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Sample records for 8-year-old children findings

  1. Developing the IDEFICS community-based intervention program to enhance eating behaviors in 2- to 8-year-old children: findings from focus groups with children and parents.

    PubMed

    Haerens, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Fernandez, J; Hebestreit, A; Kovács, E; Lasn, H; Regber, S; Shiakou, M; De Henauw, S

    2009-06-01

    One purpose of 'identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants' (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary behaviors among children aged 2-8 years old in order to determine the best approaches for developing the dietary components of the standardized intervention. Twenty focus groups with children (74 boys, 81 girls) and 36 focus groups with 189 parents (28 men, 161 women) were conducted. Only in two countries, children mentioned receiving nutrition education at school. Rules at home and at school ranged from not allowing the consumption of unhealthy products to allowing everything. The same diversity was found for availability of (un)healthy products at home and school. Parents mentioned personal (lack of time, financial constraints, preferences), socio-environmental (family, peer influences), institutional (school policies) and physical-environmental (availability of unhealthy products, price, season) barriers for healthy eating. This focus group research provided valuable information to guide the first phase in the IDEFICS intervention development. There was a large variability in findings within countries. Interventions should be tailored at the personal and environmental level to increase the likelihood of behavioral change.

  2. Temporal Generalization in 3- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Clement, Angelique; Wearden, John

    2001-01-01

    Tested 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds on temporal generalization with visual stimuli. Found increasing sharpness of generalization gradient with increasing age, and change from symmetrical to adult-like asymmetrical generalization gradients among 8-year-olds. Theoretical models attributed changes to increasing precision of the reference memory with…

  3. Developing the IDEFICS Community-Based Intervention Program to Enhance Eating Behaviors in 2- to 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from Focus Groups with Children and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haerens, L.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Barba, G.; Eiben, G.; Fernandez, J.; Hebestreit, A.; Kovacs, E.; Lasn, H.; Regber, S.; Shiakou, M.; De Henauw, S.

    2009-01-01

    One purpose of "identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants" (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary…

  4. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  5. An ERP study of conflict monitoring in 4-8-year old children: associations with temperament.

    PubMed

    Buss, Kristin A; Dennis, Tracy A; Brooker, Rebecca J; Sippel, Lauren M

    2011-04-01

    Although there is great interest in identifying the neural correlates of cognitive processes that create risk for psychopathology, there is a paucity of research in young children. One event-related potential (ERP), the N2, is thought to index conflict monitoring and has been linked cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety. Most of this research, however, has been conducted with adults, adolescents, and older children, but not with younger children. To address this gap, the current study examined 26 4-8-year-olds, who completed a cued flanker task while EEG was continuously recorded. We assessed whether the N2 was detectable in this group of young children and examined associations between the N2 and factors reflecting affective risk (e.g., reduced executive attention, temperamental effortful control, and temperamental surgency). We documented an N2 effect (greater N2 amplitude to incongruent versus congruent flankers), but only in children older than 6 years of age. Increases in the N2 effect were associated with less efficient executive attention and lower temperamental effortful control. We discuss the implications of these findings and consider how they may inform future studies on biomarkers for cognitive and affective risk factors for anxiety.

  6. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test’s intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the “Test of Gross Motor Development” (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key points All 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98). A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test’s concurrent validity. The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas. New and validated test can be

  7. POLYGON - A New Fundamental Movement Skills Test for 8 Year Old Children: Construction and Validation.

    PubMed

    Zuvela, Frane; Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-01-01

    Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS) in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005). The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97) and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98) and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2). Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice. Key pointsAll 21 newly constructed tasks demonstrated high intra-rater reliability (0.83-0.97) in FMS assessment. High reliability was also noted in the FMS-POLYGON test (0.98).A high correlation was found between the FMS-POLYGON and TGMD-2 which is a confirmation of the new test's concurrent validity.The research resolved the problem of long and detailed FMS assessment by adding a new dimension using quick and effective norm-referenced approach but also covering all the most important movement areas.New and validated test can be of great use

  8. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Marques, Carlos; Santos, Andreia; Santos, Manuela; Castro, São Luís; Besson, Mireille

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study with 32 nonmusician children over 9 months to determine 1) whether functional differences between musician and nonmusician children reflect specific predispositions for music or result from musical training and 2) whether musical training improves nonmusical brain functions such as reading and linguistic pitch processing. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while 8-year-old children performed tasks designed to test the hypothesis that musical training improves pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Following the first testing sessions nonmusician children were pseudorandomly assigned to music or to painting training for 6 months and were tested again after training using the same tests. After musical (but not painting) training, children showed enhanced reading and pitch discrimination abilities in speech. Remarkably, 6 months of musical training thus suffices to significantly improve behavior and to influence the development of neural processes as reflected in specific pattern of brain waves. These results reveal positive transfer from music to speech and highlight the influence of musical training. Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain.

  9. The Effect of Action Valence and Race on 3- to 8-Year-Old Children's Social Cognitive Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Hughes, Brittany C.; Mejia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated children's judgments of actions as a function of the valence of the action and the race of the actor. Three- to 8-year-old children were read an illustrated storybook in which 1 character did not share (a negatively valenced action) and the other character was helpful (a positively valenced action). The race of the…

  10. Preventing Internalizing Problems in 6–8 Year Old Children: A Universal School-Based Program

    PubMed Central

    Pophillat, Eugenie; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Nesa, Monique; Davis, Melissa C.; Baughman, Natalie; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    The Aussie Optimism Program: Feelings and Friends (AOP-FF) is a 10 week, universal mental health promotion program based on social/emotional and cognitive and behavioral strategies. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal Cognitive Behavioral Therapy based program in preventing and reducing internalizing problems in 6–8 year olds (Years 1–3 in Australia). Year 1–3 students from a low SES primary school (N = 206) were randomly assigned in classes to either an intervention or a control group and assessed at baseline and post-test. Results showed a significant (p = 0.009) and small to moderate (partial eta-squared = 0.034) pre-post decrease in parent-reported anxiety symptoms for the intervention group, in conjunction with a non-significant (p = 0.708) and negligible (partial eta-squared = 0.001) pre-post increase for the control group. A larger randomized controlled trial assessing longer term effects is needed. In addition the program needs to be simplified for year 1–2 students with a separate more developmentally appropriate program for year 3 students. PMID:28018267

  11. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  12. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  13. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children.

  14. Interference between oculomotor and postural tasks in 7-8-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Agathe; Doré Mazars, Karine; Lemoine, Christelle; Nougier, Vincent; Olivier, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Several studies in adults having observed the effect of eye movements on postural control provided contradictory results. In the present study, we explored the effect of various oculomotor tasks on postural control and the effect of different postural tasks on eye movements in eleven children (7.8 ± 0.5 years) and nine adults (30.4 ± 6.3 years). To vary the difficulty of the oculomotor task, three conditions were tested: fixation, prosaccades (reactive saccades made toward the target) and antisaccades (voluntary saccades made in the direction opposite to the visual target). To vary the difficulty of postural control, two postural tasks were tested: Standard Romberg (SR) and Tandem Romberg (TR). Postural difficulty did not affect oculomotor behavior, except by lengthening adults' latencies in the prosaccade task. For both groups, postural control was altered in the antisaccade task as compared to fixation and prosaccade tasks. Moreover, a ceiling effect was found in the more complex postural task. This study highlighted a cortical interference between oculomotor and postural control systems.

  15. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, p<0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r=0.019, p=0.864). Conclusion This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on

  16. Persistent hematologic and immunologic disturbances in 8-year-old Dutch children associated with perinatal dioxin exposure.

    PubMed Central

    ten Tusscher, Gavin W; Steerenberg, Peter A; van Loveren, Henk; Vos, Joseph G; von dem Borne, Albert E G K; Westra, Matthijs; van der Slikke, Johannes W; Olie, Kees; Pluim, Hendrik J; Koppe, Janna G

    2003-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to Dutch "background" dioxin levels in 1990 was high, but comparable with that of other industrialized Western European countries. Exposure during the sensitive perinatal period may cause permanent disturbances. Therefore, we assessed the health status and various hematologic and immunologic parameters among our longitudinal cohort. A medical history was taken and venipuncture performed in a longitudinal cohort of 27 healthy 8-year-old children who had documented perinatal dioxin exposure. Linear regression revealed a decrease in allergy in relation to prenatal (p = 0.02) and postnatal (p = 0.03) dioxin exposure. Increases in CD4+ T-helper cells (p = 0.006) and in CD45RA+ cells (p = 0.02) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. A persistently decreased platelet count (p = 0.04) and increased thrombopoietin concentration (p = 0.03) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. This follow-up has shown a decrease in allergy, persistently decreased thrombocytes, increased thrombopoietin, and increased CD4+ T-helper and increased CD45RA+ cell counts. This study provides indications of effects at the stem cell level of perinatal dioxin exposure, persisting until minimally 8 years after birth. PMID:12948893

  17. Persistent hematologic and immunologic disturbances in 8-year-old Dutch children associated with perinatal dioxin exposure.

    PubMed

    ten Tusscher, Gavin W; Steerenberg, Peter A; van Loveren, Henk; Vos, Joseph G; von dem Borne, Albert E G K; Westra, Matthijs; van der Slikke, Johannes W; Olie, Kees; Pluim, Hendrik J; Koppe, Janna G

    2003-09-01

    Perinatal exposure to Dutch "background" dioxin levels in 1990 was high, but comparable with that of other industrialized Western European countries. Exposure during the sensitive perinatal period may cause permanent disturbances. Therefore, we assessed the health status and various hematologic and immunologic parameters among our longitudinal cohort. A medical history was taken and venipuncture performed in a longitudinal cohort of 27 healthy 8-year-old children who had documented perinatal dioxin exposure. Linear regression revealed a decrease in allergy in relation to prenatal (p = 0.02) and postnatal (p = 0.03) dioxin exposure. Increases in CD4+ T-helper cells (p = 0.006) and in CD45RA+ cells (p = 0.02) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. A persistently decreased platelet count (p = 0.04) and increased thrombopoietin concentration (p = 0.03) were seen in relation to postnatal exposure. This follow-up has shown a decrease in allergy, persistently decreased thrombocytes, increased thrombopoietin, and increased CD4+ T-helper and increased CD45RA+ cell counts. This study provides indications of effects at the stem cell level of perinatal dioxin exposure, persisting until minimally 8 years after birth.

  18. High plasma homocysteine increases risk of metabolic syndrome in 6 to 8 year old children in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Yakub, Mohsin; Schulze, Kerry J; Khatry, Subarna K; Stewart, Christine P; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2014-04-21

    Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L) to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population), high plasma glucose (≥ 85th percentile), high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥ 90th percentile of reference population), triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L.) and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), [odds ratios (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.08-2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33-2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06-2.90; p = 0.029) with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life.

  19. High Plasma Homocysteine Increases Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in 6 to 8 Year Old Children in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Yakub, Mohsin; Schulze, Kerry J.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Stewart, Christine P.; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L) to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population), high plasma glucose (≥85th percentile), high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥90th percentile of reference population), triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L.) and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), [odds ratios (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.08–2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10–2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33–2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06–2.90; p = 0.029) with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life. PMID:24763111

  20. National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) Position Statement on Early Childhood Certification for Teachers of Children 8 Years Old and Younger in Public School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators' (NAECTE) position statement on early childhood certification for teachers of children 8 years old and younger in public school settings. The association requires public schools to employ and assign teachers with early childhood certification/endorsement to early…

  1. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  2. Mental Rotation with Tangible Three-Dimensional Objects: A New Measure Sensitive to Developmental Differences in 4- to 8-year-old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Zachary; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Xu, Chang; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that spatial thinking is fundamental to later success in math and science. The goals of this study were to design and evaluate a novel test of three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation for 4- to 8-year-old children (N?=?165) that uses tangible 3D objects. Results revealed that the measure was both valid and reliable and…

  3. The Art of Teaching Children the Arts: Music, Dance and Poetry with Children Aged 2-8 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Olsson, Bengt; Pramling, Niklas; Wallerstedt, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the theoretical framework of developmental pedagogy is presented as a tool in studying and developing children's knowing within the arts. The domains of art focused on are music, poetry and dance/aesthetic movement. Through empirical examples from a large-scale research project, we illustrate the tools of developmental pedagogy…

  4. Realizing Relevance: The Influence of Domain-Specific Information on Generation of New Knowledge Through Integration in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In accumulating knowledge, direct modes of learning are complemented by productive processes, including self-generation based on integration of separate episodes. Effects of the number of potentially relevant episodes on integration were examined in 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 121; racially/ethnically heterogeneous sample, English speakers, from large metropolitan area). Information was presented along with unrelated or related episodes; the latter challenged children to identify the relevant subset of episodes for integration. In Experiment 1, 4- and 6-year-olds integrated in the unrelated context. Six-year-olds also succeeded in the related context in forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, 8-year-olds succeeded in open-ended and forced-choice testing. Results illustrate a developmental progression in productive extension of knowledge due in part to age-related increases in identification of relevant information.

  5. Insulin resistance, physical fitness, body composition and leptin concentration in 7-8 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Slinger, Jantine D; van Breda, Eric; Keizer, Hans; Rump, Patrick; Hornstra, Gerard; Kuipers, Harm

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and physical fitness, leptin concentration, body composition and family history for diabetes in non-selected young children. Physical fitness, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, anthropometric characteristics and medical history were available in two hundred and fifty-seven 7-year-old Dutch children. Correlations with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index for insulin resistance were studied. A multiple regression model was calculated for HOMA. The differences between children with or without a family history for diabetes were not significant. Boys scored higher on glucose concentration and aerobic fitness and lower on sum of skin folds and leptin concentration (p<.05). After adjustment for sum of skin folds, HOMA was significantly associated with leptin in both genders (boys r=.184 p=.031; girls r=.430 p=.000). The association between physical fitness and HOMA was mediated by sum of skin folds. The associations were stronger in girls than in boys. In the regression model (R(2)=.205) the leptin concentration was the only significant predictor for HOMA. The influence of family history for diabetes on insulin resistance is shown as a trend at this age. Our findings suggest that plasma leptin concentration is independently associated with the development of insulin resistance in a non-selected prepubertal population. The association of physical fitness with insulin resistance seems to be mediated by the sum of skin folds.

  6. The Role of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Processing Empathy Stories in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Tila Tabea; Urton, Karolina; Held, Dada; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Hofmann, Markus J.; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kuchinke, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4–8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person's inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of preschool and school children (N = 48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. To control for the two types of empathy, children were presented blocks of stories eliciting either affective or cognitive empathy, or neutral scenes which relied on the understanding of physical causalities. By contrasting the activations of the younger and older children, we expected to observe developmental changes in brain activations when children process stories eliciting empathy in either stimulus modality toward a greater involvement of anterior frontal brain regions. Our results indicate that children's processing of stories eliciting affective and cognitive empathy is associated with medial and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation. In contrast to what is known from studies using adult participants, no additional recruitment of posterior brain regions was observed, often associated with the processing of stories eliciting empathy. Developmental changes were found only for stories eliciting affective empathy with increased activation, in older children, in medial OFC, left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Activations for the two modalities differ only little, with non-verbal presentation of the stimuli having a greater impact on empathy processing in children, showing more similarities to adult processing than the verbal one. This might be caused by the fact that non-verbal processing develops earlier in life and is more

  7. Narrative Skills, Cognitive Profiles and Neuropsychiatric Disorders in 7-8-Year-Old Children with Late Developing Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Hagberg, Bibbi; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Westerlund, Monica; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background: A community-representative sample of screened and clinically examined children with language delay at 2.5 years of age was followed up at school age when their language development was again examined and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental disorder (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism…

  8. The Influence of Environmental Factors on Behavioural Problems in 8-Year-Old Children Exposed to Amphetamine during Fetal Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billing, Lars; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-five children born to Swedish women who used amphetamines during pregnancy were followed to the age of eight years. Statistical correlations were seen between the extent of amphetamine exposure and psychometric tests, aggressive behavior, adjustment, and general assessment. Alcohol use during pregnancy and attitude toward pregnancy also…

  9. [Functional organization of the cerebral cortex during preparation to recognition of incomplete linedrawings in 7-8 years-old children and adults].

    PubMed

    Farber, D A; Machinskaia, R I; Kurganskiĭ, A V; Petrenko, N E

    2014-01-01

    Functional interaction between prefrontal, temporal and tempo-parieto-occipital zones during preparation to recognition of incomplete linedrawings were analyzed in adults (n = 26) and children of 7-8 years old (n = 20). The strength of cortico-cortical interactions was estimated with the imaginary part of the complex-valued coherence at the frequency of alpha-rhythm (Jα). The Jα value was analyzed in the following three experimental conditions which corresponded to different stages of preparation to visual recognition: nonspecific sustained attention in the period preceding the cue (C1); focused attention in the period preceding a not-yet-recognized target stimulus (C2) and focused attention prior the successfully recognized stimulus (C3). When sustained attention changed to focused attention toward a target stimulus Jα increased in adults but decreased in children. Comparing Jα in the subgroups of both adults and children that showed highest recognition scores helped to uncover the age-related pattern of rearrangement of the cortico-cortical functional interactions in alpha-rhythm. That pattern was found to be hemisphere-specific and different at different stages of preparation to recognition of incomplete linedrawings. In adults, the maximal Jα were found in the left hemisphere during the period preceding the recognition of a target stimulus. At this stage of the functional preparatory tuning, in adults, Jα in the left hemisphere was significantly greater than in children. In adults, Jα related to the right hemisphere attained the highest values when attention was directed to not-yet-recognized stimuli. These values were significantly higher than similar values measured in children. In children, Jα reached its highest value during sustained attention. The characteristic pattern of functional interactions among prefrontal, temporal and temporo-parieto-occipital cortices that observed in children of 7-8 years old during preparatory functional tuning for the

  10. Development of oral side preference during chewing and its relation to hand preference in normal 2- to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Gisel, E G

    1988-06-01

    Normative data on skills of the tongue used in eating are presented. Normal children 5 to 8 years old were studied regarding their preference of placing food either on the right or left side of the mouth when starting to eat. A developmental curve spanning 2 to 8 years was generated by including data from an earlier study. Data of oral side preference were correlated with data of preferred hand use. In addition, the ability to move a small piece of food from one side of the mouth to the other was studied. It was found that normal children undergo a transition from placing solid food predominantly on the right side at 2 years of age to placing it on the left side at 4 years of age. The left side preference persists until at least 8 years of age for both viscous and solid food textures. Oral side preference did not correlate with hand preference. The ability to move food from one side of the mouth to the other (lateralizing) was found to undergo a developmental progression: The inability to lateralize in a third of 2-year-olds gave way to rolling movements. Concomitantly, a consistent increase in slow and then smooth movements was found to occur from 2 to 8 years of age. These data provide the clinician with a normative baseline against which eating-impaired children can be compared.

  11. Different sensitization profile for asthma, rhinitis, and eczema among 7-8-year-old children: report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies.

    PubMed

    Rönmark, Eva; Perzanowski, Matthew; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Lundbäck, Bo

    2003-04-01

    Sensitization to different airborne allergens in relation to asthma, rhinitis, and eczema has been studied. A cross-sectional study was performed among 7-8-year-old children living in northern Sweden. The ISAAC-questionnaire with additional questions were sent to the parents, and 3431 (97%) participated. Two-thirds of the children were invited to undergo a skin test with 10 common airborne allergens, and 2148 (88%) participated. The prevalence rates of all three diseases were significantly higher among the children who were sensitized to any of the tested allergens. Among asthmatics, 40% were sensitized to cat, 34% to dog, 28% to horse, 23% to birch and 16% to timothy. The corresponding figures for rhinitis were: cat 49%, dog 33%, horse 37%, birch 46%, timothy 32%; and for eczema: cat 29%, dog 21%, horse 15%, birch 20%, and timothy 11%. Only a few children were sensitized to mites or moulds. The main risk factors for all three diseases were type-1 allergy and a family history of the disease. Independently from other risk factors, sensitization to dog (OR 2.4) and horse (OR 2.2) were significant risk factors for asthma. Sensitization to birch (OR 6.0), horse (OR 4.1), and timothy (OR 2.8) were significant risk factors for rhinitis, while birch (OR 2.4), dog (OR 2.0) and cat (OR 1.6) were significant risk factors for eczema. Despite a large over-lapping of the diseases the pattern of sensitization was different for asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Sensitization to cat was most common among all children, but sensitization to dog and horse was associated with the highest risk for asthma, and sensitization to birch showed the highest risk for rhinitis and eczema. The different risk factor pattern for the often coexisting diseases; asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, may indicate differences in the etiology.

  12. Realizing Relevance: The Influence of Domain-Specific Information on Generation of New Knowledge through Integration in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In accumulating knowledge, direct modes of learning are complemented by productive processes, including self-generation based on integration of separate episodes. Effects of the number of potentially relevant episodes on integration were examined in 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 121; racially/ethnically heterogeneous sample, English speakers, from large…

  13. As Working Memory Grows: A Developmental Account of Neural Bases of Working Memory Capacity in 5- to 8-Year Old Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    Kharitonova, Maria; Winter, Warren; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2015-09-01

    Working memory develops slowly: Even by age 8, children are able to maintain only half the number of items that adults can remember. Neural substrates that support performance on working memory tasks also have a slow developmental trajectory and typically activate to a lesser extent in children, relative to adults. Little is known about why younger participants elicit less neural activation. This may be due to maturational differences, differences in behavioral performance, or both. Here we investigate the neural correlates of working memory capacity in children (ages 5-8) and adults using a visual working memory task with parametrically increasing loads (from one to four items) using fMRI. This task allowed us to estimate working memory capacity limit for each group. We found that both age groups increased the activation of frontoparietal networks with increasing working memory loads, until working memory capacity was reached. Because children's working memory capacity limit was half of that for adults, the plateau occurred at lower loads for children. Had a parametric increase in load not been used, this would have given an impression of less activation overall and less load-dependent activation for children relative to adults. Our findings suggest that young children and adults recruit similar frontoparietal networks at working memory loads that do not exceed capacity and highlight the need to consider behavioral performance differences when interpreting developmental differences in neural activation.

  14. Eating behaviour is associated with eating frequency and food consumption in 6-8 year-old children: The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, H; Lindi, V; Schwab, U; Kiiskinen, S; Venäläinen, T; Karhunen, L; Lakka, T A; Eloranta, A M

    2017-03-15

    The association between eating behaviour and dietary factors has been studied narrowly in children. Therefore, we investigated whether eating frequency and food consumption are influenced by eating behaviour in a population sample of 406 children aged 6-8 years. We assessed features of eating behaviour by the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and dietary factors by a 4-day food record. The results showed that enjoyment of food was directly associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.041) and consumption of vegetables (p = 0.041), cheese (p = 0.005), and meat (p = 0.002). Food responsiveness was directly associated with consumption of fruit and berries (p = 0.013) and meat (p = 0.016). Desire to drink was directly associated with consumption of fat-containing milk (p = 0.002) and inversely associated with consumption of skimmed milk (p = 0.001). Food fussiness was inversely associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.013) and consumption of vegetables (p < 0.001), cheese (p = 0.001), and meat (p = 0.027). Satiety responsiveness was inversely associated with consumption of vegetables (p = 0.031), cheese (p = 0.010), and meat (p < 0.001) and directly associated with consumption of candies and chocolate (p = 0.026). Slowness in eating was inversely associated with consumption of meat (p = 0.018). Where sex differences existed the associations tended to be observed mostly in girls but not in boys. Our study shows that enjoyment of food and food responsiveness are directly associated with consumption of protein-rich foods and vegetables, fruit and berries, whereas food fussiness and satiety responsiveness are inversely associated with consumption of these foods. Assessment of eating behaviour can help in identifying children with various dietary needs.

  15. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and Validity for Use among 5 to 8 Year Olds with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Flessner, Christopher A.; Garcia, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) is the instrument of choice for assessing symptom severity in older children (i.e., 8-18 years) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The reliability and validity of this measure for use among younger children (i.e., 5-8 years of age), however, has never been examined.…

  16. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning in 7- and 8-Year-Old Children: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Lindsay C.; Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Theory of mind requires belief- "and" desire-understanding. Event-related brain potential (ERP) research on belief- and desire-reasoning in adults found mid-frontal activations for both desires and beliefs, and selective right-posterior activations "only" for beliefs. Developmentally, children understand desires before beliefs; thus, a critical…

  17. Children's Teleological Intuitions: What Kind of Explanations Do 7-8 Year Olds Give for the Features of Organisms, Artifacts and Natural Objects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas; Pavlidi, Vasiliki; Papadopoulou, Maria; Palaiokrassa, Eirini

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children usually provide teleological explanations for the features of organisms from a very early age (3-4 years old). However, it is not clear if teleology is applied selectively for organisms, or if it is generally applied to other objects as well (artifacts and non-living natural objects). The present study examined…

  18. Persistence of antibodies in 4-8 year old Austrian children after vaccination with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib and MMR vaccines.

    PubMed

    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Fischmeister, Gustav; Grac, Ana; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Kundi, Michael; Mohsenzadeh-Rabbani, Afsaneh; Moritz, Katharina; Fenninger, Beate; Jarisch, Reinhart; Jasinska, Joanna; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Wiedermann, Ursula; Kollaritsch, Herwig

    2011-07-18

    To determine the proficiency of the Austrian childhood vaccination schedule to induce long lasting seroprotection against vaccine preventable diseases a seroepidemiological study in 348 children between four and eight years of age was conducted. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and rubella antigens were assessed in children, who had been vaccinated with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines at three, four, five months and in the second year of life and/or MMR vaccines in the second year of life at least once, but mostly twice. High seroprotection rates (SPRs) were detected for tetanus (96%) and measles (90%). SPRs regarding diphtheria and mumps were 81% and 72%, respectively. Rubella-SPRs were 68% in females and 58% in males. Hepatitis B-antibody levels ≥10 mIU/mL were present in 52%; antibodies against pertussis were detected in 27% of the children. SPRs for measles and rubella depended on the interval since last vaccination; mumps-antibodies were significantly lower after one MMR-vaccination only. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis depended on the interval since last vaccination while HBs-antibodies did not. The low levels of antibodies 1-7 years after vaccination against pertussis, rubella and mumps after only one vaccination should be considered when recommending new vaccination schedules.

  19. Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy among 8-Year-Old Children in 2010 and Preliminary Evidence of Trends in Its Relationship to Low Birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, Maureen S.; Benedict, Ruth E.; Christensen, Deborah; Dubois, Lindsay A.; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Kirby, Russell S.; Maenner, Matthew J.; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Wingate, Martha S.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2017-01-01

    Background The public health objective for cerebral palsy (CP) in the United States is to reduce the percentage of children with CP who were born low birthweight (LBW, <2500 g) by 10% between 2006 and 2020. This study reports the prevalence of CP in a constant surveillance area for the years 2006, 2008, and 2010 and describes initial progress towards the CP public health objective. Methods Data on children with CP at age 8 years were ascertained by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, a population-based surveillance system that monitored CP in four areas of the United States. Results CP prevalence in 2010 was 2.9 per 1000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6, 3.2], down from 3.5 (95% CI 3.2, 3.9) in the same surveillance area in 2006. Among CP cases with no documented postneonatal aetiology, 49.1% (95% CI 42.9, 55.2) were born LBW in 2010 compared with 54.3% (95% CI 48.4, 60.1) in 2006. In 2010, 28.1% (95% CI 22.9, 30.4) were born very low birthweight (VLBW, <1500 g) compared with 35.4% (95% CI 30.0, 41.2) in 2006. The relative risks for associations between CP and both LBW and VLBW also declined, though not significantly, during the study period. Conclusions Declines in the associations between CP and LBW categories may have contributed to declines during the study period in both the prevalence of CP and the percentage of children with CP who were born LBW or VLBW. Ongoing monitoring of these trends is warranted. PMID:27215680

  20. Ashy dermatosis in an 8-year-old Indian child

    PubMed Central

    Keisham, Chitralekha; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, V. K.; Chugh, Shikha

    2013-01-01

    Ashy dermatosis is a disorder of pigmentation, characterized by asymptomatic symmetric ashy gray-colored macules, in the first to third decade of life. It can, however, affect children sometime. But, there is a paucity of similar cases in Indian children. We present a case of ashy dermatosis in an 8-year-old Indian girl who presented to skin OPD with areas of ashy pigmentation, which were distributed symmetrically. Skin biopsy was consistent with lichenoid pattern histology. This case has been reported to highlight the rarity of ashy dermatosis in Indian children. PMID:23439983

  1. Pediatric Absence Status Epilepticus: Prolonged Altered Mental Status in an 8-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Shahmir; Almubarak, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Absence status epilepticus is characterized by a prolonged state of impaired consciousness or altered sensorium with generalized electroencephalographic abnormalities. It is most commonly diagnosed in patients with known idiopathic generalized epilepsy; however, it may also be the first presentation of epilepsy. Due to the subtle and variable manifestations of the condition, absence status epilepticus may be underrecognized, particularly in children. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy who experienced two episodes of prolonged altered mental status, subsequently determined to be absence status epilepticus with idiopathic generalized epilepsy with phantom absences. We discuss the classification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and electroencephalographic findings of pediatric absence status epilepticus and provide a practical overview for management. PMID:28042487

  2. Transfer of figural face aftereffects suggests mature orientation selectivity in 8-year-olds' face coding.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Rhodes, Gillian

    2014-10-01

    Adult face perception mechanisms are tuned to upright faces, and this orientation selectivity is central to adult expertise with upright faces. Children are less expert than adults, and it has been argued that their face mechanisms are less orientation selective than those of adults. Here we used face aftereffects to test this hypothesis by examining whether children's aftereffects show greater transfer across changes in orientation than do adults' aftereffects. We adapted 7- to 8-year-old children and adults to figural face distortions in both upright and inverted orientations and examined the size of resulting aftereffects in both upright and inverted test faces. If children's face mechanisms are less orientation selective than those of adults, then children's aftereffects should transfer more strongly across changes in orientation. We found no evidence to support this prediction. Children's and adults' aftereffects were similarly reduced by orientation differences between adapt and test. These results indicate that children, like adults, show a high degree of orientation selectivity in face shape coding and suggest that neural tuning to face orientation may be mature by 8 years of age. Our findings are consistent with an emerging view that many of the key attributes of specialized face perception emerge much earlier in development than previously thought.

  3. ["I do not worry about ...!" How the Berkeley Puppet Interview may reveal self-report of psychological symptoms of 4 to 8 years old children exposed to parental cancer].

    PubMed

    Koch, Gabriele; Dieball, Stefanie; Falk, Carina; Weis, Sascha; Brähler, Elmar; Romer, Georg; Bergelt, Corinna; Keller, Monika; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Weschenfelder-Stachwitz, Heike; Resch, Franz; von Klitzing, Kai; Ernst, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) enables us to investigate psychological symptoms of children aged four to eight years under a multi-informant perspective by the means of self and parent report measures. 45 families with one parent suffering from cancer have been examined with regard to internalizing and externalizing symptoms of the children. Results have been compared to two different age-appropriate samples (Swiss preschool study of Basel and German KiGGS study). A small, highly selective sample of twelve children aged four to eight years could have been examined both from the self and parent perspective. Our results show, that four to eight year old children of cancer patients do not differ from other children of the same age in the way they express emotional symptoms in the BPI, but they are judged more emotionally burdened than other children by their parents (SDQ). Self and parent report do not significantly correlate. It seems as if parents in families struck by a cancer disease see their children's emotional symptoms more pronounced than the children themselves do express in the puppet interview. Implications for clinical and research practice will be discussed.

  4. Huge Gastric Teratoma in an 8-Year Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ratan, Simmi K; Man, Parveen k

    2016-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is very rare tumor and usually presents in early infancy. An 8-year-old boy presented with a huge mass in abdomen extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components and internal calcifications. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. At operation, it was found to be gastric teratoma. The mass was excised completely with part of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be mature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the teratoma with delayed presentation prompted us to report the case. PMID:27900279

  5. The Brief Problem Monitor-Parent Form (BPM-P), a Short Version of the Child Behavior Checklist: Psychometric Properties in Spanish 6- to 8-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Penelo, Eva; de la Osa, Núria; Navarro, José Blas; Domènech, Josep Maria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2017-01-12

    We provide the first validation data on the Spanish version of the Brief Problem Monitor-Parent form (BPM-P), a recently developed abbreviated version of the 120-item Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6 to 18 (CBCL/6-18) in young schoolchildren. Parents of a community sample of 521 children aged 6-8 answered the CBCL/6-18 yearly, and the 19 BPM-P items were examined; parents also provided different measures of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analysis of the expected 3-factor model (attention, externalizing, and internalizing) showed adequate fit (root mean square error of approximation, RMSEA ≤ .057), and measurement invariance across sex and age was observed. Internal consistency for the derived scores was satisfactory (ω ≥ .83). Concurrent validity with the equivalent scale scores of the original full CBCL/6-18 (r ≥ .84) and convergent validity with parents' ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores (r ≥ .52) were good. BPM-P scores at age 7 showed good predictive accuracy for discriminating the use of mental health services (OR ≥ 1.12), functional impairment (B ≤ -1.25), and the presence of the corresponding disorders diagnosed with an independent clinical interview, both cross-sectionally at age 7 and longitudinally at age 8 (OR ≥ 1.24). The BPM-P provides reliable and valid scores as a very brief follow-up and screening tool for assessing behavioral and emotional problems in young schoolchildren. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Neuroleptic withdrawal versus serotonergic syndrome in an 8-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Elsa M M; Thompson, Anne E; Bramble, David J

    2002-01-01

    There appears to be considerable symptomatic overlap between neuroleptic withdrawal reactions and the serotonin syndrome. This case report is of an 8-year-old boy who developed symptoms compatible with both conditions while discontinuing pimozide and starting fluoxetine. It illustrates how the use of neuroleptic medication in young children is not without the risk of serious adverse drug events and can complicate diagnostic issues. This case report supports the suggestion that adverse drug reactions related to neuroleptics and serotonergic agents could be part of the same clinical and neurophysiological spectrum.

  7. Acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kheterpal, Arvin; Zoga, Adam; McClure, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a common source of musculoskeletal pain in adults; however, it is rarely encountered in children. Calcific tendinitis is the most commonly encountered manifestation of hydroxyapatite deposition disease, in which calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition occurs in tendons. It may cause acute or chronic pain, or may be entirely asymptomatic. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus tendon in an 8-year-old boy, who initially presented to our department for workup of a mass felt along the volar aspect of the right wrist.

  8. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Forouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Mazdaee, Behnaz; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Ravari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT) scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  9. Developing formal mathematical assessment for 4- to 8-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, Brian

    2005-10-01

    The assessment of children in their years before school and their first years of school has been, traditionally, informal. Further, assessment of children's mathematical skills at this level has been infrequent compared to social, emotional and physical assessments. However, there are contexts where reliable, valid, standardised data from assessment in mathematics are required. This paper outlines the development of two assessment tools for mathematics that were originally developed for such contexts. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses enabled the construction of assessment forms that address the range of abilities of 4- to 8-year-old children, and provided the scales used for constructing formative and summative reports of achievement. A description of the development of the assessment tools and the IRT analysis that provides the reporting formats are presented together with some research uses of the tools.

  10. Interpreting Weather for 3 to 8 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren-Scaffidi, Lynette

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the interpretation of weather for children and shares program ideas to interpret the water cycle, thunderstorms (including fear of thunderstorms), and rainbows (including the colors of the rainbow). (MKR)

  11. A Doctor Talks to 5-to-8-Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.; Mandel, Elias

    One of a series of books written by doctors for their patients, this publication gives information about life in casual and straightforward children's language. Birds, fish and other animals are compared to humans and are used as examples to explain conception, birth and the development of babies to adulthood. To illustrate important concepts,…

  12. Cycling peak power in obese and lean 6- to 8-year-old girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Aucouturier, Julien; Lazaar, Nordine; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Ratel, Sebastien; Duché, Pascale

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effect of the difference in percentage body fat (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) on cycling peak power (CPP) in 6- to 8-year-old obese and lean untrained girls and boys. Obese (35 girls, 35 boys) and lean (35 girls, 35 boys) children were measured for obesity, %BF, calculated from skinfold measurements. FFM was calculated as body mass (BM) minus body fat. A force-velocity test on a cycle ergometer was used to measure CPP. CPP was related to anthropometric variables using standard and allometric models. CPP in absolute terms was higher in obese children than in lean children irrespective of gender. BM-related CPP was significantly lower in obese children than in lean ones, whereas no effect of obesity appeared on FFM-related CPP. Velocity at CPP (Vopt) was significantly lower and force at CPP (Fopt) was significantly higher in girls than in boys. Muscle power production was unaffected by obesity in children. Low BM-related CPP could explain the difficulty of taking up physical activities that are body-mass related in obese children. Gender difference for Vopt and Fopt shows that girls and boys may have different maturation patterns affecting CPP.

  13. No childhood development of viewpoint-invariant face recognition: evidence from 8-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Crookes, Kate; Robbins, Rachel A

    2014-10-01

    Performance on laboratory face tasks improves across childhood, not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Debate surrounds the source of this development, with recent reviews suggesting that underlying face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood and that the improvement seen on experimental tasks instead results from general cognitive/perceptual development. One face processing mechanism that has been argued to develop slowly is the ability to encode faces in a view-invariant manner (i.e., allowing recognition across changes in viewpoint). However, many previous studies have not controlled for general cognitive factors. In the current study, 8-year-olds and adults performed a recognition memory task with two study-test viewpoint conditions: same view (study front view, test front view) and change view (study front view, test three-quarter view). To allow quantitative comparison between children and adults, performance in the same view condition was matched across the groups by increasing the learning set size for adults. Results showed poorer memory in the change view condition than in the same view condition for both adults and children. Importantly, there was no quantitative difference between children and adults in the size of decrement in memory performance resulting from a change in viewpoint. This finding adds to growing evidence that face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood.

  14. Effect of adaptor duration on 8-year-olds' facial identity aftereffects suggests adult-like plasticity of the face norm.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mayu; Robertson, Crystal; Maurer, Daphne

    2011-06-01

    Adapting to a face shifts the perceived identity of a subsequent face in the direction opposite to the adapting face, a phenomenon known as a face identity aftereffect. In the present study, we examined the temporal dynamics of such aftereffects in children at an age when face processing abilities are not yet adult-like. We hypothesized that children's difficulties in face processing may stem from an unstable mental representation of facial identity, which may be especially prone to adaptation aftereffects. Using a novel procedure designed especially for children, we show that both 8-year-olds and adults demonstrate identity aftereffects of similarly small size after just one second of viewing the adapting face, and that the strength of the aftereffect increases logarithmically and similarly with longer adapting durations for both age groups. The findings suggest that the mental representation of facial identity in 8-year-olds is no more malleable than that of adults, at least in response to short-term adaptation.

  15. Stabbing headache in an 8-year-old girl: primary or drug induced headache?

    PubMed

    Biedroł, Agnieszka; Kaciłski, Marek; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of stabbing headaches in children requires a thorough diagnostic approach that excludes secondary headaches. The organic background should be taken into consideration when alarming symptoms occur, such as a purely 1-sided location, a change in the character of the headache, or possibly a link to physical activity. The current study describes the case of an 8-year-old girl who suffered short-lasting stabbing headache attacks. The headaches with increasing intensity and frequency started 1 month before her hospitalization and were usually preceded by physical activity (dancing, running). The pain, which was located in the right supraorbital region, lasted 1 second and occurred several times during the day. No associated symptoms were observed. In addition, the girl suffered from allergic rhinitis and was on antiallergic treatment (levocetirizine, fluticasone nasal spray). On admission she was in good general condition, and a pediatric and neurologic examination revealed no abnormalities. Her brain MRI was normal. The initial diagnosis was that the patient was suffering from primary stabbing headaches. However, during a follow-up visit 4 months later, a relationship was observed between the cessation of the headache attacks and the discontinuation of an antihistaminic drug. Six months later, the girl remained headache free. In cases involving differential diagnoses of stabbing headaches, it is important to consider the adverse reactions of the drugs used.

  16. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  17. The Development of Norm-Based Coding and Race-Specific Face Prototypes: An Examination of 5- and 8-Year-Olds' Face Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Lindsey A.; Hatry, Alexandra J.; Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2011-01-01

    The current research investigated the organization of children's face space by examining whether 5- and 8-year-olds show race-contingent aftereffects. Participants read a storybook in which Caucasian and Chinese children's faces were distorted in opposite directions. Before and after adaptation, participants judged the normality/attractiveness of…

  18. Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…

  19. Radiator-induced erythema ab igne in 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Ismail, Samir; Chiriac, Anca

    2014-04-01

    The cutaneous lesion of erythema ab Igne are characterized by a reticulate erythema, hyperpigmentation, fine scaling, epidermal atrophy and telangiectasias, and reticulated erythema. We report a case of erythema ab igne on the hands of a 8-year-old girl, induced by classic homemade radiator.

  20. Adults' and 8-Year-Olds' Learning in a Foreign Word Repetition Task: Similar and Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Service, Elisabet; Yli-Kaitala, Hely; Maury, Sini; Kim, Jeong-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although the significance of age in second language acquisition is one of the most hotly debated issues in the field, very few studies have directly addressed age differences in the language learning process. The present study investigated learning in a foreign-word repetition task. Young Finnish adults and 8-year-olds repeated back Korean words.…

  1. The Existence of Trust in the Relationship of Parents and District Administration in the Placement Process of 3- to 8-Year-Old Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellner, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the degree to which trust-building variables exist between public school districts and parents of 3- to 8-year-old children with autism during the initial placement process in the perception of special education administration. Additional purposes of the study were to identify barriers and…

  2. Awake Tracheal Intubation in an 8-Year-Old Girl with McCune-Albright Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bohman, J Kyle; Segura, Leal

    2013-10-01

    An 8-year-old girl with McCune-Albright syndrome presented for resection of a very large fibrous dysplasia mass of the face with significant distortion of the airway anatomy. She had significant obstructive sleep apnea with daytime somnolence and hemoglobin oxygen desaturations while breathing room air preoperatively. We were able to successfully manage her airway by providing IV sedation, topical anesthesia of the airway, and oral fiberoptic intubation in close collaboration with our otorhinolaryngology colleagues.

  3. Seizures triggered by July 4th fireworks in an 8-year-old girl with perinatal stroke.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Jared R; Golomb, Meredith R

    2011-05-01

    Warnings regarding fireworks displays as a possible seizure-producing stimulus have been around for several years, but there is a lack of well-documented cases. This case describes photic- and/or pattern-induced seizures that appeared to be triggered by July 4 fireworks. This 8-year-old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and known seizure disorder because of perinatal right middle cerebral artery stroke had a cluster of seizures within minutes of the onset of a professional fireworks display. The seizures stopped when the child's eyes were covered and she was taken away from the scene. The importance of photic- and pattern-induced seizures in children is discussed.

