into the four age groups. From March 2004 through February 2014, clinical data from 131 children diagnosed as acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease by ultrasonography were retrospectively reviewed. Systemic infectious diseases were the most common etiology of acute inflammatory gallbladder disease in children and were identified in 50 patients (38.2%). Kawasaki disease was the most common predisposing disease (28 patients, 21.4%). The incidence was highest in infancy and lowest in adolescence. The age groups were associated with different predisposing diseases; noninfectious systemic disease was the most common etiology in infancy and early childhood, whereas systemic infectious disease was the most common in middle childhood and adolescence (P = 0.001). Gallbladder wall thickening was more commonly found in malignancy (100%) and systemic infection (94.0%) (P = 0.002), whereas gallbladder distension was more frequent in noninfectious systemic diseases (60%) (P = 0.000). Ascites seen on ultrasonography was associated with a worse clinical course compared with no ascites (77.9% vs. 37.7%, P = 0.030), and the duration of hospitalization was longer in patients with ascites (11.6 ± 10.7 vs. 8.0 ± 6.6 days, P = 0.020). In conclusion, consideration of age and predisposing disease in addition to ultrasonographic gallbladder findings in children suspected of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease might result in better outcomes. PMID:27550491

  4. A strategy to find gene combinations that identify children who progress rapidly to type 1 diabetes after islet autoantibody seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Ezio; Krumsiek, Jan; Winkler, Christiane; Theis, Fabian J; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    We recently developed a novel approach capable of identifying gene combinations to obtain maximal disease risk stratification. Type 1 diabetes has a preclinical phase including seroconversion to autoimmunity and subsequent progression to diabetes. Here, we applied our gene combination approach to identify combinations that contribute either to islet autoimmunity or to the progression from islet autoantibodies to diabetes onset. We examined 12 type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes (INS, ERBB3, PTPN2, IFIH1, PTPN22, KIAA0350, CD25, CTLA4, SH2B3, IL2, IL18RAP, IL10) in a cohort of children of parents with type 1 diabetes and prospectively followed from birth. The most predictive combination was subsequently applied to a smaller validation cohort. The combinations of genes only marginally contributed to the risk of developing islet autoimmunity, but could substantially modify risk of progression to diabetes in islet autoantibody-positive children. The greatest discrimination was provided by risk allele scores of five genes, INS, IFIH1, IL18RAP, CD25, and IL2 genes, which could identify 80 % of islet autoantibody-positive children who progressed to diabetes within 6 years of seroconversion and discriminate high risk (63 % within 6 years; 95 % CI 45-81 %) and low risk (11 % within 6 years; 95 % CI 0.1-22 %; p = 4 × 10(-5)) antibody-positive children. Risk stratification by these five genes was confirmed in a second cohort of islet autoantibody children. These findings highlight genes that may affect the rate of the beta-cell destruction process once autoimmunity has initiated and may help to identify islet autoantibody-positive subjects with rapid progression to diabetes.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection in Mongolian children: Findings from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nymadawa, Pagvajav; Uehara, Ritei; Watanabe, Makoto; Oki, Izumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2006-04-01

    Although the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Mongolia, its prevalence among children and routes of transmission are largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies and the possible risk factors for transmission among school children using representative national data. A nationwide cross-sectional survey among elementary school children was conducted in four main geographical regions and the metropolitan area of Mongolia, through multistage, stratified, random cluster sampling. Serum samples from 1,145 children (response rate, 93%; 592 boys and 553 girls; age range, 7-12 years), which represented nearly 2% of the second grade population in Mongolia, were tested for HCV antibodies with a third-generation immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Positive samples were further evaluated by a third-generation immunoblot assay (RIBA). A standardized questionnaire concerning the socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors was used. Overall, seven subjects were confirmed to be anti-HCV seropositive, giving a prevalence of 0.6% (95% CI: 0.15-1.0%). The prevalence of anti-HCV increased with age. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, and residence, the history of dental manipulation (odds ratio [OR] = 15.4; 95% CI: 1.4-164.8) and surgery (OR = 8.3; 95% CI: 1.5-45.6) were associated independently with the presence of anti-HCV. These findings suggest that contaminated equipment used in the dental and surgical manipulations probably played a predominant role in HCV transmission among Mongolian children. Strict guidelines on disinfection and sterilization procedures of medical instruments have to be introduced and should be followed to improve the control of HCV infection in Mongolia.

  6. Interpretation of hair findings in children: about a case involving carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal

    2014-06-01

    This office has been recently involved in a case dealing with child custody, where the final outcome was difficult to establish. The following concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the hair of a 21-month-old girl: 154 (0-1 cm), 198 (1-2 cm), 247 (2-3 cm), and 368 pg/mg (3-4 cm) after decontamination. Obviously, the concentrations measured in the hair were much lower than those observed in patients under daily treatment. In this sense, the frequency of exposures appears as infrequent (low level of exposure), with marked decrease in the more recent period. However, the girl was never prescribed carbamazepine and the mother, who was under carbamazepine therapy, denied any administration. The Judge asked if this could result from a single exposure and at which period. At least, three possible interpretations of the measured carbamazepine concentrations were addressed: (1) decrease in administration in the more recent period; (2) increase of body weight due to growing, so the same dosage will result in lower concentrations in hair; and (3) sweat contamination from the mother at the time the girl is with her in bed, the older hair being in contact longer with the bedding. In this case, it was impossible to conclude that the child was deliberately administered carbamazepine. The results of the analysis of hair could indicate that she was in an environment where carbamazepine was being used and where the drug was not being handled and stored with appropriate care. There are many differences between the hair from children and those from adults: hair from children is thinner and more porous, the ratio anagen and catagen phases are not maintained, and the growth rate can be different, at some periods, from the usual 1 cm/month. These differences, together with the influence of PK-PD parameters are reviewed in this paper, as a basis for suitable interpretation. In view of these results it is proposed that a single hair

  7. Young children can be taught basic natural selection using a picture-storybook intervention.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Deborah; Emmons, Natalie A; Seston Schillaci, Rebecca; Ganea, Patricia A

    2014-04-01

    Adaptation by natural selection is a core mechanism of evolution. It is also one of the most widely misunderstood scientific processes. Misconceptions are rooted in cognitive biases found in preschoolers, yet concerns about complexity mean that adaptation by natural selection is generally not comprehensively taught until adolescence. This is long after untutored theoretical misunderstandings are likely to have become entrenched. In a novel approach, we explored 5- to 8-year-olds' capacities to learn a basic but theoretically coherent mechanistic explanation of adaptation through a custom storybook intervention. Experiment 1 showed that children understood the population-based logic of natural selection and also generalized it. Furthermore, learning endured 3 months later. Experiment 2 replicated these results and showed that children understood and applied an even more nuanced mechanistic causal explanation. The findings demonstrate that, contrary to conventional educational wisdom, basic natural selection is teachable in early childhood. Theory-driven interventions using picture storybooks with rich explanatory structure are beneficial. PMID:24503874

  8. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  9. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  10. Changes in Rate of Learning in Autistic Children Following 9 Months on a Gluten-Free Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontino, Jamie Lyn; Schaal, Kelly; Chambliss, Catherine

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the effects of a gluten-free diet on three males with autism between the ages of 5 to 8 years old. All subjects were also participants in prior studies on the effects of the gluten-free diet on the learning processes of children with autism in an applied behavioral analysis program.…

  11. "Don't Be Uneasy, My Children": Finding Strength in Stories of the Enslaved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Tackling challenging topics in history can be difficult, and sometimes teachers struggle to find age-appropriate ways to help students confront painful stories from the past. About four years ago, this author spearheaded a focus group with the purpose of taking on such a challenge. In the initial meetings, members of the group (four educators from…

  12. Failing Our Children: Finding Alternatives to In-Grade Retention. A Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Pam; Cortez, Albert; Maroney, Oanh H.; Montes, Felix

    This policy brief presents an in-depth look at the issue of grade-retention in Texas, reviews research that finds this practice to be ineffective, and outlines alternatives to both retention and social promotion. In-grade retention has been a recurrent theme in education over the last 30 years, and it is currently linked to calls for higher…

  13. A new look at children's understanding of mind and emotion: the case of prayer.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Christi; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple methods were used to examine children's awareness of connections between emotion and prayer. Four-, 6-, and 8-year-olds and adults (N = 100) predicted whether people would pray when feeling different emotions, explained why characters in different situations decided to pray, and predicted whether characters' emotions would change after praying. Four- and 6-year-olds exclusively judged that positive emotions motivate prayer, whereas 8-year-olds and adults most often predicted that negative emotions would cause people to pray and that praying could improve emotions. There was also a significant increase between 4 and 8 years in explaining prayer as motivated by need for assistance, for thanksgiving, and for conversation, as well as for explaining postprayer emotions in relation to God or prayer. Religious background predicted individual differences in reasoning only for 4-year-olds.

  14. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.

    PubMed

    De Haene, Lucia; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, Edith; Grietens, Hans; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-06-01

    Although forced migration research on refugee family functioning clearly points to the potential breakdown of parental availability and responsiveness in the context of cumulative migration stressors, studies exploring attachment security in refugee children are surprisingly lacking so far. The authors report their findings from a 2-site, small-scale administration of an attachment measure, adapted for use with refugee children aged between 4 and 9 years from a reliable and validated doll-play procedure. We evaluated interrater reliability and conducted a qualitative analysis of refugee children's narrative response to identify migration-specific representational markers of attachment quality. The level of agreement among 3 independent coders ranged between .54 to 1.00 for both study samples, providing initial psychometric evidence of the measure's value in assessing child attachment security in this population. The exploratory analysis of migration-related narrative markers pointed to specific parameters to be used in parent-child observational assessments in future validation of the attachment measure, such as parental withdrawal or trauma-communication within the parent-child dyad.