  4. La Segmentazione Grafica della Scrittura di una Storia Conosciuta. Uno Studio Descrittivo su 450 Testi di Bambini dai 6 agli 8 Anni (Graphic Segmentation of the Writing of a Familiar Story. A Descriptive Study of 450 Texts of Children from 6 to 8 Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Di Eduardo, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how children in the early grades of elementary school divide words while writing. The subjects were 450 Italian children belonging either to upper-middle-class or lower-middle-class families who were asked to write the familiar story of "Little Red Riding Hood." (CFM)

  5. Teaching 4- to 8-Year-Olds: Literacy, Math, Multiculturalism, and Classroom Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee

    The next decade will see a dramatic increase in public finding for programs serving young children. Prekindergarten and early elementary programs will received more scrutiny in line with a growing awareness that school success is heavily influenced by the skills and attitudes children have when they enter school and quality of initial school…

  6. Habit tic nail deformity - a rare presentation in an 8 year old boy.

    PubMed

    El-Heis, S; Abadie, Al

    2016-11-15

    Habit tic nail deformity is a nail dystrophy resulting from habitual, repetitive trauma to the nail. It is usually acquired in adulthood, however, we report a case of habit tic nail deformity in an 8 year old boy. The diagnosis was made clinically with further history revealing that the boy repeatedly rubbed his thumbnails and pushed the cuticles. Emollient cream (Balneum®) was recommended twice daily and both the patient and his mother were educated on the behavioral nature of this condition. There was marked improvement at 6 months of treatment and further improvement at 12 months.We note that habit tic nail deformity is not exclusive to adults. Diagnosis can be made clinically. History and physical examination provide valuable clues and psychosocial links must be explored and addressed. Management is challenging and compliance with treatment is variable. Patient education, barrier methods, and behavioral therapy can be helpful in preventing further trauma to the nails.

  7. Evolution of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) from idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (IHCM) vs. inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMi): a rare case of sudden death in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Schmidt, Peter; Kandolf, Reinhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    In rare cases, the diagnosis of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in children was established postmortem. Our case report deals with the sudden and unexpected death of an 8-year-old boy. The postmortem examination revealed non-obstructive hypertrophy with irregular arrangement of muscular fibers, dilatation of the ventricles, endocardial fibrosis, microfocal vacuolization with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei, and signs of inflammation with interstitial fibrosis. We present an evolution from idiopathic cardiomyopathy to DCM. To some extent, there were morphologic signs of an inflammatory process that first led us to suspect a specific inflammatory DCM.

  8. Pulmonary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas: A Coincidence of 2 Rare Tumors in an 8-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Oğuz, Berna; Orhan, Diclehan; Varan, Ali; Karnak, Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Primary pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is extremely rare in children and is characterized by a mucus-secreting and squamous cell combination. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas is a rare tumor of the pancreas, which is mostly seen in young women. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy previously diagnosed and treated by lung lobectomy for MEC. He was admitted to our hospital with an incidentally recognized mass at the pancreas during postoperative workout studies. Distal pancreatectomy was performed. Surgery was curative for both tumors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pseudopapillary neoplasm concomitant with MEC in the literature.

  9. The development of norm-based coding and race-specific face prototypes: an examination of 5- and 8-year-olds' face space.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Hatry, Alexandra J; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2011-02-01

    The current research investigated the organization of children's face space by examining whether 5- and 8-year-olds show race-contingent aftereffects. Participants read a storybook in which Caucasian and Chinese children's faces were distorted in opposite directions. Before and after adaptation, participants judged the normality/attractiveness of expanded, compressed, and undistorted Caucasian and Chinese faces. The method was validated with adults and then refined to test 8- and 5-year-olds. The 5-year-olds were also tested in a simple aftereffects paradigm. The current research provides the first evidence for simple attractiveness aftereffects in 5-year-olds and for race-contingent aftereffects in both 5- and 8-year-olds. Evidence that adults and 5-year-olds may possess only a weak prototype for Chinese children's faces suggests that Caucasian adults' prototype for Chinese adult faces does not generalize to child faces and that children's face space undergoes a period of increasing differentiation between 5 and 8 years of age.

  10. Fighting with Spirits: Migration Trauma, Acculturative Stress, and New Sibling Transition-A Clinical Case Study of an 8-Year-Old Girl with Absence Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chartonas, Dimitrios; Bose, Ruma

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we discuss the impact of migration and acculturation processes on the cultural, personal identity, and mental health of children who immigrate to a Western, multicultural environment, and the challenges clinicians in such environments face, when confronted with non-Western idioms of distress and healing practices. We do that by presenting a challenging clinical case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with very disorganized behavior, which matches a culturally accepted construct of spirit possession, in the context of migration trauma, acculturative stress, and new sibling transition. We identify cultural conflict in school and bullying as major mediators between acculturative stress and mental distress. We also aim at identifying vulnerability, risk and protective factors, and the importance of cultural coping resources. We explore in depth the patient's cultural background and the family's belief system and culturally shaped narratives, in order to arrive at a cultural formulation, which focuses on the significance of idioms of distress in shaping psychopathology and influencing the personal and interpersonal course of trauma- and stress-related disorders. We also call attention to the finding that in children, idioms of distress may manifest themselves in a somatic manner. We argue, together with other researchers, that spirit possession deserves more interest as an idiom of distress and a culture-specific response to traumatizing events. We finally emphasize the importance of an anti-reductionist clinical stance, that is able to use different levels of understanding processes of distress and healing, and seeks to reconciliate cultural divides and integrate different explanatory frameworks and help-seeking practices.

  11. Sex differences in cerebral volumes of 8-year-olds born preterm.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Allan L; Kesler, Shelli R; Vohr, Betty; Duncan, Charles C; Katz, Karol H; Pajot, Sarah; Schneider, Karen C; Makuch, Robert W; Ment, Laura R

    2004-08-01

    We investigate sex-associated effects of preterm birth on cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes. Preterm children (n=65) and 31 healthy, term control children had usable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data acquired at 8 years of age. Both GM and WM volumes were significantly reduced in the preterm group compared with controls. However, only males with preterm birth had significantly reduced WM compared with term males (P=.021), whereas WM volumes were equivalent in the female groups. Lower birth weight was associated with reduced WM in both boys and girls with preterm birth, whereas intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) was associated with reduced GM in girls only. Positive correlations between GM and cognitive outcome were observed in girls with preterm birth but not boys. We conclude that preterm birth has a significant impact on brain development with increased risk for smaller GM and WM cerebral volumes. Males appear particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of preterm birth on WM development. However, girls with preterm birth show stronger correlations between neuro-anatomical variables and both neonatal risk factors and cognitive outcome, compared with boys. These findings indicate that the sex of the very preterm newborn influences the mechanisms by which the developing brain is affected.

  12. Perception of Nonnative-accented Sentences by 5- to 8-Year-olds and Adults: The Role of Phonological Processing Skills.

    PubMed

    Bent, Tessa; Atagi, Eriko

    2017-03-01

    To acquire language and successfully communicate in multicultural and multilingual societies, children must learn to understand speakers with various accents and dialects. This study investigated adults' and 5- to 8-year-old children's perception of native- and nonnative-accented English sentences in noise. Participants' phonological memory and phonological awareness were assessed to investigate factors associated with individual differences in word recognition. Although both adults and children performed less accurately with nonnative talkers than native talkers, children showed greater performance decrements. Further, phonological memory was more closely tied to perception of native talkers whereas phonological awareness was more closely related to perception of nonnative talkers. These results suggest that the ability to recognize words produced in unfamiliar accents continues to develop beyond the early school-age years. Additionally, the linguistic skills most related to word recognition in adverse listening conditions may differ depending on the source of the challenge (i.e., noise, talker, or a combination).

  13. Chiropractic Care of an 8-Year-Old Girl With Nonorganic, Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Instebø, Eigil; Lystad, Reidar P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of an 8-year-old girl with nonorganic, primary nocturnal enuresis. Clinical Features An 8-year-old female patient presented to a chiropractic clinic with persistent nighttime bedwetting. The patient experienced enuresis, on average, 7 nights per week. The patient presented with no other comorbidities or complaints, such as low back or pelvic pain. Intervention and Outcomes Chiropractic treatment included high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation of the left sacroiliac joint over 3 visits. Follow-up at 3 months revealed only 3 subsequent episodes of nocturnal enuresis. Conclusion This patient reported the resolution of nonorganic, primary nocturnal enuresis after receiving a series of side-posture chiropractic manipulations of the left sacroiliac joint. PMID:27069432

  14. Playful Fostering of 6- to 8-Year-Old Students' Inductive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Gyongyver

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a training program in inductive reasoning for first-grade students and presents the direct results as well as the longitudinal effects of the evaluation study. The training is based on Klauer's theory of inductive reasoning and on his "Cognitive training for children" concept (Klauer, 1989a). The training program consists of…

  15. Sudden onset vision loss in an 8-year-old female with McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, David; Wysong, Ashley; Lai, Jennifer; Alcorn, Deborah M; Benjamin, Latanya T

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of an 8-year-old girl with large irregular café au lait macules on the right cheek and right lower extremity presenting with sudden onset vision loss and found to have polyostotic fibrous dysplasia on imaging. The classic triad of McCune-Albright syndrome is discussed along with the importance of recognition in patients with partial presentation. This case also highlights a rare and potentially devastating neurologic complication of McCune-Albright syndrome, as well as the need for early diagnosis and continual surveillance in these patients.

  16. A tape recorder as a therapeutic "witness" in the treatment of an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Tuber, Steven; Seckin, Banu

    2012-11-01

    A tape-recorded session of an early moment in an 8-year-old girl's psychotherapy experience is presented. The use of the recording device is immediately taken up by the child as a means of creating a "witness" for her depiction of both intensely distorted experiences of her therapist and poignant portrayals of her life as miserable and despairing. A discussion of both the process and the content generated from the use of the tape recorder is described, with implications drawn as to its effectiveness in the therapeutic process.

  17. Frontal Bone Hemangioma in an 8-year-old Female: A Common Tumor in a Rare Location

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhimanyu; Singh, Usha Rani; Sihag, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous hemangioma is a rare bone tumor accounting for 0.7%–1.0% of all bone tumors. In the skull, frontal bone is the commonly involved bone. An 8-year-old female presented to our outpatient department with complaints of pain and swelling over forehead for 4 months. X-ray revealed a lytic expansile lesion involving frontal bone with sunburst pattern of bony spicules radiating to periphery of the lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a well-circumscribed lesion with both intra as well as extracranial components. Histopathology revealed a vascular tumor consisting of both small (capillary) and large (cavernous) sized vessels. A diagnosis of mixed type of hemangioma of the frontal bone was given. Recognition of hemangioma on radiology and confirmation by histopathology is essential for proper management as it might be confused clinically with other locally aggressive/malignant lesions. PMID:28163515

  18. A case of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, Jun; Yokoyama, Yoshiki; Sekine, Takashi; Igarashi, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremic dehydration occur in patients with intracranial diseases. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome often develops in patients with severe neurosurgical disorders, such as hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, and tuberculous meningitis. Here, we report on the case of an 8-year-old boy with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis. He showed mild developmental retardation and had a history of convulsion. Four days after his admission, cerebral salt-wasting syndrome abruptly started: natriuresis and hyponatremia gradually improved over 10 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with clinically benign aseptic meningitis.

  19. Vismodegib Therapy for Basal Cell Carcinoma in an 8-Year-Old Chinese Boy with Xeroderma Pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Fife, Douglas; Laitinen, Marko A; Myers, David J; Landsteiner, Pamela B

    2017-03-01

    Vismodegib is an oral inhibitor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway and has been used to treat basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in adults. This article reports clearance of a nodular BCC of the nasal tip in an 8-year-old boy with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). BCC can pose therapeutic challenges when located in areas that are not amenable to traditional therapies such as Mohs micrographic surgery or topical agents. Vismodegib was used at a dose of 150 mg/day to treat the boy's BCC. After 4 months of therapy, we achieved complete clinical clearance. During 21 months of follow-up, the patient's nose remained clinically clear of tumor. Vismodegib was successfully used to treat a child with XP and nodular BCC. Our goal in using vismodegib was tumor regression while avoiding cosmetic and functional disfigurement. Vismodegib was effective in clinically clearing the tumor, and the patient has shown no signs of recurrence. Further studies are warranted.

  20. Malignant paraganglioma associated with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B in an 8-year-old child: the age of first screening?

    PubMed

    Prodanov, Tamara; Havekes, Bas; Nathanson, Katherine L; Adams, Karen T; Pacak, Karel

    2009-06-01

    Several studies have shown that patients with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) mutations have a very high risk for developing malignant paragangliomas. However, there is no consensus of what age screening for paragangliomas should start. We report a case of an 8-year-old white girl with a 3-year history of catecholamine excess-related complaints who was diagnosed with a malignant SDHB-associated mediastinal paraganglioma. The patient presented with intermittent sweating, headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and weight loss that had been present since she was 5 years of age. A large posterior mediastinal mass measuring 6.4 cm x 3.1 cm x 4.6 cm was discovered on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laboratory data included an elevated level of urine normetanephrine of 45,400 microg/g creatinine (upper reference limit 718 microg/g) and elevated level of plasma normetanephrine of 62.4 nmol/l (upper reference limit <0.90 nmol/l). She was diagnosed with a thoracic paraganglioma and subsequently underwent surgical removal of the tumor and two lymph nodes. Histopathologic examination confirmed metastatic paraganglioma. Postoperatively, her blood pressure normalized and plasma normetanephrine levels remained normal. Our patient first presented with paraganglioma-associated signs and symptoms at the young age of 5 years. This case clearly illustrates the need for increased vigilance and screening for paragangliomas in families with SDHB at a younger age than previously thought.

  1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α deficiency presenting as recurrent acute proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower extremities in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kara, Bülent; Genç, Hülya Maraş; Uyur-Yalçın, Emek; Sakarya-Güneş, Ayfer; Topçu, Uğur; Mülayim, Serap; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) plays an important role in aerobic energy metabolism and acid-base equilibrium. PDHC contains of 5 enzymes, 3 catalytic (E1, E2, E3) and 2 regulatory, as well as 3 cofactors and an additional protein (E3-binding protein) encoded by nuclear genes. The clinical presentation of PDHC deficiency ranges from fatal neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurologic dysfunction without lactic acidosis. Paroxysmal neurologic problems such as intermittent ataxia, episodic weakness, exercise-induced dystonia and recurrent demyelination may also be seen although they are rare. Here, we present an 8-year-old boy complaining of acute proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower extremities with normal mental status. He had a history of Guillain-Barré-like syndrome at the age of 2 years. Electrophysiologic studies showed sensorial polyneuropathy findings in the first attack and sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy findings in the last attack. The genetic analysis revealed a previously reported hemizygote novel mutation of the PDHA1 gene (p.A353T/c.1057G > A), which encodes the E1α subunit of PDHC. Thiamine was ordered (15 mg/kg/day), dietary carbohydrates were restricted and clinical findings improved in a few weeks. This rare phenotype of PDHC deficiency is discussed.

  2. Exploring the elements of narrative that emerge in the interactions between an 8-year-old child who uses an AAC device and her teacher.

    PubMed

    Soto, Gloria; Hartmann, Elizabeth; Wilkins, David P

    2006-12-01

    Narrative abilities have been identified as a link to successful school achievement and, in particular, to the acquisition of literacy. Children who use AAC may be at risk of impaired narrative facility due to the differences in their language learning experiences, limitation of their AAC systems, and limitations from constrained access to physical and social environments. In this study, the elements of narrative that emerged in the interactions between an 8-year-old child who used an AAC device and her teacher are described. This assessment was achieved through use of the Narrative Assessment Profile (Bliss, McCabe, & Miranda, 1998) in the context of five tasks designed to elicit a spectrum of narrative features. Results indicate that the interactions between the child and her teacher made it difficult to assess whether or not the child had control of certain features of narrative. From a purely structural analysis, most narrative discourse dimensions appeared to be severely compromised and therefore in need of immediate intervention. Discussion includes aspects of narrative intervention and suggested topics for further research.

  3. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention.

  4. Executive Function Skills of 6 to 8 Year Olds: Brain and Behavioral Evidence and Implications for School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Molfese, Peter J.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Rudasill, Kathleen M.; Armstrong, Natalie; Starkey, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Academic and social success in school has been linked to children’s self-regulation. This study investigated the assessment of the executive function (EF) component of self-regulation using a low-cost, easily administered measure to determine whether scores obtained from the behavioral task would agree with those obtained using a laboratory-based neuropsychological measure of EF skills. The sample included 74 children (37 females; M = 86.2 months) who participated in two assessments of working memory and inhibitory control: Knock-Tap (NEPSY: Korkman, Kirk, and Kemp, 1998), and participation in event-related potential (ERP) testing that included the Directional Stroop Test (Davidson, Cruess, Diamond, O’Craven, & Savoy, 1999). Three main findings emerged. First, children grouped as high versus low performing on the NEPSY Knock-Tap Task were found to performed differently on the more difficult conditions of the DST (the Incongruent and Mixed Conditions), suggesting that the Knock-Tap Task as a low-cost and easy to administer assessment of EF skills may be one way for teachers to identify students with poor inhibitory control skills. Second, children’s performance on the DST was strongly related to their ERP responses, adding to evidence that differences in behavioral performance on the DST as a measure of EF skills reflect corresponding differences in brain processing. Finally, differences in brain processing on the DST task also were found when the children were grouped based on Knock-Tap performance. Simple screening procedures can enable teachers to identify children whose distractibility, inattentiveness, or poor attention spans may interfere with classroom learning. PMID:20798857

  5. Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome Presenting as a Nevus Comedonicus-Like Lesion in an 8-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Jessica; Landau, Joseph W

    2016-09-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an uncommon genodermatosis characterized by hair follicle hamartomas and an increased risk of pneumothorax and renal cell carcinoma. Recognition of cutaneous manifestations is essential because it allows for early screening and management of systemic complications. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy with a recently described cystic and comedonal variant of the classic fibrofolliculoma, which had been present since birth.

  6. Training 8-Year-Old French Immersion Students in Metalinguistic Analysis: An Innovation in Form-Focused Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Laura Annie; Sarkar, Mela

    2008-01-01

    Most research on language awareness in a second language (L2) has been carried out with adult learners. This research presents data showing that pedagogical techniques can be devised enabling children as young as 8 to develop metalinguistic awareness of their emerging L2 system. Building on existing work by Canadian researchers, this…

  7. Executive Function Skills of 6-8 Year Olds: Brain and Behavioral Evidence and Implications for School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Molfese, Peter J.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Armstrong, Natalie; Starkey, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Academic and social success in school has been linked to children's self-regulation. This study investigated the assessment of the executive function (EF) component of self-regulation using a low-cost, easily administered measure to determine whether scores obtained from the behavioral task would agree with those obtained using a laboratory-based…

  8. Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome with Precocious Puberty in an 8-Year-Old Boy due to a Large Unilateral Adrenal Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Muhammad Rajib; Alam, Md. Mashiul; Nabi, Junaid; Kibria, Mahzabin

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) causing Cushing's syndrome are extremely rare in children and adolescents. Bilateral macronodular adrenocortical disease which is a component of the McCune-Albright syndrome is the most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. We report the case of a boy with Cushing's syndrome who presented with obesity and growth retardation. The child was hypertensive. The biochemical evaluation revealed that his serum cortisol levels were 25.80 μg/dL, with a concomitant plasma ACTH level of 10.0 pg/mL and nonsuppressed serum cortisol on high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) to be 20.38 μg/dL. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated a 8 × 6 × 5 cm left adrenal mass with internal calcifications. Following preoperative stabilization, laparotomy was carried out which revealed a lobulated left adrenal mass with intact capsule weighing 120 grams. Histopathological examination revealed a benign cortical neoplastic lesion, suggestive of adrenal adenoma; composed of large polygonal cells with centrally placed nuclei and prominent nucleoli without capsular and vascular invasion. On the seventh postoperative day, cortisol levels were within normal range indicating biochemical remission of Cushing's syndrome. On followup after three months, the patient showed significant clinical improvement and had lost moderate amount of weight and adrenal imaging was found to be normal. PMID:23533838

  9. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM SHOUSHTARI, Mitra; GHALEBANDI, Mirfarhad; TAVASOLI, Azita; POURSHAMS, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies. PMID:26664444

  10. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    PubMed

    Hakim Shoushtari, Mitra; Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Tavasoli, Azita; Pourshams, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies.

  11. Determination of tissue equivalent materials of a physical 8-year-old phantom for use in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the methodology applied to select suitable tissue equivalent materials of an 8-year phantom for use in computed tomography (CT) examinations. To find the appropriate tissue substitutes, first physical properties (physical density, electronic density, effective atomic number, mass attenuation coefficient and CT number) of different materials were studied. Results showed that, the physical properties of water and polyurethane (as soft tissue), B-100 and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (as bone) and polyurethane foam (as lung) agree more with those of original tissues. Then in the next step, the absorbed doses in the location of 25 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as well as dose distribution in one slice of phantom were calculated for original and these proposed materials by Monte Carlo simulation at different tube voltages. The comparisons suggested that at tube voltages of 80 and 100 kVp using B-100 as bone, water as soft tissue and polyurethane foam as lung is suitable for dosimetric study in pediatric CT examinations. In addition, it was concluded that by considering just the mass attenuation coefficient of different materials, the appropriate tissue equivalent substitutes in each desired X-ray energy range could be found.

  12. Comparing the Development of Australian and German 7-Year-Old and 8-Year-Old's Counting and Whole Number Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervasoni, Ann; Peter-Koop, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the counting and whole number knowledge and skills of primary school children in Australia and Germany at the end of Grade 1 and Grade 2. Children's learning was assessed using the Early Numeracy Interview and associated Growth Point Framework. The findings highlight substantial differences between the two groups that vary for…

  13. Measured and predicted changes in tree and stand water use following high-intensity thinning of an 8-year-old Eucalyptus nitens plantation.

    PubMed

    Medhurst, Jane L; Battaglia, Michael; Beadle, Christopher L

    2002-08-01

    We investigated changes in the pattern of water use of an 8-year-old Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden plantation soon after thinning. Sap flow sensors using heat pulse technology were deployed across three stands thinned to a final density of 100, 250 or 600 trees ha-1 plus an unthinned control (1250 trees ha-1). Changes in the relationship between tree size and daily water use were measured for 4 to 7 months after thinning. Thinning had no effect on sapwood water content. The increase in tree water use as a result of thinning was driven largely by significant changes in the radial pattern of sap velocity through the sapwood. The use of a canopy fraction factor in the Penman-Monteith equation to account for discontinuous canopies showed promise as a simple and effective method of scaling the model to predict transpiration from thinned plantations.

  14. Linguistic skills in relation to neurological findings at 8 years of age in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Yliherva, A; Olsén, P; Järvelin, M R

    2001-01-01

    The linguistic skills of 8-year-old children born preterm (n = 42) with birthweight < 1750 grams from a 1-year birth cohort for 1985-86 in northern Finland were studied with three different language tests, namely the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), the Token Test for Children (TTC) and the Morphological Test (MT) for Finnish children. Full-term control children (n = 42) with birthweight > or = 2500 grams from the same birth cohort were matched individually with their preterm pairs for age, sex, twinship, mother's education, place of residence, birth order and family type. The preterm children's language abilities were studied in relation to their neurological status and to the periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunctions (MND) scored worst and differed significantly from their matched controls in TTC. They also differed significantly from other preterm subgroups, namely healthy preterm and preterm children with cerebral palsy (CP), in verbal comprehension measured by TTC. PVL findings were not associated with performance in the language ability tests. A closer and regular follow-up of language development in the MND-disabled group among the low-birthweight preterm children is recommended.

  15. Evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealants placed with and without air abrasion pretreatment in 6-8 year old children – An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Mridula

    2017-01-01

    Background The success of pit and fissure sealants is directly related to their retention. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of pit and fissure sealants placed using acid etch alone and a combination of air abrasion and acid etch techniques. Material and Methods 50 subjects aged 6-8 years were included in the study. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were sealed in all four quadrants using split mouth design. The right maxillary and mandibular molars (Group A) were treated by acid etching alone while the left maxillary and mandibular molars (Group B) were pretreated with air abrasion followed by acid etching before application of pit and fissure sealant. Retention of sealants was checked using Simonsen’s criteria of sealant retention after three and six months of sealant application. Results There was no significant difference in retention of sealants in Group A and Group B (p<0.05) after three and six months follow up. The difference in sealant retention in primary and permanent molars was not significant (p>0.05). Maxillary molars showed superior retention compared to mandibular molars, which was statistically significant at both three and six months (p<0.05). Conclusions Combining air abrasion pretreatment with subsequent acid etching did not result in statistically significant difference in sealant retention compared to acid etching alone in both primary and permanent molars after 3 and 6 months follow up. An additional air abrasion pretreatment step can be avoided in pediatric patients when placing sealants and the procedure can be completed faster with better behavior management using acid etching alone. Key words:Pit and fissure sealant, acid etching, air abrasion. PMID:28210438

  16. Exploring the association between household food insecurity, parental self-efficacy, and fruit and vegetable parenting practices among parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity may negatively impact children’s nutritional status by affecting parenting quality. Because parents have a strong influence on their children’s eating and food choices, examining the effects of food insecurity on parenting may provide important insights into obesity prevention effort...

  17. Residential exposure to motor vehicle emissions and the risk of wheezing among 7-8 year-old schoolchildren: a city-wide cross-sectional study in Nicosia, Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported associations between respiratory outcomes in children and a range of self-reported, administrative or geographical indicators of traffic pollution. First-time investigation into the frequency of asthmatic symptoms among 7-8 year-old Cypriot children in 1999-2000 showed increased prevalence in the capital Nicosia compared to other areas. Geographical differences on an island the size of Cyprus may reflect environmental and/or lifestyle factors. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported symptoms and residential exposure to motor vehicle emissions among Nicosia schoolchildren. Methods The addresses of children in the metropolitan area of Nicosia who participated in the original survey (N = 1,735) were geo-coded and the level of exposure of each child was assessed using distance- and emission-based indicators (i.e. estimated levels of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emissions due to motor vehicles on main roads around the residence). Odds ratios of wheezing and asthma diagnosis in relation to levels of exposure were estimated in logistic regression models adjusting for person-based factors, co-morbidity and intra-school clustering. Results We found an increased risk of wheezing at distances less than 50 m from a main road and/or only among those experiencing the highest levels of exposure. The strongest effect estimates were observed when exposure was defined in terms of the cumulative burden at all roads around the residence. Adjusted odds ratios for current wheezing were 2.33 (95% CI 1.27, 4.30) amongst the quartile of participants exposed to the highest levels of PM at all roads 50 m of their residence and 2.14 (95% CI 1.05, 4.35) for NOx, with no effect at intermediate levels of exposure. While the direction of effect was apparent at longer distances, differences were generally not statistically significant. Conclusions Children experiencing the highest burden of emissions in Nicosia seem to be at

  18. Assessing type a behavior in 8-year-olds: exploring the overlap between the constructs of type a behavior and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Eninger, L; Bohlin, G; Hagekull, B

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to examine, by using behavioral observations, the overlap found between Type A behavior, as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) questionnaire, and measures of hyperactivity in children. The sample consisted of 91 children (46 boys and 45 girls) between the ages of 8 and 9 who were part of a longitudinal study in Uppsala, Sweden. Behavioral observations of Type A behavior and various questionnaire data were used. The behaviorally observed Type A behavior correlated significantly with MYTH Type A behavior, whereas only the MYTH Type A behavior correlated with hyperactivity measured by questionnaires. The results indicated that behavioral observations make it possible to measure Type A behavior as distinct from hyperactivity, implying that the MYTH is too indiscriminate a measure of Type A behavior. This has implications for future measurement and perhaps conceptualization of Type A behavior in children, and thereby also for studying the developmental aspects of Type A behavior.

  19. Help for Finding Missing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Efforts to locate missing children have expanded from a federal law allowing for entry of information into an F.B.I. computer system to companion bills before Congress for establishing a national missing child clearinghouse and a Justice Department center to help in conducting searches. Private organizations are also involved. (KS)

  20. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies. In: Marx J, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ... AJ, Berg RA, Nadkarni V. Pediatric resuscitation. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  1. Morphosyntax in Children with Word Finding Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Victoria A.; Dockrell, Julie; Messer, David; Farr, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    Children with word finding difficulties (CwWFDs) are slower and less accurate at naming monomorphemic words than typically developing children (Dockrell, Messer & George, 2001), but their difficulty in naming morphologically complex words has not yet been investigated. One aim of this paper was to identify whether CwWFDs are similar to typically…

  2. Finding More Joy in Teaching Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Apavaloaie, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood professionals are familiar with finding and appreciating daily moments of joy. Teachers smile inside and out when toddlers are able to pull up their own pants, preschoolers write their names for the first time, or kindergarteners figure out how to make complicated patterns with blocks. Working with young children can also be very…

  3. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4-13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-09-08

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9-13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4-8 years old (92%-98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life.

  4. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4–13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. PMID:27618092

  5. The Expressive Elaboration of Imaginative Narratives by Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the expressive elaboration of narratives from children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-eight 6- and 8-year-old children with SLI were compared with forty-eight 6- and 8-year-old typical language (TL) children. Two imaginative narratives were scored for 14 elements of expressive elaboration in…

  6. Angiographic findings of ischemic stroke in children.

    PubMed

    Shirane, R; Sato, S; Yoshimoto, T

    1992-12-01

    A cooperative study was undertaken in the Tohoku district of Japan to investigate the relatively rare phenomenon of cerebral infarction in children. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the cerebral angiographic findings in 48 children whose ischemic lesions were confirmed by CT scan. The majority of lesions were considered to be idiopathic. The areas of cerebral infarction appearing in the CT scans were located in the territory of the middle cerebral artery including the basal ganglia. Angiographical abnormalities were observed in 40 patients (83%). The majority occurred in the supraclinoid portion of the internal carotid artery and in the cisternal portion of the middle and anterior cerebral arteries. Multiple lesions, such as in the C1, A1, and M1 or the C1, M1, and M2 segments were observed in 22 cases. These lesions generally appeared in continuation; no bilateral intracranial lesions were observed. Repeated angiography was performed in 22 cases, and in 55% of these some recovery of the lesions was seen.

  7. Inter- and intrasensory modality matching in children with hand-eye coordination problems: exploring the developmental lag hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsson, H; Ingvaldsen, R P; Whiting, H T

    1997-12-01

    This study set out to explore the suggestion that the problems experienced by 8-year-old children diagnosed as clumsy in the area of hand-eye coordination (HECP) might be attributed to a developmental lag. The performances of this group of HECP children were compared with those of groups of 5-year-old and 8-year-old controls without such deficits, when required to carry out a task involving pointing, without vision, to targets located, visually, visually/proprioceptively, or proprioceptively, the dependent variable being the distance error score from the centre of the target. The performances of the HECP children, when vision or vision/proprioception was used to locate the targets, were shown to be inferior to those of the two control groups of children thereby supporting a visual deficit hypothesis. When the targets had to be located proprioceptively, the performance of the HECP children was shown to be similar to that of the 5-year-olds, while both groups were inferior to the 8-year-olds, thereby supporting a developmental lag hypothesis in proprioceptive terms. However, when the scores for the preferred and non-preferred hands were analysed separately a marked deterioration in the performances of both the 5-year-old controls and the HECP children was observed while the 8-year-old controls were unaffected. While this finding supports a developmental lag explanation of the inferior performances of the HECP children, it was necessary to qualify such an explanation when the within-group performances using the preferred and non-preferred hands were compared. Only the HECP children, under the visual/proprioceptive or proprioceptive conditions, showed significant performance differences, in favour of the preferred hand. This finding was taken as a suggestion that the developmental lag exhibited by the HECP children might have pathological overtones possibly related to the development of the corpus callosum.

  8. American Indian Gifted Children: Finding Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Elizabeth Ann

    This paper illuminates the physiological, socio-cultural, and linguistic obstacles which occur due to the interaction between American Indian cultures and the Anglo educational system and which make the identification of gifted and talented American Indian children difficult. It demonstrates the need for more culturally appropriate ways of…

  9. Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esserman, June F., Ed.

    This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

  10. "Roots" Touched Children: Planned or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greathouse, Betty

    1977-01-01

    Explores children's reactions to the televised version of Alex Haley's "Roots" through interviews with thirty 8-year-old third-graders (10 Black, 10 Mexican-American, 10 White) from two classrooms in South Phoenix, Arizona. (BF/JH)

  11. Finding and Making Meaning: Young Children as Musical Collaborators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Observing young children find and make meaning by manipulating and transforming teacher-presented music material provides a unique lens to view collaborative efforts. Collective music-making reveals the fundamental role of others as children make "in-the-moment" adjustments based on their perception of challenge presented and requisite…

  12. Young Children's Memory for the Times of Personal Past Events

    PubMed Central

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Larkina, Marina; Burch, Melissa; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Remembering the temporal information associated with personal past events is critical for autobiographical memory, yet we know relatively little about the development of this capacity. In the present research, we investigated temporal memory for naturally occurring personal events in 4-, 6-, and 8-year-old children. Parents recorded unique events in which their children participated during a 4-month period. At test, children made relative recency judgments and estimated the time of each event using conventional time-scales (time of day, day of week, month of year, and season). Children also were asked to provide justifications for their time-scale judgments. Six- and 8-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, accurately judged the order of two distinct events. There were age-related improvements in children's estimation of the time of events using conventional time-scales. Older children provided more justifications for their time-scale judgments compared to younger children. Relations between correct responding on the time-scale judgments and provision of meaningful justifications suggest that children may use that information to reconstruct the times associated with past events. The findings can be used to chart a developmental trajectory of performance in temporal memory for personal past events, and have implications for our understanding of autobiographical memory development. PMID:23687467

  13. Reasoning about knowledge: Children's evaluations of generality and verifiability.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Melissa A; Cole, Caitlin A; Meyer, Meredith; Ridge, Katherine E; Kushnir, Tamar; Gelman, Susan A

    2015-12-01

    In a series of experiments, we examined 3- to 8-year-old children's (N=223) and adults' (N=32) use of two properties of testimony to estimate a speaker's knowledge: generality and verifiability. Participants were presented with a "Generic speaker" who made a series of 4 general claims about "pangolins" (a novel animal kind), and a "Specific speaker" who made a series of 4 specific claims about "this pangolin" as an individual. To investigate the role of verifiability, we systematically varied whether the claim referred to a perceptually-obvious feature visible in a picture (e.g., "has a pointy nose") or a non-evident feature that was not visible (e.g., "sleeps in a hollow tree"). Three main findings emerged: (1) young children showed a pronounced reliance on verifiability that decreased with age. Three-year-old children were especially prone to credit knowledge to speakers who made verifiable claims, whereas 7- to 8-year-olds and adults credited knowledge to generic speakers regardless of whether the claims were verifiable; (2) children's attributions of knowledge to generic speakers was not detectable until age 5, and only when those claims were also verifiable; (3) children often generalized speakers' knowledge outside of the pangolin domain, indicating a belief that a person's knowledge about pangolins likely extends to new facts. Findings indicate that young children may be inclined to doubt speakers who make claims they cannot verify themselves, as well as a developmentally increasing appreciation for speakers who make general claims.

  14. CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  15. Incidental findings on brain and spine imaging in children.

    PubMed

    Maher, Cormac O; Piatt, Joseph H

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the utilization of diagnostic imaging of the brain and spine in children has increased dramatically, leading to a corresponding increase in the detection of incidental findings of the central nervous system. Patients with unexpected findings on imaging are often referred for subspecialty evaluation. Even with rational use of diagnostic imaging and subspecialty consultation, the diagnostic process will always generate unexpected findings that must be explained and managed. Familiarity with the most common findings that are discovered incidentally on diagnostic imaging of the brain and spine will assist the pediatrician in providing counseling to families and in making recommendations in conjunction with a neurosurgeon, when needed, regarding additional treatments and prognosis.

  16. "Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmor, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

  17. Posttraumatic shock in children: CT findings associated with hemodynamic instability.

    PubMed

    Sivit, C J; Taylor, G A; Bulas, D I; Kushner, D C; Potter, B M; Eichelberger, M R

    1992-03-01

    Twenty-seven of 1,018 children evaluated with contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) after blunt trauma demonstrated a characteristic hypoperfusion complex. This complex was usually seen in young children (median age, 2 years). CT findings in all 27 patients included a dilated, fluid-filled bowel and abnormally intense enhancement of the bowel wall, mesentery, kidneys, aorta, and inferior vena cava. Twenty-four percent of all children with a Trauma Score of 10 or less and 20% with a Glasgow Coma Score of 6 or less had the hypoperfusion complex. All 27 patients had a normal blood pressure immediately before CT, but five (19%) became hypotensive within 10 minutes of intravenous contrast material administration. Twenty-three children (85%) died. Of 16 children who survived 24 hours, four (25%) developed renal insufficiency. The intense multiorgan enhancement pattern seen in the hypoperfusion complex indicates tenuous hemodynamic stability. Recognition that the constellation of CT findings is due to hypovolemic shock and not to injured viscera helps avoid unnecessary laparotomy.

  18. Incidental Findings on Knee Radiographs in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang Gyo; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Choi, Young; Kim, Tae Gyun; Baek, Jeong Kook; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kwon, Dae Gyu; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, Moon Seok

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the wide use of knee radiography in children and adolescent patients visiting the outpatient clinic, there has been no analysis about the prevalence and type of incidental findings yet. This study was performed to investigate the incidental findings on knee radiographs in children and adolescents according to age. Methods A total of 1,562 consecutive patients younger than 18 years of age were included. They who visited Seoul National University Bundang Hospital's outpatient clinic with a chief complaint of knee pain or malalignment between 2010 and 2011. We reviewed the knee radiographs and analyzed the prevalence and type of incidental findings, such as metaphyseal lucent area, epiphyseal cortical irregularity, osteochondroma and Harris growth arrest line. Results The mean age of the patients was 10.2 years (range, 1 month to 18 years). We identified 355 incidental findings in 335 patients (21.4%) and 98 abnormal findings (6.3%). The most common incidental finding was metaphyseal lucent area (131, 8.4%), followed by epiphyseal cortical irregularity (105, 6.7%), Harris growth arrest line (75, 4.8%), and osteochondroma (44, 2.8%). An epiphyseal cortical irregularity tended to have a higher prevalence at younger age (p < 0.001) and the prevalences of metaphyseal lucent area and Harris growth arrest line were also higher at a younger age (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, the osteochondroma tended to have a higher prevalence at an older age (p = 0.004). Conclusions This study describes the incidental findings on knee radiographs in children and adolescents and provides effective information from a viewpoint of an orthopedic doctor. The authors recommend considering those incidental findings if unfamiliar findings appear on a knee radiograph in the pediatric outpatient clinic. PMID:25177456

  19. Target-distractor similarity has a larger impact on visual search in school-age children than spacing.

    PubMed

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2015-01-22

    In typically developing children, crowding decreases with increasing age. The influence of target-distractor similarity with respect to orientation and element spacing on visual search performance was investigated in 29 school-age children with normal vision (4- to 6-year-olds [N = 16], 7- to 8-year-olds [N = 13]). Children were instructed to search for a target E among distractor Es (feature search: all flanking Es pointing right; conjunction search: flankers in three orientations). Orientation of the target was manipulated in four directions: right (target absent), left (inversed), up, and down (vertical). Spacing was varied in four steps: 0.04°, 0.5°, 1°, and 2°. During feature search, high target-distractor similarity had a stronger impact on performance than spacing: Orientation affected accuracy until spacing was 1°, and spacing only influenced accuracy for identifying inversed targets. Spatial analyses showed that orientation affected oculomotor strategy: Children made more fixations in the "inversed" target area (4.6) than the vertical target areas (1.8 and 1.9). Furthermore, age groups differed in fixation duration: 4- to 6-year-old children showed longer fixation durations than 7- to 8-year-olds at the two largest element spacings (p = 0.039 and p = 0.027). Conjunction search performance was unaffected by spacing. Four conclusions can be drawn from this study: (a) Target-distractor similarity governs visual search performance in school-age children, (b) children make more fixations in target areas when target-distractor similarity is high, (c) 4- to 6-year-olds show longer fixation durations than 7- to 8-year-olds at 1° and 2° element spacing, and (d) spacing affects feature but not conjunction search-a finding that might indicate top-down control ameliorates crowding in children.

  20. Cognitive assessment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anna; Appaji, L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the cognitive functions of Indian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), periodically after initiation of treatment since prospective longitudinal research in this area on the Indian population has not been adequately documented. Unlike many western studies that have targeted survivors of ALL, we aimed to bring out the cognitive outcome after initiation of treatment. Materials and Methods: The cognitive functions of 19 patients diagnosed to have ALL were assessed using standardized tests after induction chemotherapy, and periodically thereafter following the second course of treatment comprising central nervous system-directed radiotherapy, and chemotherapy using intrathecal methotrexate. Results: The study found a statistically significant decline in the intelligence quotient and a deficit in the cognitive function of analytical reasoning. Conclusion: This preliminary study supports findings of an earlier Indian study and many studies conducted in the west. Since the life expectancy of these children has increased and most of them have long-term survival, and even cure, we suggest that identifying and managing children with cognitive difficulties are important in the rehabilitation of these children. PMID:20668601

  1. Children and Massmedia in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schyller, Ingela; And Others

    Focusing mainly on television, this document provides facts about the mass media world of children in Sweden. Contents concern (1) toddlers and television; (2) viewing among 3- to 8-year-olds, including the number of children viewing, television in day care centers, times at which children view television, and viewing with others; (3) viewing…

  2. Quechua Children's Theory of Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Penelope G.; Olson, David R.

    Three different theory of mind tasks were conducted with 4- to 8-year-old Quechua peasant children in the Peruvian Andes. The study investigated the ways in which children in preliterate cultures think and the possibility that they think differently than children in literate cultures. The tasks included: (1) a false-belief task, which tested the…

  3. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Wager, Laura B; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2012-04-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked and whether they spanked with a hand or object when their child was 6, 7, and 8 years old. Mothers and teachers rated children's externalizing behaviors at each age. Analyses of covariance revealed higher levels of mother-reported externalizing behavior for children who experienced harsh spanking. Structural equation models for children who experienced no spanking or mild spanking only revealed that spanking was related to concurrent and prior, but not subsequent, externalizing. Mild spanking in one year was a risk factor for harsh spanking in the next year. Findings are discussed in the context of efforts to promote children's rights to protection.

  4. Pupillometric findings in children with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Philby, Mona; Aydinoz, Secil; Gozal, David; Kilic, Selim; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Bandla, Hari P.; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to intermittent hypoxia, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and eventually cardiovascular morbidity. Alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) tone and reflexes are likely to play major roles in OSA-associated morbidities, and have been identified in a subset of children with OSA. Objectives To evaluate whether pupillometry, a noninvasive and rapid bedside test for the assessment of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (ANS), would detect abnormal ANS function in children with OSA. Methods Children ages 2-12 years underwent polysomnography (PSG), and were divided based on PSG findings into two groups; Habitual Snorers (HS; AHI <1 h/TST, n=17) and OSA (AHI>1 h/TST, n=49), the latter then sub-divided into AHI severity categories (>1 but <5, >5 but <10, and >10 h/TST). Pupillometric measurements were performed during the clinic visit in a dark room using an automated pupillometer device. Results A total of 66 subjects with a mean age of 7.3 ±2.6 years were recruited. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the groups, even when comparing severe OSA (n=15) and HS in any of the measures related to pupillary reflexes. However, mild, yet significant increases in systolic blood pressure and morning plasma norepinephrine levels were detected in the severe OSA group. Conclusion Although ANS perturbation are clearly present in a proportion of children with OSA, particularly those with severe disease, pupillary responses do not appear to provide a sensitive method for the detection of ANS dysfunction in OSA children. PMID:26429743

  5. Mucocutaneous findings in 100 children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Nazemi, T Mohammad-Javad; Bigdeloo, Leyla; Yoosefi, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality affecting numerous organs, including the skin. Our aim was to study mucocutaneous findings in this syndrome. To do so, 100 children with Down syndrome attending Schools for Children with Special Educational Needs and centers affiliated to the Welfare and Rehabilitation Organization in two provinces of Iran were thoroughly examined for skin and mucosal lesions. Their mean age was 11.2 years (3-20 years). Mucocutaneous findings were noted in 61. These were as follows (in decreasing order)--fissured tongue 28%, hypertrophy of tongue papilla 22%, premature graying 14%, cheilitis 13%, xerosis 12%, alopecia areata 11%, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis 10%, syringoma 6%, keratosis pilaris 4%, geographic tongue 4%, trichotillomania 4%, vitiligo 3%, seborrheic dermatitis 3%, livedo reticularis 2%. No instances of atopic dermatitis or skin infections and infestations were noted. The lack of atopic dermatitis in our series was in concordance with its low prevalence reported in recent articles. Improved hygiene due to patient care at home may underlie the absence of infections. With the increasing survival rate of those with Down syndrome, physicians should be more aware of the skin findings seen so frequently in this genetic disorder.

  6. Reward sensitivity to faces versus objects in children: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Leslie J.

    2014-01-01

    How children respond to social and nonsocial rewards has important implications for understanding social cognitive development. Adults find faces intrinsically rewarding. However, little is known about how children respond to face vs nonface rewards. We utilized event-related potentials (the stimulus-preceding negativity, SPN) to measure differences in reward anticipation during a guessing game in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were presented with reward indicators accompanied by incidental face or nonface stimuli. Nonface stimuli were comprised of scrambled faces in the shape of arrows, controlling for low-level properties of the two conditions. Children showed an increased SPN when the reward stimuli were accompanied by faces, relative to nonface stimuli. This suggests that children find a face stimulus more rewarding than a nonface stimulus. The results have important implications for processing social vs nonsocial rewards in typically developing children, and allow testing of populations with deficits in social reward processing, such as autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24036961

  7. Children's recognition of fairness and others' welfare in a resource allocation task: Age related changes.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Michael T; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns, children were asked to allocate, judge, and reason about allocations of necessary (needed to avoid harm) and luxury (enjoyable to have) resources to a hardworking and a lazy character. While 3- to 5-year-olds did not differentiate between distributing luxury and necessary resources, 6- to 8-year-olds allocated luxury resources more meritoriously than necessary resources. Further, children based their allocations of necessary resources on concerns for others' welfare, rather than merit, even when one character was described as working harder. The findings revealed that, with age, children incorporated the concerns for others' welfare and merit into their conceptions of fairness in a resource allocation context, and prioritized these concerns differently depending on whether they were allocating luxury or necessary resources. Further, with age, children weighed multiple moral concerns including equality, merit, and others' welfare, when determining the fair allocation of resources. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children's Acquiescence to False Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Kyndra C; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children's accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children's age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts.

  9. ECG findings after myocardial infarction in children after Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, T.; Takao, A.; Kondoh, C.; Nakazawa, M.; Hiroe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.

    1988-10-01

    Standard 12-lead ECGs were evaluated in 17 children with myocardial infarction and 78 children without myocardial infarction after Kawasaki disease; sensitivity and specificity of the ECG infarction criteria were determined. The presence or absence of myocardial infarction was determined from either clinical examination results (coronary angiography, ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial imaging) or autopsy findings. Of seven patients with inferior infarction, abnormally deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF were observed in six, but the duration was greater than 0.04 second in only one (14%). The sensitivity and specificity of inferior infarction criteria based on Q wave amplitude were 86% and 97%, respectively. Of eight patients with anterior infarction, seven (88%) had abnormally deep and wide (greater than or equal to 0.04 second) Q waves in anterior chest leads. The sensitivity and specificity of the infarction criteria based on the amplitude and duration of the Q wave were 75% and 99%, respectively. Of seven patients with lateral infarction, Q waves were observed in lead I, aVL, or both in four patients, and in all of these patients Q waves were wider than 0.04 second. In two patients with both inferior and anterior infarction, Q waves were observed only in leads II, III, and aVF; in only one patient were the Q waves wider than 0.04 second. Thus deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF that are not wider than 0.04 second may indicate inferior infarction in children. Q waves in lead I, aVL, and chest leads associated with anterolateral infarction are in most instances deep and wide.

  10. Joint Attention Revisited: Finding Strengths among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Sarah; Watson, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    Differences in joint attention are prominent for some children with autism and are often used as an indicator of the disorder. This study examined the joint attention competencies of young children with autism who demonstrated joint attention ability and compared them to children with developmental delays. A total of 40 children with autism and…

  11. Does parental migration really benefit left-behind children? Comparative evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Viet Nguyen, Cuong

    2016-03-01

    Millions of children are left behind when their parents migrate from home to another place. This study examines whether parental migration can affect health and cognitive ability of left-behind children aged at 5-8 years old in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. It uses data on 7725 children in the four countries collected from Young Lives surveys in 2007 and 2009. It finds that although parental migration helps families increase per capita consumption, it does not improve health and cognitive ability of children. The effect of parental migration varies across different countries and different types of migration. In Ethiopia, parental migration does not have a significant effect on children. However, parental migration reduces health outcomes of children in other three countries and decreases cognitive ability test scores in India and Vietnam. The negative effect on children tends to be higher for long-term parental migration than short-term parental migration.

  12. The origin of children's implanted false memories: memory traces or compliance?

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Verschuere, Bruno; Meijer, Ewout H; van Oorsouw, Kim

    2012-03-01

    A longstanding question in false memory research is whether children's implanted false memories represent actual memory traces or merely result from compliance. The current study examined this question using a response latency based deception task. Forty-five 8-year-old children received narratives about a true (first day at school) and false event (hot air balloon ride). Across two interviews, 58/32% of the participants developed a partial/full false memory. Interestingly, these children also showed higher false recall on an unrelated DRM paradigm compared to children without a false memory. The crucial finding, however, was that the results of the deception task revealed that children with partial and full false memories were faster to confirm than to deny statements relating to the false event. This indicates that children's implanted false memories reflect actual memory traces, and are unlikely to be explained by mere compliance.

  13. How to Find the Live Ones on Children's TV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Christopher S.

    1972-01-01

    By phasing out the superheroes of violence, attempting to involve children in constructive projects and reexamining their commitment to children's programming, the major commercial networks are gradually changing children's television. Together with non-commercial television networks they are striving for greater quality control. (Author/RK)

  14. Academic Attainment Findings in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epping, Amanda S.; Myrvik, Matthew P.; Newby, Robert F.; Panepinto, Julie A.; Brandow, Amanda M.; Scott, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) demonstrate deficits in cognitive and academic functioning. This study compared the academic attainment of children with SCD relative to national, state, and local school district rates for African American students. Methods: A retrospective chart review of children with SCD was completed and…

  15. Teaching Children about the Inverse Relation between Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Hallett, Darcy; Bell, Daniel; Evans, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Two intervention studies are described. Both were designed to study the effects of teaching children about the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. The interventions were successful with 8-year-old children in Study 1 and to a limited extent with 5-year-old children in Study 2. In Study 1 teaching children about inversion increased…

  16. Improving Treatment Outcome for Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Elizabeth P.

    2007-01-01

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is relatively common among 3-8 year-old children and its presence puts children at risk for more serious and stable behavior problems. Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) as the most empirical support as a treatment for children with ODD as well as for children with clinically significant conduct problems. The…

  17. Observational assessment and maternal reports of motivation in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica

    2011-03-01

    Despite a lack of consistent empirical evidence, there has been an ongoing assumption that intellectual disability is associated with reduced levels of motivation. The participants in this study were 33 children with Down syndrome ages 10-15 years and 33 typically developing 3-8-year-old children. Motivation was measured through observational assessments of curiosity, preference for challenge, and persistence, as well as maternal reports. There were no significant group differences on motivation tasks, but mothers of children with Down syndrome rated their children significantly lower on motivation than did parents of typically developing children. There were some intriguing group differences in the pattern of correlations among observations and parent reports. The findings challenge long-held views that individuals with intellectual disability are invariably deficient in motivation.

  18. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  19. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Child find for parentally-placed private school children... ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Children with Disabilities Enrolled by Their Parents in Private Schools § 300.131 Child find for parentally-placed...

  20. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Child find for parentally-placed private school children... ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Children with Disabilities Enrolled by Their Parents in Private Schools § 300.131 Child find for parentally-placed...

  1. Initial Ophthalmic Findings in Turkish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabatas, Emrah Utku; Ozer, Pinar Altiaylik; Ertugrul, Gokce Tasdemir; Kurtul, Bengi Ece; Bodur, Sahin; Alan, Burcu Ersoz

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently have ophthalmologic disorders. Due to poor cooperation with ophthalmological examination, ocular abnormalities in such children may be overlooked. We retrospectively studied the records of 324 patients diagnosed as ASD that underwent ophthalmological examination between January 2011 and…

  2. Variation in Children's Understanding of Fractions: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Tran, Dung; Elliott, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    This research targets children's informal strategies and knowledge of fractions by examining their ability to create, interpret, and connect representations in doing and communicating mathematics when solving fractions tasks. Our research group followed a constant comparative method to analyze clinical interviews of children in grades 2-6 solving…

  3. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  4. Finding Community: Helping Children of Military Families Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Daniel P.; Ybanez, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Envision the military family, being given as few as 30 days to pack, take their children out of school, leave their residence, settle in a new home, enroll the children in a new school, and take care of the myriad details for the military parent's relocation or deployment. Military families undergo this process over and over. The moves can affect…

  5. Cranial Nerve Disorders in Children: MR Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yoon, Hee Mang; Jung, Ah Young; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Cranial nerve disorders are uncommon disease conditions encountered in pediatric patients, and can be categorized as congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, or tumorous conditions that involve the cranial nerve itself or propagation of the disorder from adjacent organs. However, determination of the normal course, as well as abnormalities, of cranial nerves in pediatric patients is challenging because of the small caliber of the cranial nerve, as well as the small intracranial and skull base structures. With the help of recently developed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that provide higher spatial resolution and fast imaging techniques including three-dimensional MR images with or without the use of gadolinium contrast agent, radiologists can more easily diagnose disease conditions that involve the small cranial nerves, such as the oculomotor, abducens, facial, and hypoglossal nerves, as well as normal radiologic anatomy, even in very young children. If cranial nerve involvement is suspected, careful evaluation of the cranial nerves should include specific MR imaging protocols. Localization is an important consideration in cranial nerve imaging, and should cover entire pathways and target organs as much as possible. Therefore, radiologists should be familiar not only with the various diseases that cause cranial nerve dysfunction, and the entire course of each cranial nerve including the intra-axial nuclei and fibers, but also the technical considerations for optimal imaging of pediatric cranial nerves. In this article, we briefly review normal cranial nerve anatomy and imaging findings of various pediatric cranial nerve dysfunctions, as well as the technical considerations of pediatric cranial nerve imaging. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  6. Linguistic Retrieval Strategies and Word-Finding Difficulties among Children with Language Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiig, Elisabeth H.; Becker-Caplan, Laura

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews normal developmental patterns for naming and discusses research comparing children with normal language and those with language disorders. Implications for assessment and intervention approaches for children with word finding difficulties are noted. (CL)

  7. Health visitors: finding their place in children's centres.

    PubMed

    Potter, Barbara

    2010-11-01

    Children's centres aim to improve outcomes for children through the development of integrated services. Health visitors are expected to lead the delivery of child health promotion programmes in geographical areas that include children's centres. During 2007, a group of eight health visitors linked to Phase 2 children's centres in Bristol formed a learning set facilitated by a public health specialist to explore how their role as both caseworkers and public health practitioners could become part of an integrated children's centre team. They developed two linked models intended to help health visitors develop both aspects of their role in practice. First, a proposed management structure for a children's centre which included health visitors at both the strategic and practice delivery levels of the organisation. Second, a conceptualisation of how the proposed management structure would support and develop an integrated team. The paper then discusses an early attempt by one children's centre in Bristol to implement the two models through the development of an integrated outreach team.

  8. Children of substance abusers: overview of research findings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L; Leff, M

    1999-05-01

    A relationship between parental substance abuse and subsequent alcohol problems in their children has been documented extensively. Children of alcoholics (COAs) are considered to be at high risk because there is a greater likelihood that they will develop alcoholism compared with a randomly selected child from the same community. COAs and children of other drug-abusing parents are especially vulnerable to the risk for maladaptive behavior because they have combinations of many risk factors present in their lives. The single most potent risk factor is their parent's substance-abusing behavior. This single risk factor can place children of substance abusers at biologic, psychologic, and environmental risk. Since the turn of the century, many reports have described the deleterious influence of parental alcoholism on their children. A series of studies measured mortality, physiology, and general health in the offspring of alcoholic parents and concluded that when mothers stopped drinking during gestation, their children were healthier. Today, research on COAs can be classified into studies of fetal alcohol syndrome, the transmission of alcoholism, psychobiologic markers of vulnerability, and psychosocial characteristics. Each of these studies hypothesizes that differences between COAs and children of nonalcoholics influence maladaptive behaviors later in life, such as academic failure or alcoholism. This research supports the belief that COAs are at risk for a variety of problems that may include behavioral, psychologic, cognitive, or neuropsychologic deficits. The vast literature on COAs far outweighs the literature on children of other drug abusers. Relatively little is known about children of heroin addicts, cocaine abusers, or polydrug abusers. Nonetheless, many researchers suggest that the children of addicted parents are at greater risk for later dysfunctional behaviors and that they, too, deserve significant attention to prevent intergenerational transmission of

  9. Successful communication for children who stutter: finding the balance.

    PubMed

    Yaruss, J Scott; Reardon, Nina A

    2002-08-01

    For many school-age children, stuttering consists of more than just speech disfluencies, physical tension, and struggle. Therefore, successful therapy for stuttering should address more than just these observable characteristics. In addition to working on fluency goals, clinicians can help children (as well as the people in the child's environment) reduce negative reactions to stuttering and increase their tolerance and acceptance of their speaking abilities. By treating the entire stuttering disorder in this way, clinicians can help children reduce barriers to successful communication and improve their overall communication skills. When children develop a balance between increased fluency and healthy communication attitudes, they have the greatest opportunity for becoming successful communicators who can speak freely and with confidence in any situation they face.

  10. Spatial Training Improves Children's Mathematics Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether mental rotation training improved math performance in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were pretested on a range of number and math skills. Then one group received a single session of mental rotation training using an object completion task that had previously improved spatial ability in children this age (Ehrlich, Levine, &…

  11. Implementing and Assessing 4-H Educational Activity Kits for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Yeske, Janine; Zimmer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Educational activity kits were developed and implemented through a statewide effort for 4-H Youth Development Extension programs serving 5-8 year-old children. The purpose of the kits was to promote life skills in children and assess the learning environment. Data was collected based on the observations of 577 children across 22 counties. Findings…

  12. Making the Tacit Explicit: Children's Strategies for Classroom Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silby, Alison; Watts, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A key highlight of this study is generating evidence of children "making aware the unaware", making tacit knowledge explicit. The research explores the levels of awareness in thinking used by eight 7-8 year-old children when engaged in school-based genre writing tasks. The focus is on analysing children's awareness of their thought…

  13. Hispanic parents of overweight and obese children and their outcome expectations for children's television viewing: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to explore parental outcome expectations (OE) regarding children's television (TV) viewing among parents of overweight or obese children. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight or obese children. We found tha...

  14. Street children in South Africa: findings from interviews on the background of street children in Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, J

    1996-01-01

    In the present study findings from interviews on the background of street children in Pretoria, South Africa are presented, discussed, and compared with research done in the past on South African street children. Findings from the investigation indicate that the average age of South African street children is approximately 13 years, predominantly of male African origin. Most have been on the streets for three years or longer, and they cited family violence, parental alcoholism, abuse, and poverty as the main motivating factors for leaving home. Most of these findings are common among street children all over the world.

  15. Prediction of Children's Empathy-Related Responding from Their Effortful Control and Parents' Expressivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the linear and interactive relations of children's effortful control and parents' emotional expressivity to children's empathy-related responses were examined. Participants were 214 children, 4.5 to 8 years old. Children's effortful control was negatively related to their personal distress and was positively related to their…

  16. How Parent Explanation Changes What Children Learn from Everyday Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Jodi G.; Crowley, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Two studies examined how parent explanation changes what children learn from everyday shared scientific thinking. In Study 1, children between ages 3- and 8-years-old explored a novel task solo or with parents. Analyses of children's performance on a subsequent posttest compared three groups: children exploring with parents who spontaneously…

  17. Helping Children Talk about Shapes: A Case Study with Ten Children in the Learning Support Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Ng Swee

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an activity which attempts to change the discourse of a mathematics classroom with the specific intent to help children who may have difficulties with mathematics and ways of communicating. Ten 8-year old children in the Learning Support Programme were engaged in an open-ended geometric task. In this paper a brief description…

  18. [Parents of children with autism: recent research findings].

    PubMed

    Pisula, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    The parents of autistic children have become objects of many controversial studies and theories. This is a review of the studies that have been conducted in the nineties with this group of parents. The studies are combined into three categories: works on the broader phenotype, studies on the parental stress and the perception of the child, and finally, parents as therapists of their children. Although the idea of genetic determination of the cognitive, social and communication deficits, has been widely spread, it still has not been sufficiently proved. The research show that parents of children with autism experience profound stress. This stress response has specific profile--the most difficult for parents are handicaps related with atypical child behaviors, and the lack of knowledge about real development limitation and child problems. But even though, the parents supported by professionals may become the good teachers and therapists for their children. The partnership between parents and professionals is one of the conditions of the parent's success in these roles.

  19. Attachment in Day Care Children: Field and Laboratory Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragozin, Arlene

    A total of 20 children, between 17 and 38 months old, were observed in their day care centers and in a standardized laboratory procedure. In both settings, preseparation, separation, and reunion situations were observed. Observers coded proximity-increasing and proximity-decreasing behaviors to mother and to other adults; in addition, distress,…

  20. A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

  1. Correlates of Sex-Role Flexibility in Children. Detailed Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.

    This group of studies investigated the level of traditionality/flexibility in the sex-role attitudes of 376 six- and nine-year-old children, and in the attitudes of their parents. Sex-role questionnaires assessed: (1) the child's attitudes regarding toy and activity preferences, future domestic aspirations, occupational choices, and tolerance of…

  2. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  3. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  4. "Finding a Life" among Undocumented Congolese Refugee Children in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The majority of undocumented Congolese refugee children living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, experience extreme poverty and social exclusion, harassment and discrimination. Their fear of deportation, forcible removal to refugee camps and imprisonment is coupled with a strong feeling that they are unwelcome in Tanzania. These realities require that…

  5. Democratic Life Skill 1: Guiding Children to Find a Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2012-01-01

    "Democratic life skills" are social-emotional capacities that children need to be productive citizens and healthy individuals in a modern, diverse society. The construct for these skills comes from many sources. One helpful source is Maslow's concept of two coexisting sets of motivational needs in each individual: one set for security, belonging,…

  6. Factors Moderating Children's Adjustment to Parental Separation: Findings from a Community Study in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Dunn, Judy; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Golding, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Research findings show that there is marked variability in children's response to parental separation, but few studies identify the sources of this variation. This prospective longitudinal study examines the factors modifying children's adjustment to parental separation in a community sample of 5,635 families in England. Children's…

  7. Toxocara canis infection of children: epidemiologic and neuropsychologic findings.

    PubMed Central

    Marmor, M; Glickman, L; Shofer, F; Faich, L A; Rosenberg, C; Cornblatt, B; Friedman, S

    1987-01-01

    Sera from 4,652 children whose blood was submitted to the New York City Department of Health for lead analysis were tested for antibodies to Toxocara canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Standardized to the age distribution of the study population, T. canis seropositivity (inverse titers greater than or equal to 16) was 5.7 per cent in males and 5.1 per cent in females. T. canis antibody titers and lead exposures as measured by Centers for Disease Control lead classes were positively correlated. Children who were seropositive to T. canis (cases) were compared to seronegatives (controls) matched on age (+/- 6 months), sex, time-of-screening (+/- 3 months) and CDC lead class. Logistic regression analysis of 155 case-control pairs demonstrated elevated relative risks (RRs) for geophagia (RR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.75, 5.64) and having had a litter of puppies in the home (RR = 5.22; 95% CI = 1.63, 16.71). Compared to controls, cases had increased eosinophil counts, serum immunoglobulin E concentrations, and anti-hemagglutinin-A titers. Small deficits in cases compared to controls were found in performance on several neuropsychological tests after adjustment for potential confounders including case-control differences in race, socioeconomic status, and current blood lead concentrations. The study thus confirmed that T. canis infection is common in urban children and suggested that infection may be associated with adverse neuropsychological effects. PMID:3565646

  8. Children's and Young People's Writing in 2012: Findings from the National Literacy Trust's Annual Literacy Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This report outlines findings that relate to writing, taken from the third annual literacy survey, which was conducted in November/December 2012. 34,910 young people aged 8 to 16 participated. Key findings include: (1) 44.1% of children and young people enjoy writing either "very much" or "quite a lot"; 14.8% of children and…

  9. Development in Children with Down Syndrome: Facts, Findings, the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Jennifer G.

    1998-01-01

    Shares findings from past and current research into Down syndrome and makes suggestions for future research. The contributions of medical, genetic, and psychological research are reviewed, along with findings relating to the neuropathology of Down syndrome, prenatal screening for Down syndrome, life expectancy, and obstacles to learning. (CR)

  10. The role of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in the reading development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology.

  11. Beyond early infant diagnosis: case finding strategies for identification of HIV-infected infants and children

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Saeed; Kim, Maria H.; Sugandhi, Nandita; Phelps, B. Ryan; Sabelli, Rachael; Diallo, Mamadou O.; Young, Paul; Duncan, Dana; Kellerman, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    There are 3.4 million children infected with HIV worldwide, with up to 2.6 million eligible for treatment under current guidelines. However, roughly 70% of infected children are not receiving live-saving HIV care and treatment. Strengthening case finding through improved diagnosis strategies, and actively linking identified HIV-infected children to care and treatment is essential to ensuring that these children benefit from the care and treatment available to them. Without attention or advocacy, the majority of these children will remain undiagnosed and die from complications of HIV. In this article, we summarize the challenges of identifying HIV-infected infants and children, review currently available evidence and guidance, describe promising new strategies for case finding, and make recommendations for future research and interventions to improve identification of HIV-infected infants and children. PMID:24361633

  12. EURO-MUSCULUS/USPRM basic scanning protocols revisited in children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ke V; Şahin Onat, Şule; Lee, Chia W; Kara, Murat; Hung, Chen Y; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution ultrasound (US) has been widely used in the evaluation of adult musculoskeletal disorders with several established high-quality scanning protocols. Despite the fact that US use is even more advantageous in the pediatric population, normal sonographic images of the major joints are lacking in children. Due to the excessive amount of hyaline cartilage, the bony landmarks can hardly be recognized. In this regard, familiarization with the normal ultrasonographic images is crucial before its wide/prompt application for the differential diagnosis of pediatric musculoskeletal conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this pictorial essay was to demonstrate the normal ultrasonographic images of major joints in normal children in comparison with adults' findings. The images used in this paper have been acquired from a 5-year-old and a 8-year-old child according to the EURO-MUSCULUS/USPRM basic scanning protocols.

  13. Recent Findings in Social Phobia among Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, Carla A.; Chavira, Denise A.; Stein, Murray B.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood social phobia (SP) is common and associated with varying forms of impairment. The cause of social anxiety disorder is often complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Shyness in young children may be a possible precursor to social anxiety later in life, although not the sole antecedent. Current assessment of childhood social anxiety includes psychometrically sound self report and clinician administered measures either specifically targeting SP disorder or including the construct as a subscale of a broader measure. The type of measure that is used most often depends on the purpose of the assessment, the setting, time constraints, and required training. Extant data support the efficacy of both psychosocial and pharmacological interventions, with response rates ranging from 50–80%. Further research is needed to clarify the developmental stages of SP, the psychometric properties of brief measures, as well as the efficacy of combined interventions. PMID:19728571

  14. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  15. Bruxism, oral parafunctions, anamnestic and clinical findings of temporomandibular disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Emodi-Perlman, A; Eli, I; Friedman-Rubin, P; Goldsmith, C; Reiter, S; Winocur, E

    2012-02-01

    The reported prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) present during childhood and adolescence ranges between 7% and 68%. The range of the reported prevalence of sleep bruxism in children is also wide. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (i) determine the prevalence of oral parafunctions, sleep bruxism and of anamnestic and clinical findings of TMD among Israeli children with primary or mixed dentition; (ii) to establish whether the parafunctional activities are associated with anamnestic and clinical findings of TMD in this population and (iii) to examine the possible impact of stressful life events on the prevalence of bruxism, oral parafunctions, and anamnestic and clinical findings of TMD in children. A total of 244 children (183 girls and 61 boys) aged 5-12 years were included in the study. Each participant underwent a full TMD examination. Parents, in collaboration with their children, completed a questionnaire on TMD symptoms, oral parafunctions and stressful life events in their children's life. Most participants (78·8%) reported at least one oral habit. Of these, only 'jaw play' was associated with TMD anamnestic and clinical findings. Stressful life events were associated only with the performance of multiple oral habits. These findings indicate that the performance of oral parafunctions is commonplace during childhood, with younger children exhibiting fewer oral parafunctions than adolescents. Stressful life events are related with an increase in the performance of multiple oral parafunctions in children but the later are not necessarily associated with anamnestic and clinical findings of TMD in the paediatric population.

  16. How Children Use Examples to Make Conditional Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments explored children's and adults' use of examples to make conditional predictions. In Experiment 1 adults (N = 20) but not 4-year-olds (N = 21) or 8-year-olds (N =1 8) distinguished predictable from unpredictable features when features were partially correlated (e.g., necessary but not sufficient). Children did make reliable…

  17. An Evaluation of NO Procedures on Children with Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippner, Stanley

    1973-01-01

    Evaluated were the effects of therapeutic procedures (crawling, creeping, response to sensory stimulation, and patterning) carried out by neurological organization rehabilitationists on the language and social competence of nine 2-to 8-year-old neurologically handicapped children and on the children's families. (MC)

  18. Lexical Development in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Lu, Ying; Kan, Pui Fong

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of Mandarin-English bilingual children (3-5-year-olds, 6-8-year-olds) participated in a picture identification task and a picture naming task in both languages. Results revealed age-related growth in English, but not Mandarin vocabulary. Composite vocabulary was larger than either single-language vocabulary in the younger children but…

  19. Smabarnens Kultur-Och Mediebarometer. (Barometer of Children's Cultural Activity).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipson, Leni; Schyller, Ingela

    This is the first of a planned series of investigations of the media habits and other cultural activities of 3- to 8-year-old Swedish children. Diagrams show the percent of children who use the various media on an average day and the frequency of their participation in such activities as visits to the theater, museum, or library. The amount of…

  20. It Is All Relative: How Young Children Encode Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments tested the ability of 4- and 8-year-old children to encode the extent of a target dowel and later discriminate between the target and a foil having a novel extent. By manipulating the heights of containers in which we presented the stimuli we tested whether children used the relation between the dowels and containers for encoding…

  1. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Children's Imitative Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Jennifer M.; Legare, Cristine H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research with Western populations has demonstrated that children use imitation flexibly to engage in both instrumental and conventional learning. Evidence for children's imitative flexibility in non-Western populations is limited, however, and has only assessed imitation of instrumental tasks. This study (N = 142, 6- to 8-year-olds)…

  2. Spanking children: the controversies, findings, and new directions.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Kazdin, Alan E

    2003-03-01

    The use of spanking as a discipline technique is quite prevalent, even though whether or not to spank children is controversial among lay and professional audiences alike. Considerable research on the topic has been analyzed in several reviews of the literature that often reach different and sometimes opposite conclusions. Opposing conclusions are not inherently problematic as research develops in an area. However, we propose that both methodological limitations of the research to date as well as the limited focus of the research questions have prevented a better understanding of the impact of parental spanking on child development. The purpose of this article is to convey the basis for limited progress to date and, more importantly, to reformulate the research agenda. The goal is to move toward a resolution of the most relevant questions to parents, professionals, and policymakers. We propose an expanded research agenda that addresses the goals of parental discipline, the direct and concomitant effects of spanking, the influences that foster and maintain the use of spanking, and the processes through which spanking operates.

  3. TV's Influence on Children: The Long and the Short of It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorn, Gerald J.; Goldberg, Marvin E.

    This study was conducted in order to assess the link between exposure to television advertising for snack foods and children's actual snack choices. One hundred and forty 5-to 8-year-old low income children attending summer camp were randomly divided into two experimental groups each of which contained equal numbers of younger and older children.…

  4. Interactions between Knowledge and Testimony in Children's Reality-Status Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Mobilia, Gabriel; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2 studies, we attempted to capture the information-processing abilities underlying children's reality-status judgments. Forty 5- to 6-year-olds and 53 7- to 8-year-olds heard about novel entities (animals) that varied in their fit with children's world knowledge. After hearing about each entity, children could either guess reality status…

  5. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-12-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals.

  6. Musical Improvisation Behavior of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    Musical improvisation behavior of 4-, 6-, and 8-year-old children who played Orff xylophones during ten 15-minute sessions is described in this paper. Each session involved three improvisatory phases. Phase I consisted of free exploration; Phase II consisted of short verbally stimulated musical tasks (two imitation and six improvisational tasks);…

  7. Biases in Children's and Adults' Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nina L.; Derbyshire, Stuart W. G.; Guttentag, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined biases in children's (5/6- and 7/8-year-olds) and adults' moral judgments. Participants at all ages judged that it was worse to produce harm when harm occurred (a) through action rather than inaction (omission bias), (b) when physical contact with the victim was involved (physical contact principle), and (c) when the harm…

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old.

  9. Child Find, Screening, and Tracking: Serving Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children and Families. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavri, Shireen; Fowler, Susan A.

    A critical component in the provision of services to young children (birth through age 5) is an effective system for identifying and referring children and their families, who may be eligible for early intervention or special education.This report provides a synthesis of current practice in establishing "child find" services in local…

  10. Investigation of a New Intervention for Children with Word-Finding Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Background: Around one-quarter of children attending language support services have difficulty in retrieving words. Therapy studies with such children have shown that both semantic and phonological techniques can improve word finding. A new approach to intervention is described using a computerized aid that converts letters into sound cues. Aims:…

  11. Word-Finding Intervention for Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Multiple Single-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragard, Anne; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne; Snyers, Perrine; James, Deborah G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effectiveness of a combined phonological and semantic intervention for children with specific language impairment who had word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Method: To evaluate the intervention, a multiple single-case design was implemented with 4 children, ages 9;6 (years;months) to 13;9, who had WFDs. Some items…

  12. Consequences of Family Literacy for Adults and Children: Some Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philliber, William W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from a family literacy program, called the Toyota Families for Learning Program, and compares it to data from programs that focus primarily on adults or on children, but not both. Discusses outcomes for adults, and outcomes for children, and finds results to be promising but not definitive. (SR)

  13. Similarities and Differences between Children with and without Disabilities on Identified Clinical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Diane C.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the types and proportions of identified clinical findings among children with and without disabilities. Using data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS), this study compared 7672 children aged 0 to 15 years (n=1067 with disabilities and n=6605 without disabilities) who were…

  14. Home Literacy Environments of Young Children with Down Syndrome: Findings from a Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lewis, Sandra; Whalon, Kelly; Dyrlund, Allison; McKenzie, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Early home literacy experiences, including parent--child book reading, account for a significant amount of children's later reading achievement. Yet there is a very limited research base about the home literacy environments and experiences of children with cognitive disabilities. The purpose of this study is to describe findings from a Web-based…

  15. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities. 300.131 Section 300.131 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility...

  16. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities. 300.131 Section 300.131 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility...

  17. 34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities. 300.131 Section 300.131 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility...

  18. Improving medicines for children in Canada. Findings of the expert panel on therapeutic products for infants, children and youth.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    With children being largely orphaned from the benefits of drugs, and being managed mostly by medications unapproved by Health Canada, a landmark document was published in September 2014 by the Council of Canadian Academies (CCA) to serve as a blueprint to change this grim reality. The main findings of the panel included: 1. Children take medications, many of which have not been proven safe and effective for their use. 2. Children respond to medications differently from adults; thus, medicines must be studied in children and formulated for children. 3. Studying medicines in children is always possible and in their best interests. 4. In the United States and the European Union, pediatric medicines research is encouraged, required and monitored in ways that offer lessons for Canada. 5. Pediatric medicines research is a Canadian strength, but it requires reinforcement, sustained capacity and infrastructure to realize its full potential.

  19. Attentional processes in low-socioeconomic status bilingual children: are they modulated by the amount of bilingual experience?

    PubMed

    Ladas, Aristea I; Carroll, Daniel J; Vivas, Ana B

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that bilingual children are more proficient in resolving cognitive conflict than monolinguals. However, the replicability of such findings has been questioned, with poor control of participants' socioeconomic status (SES) as a possible confounding factor. Two experiments are reported here, in which the main attentional functions and pragmatic ability of 54 bilingual and 56 monolingual low-SES children were assessed (Experiment 1: 6- to 12-year-olds; Experiment 2: 6- to 8-year-olds). A language-switching task was also employed, to measure bilingual proficiency. Overall, the monolingual and bilingual groups did not differ significantly in any of the tasks employed, although the ability to resolve conflict was related to children's level of bilingual experience.

  20. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals.

  1. Effects of lexical factors on lexical access among typical language-learning children and children with word-finding difficulties.

    PubMed

    Newman, Rochelle S; German, Diane J

    2002-09-01

    This investigation studied the influence of lexical factors, known to impact lexical access in adults, on the word retrieval of children. Participants included 320 typical and atypical (word-finding difficulties) language-learning children, ranging in age from 7 to 12 years. Lexical factors examined included word frequency, age-of-acquisition, neighborhood density, neighborhood frequency, and stress pattern. Findings indicated that these factors did influence lexical access in children. Words which were high in frequency and neighborhood frequency, low in neighborhood density and age-of-acquisition, and which contained the typical stress pattern for the language were easier to name. Further, the number of neighbors that were more frequent than the target word also had an effect on the word's ease of retrieval. Significant interactions indicated that age-of-acquisition effects decreased with maturation for typically-learning children whereas these effects continued to impact the lexical access of children with word-finding difficulties across the ages studied, suggesting that these children's difficulties in accessing words may have prevented them from developing strong access paths to these words. These findings support a view of lexical access in which access paths to words become strengthened with successful use.

  2. Production and On-Line Comprehension of Definiteness in English and Dutch by Monolingual and Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Vasic, Nada; Marinis, Theodoros; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    The present article examines production and on-line processing of definite articles in Turkish-speaking sequential bilingual children acquiring English and Dutch as second languages (L2) in the UK and in the Netherlands, respectively. Thirty-nine 6-8-year-old L2 children and 48 monolingual (L1) age-matched children participated in two separate…

  3. Children's and Young People's Reading in 2013: Findings from the 2013 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines findings about children's and young people's reading from our fourth annual literacy survey conducted in November/December 2013. 29,422 young people aged eight to 16 participated. Some of the key findings for 2013 include: (1) Levels of reading enjoyment have improved for the first time since 2005 (see Figure 2, p. 9); (2)…

  4. Word Finding in Children and Adolescents with a History of Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Maureen

    1992-01-01

    Word finding in relation to brain injury is discussed for children and adolescents with unilateral congenital malformations of the brain, early hydrocephalus, childhood-acquired left hemisphere stroke, and acquired traumatic head injury. Studies examining the recovery of word-finding deficits after brain injury are discussed, along with…

  5. Young children can be taught basic natural selection using a picture-storybook intervention.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Deborah; Emmons, Natalie A; Seston Schillaci, Rebecca; Ganea, Patricia A

    2014-04-01

    Adaptation by natural selection is a core mechanism of evolution. It is also one of the most widely misunderstood scientific processes. Misconceptions are rooted in cognitive biases found in preschoolers, yet concerns about complexity mean that adaptation by natural selection is generally not comprehensively taught until adolescence. This is long after untutored theoretical misunderstandings are likely to have become entrenched. In a novel approach, we explored 5- to 8-year-olds' capacities to learn a basic but theoretically coherent mechanistic explanation of adaptation through a custom storybook intervention. Experiment 1 showed that children understood the population-based logic of natural selection and also generalized it. Furthermore, learning endured 3 months later. Experiment 2 replicated these results and showed that children understood and applied an even more nuanced mechanistic causal explanation. The findings demonstrate that, contrary to conventional educational wisdom, basic natural selection is teachable in early childhood. Theory-driven interventions using picture storybooks with rich explanatory structure are beneficial.

  6. Evaluation of Cutaneous Findings in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Kaya Erdogan, Hilal; Fıdan, Saniye Tulin; Bulur, Isil; Karapınar, Tekden; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan

    2017-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by attention, concentration, mobility, and impulse control problems and is among the most frequently seen psychiatric disorders during childhood. Our aim was to evaluate cutaneous findings in children and adolescents with ADHD. In our study we found that onychophagy, traumatic skin changes, atopy and related symptoms, certain birthmarks, and acne were frequent cutaneous findings in children with ADHD. Although a limitation is the lack of a control group, ADHD is very common, and our study suggests that further studies of cutaneous findings and ADHD are warranted.

  7. Dialect Awareness and Lexical Comprehension of Mainstream American English in African American English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan; Gross, Megan; Chen, Jianshen; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Kaplan, David; Brown, Megan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationships among minority dialect use, language ability, and young African American English (AAE)-speaking children's understanding and awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE). Method: Eighty-three 4- to 8-year-old AAE-speaking children participated in 2 experimental tasks. One task…

  8. Evaluation of a Deductive Procedure to Teach Grammatical Inflections to Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Fey, Marc E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the learning effects of a deductive language-teaching procedure when teaching a novel gender agreement verb inflection to children with language impairment. Method: Thirty-two 6-8-year-old children with language impairment were randomly assigned to either a deductive (N = 16) or an inductive (N = 16) treatment group. In the…

  9. What Children Recall about a Repeated Event When One Instance Is Different from the Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Deborah A.; Gordon, Heidi M.; Woiwod, Dayna M.; Price, Heather L.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined whether a memorable and unexpected change (deviation details) presented during 1 instance of a repeated event facilitated children's memory for that instance and whether a repeated event facilitated children's memory for deviation details. In Experiments 1 and 2, 8-year-olds (N = 167) watched 1 or 4 live magic shows.…

  10. Is It Real or Is It Fiction? Children's Bias toward Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martarelli, Corinna S.; Mast, Fred W.

    2013-01-01

    Children aged 3 to 8 years old and adults were tested on a reality–fantasy distinction task. They had to judge whether particular entities were real or fantastical, and response times were collected. We further manipulated whether the entity is a specific character or a generic fantastical entity. The results indicate that children, unlike adults,…

  11. Children's Response to First Dental Visit as a Function of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Console, Cara M.; Chambliss, Catherine A.