  15. Intervening to alleviate word-finding difficulties in children: case series data and a computational modelling foundation.

    PubMed

    Best, W; Fedor, A; Hughes, L; Kapikian, A; Masterson, J; Roncoli, S; Fern-Pollak, L; Thomas, M S C

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a simple computational model of productive vocabulary acquisition, applied to simulating two case studies of 7-year-old children with developmental word-finding difficulties across four core behavioural tasks. Developmental models were created, which captured the deficits of each child. In order to predict the effects of intervention, we exposed the computational models to simulated behavioural interventions of two types, targeting the improvement of either phonological or semantic knowledge. The model was then evaluated by testing the predictions from the simulations against the actual results from an intervention study carried out with the two children. For one child it was predicted that the phonological intervention would be effective, and the semantic intervention would not. This was borne out in the behavioural study. For the second child, the predictions were less clear and depended on the nature of simulated damage to the model. The behavioural study found an effect of semantic but not phonological intervention. Through an explicit computational simulation, we therefore employed intervention data to evaluate our theoretical understanding of the processes underlying acquisition of lexical items for production and how they may vary in children with developmental language difficulties.

  16. BCG vaccination of children against leprosy: seven-year findings of the controlled WHO trial in Burma*

    PubMed Central

    Bechelli, L. M.; Garbajosa, P. Gallego; Gyi, Mg Mg; Uemura, K.; Sundaresan, T.; Domínguez, V. Martínez; Matejka, M.; Tamondong, C.; Quagliato, R.; Engler, V.; Altmann, M.

    1973-01-01

    A controlled study of the efficacy of BCG vaccination for the prevention of leprosy began in Burma at the end of August 1964. This paper presents the findings after 7 years—i.e., the results of 6 annual follow-up examinations up to the end of June 1971. The incidence rate in BCG-vaccinated children 0-4 years of age at intake was lower than that in children in the control group. The protection conferred by BCG was relatively low (44%) and applied only to early cases of leprosy, the great majority tuberculoid cases. BCG vaccination did not protect household contacts or children 5-14 years of age who were not exposed in the household. This reduction must be interpreted in the light of several factors: form of leprosy, bacterial status, lepromin reactivity, evolution of cases, and level of endemicity. Consequently it does not seem probable that the reduction in incidence would substantially affect the pattern or trend of the disease in an area similar to that where the study is being carried out; the probability would be much lower if not nil in regions of relatively low endemicity (1-2 per 1 000 or less). PMID:4270384

  17. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.

    PubMed

    De Haene, Lucia; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, Edith; Grietens, Hans; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-06-01

    Although forced migration research on refugee family functioning clearly points to the potential breakdown of parental availability and responsiveness in the context of cumulative migration stressors, studies exploring attachment security in refugee children are surprisingly lacking so far. The authors report their findings from a 2-site, small-scale administration of an attachment measure, adapted for use with refugee children aged between 4 and 9 years from a reliable and validated doll-play procedure. We evaluated interrater reliability and conducted a qualitative analysis of refugee children's narrative response to identify migration-specific representational markers of attachment quality. The level of agreement among 3 independent coders ranged between .54 to 1.00 for both study samples, providing initial psychometric evidence of the measure's value in assessing child attachment security in this population. The exploratory analysis of migration-related narrative markers pointed to specific parameters to be used in parent-child observational assessments in future validation of the attachment measure, such as parental withdrawal or trauma-communication within the parent-child dyad. PMID:23737300

  18. Anaphylactoid Purpura Manifested after Acute Gastroenteritis with Severe Dehydration in an 8-Year-Old Male Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Umang G; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2015-12-01

    Anaphylactoid purpura, also known as Henoch-Schönleinpurpura (HSP), is an IgA-mediated vasculitis that tends to be a benign disease of childhood. Up to 50% of cases are preceded by an upper tract respiratory infection caused by group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcus and present with the common tetrad of abdominal pain, arthritis, purpuric rash, and renal involvement. The majority of patients recover completely. Here we document a rare case of anaphylactoid purpura which manifested with skin lesions in the form of palpable purpura following about of acute gastroenteritis with severe dehydration; it was treated with a short regimen of steroid therapy, which resulted in the complete remission of the disease. We conclude that prompt diagnosis and multidisciplinary intervention will lead to appropriate management-consisting of the installation of early short-course steroid therapy and thus, prevent further complications and the recurrence of the disease. PMID:26602584

  19. Interictal Electroencephalography (EEG) Findings in Children with Epilepsy and Bilateral Brain Lesions on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Zubcevic, Smail; Milos, Maja; Catibusic, Feriha; Uzicanin, Sajra; Krdzalic, Belma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neuroimaging procedures and electroencephalography (EEG) are basic parts of investigation of patients with epilepsies. Aim: The aim is to try to assess relationship between bilaterally localized brain lesions found in routine management of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy and their interictal EEG findings. Patients and methods: Total amount of 68 patients filled criteria for inclusion in the study that was performed at Neuropediatrics Department, Pediatric Hospital, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, or its outpatient clinic. There were 33 girls (48,5%) and 35 boys (51,5%). Average age at diagnosis of epilepsy was 3,5 years. Results: Both neurological and neuropsychological examination in the moment of making diagnosis of epilepsy was normal in 27 (39,7%) patients, and showed some kind of delay or other neurological finding in 41 (60,3%). Brain MRI showed lesions that can be related to antenatal or perinatal events in most of the patients (ventricular dilation in 30,9%, delayed myelination and post-hypoxic changes in 27,9%). More than half of patients (55,9%) showed bilateral interictal epileptiform discharges on their EEGs, and further 14,7% had other kinds of bilateral abnormalities. Frequency of bilateral epileptic discharges showed statistically significant predominance on level of p<0,05. Cross tabulation between specific types of bilateral brain MRI lesions and EEG finding did not reveal significant type of EEG for assessed brain lesions. Conclusion: We conclude that there exists relationship between bilaterally localized brain MRI lesions and interictal bilateral epileptiform or nonspecific EEG findings in children with newly diagnosed epilepsies. These data are suggesting that in cases when they do not correlate there is a need for further investigation of seizure etiology. PMID:26862242

  20. Imaging findings and cerebral perfusion in arterial ischemic stroke due to transient cerebral arteriopathy in children.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Junior, Alcino Alves; Ellovitch, Saada Resende de Souza; Pincerato, Rita de Cassia Maciel

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old female child who developed an arterial ischemic stroke in the left middle cerebral artery territory, due to a proximal stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, most probably related to transient cerebral arteriopathy of childhood. Computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, perfusion magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography are presented, as well as follow-up by magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography exams. Changes in cerebral perfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch call attention. As far as we know, this is the first report of magnetic resonance perfusion findings in transient cerebral arteriopathy.

  1. Interpersonal Engagement Mediates the Relation between Maternal Affect and Externalising Behaviour in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children’s capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID

  2. The effects of adult guidance and peer discussion on the development of children's representations: evidence from the training of pedestrian skills.

    PubMed

    Tolmie, Andrew; Thomson, James A; Foot, Hugh C; Whelan, Kirstie; Morrison, Sheila; McLaren, Brian

    2005-05-01

    It was hypothesized that practical training is effective in improving children's pedestrian skills because adult scaffolding and peer discussion during training specifically promote E3 level representation (linguistically-encoded, experientially-grounded, generalizable knowledge), as defined by Karmiloff-Smith's (1992) representational redescription (RR) model. Two studies were conducted to examine in detail the impact of this social input in the context of simulation-based training in roadside search skills. A group of 5-8-year-olds were pre-tested on ability to detect relevant road-crossing features. They then participated in four training sessions designed to promote attunement to these, under peer discussion versus adult guidance conditions (Study 1), and adult-child versus adult-group conditions (Study 2). Performance at post-test was compared with that of controls who underwent no training. Study 1 found that children in the adult guidance condition improved significantly more than those in the peer discussion or control conditions, and this improvement was directly attributable to appropriation of E3 level representations from adult dialogue. Study 2 found that progress was greater still when adult scaffolding was supplemented by peer discussion, with E3 level representation attributable to the children's exploration of conflicting ideas. The implications of these findings for the RR model and for practical road safety education are discussed. PMID:15969830

  3. The effects of adult guidance and peer discussion on the development of children's representations: evidence from the training of pedestrian skills.

    PubMed

    Tolmie, Andrew; Thomson, James A; Foot, Hugh C; Whelan, Kirstie; Morrison, Sheila; McLaren, Brian

    2005-05-01

    It was hypothesized that practical training is effective in improving children's pedestrian skills because adult scaffolding and peer discussion during training specifically promote E3 level representation (linguistically-encoded, experientially-grounded, generalizable knowledge), as defined by Karmiloff-Smith's (1992) representational redescription (RR) model. Two studies were conducted to examine in detail the impact of this social input in the context of simulation-based training in roadside search skills. A group of 5-8-year-olds were pre-tested on ability to detect relevant road-crossing features. They then participated in four training sessions designed to promote attunement to these, under peer discussion versus adult guidance conditions (Study 1), and adult-child versus adult-group conditions (Study 2). Performance at post-test was compared with that of controls who underwent no training. Study 1 found that children in the adult guidance condition improved significantly more than those in the peer discussion or control conditions, and this improvement was directly attributable to appropriation of E3 level representations from adult dialogue. Study 2 found that progress was greater still when adult scaffolding was supplemented by peer discussion, with E3 level representation attributable to the children's exploration of conflicting ideas. The implications of these findings for the RR model and for practical road safety education are discussed.