    This study was designed to identify the age at which children who are between 1 and 8 years old display the least anxiety during their first dental visit. Parents completed a survey that asked for the child's gender, age at first dental visit, and general reaction to the first visit. Children's reactions were classified as resistant, anxious,…

  12. Observational Assessment and Maternal Reports of Motivation in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Despite a lack of consistent empirical evidence, there has been an ongoing assumption that intellectual disability is associated with reduced levels of motivation. The participants in this study were 33 children with Down syndrome ages 10-15 years and 33 typically developing 3-8-year-old children. Motivation was measured through observational…

  13. Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

  14. The Development of Children's Ability to Use Evidence to Infer Reality Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullos, Ansley; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    These studies investigate children's use of scientific reasoning to infer the reality status of novel entities. Four- to 8-year-olds heard about novel entities and were asked to infer their reality status from 3 types of evidence: supporting evidence, irrelevant evidence, and no evidence. Experiment 1 revealed that children used supporting versus…

  15. ''It's Magic!'' the Effects of Presentation Modality on Children's Event Memory, Suggestibility, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Gelhaar, Tim; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of presentation modality (live, video, and slide show) on children's memory, suggestibility, recognition, and metamemorial monitoring processes. A total of 270 children in three age groups (5- and 6-year-olds, 7- and 8-year-olds, and 9- and 10-year-olds) watched a magic show and were questioned about it…

  16. Distinguishing Features of Cuban Children Referred for Professional Help Because of ADHD: Looking beyond the Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barry H.; Normand, Sebastien; Sotares deToro, Maria del Pilar; Santana Gonzalez, Yorkys; Guilarte Tellez, Jorge Antonio; Carbonell Naranjo, Migdalia; Musle, Miriam; Diaz Socarras, Felix Javier; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish Cuban children clinically referred because of ADHD from an at-risk community sample and a community control group in terms of symptoms, associated difficulties and impairment of family and peer relations. Method: Parents and teachers of 1,036 children (6-8 years old) completed an established ADHD rating scale and a…

  17. Assessment of Second Language Proficiency in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Clinical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing…

  18. Aiming to Complete the Matrix: Eye-Movement Analysis of Processing Strategies in Children's Relational Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhe; Honomichl, Ryan; Kennedy, Diane; Tan, Enda

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines 5- to 8-year-old children's relation reasoning in solving matrix completion tasks. This study incorporates a componential analysis, an eye-tracking method, and a microgenetic approach, which together allow an investigation of the cognitive processing strategies involved in the development and learning of children's…

  19. Collaboration in a Culturally Responsive Literacy Pedagogy: Educating Teachers and Latino Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Denise; Volk, Dinah

    2002-01-01

    Presents an analysis of collaboration in a community center's summer literacy tutoring program for 6-8-year-old children, the majority of whom were Puerto Rican, Spanish-English bilinguals. Notes that the goal of the program was to increase the children's motivation to read through engaging literacy activities with high quality, culturally…

  20. Personal and Contextual Contributors to Young Children's Activity-Based Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Elina; Järvelä, Sanna; Perry, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated personal and contextual influences to young children's perceived self-efficacy (SE) in social and independent learning situations. The participants were children (n = 24) 6-8 years old from four Finnish elementary school classrooms. First, teachers from each classroom were asked to rate their students' social competence…

  1. Children's Recognition of Fairness and Others' Welfare in a Resource Allocation Task: Age Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns,…

  2. Children's and Young People's Reading Today: Findings from the 2011 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This research was funded by law firm Slaughter and May and carried out with 21,000 children and young people across the UK. One of its key findings is that children and young people are reading less as their lives get more crowded. In 2005 the researchers found that four young people in 10 read daily outside of class. This research carried out at…

  3. Clinical Signs and Symptoms and Laboratory Findings of Methadone Poisoning in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Nouri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poisoning accounts for about 7% of all accidents in children under 5 years and is implicated in over 5% of all childhood deaths in developing countries. Objectives: Due to the potential risks of methadone poisoning in children and increased cases of methadone poisoning among Iranian children, this study was conducted to investigate the clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory findings of methadone toxicity in children. Patients and Methods: The present retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study describes the clinical symptoms and signs and laboratory findings of methadone poisoning in children under 12 years old in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, during the years 2009 to 2013. Results: Of 58 patients, 33 (56.9%) were male and 25 (43.1%) female (P = 0.294). The mean age of patients was 5.2 ± 1.0 years. All the cases of poisoning happened with methadone syrup, due to unsafe keeping of methadone in mineral water bottles and containers of other drugs. Signs and symptoms included drowsiness (91.4 %), miosis (75.9%), vomiting (69.0%), ineffective breathing (any kind of breathing problem except apnea) (62.1%), apnea (53.4%), cyanosis (43.1%), seizure (8.6%), ataxia (6.9%) and delirium (3.4%). Conclusions: Keeping methadone in appropriate containers and warning methadone consumers about the dangerous side effects of its consumption and the symptoms of methadone poisoning in children may minimize the occurrence of this form of poisoning and its complications in children. PMID:26199683

  4. MRI findings and sleep apnea in children with Chiari I malformation.

    PubMed

    Khatwa, Umakanth; Ramgopal, Sriram; Mylavarapu, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Smith, Edward; Proctor, Mark; Scott, Michael; Pai, Vidya; Zarowski, Marcin; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-04-01

    Chiari I malformation is characterized by downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Scant data are available on the clinical course, relationship to the extent of herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in Chiari I malformation and the presence of sleep-disordered breathing on polysomnography. Retrospective analysis was performed looking at polysomnographic findings of children diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. Details on how Chiari I malformation was diagnosed, brainstem magnetic resonance imaging findings, and indications for obtaining the polysomnogram in these patients were reviewed. We also reviewed available data on children who had decompression surgery followed by postoperative polysomnography findings. Twenty-two children were identified in our study (11 males, median age 10 years, range 1 to 18). Three had central sleep apnea, five had obstructive sleep apnea, and one had both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Children with sleep-disordered breathing had excessive crowding of the brainstem structures at the foramen magnum and were more likely to have a greater length of herniation compared with those children without sleep-disordered breathing (P = 0.046). Patients with central sleep apneas received surgical decompression, and their conditions were significantly improved on follow-up polysomnography. These data suggest that imaging parameters may correlate with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Chiari I malformation.

  5. Brief Report: Assessment of the Social-Emotional Profile in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using a Novel Comic Strip Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaratnam, Carmel S.; Cornish, Kim; Gray, Kylie M.; Howlin, Patricia; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the novel Comic Strip Task (CST) could be used to detect Theory-of-Mind impairments (ToM) in 4- to 8-year-old children with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Twelve children with either high-functioning autism or Asperger's Disorder and 12 typically-developing children completed the 21-item measure.…

  6. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings.

  7. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  8. Chronic illness and functional limitation in Ontario children: findings of the Ontario Child Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, D; Boyle, M H; Offord, D R; Szatmari, P; Rae-Grant, N I; Crawford, J; Byles, J

    1986-01-01

    The Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS) was based on interviews of 1869 Ontario families who were selected by means of a stratified, multistaged sampling method from the 1981 census of Canada. Its primary purpose was to determine the prevalence and distribution of mental health problems in Ontario children aged 4 to 16 years and their families, but it also allowed an estimate of other significant medical conditions and provided an overview of these children's use of health care, education and social services. Our results are based on questionnaire responses concerning 3294 children. Limitation of function without a chronic illness or medical condition was reported in 1.9%, the converse in 14.0%, and a chronic illness or medical condition with limitation of function in 3.7%. When the three groups are considered together, 19.6% of Ontario children had a chronic health problem. Children of lower socioeconomic status were much more likely to have chronic health problems. Overall, children with chronic health problems were more likely to use physician, special education, social and mental health services. These findings have implications for those who provide services for children, plan community programs or train professionals in caring for children. PMID:3756702

  9. The Subjective Well-Being of School Children. The First Findings from the Children's Worlds Study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Strózik, Dorota; Strózik, Tomasz; Szwarc, Krzysztof

    The paper presents the first findings of the children's subjective well-being survey in Poland, which was conducted among representative sample of over 3000 pupils aged 8, 10 and 12 years from Wielkopolska region in spring 2014. The study is a part of International Survey of Children's Well-being (ISCWeB) - Children's Worlds, developed by the International Society for Child Indicators (ISCI). The main purpose of the ISCWeB project is to gain a broad knowledge of children's lives, their relationships with family members and friends, daily activities, time use and, in particular, their own perceptions and evaluations of their well-being. A particular attention in this paper is paid to the children's subjective well-being including overall satisfaction with life, measured with use of different psychometric scales, eg. the single item scale on Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS) or the five-item Students Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS5). Along with overall well-being of the children, it is very important to study various domains of their well-being. In the paper we took into consideration children's evaluation of their five important life domains: family, school, friends, living environment and self.

  10. Bidirectional Interference between Timing and Concurrent Memory Processing in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattat, Anne-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of resources involved in duration processing in 5- and 8-year-olds. The children were asked to reproduce the duration of a visual or auditory stimulus. They performed this task either alone or concurrently with an executive task (Experiment 1) or with a digit or visuospatial memory task (Experiment 2). The…

  11. Toy-Based Programming and Childrens Knowledge of Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs, W. Jeffrey; Ryan, John

    This study explored children's play behavior as it may be influenced by a particular type of television programming, i.e., shows based on commercially available toys. Subjects were two groups of 5- to 6-year-old and 7- to 8-year-old boys who were exposed to a representative program, The Transformers, which features the Transformer toys. Exposure…

  12. Young Children's Memory for the Times of Personal Past Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Larkina, Marina; Burch, Melissa M.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Remembering the temporal information associated with personal past events is critical for autobiographical memory, yet we know relatively little about the development of this capacity. In the present research, we investigated temporal memory for naturally occurring personal events in 4-, 6-, and 8-year-old children. Parents recorded unique events…

  13. Audiovisual Integration in Noise by Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barutchu, Ayla; Danaher, Jaclyn; Crewther, Sheila G.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of multisensory facilitation in primary school-age children under conditions of auditory noise. Motor reaction times and accuracy were recorded from 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults during auditory, visual, and audiovisual detection tasks. Auditory signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 30-,…

  14. The Role of Relational Reasoning in Children's Addition Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Canobi, Katherine H.; Wood, Clare; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    The study addresses the relational reasoning of different-aged children and how addition reasoning is related to problem-solving skills within addition and to reasoning skills outside addition. Ninety-two 5- to 8-year-olds were asked to solve a series of conceptually related and unrelated addition problems, and the speed and accuracy of all…

  15. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N = 68)…

  16. Classificational Preference in Young Children: Form or Color?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Douglas Russell

    Reported is a study of classificational preference of 250 school children ranging in age from 3 to 8 years old. These subjects showed typical diversity in academic experiences and intellectual aptitudes. The research procedure involved presenting a subject with a set of colored paper shapes and asking him to sort the objects into subsets. The…

  17. Children's Ascriptions of Property Rights with Changes of Ownership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sunae; Kalish, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Ownership is not a "natural" property of objects, but is determined by human intentions. Facts about who owns what may be altered by appropriate decisions. However, young children often deny the efficacy of transfer decisions, asserting that original owners retain rights to their property. In Experiment 1, 4-5-year-old and 7-8-year-old children…

  18. Coordination of Executive Functions in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of 8-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual completed a complex classification task in which they made semantic judgments on stimuli that were presented either visually or auditorily. The task requires coordinating a variety of executive control components, specifically working memory, inhibition, and shifting. When each of…

  19. Young children's ability to recognize advertisements in web page designs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moondore; Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Blumberg, Fran

    2009-03-01

    Identifying what is, and what is not an advertisement is the first step in realizing that an advertisement is a marketing message. Children can distinguish television advertisements from programmes by about 5 years of age. Although previous researchers have investigated television advertising, little attention has been given to advertisements in other media, even though other media, especially the Internet, have become important channels of marketing to children. We showed children printed copies of invented web pages that included advertisements, half of which had price information, and asked the children to point to whatever they thought was an advertisement. In two experiments we tested a total of 401 children, aged 6, 8, 10 and 12 years of age, from the United Kingdom and Indonesia. Six-year-olds recognized a quarter of the advertisements, 8-year-olds recognized half the advertisements, and the 10- and 12-year-olds recognized about three-quarters. Only the 10- and 12-year-olds were more likely to identify an advertisement when it included a price. We contrast our findings with previous results about the identification of television advertising, and discuss why children were poorer at recognizing web page advertisements. The performance of the children has implications for theories about how children develop an understanding of advertising.

  20. Validating the Children's Behavior Questionnaire in Dutch Children: Psychometric Properties and a Cross-Cultural Comparison of Factor Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Candel, Math J. J. M.; De Vries, Nanne N. K.; Thijs, Carel

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examined the factorial validity of the Dutch translation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) and the Very Short Form scores. In addition, we conducted cross-cultural comparisons of temperament structure. In total, 353 parents of 6- to 8-year-olds completed the instrument. The original higher order factor structure of…

  1. Factors moderating children's adjustment to parental separation: findings from a community study in England.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Helen; Dunn, Judy; O'connor, Thomas G; Golding, Jean

    2006-04-01

    Research findings show that there is marked variability in children's response to parental separation, but few studies identify the sources of this variation. This prospective longitudinal study examines the factors modifying children's adjustment to parental separation in a community sample of 5,635 families in England. Children's behavioral/emotional problems were assessed when children were aged 47 and 81 months; marital quality, maternal depression, socioeconomic circumstances, and demographic variables were assessed prior to the separation from maternal report. Results indicated that 346 mothers separated from their partners in the 3-year period. Preseparation differences were found for measures of family process and parent risk factors, with effect sizes ranging from small to trivial. Parental separation was associated with a significant but modest increase in behavioral/emotional problems, independent of marital quality, maternal depression, socioeconomic circumstances, and demographic variables. Moderation analyses showed that children of cohabiting parents had a greater increase in adjustment problems following parental separation than children of married parents. Further research elucidating the factors that moderate children's adjustment to parental separation is needed to improve our understanding of who may most likely benefit from preventive interventions.

  2. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach – Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom’ teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. Results: The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development. PMID:27512323

  3. Normal Rates of Neuroradiological Findings in Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasa, Roma A.; Ranta, Marin; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Pinto, Pedro S.; Tillman, Rachael M.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to analyze highly specific volumetric and morphological features of the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, there are few comprehensive studies examining the prevalence of neuroradiologic findings seen on routine MRI scans in children with ASD. This study examined the…

  4. Self-Regulation across Different Contexts: Findings in Young Albanian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Uka, Fitim; Larsen, Ross A. A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The importance of self-regulation for children's successful academic performance has led to greatly increased interest in this topic in recent years. However, less is known about the interrelations among self-regulatory processes across different contexts. The present study investigated the structure of self-regulation in young…

  5. Evidence-based gender findings for children affected by HIV and AIDS — a systematic overview

    PubMed Central

    Sherr, Lorraine; Mueller, Joanne; Varrall, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This review (under the International Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS)provides a detailed evidence analysis of gender, children and AIDS. Six systematic reviews provide the most up to date evidence base on research surrounding children and HIV on key topics of treatment resistance and adherence, schooling, nutrition, cognitive development and orphaning and bereavement. Traditional systematic review techniques were used to identify all published studies on four key topics, then studies were selected according to adequacy criteria (sufficient size, control group and adequate measures). A gender analysis was performed on included studies, detailing whether gender was measured, results were analysed by gender or any gender-based findings. For family studies, both the gender of the parents and gender of the child are needed. Secondary analysis by gender was performed on existing systematic reviews for treatment resistance and adherence. Of the 12 studies on treatment resistance, 11 did not look at gender. One found boys at a seven-fold risk compared to girls. For medication adherence, gender was not significant. Of the 15 studies on schooling, 12 analysed findings by gender with an overall female disadvantage. Of the 14 studies on nutrition, nine analysed by gender with mixed findings. Of the 54 studies on cognitive development, 17 provided gender data, but only four analysed by gender with few differences established. Of the 15 studies on bereavement, seven analysed data by gender again with mixed findings. Major policies fail to provide gender data for young children. WHO, UNAIDS and the international data sets are not gathered or coded by gender for young children (generally under 15 years of age)despite well-established gender challenges in later life. This review shows that the current evidence base is inadequate. Data on gender variation and outcome are urgently needed to inform policy and research on children and HIV. PMID:22380982

  6. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  7. School-Based Interventions Targeting Challenging Behaviors Exhibited by Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Jose R.; Werch, Brittany L.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically examine and summarize the impact of school-based interventions designed to decrease challenging behaviors in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Reviewed studies employed a single-case experimental design, targeted challenging behaviors, included children 3-8 years old with ASD, and took…

  8. Perspective Taking: Knowledge of Level 1 and Level 2 Rules by Congenitally Blind, Low Vision, and Sighted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miletic, G.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the knowledge of Level 1 and Level 2 rules of perspective taking by 18 8-year-old children (either congenitally blind, congenitally low vision, or sighted). All children understood Level 1 rules; their knowledge of Level 2 rules (that a heterogeneously sided object will appear differently to viewers from different sides)…

  9. Getting Children to Do More Academic Work: Foot-in-the-Door versus Door-in-the-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Annie Cheuk-ying; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2011-01-01

    In this study we explored whether compliance-without-pressure techniques, known to encourage adults to behave more altruistically, can be used to encourage children to do more academic work. Using three different approaches--Foot-in-the-Door, Door-in-the-Face, and Single-Request--we asked 60 6- to 8-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children to complete…

  10. Sex-specific association between infant diet and white matter integrity in 8-y-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate brain white matter integrity in 8-year-old children who had predominant breast milk feeding or formula feeding as infants. Fifty-six healthy children were included in this study, including 22 breast-fed (BF, 12 females, 10 males) and 34 formula-fed (FF, 18 f...

  11. Methods of, and Reasons for, Emotional Expression and Control in Children with Internalizing, Externalizing, and Somatic Problems in Urban India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Martini, Tanya S.; Raval, Pratiksha H.

    2010-01-01

    Although cross-cultural research concerning children's emotions is growing, few studies have examined emotion dysregulation in culturally diverse populations. This study compared 6- to 8-year-old children's reported methods of expressing and controlling anger, sadness, and physical pain, and their justifications for doing so across four groups in…

  12. Asthma in children born after infertility treatment: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Carson, C.; Sacker, A.; Kelly, Y.; Redshaw, M.; Kurinczuk, J.J.; Quigley, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is asthma more common in children born after subfertility and assisted reproduction technologies (ART)? SUMMARY ANSWER Yes. Asthma, wheezing in the last year and anti-asthmatic medication were all more common in children born after a prolonged time to conception (TTC). This was driven specifically by an increase in children born after ART. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Few studies have investigated any association between ART and asthma in subsequent children, and findings to date have been mixed. A large registry-based study found an increase in asthma medication in ART children but suggests underlying infertility is the putative risk factor. Little is known about asthma in children after unplanned or mistimed conceptions. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Millennium Cohort Study is a UK-wide, prospective study of 18 818 children recruited at 9 months of age. Follow-up is ongoing. This study analyses data from follow-up surveys at 5 and 7 years of age (response rates of 79 and 70%, respectively). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Singleton children whose natural mothers provided follow-up data were included. Mothers reported whether their pregnancy was planned; planners provided TTC and details of any ART. The population was divided into ‘unplanned’ (unplanned and unhappy), ‘mistimed’ (unplanned but happy), ‘planned’ (planned, TTC < 12 months), ‘untreated subfertile’ (planned, TTC >12 months), ‘ovulation induced’ (received clomiphene citrate) and ‘ART’ (IVF or ICSI). The primary analysis used the planned children as the comparison group; secondary analysis compared the treatment groups to the children born to untreated subfertile parents. Outcomes were parent report of asthma and wheezing at 5 and 7 years, derived from validated questions in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, plus use of anti-asthmatic medications. A total of 13 041 (72%) children with full data on asthma and confounders were included

  13. Physical Examination Findings Among Children and Adolescents With Obesity: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Sarah; Lazorick, Suzanne; Hampl, Sarah; Skelton, Joseph A; Wood, Charles; Collier, David; Perrin, Eliana M

    2016-02-01

    Overweight and obesity affects 1 in 3 US children and adolescents. Clinical recommendations have largely focused on screening guidelines and counseling strategies. However, the physical examination of the child or adolescent with obesity can provide the clinician with additional information to guide management decisions. This expert-based review focuses on physical examination findings specific to children and adolescents with obesity. For each physical examination element, the authors define the finding and its prevalence among pediatric patients with obesity, discuss the importance and relevance of the finding, describe known techniques to assess severity, and review evidence regarding the need for additional evaluation. The recommendations presented represent a comprehensive review of current evidence as well as expert opinion. The goal of this review is to highlight the importance of conducting a targeted physical examination during pediatric weight management visits.

  14. GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS AFFECTING SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MERCURY NEUROTOXICITY IN CHILDREN: SUMMARY FINDINGS FROM THE CASA PIA CHILDREN's AMALGAM CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Woods, James S.; Heyer, Nicholas J.; Russo, Joan E.; Martin, Michael D.; Farin, Federico M.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic, and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic predisposition. We examined the possibility that common genetic variants that are known to affect neurologic functions or Hg handling in adults would modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Three hundred thirty subjects who participated as children in the recently completed Casa Pia Clinical Trial of Dental Amalgams in Children were genotyped for 27 variants of 13 genes that are reported to affect neurologic functions and/or Hg disposition in adults. Urinary Hg concentrations, reflecting Hg exposure from any source, served as the Hg exposure index. Regression modeling strategies were employed to evaluate potential associations between allelic status for individual genes or combinations of genes, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes assessed at baseline and for 7 subsequent years during the clinical trial. Among boys, significant modification of Hg effects on neurobehavioral outcomes over a broad range of neurologic domains was observed with variant genotypes for 4 of 13 genes evaluated. Modification of Hg effects on a more limited number of neurobehavioral outcomes was also observed for variants of another 8 genes. Cluster analyses suggested some genes interacting in common processes to affect Hg neurotoxicity. In contrast, significant modification of Hg effects on neurobehavioral functions among girls with the same genotypes was substantially more limited. These observations suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children, particularly boys, with genetic variants that are relatively common to the general human population. These findings advance public health goals to identify factors underlying susceptibility to Hg toxicity and may contribute to strategies for preventing

  15. Skeletal Findings in Children Recently Initiating Glucocorticoids for the Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Feber, J.; Gaboury, I.; Ni, A.; Alos, N.; Arora, S.; Bell, L.; Blydt-Hansen, T.; Clarson, C.; Filler, G.; Hay, J.; Hebert, D.; Lentle, B.; Matzinger, M.; Midgley, J.; Moher, D.; Pinsk, M.; Rauch, F.; Rodd, C.; Shenouda, N.; Siminoski, K.; Ward, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vertebral fractures are an under-recognized complication of childhood glucocorticoid-treated illnesses. Our goal was to study the relationship among glucocorticoid exposure, lumbar spine areal BMD (LS BMD) and vertebral shape in glucocorticoid-treated children with new-onset nephrotic syndrome. Methods Lateral thoracolumbar spine radiography and lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS BMD) were performed in 80 children with nephrotic syndrome (median age 4.4 years; 46 boys) within the first 37 days of glucocorticoid therapy. Genant semi-quantitative grading was used as the primary method for vertebral morphometry; the Algorithm-Based Qualitative (ABQ) method was used for secondary vertebral deformity analysis. Results Six of the 78 children with usable radiographs (8%; 95% confidence interval 4 to 16%) manifested a single Genant Grade 1 deformity each. All deformities were mild anterior wedging (2 at each of T6, T7 and T8). Four of the 78 children (5%; 95% confidence interval 2 to 13%) showed one ABQ sign of fracture each (loss of endplate parallelism; 2 children at T6 and 2 at T8). Two of the children with ABQ signs also had a Genant Grade 1 deformity in the same vertebral body. None of the children with a Genant or ABQ deformity reported back pain. An inverse relationship was identified between LS BMD Z-score and glucocorticoid exposure. Conclusions Although we identified an inverse relationship between steroid exposure and LS BMD soon after glucocorticoid initiation for childhood nephrotic syndrome, there was only a low rate of vertebral deformities. The clinical significance of these findings requires further study. PMID:21494860

  16. Voxel-based morphometry and fMRI revealed differences in brain gray matter in breastfed and milk formula–fed children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Purpose: Infant diets may have significant impact on brain development in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain grey matter structure and function in 8-year-old children who were predominantly breastfed (BF) or fed cow’s milk formula (MF) as infants. Materials and Me...

  17. Effects of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Intervention Principles in Emergent Literacy in Children at Risk of Developmental Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Tjus, Tomas; Hovden, Marit; Ofte, Sonja; Heimann, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on the effects of two different principles of intervention in children at risk of developing dyslexia from 5 to 8 years old. The children were selected on the basis of a background questionnaire given to parents and preschool teachers, with cognitive and functional magnetic resonance imaging results substantiating…

  18. Testing for Near and Far Transfer Effects with a Short, Face-to-Face Adaptive Working Memory Training Intervention in Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy A.; Messer, David J.; Nash, Gilly

    2014-01-01

    A relatively quick, face-to-face, adaptive working memory training intervention was assessed in 5-to 8-year-old typically developing children, randomly allocated to a 6-week intervention condition, or an active control condition. All children received 18 sessions of 10?minutes, three times/week for 6?weeks. Assessments of six working memory…

  19. Educating K-12 Professionals and Parents: Finding Health Information for Special Needs Children(.)

    PubMed

    Irish, D Elizabeth; Lyman, Deborah M; Squillace, Helen A; Geyer, Enid M; Cosgrove, Tammy D; Hagzan, Amanda; Leinung, Jill; Tosh, Traci

    2015-01-01

    A successful partnership model between an academic health sciences library and a K-12 school district to provide librarians, nurses, and special education staff with access to health information to support special needs children and their parents is presented. Train-the-trainer staff sessions and a parent session were collaboratively developed. Funding support was used to purchase iPads for librarians and nurses to deliver mobile support. The results indicate the resources taught are being used to find health information and the school librarians and nurses are being sought after to assist in finding health information. Positive feedback from the school district indicates this model could be replicated in similar settings.

  20. A Study of Arithmetical Problem Solving Abilities of Young Children through the Use of Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNicol, Shirley; And Others

    A study was conducted to: (1) observe through a case study approach the exploratory behavior exhibited by 8-year-old boys and girls when calculators were made available in problem-solving situations; (2) investigate changes that occur in the kinds of arithmetical problems children construct following the introduction of calculators; and (3)…

  1. Young Children's Ideas about the Nature, Causes, Justification, and Alleviation of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A.; Neitzel, Carin

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-four 8-year-old boys and girls from urban and rural settings and representing different races and socioeconomic status backgrounds responded to questions about the nature, causes, justification, and alleviation of poverty. Much of what the children said indicated that they had not yet internalized prevailing adult norms and values about the…

  2. Perspective-Taking Ability in Bilingual Children: Extending Advantages in Executive Control to Spatial Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Anastasia; Bellana, Buddhika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Monolingual and bilingual 8-year-olds performed a computerized spatial perspective-taking task. Children were asked to decide how an observer saw a four-block array from one of three different positions (90 degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees counter-clockwise from the child's position) by selecting one of four responses--the correct response,…

  3. "Who Is Worthy of My Generosity?" Recipient Characteristics and the Development of Children's Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Ongley, Sophia; Chaparro, Maria; Nola, Marta; Bae, Na Young

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the majority of 8-year-old children share valuable resources equally with others, whereas 4-year-olds are more likely to favor themselves in their sharing allocations. In this study, we examine whether these patterns of sharing behavior are affected by the needs of the recipient or by the recipient's previous moral…

  4. I Can Talk You into It: Theory of Mind and Persuasion Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Moore, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We investigated links between persuasive behavior and theory of mind (ToM) understanding using a novel naturalistic peer persuasion task in which children were invited to convince an interactive puppet to eat raw broccoli or brush his teeth. Sixty-three 3- to 8-year-olds (M age = 6 years, 6 months) took part in the persuasion task and were also…

  5. A New Look at Children's Understanding of Mind and Emotion: The Case of Prayer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Christi; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple methods were used to examine children's awareness of connections between emotion and prayer. Four-, 6-, and 8-year-olds and adults (N = 100) predicted whether people would pray when feeling different emotions, explained why characters in different situations decided to pray, and predicted whether characters' emotions would change after…

  6. Is Children's Naive Knowledge Consistent?: A Comparison of the Concepts of Sound and Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautrey, Jacques; Mazens, Karine

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed some light on the organization of naive knowledge, and on the process of conceptual change in everyday physics, more specifically regarding the concepts of sound and heat. Eighty-three 8-year-old children were interviewed individually in order to see if they attributed the properties of objects (such as…

  7. Creative Play Activities for Children with Disabilities: A Resource Book for Teachers and Parents. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lisa Rappaport; Schulz, Linda

    This book provides 250 games and activities designed to help infants to 8-year-olds with all types of disabilities grow through play. Many activities come with special adaptations for children with physical, visual, hearing, emotional, and cognitive impairments. Each chapter focuses on a particular "world" or activity theme. Topics of individual…

  8. Physical Activity of Children Ages 6-8: The Beginning of School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromel, Karel; Stelzer, Jiri; Groffik, Dorota; Ernest, James

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the physical activity (PA) levels of 6- to 8-year-old children over a seven-day period. The participants consisted of 35 girls and 36 boys in kindergarten and 113 girls and 131 boys in 1st grade. Physical activity (PA) is defined as "any body movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy expenditure"…

  9. Clostridium septicum gas gangrene in a previously healthy 8-year-old female with survival.

    PubMed

    Pinzon-Guzman, Carolina; Bashir, Dalia; McSherry, George; Beck, Michael J; Rocourt, Dorothy V

    2013-04-01

    We present the only reported case of an immunocompetent pediatric patient in the literature to have fulminate gas gangrene of the lower extremity and concomitant gastrointestinal tract infection due to Clostridium septicum coinfected with Clostridium difficile colitis respectively. The patient survived with aggressive medical and surgical treatment.

  10. AIDS orphans burden extended families. Zimbabwe survey finds that relatives struggle to care for surviving children.

    PubMed

    Mashumba, S

    1994-01-01

    The number of children in sub-Saharan Africa orphaned as a result of parental acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is currently estimated at 2 million and expected to reach 10 million by the year 2000. A survey conducted in Zimbabwe's Manicaland Province in 1991 indicated that 6.8% of children up to 14 years of age had lost one or both parents to the AIDS virus. A follow-up study conducted in 1992 in a random sample of 250 urban and 250 rural households in this province found that 11% contained orphaned children; 80% had lost their father and 20% their mother. These children were being cared for by widowed mothers, aunts, sisters, or grandmothers. A third of caretakers were under 20 years old, while 20% were over 50 years of age. Compared to households with no orphans in residence, these households had lower incomes, worse living conditions, less access to medical care and education, and poorer food consumption. On the basis of these findings, nongovernmental organizations are designing programs to help caretaker households and communities cope with the stresses of care of AIDS orphans.

  11. Systematic Review of Structural and Functional Neuroimaging Findings in Children and Adults with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, Kathryn A.; Detre, John A.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herrington, John D.; Davatzikos, Christos; Doshi, Jimit J.; Erus, Guray; Liu, Hua-Shan; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary CKD has been linked with cognitive deficits and affective disorders in multiple studies. Analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging in adults and children with kidney disease may provide additional important insights into the pathobiology of this relationship. This paper comprehensively reviews neuroimaging studies in both children and adults. Major databases (PsychLit, MEDLINE, WorldCat, ArticleFirst, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE) were searched using consistent search terms, and studies published between 1975 and 2012 were included if their samples focused on CKD as the primary disease process. Exclusion criteria included case reports, chapters, and review articles. This systematic process yielded 43 studies for inclusion (30 in adults, 13 in children). Findings from this review identified several clear trends: (1) presence of cerebral atrophy and cerebral density changes in patients with CKD; (2) cerebral vascular disease, including deep white matter hyperintensities, white matter lesions, cerebral microbleeds, silent cerebral infarction, and cortical infarction, in patients with CKD; and (3) similarities in regional cerebral blood flow between patients with CKD and those with affective disorders. These findings document the importance of neuroimaging procedures in understanding the effect of CKD on brain structure, function, and associated behaviors. Results provide a developmental linkage between childhood and adulthood, with respect to the effect of CKD on brain functioning across the lifespan, with strong implications for a cerebrovascular mechanism contributing to this developmental linkage. Use of neuroimaging methods to corroborate manifest neuropsychological deficits or perhaps to indicate preventive actions may prove useful to individuals with CKD. PMID:23723341

  12. Systematic review of structural and functional neuroimaging findings in children and adults with CKD.

    PubMed

    Moodalbail, Divya G; Reiser, Kathryn A; Detre, John A; Schultz, Robert T; Herrington, John D; Davatzikos, Christos; Doshi, Jimit J; Erus, Guray; Liu, Hua-Shan; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L; Hooper, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    CKD has been linked with cognitive deficits and affective disorders in multiple studies. Analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging in adults and children with kidney disease may provide additional important insights into the pathobiology of this relationship. This paper comprehensively reviews neuroimaging studies in both children and adults. Major databases (PsychLit, MEDLINE, WorldCat, ArticleFirst, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE) were searched using consistent search terms, and studies published between 1975 and 2012 were included if their samples focused on CKD as the primary disease process. Exclusion criteria included case reports, chapters, and review articles. This systematic process yielded 43 studies for inclusion (30 in adults, 13 in children). Findings from this review identified several clear trends: (1) presence of cerebral atrophy and cerebral density changes in patients with CKD; (2) cerebral vascular disease, including deep white matter hyperintensities, white matter lesions, cerebral microbleeds, silent cerebral infarction, and cortical infarction, in patients with CKD; and (3) similarities in regional cerebral blood flow between patients with CKD and those with affective disorders. These findings document the importance of neuroimaging procedures in understanding the effect of CKD on brain structure, function, and associated behaviors. Results provide a developmental linkage between childhood and adulthood, with respect to the effect of CKD on brain functioning across the lifespan, with strong implications for a cerebrovascular mechanism contributing to this developmental linkage. Use of neuroimaging methods to corroborate manifest neuropsychological deficits or perhaps to indicate preventive actions may prove useful to individuals with CKD.

  13. Ferritin Levels in Colombian Children: Findings from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey (ENSIN)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martínez-Torres, Javier; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Low ferritin is associated with many adverse health outcomes and is highly prevalent worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the key findings related to plasma ferritin levels to identify the prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in a representative sample of children in Colombia, based on the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6650 Colombian children between the ages of 5 and 12. Plasma ferritin levels were determined by chemiluminescence. Sociodemographic data was assessed by computer-assisted personal interview technology. All analyses were conducted considering the complex nature of the sample. Of the children assessed, 3.5% had low ferritin, defined as levels <12 µg/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed increased risks for low ferritin levels among black or Afro-Colombian ethnic group and for those living in the northern, western and southern regions of the country. In conclusion, a significant prevalence of anemia caused by low ferritin levels was found and various sociodemographic factors were associated with this finding in Colombia. Continued surveillance and implementation of interventions to improve dietary patterns among the identified high-risk groups should be considered. Implementing these recommendations can help reduce manifestations of iron deficiency (e.g., delays in infant and child development) and thus improve public health. PMID:27058547

  14. [Neurological findings in a group of children and adolescents exposed and infected by HIV-1].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristiane; Gouvêa, Aída; Machado, Daisy; Cunegundes, Kelly; Beltrão, Suênia; Bononi, Fabiana; Succi, Regina Célia

    2005-09-01

    The CNS infection by HIV-1 in infancy could be present immediately after infection or became manifest later. Microcephalia, mental retardation, pyramidal signs, humor and behavioral disorders and antiretroviral therapy complications are common. This is an observational, sectional and descriptive study about findings on neurological examination of 173 patients in a group of children and adolescents infected and exposed to HIV-1 in perinatal period. Most of them had more than one neurological finding or different diagnosis. The more common findings were: encephalopathy, mental retardation, language delay, pyramidal signs, hyporeflexia. The neurological examination was abnormal in 67% of all patients even in seroreverters. We suggest that this group has a high risk to neurological disease and the development of co-morbidity is directly correlated to clinical deterioration by HIV-1 infection.

  15. Collaboration promotes proportional reasoning about resource distribution in young children.

    PubMed

    Ng, Rowena; Heyman, Gail D; Barner, David

    2011-09-01

    The authors investigated how children and adults evaluate the "niceness" of individuals who engage in resource distribution, with a focus on their sensitivity to the proportion of resources given. Across 3 experiments, subjects evaluated the niceness of a child who gave a quantity of pennies to another child. In Study 1 (N = 30), adults showed sensitivity to the proportion given, whereas 5- and 7-year-old children did not. In Study 2 (N = 74), both younger (3- to 5-year-old) and older (6- to 8-year-old) children were sensitive to proportion only when resources were earned by a giver in collaboration with the recipient rather than by the giver alone. Adults, however, were sensitive to proportion in both cases. In Study 3 (N = 44), the authors tested 5- and 6-year-olds and their parents to be sure that socioeconomic and ethnic differences between samples did not drive results and replicated key findings from Studies 1 and 2. Together, these findings indicate that children favor proportional resource distribution in situations that invoke intuitions about equity. The authors suggest that these intuitions may form the basis for adult notions of fairness and generosity.

  16. Vestibular Migraine in Children and Adolescents: Clinical Findings and Laboratory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Langhagen, Thyra; Lehrer, Nicole; Borggraefe, Ingo; Heinen, Florian; Jahn, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common cause of episodic vertigo in children. We summarize the clinical findings and laboratory test results in a cohort of children and adolescents with VM. We discuss the limitations of current classification criteria for dizzy children. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 118 children with migraine related vertigo at a tertiary care center. Patients were grouped in the following categories: (1) definite vestibular migraine (dVM); (2) probable vestibular migraine (pVM); (3) suspected vestibular migraine (sVM); (4) benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV); and (5) migraine with/without aura (oM) plus vertigo/dizziness according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Results: The mean age of all patients was 12 ± 3 years (range 3–18 years, 70 females). 36 patients (30%) fulfilled criteria for dVM, 33 (28%) for pVM, 34 (29%) for sVM, 7 (6%) for BPV, and 8 (7%) for oM. Somatoform vertigo (SV) co-occurred in 27% of patients. Episodic syndromes were reported in 8%; the family history of migraine was positive in 65%. Mild central ocular motor signs were found in 24% (most frequently horizontal saccadic pursuit). Laboratory tests showed that about 20% had pathological function of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex, and almost 50% had abnormal postural sway patterns. Conclusion: Patients with definite, probable, and suspected VM do not differ in the frequency of ocular motor, vestibular, or postural abnormalities. VM is the best explanation for their symptoms. It is essential to establish diagnostic criteria in clinical studies. In clinical practice, however, the most reasonable diagnosis should be made in order to begin treatment. Such a procedure also minimizes the fear of the parents and children, reduces the need to interrupt leisure time and school activities, and prevents the development of SV. PMID:25674076

  17. Relationships between children's exposure to ethnic produce and their dietary behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Zhao, Yanling

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined relationships between children's ethnic produce exposure and healthy dietary practices among Latino, Hmong and non-Hispanic white children. One hundred Latino, 100 Hmong, and 92 non-Hispanic white parents of children ages 5-8 years old in northern California completed a cross-sectional survey. Children's exposure to ethnic produce from Hmong and Latino cultures, overall fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food and ethnic restaurant use were measured. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare variables across different ethnic groups. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between variables. Children's overall ethnic produce exposure, as well as exposure to produce from other cultures, was significantly correlated with overall fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a marginal (p = 0.053) negative association between ethnic produce exposure and fast food restaurant use among Latino children. These findings suggest that promoting ethnic produce is an effective strategy for enhancing healthy dietary practices among children.

  18. Parents' Education Shapes, but Does Not Originate, the Disability Representations of Their Children.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Fabio; Federici, Stefano; Dennis, John Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested whether children's disability representations are influenced by cultural variables (e.g., social activities, parent education, custom complex variables) or by cognitive constraints. Four questionnaires were administered to a sample of 76 primary school aged children and one of their parents (n = 152). Questionnaires included both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The open-ended questions were created to collect uncensored personal explanations of disability, whereas the closed-ended questions were designed to elicit a response of agreement for statements built on the basis of the three most widespread disability models: individual, social, and biopsychosocial. For youngest children (6-8 years old), people with disabilities are thought of as being sick. This early disability representation of children is consistent with the individual model of disability and independent from parents' disability explanations and representations. As children grow older (9-11 years old), knowledge regarding disability increases and stereotypical beliefs about disability decrease, by tending to espouse their parents representations. The individual model remains in the background for the adults too, emerging when the respondents rely on their most immediately available mental representation of disability such as when they respond to an open-ended question. These findings support that the youngest children are not completely permeable to social representations of disability likely due to cognitive constraints. Nevertheless, as the age grows, children appear educable on perspectives of disability adhering to a model of disability representation integral with social context and parent perspective.

  19. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  20. Winning Ways To Learn, Ages, 6,7 & 8: 600 Great Ideas for Children. Goddard Parenting Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.; Stetson, Charlotte; Marsden, Dorothea B.

    Noting that parents have the opportunity to help their children build a strong foundation for learning, this book shows parents of 6- to 8-year-olds how to make learning and discovery fun while developing positive learning attributes and building a bridge between home and school. The book contains 600 creative and low-cost activities, based on the…

  1. Once in Contact, Always in Contact: Contagious Essence and Conceptions of Purification in American and Hindu Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejmadi, Ahalya; Rozin, Paul; Siegal, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Cultural and age differences in responses to contamination and conceptions of purification were examined in Hindu Indian (N = 125) and American (N = 106) 4- to 5-year-olds and 8-year-olds, who were provided with stories of juice contaminated by contact with a cockroach, a human hair, and a stranger (via sipping). Children who rejected the juice as…

  2. Choosing Play Materials for Primary School Children (Ages 6-8). NAEYC Resources in Focus: Selected Excerpts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronson, Martha B.

    2003-01-01

    Presents guidelines for selecting materials for 6- to 8-year-olds in primary school settings involved in four categories of play: social and fantasy play; exploration and mastery play; music, art, and movement play; and gross motor play. Asserts that providing a variety of materials for children's independent activities pursued alone or with peers…

  3. Tympanometric Findings among Children with Adenoid Hypertrophy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Chibuike; Uju Ibekwe, Mathilda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is a common childhood disorder. Adenoid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME). The aim of this study is to critically appraise the tympanometric finding among children with adenoid hypertrophy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methodology. A Prospective, controlled study carried out among newly diagnosed cases of adenoid hypertrophy at the ENT clinic of the UPTH, between November 2014 and June 2015. Tympanometry was done on each child and each ear was considerably studied as a single entity. Types B and C tympanograms were used as indicators of OME. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. Sixty-eight cases of adenoid hypertrophy were seen within the study period and 136 ears were studied. Forty (29.4%) ears had type B tympanogram, while 36 (26.5%) ears had type C. The incidence of OME was 55.9%; there were 12 (17.6%) unilateral OME, while bilateral OME was 32 (47.1%). Grade 3 AH was prevalent and was statistically significant with the OME. Conclusion. This study had shown adenoidal hypertrophy as a significant risk factor for OME in children. There was more bilateral OME than unilateral. The more severe grade of AH was more prevalent and it was shown to be statistically significant with OME, thus being a significant risk factor for OME in children. This establishes the need for prompt hearing evaluation and management. PMID:27563311

  4. Factors and processes in children's transitive deductions

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barlow C.; Smailes, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Transitive tasks are important for understanding how children develop socio-cognitively. However, developmental research has been restricted largely to questions surrounding maturation. We asked 6-, 7- and 8-year-olds (N = 117) to solve a composite of five different transitive tasks. Tasks included conditions asking about item-C (associated with the marked relation) in addition to the usual case of asking only about item-A (associated with the unmarked relation). Here, children found resolving item-C much easier than resolving item-A, a finding running counter to long-standing assumptions about transitive reasoning. Considering gender perhaps for the first time, boys exhibited higher transitive scores than girls overall. Finally, analysing in the context of one recent and well-specified theory of spatial transitive reasoning, we generated the prediction that reporting the full series should be easier than deducing any one item from that series. This prediction was not upheld. We discuss amendments necessary to accommodate all our earlier findings. PMID:26635950

  5. Educating K-12 Professionals and Parents: Finding Health Information for Special Needs Children*, †

    PubMed Central

    Irish, D. Elizabeth; Lyman, Deborah M.; Squillace, Helen A.; Geyer, Enid M.; Cosgrove, Tammy D.; Hagzan, Amanda; Leinung, Jill; Tosh, Traci

    2014-01-01

    A successful partnership model between an academic health sciences library and a K-12 school district to provide librarians, nurses, and special education staff with access to health information to support special needs children and their parents is presented. Train-the-trainer staff sessions and a parent session were collaboratively developed. Funding support was used to purchase iPads for librarians and nurses to deliver mobile support. The results indicate the resources taught are being used to find health information and the school librarians and nurses are being sought after to assist in finding health information. Positive feedback from the school district indicates this model could be replicated in similar settings. PMID:25983666

  6. In courtroom 7--the Children's Koori Court at work: findings from an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Allan

    2011-10-01

    This article reports some of the findings of an evaluation of the Children's Koori Court (CKC)--the first legislated effort in Australia to involve the Indigenous community in the sentencing of young Aboriginal offenders as a strategy for reducing their overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system. A prominent feature of this court of summary jurisdiction is that the presiding magistrate, while remaining the sentencing authority, is assisted by Aboriginal Elders. This article focuses on the evaluation findings that were derived from observations of the CKC in action. They indicate that the operational objective of cultural responsiveness was realized. They also point to realization of the community-building goal-fostering Indigenous ownership of the administration of the law. Little slippage was found between the CKC's design and operation, although some areas of improvement were identified. Nevertheless, the scope for the CKC by itself to significantly reduce overrepresentation is limited.