  4. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs.

  5. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  6. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  7. Prevalence of genitalia malformation in Iranian children: findings of a nationwide screening survey at school entry

    PubMed Central

    Armanian, Amir-Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya; Ardalan, Gelayol; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Taheri, Majzoubeh; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ambiguous genitalia is a hereditary disorder that usually requires early attention and detection. The discovery of ambiguous genitalia in a neonate is situation that could be difficult to manage, not only because of complications such as salt-losing, but also due to the importance of sex determination before psychological gender could be established. Awareness of the prevalence of ambiguous genitalia can affect the attitude and consideration of physicians and related medical personnel about disease in different communities. So in this study, the prevalence of ambiguous genitalia and undescended testes (UDT) in Iran was reported. Materials and Methods: This national study was conducted in 2009-2010 as part of the routine screening examinations at school entry in Iran. The physical examinations were performed for students at entry to three school levels by physicians and medical personnel. Execution and conduction of this program was the duty of the University of Medical Sciences in each province. Results: On average, the prevalence of ambiguous genitalia was 0.04% at national level (0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.03% at 6, 12, and 15 year olds, respectively). The prevalence of ambiguous genitalia was not significantly different according to age group and living area. The average of UDT) prevalence in the whole country was 0.13%. The prevalence of UDT was higher at elementary school level than in the other two levels. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of genitalia abnormalities was not high in the school students in Iran, given the importance of the issue and in order to find the ambiguous genitalia or UDT, medical examinations and parental notification should be taken seriously at an earlier age. PMID:24627844

  8. Do cherished children age successfully? Longitudinal findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lewina O; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K; Wang, Joyce M; Spiro, Avron

    2015-12-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (a) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains, (b) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life, and (c) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M = 69, SD = 7). Analyses yielded 3 profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and nonnormative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed 7 years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n = 496; age: M = 76, SD = 7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife. PMID:26436456

  9. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched children with normal vision. After seeing a first symbol (an Lea Hyvärinen [LH] symbol), children were instructed to (1) move the stand magnifier as quickly as possible toward a small target symbol (another LH symbol that could only be seen by using the magnifier), (2) compare the two symbols, and (3) move the magnifier to one of two response areas to indicate whether the two symbols were identical. Performance was measured in terms of accuracy, response time, identification time, and movement time. Viewing distance, as well as hand and eye dominance while using the magnifier was assessed. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Contrary to the prediction, children with visual impairment required less time to identify small symbols than children with normal vision. Both within-subject and between-subject variability in viewing distance were smaller in the visually impaired group than in the normally sighted group. In the visually impaired group, a larger viewing distance was associated with shorter identification time, which in turn was associated with higher accuracy. In the normally sighted group, a faster movement with the magnifier and a faster identification were associated with increasing age. Conclusion: The findings indicate that children with visual impairment can use the stand magnifier adequately and efficiently. The normally sighted children show an age-related development in movement time and identification time and show more variability in viewing distance, which is not found in visually impaired children. Visually impaired

  10. Eye findings in 8 children and a spontaneously aborted fetus with RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atchaneeyasakul, L O; Linck, L M; Connor, W E; Weleber, R G; Steiner, R D

    1998-12-28

    We evaluate the ophthalmologic findings in 8 children with RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) and document abnormal concentrations of cholesterol and cholesterol precursors in the ocular tissues in a case of SLOS. The most common ophthalmologic finding was blepharoptosis, which was found in 6 of 8 patients, with the severity ranging from mild to moderate. None of the patients in the present study demonstrated cataracts; none had amblyopia from blepharoptosis. One patient had a right hypertropia with overaction of the inferior oblique muscle. This patient also had optic atrophy and a second patient had bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. The importance of these findings to the visual function remains to be defined. Sterol analysis from ocular tissues of an aborted fetus with SLOS showed increased 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol and a low cholesterol concentration in the retinal pigment epithelium, lens, cornea, and sclera. Routine ophthalmologic examination is indicated in SLOS because of the high incidence of abnormalities, most likely due to the abnormal synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol precursors in the ocular tissues of these patients, as evidenced by sterol analysis of the ocular tissues in a case of SLOS. PMID:9880216

  11. Comparison of a Web-based versus traditional diet recall among children.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Baranowski, Janice; Martin, Shelby; Beltran, Alicia; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Adame, Su-heyla; Watson, Kathleen B; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W; Subar, Amy F

    2012-04-01

    Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether 8- to 13-year-old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24-hour diet recall (ASA24) and how this compared to an interviewer-administered 24-hour diet recall. One-hundred twenty 8- to 13-year-old children were recruited in Houston from June through August 2009 and randomly assigned to complete either the ASA24 or an interviewer-administered 24-hour diet recall, followed by the other recall mode covering the same time interval. Multivariate analysis of variance, testing for differences by age, sex, and ethnic/racial group, were applied to percentages of food matches, intrusions, and omissions between reports on the ASA24 and the interviewer-administered 24-hour diet recall. For the ASA24, qualitative findings were reported regarding ease of use. Overall matches between interviewer-administered and ASA24 self-administered 24-hour diet recall was 47.8%. Matches were significantly lower among younger (8- to 9-year-old) compared with older (10- to 13-year-old) children. Omissions on ASA24 (18.9% overall) were most common among 8-year-olds and intermediate among 9-year-olds. Eight- and 9-year-olds had substantial difficulties and often required aid in completing ASA24. Findings from this study suggest that a simpler version of an Internet-based diet recall program would be easier for children to use. PMID:22717216

  12. Relationship Between Family Economic Resources, Psychosocial Well-being, and Educational Preferences of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Southern Uganda: Baseline Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.; Nabunya, Proscovia; Ilic, Vilma; Mukasa, Miriam N.; Ddamulira, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between economic resources, psychosocial well-being, and educational preferences of AIDS-orphaned children in southern Uganda. We use baseline data from a sample of 1410 AIDS-orphaned children (defined as children who have lost one or both biological parents to AIDS) enrolled in the Bridges to the Future study, a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) funded study. Analyses from both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicate the following: 1) despite the well-documented economic and psychosocial challenges AIDS-orphaned children face, many of these children have high educational plans and aspirations; 2) educational aspirations differ by orphanhood status (double orphan vs. single orphan); 3) regardless of orphanhood status, children report similar levels of psychosocial well-being; 4) high levels of family cohesion, positive perceptions of the future, school satisfaction, and lower levels of hopelessness (hopefulness) are associated with high educational aspirations; and 5) reported family economic resources at baseline, all seem to play a role in predicting children's educational preferences and psychosocial well-being. These findings suggest that the focus for care and support of orphaned children should not be limited to addressing their psychosocial needs. Addressing the economic needs of the households in which orphaned children live is equally important. Indeed, in the context of extreme poverty—in which most of the children represented in this study live—addressing structural factors, including poverty, may be a key driver in addressing their psychosocial functioning. PMID:26146601

  13. Vehicle child restraint usage for Pacific children aged 6 weeks to 4 years: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Philip J; Paterson, Janis

    2010-11-01

    Child restraint systems (CRSs) for vehicles are designed to provide protection and prevent or reduce child mortality and morbidity in road traffic accidents. Overall, 90% of children under 5 years of age in New Zealand currently use CRSs. There is considerable regional variability in CRS usage, but little information exists on its ethnic variations or determinants. "Increasing the level of restraint use" is explicitly stated as one of the 13 priorities within the New Zealand Ministry of Transport's new road safety strategy. As such, understanding CRS prevalence, patterns and associates within different communities is essential in realising this priority. Utilising a large birth cohort of Pacific children (n=1376 mothers), this study aimed to report the prevalence of maternal self-reported car seat usage at the 6 weeks, 1-year, and 2 years postpartum measurement waves; car/booster seat usage at the 4 years postpartum measurement wave; and to identify important associates using generalised estimating equation (GEE) models. Car seats were not used by 161 (11.8%) Pacific children at the 6 weeks measurement wave, 71 (5.8%) at 1-year, and 44 (3.8%) at 2 years, while car/booster seats were not used by 139 (13.3%) at the 4 years wave. Multivariable GEE model results revealed that mothers with no formal education, high parity, who smoked tobacco, lower household income, who lacked English language proficiency, and had multiple births were all at higher odds of failing to use car seat/booster seats. Despite differential attrition being noted in mothers over time, a sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation methods yielded similar findings. Targeted initiatives and education programs focusing on these higher risk groups, in particular, is needed to increase uptake and use of CRS thereby decreasing Pacific children's exposure to injury risk. As New Zealand has a large and increasing proportion of Pacific, Maori and Asian people, there is a continuing need to understand

  14. Interventions for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs): overview of findings for five innovative research projects.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that prenatal exposure to alcohol causes damage to the developing fetus, resulting in a spectrum of disorders known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Although our understanding of the deficits and disturbances associated with FASDs is far from complete, there are consistent findings indicating these are serious, lifelong disabilities-especially when these disabilities result from central nervous system damage. Until recently, information and strategies for interventions specific to individuals with FASDs have been gleaned from interventions used with people with other disabilities and from the practical wisdom gained by parents and clinicians through trial and error or shared through informal networks. Although informative to a limited degree, such interventions have been implemented without being evaluated systematically or scientifically. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of a general intervention framework developed for individuals with FASDs and the methods and general findings of five specific intervention research studies conducted within this framework. The studies evaluated five different interventions in five diverse locations in the United States, with different segments of the FASD population. Nonetheless, all participants showed improvement in the target behaviors or skills, with four studies achieving statistical significance in treatment outcomes. Important lessons emerged from these five interventions that may explain success: including parent education or training, teaching children specific skills they would usually learn by observation or abstraction, and integration into existing systems of treatment. A major implication of these research studies for families dealing with FASDs is that there are now interventions available that can address their children's needs and that can be presented as scientifically validated and efficacious to intervention agents such as schools, social services

  15. Feedback of research findings for vaccine trials: experiences from two malaria vaccine trials involving healthy children on the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Gikonyo, Caroline; Kamuya, Dorcas; Mbete, Bibi; Njuguna, Patricia; Olotu, Ally; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Vicki; Molyneux, Sassy

    2013-04-01

    Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an 'ethical imperative' or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account.

  16. Good Holders, Bad Shufflers: An Examination of Working Memory Processes and Modalities in Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Simone, Ashley N; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine working memory (WM) modalities (visual-spatial and auditory-verbal) and processes (maintenance and manipulation) in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 63 8-year-old children with ADHD and an age- and sex-matched non-ADHD comparison group (N=51). Auditory-verbal and visual-spatial WM were assessed using the Digit Span and Spatial Span subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Integrated - Fourth Edition. WM maintenance and manipulation were assessed via forward and backward span indices, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 3-way Group (ADHD vs. non-ADHD)×Modality (Auditory-Verbal vs. Visual-Spatial)×Condition (Forward vs. Backward) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Secondary analyses examined differences between Combined and Predominantly Inattentive ADHD presentations. Significant Group×Condition (p=.02) and Group×Modality (p=.03) interactions indicated differentially poorer performance by those with ADHD on backward relative to forward and visual-spatial relative to auditory-verbal tasks, respectively. The 3-way interaction was not significant. Analyses targeting ADHD presentations yielded a significant Group×Condition interaction (p=.009) such that children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive Presentation performed differentially poorer on backward relative to forward tasks compared to the children with ADHD-Combined Presentation. Findings indicate a specific pattern of WM weaknesses (i.e., WM manipulation and visual-spatial tasks) for children with ADHD. Furthermore, differential patterns of WM performance were found for children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive versus Combined Presentations. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1-11).

  17. Relation of behavior problems with findings of cranial diffusion tensor MRI and MR spectroscopy in autistic children

    PubMed Central

    Ogur, Torel; Boyunaga, Oznur Leman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate any relation of behavior problems with cranial Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) findings in autism spectrum disorders. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 males children (12 autistic patients and 8 healthy controls) was examined by cranial DTI and MRS. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) was used to calculate the irritability, lethargy-social withdrawal, stereotypic behavior, hyperactivity, and speech disorder scores for each patient. The results of MRS and DTI were evaluated together with the ABC scores. Results: Fractional anisotropy (FA) values demonstrated significant decreases in the left frontoparietal white matter, anterior limb of the right internal capsule, and left middle cerebellar peduncle as the behavior problem scores elevated (P < 0.05). With the exception of social withdrawal, as the behavior problem scores increased, metabolite levels increased, as well. Conclusion: The positive correlation between the MRS findings, behavior problem scores, and metabolite levels suggests the presence of a dysfunction leading to hypo and hyper neuronal function in various locations. Reduced FA values in DTI and negative correlation of behavior problems with FA values in the contralateral hemisphere, may indicate reduced myelination and abnormal axonal organization. PMID:26131145

  18. SKI*HI Home-Based Programming for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Recent Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Carol J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data relating to 2,768 children served by the SKI*HI model of early, home-based programming for children with hearing impairments revealed that SKI*HI children, on average, were identified by 18 months of age, had higher rates of language development during intervention than prior to intervention, and had greater language gains than expected based…

  19. Growth in Reading Skills of Children from Diverse Linguistic Backgrounds: Findings from a 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Rupp, Andre A.; Siegel, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a longitudinal investigation of the reading development of a sample of 824 children (406 girls, 418 boys). The sample included 689 native English-speaking (L1) children and 135 English-language learners (ELLs) representing 33 different native languages. In kindergarten and 4th grade, children's word reading,…

  20. Second-order motor planning in children: insights from a cup-manipulation-task.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Kathrin; Weiss, Daniel J; Schack, Thomas; Weigelt, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined the development of anticipatory motor planning in an object manipulation task that has been used to successfully demonstrate motor planning in non-human primates (Weiss et al. in Psychol Sci 18:1063-1068, 2007). Seventy-five participants from four different age groups participated in a cup-manipulation task. One group was preschool children (average age of 5.1 years), two groups were primary school children (7.7 and 9.8 years old respectively) and the final group was comprised of adults. The experimental task entailed reaching for a plastic cup that was vertically suspended in an apparatus in either upright or inverted orientation, removing the cup by its stem and then retrieving a small toy from the inside of the cup. When the cup was inverted in the apparatus, evidence for anticipatory motor planning could be achieved by initially gripping the stem using an inverted (thumb-down) grip posture. We found that when the cup was in upright orientation, all participants reached for the cup using an upright grip (i.e., thumb-up posture). However, when the cup was inverted in the apparatus, only adults consistently used an inverted grasping posture, though the percentage of inverted grips among participants did increase with age. These results suggest a protracted development for anticipatory motor planning abilities in children. Surprisingly, the performance of adults on this task more closely resembles the performance of several nonhuman primate species as opposed to children even at approximately 10 years of age. We discuss how morphological constraints on flexibility may help account for these findings.

  1. EEG spectral power in phasic and tonic REM sleep: different patterns in young adults and children.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Szakadát, Sára; Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is composed of phasic and tonic periods, two distinguishable microstates in terms of arousal thresholds and sensory processing. Background electroencephalogram oscillations are also different between periods with (phasic state) and periods without (tonic state) eye movements. In Study 1, previous findings analysing electroencephalogram spectral power in phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep were replicated, and analyses extended to the high gamma range (52-90 Hz). In Study 2, phasic and tonic spectral power differences within a group of 4-8-year-old children were examined. Based on the polysomnographic data of 20 young adults, the phasic state yielded increased delta and theta power in anterior sites, as well as generally decreased high alpha and beta power in comparison to the tonic state. Moreover, phasic periods exhibited greater spectral power in the lower and the higher gamma band. Interestingly, children (n = 18) exhibited a different pattern, showing increased activity in the low alpha range during phasic periods. Moreover, during phasic in contrast to tonic rapid eye movement sleep, increased low and high gamma and enhanced low gamma band power emerged in anterior and posterior regions, respectively. The current findings show that spectral activity within the high gamma range substantially contributes to the differences between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep, especially in adults. Moreover, the current data underscore the heterogeneity of rapid eye movement sleep, and point to marked differences between young adults and children regarding phasic/tonic electroencephalogram spectral power. These results suggest that the differentiation between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement periods undergoes maturation. PMID:26762188

  2. EEG spectral power in phasic and tonic REM sleep: different patterns in young adults and children.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Szakadát, Sára; Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is composed of phasic and tonic periods, two distinguishable microstates in terms of arousal thresholds and sensory processing. Background electroencephalogram oscillations are also different between periods with (phasic state) and periods without (tonic state) eye movements. In Study 1, previous findings analysing electroencephalogram spectral power in phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep were replicated, and analyses extended to the high gamma range (52-90 Hz). In Study 2, phasic and tonic spectral power differences within a group of 4-8-year-old children were examined. Based on the polysomnographic data of 20 young adults, the phasic state yielded increased delta and theta power in anterior sites, as well as generally decreased high alpha and beta power in comparison to the tonic state. Moreover, phasic periods exhibited greater spectral power in the lower and the higher gamma band. Interestingly, children (n = 18) exhibited a different pattern, showing increased activity in the low alpha range during phasic periods. Moreover, during phasic in contrast to tonic rapid eye movement sleep, increased low and high gamma and enhanced low gamma band power emerged in anterior and posterior regions, respectively. The current findings show that spectral activity within the high gamma range substantially contributes to the differences between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep, especially in adults. Moreover, the current data underscore the heterogeneity of rapid eye movement sleep, and point to marked differences between young adults and children regarding phasic/tonic electroencephalogram spectral power. These results suggest that the differentiation between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement periods undergoes maturation.

  3. The Effects of Activating the Money Concept on Perseverance and the Preference for Delayed Gratification in Children

    PubMed Central

    Trzcińska, Agata; Sekścińska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behavior and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investigate the positive influence of money activation on children’s behavior. The participants were 6–8 year old children who do not yet fully understand the instrumental function of money due to their young age. Two experimental studies were performed, the first of which analyzed the effect of perseverance and performance on a challenging task and the second investigated preferences with respect to delaying gratification. Sixty-one children aged 6 took part in the first study and forty-six scout camp participants 6–8 years of age were involved in the second experiment. The results support the hypotheses concerning the effects of money activation stating that (1) money activation influences children’s perseverance and effectiveness in difficult individual tasks, and that (2) it increases children’s preferences for delayed gratification. These results suggest that money has a symbolic power which may exert both positive and negative effects on children’s behavior. Since children between the ages of 6 and 8 do not understand the instrumental function of money fully, certain symbolic meanings of money may have been responsible for the money priming effects. The findings suggest that the symbolic function of money is more primal than its instrumental function and that it probably develops at an earlier stage in life. PMID:27199842

  4. Preliminary findings on associations between moral emotions and social behavior in young children with normal hearing and with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-11-01

    Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.