  7. Thyroid Ultrasound Findings in Children from Three Japanese Prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi and Nagasaki

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Otsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Due to the likelihood of physical and mental health impacts following the unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey to assist in the long-term health management of residents. This included thyroid ultrasound examination for all children in Fukushima. For appropriate evaluation of ultrasound screening of the thyroid, it is important to understand its reference data of thyroid findings in children in general. In order to analyze the frequencies of specific thyroid findings, we conducted ultrasound screening of the thyroid by the same procedures as used in Fukushima in 4,365 children, aged 3 to 18 years, from three Japanese prefectures. Overall, thyroid cysts were identified in 56.88% and thyroid nodules in 1.65% of the participants. Thyroid cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm were identified in 4.58% and 1.01%, respectively, and age-adjusted prevalences were 3.82% and 0.99%, respectively. Although the prevalence of cysts and nodules varied among the examination areas, no significant differences were observed among the three examination areas in the prevalence of cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm. Also, the prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, especially those with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm, significantly increased with age, and showed a female predominance. We also identified ectopic thymus (1.95%), diffuse goiter (1.40%), ultimobranchial body (0.73%), lymph node swelling (0.21%) and thyroid agenesis (0.05%). This is the first ultrasound description of the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, or of the prevalence of abnormalities other than cysts and nodules, such as ectopic thymus, in relation to age, in the general Japanese child population. We contend that this can provide relevant information for the Fukushima Health Management Survey and future population

  8. Thyroid ultrasound findings in children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Otsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Due to the likelihood of physical and mental health impacts following the unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey to assist in the long-term health management of residents. This included thyroid ultrasound examination for all children in Fukushima. For appropriate evaluation of ultrasound screening of the thyroid, it is important to understand its reference data of thyroid findings in children in general. In order to analyze the frequencies of specific thyroid findings, we conducted ultrasound screening of the thyroid by the same procedures as used in Fukushima in 4,365 children, aged 3 to 18 years, from three Japanese prefectures. Overall, thyroid cysts were identified in 56.88% and thyroid nodules in 1.65% of the participants. Thyroid cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm were identified in 4.58% and 1.01%, respectively, and age-adjusted prevalences were 3.82% and 0.99%, respectively. Although the prevalence of cysts and nodules varied among the examination areas, no significant differences were observed among the three examination areas in the prevalence of cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm. Also, the prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, especially those with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm, significantly increased with age, and showed a female predominance. We also identified ectopic thymus (1.95%), diffuse goiter (1.40%), ultimobranchial body (0.73%), lymph node swelling (0.21%) and thyroid agenesis (0.05%). This is the first ultrasound description of the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, or of the prevalence of abnormalities other than cysts and nodules, such as ectopic thymus, in relation to age, in the general Japanese child population. We contend that this can provide relevant information for the Fukushima Health Management Survey and future population

  9. Meaning, Value and Engagement in the Arts: Findings from a Participatory Investigation of Young Australian Children's Perceptions of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Margaret S.; Everett, Michele C.; Smigiel, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a 2-year Australian study that explored children's perceptions of the meaning and value of the arts, and accounts of their engagement in arts activities in school and youth arts settings. The research also aimed to develop data generation methods sensitive to the ways children communicate and make meaning. The 570…

  10. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  11. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B; Samuel, Priscilla

    2005-08-07

    The relationship between breakfast composition and cognitive performance was examined in elementary school children. Two experiments compared the effects of two common U.S. breakfast foods and no breakfast on children's cognition. Using a within-participant design, once a week for 3 weeks, children consumed one of two breakfasts or no breakfast and then completed a battery of cognitive tests. The two breakfasts were instant oatmeal and ready-to-eat cereal, which were similar in energy, but differed in macronutrient composition, processing characteristics, effects on digestion and metabolism, and glycemic score. Results with 9 to 11 year-olds replicated previous findings showing that breakfast intake enhances cognitive performance, particularly on tasks requiring processing of a complex visual display. The results extend previous findings by showing differential effects of breakfast type. Boys and girls showed enhanced spatial memory and girls showed improved short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Results with 6 to 8 year-olds also showed effects of breakfast type. Younger children had better spatial memory and better auditory attention and girls exhibited better short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Due to compositional differences in protein and fiber content, glycemic scores, and rate of digestion, oatmeal may provide a slower and more sustained energy source and consequently result in cognitive enhancement compared to low-fiber high glycemic ready-to-eat cereal. These results have important practical implications, suggesting the importance of what children consume for breakfast before school.

  12. Children at risk: predictors of car safety seat misuse in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Anne W; Hussein, Abdulkadir A; Ahmed, S Ejaz

    2008-07-01

    When used correctly, child safety seats can reduce the risk of death and serious injury by 54% in toddlers and 71% in infants [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 2001. Traffic Safety Facts 2001. Children (DOT HS 809 471), U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC]. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict correct use of car safety seats. The study was conducted in a large urban area in Southwestern Ontario and a small urban and rural area in Northern Ontario. Participants were 1263 caregivers who completed a self-report survey on their knowledge and use of car safety seats for their children (N=2199). Logistic regression analysis revealed that female caregivers, caregivers with higher levels of education, and caregivers who reported that finding information about the correct use of child safety seats was "difficult" were more likely to report correctly using car safety seats. The results also showed that children aged 7 months to 8 years old had substantially lower odds of being in the correct car safety seat compared to children aged 6 months or younger, or children aged 9 years or older. The high risk nature of misuse of child seats for infants and younger children may be an important cue to action for health professionals to develop comprehensive prevention strategies.

  13. Increasing children's consumption of fruit and vegetables: does the type of exposure matter?

    PubMed

    Osborne, Chelsea L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2012-06-06

    This study sought to determine how eight days of home exposure to information about healthful foods and eating behaviors in the form of children's books and a variety of fruit and vegetables interacted to affect 4- to 8-year-old children's (N=59) consumption of fruit and vegetables. Before and after the home exposure, children participated in a task in which their consumption of a variety of fruit and vegetables that ranged in familiarity was measured. Results indicated that exposure to food and books were both effective at increasing consumption of fruit, but not vegetables. Additionally, children who were exposed to books consumed more of an infrequently consumed fruit presented during the post-test, but only if they had not been exposed to food during the home exposure. Overall, children's fruit consumption increased more if their mothers did not pressure them to eat, and those who were less neophobic were more likely to try a novel fruit or vegetable during the post-test. These findings suggest that information and food variety both can be effective for increasing acceptance of fruit, and highlight the need for more research that investigates the efficacy of intervention strategies that promote vegetable consumption in young children.

  14. Parents’ Education Shapes, but Does Not Originate, the Disability Representations of Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Fabio; Federici, Stefano; Dennis, John Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested whether children’s disability representations are influenced by cultural variables (e.g., social activities, parent education, custom complex variables) or by cognitive constraints. Four questionnaires were administered to a sample of 76 primary school aged children and one of their parents (n = 152). Questionnaires included both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The open-ended questions were created to collect uncensored personal explanations of disability, whereas the closed-ended questions were designed to elicit a response of agreement for statements built on the basis of the three most widespread disability models: individual, social, and biopsychosocial. For youngest children (6–8 years old), people with disabilities are thought of as being sick. This early disability representation of children is consistent with the individual model of disability and independent from parents’ disability explanations and representations. As children grow older (9–11 years old), knowledge regarding disability increases and stereotypical beliefs about disability decrease, by tending to espouse their parents representations. The individual model remains in the background for the adults too, emerging when the respondents rely on their most immediately available mental representation of disability such as when they respond to an open-ended question. These findings support that the youngest children are not completely permeable to social representations of disability likely due to cognitive constraints. Nevertheless, as the age grows, children appear educable on perspectives of disability adhering to a model of disability representation integral with social context and parent perspective. PMID:26053585

  15. What children recall about a repeated event when one instance is different from the others.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Deborah A; Gordon, Heidi M; Woiwod, Dayna M; Price, Heather L

    2016-07-01

    This research examined whether a memorable and unexpected change (deviation details) presented during 1 instance of a repeated event facilitated children's memory for that instance and whether a repeated event facilitated children's memory for deviation details. In Experiments 1 and 2, 8-year-olds (N = 167) watched 1 or 4 live magic shows. Children were interviewed about the last or only show, which did or did not contain deviation details. Children reported more accurate information about the instance when deviation details were presented than when they were not, but repeated experience did not improve memory for deviation details. In Experiment 3, children (N = 145; 6- to 11-year-olds) participated in 4 magic shows and answered questions about each one. Deviation details were manipulated such that they caused a change in how the show was experienced (continuous) or had no such effect on the rest of the show (discrete). Younger, but not older, children's recall of all instances improved when a continuous deviation occurred compared to no deviation. Implications for how deviation details are represented in memory, as well as forensic applications of the findings, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Teachers of Children Who Are Partially Seeing: A Report Based on the Findings from the Study "Qualification and Preparation of Teachers of Exceptional Children". Bulletin, 1956, No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Romaine P.; Cohoe, Edith

    1956-01-01

    This bulletin is one of a series reporting on the nationwide study, "Qualification and Preparation of Teachers of Exceptional Children," which for the past 3 years has been a major project of the Office of Education. The findings in this study that have bearing on the qualifications of teachers of partially seeing children are reported in this…

  17. Validation of pharyngeal findings on sleep nasopharyngoscopy in children with snoring/sleep disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To validate the pharyngeal findings in sleep nasopharyngoscopy (SNP) of children with snoring - sleep disordered breathing (S-SDB). Design Prospective agreement diagnostic study on retrospective data. Methods We conducted an inter-and intra-rater agreement study on video documentations of SNP performed on children (non-syndromic, complex, or operated upon) who presented with S-SDB. The videos featured various pharyngeal findings (normal, collapse, mixed or obstruction). Three ‘non-expert’ raters at various stages in their otolaryngological careers rated the videos independently, and on two separate occasions following an instructional session. We calculated both weighted and non-weighted linear kappa. Results Each independent observer rated sixty-one videos (2 weeks apart). Intra-observer agreement was 0.64 ± 0.08 (95% CI 0.48-0.81), 0.74 ± 0.07 (95% CI 0.60-0.88), 0.59 ± 0.08 (95% CI 0.43-0.74), for raters 1, two and three. Weighted kappa was 0.6 ± 0.1 (95% CI 0.41-0.79), 0.8 ± 0.06 (95% CI 0.7-0.92), 0.7 ± 0.07 (95% CI 0.57-0.83), respectively. Inter-rater agreements between raters one and two, two and three, three and four were 0.83 ± 0.06 (95% CI 0.71-0.95), 0.52 ± 0.08 (95% CI 0.36-0.70), and 0.53 ± 0.08 (95% CI 0.37-0.69), respectively. Weighted kappa was 0.83 ± 0.073 (95% CI 0.69-0.98), 0.68 ± 0.06 (95% CI 0.56-0.79), and 0.64 ± 0.07 (95% CI 0.49-0.78), respectively. Conclusions This is the first validation of pharyngeal findings on SNP in children. It is based on a four types’ classification. Overall reproducibility amongst the three raters and their agreement was moderate to good. Further work should be phase four trials investigating the impact on outcome. PMID:24919758

  18. Is the Syntax Development of Dysphasic Children Deviant and Why? New Findings to an Old Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Hannelore; Weinert, Sabine

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of dysphasic children (N=8) with control children found that the dysphasic children's language development was both delayed and deviant, and that the children's deviant syntax structures were the result of insufficient language processing and could not be traced back to structural characteristics of the sentences used by their mothers.…

  19. Eye tracking indices of attentional bias in children of depressed mothers: Polygenic influences help to clarify previous mixed findings.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max; Harrison, Ashley J; Burkhouse, Katie L; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Palmer, Rohan H C; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-05-01

    Information-processing biases may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depression. There is growing evidence that children of depressed mothers exhibit attentional biases for sad faces. However, findings are mixed as to whether this bias reflects preferential attention toward, versus attentional avoidance of, sad faces, suggesting the presence of unmeasured moderators. To address these mixed findings, we focused on the potential moderating role of genes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Participants included children (8-14 years old) of mothers with (n = 81) and without (n = 81) a history of depression. Eye movements were recorded while children passively viewed arrays of angry, happy, sad, and neutral faces. DNA was obtained from buccal cells. Children of depressed mothers exhibited more sustained attention to sad faces than did children of nondepressed mothers. However, it is important that this relation was moderated by children's genotype. Specifically, children of depressed mothers who carried reactive genotypes across the corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CHRH1) TAT haplotype and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) rs1360780 (but not the solute carrier family C6 member 4 [SLC6A4] of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region [5-HTTLPR]) exhibited less sustained attention to sad faces and more sustained attention to happy faces. These findings highlight the role played by specific genetic influences and suggest that previous mixed findings may have been due to genetic heterogeneity across the samples.

  20. Prevalence and Functioning of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Four Areas of the United States in 2006: A Report from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Russell S.; Wingate, Martha S.; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Doernberg, Nancy S.; Arneson, Carrie L.; Benedict, Ruth E.; Mulvihill, Beverly; Durkin, Maureen S.; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Maenner, Matthew J.; Patz, Jean A.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) and the frequency of co-occurring developmental disabilities (DDs), gross motor function (GMF), and walking ability using the largest surveillance DD database in the US. Methods: We conducted population-based surveillance of 8-year-old children in 2006 (N = 142,338), in areas of Alabama,…

  1. Brief Report: The Prevalence of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilder, Deborah A.; Bakian, Amanda V.; Stevenson, David A.; Carbone, Paul S.; Cunniff, Christopher; Goodman, Alyson B.; McMahon, William M.; Fisher, Nicole P.; Viskochil, David

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The frequency of ASD/NF1 co-occurrence has been subject to debate since the 1980s. This relationship was investigated in a large population-based sample of 8-year-old children identified with…

  2. Parental predictors of children's animal abuse: findings from a national and intergenerational sample.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kelly E; Ellis, Colter; Simmons, Sara B

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the intra- and intergenerational links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal abuse by analyzing a national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,614 individuals collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study from 1990 to 2004. Using multilevel random-intercept regression modeling, parents' own history of animal abuse is predictive of their later involvement in IPV perpetration and victimization, net of important controls. In turn, parents' IPV violent perpetration (but not violent victimization) is predictive of their children's history of animal abuse-measured 14 years later. Intergenerational continuity of animal abuse, however, is not significant. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are the study's limitations, and future research directions.

  3. [Ultrasound-guided central venous access in adults and children: Procedure and pathological findings].

    PubMed

    Scheiermann, P; Seeger, F H; Breitkreutz, R

    2010-01-01

    Central venous line placement is a standard procedure in critical care and peri-operative medicine. This procedure can be associated with severe complications. In contrast to the landmark technique, ultrasound-guided punctures can significantly reduce the rate of complications. Patients with a high risk for difficult vascular access include critical care and emergency patients as well as patients on anticoagulation medication and dialysis. Placement of central venous catheters can be difficult in ventilated patients and if there has been prior surgery in the puncture area. In children and small infants central venous access can also be challenging due to the anatomical relationship in the head and neck region. Puncture techniques are explained briefly by means of ultrasound anatomy. Typical ultrasonographic images visualize pathological findings in order to identify dangers and complications in central venous catheterization.

  4. Neutropenic enterocolitis in children and young adults with cancer: prognostic value of clinical and image findings.

    PubMed

    Rizzatti, Marcelo; Brandalise, Silvia Regina; de Azevedo, Amilcar Cardoso; Pinheiro, Vitória Régia Pereira; Aguiar, Simone dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Intensive chemotherapy regimens can result in severe toxicities, particularly those that involve the digestive systems, leading to morbidity and mortality in this group of patients. Acute enterocolitis can be a frequent complication. The authors performed a retrospective review or patients treated at their institution to ascertain the prognostic value of the clinical symptoms and signs of acute enterocolitis, the corresponding abdominal ultrasonographic findings, and the impact of previous chemotherapy. Amongst 1159 patients with cancer treated at the Centro Infantil Boldrini from 2003 to 2007, 188 (16.2%) patients had 1 or more episode of enterocolitis. An intestinal wall thickness of >or=3 mm on ultrasound was considered diagnostic of enterocolitis. There were 231 episodes of enterocolitis with a death rate of 11.7%. Previous therapy with cytarabine and the presence of abdominal distention affected survival. An intestinal wall thickness of >or=10 mm in the ultrasonographic examination was associated with greater mortality. In multivariate analysis, age, gender, tumor type, degree of neutropenia, intestinal wall thickness, and number of intestinal segments were not statistically significant difference. In children and young adults with cancer and enterocolitis, the clinical findings of 4 or more symptoms and presence of abdominal distention were associated with higher risk of death. Use of cytarabine and an intestinal wall thickness of >or=10 mm were associated with a higher death rate.

  5. Evaluation of neurological and cardiological findings in carbonmonoxide poisoning in children

    PubMed Central

    Boztepe, Hatice; Yalaki, Zahide; Bilge, Yıldız Dallar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the relation of blood carboxyhemoglobin level with presentation finding and clinical properties and to demonstrate neurological and cardiological findings which are indicators of tissue hypoxia in patients followed up because of carbonmonoxide (CO) poisoning. Material and Methods: Three hundred and twenty-five patients who were followed up because of carbonmonoxide poisoning between 2011 and 2013 in our pediatric emergency department were evaluated prospectively. Ethics committee approval was obtained for the study on 10.19.2011 (number: 0437). The carbonmonoxide levels, source of intoxication, neurological and cardiological findings and treatment methods were recorded. Blood gases and cardiac enzymes were studied and electrocardiography (ECG) was performed. The data were analysed using SPSS for windows 16.0 package program. Results: One hundred and sixty-eight (51.7%) of the patients were female and the median age was 9 years (11 days–17 years). Two hundred and twenty-eight (70.2%) of the patients were poisoned while using heater and 78.1% presented during winter months. The median carbonmonoxide level of the patients was found to be 24.8%. Cardiac enzymes were found to be increased in 10.5% of the patients, first degree A-V block was found in 0.6% and negative T wave was found in 0.3%. Glasgow coma score was found to be below 14 in 4.6% of the patients. A significant correlation was found between the carboxyhemoglobin levels and neurological findings, cardiological findings and lactate (p<0.05). Normobaric oxygen treatment was given to 76.3% of the patients and hyperbaric oxygen treatment was given to 23.7%. Conclusions: We think that neurological disorders and cardiac findings may be closely related, since systemic involvement may be easier in carbonmonoxide poisoning in children, Glasgow coma score should be assessed in the follow-up of the patients and cardiac enzymes and serum lactate levels should be monitored

  6. Progression paths in children's problem solving: The influence of dynamic testing, initial variability, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Resing, Wilma C M; Bakker, Merel; Pronk, Christine M E; Elliott, Julian G

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated developmental trajectories of analogical reasoning performance of 104 7- and 8-year-old children. We employed a microgenetic research method and multilevel analysis to examine the influence of several background variables and experimental treatment on the children's developmental trajectories. Our participants were divided into two treatment groups: repeated practice alone and repeated practice with training. Each child received an initial working memory assessment and was subsequently asked to solve figural analogies on each of several sessions. We examined children's analogical problem-solving behavior and their subsequent verbal accounts of their employed solving processes. We also investigated the influence of verbal and visual-spatial working memory capacity and initial variability in strategy use on analogical reasoning development. Results indicated that children in both treatment groups improved but that gains were greater for those who had received training. Training also reduced the influence of children's initial variability in the use of analogical strategies with the degree of improvement in reasoning largely unrelated to working memory capacity. Findings from this study demonstrate the value of a microgenetic research method and the use of multilevel analysis to examine inter- and intra-individual change in problem-solving processes.

  7. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  8. Finding "le mot juste": Differences between Bilingual and Monolingual Children's Lexical Access in Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Stephanie; Nicoladis, Elena

    2009-01-01

    By school age, some bilingual children can score equivalently to monolinguals in receptive vocabulary but still lag in expressive vocabulary. In this study, we test whether bilingual children have greater difficulty with lexical access, as has been reported for adult bilinguals. School-aged French-English bilingual children were given tests of…

  9. Assessment of Bilingual Children for Identification of Language Impairment: Current Findings and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Children from bilingual backgrounds are sometimes overidentified with language impairment (LI) because educators do not have appropriate developmental expectations. At other times bilingual children are underidentified because educators wait to identify difficulties while children learn the second language. In this review we discuss data on…

  10. The use of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and viral findings in the nasopharynx of children attending day care.

    PubMed

    Kumpu, Minna; Lehtoranta, Liisa; Roivainen, Merja; Rönkkö, Esa; Ziegler, Thedi; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Kautiainen, Hannu; Järvenpää, Salme; Kekkonen, Riina; Hatakka, Katja; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of probiotics on the nasopharyngeal presence of respiratory viruses in children attending day care. In this substudy of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 28-week intervention study, nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected, on visits to a physician due to symptoms of infection, from children receiving control milk (N = 97) and children receiving the same milk supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (N = 97). The presence of 14 respiratory viruses was assessed by PCR methods, and viral findings were compared with symptom prevalences in the intervention groups. Rhinovirus was identified in 28.6% of 315 swab samples, followed by respiratory syncytial virus (12.4%), parainfluenza virus 1 (12.1%), enterovirus (8.9%), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (7.9%), human bocavirus 1 (3.8%), parainfluenza virus 2 (3.2%), adenovirus (2.9%), and influenza A(H3N2) (0.6%). The children in the probiotic group had less days with respiratory symptoms per month than the children in the control group (6.48 [95% CI 6.28-6.68] vs. 7.19 [95% CI 6.98-7.41], P < 0.001). Probiotic intervention did not reduce significantly the occurrence of the examined respiratory viruses, or have an effect on the number of respiratory symptoms observed at the time of a viral finding. Rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus 1 were the most common respiratory viruses in symptomatic children. Children receiving Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG had fewer days with respiratory symptoms than children in the control group, although probiotic intervention was not effective in reducing the amount of viral findings or the respiratory symptoms associated with viral findings.

  11. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    PubMed

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age.

  12. FOSTER CARE: Recent Legislation Helps States Focus on Finding Permanent Homes for Children, but Long-Standing Barriers Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Office, Foster Care: Agencies Face Challenges Securing Stable Homes for Children of Substance Abusers, GAO/HEHS-98-182 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 30, 1998...Approach. GAO/HEHS-99-8. Washington, D.C.: October 21, 1998. Foster Care: Agencies Face Challenges Securing Stable Homes for Children of Substance Abusers...Finding Permanent Homes for Children , but Long-Standing Barriers Remain GAO-02-585 Report Documentation Page Report Date 00JUN2002 Report Type N/A Dates

  13. Thyroid ultrasound findings in a follow-up survey of children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi, and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Furuya, Fumihiko; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-03-12

    We conducted ultrasound thyroid screening in cohort of 4,365 children aged between 3 to 18 years in three Japanese prefectures (Aomori, Yamanashi, and Nagasaki) using the same procedures as used in the Fukushima Health Survey. Forty-four children had nodules ≥ 5.1 mm in diameter or cysts ≥ 20.1 mm in diameter detected at the first screening, and 31 of these children underwent the second follow-up survey. We collected information from thyroid ultrasound examinations and final clinical diagnoses and re-categorized the thyroid findings after the second examination. Twenty children had nodules ≥ 5.1 mm in diameter or cysts ≥ 20.1 mm in diameter at the second examination; of these, one child was diagnosed with a thyroid papillary carcinoma and the remaining 19 children were diagnosed with possibly benign nodules such as adenomas, adenomatous nodules, and adenomatous goiters. A further 11 children were re-categorized as "no further examinations were required." Our results suggest that ultrasound thyroid findings in children may change with a relatively short-term passing period, and that thyroid cancer may exist at a very low but certain frequency in the general childhood population.

  14. Children's emotional and behavioural well-being and the family environment: findings from the Health Survey for England.

    PubMed

    McMunn, A M; Nazroo, J Y; Marmot, M G; Boreham, R; Goodman, R

    2001-08-01

    Recent trends towards diversity in family structure have posed important challenges for traditional social theories on the family. This critical debate has not, however, had much influence on policy discussions of the impact of diverse family structures on children's psychological health, where two-parent families are presumed ideal. In 1997, the annual Health Survey for England focussed on the health of children and young people. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), used to assess children's psychological health, was administered to the parents of 5705 children aged 4-15 using a self-completion booklet. The effect of family structure, socio-economic indicators, parental working status and parental psychological status on children's psychological health was explored using multi-variate logistic regression models. Findings indicated that the high prevalence of psychological morbidity among children of lone-mothers was a consequence of socio-economic effects. disappearing when benefits receipt, housing tenure and maternal education were taken into account. Socio-economic factors did not, however, explain the higher proportion of psychological morbidity among children with stepparents, or the strong relationship between parents' and children's psychological morbidity.

  15. Ophthalmologic Findings in Children with Leukemia: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Betül; Malbora, Barış; Akça Bayar, Sezin; Avcı, Zekai; Alioğlu, Bülent; Özbek, Namık

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Ophthalmologic disease in patients with acute leukemia occurs due to primary leukemic infiltration (involvement), or secondary to the disease and its treatment. In recent years the life expectancy of acute leukemia patients has increased with the advent of modern therapies. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of ocular manifestations in children with acute leukemia. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 patients diagnosed with acute leukemia at Başkent University Hospital, Pediatric Hematology Department between 1995 and 2010. All the patients were examined by an ophthalmologist via direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results: Among the patients, 83 (69.2%) were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 35 (29.1%) with acute myeloblastic leukemia, and 2 (1.7%) with mixed-lineage leukemia. In all, 58 ophthalmic manifestations were noted in 41 patients (34.2%). In our patients, 12 ophthalmologic involvements were present at admission and 46 ocular findings occurred during follow-up. The incidence of these manifestations increased with age. Conclusion: Ophthalmologic manifestations were not correlated with gender, hematological parameters at disease onset, type of leukemia, or the frequency of relapse and survival. To more clearly determine the effect of ophthalmologic manifestations on the prognosis of leukemia, larger scale and multi-center studies are needed. PMID:27800262

  16. Chinese Immigrant Families and Bilingualism among Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-five children (17 boys and 18 girls, 4 to 8 years old) in 2-parent Chinese immigrant families had attended English-speaking facilities for 35.0 months (boys) and 32.9 months (girls), respectively. They were tested at home with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Mandarin version of PPVT-R. No gender differences were…

  17. Lyme disease in children.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sunil K

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and family practitioners should be familiar with the prevention and management of tick bites, which are common in children.

  18. Preliminary findings of similarities and differences in the signed and spoken language of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication. Though the underlying disorder is presumed to be the same in children who are deaf and children who hear, the structures of signed and spoken languages differ in key ways. This article describes similarities and differences between the signed and spoken language acquisition of children on the spectrum. Similarities include echolalia, pronoun avoidance, neologisms, and the existence of minimally verbal children. Possible areas of divergence include pronoun reversal, palm reversal, and facial grammar.

  19. Diet, lifestyle and body weight in Irish children: findings from Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance national surveys.

    PubMed

    Walton, Janette; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of public health concern globally. This review reports on levels of overweight and obesity in Irish children and examines some aspects of their diet and lifestyle proposed to promote or protect against increasing body fatness in children. While there is still some debate with regard to the most appropriate cut-off points to use when assessing body fatness in children, approximately one in five Irish children (aged 2-17 years) have been classified as overweight (including obese) according to two generally accepted approaches. Furthermore, comparison with previous data has shown an increase in mean body weight and BMI over time. On examining dietary patterns for Irish children, there was a noticeable transition from a less energy dense diet in pre-school children to a more energy dense diet in older children and teenagers, associated with a change to less favourable dietary intakes for fibre, fat, fruit and vegetables, confectionery and snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages as children got older. A significant proportion of school-aged children and teenagers reported watching more than 2 h television per day (35% on school-days and 65% on week-ends) compared with 13% of pre-school children. For children aged 5-12 years, eating out of the home contributed just 9% of energy intake but food eaten from outside the home was shown to contribute a higher proportion of energy from fat and to be less fibre-dense than food prepared at home. Improvements in dietary lifestyle are needed to control increasing levels of overweight and obesity in children in Ireland.

  20. CT and clinical findings of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour in children

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Huijuan; Bao, Fengchang; Tan, Hongna; Wang, Bo; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical, CT and pathological findings of paediatric peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours (pPNETs) to enhance the recognition of these rare tumours. Methods: The clinical, CT and pathological findings of 18 paediatric patients with pPNETs confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The age of these 18 paediatric patients with pPNETs ranged from 4 months to 15 years, with a mean age of 7.7 years. The lesions of these 18 paediatric patients with pPNETs were located in the head and neck (n = 4), chest (n = 2), abdomen and pelvic cavity (n = 6), spine (n = 3), ilium (n = 2) and femur (n = 1). Immunohistochemical examination revealed Homer–Wright rosettes in seven lesions, and 94.4% of lesions showed consistent positive staining for CD99. On plain CT images, the majority of pPNETs showed lesions that were ill-defined (72.2%), irregularly shaped (83.3%), heterogeneous (66.7%) or hypodense masses (94.4%), and together with osteolytic bone destruction when the lesion originated in the bone. Calcifications were found in three lesions. After contrast administration, all soft-tissue masses were persistently enhanced heterogeneously with various cystic or necrotic regions, and 71.4% of them had linear enhancement. 94.4% of soft-tissue masses showed a moderate degree of enhancement. Seven cases had lymph node metastasis at diagnosis. Conclusion: Paediatric pPNET can involve any part of the body, and a large, ill-defined, aggressive soft-tissue mass and moderate heterogeneous enhancement with varying cystic regions and linear enhancement, with or without osteolytic bone destruction, on CT images could suggest the diagnosis. Advances in knowledge: Primitive neuroectodermal tumours constitute a rare type of malignant neuroectodermal tumours that have chromosomal translocations identical to Ewing's sarcoma, and reports about radiological characteristics of this disease in children are

  1. Word reading skill predicts anticipation of upcoming spoken language input: a study of children developing proficiency in reading.

    PubMed

    Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words.

  2. The development of numerical magnitude processing and its association with working memory in children with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2013-10-01

    The present research examined numerical magnitude processing and its association with working memory in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). We investigated the performance of 8-year-old children with MID on a symbolic (Arabic digits) and non-symbolic (dot patterns) magnitude comparison task by means of a chronological-age/ability-level-match design. We also examined whether the predicted problems with numerical magnitude comparison could be explained by working memory by using three working memory tasks. Findings revealed that children with MID performed more poorly than their chronological age-matched peers on both the symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison tasks, suggesting impairments in these children's ability to represent numerical magnitudes. They also performed more poorly on working memory compared to their typically developing age- and ability-matched peers, but when these differences in working memory performance were additionally controlled for, the group differences on the numerical magnitude comparison tasks remained. Both symbolic numerical magnitude processing and central executive functioning predicted addition performance in children with MID.

  3. The Impact of the Incredible Years Parent, Child, and Teacher Training Programs on Children's Co-Occurring Internalizing Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herman, Keith C; Borden, Lindsay A; Reinke, Wendy M; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2011-09-01

    The Incredible Years (IY) Series includes separate group interventions to improve parenting interactions, teacher classroom management, and child social-emotional regulation. Although originally developed to treat early-onset conduct problems, IY targets many of the proposed mechanisms and risk factors for internalizing distress in early childhood. Prior studies have demonstrated the effects of the IY parent intervention on co-occurring depressive symptoms. We attempted to extend these findings by examining the unique and combined effects of IY interventions on children's co-occurring internalizing symptoms. Families of 159, 4- to 8-year-old children were randomly assigned to parent training (PT); parent plus teacher training (PT +TT); child training (CT); child plus teacher training (CT + TT); parent, child, plus teacher training (PT+CT+TT); or a waiting list control group. Children who received any of the intervention components were more likely to have lower mother-rated internalizing symptoms at post-treatment compared to children in a wait-list control group. Implications for future research and for designing interventions and prevention strategies for children with internalizing symptoms are discussed.

  4. Phonological, visual, and semantic coding strategies and children's short-term picture memory span.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David; Luger-Klein, Scarlett; Crane, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments addressed controversies in the previous literature on the development of phonological and other forms of short-term memory coding in children, using assessments of picture memory span that ruled out potentially confounding effects of verbal input and output. Picture materials were varied in terms of phonological similarity, visual similarity, semantic similarity, and word length. Older children (6/8-year-olds), but not younger children (4/5-year-olds), demonstrated robust and consistent phonological similarity and word length effects, indicating that they were using phonological coding strategies. This confirmed findings initially reported by Conrad (1971), but subsequently questioned by other authors. However, in contrast to some previous research, little evidence was found for a distinct visual coding stage at 4 years, casting doubt on assumptions that this is a developmental stage that consistently precedes phonological coding. There was some evidence for a dual visual and phonological coding stage prior to exclusive use of phonological coding at around 5-6 years. Evidence for semantic similarity effects was limited, suggesting that semantic coding is not a key method by which young children recall lists of pictures.

  5. The Ethical Maze: Finding an Inclusive Path towards Gaining Children's Agreement to Research Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Alison J.

    2006-01-01

    In the UK, the ethics of engaging in sociological research directly involving children have primarily been shaped by definitions of "competence". While this has been a crucial guideline for researchers in shaping the concept of informed consent, it has also acted, perhaps inadvertently, as a way of excluding particular children from the…

  6. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  7. Self-Regulation Advantage for High-IQ Children: Findings from a Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Garcia-Martin, Maria Belen; Jimenez, Maria Isabel; Kazen, Miguel; Araque, Arsenio

    2007-01-01

    Current approaches in intelligence research indicate the need for a more extensive determination of characteristics of children with possible giftedness, not only at an intellectual level, but also at the level of self-regulation and motivation. The present study compares self-regulation efficiency between high-IQ and average-ability children aged…

  8. MOTHERS OF RETARDED CHILDREN, HOW THEY FEEL, WHERE THEY FIND HELP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EHLERS, WALTER H.

    THE RESEARCH STUDY INVESTIGATED HOW MOTHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN PERCEIVED THE RETARDATION, HOW THEY MADE DECISIONS IN SEEKING AND USING HELP, AND HOW THEY REACTED TO AND VALUED SERVICES RENDERED. THE 24 SUBJECTS WERE MOTHERS WHOSE RETARDED CHILDREN WERE CLASSIFIED BRAIN INJURED (INCLUDING MONGOLOID), HAD IQ'S BELOW 54, AND WERE LESS THAN…

  9. Health Education Video Games for Children and Adolescents: Theory, Design, and Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Debra A.

    This study examined whether video games could be effective health education and therapeutic interventions for children and adolescents with diabetes. KIDZ Health Software developed a game about diabetes self-management, and tested its effectiveness for children with diabetes. The Packy and Marlon Super Nintendo video game promotes fun,…

  10. Families Finding the Balance: A Parent Handbook. We Can! Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    We Can! (Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition) is a new public education outreach program designed to help children 8-13 years old stay at a healthy weight through improving food choices, increasing physical activity, and reducing screen time. The program is a collaboration of four Institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH):…

  11. Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Preschool Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Walden, Tedra A.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Emotional regulation of preschool children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) was assessed through use of a disappointing gift (DG) procedure (P. M. Cole, 1986; C. Saarni, 1984, 1992). Method: Participants consisted of 16 CWS and CWNS (11 boys and 5 girls in each talker group) who were 3 to 5 years of age. After…

  12. Children's and Young People's Reading in 2012: Findings from the 2012 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This report reveals that children and young people are reading less and more are embarrassed to be seen reading, while many also believe that their parents don't care if they spend time reading. However, not only are children and young people reading less and developing more negative attitudes towards reading, but there is also a clear correlation…

  13. Intensive Dysarthria Therapy for Older Children with Cerebral Palsy: Findings from Six Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Lindsay; Smallman, Claire; Farrier, Faith

    2006-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy often have speech, language and communication difficulties that affect their access to social and educational activities. Speech and language therapy to improve the intelligibility of the speech of children with cerebral palsy has long been advocated, but there is a dearth of research investigating therapy…

  14. Caregivers of School Children with Epilepsy: Findings of a Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jillian; Whiting, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequently diagnosed neurological disorders among children. Epilepsy is continuously linked with academic underachievement and social challenges. Despite the implications that these difficulties have for a child's educational success, little is known of how children with epilepsy experience school. Understanding how to…

  15. Finding a Voice: A Figured Worlds Approach to Theorising Young Children's Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the ways in which children's ethnic identities have been conceptualised by sociocultural and critical race theory and the potential of the "figured worlds" literature in helping to theorise the responses of young children to the cultural and educational worlds they encounter. Using some vignettes drawn from…

  16. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act Evaluation Findings on Children's Health Insurance Coverage in an Evolving Health Care Landscape.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) reauthorized CHIP through federal fiscal year 2019 and, together with provisions in the Affordable Care Act, federal funding for the program was extended through federal fiscal year 2015. Congressional action is required or federal funding for the program will end in September 2015. This supplement to Academic Pediatrics is intended to inform discussions about CHIP's future. Most of the new research presented comes from a large evaluation of CHIP mandated by Congress in the CHIPRA. Since CHIP started in 1997, millions of lower-income children have secured health insurance coverage and needed care, reducing the financial burdens and stress on their families. States made substantial progress in simplifying enrollment and retention. When implemented optimally, Express Lane Eligibility has the potential to help cover more of the millions of eligible children who remain uninsured. Children move frequently between Medicaid and CHIP, and many experienced a gap in coverage with this transition. CHIP enrollees had good access to care. For nearly every health care access, use, care, and cost measure examined, CHIP enrollees fared better than uninsured children. Access in CHIP was similar to private coverage for most measures, but financial burdens were substantially lower and access to weekend and nighttime care was not as good. The Affordable Care Act coverage options have the potential to reduce uninsured rates among children, but complex transition issues must first be resolved to ensure families have access to affordable coverage, leading many stakeholders to recommend funding for CHIP be continued.

  17. Nondecomposable idiom understanding in children: recursive theory of mind and working memory.

    PubMed

    Caillies, Stéphanie; Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine

    2013-06-01

    Which skills are required to start understanding ambiguous, unfamiliar nondecomposable idioms in context? In this study, we examined the contributions of both second-order false-belief understanding and working memory to the understanding of unfamiliar nondecomposable idioms in children aged 6, 7 and 8 years old. We assumed that, in order to process these idioms, children would have to be able to (a) take a double perspective (Perner & Wimmer, 1985), (b) maintain both literal and figurative meanings as being different from the expression itself, and (c) take the context into account. Six-, 7- and 8-year-old children performed three, second-order false-belief tasks and three working-memory tasks, and listened to 15 nondecomposable idioms inserted into a context, before performing a multiple-choice task. Results indicated that nondecomposable idiom understanding was explained by theory-of-mind skills.

  18. Study of Nevi in Children (SONIC): baseline findings and predictors of nevus count.

    PubMed

    Oliveria, Susan A; Satagopan, Jaya M; Geller, Alan C; Dusza, Stephen W; Weinstock, Martin A; Berwick, Marianne; Bishop, Marilyn; Heneghan, Maureen K; Halpern, Allan C

    2009-01-01

    The authors report baseline findings and predictors of nevus count (log total nevi) at the completion of year 1 (2004) of the first known population-based, prospective study of nevi in a US cohort of children. Overall, 64% (n = 443/691) of grade 5 students and their parents in Framingham, Massachusetts, completed surveys and underwent digital photography. Total nevus count was associated with skin and hair color and tendency to burn, as measured by a sun sensitivity index. In multivariate analyses, male gender (rate ratio (RR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 1.55; P < 0.0001), spending 5-6 weekly hours outdoors between 10 AM and 4 PM (RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.28; P = 0.051), getting a painful sunburn once (RR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.57; P = 0.073) and at least twice (RR = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.82; P = 0.061), and wearing a shirt at the beach or pool rarely (RR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.54; P = 0.005), sometimes (RR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.57; P = 0.041), and often and always (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.54; P = 0.001) were associated with increased number of nevi. Identifying factors that predict the development of nevi will improve primary prevention efforts during early life.

  19. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  20. Prevention Work with Children Disaffected from School: Findings from the Evaluation of Two Innovative Community-Based Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Paul; Seddon, Toby

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To report on findings from the evaluation of two innovative community-based prevention projects in the UK targeted at children disaffected from school, one involving football the other horticulture. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative inquiry focusing on three areas: "theories of change" underpinning the projects; referral…

  1. Training To Improve Manual Control In 7–8 And 10–12 Year Old Children: Training Eliminates Performance Differences Between Ages

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J.; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7–8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7–8 and 10–12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7–8 year olds was worse than that of the 10–12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7–8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10–12 year olds. PMID:26241334

  2. Children with attention deficit disorder and learning disability: findings from the First National Study.

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P

    2004-01-01

    The first National Health Interview Survey to collect data on children, 6 to 11 years of age, with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and/or learning disability (LD) provided specific information on: (1) the widespread demographic distribution of children with ADD and LD, (2) related health conditions, (3) use of special education programs, and (4) the extensive use of health care services. The underlying reality was the increasing need for information because dental practitioners provide services to many of these children in their communities.