  5. The influence of parenting style on health related behavior of children: findings from the ChiBS study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    nurturance” and “coercive control” with sedentary behavior (β = 0.16 for both parent constructs) and (4) a small negative association between the parenting construct “coercive control” and sleep duration (β = −0.23). Conclusion The significant but small associations between parenting constructs and the investigated variables suggest that different aspects of parenting style play an important role in the genesis of the health related behavior of children. Overall, our findings suggest that health professionals should encourage parents to apply the more positive parenting constructs i.e., more “structure” and “behavioral control”, and less “coercive control”. They could, for instance, supervise and manage their child’s activities and help their child to achieve certain goals. PMID:25052905

  6. Aflatoxins and kwashiorkor. Epidemiology and clinical studies in Sudanese children and findings in autopsy liver samples from Nigeria and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hendrickse, R G; Coulter, J B; Lamplugh, S M; MacFarlane, S B; Williams, T E; Omer, M I; Suliman, G I; El-Zorgani, G A

    1983-11-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of kwashiorkor remains obscure. Clinical and epidemiological studies are in progress in Sudan to determine whether aflatoxins play a role in the pathogenesis of kwashiorkor. Local foods are screened for their aflatoxin content and children with kwashiorkor and age and sex matched children with marasmus and with normal nutrition are being investigated for aflatoxins in their blood and urine. Autopsy liver samples of children with kwashiorkor and other nutritional disorders in Nigeria and South Africa have been examined for their aflatoxin content. Aflatoxins are detected using two dimensional thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Results to date on over 350 children studied show that aflatoxins occur more frequently and at higher concentrations in the sera of children with kwashiorkor than in children with marasmus or in normal children. Urinary excretion of aflatoxins in kwashiorkor appears to be less than in other groups. In the autopsy liver samples, aflatoxins have been detected in all kwashiorkor livers but not in livers from marasmic children. These findings seem to implicate aflatoxins in the pathogenesis of kwashiorkor. If this is confirmed it would have very wide implications for the management and prevention of kwashiorkor.

  7. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in cherubism--clinical, radiological and histological findings in two children.

    PubMed

    Hero, M; Suomalainen, A; Hagström, J; Stoor, P; Kontio, R; Alapulli, H; Arte, S; Toiviainen-Salo, S; Lahdenne, P; Mäkitie, O

    2013-01-01

    Cherubism is a rare and disfiguring genetic disorder with excessive bone resorption and multilocular lesions in the mandible and/or maxilla. The disease-causing gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene result in increased myeloid cell responses to macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANK ligand, formation of hyperactive osteoclasts (giant cells), and hyper-reactive macrophages that produce excessive amounts of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Recent findings in the cherubism mouse model suggest that TNF-α plays a major role in disease pathogenesis and that removal of TNF-α prevents development of the bone phenotype. We treated two children with cherubism with the TNF-α antagonist adalimumab for approximately 2.5 years and collected extensive clinical, radiological and histological follow-up data during the treatment. Histologically the treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells and TNF-α staining positivity in both patients. As evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions in Patient 1 showed either moderate enlargement (mandibular symphysis) or remained stable (mandibular rami and body, the maxilla). In Patient 2, the lesions in mandibular symphysis showed enlargement during the first 8 months of treatment, and thereafter the lesions remained unchanged. Bone formation and resorption markers remained unaffected. The treatment was well tolerated. Based on our findings, TNF-α antagonist may decrease the formation of pathogenic giant cells, but does not result in lesion regression or prevent lesion expansion in active cherubism. TNF-α modulator treatment thus does not appear to provide sufficient amelioration for patients suffering from cherubism. PMID:23069372

  8. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in cherubism--clinical, radiological and histological findings in two children.

    PubMed

    Hero, M; Suomalainen, A; Hagström, J; Stoor, P; Kontio, R; Alapulli, H; Arte, S; Toiviainen-Salo, S; Lahdenne, P; Mäkitie, O

    2013-01-01

    Cherubism is a rare and disfiguring genetic disorder with excessive bone resorption and multilocular lesions in the mandible and/or maxilla. The disease-causing gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene result in increased myeloid cell responses to macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANK ligand, formation of hyperactive osteoclasts (giant cells), and hyper-reactive macrophages that produce excessive amounts of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Recent findings in the cherubism mouse model suggest that TNF-α plays a major role in disease pathogenesis and that removal of TNF-α prevents development of the bone phenotype. We treated two children with cherubism with the TNF-α antagonist adalimumab for approximately 2.5 years and collected extensive clinical, radiological and histological follow-up data during the treatment. Histologically the treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells and TNF-α staining positivity in both patients. As evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions in Patient 1 showed either moderate enlargement (mandibular symphysis) or remained stable (mandibular rami and body, the maxilla). In Patient 2, the lesions in mandibular symphysis showed enlargement during the first 8 months of treatment, and thereafter the lesions remained unchanged. Bone formation and resorption markers remained unaffected. The treatment was well tolerated. Based on our findings, TNF-α antagonist may decrease the formation of pathogenic giant cells, but does not result in lesion regression or prevent lesion expansion in active cherubism. TNF-α modulator treatment thus does not appear to provide sufficient amelioration for patients suffering from cherubism.

  9. Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Rechel, Boika; Blackburn, Clare M; Spencer, Nick J; Rechel, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion. PMID:19566936

  10. Comparing Emotion Recognition Skills among Children with and without Jailed Parents.

    PubMed

    Hindt, Lauren A; Davis, Laurel; Schubert, Erin C; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately five million children in the United States have experienced a co-resident parent's incarceration in jail or prison. Parental incarceration is associated with multiple risk factors for maladjustment, which may contribute to the increased likelihood of behavioral problems in this population. Few studies have examined early predictors of maladjustment among children with incarcerated parents, limiting scholars' understanding about potential points for prevention and intervention. Emotion recognition skills may play a role in the development of maladjustment and may be amenable to intervention. The current study examined whether emotion recognition skills differed between 3- to 8-year-old children with and without jailed parents. We hypothesized that children with jailed parents would have a negative bias in processing emotions and less accuracy compared to children without incarcerated parents. Data were drawn from 128 families, including 75 children (53.3% male, M = 5.37 years) with jailed parents and 53 children (39.6% male, M = 5.02 years) without jailed parents. Caregivers in both samples provided demographic information. Children performed an emotion recognition task in which they were asked to produce a label for photos expressing six different emotions (i.e., happy, surprised, neutral, sad, angry, and fearful). For scoring, the number of positive and negative labels were totaled; the number of negative labels provided for neutral and positive stimuli were totaled (measuring negative bias/overextension of negative labels); and valence accuracy (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) and label accuracy were calculated. Results indicated a main effect of parental incarceration on the number of positive labels provided; children with jailed parents presented significantly fewer positive emotions than the comparison group. There was also a main effect of parental incarceration on negative bias (the overextension of negative labels); children with

  11. Comparing Emotion Recognition Skills among Children with and without Jailed Parents.

    PubMed

    Hindt, Lauren A; Davis, Laurel; Schubert, Erin C; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately five million children in the United States have experienced a co-resident parent's incarceration in jail or prison. Parental incarceration is associated with multiple risk factors for maladjustment, which may contribute to the increased likelihood of behavioral problems in this population. Few studies have examined early predictors of maladjustment among children with incarcerated parents, limiting scholars' understanding about potential points for prevention and intervention. Emotion recognition skills may play a role in the development of maladjustment and may be amenable to intervention. The current study examined whether emotion recognition skills differed between 3- to 8-year-old children with and without jailed parents. We hypothesized that children with jailed parents would have a negative bias in processing emotions and less accuracy compared to children without incarcerated parents. Data were drawn from 128 families, including 75 children (53.3% male, M = 5.37 years) with jailed parents and 53 children (39.6% male, M = 5.02 years) without jailed parents. Caregivers in both samples provided demographic information. Children performed an emotion recognition task in which they were asked to produce a label for photos expressing six different emotions (i.e., happy, surprised, neutral, sad, angry, and fearful). For scoring, the number of positive and negative labels were totaled; the number of negative labels provided for neutral and positive stimuli were totaled (measuring negative bias/overextension of negative labels); and valence accuracy (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) and label accuracy were calculated. Results indicated a main effect of parental incarceration on the number of positive labels provided; children with jailed parents presented significantly fewer positive emotions than the comparison group. There was also a main effect of parental incarceration on negative bias (the overextension of negative labels); children with

  12. Comparing Emotion Recognition Skills among Children with and without Jailed Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hindt, Lauren A.; Davis, Laurel; Schubert, Erin C.; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately five million children in the United States have experienced a co-resident parent’s incarceration in jail or prison. Parental incarceration is associated with multiple risk factors for maladjustment, which may contribute to the increased likelihood of behavioral problems in this population. Few studies have examined early predictors of maladjustment among children with incarcerated parents, limiting scholars’ understanding about potential points for prevention and intervention. Emotion recognition skills may play a role in the development of maladjustment and may be amenable to intervention. The current study examined whether emotion recognition skills differed between 3- to 8-year-old children with and without jailed parents. We hypothesized that children with jailed parents would have a negative bias in processing emotions and less accuracy compared to children without incarcerated parents. Data were drawn from 128 families, including 75 children (53.3% male, M = 5.37 years) with jailed parents and 53 children (39.6% male, M = 5.02 years) without jailed parents. Caregivers in both samples provided demographic information. Children performed an emotion recognition task in which they were asked to produce a label for photos expressing six different emotions (i.e., happy, surprised, neutral, sad, angry, and fearful). For scoring, the number of positive and negative labels were totaled; the number of negative labels provided for neutral and positive stimuli were totaled (measuring negative bias/overextension of negative labels); and valence accuracy (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) and label accuracy were calculated. Results indicated a main effect of parental incarceration on the number of positive labels provided; children with jailed parents presented significantly fewer positive emotions than the comparison group. There was also a main effect of parental incarceration on negative bias (the overextension of negative labels); children with

  13. Cross-sectional study of phoneme and rhyme monitoring abilities in children between 7 and 13 years

    PubMed Central

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2011-01-01

    We investigated phonemic competence in production in three age groups of children – 7 and 8 years, 10 and 11 years, 12 and 13 years—using rhyme and phoneme monitoring. Participants were required to name target pictures silently while monitoring covert speech for the presence or absence of a rhyme or phoneme match. Performance in the verbal tasks was compared to a nonverbal control task in which participants monitored tone sequence pairs for a pattern match. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between the three age groups in phoneme monitoring while similar differences were limited to the younger age groups in rhyme monitoring. This finding supported early and on-going acquisition of rhyme- and later acquisition of segment-level units. In addition, the 7 and 8-year-olds were significantly slower in monitoring phonemes within consonant clusters compared to the 10 and 11-year-olds and in monitoring both singleton phonemes and phonemes within clusters compared to the 12 and 13-year-olds. Regression analysis revealed that age accounted for approximately 30% variance in the nonverbal and 60% variance in the verbal monitoring tasks. We attribute the observed differences to the emergence of cognitive processes such as segmentation skills that are critical to performing the verbal monitoring tasks. PMID:23204597

  14. Symptom Persistence in Seriously Emotionally Disordered Children: Findings of a Two-Year Follow-Up after Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbert, Rebecca; St. Pierre, Jeff; Stewart, Shannon L.; Cook, Steven; Johnson, Andrew M.; Leschied, Alan W.

    2011-01-01

    Residential treatment is arguably the most costly and intensive part of the children's mental health system. Yet, research suggests that a subset of the emotionally disordered children and youth admitted to intensive tertiary care treatment facilities fail to demonstrate symptom reductions upon discharge, with many continuing to deteriorate in…

  15. "Tuning in to Kids": Improving Emotion Socialization Practices in Parents of Preschool Children--Findings from a Community Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Prior, Margot R.; Kehoe, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated a new prevention and early intervention parenting program: "Tuning in to Kids." The program aims to improve emotion socialization practices in parents of preschool children and is based on research evidence that parents' responses to, and coaching of, their children's emotions influence emotional and behavioral…

  16. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  17. Service Use Patterns of Children with Depressive and/or Disruptive Disorders: Findings from the MECA Community Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Bird, Hector R.; Alegria, Margarita; Cohen, Patricia; Dulcan, Mina; Goodman, Sherryl; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Lichtman, Judith; Moore, Robert E.; Narrow, Willian E.; Rae, Donald S.; Regier, Darrel A.; Roper, Margaret

    This paper summarizes results of a study which determined usage of mental health services by children with depressive disorders and whether patterns of service use and parents' perceptions of service use barriers are the same for children with depressive disorders as for those with disruptive disorders. The study used data from the Methods for…

  18. Preventive Health Care for Young Children: Findings from a 10-Country Study and Directions for United States Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bret C.; Miller, C. Arden

    Earlier observations on U.S. infant health and survival as compared with other Western industrial democracies are extended in a study of preventive health services for children from infancy through adolescence and to the social benefit programs that support their families. This report looks at the condition of children in 10 European countries…

  19. Children's expectations about training the approximate number system.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Moira R; Pires, Ana C; Hyde, Daniel C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2015-11-01

    Humans possess a developmentally precocious and evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) whose sensitivity correlates with uniquely human symbolic arithmetic skills. Recent studies suggest that ANS training improves symbolic arithmetic, but such studies may engender performance expectations in their participants that in turn produce the improvement. Here, we assessed 6- to 8-year-old children's expectations about the effects of numerical and non-numerical magnitude training, as well as states of satiety and restfulness, in the context of a study linking children's ANS practice to their improved symbolic arithmetic. We found that children did not expect gains in symbolic arithmetic after exercising the ANS, although they did expect gains in ANS acuity after training on any magnitude task. Moreover, children expected gains in symbolic arithmetic after a good night's sleep and their favourite breakfast. Thus, children's improved symbolic arithmetic after ANS training cannot be explained by their expectations about that training. PMID:26399713

  20. Speech processing in children with functional articulation disorders.

    PubMed

    Gósy, Mária; Horváth, Viktória

    2015-03-01

    This study explored auditory speech processing and comprehension abilities in 5-8-year-old monolingual Hungarian children with functional articulation disorders (FADs) and their typically developing peers. Our main hypothesis was that children with FAD would show co-existing auditory speech processing disorders, with different levels of these skills depending on the nature of the receptive processes. The tasks included (i) sentence and non-word repetitions, (ii) non-word discrimination and (iii) sentence and story comprehension. Results suggest that the auditory speech processing of children with FAD is underdeveloped compared with that of typically developing children, and largely varies across task types. In addition, there are differences between children with FAD and controls in all age groups from 5 to 8 years. Our results have several clinical implications.

  1. What is the potential for interventions designed to prevent violence against women to reduce children's exposure to violence? Findings from the SASA! study, Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Starmann, Elizabeth; Musuya, Tina; Heise, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment often co-occur in households and lead to negative outcomes for children. This article explores the extent to which SASA!, an intervention to prevent violence against women, impacted children's exposure to violence. Between 2007 and 2012 a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kampala, Uganda. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Under the qualitative evaluation, 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. This mixed-methods article draws mainly on the qualitative data. The findings suggest that SASA! impacted on children's experience of violence in three main ways. First, quantitative data suggest that children's exposure to IPV was reduced. We estimate that reductions in IPV combined with reduced witnessing by children when IPV did occur, led to a 64% reduction in prevalence of children witnessing IPV in their home (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.06-2.20). Second, among couples who experienced reduced IPV, qualitative data suggests parenting and discipline practices sometimes also changed-improving parent-child relationships and for a few parents, resulting in the complete rejection of corporal punishment as a disciplinary method. Third, some participants reported intervening to prevent violence against children. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent IPV may also impact on children's exposure to violence, and improve parent-child relationships. They also point to potential synergies for violence prevention, an area meriting further exploration.

  2. What is the potential for interventions designed to prevent violence against women to reduce children's exposure to violence? Findings from the SASA! study, Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Starmann, Elizabeth; Musuya, Tina; Heise, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment often co-occur in households and lead to negative outcomes for children. This article explores the extent to which SASA!, an intervention to prevent violence against women, impacted children's exposure to violence. Between 2007 and 2012 a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kampala, Uganda. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Under the qualitative evaluation, 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. This mixed-methods article draws mainly on the qualitative data. The findings suggest that SASA! impacted on children's experience of violence in three main ways. First, quantitative data suggest that children's exposure to IPV was reduced. We estimate that reductions in IPV combined with reduced witnessing by children when IPV did occur, led to a 64% reduction in prevalence of children witnessing IPV in their home (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.06-2.20). Second, among couples who experienced reduced IPV, qualitative data suggests parenting and discipline practices sometimes also changed-improving parent-child relationships and for a few parents, resulting in the complete rejection of corporal punishment as a disciplinary method. Third, some participants reported intervening to prevent violence against children. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent IPV may also impact on children's exposure to violence, and improve parent-child relationships. They also point to potential synergies for violence prevention, an area meriting further exploration. PMID:26507554

  3. Serving the Underserved: A Review of the Research and Practice in Child Find, Assessment, and the IFSP/IEP Process for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, Arlington, VA.

    This publication presents a digest of pertinent research and recommended practices for the first steps of providing early intervention services for young children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Chapter 1, "Initial Identification and Referral: Child Find, Screening, and Tracking: Serving Culturally and Linguistically…

  4. The Effectiveness of Semantic Therapy for the Word Finding Difficulties of Children with Severe and Complex Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jean; Aldersley, Anna; Dobson, Catherine; Edgar, Silke; Harding, Christian; Luckins, Jessie; Wiseman, Fiona; Pring, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often seen in children with language difficulties. Their problem is readily observed and has led to investigations of its nature and encouraged attempts at intervention. Semantic errors in their naming suggest that their knowledge of items is poorly developed and that therapies to strengthen it may be effective.…

  5. Do Tasks Make a Difference? Accounting for Heterogeneity of Performance of Children with Reading Difficulties on Tasks of Executive Function: Findings from a Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Josephine N.; Boyle, James M. E.; Kelly, Steve W.

    2010-01-01

    Research studies have implicated executive functions in reading difficulties (RD). But while some studies have found children with RD to be impaired on tasks of executive function other studies report unimpaired performance. A meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether these discrepant findings can be accounted for by differences in the…

  6. Does Community and Family Engagement Enhance Permanency for Children in Foster Care? Findings from an Evaluation of the Family-to-Family Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, David S.; Usher, Charles L.; Wildfire, Judith B.; Webster, Daniel; Cuccaro-Alamin, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is limited research assessing the effectiveness of family engagement for improving permanency for children. An important challenge is that randomized designs are not feasible for evaluating these practices because effective implementation of family engagement requires systemic change. Findings from a national evaluation are presented to…

  7. Promoting Children's Social-Emotional Skills in Preschool Can Enhance Academic and Behavioral Functioning in Kindergarten: Findings from Head Start REDI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Gill, Sukhdeep

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined processes of change associated with the positive preschool and kindergarten outcomes of children who received the Head Start REDI (REsearch-based, Developmentally Informed) intervention compared to usual practice Head Start. Using data from a large-scale randomized controlled trial ("N" = 356…

  8. Complementary Feeding Practices of Mothers and Their Perceived Impacts on Young Children: Findings from KEEA District of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Egyir, Bridget K; Ramsay, Samantha A; Bilderback, Barry; Safaii, SeAnne

    2016-09-01

    Objective Appropriate and timely complementary feeding practices are fundamental to a child's growth, health, and development during the first 2 years of life. This study aimed to understand (1) Ghanaian mother's complementary feeding practices, and (2) their perceived and observed impacts of complementary feeding on their children. Methods Ghanaian mothers with children 4-24 months of age were recruited from four communities in the Komenda Edina Eguafo Abrem district in the Central Region of Ghana (n = 99). A qualitative methodological approach with focus group interview discussions was used. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted, and were audio recorded and transcribed. The audio transcriptions were coded and analyzed into pertinent themes, meta-themes, and theoretical concepts. Results Over 80 % (85) of mothers reported poor knowledge about the effects of complementary feeding on their children and 45 % (45) of the children were undernourished, indicating inappropriate complementary feeding practices. Some mothers held misconceptions about the effect of food on children's health. Four overarching themes were identified: (1) mothers' background knowledge about food, child health and growth outcomes, (2) mothers' motivation in feeding their children, (3) barriers to feeding, (4) foods mothers offered their children. Conclusion for Practice Nutrition education on complementary feeding is needed for Ghanaian mothers. Health facilities and community outreach programs could be a venue to provide education to mothers regarding infant and young child feeding practices in Ghana.