  3. When Experimental Findings Conflict with Everyday Observations: Reflections on Children's Category Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Deborah G. Kemler

    1990-01-01

    Comments on this issue's article by Ward, Vela, and Hass on children's category learning. Suggests that aspects of the authors' methodology may have led them to underestimate holistic processing. (PCB)

  4. Developing clinically suitable measures of social cognition for children: initial findings from a normative sample.

    PubMed

    Saltzman-Benaiah, Jennifer; Lalonde, Christopher E

    2007-03-01

    Our understanding of children's social competence has increased tremendously over the past two decades. There is increasing evidence to suggest that social-cognitive impairments are not restricted to children on the autistic spectrum, but rather may be associated with a host of developmental and acquired neurological conditions including learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Although many investigators have begun to bridge the gap between clinical practice and research by applying experimental tasks to clinical populations, few tools are available for the clinical evaluation of social competence, particularly in children. This study marks a series of first steps in the development of measures suitable for the assessment of children between 6 and 12 years of age. The results of the study provide data for a number of experimental tasks that have been adapted with clinical practice in mind. A discussion of the developmental progressions and the relationships among the measures is also included.

  5. Developmental Coordination Disorder in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Co-Morbidity and Impact on Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flapper, Boudien C. T.; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2013-01-01

    Co-morbidity of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and the impact of DCD on quality-of-life (QOL) was investigated in 65 5-8 year old children with SLI (43 boys, age 6.8 [plus or minus] 0.8; 22 girls, age 6.6 [plus or minus] 0.8). The prevalence of DCD was assessed using DSM-IV-TR criteria…

  6. [Relationship between developmental prognosis and changing picture of postural findings in early infancy among early treated children].

    PubMed

    Yuge, M; Yamori, Y; Kanda, T; Ando, R

    1992-09-01

    We followed 93 infants prospectively who were treated because of moderate and severe grades of cerebral coordination disturbances since less than 6 months of age. They were divided into 3 groups according to developmental prognosis at 4 years of age; normal 44, mental retardation 18, and cerebral palsy 31. We compared the postural findings in supine and prone position, and 7 postural reactions at the first examination with those at discharge about 50 days after the first examination. We assessed the changing pictures of postural findings as improved, not changed or worsened. We analyzed the relationship between the changing pictures of postural findings during the short period in early infancy and the developmental prognosis among the 3 groups. The normal group showed improvement in a larger number of items than the other two groups. The findings of cerebral palsied children showed poor improvement, and more postural reactions changed to be more pathologic than those in the other two groups. Among the cerebral palsied children, ambulatory cases showed better improvement than those who could not crawl. But we found no significant difference between ambulatory and crawling children. This study demonstrated that assessment of changing pictures of postural findings in early infancy was helpful to predict developmental prognosis.

  7. [Stress-buffering effects of benefit finding on the psychological stress' response in mothers of children with developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takahiro

    2014-10-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of the Benefit Finding Scale in Developmental Disorder Parenting (BFS-DDP). Using this scale, we examined the stress-buffering effects of identifying positive implications and benefits of having a child with developmental disorders in parents of such children. The BFS- DDP was developed from a questionnaire survey of mothers (N = 265) of children with developmental disorders. Exploratory and confirmatory analysis identified four factors: (a) "deepened relationships," (b) "changed life," (c) "changed life philosophy," and (d) "personal strength." These factors had high degrees of internal consistency. Furthermore, BFS-DDP scores significantly correlated with measuring optimism and meaningfulness, indicating good convergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that benefit finding significantly decreased stress response in the presence of high stressors. These results suggest that benefit finding may have a stress-buffering effect.

  8. Underinsurance in children with special health care needs: the impact of definition on findings.

    PubMed

    Preskitt, Julie K; McEldowney, Rene P; Mulvihill, Beverly A; Wingate, Martha S; Menachemi, Nir

    2013-10-01

    To identify differences in groups of children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN) identified as underinsured by two alternate definitions and discuss implications for policy decisions based on using one definition over another. Secondary data from the National Survey of CSHCN 2005/2006 were analyzed. Only CSHCN who were continuously-insured for 12 months were included in analyses. We identified groups of underinsured CSHCN using two general definitions ("economic" and "attitudinal") and three mutually-exclusive groups (identified by both definitions, identified by attitudinal but not economic, and identified by economic but not attitudinal). Key variables included demographics and condition characteristics. Different underinsurance rates were identified [attitudinal = 30.9 % (n = 11,470); economic = 22.7 % (n = 8,447)] with fair agreement by kappa score (κ = 0.3194; Z = 65.91; p > 0.0001). Differences across mutually-exclusive groups included family income ≥400 % FPL (attitudinal only = 34.2 %, economic only = 16.3 %, both = 18.4 %; p < 0.001) and high severity (attitudinal only = 42.5 %, economic only = 68.5 %, both = 69.9 %; p < 0.001). CSHCN who needed equipment/supplies/home health (OR = 1.31, p < 0.001) had increased odds of being identified as underinsured by the economic, but not attitudinal definition. CSHCN with private insurance had increased odds of being identified by attitudinal only or both definitions, but not by economic only (AO: OR = 1.41, p < 0.001; BOTH: OR = 2.36, p < 0.001). Despite overlap between the two definitions, choosing either one excludes some CSHCN, potentially underestimating the extent of underinsurance and masking important findings related to specific conditions characteristics. A definition that comprehensively identifies and describes underinsurance is vital to translating health insurance coverage expansion into benefit packages that meet complex health and service needs.

  9. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  10. Children of divorce: recent findings regarding long-term effects and recent studies of joint and sole custody.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, J S; Johnston, J R

    1990-01-01

    The 10-year study revealed that the effects of divorce on children are often long lasting. Children are especially affected because divorce occurs within their formative years. What they see and experience during the failing marriage becomes a part of their view of themselves and of society. Although the findings from the study are, in some respects, dismaying, what emerges clearly is that a successfully reestablished family or a successful remarriage can improve the quality of life for both adults and children. The divorce may resolve the family conflict and allow the children to preserve a relationship with both parents. Divorce may also be useful in putting some distance between a child and a disturbed parent. Under these conditions, children may show accelerated maturity and independence. They may also bring to young adulthood a morality that places high value on sustaining relationships and on love, fidelity, and compassion. The results of the longitudinal study, as well as those of the two joint custody studies, indicate that ongoing conflict between divorced parents has especially detrimental effects on the children and that children are particularly at risk when they have frequent and continuing access to both parents who are hostile and uncooperative with each other. Mandated joint custody and frequent visitation in these situations may not be advisable. On the other hand, among children in chronically disturbed and disputing families, there is a wide range of individual coping responses and degrees of resilience. In the final analysis, individual temperaments should be considered and a careful evaluation made of how each child is coping in his or her own particular family environment.

  11. The health‐related quality of life of children with congenital cataract: findings of the British Congenital Cataract Study

    PubMed Central

    Chak, Melanie; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta

    2007-01-01

    Background There is increasing emphasis on patient‐based assessment of healthcare outcomes, but evaluation of the impact of ophthalmic disorders on quality of life is undertaken infrequently. Aim To report on the health‐related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with congenital cataract. Methods At least 6 years after diagnosis, 41 children (representative of a national cohort) and their parents completed the child and proxy (parental) versions of PedsQL 4.0, a generic multidimensional paediatric HRQOL instrument, independently. This provided a physical health summary score, a psychosocial health summary score and an overall score (range 0–100, higher scores indicating better HRQOL). Results Questionnaires were completed by 33 parent–child pairs and by 8 parents alone. The mean (SD) total score self‐reported by children was 75.85 (15.56) and that reported by parents was 75.91(16.79). The mean (SD) physical health score self‐reported by children was 80.76 (8.61), which was higher than the psychosocial health score of 72.93 (16.06). There was considerable variation in agreement of scores reported by individual child–parent pairs (the largest difference was 56.3 points). Notably, the PedsQL scores of children with congenital cataract were comparable with those reported for some children with severe systemic diseases such as rheumatological disease and some cancers. Conclusions These findings serve to characterise the significant broader impact of congenital cataract on patients and their families. The PedsQL 4.0 proved to be an acceptable instrument for assessing generic HRQOL, permitting valuable reporting by children and their parents. However, to capture the subjective experience of ophthalmic disease in childhood fully, specific vision‐related quality of life measures for children are needed. PMID:17244652

  12. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  13. Inconsistent findings for the eyes closed effect in children: the implications for interviewing child witnesses

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakidou, Marilena; Blades, Mark; Carroll, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A child who alleges that they have been the victim of a crime will be interviewed by police officers. During a police interview it is important that the interviewer obtains the most accurate testimony possible from the child. Previous studies have shown that if children have their eyes closed during an interview they sometimes report more correct information. This paper includes two studies. In Experiment 1 156 children experienced an event and were then questioned about it. Half the children answered with their eyes open and half with their eyes closed. The participants with eyes closed provided more correct information. In Experiment 2 152 children answered questions in different conditions including eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In contrast to Experiment 1 there was no beneficial effect for the eyes closed condition. These inconsistent results are discussed with reference to actual police interviews. It is suggested that until there has been more research into eyes closed procedures caution should be taken in recommending such procedures for police interviews with children. PMID:24999333

  14. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Life-threatening extrarenal lupus in children despite improvement in serologic findings.

    PubMed

    Butani, Lavjay; Makker, Sudesh P

    2003-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with the potential for multiorgan involvement. Serologic tests are helpful in establishing the diagnosis of SLE and predicting disease flares. However, there are few data on the relationship between the onset of new organ involvement and lupus serologies, especially in children. This report details our experience in managing two children with lupus nephritis. Both developed life-threatening extrarenal complications (cerebritis and carditis) soon after receiving high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and despite normalizing serologies. This lack of concordance between serologies and the development of carditis and cerebritis needs to be recognized so that health care professionals treating children with SLE can promptly intensify immunosuppressive medications and avoid life-threatening delays from seeking alternative explanations for symptomatology.

  16. Evaluating the developmental trajectory of the episodic buffer component of working memory and its relation to word recognition in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shinmin; Allen, Richard J; Lee, Jun Ren; Hsieh, Chia-En

    2015-05-01

    The creation of temporary bound representation of information from different sources is one of the key abilities attributed to the episodic buffer component of working memory. Whereas the role of working memory in word learning has received substantial attention, very little is known about the link between the development of word recognition skills and the ability to bind information in the episodic buffer of working memory and how it may develop with age. This study examined the performance of Grade 2 children (8 years old), Grade 3 children (9 years old), and young adults on a task designed to measure their ability to bind visual and auditory-verbal information in working memory. Children's performance on this task significantly correlated with their word recognition skills even when chronological age, memory for individual elements, and other possible reading-related factors were taken into account. In addition, clear developmental trajectories were observed, with improvements in the ability to hold temporary bound information in working memory between Grades 2 and 3, and between the child and adult groups, that were independent from memory for the individual elements. These findings suggest that the capacity to temporarily bind novel auditory-verbal information to visual form in working memory is linked to the development of word recognition in children and improves with age.

  17. Distance to School is Associated with Sedentary Time in Children: Findings from the URBAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Hinckson, Erica A.; McGrath, Les; Hopkins, Will; Oliver, Melody; Badland, Hannah; Mavoa, Suzanne; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin A.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is associated with overweight and obesity in children, and distance to school has been negatively associated with active commuting to school. It is not known how distance to school relates to sedentary behavior in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between distance to school and children’s sedentary behavior during weekdays at times where children interact with the neighborhood environment. Children (5–13 years, n = 295) who participated in the understanding relationships between activity and neighborhoods study (2008–2010) across four New Zealand cities wore a hip-mounted accelerometer for 7 days. Minutes spent sedentary (accelerometer count <100 min−1) were derived for the school travel periods (0800–0859 and 1500–1559) and after school discretionary time (1600–1759). Shortest street network distance to school was calculated from residential addresses using geographical information systems and parsed into tertiles for analysis. Children completed a daily travel log including mode of transport to and from school, which was dichotomized into active (walking and cycling) and passive (motorized) modes. Children living in the second tertile of distance from school were the least sedentary during the school traveling periods (42 ± 10%, mean ± true between-child SD) compared to those living in the first or third distance tertiles (47 ± 10 and 49 ± 10%, respectively); the differences were clear and likely substantial (90% confidence limits ± 6%). Children who traveled by motorized transport were more sedentary for each of the distance tertiles (50 versus 44%, 46 versus 39%, and 54 versus 27% for first, second, and third tertiles, respectively; 90% confidence limits ± 7%). In the period of 1600–1759, girls in the third distance tertile were the most sedentary. The combined effects of 1–2 km distance from school and active commuting to school contributed to least

  18. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  19. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Eckel, Sandrah P; Breton, Carrie V; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children's Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children's health while control measures are being implemented.

  20. Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

  1. Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…

  2. Children's Perceptions of Learning Braille: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of the ABC Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Sharon Z.; Hannan, Cheryl K.; Erin, Jane N.

    2011-01-01

    Children's perceptions of learning to read and write braille were measured using an open ended 10-item questionnaire. The data were evaluated by amount of time, level of contractedness, and level of achievement. No differences were found with respect to time or the introduction of contractions. Differences were apparent between the high- and…

  3. Health-Promoting Changes with Children as Agents: Findings from a Multiple Case Study Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled "Shape Up: a school-community approach to influencing determinants…

  4. Outcomes of Children Participating in Mental Health Residential and Intensive Family Services: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preyde, Michele; Adams, Gerald; Cameron, Gary; Frensch, Karen

    2009-01-01

    It has been estimated that approximately 20% of children experience some form of mental health problem, with 14% in the clinical range. Residential mental health treatment is often reserved for those with the most severe presentation of disorder, and intensive home-based alternatives have been developed to cope with increasing demand. The purpose…

  5. School Desegregation: Outcomes for Children. Findings in Search of a Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Nancy H.; Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This article examines nine dimensions to the meaning of school desegregation for black children and analyzes one attitudinal outcome related to each dimension. The dimensions (listed first) and corresponding outcomes are as follows: (1) symbolic message and sense of control; (2) borrowed stigma aura and self esteem; (3) relative deprivation and…

  6. Neurocognitive Outcomes in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Current Findings and Contemporary Endeavors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Arlene C.; Butler, Robert; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Wentz, Alicia; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Mendley, Susan R.; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Given the rise in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both children and adults, CKD has recently been targeted as a public health priority. Childhood onset kidney disease is generally a noncurable and progressive condition that leads to kidney failure by early adulthood. Fortunately, improved identification of kidney problems allows for early…

  7. Influence of Stuttering Variation on Talker Group Classification in Preschool Children: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…

  8. The "RAPID" Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Inattentive Children: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…

  9. Bulgaria: Introduction of Informatics in Education of Children. Project Findings and Recommendations. Terminal Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Development Programme, Geneva (Switzerland).

    In 1987, the Bulgarian government and cooperating international agencies launched the program, "Children in the Information Age," a project aimed at: conducting and promoting national research into, exchange of information about, development and application of, practical training in, and methods and techniques for the introduction of…

  10. Families of Children with Disabilities: Findings from a National Sample of Eighth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Krasner, Diane V.

    1995-01-01

    Family demographics of 8th-grade students with visual impairments (n=89), hearing impairments (n=105), deafness (n=29), and orthopedic impairments (n=60) were compared to those of 22,368 additional U.S. 8th-grade students. Analysis revealed that families of children with disabilities showed higher percentages of divorce or separation, lower family…

  11. Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

  12. Finding the Cause: Verbal Framing Helps Children Extract Causal Evidence Embedded in a Complex Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lucas P.; Markman, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    In making causal inferences, children must both identify a causal problem and selectively attend to meaningful evidence. Four experiments demonstrate that verbally framing an event ("Which animals make Lion laugh?") helps 4-year-olds extract evidence from a complex scene to make accurate causal inferences. Whereas framing was unnecessary when…

  13. Syntactical Speech Patterns of Black Children from a Depressed Urban Area: Educators Look at Linguistic Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Walter N.; Wilson, Robert M.

    The syntactical speech characteristics of black children living in depressed areas of an Eastern city were compared with the eight identified by Baratz, i.e., absence of "s" in the third person singular, zero copula, double negation and "ain't," zero past marker, zero possessive marker, zero plural marker, the substitution of "did" or "can" for…

  14. A Developmental Study of Children's Ability to Adopt Perspectives and Find Errors in Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Hall, Vernon C.

    1991-01-01

    Children's ability to adopt perspectives and then apply schematic information on-line while listening to stories was investigated in 2 experiments with 59 second graders and 60 fourth graders. Although both subject groups had the knowledge to identify errors, fourth graders were more likely to apply such knowledge on-line during comprehension.…

  15. Emerging Patterns of Services and Case Finding for Children with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Karen M.

    1989-01-01

    Young children with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) of perinatal origin often present with increasing medical and developmental problems after the first half year of life. Most eventually require foster care; some are integrated in intervention or preschool services; others are in segregated educational programs. Family supports and specialized…

  16. Food Perceptions and Dietary Behavior of American-Indian Children, Their Caregivers, and Educators: Formative Assessment Findings from Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Toporoff, Elanah Greer; Story, Mary; Evans, Marguerite; Anliker, Jean; Davis, Sally; Sharma, Anjali; White, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Dietary findings from a school-based obesity prevention project (Pathways) are reported for children from six different American-Indian nations. A formative assessment was undertaken with teachers, caregivers, and children from nine schools to design a culturally appropriate intervention, including classroom curriculum, food service, physical education, and family components. This assessment employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods (including direct observations, paired-child in-depth interviews, focus groups with child caregivers and teachers, and semistructured interviews with caregivers and foodservice personnel) to query local perceptions and beliefs about foods commonly eaten and risk behaviors associated with childhood obesity at home, at school, and in the community. An abundance of high-fat, high-sugar foods was detected in children's diets described by caregivers, school food-service workers, and the children themselves. Although children and caregivers identified fruits and vegetables as healthy food choices, this knowledge does not appear to influence actual food choices. Frequent high-fat/high-sugar food sales in the schools, high-fat entrees in school meals, the use of food rewards in the classroom, rules about finishing all of one's food, and limited family resources are some of the competing factors that need to be addressed in the Pathways intervention. PMID:27667857

  17. Pre-anesthetic echocardiographic findings in children undergoing non-cardiac surgery at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, E Sadoh,; Paul, Ikhurionan; Charles, Imarengiaye,

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A pre-anaesthestic echocardiogram (echo) is requested for most non-cardiac surgeries to identify possible cardiac structural anomalies Objective To describe the prevalence and spectrum of structural cardiac abnormalities seen in various non-cardiac conditions Methods We carried out a retrospective review of pre-anaesthetic echos performed over five years on children scheduled for non-cardiac surgery. The requests were categorised according to referring specialities, and the biodata and echo findings were noted Results A total of 181 children and 181 echocardiograms were studied, and 100 (55.2%) of the patients were male. Most of the children (87, 48.1%) with oro-facial clefts were referred from dentistry. Of the 181 children, 39 (21.5%) had cardiac abnormalities, most (34, 87.2%) of whom had congenital heart disease (CHD). Ophthalmic requests with suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) had the highest prevalence of 8/12 (66.7%) while the lowest was oro-facial clefts at 15/87 (17.2%). Atrial septal defect was the commonest abnormality, found in 14 patients (35.9%) Conclusion Pre-anaesthetic echo should be performed, especially for children with suspected CRS and other congenital anomalies, requiring non-cardiac surgery. PMID:27701485

  18. Childhood mitochondrial encephalomyopathies: clinical course, diagnosis, neuroimaging findings, mtDNA mutations and outcome in six children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction manifests in many forms during childhood. There is no effective therapy for the condition; hence symptomatic therapy is the only option. The effect of symptomatic therapy are not well known. We present clinical course, diagnosis and effect of current treatments for six children suffering from mitochondrial encephalomyopathy identified by clinical demonstrations, brain MRI findings and DNA mutations. Two were male and four were female. Their age ranged between 2 and 17 years. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained in three and one showed misshaped and enlarged mitochondria under electron microscope. mtDNA mutation frequency was >30%. Five children were diagnosed with MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes) and one with Leigh’s syndrome (LS). All were given cocktail and symptomatic treatments. One of the five MELAS children died from severe complications. The other four MELAS children remain alive; four showed improvement, and one remained unresponsive. Of the four who showed improvement, two do not have any abnormal signs and the other two have some degree of motor developmental delay and myotrophy. The LS child is doing well except for ataxia. Until better therapy such as mitochondrial gene therapy is available, cocktail and symptomatic treatments could at least stabilize these children. PMID:24069936

  19. Biomarkers of kidney integrity in children and adolescents with dental amalgam mercury exposure: Findings from the Casa Pia children's amalgam trial

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, James S. Martin, Michael D.; Leroux, Brian G.; DeRouen, Timothy A.; Bernardo, Mario F.; Luis, Henrique S.; Leitao, Jorge G.; Kushleika, John V.; Rue, Tessa C.; Korpak, Anna M.

    2008-11-15

    Mercury is toxic to the kidney, and dental amalgam is a source of mercury exposure. Few studies have evaluated the effects of dental amalgam on kidney function in a longitudinal context in children. Here, we evaluated urinary concentrations of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) {alpha} and {pi} as biomarkers of renal proximal and distal tubular integrity, respectively, and albumin as a biomarker of glomerular integrity in children and adolescents 8-18 years of age over a 7-year course of dental amalgam treatment. Five hundred seven children, 8-12 years of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral and renal effects of dental amalgam in children. Subjects were randomized to either dental amalgam or resin composite treatments. Urinary GSTs {alpha} and {pi}, albumin, and creatinine concentrations were measured at baseline and annually in all subjects. Results were evaluated using linear regression analysis. GST-{alpha} concentrations were similar between treatment groups and in each sex and race (white vs. non-white) group in each follow-up year. GST-{pi} levels tended upward over the course of follow-up by four- to six-fold. This increase was seen in all groups irrespective of the treatment, race, or gender. Females had GST-{pi} levels approximately twice those of males at all ages. Albumin concentrations were constant throughout the follow-up period and did not differ by treatment, although females had 39% higher albumin levels than males. Additionally, we found no significant effects of amalgam treatment on the proportion of children with microalbuminuria (>30 mg/g creatinine). These findings are relevant within the context of children's health risk assessment as relates to the safety of mercury exposure from dental amalgam on kidney function. These data also provide normative values for sensitive indices of renal functional integrity that may serve in the evaluation of children and adolescents with renal disorders.

  20. Benefits for employees with children with ADHD: findings from the Collaborative Employee Benefit Study.

    PubMed

    Perrin, James M; Fluet, Chris; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Anderson, Betsy; Wells, Nora; Epstein, Susan; Allen, Debby; Tobias, Carol

    2005-02-01

    Parents of most children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are employed. Employers have interest in decreasing employee absenteeism and improving workplace productivity, partly through employee benefits. The authors interviewed employers to (1) determine how they view the needs of employees with children with ADHD and (2) identify benefits that might help employees with children with ADHD. The authors carried out a systematic interview study of mainly family-friendly, large employers in four U.S. urban markets (Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle). Multidisciplinary interview teams used a protocol to gather basic company information, benefit philosophy, current insurance and other employee benefits, and knowledge of ADHD and its impacts on employees. Initially, the interview team and then the larger project team reviewed all protocols for common themes. The authors interviewed staff of 41 employers (human resource managers, work/life program directors, benefits directors). Only 15 of 41 interviewees knew about ADHD, its prevalence, or its effects on parents. They had little knowledge of how differences in managed behavioral health may affect families' access to diagnostic and treatment services for ADHD, although most had experience with primary care management of depression among employees. Employers offer a variety of other benefits, including work/life and employee assistance programs, occasionally providing employees help with caring for a child with a mental health condition, on-site parent training programs, or assistance with child care. Other potentially useful employee benefits include flexible work and leave policies and information and referral services that can link parents with community programs. Although employers have limited awareness of ADHD and its potential effect on employees' work, this study identified opportunities to improve both health insurance and other benefits for employees with children with ADHD.

  1. Effects of Perceptual and Conceptual Similarity in Lexical Priming of Young Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conceptual and perceptual properties of words on the speed and accuracy of lexical retrieval of children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during a picture-naming task. Participants consisted of 13 3-5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS. All participants had speech, language,…

  2. Potential Consequences of Abandonment in Preschool-Age: Neuropsychological Findings in Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Juan F.; Manes, Facundo; Escobar, Josefina; López, Jéssica; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Several longitudinal studies had shown that early deprivation and institutionalization during the first six months of life affects the emotional, cognitive, social and neurophysiologic development. Nevertheless, our understanding of possible similar effects of delayed institutionalization, in preschool-age remains unclear to this day. The goal of this study is to evaluate the cognitive performance of institutionalized children with history of preschool-age physical abandonment. Method: 18 male institutionalized children with history of abandonment during the preschool-age (2–5 years old) and comparison group matched by age, handedness, gender, educational and socioeconomic level were tested on multiple tasks of attention, memory and executive functions. Results: We found a cognitive impairment in the institutionalized children in several measures of attention, memory and executive functions. This is the first report of cognitive impairment related to late abandonment and institutionalization effects (after 2 years old), extending the already known effects on early institutionalization. Conclusions: This preliminary study suggests that environmental factors including abandonment and institutional care, can affect not only the infancy period, but also the preschool period providing new insights into our understanding of neurocognitive development. PMID:22713373

  3. Psychological and environmental correlates of HPA axis functioning in parentally bereaved children: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Kaplow, Julie B; Shapiro, Danielle N; Wardecker, Britney M; Howell, Kathryn H; Abelson, James L; Worthman, Carol M; Prossin, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    This study examined bereaved children's HPA-axis functioning (cortisol awakening response; CAR) in relation to psychological distress, coping, and surviving parents' grief reactions. Participants included 38 children (20 girls) with recent parental loss (previous 6 months) and 28 of their surviving caregivers (23 women) who were assessed using self-report instruments and in-person, semistructured interviews. Interviews involved discussions about the child's thoughts and feelings related to the loss. Participants provided 3 saliva samples at home (awakening, 30 minutes later, and evening) over 3 successive days, beginning on the day following the interview. Results show a significant relation between dampening of the child's Day 1 CAR and more symptoms of anxiety (r = -.45), depression (r = -.40), posttraumatic stress (r = -.45), and maladaptive grief (r = -.43), as well as higher levels of avoidant coping (r = -.53). Higher levels of parental maladaptive grief were also associated (r = -.47) with a dampening of the child's Day 1 CAR. Our results raise the possibility that blunted CAR may be a result of accumulating allostatic load and/or a result of emotionally challenging events (discussions regarding the deceased) and their subsequent processing (or lack thereof) within the family, which may be particularly stressful for those bereaved children experiencing high levels of psychological distress, avoidant coping, and parental maladaptive grief.

  4. Children's abilities to distinguish novel languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna

    2005-04-01

    When adults hear spoken samples of a language which they do not know, they can often identify it and discriminate between languages even when produced by the same talkers. Children have much less experience making metalinguistic judgments. How do children respond to languages which they do not know? We have conducted three experiments examining the abilities of 4-year old and 8-year old children to discriminate between spoken samples of different languages produced by bilingual talkers. We constructed listening tests from 5-second phrases excerpted from fluent reading provided by the talkers. In the three experiments, we progressively simplified the response mode employed by the children as well as the cognitive load of the task. Even in the simplest version, only a third of the 4-year-olds could do the task while the 8-year old children performed above chance in all three experiments. The younger children tended to respond different more than same, as if their criterion for same was identify.

  5. Caries increment in children and urinary catecholamines: findings at one-year.

    PubMed

    Vanderas, A P; Manetas, K; Papagiannoulis, L

    2000-01-01

    This one-year follow-up study investigates the relationship between urinary catecholamine levels and dental caries increment in 314 children, boys and girls, ages six to eight years. Dental caries was recorded clinically and radiographically and oral hygiene was evaluated by recording the dental plaque. A 24-hour urine sample was collected for each subject, in a year interval, and a representative sample was analyzed by the HPLC technique to assay the catecholamine content. Socioeconomic factors such as parental age, education, and profession were recorded by a questionnaire distributed to the parents. Of the examined children, forty-four (16 boys and 28 girls) did not develop new dental caries and constituted the Caries-Free group. Two New Caries groups, A and B, of forty-four children each (16 boys and 28 girls) were matched by age and sex. Differences were tested in the quantitative and qualitative data by the paired t-test and the chi 2 test, respectively, while a regression analysis was applied to measure the effects of norepinephrine and dopamine on epinephrine. The logistic multiple-regression analysis was used to test, in the entire population, the impact of catecholamines and other related factors on the probability of a subject's developing new dental caries. The 95 percent probability was used. The results showed statistically significant differences in epinephrine and norepinephrine values between Caries-Free and New Caries group A in both examinations. Also, significant differences were found between Caries-Free and New Caries group B in epinephrine and norepinephrine at the first examination, while at the second examination the difference was significant only in epinephrine. The data provide evidence, therefore, that an emotionally stressful state can be an etiologic factor of dental caries.

  6. Remission After Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents With Anxiety Disorders: Findings From the CAMS

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Sakolsky, Dara; Piacentini, John; Walkup, John T.; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Iyengar, Satish; Kendall, Philip C.; Compton, Scott N.; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Rynn, Moira A.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7–17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of sertraline (SRT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical management with pill placebo (PBO). Method The primary definition of remission was loss of all study-entry anxiety disorder diagnoses; additional definitions of remission were used. All outcomes were rated by independent evaluators blind to treatment assignment. Predictors of remission were also examined. Results Remission rates after 12 weeks of treatment ranged from 46% to 68% for COMB, 34% to 46% for SRT, 20% to 46% for CBT, and 15% to 27% for PBO. Rates of remission (i.e., achieving a nearly symptom-free state) were significantly lower than rates of response (i.e., achieving a clinically meaningful improvement relative to baseline) for the entire sample. Youth who received COMB had significantly higher rates of remission compared to all other treatment groups. Both monotherapies had higher remission rates compared to PBO, but rates were not different from each other. Predictors of remission were younger age, nonminority status, lower baseline anxiety severity, absence of other internalizing disorders (e.g., anxiety, depression), and absence of social phobia. Conclusions For the majority of children, some symptoms of anxiety persisted, even among those showing improvement after 12 weeks of treatment, suggesting a need to augment or extend current treatments for some children. PMID:22122292

  7. Hydroxycarbamide treatment and brain MRI/MRA findings in children with sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Nottage, Kerri A; Ware, Russell E; Aygun, Banu; Smeltzer, Matthew; Kang, Guolian; Moen, Joseph; Wang, Winfred C; Hankins, Jane S; Helton, Kathleen J

    2016-10-01

    Silent cerebral infarction (SCI) is the most common neurological abnormality among children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). The effect of hydroxycarbamide (also termed hydroxyurea) on the development and progression of SCI is unclear. We evaluated brain magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA) in children with SCA receiving long-term hydroxycarbamide therapy. Fifty participants (median 9·4 years, range 1·1-17·3) enrolled in the Hydroxyurea Study of Long-Term Effects (HUSTLE; NCT00305175) underwent brain MRI/MRA and laboratory evaluations before hydroxycarbamide initiation and after 3 and 6 years of treatment to maximum tolerated dose. SCI and vascular stenosis were evaluated. At baseline, 3 and 6 years, SCI were present in 19/50 (38%), 20/49 (41%), and 7/17 (41%), respectively. At 3 years, one child developed a SCI lesion, and another progressed (single lesion to multiple). Lower haemoglobin (Hb) (80 g/l vs. 86 g/l, P = 0·049), fetal Hb (5·0% vs. 10·4%, P < 0·001) and oxygen saturation (97% vs. 98%, P = 0·027) before hydroxycarbamide initiation were associated with SCI. No patients had vascular stenosis identified on MRA, transient ischaemic attack or stroke. Our data indicate that children receiving hydroxycarbamide over a 3- to 6-year period have a low rate of new or worsening cerebrovascular disease. Further studies are needed to confirm that hydroxycarbamide can prevent the onset and progression of SCI.

  8. Parental alcoholism and offspring behavior problems: findings in Australian children of twins.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Mary; Martin, Nicholas G; Heath, Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    We examine the impact of rearing by an alcoholic parent on risk for child behavior problems using data on 2492 offspring drawn from two ongoing studies of children of female and male same- and opposite-sex twin pairs. Results of regression models predicting child behavior problems from parent and co-twin lifetime history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) provide support for genetic but not environmental transmission of externalizing and a measure of total problem behaviors. Results for internalizing behavior were inconclusive with respect to transmission of risk.

  9. The Effects of Activating the Money Concept on Perseverance and the Preference for Delayed Gratification in Children.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Agata; Sekścińska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behavior and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investigate the positive influence of money activation on children's behavior. The participants were 6-8 year old children who do not yet fully understand the instrumental function of money due to their young age. Two experimental studies were performed, the first of which analyzed the effect of perseverance and performance on a challenging task and the second investigated preferences with respect to delaying gratification. Sixty-one children aged 6 took part in the first study and forty-six scout camp participants 6-8 years of age were involved in the second experiment. The results support the hypotheses concerning the effects of money activation stating that (1) money activation influences children's perseverance and effectiveness in difficult individual tasks, and that (2) it increases children's preferences for delayed gratification. These results suggest that money has a symbolic power which may exert both positive and negative effects on children's behavior. Since children between the ages of 6 and 8 do not understand the instrumental function of money fully, certain symbolic meanings of money may have been responsible for the money priming effects. The findings suggest that the symbolic function of money is more primal than its instrumental function and that it probably develops at an earlier stage in life.

  10. Cost-Savings Analysis of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures Community-Based Project for Young Children and Their Families: A 10-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ray DeV; Petrunka, Kelly; Khan, Shahriar; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Nelson, Geoffrey; Pancer, S Mark; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the long-term cost-savings of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures (BBBF) initiative, a community-based early intervention project for young children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods during their transition to primary school. A quasi-experimental, longitudinal two-group design was used to compare costs and outcomes for children and families in three BBBF project neighborhoods (n = 401) and two comparison neighborhoods (n = 225). A cost-savings analysis was conducted using all project costs for providing up to 4 years of BBBF programs when children were in junior kindergarten (JK) (4 years old) to grade 2 (8 years old). Data on 19 government service cost measures were collected from the longitudinal research sample from the time the youth were in JK through to grade 12 (18 years old), 10 years after ending project participation. The average family incremental net savings to government of providing the BBBF project was $6331 in 2014 Canadian dollars. When the BBBF monetary return to government as a ratio of savings to costs was calculated, for every dollar invested by the government, a return of $2.50 per family was saved. Findings from this study have important implications for government investments in early interventions focused on a successful transition to primary school as well as parenting programs and community development initiatives in support of children's development.

  11. Brief Report: The Prevalence of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Deborah A; Bakian, Amanda V; Stevenson, David A; Carbone, Paul S; Cunniff, Christopher; Goodman, Alyson B; McMahon, William M; Fisher, Nicole P; Viskochil, David

    2016-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The frequency of ASD/NF1 co-occurrence has been subject to debate since the 1980s. This relationship was investigated in a large population-based sample of 8-year-old children identified with ASD (N = 12,271) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network. Twenty-two (1-in-558) children with ASD had diagnosed NF1, exceeding NF1 general population estimates by four to five fold. Children with ASD/NF1 versus ASD without NF1 were significantly less likely to receive a community-based ASD diagnosis (p = 0.04) and understand non-verbal communication (p = 0.001). These findings underscore the importance of including social-communication ability among relevant developmental concerns in children with NF1.

  12. Response to Stimulant Drug Treatment in Hyperactive Children: Prediction from EEG and Neurological Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, James H.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A study of neurological examinations, electroencephalographic findings, and behavioral responses to methylphenidate treatment in 57 hyperactive boys, 5 to 10 years of age, is reported and discussed. (Author/MC)

  13. Early visual language exposure and emergent literacy in preschool deaf children: findings from a national longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas E; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian

    2014-01-01

    Brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of literacy. Four analyses of data from the Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) Early Education Longitudinal Study are summarized. Each confirms findings from previously published laboratory findings and points to the positive effects of early sign language on, respectively, letter knowledge, social adaptability, sustained visual attention, and cognitive-behavioral milestones necessary for academic success. The article concludes with a consideration of the qualitative similarity hypothesis and a finding that the hypothesis is valid, but only if it can be presented as being modality independent.

  14. Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from Two Large National Samples.

    PubMed

    Soke, G N; Rosenberg, S A; Hamman, R F; Fingerlin, T; Rosenberg, C R; Carpenter, L; Lee, L C; Giarelli, E; Wiggins, L D; Durkin, M S; Reynolds, A; DiGuiseppi, C

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we explored potential associations among self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and a diverse group of protective and risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder from two databases: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network and the Autism Speaks-Autism Treatment Network (AS-ATN). The presence of SIB was determined from children's records in ADDM and a parent questionnaire in AS-ATN. We used multiple imputation to account for missing data and a non-linear mixed model with site as a random effect to test for associations. Despite differences between the two databases, similar associations were found; SIB were associated with developmental, behavioral, and somatic factors. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to possible etiology, future longitudinal studies, and clinical practice.

  15. Interpretation of hair findings in children: about a case involving carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal

    2014-06-01

    This office has been recently involved in a case dealing with child custody, where the final outcome was difficult to establish. The following concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the hair of a 21-month-old girl: 154 (0-1 cm), 198 (1-2 cm), 247 (2-3 cm), and 368 pg/mg (3-4 cm) after decontamination. Obviously, the concentrations measured in the hair were much lower than those observed in patients under daily treatment. In this sense, the frequency of exposures appears as infrequent (low level of exposure), with marked decrease in the more recent period. However, the girl was never prescribed carbamazepine and the mother, who was under carbamazepine therapy, denied any administration. The Judge asked if this could result from a single exposure and at which period. At least, three possible interpretations of the measured carbamazepine concentrations were addressed: (1) decrease in administration in the more recent period; (2) increase of body weight due to growing, so the same dosage will result in lower concentrations in hair; and (3) sweat contamination from the mother at the time the girl is with her in bed, the older hair being in contact longer with the bedding. In this case, it was impossible to conclude that the child was deliberately administered carbamazepine. The results of the analysis of hair could indicate that she was in an environment where carbamazepine was being used and where the drug was not being handled and stored with appropriate care. There are many differences between the hair from children and those from adults: hair from children is thinner and more porous, the ratio anagen and catagen phases are not maintained, and the growth rate can be different, at some periods, from the usual 1 cm/month. These differences, together with the influence of PK-PD parameters are reviewed in this paper, as a basis for suitable interpretation. In view of these results it is proposed that a single hair

  16. Age, Predisposing Diseases, and Ultrasonographic Findings in Determining Clinical Outcome of Acute Acalculous Inflammatory Gallbladder Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated clinical factors such as age, gender, predisposing diseases and ultrasonographic findings that determine clinical outcome of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder diseases in children. The patients were divided into the four age groups. From March 2004 through February 2014, clinical data from 131 children diagnosed as acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease by ultrasonography were retrospectively reviewed. Systemic infectious diseases were the most common etiology of acute inflammatory gallbladder disease in children and were identified in 50 patients (38.2%). Kawasaki disease was the most common predisposing disease (28 patients, 21.4%). The incidence was highest in infancy and lowest in adolescence. The age groups were associated with different predisposing diseases; noninfectious systemic disease was the most common etiology in infancy and early childhood, whereas systemic infectious disease was the most common in middle childhood and adolescence (P = 0.001). Gallbladder wall thickening was more commonly found in malignancy (100%) and systemic infection (94.0%) (P = 0.002), whereas gallbladder distension was more frequent in noninfectious systemic diseases (60%) (P = 0.000). Ascites seen on ultrasonography was associated with a worse clinical course compared with no ascites (77.9% vs. 37.7%, P = 0.030), and the duration of hospitalization was longer in patients with ascites (11.6 ± 10.7 vs. 8.0 ± 6.6 days, P = 0.020). In conclusion, consideration of age and predisposing disease in addition to ultrasonographic gallbladder findings in children suspected of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease might result in better outcomes. PMID:27550491

  17. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  18. Free afterschool program for at-risk African American children: findings and lessons.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Linda; Froeber, Deanna; Clinton, Barbara; Ruchman, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    A promising afterschool intervention to increase health knowledge and influence choices to reduce risks related to type II diabetes in school-aged, low-income, African American youth is described. Researchers used a community-based program called CASTLES (Communities and Students Together for Learning Enhanced Service). Repeated measures were used to test the effect of the afterschool program on exercise and nutrition. Forty-six children participated in this free program. Significant results demonstrated decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and screen time and increased exercise and health knowledge. Communities interested in influencing behaviors related to childhood obesity should develop strong community-based programs, such as the CASTLES model, incorporating nutrition information and structured physical activity.

  19. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance.

  20. Listening to Children of Divorce: New Findings That Diverge from Wallerstein, Lewis, and Blakeslee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews new findings on college students' perspectives on their living arrangements after their parents' divorces and their relations with their parents as a function of their living arrangements. Students endorsed living arrangements that gave them equal time with their fathers, they had better outcomes when they had such arrangements and when…

  1. "Don't Be Uneasy, My Children": Finding Strength in Stories of the Enslaved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Tackling challenging topics in history can be difficult, and sometimes teachers struggle to find age-appropriate ways to help students confront painful stories from the past. About four years ago, this author spearheaded a focus group with the purpose of taking on such a challenge. In the initial meetings, members of the group (four educators from…

  2. Theme analysis of narratives produced by children with and without Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Theme is defined within the Systemic-Functional Linguistics framework as the point of the departure for the clause and therefore important for text organisation. Aspects of theme are examined in the elicited narratives and story retells from a group of 25 5-8 year-old children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and a group of 25 age-matched children with Typically Developing Language. The analysis indicated that subjects with SLI used less variety and complexity in themes with more than one element but this is suggested to reflect localised lexicogrammatical problems. Analysis of the aspects of theme which are more reliant on text-level resources, namely marked theme and theme progression patterns, yielded equivocal results. No significant inter-group difference was found in the subjects' representation of marked Theme and only one of the two progression patterns showed a significant difference. These findings are discussed in relation to the theoretical implications for the description of narrative abilities in SLI.