  9. Temperament, disordered attachment, and parental sensitivity in foster care: differential findings on attachment security for shy children.

    PubMed

    De Schipper, J Clasien; Oosterman, Mirjam; Schuengel, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    In a foster care sample, the moderating effect of temperamental shyness on the association between parental sensitivity and attachment quality was tested. The foster parents of 59 foster children (age M = 57 months, SD = 16.4) filled out the Child Behavior Questionnaire. To control for confounds, symptoms of inhibited and disinhibited disordered attachment were derived from the Disturbances of Attachment Interview. The Strange Situation Procedure as well as a 15 minute parent-child interaction task were administered. Analyses indicated an interaction effect between parental perceptions of shyness and parental sensitivity for attachment quality. Shy children who had more sensitive foster parents were more often securely attached. For less shy children, no differences in attachment security were found in relation to the foster parents' sensitivity. These results are partially consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis. Shy children may benefit more from more sensitive foster parents when entering foster care.

  10. Whole Grain Intakes in the Diets Of Malaysian Children and Adolescents – Findings from the MyBreakfast Study

    PubMed Central

    AK, Norimah; Koo, H. C.; JM, Hamid Jan; MT, Mohd Nasir; Tan, S. Y.; Appukutty, Mahendran; AR, Nurliyana; Thielecke, Frank; Hopkins, Sinead; Ong, M. K.; Ning, C.; Tee, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents. Methods This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained. Results Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8g/d) in children and 1.7g/d (SD 4.7g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer’s only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48g/day. Conclusion Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption. PMID:26473369

  11. Emotional Processing and Attention Control Impairments in Children with Anxiety: An Integrative Review of Event-Related Potentials Findings.

    PubMed

    Wauthia, Erika; Rossignol, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention toward threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, the understanding of the neural correlates of attentional biases in anxious children seem quite important since they could play a role in the etiology and the maintenance of this disorder. This review summarizes the results of researches having used ERPs to index emotional processing and attention control in children suffering from anxiety. We will focus on the P1, indexing basic visual perceptual processing, the N2, thought to reflect cognitive control process, the P3 typically associated with response inhibition, and the late positive potential (LPP) that indicates sustained attention toward motivationally salient stimuli. We will also examine the error-related negativity (ERN) that indexes monitoring system for detecting errors. Electro-physiological studies generally reported increased amplitudes of these components in anxious children, even when they did not differ from typically developing children at a behavioral level. These results suggest diminished cognitive control that influences children's selective attention mechanisms toward threatening information. Theoretical perspectives and implications for future researches will be discussed in the framework of current models of childhood anxiety. PMID:27199802

  12. Emotional Processing and Attention Control Impairments in Children with Anxiety: An Integrative Review of Event-Related Potentials Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wauthia, Erika; Rossignol, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention toward threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, the understanding of the neural correlates of attentional biases in anxious children seem quite important since they could play a role in the etiology and the maintenance of this disorder. This review summarizes the results of researches having used ERPs to index emotional processing and attention control in children suffering from anxiety. We will focus on the P1, indexing basic visual perceptual processing, the N2, thought to reflect cognitive control process, the P3 typically associated with response inhibition, and the late positive potential (LPP) that indicates sustained attention toward motivationally salient stimuli. We will also examine the error-related negativity (ERN) that indexes monitoring system for detecting errors. Electro-physiological studies generally reported increased amplitudes of these components in anxious children, even when they did not differ from typically developing children at a behavioral level. These results suggest diminished cognitive control that influences children's selective attention mechanisms toward threatening information. Theoretical perspectives and implications for future researches will be discussed in the framework of current models of childhood anxiety. PMID:27199802

  13. Eww she sneezed! Contamination context affects children's food preferences and consumption.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2015-04-01

    Does contextual information about disgust influence children's food consumption and subjective experience of taste? Three- to eight-year-old children (N = 60) were presented with two identical foods, yet children were led to believe that one food had been contaminated by sneezing and licking, while the other was clean. When given the opportunity to eat the foods, 5- to 8-year-old children consumed more clean food and rated the clean food's taste more positively; younger children did not distinguish between the foods. The relation between contamination and subjective taste held even among children who ate both foods and had direct evidence that they were identical. These data indicate that children's consumption behavior and food preferences are influenced by information external to foods themselves. PMID:25558024

  14. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.

  15. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  16. Developmental changes in the visual-proprioceptive integration threshold of children.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Mark; Longard, Julie; Moore, Chris

    2014-09-01

    The ability to detect artificially induced visual-proprioceptive asynchrony reflects an awareness of the first-person experience of self-generated movement. The current study assessed children's (5- to 8-year-olds) and adults' ability to integrate asynchronous visual and proprioceptive stimulation by delaying the visual feedback of self-generated action in videos. Children and adults observed a monitor showing their movements of a joystick at varying delay durations and were then asked to make judgments on whether their movements appeared to be delayed or live. Children demonstrated age-related differences in their reporting of delay judgments across all delay conditions. Adults' performances on the same task exceeded those of children. The results of this study provide a mapping of visual-proprioceptive integration abilities in 5 to 8 year old children. The age-related increase in sensitivity to visual-proprioceptive asynchrony is suggestive of increasing sensitivity to the temporal properties of multisensory feedback of self-generated movement with development.

  17. Poorer general health status in children is associated with being overweight or obese in Hawai'i: findings from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Kristen; Hayes, Donald K; Iwaishi, Louise K; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is a widespread national issue that affects the health and well-being of millions of people; particular attention has been focused on the burden among children. The National Survey of Children's Health data from 2007 was used to examine the relationship of child health status and unhealthy weight (overweight/obese defined as body mass index in ≥ 85 th percentile) among 874 children aged 10 to 17 years of age in Hawai'i. In particular, the parentally reported child's general health status was assessed comparing those with a poorer health status (defined as "good/fair/poor") to those with a better one (defined as "excellent/very good"). Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis examined risk for overweight/obese with child's general health status, accounting for gender, race, and socioeconomic factors. More children with a poorer health status (46.5%; 95%CI=33.2-60.2) were overweight/obese compared to those of better health status (25.8%; 95%CI=21.9-30.2). Estimates of overweight/obese were high in Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (38.6%; 95%CI: 28.9-49.4), multiracial (30.9%; 95%CI=24.2-38.6) children, and children whose parents had less than 12 years education (56.8%; 95%CI=32.8-78.0). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed a 2.92 (95%CI=1.52-5.61) greater odds for overweight/obese status in children with a poorer health status compared to those of better health status after accounting for age, race, gender, and parental education. Gender, race, and parental education were also significant factors associated with overweight/obese in the final adjusted model. It is important that children that are overweight or obese receive appropriate health screenings including assessments of general health status. Children in high risk socioeconomic groups should be a particular focus of prevention efforts to promote health equity and provide opportunities for children to reach their potential.

  18. A cross-cultural comparison of children's imitative flexibility.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Jennifer M; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-09-01

    Recent research with Western populations has demonstrated that children use imitation flexibly to engage in both instrumental and conventional learning. Evidence for children's imitative flexibility in non-Western populations is limited, however, and has only assessed imitation of instrumental tasks. This study (N = 142, 6- to 8-year-olds) demonstrates both cultural continuity and cultural variation in imitative flexibility. Children engage in higher imitative fidelity for conventional tasks than for instrumental tasks in both an industrialized, Western culture (United States), and a subsistence-based, non-Western culture (Vanuatu). Children in Vanuatu engage in higher imitative fidelity of instrumental tasks than in the United States, a potential consequence of cultural variation in child socialization for conformity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570982

  19. Investigating shadows: a pedagogical intervention project with primary school children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noversa, Silvana; Abreu, Cátia; Varela, Paulo; Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2014-07-01

    This communication results from a pedagogical intervention project, carried out at a primary school in the district of Braga - Portugal. The intervention took place in a class of the 3rd year, composed of 16 students, and it incorporated the practice of inquiry-based science teaching addressing the theme "Light Experiments", which is part of the "Environmental Studies" curricular area. Various class activities were planned and implemented concerning some of the factors that influence the shadow of an object, in order to find answers to the following three questions: a) will 3rd year students, aged 7/8 years, be able to construct and execute an investigation strategy that involves manipulating and controlling variables? b) what are the main difficulties experienced by students in the designing and execution of such a strategy? c) how will students, in interaction with the teacher and with their peers, gradually design and execute their investigation strategy in order to respond to the problem formulated? The project adopted an action research methodology. A careful record was kept of the events most relevant to the questions under study in each class. This data was used to prepare the class diaries - descriptive and reflective narratives prepared based on recorded audio and field notes made during participant observation in the context of the classroom. A content analysis of the diaries has identified a few elements that provide answers to the research questions raised. In order to plan and implement a research project with children in the 7/8 years old range require a high level of scaffolding to allow students to gradually build a coherent strategy to tackle the research problem. Teacher's role is crucial. The teacher, by questioning and inducing reasoning and discussion, promotes encourages and regulates the cognitive activity of students. Some level of autonomy should be given to the students in large group collaborative work.