  3. Children's allocation of resources in social dominance situations.

    PubMed

    Charafeddine, Rawan; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice; Kaufmann, Laurence; Reboul, Anne; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-11-01

    Two experiments with preschoolers (36 to 78 months) and 8-year-old children (Experiment 1, N = 173; Experiment 2, N = 132) investigated the development of children's resource distribution in dominance contexts. On the basis of the distributive justice literature, 2 opposite predictions were tested. Children could match resource allocation with the unequal social setting they observe and thus favor a dominant individual over a subordinate 1. Alternatively, children could choose to compensate the subordinate if they consider that the dominance asymmetry should be counteracted. Two experiments using a giving task (Experiment 1) and a taking task (Experiment 2) led to the same results. In both experiments, children took dominance into account when allocating resources. Moreover, their distributive decisions were similarly affected by age: Although 3- and 4-year-old children favored the dominant individual, 5-year-old children showed no preference and 8-year-old children strongly favored the subordinate. Several mechanisms accounting for this developmental pattern are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Changes in Rate of Learning in Autistic Children Following 9 Months on a Gluten-Free Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontino, Jamie Lyn; Schaal, Kelly; Chambliss, Catherine

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the effects of a gluten-free diet on three males with autism between the ages of 5 to 8 years old. All subjects were also participants in prior studies on the effects of the gluten-free diet on the learning processes of children with autism in an applied behavioral analysis program.…

  5. Writing for a Reader: Displays of a Developing Sense of Audience in 7-8 Year Old Writers. Final Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raban, Bridie

    One of the tasks for the British National Curriculum Council has been to identify steps toward proficiency in the English language and, on that basis, issue descriptions of appropriate progress for students at each level and stage. There is a danger that teachers may view these steps as a linear sequence of accomplishments, each to be achieved in…

  6. ABCA3 mutations led to pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with pulmonary hypertension in an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Ota, Chiharu; Kimura, Masato; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-06-01

    ABCA3 is highly expressed in alveolar epithelial type 2 cells and is associated with surfactant homeostasis. Patients with ABCA3 mutations develop various respiratory complications, such as fatal respiratory distress syndrome or interstitial lung disease. We describe a patient with pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with pulmonary hypertension, associated with compound heterozygous mutations of the ABCA3 gene. This is the first report showing that mutations in the ABCA3 gene lead to pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, including combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, in childhood. Treatment with prostacyclin analogue, warfarin, and inhaled oxygen was effective to improve patient's hemodynamic condition as well as pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:E21-E23. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Double-Layered Lateral Meniscus in an 8-Year-Old Child: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Mitsuhiko; Imai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Reports of congenital abnormalities of the lateral meniscus include discoid meniscus, accessory meniscus, double-layered meniscus, and ring-shaped meniscus. Particularly, only a few cases of double-layered meniscus have been reported. We report a case of double-layered lateral meniscus, in which an additional semicircular meniscus was observed under the normal lateral meniscus. The accessory hemimeniscus was resected by means of arthroscopic surgery. This case demonstrates an interesting and extremely rare anatomical abnormality of the lateral meniscus. PMID:27833770

  8. Chiari type I malformation, syncope, headache, hypoglycemia and hepatic steatosis in an 8-year old girl: a causal association?

    PubMed Central

    Tarani, Luigi; Del Balzo, Francesca; Costantino, Francesco; Properzi, Enrico; D’Eufemia, Patrizia; Liberati, Natascia; Spalice, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Chiari type I malformation (CMI) is a congenital hindbrain anomaly characterized by downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Chiari type I malformation often presents with a complex clinical picture and can be sporadic or linked to a variety of genetic conditions. We report on a girl in whom Chiari type I malformation was associated with hypoglycemia, headache, vertigo, syncope and hepatic steatosis. We hypothesize that these symptoms are primarily a consequence of Chiari type I malformation. PMID:21589844

  9. Impact of an 8-Year-Old Transgenic Poplar Plantation on the Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Séguin, Armand; Bérubé, Jean A.; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term impact of field-deployed genetically modified trees on soil mutualistic organisms is not well known. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of poplars transformed with a binary vector containing the selectable nptII marker and β-glucuronidase reporter genes on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi 8 years after field deployment. We generated 2,229 fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR products from 1,150 EM root tips and 1,079 fungal soil clones obtained from the organic and mineral soil horizons within the rhizosphere of three control and three transformed poplars. Fifty EM fungal operational taxonomic units were identified from the 1,706 EM fungal ITS amplicons retrieved. Rarefaction curves from both the root tips and soil clones were close to saturation, indicating that most of the EM species present were recovered. Based on qualitative and/or quantitative α- and β-diversity measurements, statistical analyses did not reveal significant differences between EM fungal communities associated with transformed poplars and the untransformed controls. However, EM communities recovered from the root tips and soil cloning analyses differed significantly from each other. We found no evidence of difference in the EM fungal community structure linked to the long-term presence of the transgenic poplars studied, and we showed that coupling root tip analysis with a soil DNA cloning strategy is a complementary approach to better document EM fungal diversity. PMID:19801471

  10. [Destructive mastoiditis with thrombosis of the sigmoid sinus in a 8 year-old child presenting with concomitant chicken pox].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Polunin, M M; Ivanenko, A M; Poliakov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The specific clinical feature of mastoidities that developed in a patient presenting with chicken pox was the rapid progress in temporal bone destruction with partial thrombosis of the sigmoid sinusis in the absence of typical manifestations of mastoiditis. The pronounced destructive changes found in a series of CT images were regarded as the indications for urgent antromastoidotomy with the puncture of the sigmoid sinusis.

  11. Visceral larva migrans syndrome: analysis of serum cytokine levels in children with hepatic lesions confirmed in radiological findings.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, K; Jończyk, K; Modlińska-Cwalińska, A; Figlerowicz, M; Służewski, W

    2014-12-01

    Human toxocariasis is a helminth zoonosis resulting from accidental infection of humans by the roundworms Toxocara canis (T. canis) and cati (T. cati). The infection occurs in five forms: systemic (VLM), ocular, neurological, covert and asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to characterize the radiological and immunological findings in hepatic inflammation during the course of systemic infection by Toxocara sp. in children. Fifteen children, 2 to 17 years of age, with serological diagnosis of T. canis infection underwent abdominal ultrasonography and computer tomography (CT). Eosinophil counts, immunoglobulin E titres, interleukins IL-1α, IL-4, Il-6, IL-10 and interferon gamma were measured for all patients. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple hypoechoic areas in the livers of all patients. On the CT images, the hepatic lesions were seen as multiple, ill-defined, oval low-attenuating nodules that measured 6 to 9 millimetres in diameter. The nodules were usually best seen in the portal venous phase and were not seen on arterial-phase images. Significant intergroup differences were observed in the concentrations of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10. The level of IFN-γ was not significantly elevated in patient sera relative to controls. The analysis shows that the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines is insufficient for granuloma formation in children presenting liver lesions in the course of VLM.

  12. Intervening to alleviate word-finding difficulties in children: case series data and a computational modelling foundation.

    PubMed

    Best, W; Fedor, A; Hughes, L; Kapikian, A; Masterson, J; Roncoli, S; Fern-Pollak, L; Thomas, M S C

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a simple computational model of productive vocabulary acquisition, applied to simulating two case studies of 7-year-old children with developmental word-finding difficulties across four core behavioural tasks. Developmental models were created, which captured the deficits of each child. In order to predict the effects of intervention, we exposed the computational models to simulated behavioural interventions of two types, targeting the improvement of either phonological or semantic knowledge. The model was then evaluated by testing the predictions from the simulations against the actual results from an intervention study carried out with the two children. For one child it was predicted that the phonological intervention would be effective, and the semantic intervention would not. This was borne out in the behavioural study. For the second child, the predictions were less clear and depended on the nature of simulated damage to the model. The behavioural study found an effect of semantic but not phonological intervention. Through an explicit computational simulation, we therefore employed intervention data to evaluate our theoretical understanding of the processes underlying acquisition of lexical items for production and how they may vary in children with developmental language difficulties.

  13. BCG vaccination of children against leprosy: seven-year findings of the controlled WHO trial in Burma*

    PubMed Central

    Bechelli, L. M.; Garbajosa, P. Gallego; Gyi, Mg Mg; Uemura, K.; Sundaresan, T.; Domínguez, V. Martínez; Matejka, M.; Tamondong, C.; Quagliato, R.; Engler, V.; Altmann, M.

    1973-01-01

    A controlled study of the efficacy of BCG vaccination for the prevention of leprosy began in Burma at the end of August 1964. This paper presents the findings after 7 years—i.e., the results of 6 annual follow-up examinations up to the end of June 1971. The incidence rate in BCG-vaccinated children 0-4 years of age at intake was lower than that in children in the control group. The protection conferred by BCG was relatively low (44%) and applied only to early cases of leprosy, the great majority tuberculoid cases. BCG vaccination did not protect household contacts or children 5-14 years of age who were not exposed in the household. This reduction must be interpreted in the light of several factors: form of leprosy, bacterial status, lepromin reactivity, evolution of cases, and level of endemicity. Consequently it does not seem probable that the reduction in incidence would substantially affect the pattern or trend of the disease in an area similar to that where the study is being carried out; the probability would be much lower if not nil in regions of relatively low endemicity (1-2 per 1 000 or less). PMID:4270384

  14. Internet Use by Parents of Children With Rare Conditions: Findings From a Study on Parents’ Web Information Needs

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, Honor; Tracey, Catherine; Begley, Thelma; King, Carole

    2017-01-01

    Background Parents of children with rare conditions increasingly use the Internet to source information on their child’s condition. This study reports on part of a larger study whose overall aim was to identify the Internet use by parents when seeking information on their child’s rare condition, with the specific purpose of using the findings to aid in the development of a website specifically designed to meet the parents’ needs. It presents findings on why these parents use the Internet, the information and support content they source, and the impact these resources have on their capacity to care for and manage their child’s condition. Objective To (1) ascertain parents’ general Internet usage patterns, (2) identify the nature of the information parents most frequently searched for, and (3) determine the effect the Internet-sourced information had on parents of children with rare conditions. Methods Data collection was conducted in 2 parts: Part 1 was a focus group interview (n=8) to inform the development of the questionnaire, and Part 2 was a questionnaire (Web- and paper-based). All respondents (N=128) completed the questionnaire using the Internet. Results Parents frequently and habitually used the Internet and social media to gather information on their child’s condition. These Web-based resources provide parents with a parent-to-parent support platform that allows them to share their experiences and information with other parents, which, the respondents considered, improved their knowledge and understanding of their child’s condition. The respondents also reported that these resources positively impacted on their decision making, care, and management of their child’s condition. However, they reported receiving mixed responses when wishing to engage and share with health care professionals their Internet and social media interactions and information outcomes. Conclusions This study adds to the emerging body of research on the Internet use by

  15. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  16. Same or different? ERP correlates of pretense and false belief reasoning in children.

    PubMed

    Kühn-Popp, N; Sodian, B; Sommer, M; Döhnel, K; Meinhardt, J

    2013-09-17

    Pretend play, emerging at about 18 months, and explicit false belief (FB) understanding, arising around 4 years, constitute two pivotal milestones in the development of a Theory of Mind since both involve the ability to separate real from non-real content. The developmental lag has evoked vivid discussion with respect to whether or not pretense (PT) involves a metarepresentational understanding similar to FB. However, in children PT and FB have not yet been contrasted on a neural level to reveal whether they are subserved by the same neurocognitive mechanism. Therefore, the present event-related potential (ERP) study compared PT to a FB and to a non-mental control condition in 6- to 8-year-old children. Results revealed distinct ERP components for PT and FB. PT elicited a parietal P2, which was assumed to reflect the detection of incongruence, and a negative frontal slow wave (290-600 ms), which was associated with the identification of the intention underlying the pretend behavior. In contrast, FB evoked the characteristic positive fronto-central late slow wave (290-920 ms) that is supposed to indicate metarepresentation. Further, the broad distribution of the anterior slow-wave patterns associated with PT and FB reasoning was assumed to reflect the ongoing structural development and neural specialization of the respective areas, indicating the developmental progress in conceptualizing the mental domain. Given the differences in latency, polarity, and topography, PT and FB seem to rely on distinct neural substrates in children. The early negative frontal slow wave indicates that for PT reasoning children may use simple mentalizing processes such as intention processing, whereas the late positive slow-wave shows that for FB children may engage in metarepresentational processing. Therefore, the present findings seem to substantiate theoretical accounts postulating simple mentalistic reasoning for PT in children.

  17. Interpersonal Engagement Mediates the Relation between Maternal Affect and Externalising Behaviour in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children’s capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID

  18. Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism.

    PubMed

    Dilber, Cengiz; Calışkan, Mine; Sönmezoğlu, Kerim; Nişli, Serap; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Tatlı, Burak; Aydınlı, Nur; Ekici, Barış; Özmen, Meral

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) findings in patients diagnosed with infantile spasms and autism. This study includes 90 patients who were diagnosed with infantile spasms at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in the Istanbul University Medical Faculty between 1995 and 2007. Of the 90 patients, 15 patients who were diagnosed with autism using the Autism Behaviour Checklist and Childhood Autism Rating Scale and a control group of nine patients without autism but with infantile spasms underwent PET examination. Mean patient age (± standard error, SE) varied between 3 years and 16 years (7.8 ± 4 years), while the mean follow-up time (±SE) varied between 2 years and 16 years (average: 7.1 ± 4 years). Autism was present in 11 patients with symptomatic spasms and in four patients with cryptogenic spasms (p=0.009). On the PET scans of the 15 patients with autism, 13 (86.7%) had significantly decreased metabolic activity in the temporal lobe (p<0.001), nine (60%) had significantly decreased activity in the frontal lobe (p=0.004), and seven (46.7%) had significantly decreased activity in the parietal lobe (p=0.022). In our opinion, hypometabolism in the frontal and parietal lobes, in addition to that previously reported in the temporal lobe, plays a role in the development of autism in patients with infantile spasms.

  19. Usability and Feasibility of an Internet-Based Virtual Pedestrian Environment to Teach Children to Cross Streets Safely

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; McClure, Leslie A.; Severson, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Child pedestrian injury is a preventable global health challenge. Successful training efforts focused on child behavior, including individualized streetside training and training in large virtual pedestrian environments, are laborious and expensive. This study considers the usability and feasibility of a virtual pedestrian environment “game” application to teach children safe street-crossing behavior via the internet, a medium that could be broadly disseminated at low cost. Ten 7- and 8-year-old children participated. They engaged in an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment and completed a brief assessment survey. Researchers rated children's behavior while engaged in the game. Both self-report and researcher observations indicated the internet-based system was readily used by the children without adult support. The youth understood how to engage in the system and used it independently and attentively. The program also was feasible. It provided multiple measures of pedestrian safety that could be used for research or training purposes. Finally, the program was rated by children as engaging and educational. Researcher ratings suggested children used the program with minimal fidgeting or boredom. The pilot test suggests an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment offers a usable, feasible, engaging, and educational environment for child pedestrian safety training. If future research finds children learn the cognitive and perceptual skills needed to cross streets safely within it, internet-based training may provide a low-cost medium to broadly disseminate child pedestrian safety training. The concept may be generalized to other domains of health-related functioning such as teen driving safety, adolescent sexual risk-taking, and adolescent substance use. PMID:24678263

  20. Usability and Feasibility of an Internet-Based Virtual Pedestrian Environment to Teach Children to Cross Streets Safely.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A; Severson, Joan

    2014-03-01

    Child pedestrian injury is a preventable global health challenge. Successful training efforts focused on child behavior, including individualized streetside training and training in large virtual pedestrian environments, are laborious and expensive. This study considers the usability and feasibility of a virtual pedestrian environment "game" application to teach children safe street-crossing behavior via the internet, a medium that could be broadly disseminated at low cost. Ten 7- and 8-year-old children participated. They engaged in an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment and completed a brief assessment survey. Researchers rated children's behavior while engaged in the game. Both self-report and researcher observations indicated the internet-based system was readily used by the children without adult support. The youth understood how to engage in the system and used it independently and attentively. The program also was feasible. It provided multiple measures of pedestrian safety that could be used for research or training purposes. Finally, the program was rated by children as engaging and educational. Researcher ratings suggested children used the program with minimal fidgeting or boredom. The pilot test suggests an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment offers a usable, feasible, engaging, and educational environment for child pedestrian safety training. If future research finds children learn the cognitive and perceptual skills needed to cross streets safely within it, internet-based training may provide a low-cost medium to broadly disseminate child pedestrian safety training. The concept may be generalized to other domains of health-related functioning such as teen driving safety, adolescent sexual risk-taking, and adolescent substance use.

  1. Do cherished children age successfully? Longitudinal findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lewina O; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K; Wang, Joyce M; Spiro, Avron

    2015-12-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (a) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains, (b) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life, and (c) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M = 69, SD = 7). Analyses yielded 3 profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and nonnormative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed 7 years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n = 496; age: M = 76, SD = 7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife.

  2. Lyme disease-related intracranial hypertension in children: clinical and imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Ramgopal, Sriram; Obeid, Rawad; Zuccoli, Giulio; Cleves-Bayon, Catalina; Nowalk, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne infection that is endemic to multiple areas of the United States. Patients with LD may present with sign and symptoms of intracranial hypertension (IH). The objective of this study is to evaluate the history, clinical findings, CSF analysis, and brain imaging results in pediatric patients with increased intracranial pressure secondary to LD. A retrospective database search was performed using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9/10 codes to identify patients diagnosed with LD and IH between 2004 and 2014 at a tertiary referral pediatric hospital. Clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging data for each patient were reviewed. Seven patients met inclusion criteria; mean age was 9.6 years (standard deviation 4.0 years); 4/7 patients were male. Average body mass index was 18.8 kg/m(2) (standard deviation 3.0 kg/m(2)). Fever was present in four patients. Four had a history of LD related erythema migrans. All had elevated CSF opening pressure with leukocytosis and lymphocytic predominance. MRI obtained in six patients showed contrast enhancement of various cranial nerves. Tentorial enhancement was noted in all patients. In addition, patients had widening of the optic nerve sheath (ONS), optic nerve protrusion, and flattening of the posterior globe consistent with increased intracranial pressure. All patients had resolution of their symptoms after initiation of antibiotic therapy. In endemic areas, LD should be included in the differential of IH. MRI can help distinguish IH due to LD from its idiopathic form due to the presence of tentorial and cranial nerve enhancement in the former in addition to abnormal CSF showing leukocytosis with lymphocyte predominance.

  3. Do Cherished Children Age Successfully? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lewina O.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Wang, Joyce M.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (1) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains; (2) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life; and (3) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M=69, SD=7). Analyses yielded three profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and non-normative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed seven years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n=496; age: M=76, SD=7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife. PMID:26436456

  4. Aluminum phosphide fatalities at mild exertion in asymptomatic children: a clue to understand the variations of the autopsy findings.

    PubMed

    Abder-Rahman, Hasan A

    2009-08-01

    Fatalities resulted from aluminium phosphide (ALP) intoxication in completely healthy children with no preceded clinical sings or symptoms were presented. Data regarding circumstances, autopsy reports, histopathological examination, toxicological investigation, and police enquiries were also collected and evaluated. The affected children were females, and 6-16 years old. They were completely healthy and died suddenly in relation to some physical activities such as running, walking, and bathing, without any prior complain. The viscera showed intense congestion with moderate to severe pulmonary edema. The cause of the sudden termination of life in the reported cases is mostly cardiac ones. Physical exertion may precipitate death due to increased cardiac stress, increased oxygen demand, and by aggravating metabolic acidosis. The absence of clinical symptoms before death may be due to the low level ALP, or due to the occurrence of death in the early stages after exposure to poison. Death due to ALP could result in cases of mild, moderate, or severe ALP intoxication. This may explain partly the differences encountered in clinical, autopsy, and histopathology findings of ALP intoxication. Fatalities are not the mere consequences of the dose of the poison, but factors such as physical activity and low oxygen level may be quite important.

  5. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched children with normal vision. After seeing a first symbol (an Lea Hyvärinen [LH] symbol), children were instructed to (1) move the stand magnifier as quickly as possible toward a small target symbol (another LH symbol that could only be seen by using the magnifier), (2) compare the two symbols, and (3) move the magnifier to one of two response areas to indicate whether the two symbols were identical. Performance was measured in terms of accuracy, response time, identification time, and movement time. Viewing distance, as well as hand and eye dominance while using the magnifier was assessed. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Contrary to the prediction, children with visual impairment required less time to identify small symbols than children with normal vision. Both within-subject and between-subject variability in viewing distance were smaller in the visually impaired group than in the normally sighted group. In the visually impaired group, a larger viewing distance was associated with shorter identification time, which in turn was associated with higher accuracy. In the normally sighted group, a faster movement with the magnifier and a faster identification were associated with increasing age. Conclusion: The findings indicate that children with visual impairment can use the stand magnifier adequately and efficiently. The normally sighted children show an age-related development in movement time and identification time and show more variability in viewing distance, which is not found in visually impaired children. Visually impaired

  6. Relationship Between Family Economic Resources, Psychosocial Well-being, and Educational Preferences of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Southern Uganda: Baseline Findings.

    PubMed

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Nabunya, Proscovia; Ilic, Vilma; Mukasa, Miriam N; Ddamulira, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between economic resources, psychosocial well-being, and educational preferences of AIDS-orphaned children in southern Uganda. We use baseline data from a sample of 1410 AIDS-orphaned children (defined as children who have lost one or both biological parents to AIDS) enrolled in the Bridges to the Future study, a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) funded study. Analyses from both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicate the following: 1) despite the well-documented economic and psychosocial challenges AIDS-orphaned children face, many of these children have high educational plans and aspirations; 2) educational aspirations differ by orphanhood status (double orphan vs. single orphan); 3) regardless of orphanhood status, children report similar levels of psychosocial well-being; 4) high levels of family cohesion, positive perceptions of the future, school satisfaction, and lower levels of hopelessness (hopefulness) are associated with high educational aspirations; and 5) reported family economic resources at baseline, all seem to play a role in predicting children's educational preferences and psychosocial well-being. These findings suggest that the focus for care and support of orphaned children should not be limited to addressing their psychosocial needs. Addressing the economic needs of the households in which orphaned children live is equally important. Indeed, in the context of extreme poverty-in which most of the children represented in this study live-addressing structural factors, including poverty, may be a key driver in addressing their psychosocial functioning.

  7. Implicit Mentalizing Persists beyond Early Childhood and Is Profoundly Impaired in Children with Autism Spectrum Condition

    PubMed Central

    Schuwerk, Tobias; Jarvers, Irina; Vuori, Maria; Sodian, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Implicit mentalizing, a fast, unconscious and rigid way of processing other’s mental states has recently received much interest in typical social cognitive development in early childhood and in adults with autism spectrum condition (ASC). This research suggests that already infants implicitly mentalize, and that adults with ASC have a sustained implicit mentalizing deficit. Yet, we have only sparse empirical evidence on implicit mentalizing beyond early childhood, and deviations thereof in children with ASC. Here, we administered an implicit mentalizing eye tracking task to assess the sensitivity to false beliefs to a group of 8-year-old children with and without ASC, matched for chronological age, verbal and non-verbal IQ. As previous research suggested that presenting outcomes of belief-based actions leads to fast learning from experience and false belief-congruent looking behavior in adults with ASC, we were also interested in whether already children with ASC learn from such information. Our results provide support for a persistent implicit mentalizing ability in neurotypical development beyond early childhood. Further, they confirmed an implicit mentalizing deficit in children with ASC, even when they are closely matched to controls for explicit mentalizing skills. In contrast to previous findings with adults, no experience-based modulation of anticipatory looking was observed. It seems that children with ASC have not yet developed compensatory general purpose learning mechanisms. The observed intact explicit, but impaired implicit mentalizing in ASC, and correlation patterns between mentalizing tasks and executive function tasks, are in line with theories on two dissociable mentalizing systems. PMID:27840620

  8. Feedback of research findings for vaccine trials: experiences from two malaria vaccine trials involving healthy children on the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Gikonyo, Caroline; Kamuya, Dorcas; Mbete, Bibi; Njuguna, Patricia; Olotu, Ally; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Vicki; Molyneux, Sassy

    2013-04-01

    Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an 'ethical imperative' or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account.

  9. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C; Lemmink, K A P M; Hartman, E

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Their performance was compared with 48 children without VI (33 males, 15 females; mean age 8y 9mo [SD 1y 1mo]). Children with VI showed the poorest performance compared with peers without VI on unimanual speed, eye-hand coordination, catching, static balance, and dynamic balance while moving slowly. There was no significant difference between children with moderate and severe VI, except for bimanual coordination in 7- to 8-year-olds and eye-hand coordination in both the 7- to 8-year-olds and 9- to 10-year-olds, favouring the children with moderate VI. The poor performance compared with children without VI is related to vision, but the degree of the VI does not appear to relate to motor performance, except when associated with bimanual and eye-hand coordination. For children with VI, it seems very important to adjust the environmental context and task to enhance motor performance.

  10. Going solo: Findings from a survey of women aging without a partner and who do not have children.

    PubMed

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Lambert, Nicky; Long, Ellouise; Brady, Dominique

    2016-08-15

    Greater longevity in the UK population has led to the increasing diversity of women experiencing aging in a multitude of ways. Internationally, gender inequalities in aging are still relatively invisible within both government policy and everyday life for particular groups of women. This article explores the concept of women growing older "solo"-by which we mean women who find themselves nonpartnered and aging without children as they move into later life. We report on the findings from a mixed-methods survey of 76 solo women in the UK aged 50 years and over, used to provide a broader overview of the issues and challenges they face as they move into later life. Qualitative data from the survey captured respondents' perspectives about the links between their relationships status and well-being in later life and highlighted specific cumulative disadvantages emerging for some women as a result of their solo lifestyles. We discuss two key themes that were identified, "solo-loneliness" and "meaningful futures," in conjunction with the relevant literature and make suggestions for future research within gender and aging studies that could enhance more positive approaches to solo lifestyles.

  11. Online Information Exchanges for Parents of Children With a Rare Health Condition: Key Findings From an Online Support Community

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John; Andsager, Julie; Morcuende, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet provides new opportunities for parents of children with difficult illnesses and disabilities to find information and support. The Internet is particularly important for caregivers of children with special needs due to numerous health-related decisions they face. For at-risk populations, online support communities can become key settings and channels for health promotion and communication. Objective This study is an initial exploration of the information-seeking and information-provision processes present in an online support community, which is an area of opportunity and interest for Internet-based medical research and practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe information-related processes of uncertainty management in relationship to clubfoot. Specifically, the study explored interpersonal communication (information seeking and provision) in an online support community serving the needs of parents of children with clubfoot. Methods The study population consisted of messages posted to an online community by caregivers (parents) of children with clubfoot. The theoretical framework informing the study was the Uncertainty Management Theory (UMT). The study used content analysis to explore and categorize the content of 775 messages. Results Women authored 664 of 775 messages (86%) and men authored 47 messages (6%). Caregivers managed uncertainty through information seeking and provision behaviors that were dynamic and multilayered. The ratio of information-seeking messages to information-provision responses was 1 to 4. All five types of information-seeking behaviors proposed by Brashers’ schema were identified, most of them being correlated. Information seeking using direct questions was found to be positively correlated to self-disclosure (r=.538), offering of a candidate answer (r=.318), and passive information seeking (r=.253). Self-disclosure was found to be positively correlated to provision of a candidate answer (r=.324

  12. Associations between grip strength of parents and their 4-year-old children: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Inskip, Hazel; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Kapasi, Tasneem; Robinson, Siân; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between birthweight and grip strength throughout the life course suggest that early influences on the growth and development of muscle are important for long-term muscle function. However, little is known about parental influences on children's grip strength. We have explored this in the Southampton Women's Survey, a prospective general population cohort study from before conception through childhood. Grip strength was measured using a Jamar handgrip dynamometer in the mother at 19 weeks' gestation and her partner, and in the child at age 4 years. Pre-pregnancy heights and weights were measured in the mothers; reported weights and measured heights were available for the fathers. Complete data on parents and children were available for 444 trios. In univariable analyses, both parents' grip strengths were significantly associated with that of the child (r = 0.17, P < 0.001 for mothers; r = 0.15, P = 0.002 for fathers). These correlations were similar to that between the grip strength of the mothers and the fathers (r = 0.17, P < 0.001). In the multivariable model, after adjustment for child's height and physical activity, the correlations with the child's grip strength were attenuated, being 0.10 (P = 0.02) and 0.11 (P = 0.01) for mothers' and fathers' grip strength respectively. The findings show that grip strength of each parent is associated with that of the child, indicating that heritable influences and the shared family environment influence the development of muscle strength. This contributes to our understanding of the role of heritable and environmental factors on early muscle growth and development, which are important for muscle function across the life course.

  13. SKI*HI Home-Based Programming for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Recent Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Carol J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data relating to 2,768 children served by the SKI*HI model of early, home-based programming for children with hearing impairments revealed that SKI*HI children, on average, were identified by 18 months of age, had higher rates of language development during intervention than prior to intervention, and had greater language gains than expected based…

  14. Public Knowledge and Assessment of Child Mental Health Problems: Findings from the National Stigma Study-Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Jensen, Peter S.; Martin, Jack K.; Perry, Brea L.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Fettes, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the general public's perceptions of, and response to, mental disorders in children by using the National Stigma Study-Children. Results concluded that lack of knowledge, skepticism, and misinformed beliefs are the reasons for low utilization rates for children's mental health problems.

  15. Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program, Evaluation Findings: Annual Report to Congress 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report to Congress provides critical information about the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program (CMHI), including the characteristics of children, youth, and families as they enter the CMHI; the outcomes attained for children and youth, and their caregivers and families after entry into the…

  16. Preliminary findings on associations between moral emotions and social behavior in young children with normal hearing and with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-11-01

    Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Androgen and the development of human sex-typical behavior: rough-and-tumble play and sex of preferred playmates in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

    PubMed

    Hines, M; Kaufman, F R

    1994-08-01

    We hypothesized that girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), who experience higher than normal levels of androgens prenatally, would show masculinization of behaviors that show sex differences. Therefore, we examined rough-and-tumble play and sex of preferred playmates in 3-8-year-old children with CAH and in unaffected 3-8-year-old male and female relatives. The hypothesized sex differences in rough-and-tumble play were seen, with unaffected boys showing more rough-and-tumble play than unaffected girls. However, CAH girls were similar to unaffected girls. Additionally, CAH boys showed reduced rough-and-tumble play. In contrast, sex of preferred playmates showed the hypothesized pattern of results. There were sex differences, with unaffected boys preferring boys and unaffected girls preferring girls. In addition, the preferences of girls with CAH were masculinized compared to those of unaffected girls. Results are discussed in terms of possible influences of social, hormonal, and illness factors.

  18. Temporal Bisection in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Trained 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds in temporal bisection task, with nonstandard comparison stimuli spaced linearly between short or long standard visual stimuli. Statistical analyses and results from different theoretical models of the data all suggested that temporal sensitivity was higher in the 8-year-olds than in younger groups, even when the…

  19. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in cherubism--clinical, radiological and histological findings in two children.

    PubMed

    Hero, M; Suomalainen, A; Hagström, J; Stoor, P; Kontio, R; Alapulli, H; Arte, S; Toiviainen-Salo, S; Lahdenne, P; Mäkitie, O

    2013-01-01

    Cherubism is a rare and disfiguring genetic disorder with excessive bone resorption and multilocular lesions in the mandible and/or maxilla. The disease-causing gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene result in increased myeloid cell responses to macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANK ligand, formation of hyperactive osteoclasts (giant cells), and hyper-reactive macrophages that produce excessive amounts of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Recent findings in the cherubism mouse model suggest that TNF-α plays a major role in disease pathogenesis and that removal of TNF-α prevents development of the bone phenotype. We treated two children with cherubism with the TNF-α antagonist adalimumab for approximately 2.5 years and collected extensive clinical, radiological and histological follow-up data during the treatment. Histologically the treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells and TNF-α staining positivity in both patients. As evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions in Patient 1 showed either moderate enlargement (mandibular symphysis) or remained stable (mandibular rami and body, the maxilla). In Patient 2, the lesions in mandibular symphysis showed enlargement during the first 8 months of treatment, and thereafter the lesions remained unchanged. Bone formation and resorption markers remained unaffected. The treatment was well tolerated. Based on our findings, TNF-α antagonist may decrease the formation of pathogenic giant cells, but does not result in lesion regression or prevent lesion expansion in active cherubism. TNF-α modulator treatment thus does not appear to provide sufficient amelioration for patients suffering from cherubism.

  20. EEG spectral power in phasic and tonic REM sleep: different patterns in young adults and children.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Szakadát, Sára; Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is composed of phasic and tonic periods, two distinguishable microstates in terms of arousal thresholds and sensory processing. Background electroencephalogram oscillations are also different between periods with (phasic state) and periods without (tonic state) eye movements. In Study 1, previous findings analysing electroencephalogram spectral power in phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep were replicated, and analyses extended to the high gamma range (52-90 Hz). In Study 2, phasic and tonic spectral power differences within a group of 4-8-year-old children were examined. Based on the polysomnographic data of 20 young adults, the phasic state yielded increased delta and theta power in anterior sites, as well as generally decreased high alpha and beta power in comparison to the tonic state. Moreover, phasic periods exhibited greater spectral power in the lower and the higher gamma band. Interestingly, children (n = 18) exhibited a different pattern, showing increased activity in the low alpha range during phasic periods. Moreover, during phasic in contrast to tonic rapid eye movement sleep, increased low and high gamma and enhanced low gamma band power emerged in anterior and posterior regions, respectively. The current findings show that spectral activity within the high gamma range substantially contributes to the differences between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep, especially in adults. Moreover, the current data underscore the heterogeneity of rapid eye movement sleep, and point to marked differences between young adults and children regarding phasic/tonic electroencephalogram spectral power. These results suggest that the differentiation between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement periods undergoes maturation.

  1. The Effects of Activating the Money Concept on Perseverance and the Preference for Delayed Gratification in Children

    PubMed Central

    Trzcińska, Agata; Sekścińska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behavior and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investigate the positive influence of money activation on children’s behavior. The participants were 6–8 year old children who do not yet fully understand the instrumental function of money due to their young age. Two experimental studies were performed, the first of which analyzed the effect of perseverance and performance on a challenging task and the second investigated preferences with respect to delaying gratification. Sixty-one children aged 6 took part in the first study and forty-six scout camp participants 6–8 years of age were involved in the second experiment. The results support the hypotheses concerning the effects of money activation stating that (1) money activation influences children’s perseverance and effectiveness in difficult individual tasks, and that (2) it increases children’s preferences for delayed gratification. These results suggest that money has a symbolic power which may exert both positive and negative effects on children’s behavior. Since children between the ages of 6 and 8 do not understand the instrumental function of money fully, certain symbolic meanings of money may have been responsible for the money priming effects. The findings suggest that the symbolic function of money is more primal than its instrumental function and that it probably develops at an earlier stage in life. PMID:27199842

  2. Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Gene Expression Patterns and Metabolic Parameters in Habitually Snoring and Non-Snoring Children with Normal Polysomnographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Gharib, Sina A.; Kim, Jinkwan; Capdevila, Oscar Sans; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Hegazi, Mohamed; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children who snore but do not have gas exchange abnormalities or alterations of sleep architecture have primary snoring (PS). Since increasing evidence suggest that PS may be associated with morbidity, we hypothesized that assessing genome-wide gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) will identify a distinct signature in PS children. Methods: Children (aged 4–9 years) with and without habitual snoring and a normal PSG were designated as either PS or controls. Whole genome expression profiles of PBL and metabolic parameters in 30 children with PS and 30 age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and BMI-matched controls were compared. Pathway-focused gene network analysis of the PBL transcriptome was performed. Metabolic parameters were measured in an independent follow-up cohort of 98 children (64 PS and 34 controls) to evaluate the computationally derived findings. Results: PS was not associated with a distinct transcriptional signature in PBL. Exploratory functional network analysis of enriched gene sets identified a number of putative pathways—including those mapping to insulin signaling, adipocyte differentiation, and obesity—with significant alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity emerging in the follow-up cohort of children with PS, but no differences in lipid profiles. Conclusions: PS children do not exhibit global perturbations in their PBL transcriptional response, suggesting that current normative PSG criteria are overall valid. However, subtle differences in functionally coherent pathways involved in glycemic homeostasis were detected and confirmed in a larger independent pediatric cohort indicating that PS may carry increased risk for end-organ morbidity in susceptible children. Citation: Khalyfa A; Gharib SA; Kim J; Capdevila OS; Kheirandish-Gozal L; Bhattacharjee R; Hegazi M; Gozal D. Peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression patterns and metabolic parameters in habitually snoring and non-snoring children with normal

  3. Lower Urinary Tract Urological Abnormalities and Urodynamic Findings of Physiological Urinary Incontinence Versus Non-mono Symptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although 98% of children attain daytime bladder control by three years of age, urinary incontinence is regarded physiological up to the fifth year of life. Objectives: This study aimed to assess whether lower urinary tract urological abnormalities and abnormal urodynamic findings are infrequent in children with physiological urinary incontinence in contrast to those with non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). Patients and Methods: During a three-year period (2007-2009), 66 neurologically normal children including 51 children (34 girls, 17 boys) older than five years of age with NMNE and intermittent daytime incontinence, and 15 children with physiological urinary incontinence (eight girls and seven boys) aged four to five years of age without any known urological abnormalities were enrolled in the study. Patients with neurologic deficits or known urological anomalies were excluded from the study. Kidney-bladder ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), and urodynamic studies were performed to evaluate the anatomy of urinary tract and bladder function. Results: Urinary tract infection was found in 23 (34.8%) children, 17 (33.3%) and 6 (40%) patients with NMNE and physiological urinary incontinence, respectively. Out of 48 patients who underwent VCUG, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was found in seven and eight children younger and older than five years of age, respectively. Abnormal urodynamic findings were reported in 5 (62.5%) of eight children younger than five-year-old, and 14 (63.6%) of 22 patients older than 5-year-old. Conclusions: VUR might be more frequent in children with physiological urinary incontinence than the normal population, and might be as common as NMNE with intermittent daytime incontinence. PMID:24783173

  4. Prospective dynamic balance control in healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Austad, Hanne; van der Meer, Audrey L H

    2007-08-01

    Balance control during gait initiation was studied using center of pressure (CoP) data from force plate measurements. Twenty-four participants were divided into four age groups: (1) 2-3 years, (2) 4-5 years, (3) 7-8 years, and (4) adults. Movement in the antero-posterior (CoPy) direction during the initial step was tau-G analyzed, investigating the hypothesis that tau of the CoPy motion-gap (tau(CoPy)), i.e., the time it will take to close the gap at its current closure rate, is tau-coupled onto an intrinsic tau-G guide (tau(G)), by maintaining the relation tau(CoPy )= Ktau(G), for a constant K. Mean percentage of tau-guidance for all groups was >/=99%, resulting in all r(2) exceeding 0.95, justifying an investigation of the regression slope as an estimate of the coupling constant K in the tau-coupling equation. Mean K values decreased significantly with age and were for 2- to 3-year-olds 0.56, for 4- to 5-year-olds 0.50, for 7- to 8-year-olds 0.47, and for adults 0.41. Therefore, the control of dynamic balance develops from the youngest children colliding with the boundaries of the base of support (K > 0.5) to the older children and adults making touch contact (K findings may provide us with a measure for testing prospective balance control, a helpful tool in assessing whether a child is following a normal developmental pattern.

  5. I can talk you into it: theory of mind and persuasion behavior in young children.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C; Moore, Chris

    2013-02-01

    We investigated links between persuasive behavior and theory of mind (ToM) understanding using a novel naturalistic peer persuasion task in which children were invited to convince an interactive puppet to eat raw broccoli or brush his teeth. Sixty-three 3- to 8-year-olds (M age = 6 years, 6 months) took part in the persuasion task and were also given a battery of first-order and advanced false belief tests. As predicted, the number of independent persuasive arguments children produced was significantly associated with false belief scores, even after controlling for age and verbal ability.

  6. A case of Robin sequence, microgastria, radiohumeral synostosis, femoral deficiency, and other unusual findings: a newly recognized syndrome?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jessica; Torres-Martinez, Wilfredo; Farrow, Emily; Stevens, Abby; Delk, Paula; White, Kenneth E; Weaver, David D

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we describe an 8-year-old male with Robin sequence, bilateral radiohumeral synostosis, microgastria, cryptorchidism, dislocated hips, proximal femoral deficiency, and an autism spectrum disorder. This combination of findings has not been previously reported. Features of particular interest are the radiohumeral synostosis and microgastria, both of which are rare defects, and to our knowledge, have not been reported to occur together. We propose that the patient has a newly recognized syndrome consisting of the aforementioned features, the etiology of which is unknown.

  7. Comparing Emotion Recognition Skills among Children with and without Jailed Parents.

    PubMed

    Hindt, Lauren A; Davis, Laurel; Schubert, Erin C; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately five million children in the United States have experienced a co-resident parent's incarceration in jail or prison. Parental incarceration is associated with multiple risk factors for maladjustment, which may contribute to the increased likelihood of behavioral problems in this population. Few studies have examined early predictors of maladjustment among children with incarcerated parents, limiting scholars' understanding about potential points for prevention and intervention. Emotion recognition skills may play a role in the development of maladjustment and may be amenable to intervention. The current study examined whether emotion recognition skills differed between 3- to 8-year-old children with and without jailed parents. We hypothesized that children with jailed parents would have a negative bias in processing emotions and less accuracy compared to children without incarcerated parents. Data were drawn from 128 families, including 75 children (53.3% male, M = 5.37 years) with jailed parents and 53 children (39.6% male, M = 5.02 years) without jailed parents. Caregivers in both samples provided demographic information. Children performed an emotion recognition task in which they were asked to produce a label for photos expressing six different emotions (i.e., happy, surprised, neutral, sad, angry, and fearful). For scoring, the number of positive and negative labels were totaled; the number of negative labels provided for neutral and positive stimuli were totaled (measuring negative bias/overextension of negative labels); and valence accuracy (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) and label accuracy were calculated. Results indicated a main effect of parental incarceration on the number of positive labels provided; children with jailed parents presented significantly fewer positive emotions than the comparison group. There was also a main effect of parental incarceration on negative bias (the overextension of negative labels); children with

  8. Comparing Emotion Recognition Skills among Children with and without Jailed Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hindt, Lauren A.; Davis, Laurel; Schubert, Erin C.; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately five million children in the United States have experienced a co-resident parent’s incarceration in jail or prison. Parental incarceration is associated with multiple risk factors for maladjustment, which may contribute to the increased likelihood of behavioral problems in this population. Few studies have examined early predictors of maladjustment among children with incarcerated parents, limiting scholars’ understanding about potential points for prevention and intervention. Emotion recognition skills may play a role in the development of maladjustment and may be amenable to intervention. The current study examined whether emotion recognition skills differed between 3- to 8-year-old children with and without jailed parents. We hypothesized that children with jailed parents would have a negative bias in processing emotions and less accuracy compared to children without incarcerated parents. Data were drawn from 128 families, including 75 children (53.3% male, M = 5.37 years) with jailed parents and 53 children (39.6% male, M = 5.02 years) without jailed parents. Caregivers in both samples provided demographic information. Children performed an emotion recognition task in which they were asked to produce a label for photos expressing six different emotions (i.e., happy, surprised, neutral, sad, angry, and fearful). For scoring, the number of positive and negative labels were totaled; the number of negative labels provided for neutral and positive stimuli were totaled (measuring negative bias/overextension of negative labels); and valence accuracy (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) and label accuracy were calculated. Results indicated a main effect of parental incarceration on the number of positive labels provided; children with jailed parents presented significantly fewer positive emotions than the comparison group. There was also a main effect of parental incarceration on negative bias (the overextension of negative labels); children with

  9. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  10. "Tuning in to Kids": Improving Emotion Socialization Practices in Parents of Preschool Children--Findings from a Community Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Prior, Margot R.; Kehoe, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated a new prevention and early intervention parenting program: "Tuning in to Kids." The program aims to improve emotion socialization practices in parents of preschool children and is based on research evidence that parents' responses to, and coaching of, their children's emotions influence emotional and behavioral…

  11. Ages of Diagnosis, Amplification, and Early Intervention of Infants and Young Children with Hearing Loss: Findings from Parent Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Susan G.; Lartz, Maribeth Nelson; Fiedler, Barbara Casson

    2002-01-01

    A survey interviewed parents of 77 children with severe to profound hearing loss while attending an educational program at an Illinois state residential school. The children had lower ages of identification than those reported in national studies and in an early study in Illinois. Delays in early intervention are discussed. (Contains references.)…

  12. Symptom Persistence in Seriously Emotionally Disordered Children: Findings of a Two-Year Follow-Up after Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbert, Rebecca; St. Pierre, Jeff; Stewart, Shannon L.; Cook, Steven; Johnson, Andrew M.; Leschied, Alan W.

    2011-01-01

    Residential treatment is arguably the most costly and intensive part of the children's mental health system. Yet, research suggests that a subset of the emotionally disordered children and youth admitted to intensive tertiary care treatment facilities fail to demonstrate symptom reductions upon discharge, with many continuing to deteriorate in…

  13. Preventive Health Care for Young Children: Findings from a 10-Country Study and Directions for United States Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bret C.; Miller, C. Arden

    Earlier observations on U.S. infant health and survival as compared with other Western industrial democracies are extended in a study of preventive health services for children from infancy through adolescence and to the social benefit programs that support their families. This report looks at the condition of children in 10 European countries…

  14. Associations between grip strength of parents and their 4 year old children: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Hazel; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Kapasi, Tasneem; Robinson, Siân; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2013-01-01

    Summary Relationships between birthweight and grip strength throughout the lifecourse suggest that early influences on the growth and development of muscle are important for long-term muscle function. However, little is known about parental influences on children’s grip strength. We have explored this in the Southampton Women’s Survey, a prospective general population cohort study from before conception through childhood. Grip strength was measured using a Jamar handgrip dynamometer in the mother at 19 weeks’ gestation and her partner, and in the child at age four years. Pre-pregnancy heights and weights were measured in the mothers; reported weights and measured heights were available for the fathers. Complete data on parents and children were available for 444 trios. In univariate analyses, both parents’ grip strengths were significantly associated with that of the child (r=0.17, p<0.001 for mothers, r=0.15, p=0.002 for fathers). These correlations were similar to that between the grip strength of the mothers and the father (r=0.17, P<0.001). In the multivariate model, after adjustment for child’s height and physical activity, the correlations with the child’s grip strength were attenuated, being 0.10 (P=0.02) and 0.11 (P=0.01) for mothers’ and fathers’ grip strength respectively. The findings show that grip strength of both parents is associated with that of their child, indicating that heritable influences and the shared family environment influence the development of muscle strength. This contributes to our understanding of the role of heritable and environmental factors on early muscle growth and development, which are important for muscle function across the lifecourse. PMID:22150705

  15. What is the potential for interventions designed to prevent violence against women to reduce children's exposure to violence? Findings from the SASA! study, Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Starmann, Elizabeth; Musuya, Tina; Heise, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment often co-occur in households and lead to negative outcomes for children. This article explores the extent to which SASA!, an intervention to prevent violence against women, impacted children's exposure to violence. Between 2007 and 2012 a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kampala, Uganda. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Under the qualitative evaluation, 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. This mixed-methods article draws mainly on the qualitative data. The findings suggest that SASA! impacted on children's experience of violence in three main ways. First, quantitative data suggest that children's exposure to IPV was reduced. We estimate that reductions in IPV combined with reduced witnessing by children when IPV did occur, led to a 64% reduction in prevalence of children witnessing IPV in their home (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.06-2.20). Second, among couples who experienced reduced IPV, qualitative data suggests parenting and discipline practices sometimes also changed-improving parent-child relationships and for a few parents, resulting in the complete rejection of corporal punishment as a disciplinary method. Third, some participants reported intervening to prevent violence against children. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent IPV may also impact on children's exposure to violence, and improve parent-child relationships. They also point to potential synergies for violence prevention, an area meriting further exploration.

  16. The Effectiveness of Semantic Therapy for the Word Finding Difficulties of Children with Severe and Complex Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jean; Aldersley, Anna; Dobson, Catherine; Edgar, Silke; Harding, Christian; Luckins, Jessie; Wiseman, Fiona; Pring, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often seen in children with language difficulties. Their problem is readily observed and has led to investigations of its nature and encouraged attempts at intervention. Semantic errors in their naming suggest that their knowledge of items is poorly developed and that therapies to strengthen it may be effective.…

  17. Serving the Underserved: A Review of the Research and Practice in Child Find, Assessment, and the IFSP/IEP Process for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, Arlington, VA.

    This publication presents a digest of pertinent research and recommended practices for the first steps of providing early intervention services for young children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Chapter 1, "Initial Identification and Referral: Child Find, Screening, and Tracking: Serving Culturally and Linguistically…

  18. Promoting Children's Social-Emotional Skills in Preschool Can Enhance Academic and Behavioral Functioning in Kindergarten: Findings from Head Start REDI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Gill, Sukhdeep

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined processes of change associated with the positive preschool and kindergarten outcomes of children who received the Head Start REDI (REsearch-based, Developmentally Informed) intervention compared to usual practice Head Start. Using data from a large-scale randomized controlled trial ("N" = 356…

  19. Complementary Feeding Practices of Mothers and Their Perceived Impacts on Young Children: Findings from KEEA District of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Egyir, Bridget K; Ramsay, Samantha A; Bilderback, Barry; Safaii, SeAnne

    2016-09-01

    Objective Appropriate and timely complementary feeding practices are fundamental to a child's growth, health, and development during the first 2 years of life. This study aimed to understand (1) Ghanaian mother's complementary feeding practices, and (2) their perceived and observed impacts of complementary feeding on their children. Methods Ghanaian mothers with children 4-24 months of age were recruited from four communities in the Komenda Edina Eguafo Abrem district in the Central Region of Ghana (n = 99). A qualitative methodological approach with focus group interview discussions was used. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted, and were audio recorded and transcribed. The audio transcriptions were coded and analyzed into pertinent themes, meta-themes, and theoretical concepts. Results Over 80 % (85) of mothers reported poor knowledge about the effects of complementary feeding on their children and 45 % (45) of the children were undernourished, indicating inappropriate complementary feeding practices. Some mothers held misconceptions about the effect of food on children's health. Four overarching themes were identified: (1) mothers' background knowledge about food, child health and growth outcomes, (2) mothers' motivation in feeding their children, (3) barriers to feeding, (4) foods mothers offered their children. Conclusion for Practice Nutrition education on complementary feeding is needed for Ghanaian mothers. Health facilities and community outreach programs could be a venue to provide education to mothers regarding infant and young child feeding practices in Ghana.

  20. The Effects of Child-Only Insurance Coverage and Family Coverage on Health Care Access and Use: Recent Findings among Low-Income Children in California

    PubMed Central

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Wier, Megan; Angulo, Veronica; Oman, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the extent with which child-only and family coverage (child and parent insured) ensure health care access and use for low income children in California and discuss the policy implications of extending the State Children's Health Insurance Program (California's Healthy Families) to uninsured parents of child enrollees. Data Sources/Setting We used secondary data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), a representative telephone survey. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5,521 public health insurance–eligible children and adolescents and their parents to examine the effects of insurance (family coverage, child-only coverage, and no coverage) on measures of health care access and utilization including emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Data Collection We linked the CHIS adult, child, and adolescent datasets, including the adolescent insurance supplement. Findings Among the sampled children, 13 percent were uninsured as were 22 percent of their parents. Children without insurance coverage were more likely than children with child-only coverage to lack a usual source of care and to have decreased use of health care. Children with child-only coverage fared worse than those with family coverage on almost every access indicator, but service utilization was comparable. Conclusions While extending public benefits to parents of children eligible for Healthy Families may not improve child health care utilization beyond the gains that would be obtained by exclusively insuring the children, family coverage would likely improve access to a regular source of care and private sector providers, and reduce perceived discrimination and breaks in coverage. These advantages should be considered by states that are weighing the benefits of expanding health insurance to parents. PMID:16430604

  1. Coordination of executive functions in monolingual and bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Two groups of 8-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual completed a complex classification task in which they made semantic judgments on stimuli that were presented either visually or auditorily. The task requires coordinating a variety of executive control components, specifically working memory, inhibition, and shifting. When each of the visual and auditory tasks was presented alone, performance was comparable for children in the two groups. Combining the two modalities into a dual-task paradigm made the task more difficult, and on this combined task bilingual children maintained better accuracy than monolingual children, especially on the visual task. The results are interpreted in terms of the enhanced ability of bilingual children to coordinate the executive control components required in performing this complex task.

  2. Whole Grain Intakes in the Diets Of Malaysian Children and Adolescents – Findings from the MyBreakfast Study

    PubMed Central

    AK, Norimah; Koo, H. C.; JM, Hamid Jan; MT, Mohd Nasir; Tan, S. Y.; Appukutty, Mahendran; AR, Nurliyana; Thielecke, Frank; Hopkins, Sinead; Ong, M. K.; Ning, C.; Tee, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents. Methods This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained. Results Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8g/d) in children and 1.7g/d (SD 4.7g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer’s only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48g/day. Conclusion Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption. PMID:26473369

  3. Emotional Processing and Attention Control Impairments in Children with Anxiety: An Integrative Review of Event-Related Potentials Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wauthia, Erika; Rossignol, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention toward threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, the understanding of the neural correlates of attentional biases in anxious children seem quite important since they could play a role in the etiology and the maintenance of this disorder. This review summarizes the results of researches having used ERPs to index emotional processing and attention control in children suffering from anxiety. We will focus on the P1, indexing basic visual perceptual processing, the N2, thought to reflect cognitive control process, the P3 typically associated with response inhibition, and the late positive potential (LPP) that indicates sustained attention toward motivationally salient stimuli. We will also examine the error-related negativity (ERN) that indexes monitoring system for detecting errors. Electro-physiological studies generally reported increased amplitudes of these components in anxious children, even when they did not differ from typically developing children at a behavioral level. These results suggest diminished cognitive control that influences children's selective attention mechanisms toward threatening information. Theoretical perspectives and implications for future researches will be discussed in the framework of current models of childhood anxiety. PMID:27199802

  4. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.

  5. Poorer general health status in children is associated with being overweight or obese in Hawai'i: findings from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Kristen; Hayes, Donald K; Iwaishi, Louise K; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is a widespread national issue that affects the health and well-being of millions of people; particular attention has been focused on the burden among children. The National Survey of Children's Health data from 2007 was used to examine the relationship of child health status and unhealthy weight (overweight/obese defined as body mass index in ≥ 85 th percentile) among 874 children aged 10 to 17 years of age in Hawai'i. In particular, the parentally reported child's general health status was assessed comparing those with a poorer health status (defined as "good/fair/poor") to those with a better one (defined as "excellent/very good"). Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis examined risk for overweight/obese with child's general health status, accounting for gender, race, and socioeconomic factors. More children with a poorer health status (46.5%; 95%CI=33.2-60.2) were overweight/obese compared to those of better health status (25.8%; 95%CI=21.9-30.2). Estimates of overweight/obese were high in Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (38.6%; 95%CI: 28.9-49.4), multiracial (30.9%; 95%CI=24.2-38.6) children, and children whose parents had less than 12 years education (56.8%; 95%CI=32.8-78.0). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed a 2.92 (95%CI=1.52-5.61) greater odds for overweight/obese status in children with a poorer health status compared to those of better health status after accounting for age, race, gender, and parental education. Gender, race, and parental education were also significant factors associated with overweight/obese in the final adjusted model. It is important that children that are overweight or obese receive appropriate health screenings including assessments of general health status. Children in high risk socioeconomic groups should be a particular focus of prevention efforts to promote health equity and provide opportunities for children to reach their potential.

  6. Micronutrients as adjunct therapy of acute illness in children: impact on the episode outcome and policy implications of current findings.

    PubMed

    Mahalanabis, D; Bhan, M K

    2001-05-01

    Role of micronutrients namely vitamin A, zinc and folate, as adjunct therapy of illness episodes in children in developing countries have been discussed in the light of health policy. Apart from a selective review, attempts have been made to statistically combine results of several studies to address policy issues. In children, vitamin A supplementation during illness has (a) a profound effect in reducing mortality in measles, (b) possibly a significant effect in reducing persistent diarrhea episodes in children with acute diarrhea, and (c) no benefit in pneumonia. Use of large dose vitamin A is recommended during measles episodes but not in non-measles pneumonia. Its use in acute diarrhea is debatable but recommended in persistent diarrhea and in severe malnutrition as a component of a micronutrient mixture. Large dose vitamin A supplementation should be used with caution in young infants as there are unresolved concerns about its safety particularly, bulging fontanelle observed in infants when co-administered at immunization. In children, zinc supplementation during illness, (a) had a marked effect in reducing prolonged episodes and a modest effect on episode duration in acute diarrhea, (b) resulted in reduced rate of treatment failure and death in persistent diarrhea, (c) had no effect in measles and non-measles pneumonia, and (d) probably had a detrimental effect of increasing death rate when a large dose was used in severely malnourished children. The desirability of routine zinc supplementation therapy of undernourished children with acute diarrhea should be assessed further. Concerning policy, zinc supplementation as a component of a micronutrient mixture is recommended in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children and in persistent diarrhea. However, recommendation for its routine use in all cases of acute diarrhea in children needs additional studies on effectiveness, cost, operations and safety. In two randomized controlled trials folate has

  7. Risk factors for central nervous system tumors in children: New findings from a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Morales-Piga, Antonio; Pardo Romaguera, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; García-Pérez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Background Central nervous system tumors (CNS) are the most frequent solid tumor in children. Causes of CNS tumors are mainly unknown and only 5% of the cases can be explained by genetic predisposition. We studied the effects of environmental exposure on the incidence of CNS tumors in children by subtype, according to exposure to industrial and/or urban environment, exposure to crops and according to socio-economic status of the child. Methods We carried out a population-based case-control study of CNS tumors in Spain, covering 714 incident cases collected from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (period 1996–2011) and 4284 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. We built a covariate to approximate the exposure to industrial and/or urban environment and a covariate for the exposure to crops (GCI) using the coordinates of the home addresses of the children. We used the 2001 Census to obtain information about socio-economic status (SES). We fitted logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). Results The results for all CNS tumors showed an excess risk (OR = 1.37; 95%CI = 1.09–1.73) for SES, i.e., children living in the least deprived areas had 37% more risk of CNS tumor than children living in the most deprived areas. For GCI, an increase of 10% in crop surface in the 1-km buffer around the residence implied an increase of 22% in the OR (OR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.15–1.29). Children living in the intersection of industrial and urban areas could have a greater risk of CNS tumors than children who live outside these areas (OR = 1.20; 95%CI = 0.82–1.77). Living in urban areas (OR = 0.90; 95%CI = 0.65–1.24) or industrial areas (OR = 0.96; 95%CI = 0.81–1.77) did not seem to increase the risk for all CNS tumors together. By subtype, Astrocytomas, Intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors, and other gliomas showed similar results. Conclusion Our results

  8. Denver Developmental Test Findings and their Relationship with Sociodemographic Variables in a Large Community Sample of 0–4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    ÇELİKKIRAN, Seyhan; BOZKURT, Hasan; COŞKUN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of developmental problems and relationship with sociodemographic variables in a community sample of young children. Methods Participants included 1000 children (558 males, 442 females, age range 1–48 months, mean 18.4 months, SD 7.8 months). Children were referred generally by their parents for developmental evaluation and consultation in response to a public announcement in a district area in Istanbul, Turkey. An interview form and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST) were used for sociodemographic data and developmental evaluation. The χ2 test and Pearson’s correlation test were used for data analysis. Results Seven hundred forty-one out of 1000 children (74.1%) had normal, 140 (14%) had risky, and 119 (11.9%) had abnormal findings on the DDST results. The probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results was significantly higher in males (p=0.003), the 2–4-year-old group (p<0.05), families with more than one child (p=0.001), consanguineous marriages (p<0.01), low parental educational levels and low household income (p<0.01), and in children without a history of breastfeeding (p=0.000). Immigration status and delivery mode did not have a significant effect on the probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results (p>0.05). Conclusion Sociodemographic factors have a noteworthy impact on development. Determining these factors is important especially during the first years of life.

  9. Character recognition as an alternate measure of television exposure among children: findings from the Alam Simsim program in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rimal, Rajiv N; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Storey, J Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of effects of mass media-based health interventions requires accurate assessments of exposure, which can be difficult to obtain when young children are the primary audience. Alam Simsim, the Egyptian version of Sesame Street, aired nationally in Egypt to teach preschoolers about numeracy, literacy, and gender-equitable attitudes. The purpose of this article was to assess the effect of the program through a first-of-its-kind household-level survey that interviewed caretakers (n = 426) and preschoolers (n = 486). The authors introduced and tested the efficacy of a parsimonious measure of exposure: children's recognition of the primary characters of the program. Overall, the authors' models explained as much as 53% of the variance in children's learning; exposure to the program was significantly associated with learning. Furthermore, the parsimonious measure of exposure was as effective as a more elaborate child-reported measure. Relative to these two measures of exposure, caretakers' report of children's viewing was not as good a predictor of learning.

  10. Non-Resident Father Involvement with Their Two-Year-Old Children: Findings from the ECLS-B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of non-residential father-child involvement with their children at age 2. This study utilized secondary analysis of data collected through the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort. Participants included 650 biological fathers who did not reside with their child at age 2. Significant…

  11. Early Visual Language Exposure and Emergent Literacy in Preschool Deaf Children: Findings from a National Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas E.; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of…

  12. Fixing the Broken Promise of Education for All: Findings from the Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Angela, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This report delves into a rich new body of data and analysis from the Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children (OOSCI), which confirms that the task of achieving education for all is far from over. The government-backed national studies carried out under the Initiative have marshalled a wide range of data sources for innovative analyses,…

  13. Timing of Identification among Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from a Population-Based Surveillance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Durkin, Maureen; Maenner, Matthew; Newschaffer, Craig; Mandell, David S.; Wiggins, Lisa; Lee, Li-Ching; Rice, Catherine; Giarelli, Ellen; Kirby, Russell; Baio, Jon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Cuniff, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the data from Center for Disease Control's autism surveillance program found that the median age of identification of children with autism is 5.7 years. Being male, having an IQ of 70 or lower, and having developmental regression are the factors linked to a younger age of identification. There is a need for research, innovation, and…

  14. The Emergence of Order and Class Aspects of Number in Children: Some Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Ian; Wilkinson, J. Eric

    1987-01-01

    Describes longitudinal study of the development of understanding of two logical properties of number by 36 children during the first three years of primary school in Glasgow. Piagetian tests and number skills tests were administered to explore the acquisition of number as class and number as order concepts. (Author/LRW)

  15. Employment Impact and Financial Burden for Families of Children with Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, L.; Grosse, S.; Raspa, M.; Bailey, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The employment impact and financial burden experienced by families of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) has not been quantified in the USA. Method: Using a national fragile X family survey, we analysed data on 1019 families with at least one child who had a full FXS mutation. Out-of-pocket expenditures related to fragile X were…

  16. Gender Differences in Behavioral Outcomes among Children at Risk of Neglect: Findings from a Family-Focused Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Hayward, R. Anna; DePanfilis, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of the Family Connections (FC) intervention on preventing behavioral problems among urban, predominantly African American children at risk of neglect. Method: Secondary data analyses using mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to examine gender differences in child…

  17. A Kaiser Family Foundation and Children Now National Survey: Parents Speak Up about Television Today. A Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser Foundation, Oakland, CA.

    In the midst of a growing national debate about the role of television as a de facto "sex educator" for young people today, this survey asked parents nationwide in the fall of 1996 about their views on kids and television. A random sample of 853 parents and children ages 6 to 15 were surveyed by telephone (the data reported here focus on…

  18. Can we find a good biochemical marker of early cardiotoxicity in children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Sadurska, Elżbieta; Drabko, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Jerzy R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is one of the complications following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but its diagnosis may be hampered due to the presence of different post-transplant comorbidities. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of cardiac complications and the significance of biochemical markers (NT-proBNP, ANP, ET-1, and TnI) and ECHO systolic and diastolic parameters analysis in children treated with HSCT. Thirty consecutive children (median age 9.6 years) were included in the study. The control group consisted of 14 healthy children (median age of 10.9 years). None of the transplanted children developed clinical cardiotoxicity. Median ET-1 and NT-proBNP plasma levels were elevated when compared to controls in at least 3 out of 4 analysed time points, median ANP levels differed only in one time point, and no difference was found between median TnI values in all analysed time points. Echocardiographic systolic parameters were within the normal range, while median E/A ratio assessed before HSCT, on day +30, and +100 post-transplant was statistically lower in HSCT patients (respectively, 1.34, 1.37, and 1.42 vs. 1.73). It confirms the need for careful follow up in patients who have received chemotherapy and have been treated with HSCT. PMID:27647986

  19. Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from Two Large National Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soke, G. N.; Rosenberg, S. A.; Hamman, R. F.; Fingerlin, T.; Rosenberg, C. R.; Carpenter, L.; Lee, L. C.; Giarelli, E.; Wiggins, L. D.; Durkin, M. S.; Reynolds, A.; DiGuiseppi, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored potential associations among self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and a diverse group of protective and risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder from two databases: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network and the Autism Speaks-Autism Treatment Network (AS-ATN). The presence of SIB was…

  20. A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

  1. Preliminary Findings on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents in an Inpatient Secure Adolescent Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…

  2. Finding Funding: Supporting Making Connections Core Result that Children are Healthy and Prepared to Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Christianne; Crocker, Jarle; Stewart, Nichole; Torrico, Roxana; Bhat, Soumya; Schmid, William; Ennis, Melissa, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Annie E. Casey Foundation's "Making Connections" initiative provides support to communities across the country to help improve outcomes for children and families in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The sites, together with local partners, are engaged in a range of strategies and activities, reflecting local conditions and priorities, to ensure…

  3. Poverty among Children Born Outside of Marriage: Preliminary Findings from the National Survey of America's Families. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Ariel

    This study examines whether children born outside of marriage and currently living in single-mother families are more likely to be poor than children in single-mother families who were born to married parents. Using the 1997 National Survey of America's Families, the study finds that among children living with single mothers, those born outside of…

  4. Investigating shadows: a pedagogical intervention project with primary school children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noversa, Silvana; Abreu, Cátia; Varela, Paulo; Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2014-07-01

    This communication results from a pedagogical intervention project, carried out at a primary school in the district of Braga - Portugal. The intervention took place in a class of the 3rd year, composed of 16 students, and it incorporated the practice of inquiry-based science teaching addressing the theme "Light Experiments", which is part of the "Environmental Studies" curricular area. Various class activities were planned and implemented concerning some of the factors that influence the shadow of an object, in order to find answers to the following three questions: a) will 3rd year students, aged 7/8 years, be able to construct and execute an investigation strategy that involves manipulating and controlling variables? b) what are the main difficulties experienced by students in the designing and execution of such a strategy? c) how will students, in interaction with the teacher and with their peers, gradually design and execute their investigation strategy in order to respond to the problem formulated? The project adopted an action research methodology. A careful record was kept of the events most relevant to the questions under study in each class. This data was used to prepare the class diaries - descriptive and reflective narratives prepared based on recorded audio and field notes made during participant observation in the context of the classroom. A content analysis of the diaries has identified a few elements that provide answers to the research questions raised. In order to plan and implement a research project with children in the 7/8 years old range require a high level of scaffolding to allow students to gradually build a coherent strategy to tackle the research problem. Teacher's role is crucial. The teacher, by questioning and inducing reasoning and discussion, promotes encourages and regulates the cognitive activity of students. Some level of autonomy should be given to the students in large group collaborative work.

  5. Preliminary Evidence for Cell Membrane Amelioration in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by 5-MTHF and Vitamin B12 Supplementation: A Single Arm Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scambi, Cinzia; De Franceschi, Lucia; Guarini, Patrizia; Poli, Fabio; Siciliano, Angela; Pattini, Patrizia; Biondani, Andrea; La Verde, Valentina; Bortolami, Oscar; Turrini, Francesco; Carta, Franco; D'Orazio, Ciro; Assael, Baroukh M.; Faccini, Giovanni; Bambara, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common fatal autosomal recessive disorders in the Caucasian population caused by mutations of gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). New experimental therapeutic strategies for CF propose a diet supplementation to affect the plasma membrane fluidity and to modulate amplified inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and vitamin B12 supplementation for ameliorating cell plasma membrane features in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. Methodology and Principal Findings A single arm trial was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in an Italian CF care centre. 31 children with CF aged from 3 to 8 years old were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, chronic infections of the airways and regular antibiotics intake. Children with CF were supplemented for 24 weeks with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, 7.5 mg /day) and vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/day). Red blood cells (RBCs) were used to investigate plasma membrane, since RBCs share lipid, protein composition and organization with other cell types. We evaluated RBCs membrane lipid composition, membrane protein oxidative damage, cation content, cation transport pathways, plasma and RBCs folate levels and plasma homocysteine levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation. In CF children, 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation (i) increased plasma and RBC folate levels; (ii) decreased plasma homocysteine levels; (iii) modified RBC membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition; (iv) increased RBC K+ content; (v) reduced RBC membrane oxidative damage and HSP70 membrane association. Conclusion and Significance 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation might ameliorate RBC membrane features of children with CF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00730509 PMID:19277125

  6. Medicaid and Financing of Health Care for Children in Foster Care: Findings from a National Survey. Health Services for Children in Foster Care. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelas, Moira; Halfon, Neal

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, state Medicaid programs have implemented significant change and innovation in delivering health and behavioral health services. Prepaid capitated financing and the provider networks created by Medicaid managed care expansions have altered systems of medical and mental/behavioral health. Most children in foster care receive…

  7. Ten principles of grammar facilitation for children with specific language impairments.

    PubMed

    Fey, Marc E; Long, Steven H; Finestack, Lizbeth H

    2003-02-01

    Although they often have significant difficulties in other areas, most children with specific language impairment (SLI) have special difficulties with the understanding and use of grammar. Therefore, most of these children will require an intervention program that targets comprehension or production of grammatical form. Language interventionists are faced with the difficult task of developing comprehensive intervention programs that address the children's grammatical deficits while remaining sensitive to their other existing and predictable social, behavioral, and academic problems. The purpose of this article is to present and justify 10 principles that we regard as essential for planning adequate interventions for children with language-learning problems. These principles are relevant for all children with problems in the use of grammar, but they are especially appropriate for 3- to 8-year-old children with SLI. Although all of our examples are from English, the principles we have chosen are sufficiently broad to cut across many linguistic and cultural boundaries.

  8. Children's Growth and Classroom Experiences in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2011-2012 Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Schaaf, Jennifer; LaForett, Dore

    2013-01-01

    Georgia has one of the few state-funded universal pre-kindergarten programs in the United States, with the aim of providing pre-k services to all 4-year-olds whose families want their children to participate in the program, regardless of family income level. In the 2011-2012 school year, Georgia's Pre-K Program served a total of over 94,000…

  9. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Odgers, Candice L.; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children’s risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children’s mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Results: Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16–2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15–2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Conclusions: Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms

  10. Cardiac Geometry in Children Receiving Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis: Findings from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network (IPPN) Registry

    PubMed Central

    Borzych, Dagmara; Soo Ha, Il; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Büscher, Rainer; Salas, Paulina; Patel, Hiren; Drozdz, Dorota; Vondrak, Karel; Watanabe, Andreia; Villagra, Jorge; Yavascan, Onder; Valenzuela, Maria; Gipson, Deborah; Ng, K.H.; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor and an intermediate end point of dialysis-associated cardiovascular comorbidity. We utilized a global pediatric registry to assess the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of LVH as well as its evolution in the longitudinal follow-up in dialyzed children. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Cross-sectional echocardiographic, clinical, and biochemical data were evaluated in 507 children on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and longitudinal data were evaluated in 128 patients. The 95th percentile of LV mass index relative to height age was used to define LVH. Results The overall LVH prevalence was 48.1%. In the prospective analysis, the incidence of LVH developing de novo in patients with normal baseline LV mass was 29%, and the incidence of regression from LVH to normal LV mass 40% per year on PD. Transformation to and regression from concentric LV geometry occurred in 36% and 28% of the patients, respectively. Hypertension, high body mass index, use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, renal disease other than hypo/dysplasia, and hyperparathyroidism were identified as independent predictors of LVH. The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) antagonists and high total fluid output (sum of urine and ultrafiltration) were protective from concentric geometry. The risk of LVH at 1 year was increased by higher systolic BP standard deviation score and reduced in children with renal hypo/dysplasia. Conclusions Using height-adjusted left ventricular mass index reference data, LVH is highly prevalent but less common than previously diagnosed in children on PD. Renal hypo/dysplasia is protective from LVH, likely because of lower BP and polyuria. Hypertension, fluid overload, and hyperparathyroidism are modifiable determinants of LVH. PMID:21737855

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Spine in Children: Spinal Incidental Findings in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramadorai, Uma E.; Hire, Justin M.; DeVine, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective To determine the rate of spinal incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the pediatric population. Methods We reviewed MRI imaging of the neuraxial spine in patients less than 18 years of age and documented abnormal spinal findings. We then reviewed the charts of these patients to determine the reason for ordering the study. Those who presented with pain were considered symptomatic. Those who had no presenting complaint were considered asymptomatic. The data were analyzed to break down the rate of spinal incidental findings in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, respectively. Results Thirty-one of the 99 MRIs had positive findings, with the most common being disk protrusion (51.6%). Spinal incidental findings were most common in the lumbar spine (9.4%) versus the cervical spine (8%) or thoracic spine (4.7%). In this group, Schmorl nodes and disk protrusion were the two most common findings (37.5% each). Other spinal incidental findings included a vertebral hemangioma and a Tarlov cyst. In the thoracic spine, the only spinal incidental finding was a central disk protrusion without spinal cord or nerve root compression. Conclusion MRI is a useful modality in the pediatric patient with scoliosis or complaints of pain, but the provider should remain cognizant of the potential for spinal incidental findings. PMID:25396102

  12. Does war contribute to family violence against children? Findings from a two-generational multi-informant study in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Saile, Regina; Ertl, Verena; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    After 20 years of civil war in Northern Uganda, the continuity of violence within the family constitutes a major challenge to children's healthy development in the post-conflict era. Previous exposure to trauma and ongoing psychopathology in guardians potentially contribute to parental perpetration against children and dysfunctional interactions in the child's family ecology that increase children's risk of maltreatment. In order to investigate distal and proximal risk factors of child victimization, we first aimed to identify factors leading to more self-reported perpetration in guardians. Second, we examined factors in the child's family environment that promote child-reported experiences of maltreatment. Using a two-generational design we interviewed 368 children, 365 female guardians, and 304 male guardians from seven war-affected rural communities in Northern Uganda on the basis of standardized questionnaires. We found that the strongest predictors of self-reported aggressive parenting behaviors toward the child were guardians' own experiences of childhood maltreatment, followed by female guardians' victimization experiences in their intimate relationship and male guardians' posttrautmatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and alcohol-related problems. Regarding children's self-report of victimization in the family, proximal factors including violence between adults in the household and male guardians' PTSD symptom severity level predicted higher levels of maltreatment. Distal variables such as female guardians' history of childhood victimization and female guardians' exposure to traumatic war events also increased children's report of maltreatment. The current findings suggest that in the context of organized violence, an intergenerational cycle of violence persists that is exacerbated by female guardians' re-victimization experiences and male guardians' psychopathological symptoms.

  13. Drug-induced sedation endoscopy in children <2 years with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: upper airway findings and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Boudewyns, A; Van de Heyning, P; Verhulst, S

    2017-02-20

    Few data are available about the pattern of upper airway (UA) obstruction in children <2 years with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Also, the role of adenoidectomy versus adenotonsillectomy (AT) is poorly defined in this age group. We performed drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) in young OSAS children to investigate the pattern of UA obstruction and the value of DISE in therapeutic decision making. Retrospective analysis of ≤2-year-old children undergoing DISE-directed UA surgery. OSAS severity and the treatment outcomes were documented by polysomnography. Data are available for 28 patients, age 1.5 years (1.3-1.8), BMI-z score 0.5 (-0.7 to 1.3) with severe OSAS, obstructive apnea/hypopnea index (oAHI) 13.8/hr (7.5-28.3). All but 3 had (>50%) obstruction at the level of the adenoids, and all but 5 had (>50%) tonsillar obstruction. DISE-directed treatment consisted of adenoidectomy (n = 4), tonsillectomy (n = 1), and AT (n = 23). There was a significant improvement in respiratory parameters. Twenty children (71.4%) had a postoperative oAHI <2/hr. None had palatal or tongue base obstruction. Five children had a circumferential UA narrowing (hypotonia), 2 of them had residual OSAS. DISE showed a collapse of the epiglottis in 6 and late-onset laryngomalacia in 4. These findings did not affect surgical outcome. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the major cause of UA obstruction, and DISE-directed UA surgery was curative in 71,4% of children ≤2 years. We suggest that DISE may be helpful in surgical decision making. Circumferential UA narrowing may result in less favorable surgical outcomes.

  14. Primary Chronic Osteomyelitis of the Jaws in Children: An Update on Pathophysiology, Radiological Findings, Treatment Strategies, and Prospective Analysis of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Caroline; Ekströmer, Karin; Abtahi, Jahan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Primary chronic osteomyelitis (PCO) of the jaws in children is associated with pain, trismus, and swelling. In children, temporomandibular joint involvement is rare and few studies have been published due to the relatively low incidence. This paper presents two cases of mandibular PCO in children with the involvement of the collum mandibulae. In addition, a review of the literature regarding demographic data, histological, radiological, and laboratory findings, and treatment strategies of PCO was also performed. Material and Methods. Prospective analyses of two PCO cases. A PubMed search was used and the articles were sorted according to their corresponding key area of focus. Results. Review of the literature revealed twenty-four cases of PCO with two cases of mandibular condyle involvement. The mean age was 18 years; the male to female ratio was 1 : 3. Most of the patients were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs in combination with decortication. Clinical recurrence was seen in 7 cases. Conclusion. A combination of anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical intervention appears to be the first choice of treatment. However, surgical removal of necrotic tissue adjacent to collum mandibulae has its limitations in children. Further investigations are of utmost importance in order to increase our knowledge and understanding of this disease. PMID:26435856

  15. Dietary Carbohydrate and Nocturnal Sleep Duration in Relation to Children's BMI: Findings from the IDEFICS Study in Eight European Countries.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Monica; Mehlig, Kirsten; Börnhorst, Claudia; Hebestreit, Antje; Moreno, Luis; Veidebaum, Toomas; Kourides, Yiannis; Siani, Alfonso; Molnar, Dénes; Sioen, Isabelle; Lissner, Lauren

    2015-12-08

    Previous research has found an association between being overweight and short sleep duration. We hypothesized that this association could be modified by a high carbohydrate (HC) diet and that the timing and type (starch or sugar) of intake may be an important factor in this context. Participants in the prospective, eight-country European study IDEFICS were recruited from September 2007 to June 2008, when they were aged two to nine years. Data on lifestyle, dietary intake and anthropometry were collected on two occasions. This study included 5944 children at baseline and 4301 at two-year follow-up. For each meal occasion (morning, midday, and evening), starch in grams and sugar in grams were divided by total energy intake (EI), and quartiles calculated. HC-starch and HC-sugar intake categories were defined as the highest quartile for each meal occasion. In a mutually adjusted linear regression model, short sleep duration as well as HC-starch in the morning were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores at baseline. HC-starch at midday was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in children with short sleep duration, and negatively associated with BMI z-scores in those with normal sleep. After adjustment for baseline BMI z-scores, associations between total HC from starch or sugar and high BMI z-scores at two-year follow-up did not persist. Our observations offer a perspective on optimal timing for macronutrient consumption, which is known to be influenced by circadian rhythms. Reduced carbohydrate intake, especially during morning and midday meals, and following nocturnal sleep duration recommendations are two modifiable factors that may protect children from being overweight in the future.

  16. Translating adult electrophysiology findings to younger patient populations: difficulty measuring 40 Hz auditory steady-state responses in typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Fisk, Charles L.; Liu, Song; Pandey, Juhi; Herrington, John D.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gamma (~30 to 80 Hz) brain rhythms are thought to be abnormal in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In adult populations, auditory 40 Hz click trains or 40 Hz amplitude-modulated tones are used to assess the integrity of superior temporal gyrus (STG) 40 Hz gamma-band circuits. As STG 40 Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are not fully developed in children, tasks using these stimuli may not be optimal in younger patient populations. The present study examined this issue in typically developing (TD) children as well as in children with ASD, using source localization to directly assess activity in the principal generators of the 40 Hz ASSR - left and right primary/secondary auditory cortex. Methods 40 Hz amplitude-modulated tones of 1sec duration were binaurally presented while magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were obtained from forty-eight TD children (45 males; 7- to 14-years-old) and forty-two children with ASD (38 males; 8- to 14-years-old). T1-weighted structural MRI was obtained. Using single dipoles anatomically constrained to each participant's left and right Heschl's Gyrus, left and right 40 Hz ASSR total power (TP) and inter-trial coherence (ITC) measures were obtained. Associations between 40 Hz ASSR TP, ITC and age as well as superior temporal gyrus (STG) gray matter cortical thickness were measured. Group STG function and structure differences were also examined. Results TD and ASD groups did not differ on 40 Hz ASSR TP or ITC. In TD and ASD, age was associated with left and right 40 Hz ASSR ITC (p < 0.01). The interaction term was not significant, indicating in both groups a ~0.01/year increase in ITC. 40 Hz ASSR TP and ITC were greater in the right than left STG. Groups did not differ in STG cortical thickness, and no associations were observed between 40 Hz ASSR activity and STG cortical thickness. Finally, right STG transient gamma (50 to 100 ms and 30 to 50 Hz) was greater

  17. Comparative findings on the skelic index of black and white children and youths residing in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Meredith, H V; Spurgeon, J H

    1976-03-01

    This paper pertains to one facet of human body form, the relation of lower limbs to stem as quantified by the skelic index (lower limb height x 100/sitting height). The subjects were North American black and white pupils measured during 1974-1975 at elementary and high schools in Columbia, South Carolina. Females were measured at ages 9 and 13 years, males at ages 11 years and 15 years. At each childhood and adolescent age studied, skelic index means were considerably higher for the black than for the white pupils. Standard deviations and distances between spaced percentiles showed that variability of the skelic index at a given age was similar for white and black school pupils of South Carolina. Supplementary means for components of the skelic index indicated (1) black children and youths were shorter in sitting height than their white age peers, and (2) white children and youths were shorter in lower limb height than their black age peers. The skelic index of both ethnic groups increased between late childhood and mid-adolescence.

  18. Developmental changes in children's understanding of horizontal projectile motion.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yi; Zhu, Liqi; Chen, Zhe

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated 5- to 13-year-old children's performance in solving horizontal projectile motion problems, in which they predicted the trajectory of a carried object released from a carrier in three different contexts. The results revealed that 5- and 8-year-olds' trajectory predictions were easily distracted by salient contextual features (e.g. the relative spatial locations between objects), whereas a proportion of 11- and 13-year-olds' performance suggested the engagement of the impetus concept in trajectory prediction. The impetus concept is a typical misconception of inertial motion that assumes that motion is caused by force. Children's performance across ages suggested that their naïve knowledge of projectile motion was neither well-developed and coherent nor completely fragmented. Instead, this study presented the dynamic process in which children with age gradually overcame the influences of contextual features and consistently used the impetus concept across motion problems.

  19. Children develop a veil of fairness.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alex; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco; Olson, Kristina R; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2014-02-01

    Previous research suggests that children develop an increasing concern with fairness over the course of development. Research with adults suggests that the concern with fairness has at least 2 distinct components: a desire to be fair and a desire to signal to others that they are fair. We explore whether children's developing concern with behaving fairly toward others may in part reflect a developing concern with appearing fair to others. In Experiments 1 and 2, most 6- to 8-year-old children behaved fairly toward others when an experimenter was aware of their choices; fewer children opted to behave fairly, however, when they could be unfair to others yet appear fair to the experimenter. In Experiment 3, we explored the development of this concern with appearing fair by using a wider age range (6- to 11-year-olds) and a different method. In this experiment, children chose how to assign a good or bad prize to themselves and another participant by either unilaterally deciding who would get each prize or using a fair procedure--flipping a coin in private. Older children were much more likely to flip the coin than younger children, yet were just as likely as younger children to assign themselves the good prize by reporting winning the coin flip more than chance would dictate. Overall, the results of these experiments suggest that as children grow older they become increasingly concerned with appearing fair to others, which may explain some of their increased tendency to behave fairly.

  20. Culture moderates children's responses to ostracism situations.

    PubMed

    Over, Harriet; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-05-01

    Across a series of studies, we investigated cultural differences in children's responses to ostracism situations. Working with the children of farmers and herders, we focused on how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 1a showed that 4- to 8-year-old children from a socially interdependent farming community estimated ostracism to be less painful than did children from an independent herding community. Study 1b showed that this cultural difference was specific to social pain and did not apply to physical pain. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1a and showed that individual differences in parents' level of social interdependence mediated the relationship between cultural group and how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 3 replicated this effect again and showed that children's tendency to recommend seeking social support following ostracism mediated the relationship between cultural group and the perceived pain of being excluded. Finally, Study 4 