  20. Poverty among Children Born Outside of Marriage: Preliminary Findings from the National Survey of America's Families. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Ariel

    This study examines whether children born outside of marriage and currently living in single-mother families are more likely to be poor than children in single-mother families who were born to married parents. Using the 1997 National Survey of America's Families, the study finds that among children living with single mothers, those born outside of…

  1. Preliminary Findings on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents in an Inpatient Secure Adolescent Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…

  2. Predicting Early Fatherhood and Whether Young Fathers Live with Their Children: Prospective Findings and Policy Recommendations. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Taylor, Alan; Dickson, Nigel

    This prospective, birth cohort study addressed three questions: Which individual and family-of-origin characteristics predict the age at which young men make the transition to fatherhood? Do these characteristics predict how long young men live with their children? Are individual differences in the amount of time fathers spend living with their…

  3. A Kaiser Family Foundation and Children Now National Survey: Parents Speak Up about Television Today. A Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser Foundation, Oakland, CA.

    In the midst of a growing national debate about the role of television as a de facto "sex educator" for young people today, this survey asked parents nationwide in the fall of 1996 about their views on kids and television. A random sample of 853 parents and children ages 6 to 15 were surveyed by telephone (the data reported here focus on a…

  4. Finding Funding: Supporting Making Connections Core Result that Children are Healthy and Prepared to Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Christianne; Crocker, Jarle; Stewart, Nichole; Torrico, Roxana; Bhat, Soumya; Schmid, William; Ennis, Melissa, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Annie E. Casey Foundation's "Making Connections" initiative provides support to communities across the country to help improve outcomes for children and families in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The sites, together with local partners, are engaged in a range of strategies and activities, reflecting local conditions and priorities, to ensure…

  5. Find the Picture of Eight Turtles: A Link between Children's Counting and Their Knowledge of Number Word Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusser, Emily B.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2011-01-01

    An essential part of understanding number words (e.g., "eight") is understanding that all number words refer to the dimension of experience we call numerosity. Knowledge of this general principle may be separable from knowledge of individual number word meanings. That is, children may learn the meanings of at least a few individual number words…

  6. Investments in Children's Education and Family-Building Behavior in Pakistan: Findings from Rural NWFP and Punjab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathar, Zeba Ayesha; Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Haque, Minhaj ul

    Rising demand for schooling on the part of many Pakistani parents has immediate implications for the cost of children. To fulfill their educational aspirations, parents must invest more than they have in the past in each child both directly, in terms of various costs associated with school attendance and indirectly, in terms of missed…

  7. A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

  8. Interdependencies of Marital and Stepparent-Stepchild Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment: Research Findings and Clinical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Eulalee; Clingempeel, W. Glenn

    1987-01-01

    Examined interdependencies of marital and stepparent-stepchild relationships and children's psychological adjustment in 62 stepfamilies. In stepmother families, higher marital quality was associated with more positive stepmother-stepson relationships and better stepson adjustment, but less positive stepmother-stepdaughter relationships and poorer…

  9. Employment Impact and Financial Burden for Families of Children with Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, L.; Grosse, S.; Raspa, M.; Bailey, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The employment impact and financial burden experienced by families of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) has not been quantified in the USA. Method: Using a national fragile X family survey, we analysed data on 1019 families with at least one child who had a full FXS mutation. Out-of-pocket expenditures related to fragile X were…

  10. Early Visual Language Exposure and Emergent Literacy in Preschool Deaf Children: Findings from a National Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas E.; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of…

  11. Timing of Identification among Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from a Population-Based Surveillance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Durkin, Maureen; Maenner, Matthew; Newschaffer, Craig; Mandell, David S.; Wiggins, Lisa; Lee, Li-Ching; Rice, Catherine; Giarelli, Ellen; Kirby, Russell; Baio, Jon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Cuniff, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the data from Center for Disease Control's autism surveillance program found that the median age of identification of children with autism is 5.7 years. Being male, having an IQ of 70 or lower, and having developmental regression are the factors linked to a younger age of identification. There is a need for research, innovation, and…

  12. Fixing the Broken Promise of Education for All: Findings from the Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Angela, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This report delves into a rich new body of data and analysis from the Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children (OOSCI), which confirms that the task of achieving education for all is far from over. The government-backed national studies carried out under the Initiative have marshalled a wide range of data sources for innovative analyses,…

  13. Can we find a good biochemical marker of early cardiotoxicity in children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Sadurska, Elżbieta; Drabko, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Jerzy R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is one of the complications following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but its diagnosis may be hampered due to the presence of different post-transplant comorbidities. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of cardiac complications and the significance of biochemical markers (NT-proBNP, ANP, ET-1, and TnI) and ECHO systolic and diastolic parameters analysis in children treated with HSCT. Thirty consecutive children (median age 9.6 years) were included in the study. The control group consisted of 14 healthy children (median age of 10.9 years). None of the transplanted children developed clinical cardiotoxicity. Median ET-1 and NT-proBNP plasma levels were elevated when compared to controls in at least 3 out of 4 analysed time points, median ANP levels differed only in one time point, and no difference was found between median TnI values in all analysed time points. Echocardiographic systolic parameters were within the normal range, while median E/A ratio assessed before HSCT, on day +30, and +100 post-transplant was statistically lower in HSCT patients (respectively, 1.34, 1.37, and 1.42 vs. 1.73). It confirms the need for careful follow up in patients who have received chemotherapy and have been treated with HSCT.

  14. Can we find a good biochemical marker of early cardiotoxicity in children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Sadurska, Elżbieta; Drabko, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Jerzy R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is one of the complications following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but its diagnosis may be hampered due to the presence of different post-transplant comorbidities. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of cardiac complications and the significance of biochemical markers (NT-proBNP, ANP, ET-1, and TnI) and ECHO systolic and diastolic parameters analysis in children treated with HSCT. Thirty consecutive children (median age 9.6 years) were included in the study. The control group consisted of 14 healthy children (median age of 10.9 years). None of the transplanted children developed clinical cardiotoxicity. Median ET-1 and NT-proBNP plasma levels were elevated when compared to controls in at least 3 out of 4 analysed time points, median ANP levels differed only in one time point, and no difference was found between median TnI values in all analysed time points. Echocardiographic systolic parameters were within the normal range, while median E/A ratio assessed before HSCT, on day +30, and +100 post-transplant was statistically lower in HSCT patients (respectively, 1.34, 1.37, and 1.42 vs. 1.73). It confirms the need for careful follow up in patients who have received chemotherapy and have been treated with HSCT. PMID:27647986

  15. Gender Differences in Behavioral Outcomes among Children at Risk of Neglect: Findings from a Family-Focused Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Hayward, R. Anna; DePanfilis, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of the Family Connections (FC) intervention on preventing behavioral problems among urban, predominantly African American children at risk of neglect. Method: Secondary data analyses using mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to examine gender differences in child…

  16. Structure emerges faster during cultural transmission in children than in adults.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Gauvrit, Nicolas; Forsyth, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    How does children's limited processing capacity affect cultural transmission of complex information? We show that over the course of iterated reproduction of two-dimensional random dot patterns transmission accuracy increased to a similar extent in 5- to 8-year-old children and adults whereas algorithmic complexity decreased faster in children. Thus, children require more structure to render complex inputs learnable. In line with the Less-Is-More hypothesis, we interpret this as evidence that children's processing limitations affecting working memory capacity and executive control constrain the ability to represent and generate complexity, which, in turn, facilitates emergence of structure. This underscores the importance of investigating the role of children in the transmission of complex cultural traits.

  17. [Cervical thymic cysts are a rare cause of neck masses in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Langelund; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Bay, Mette; Godballe, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Cervical thymic cysts are rare benign unilateral lesions of the neck most often diagnosed in male children less than ten years of age. To date, less than 200 cases have been described. We report a case with a typical presentation in an 8-year-old boy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in Denmark for almost three decades. Cervical thymic cysts represent a clinical challenge as no diagnostic non-invasive test or imaging is available. The cyst was successfully removed by surgical excision and a final histological diagnosis obtained. PMID:25331660

  18. Medicaid and Financing of Health Care for Children in Foster Care: Findings from a National Survey. Health Services for Children in Foster Care. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelas, Moira; Halfon, Neal

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, state Medicaid programs have implemented significant change and innovation in delivering health and behavioral health services. Prepaid capitated financing and the provider networks created by Medicaid managed care expansions have altered systems of medical and mental/behavioral health. Most children in foster care receive…

  19. Which Children Can Find a Way through a Strange Town Using a Streetmap?--Results of an Empirical Study on Children's Orientation Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Ingrid; Hemmer, Michael; Kruschel, Katja; Neidhardt, Eva; Obermaier, Gabriele; Uphues, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    This article relates about some results of an interdisciplinary research project analyzing influencing factors of children's spatial orientation competence in real space carried out by geography educators and psychologists. The focus is on the concept of representation as a theoretical foundation. The research design for collecting data of…

  20. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Odgers, Candice L.; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children’s risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children’s mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Results: Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16–2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15–2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Conclusions: Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms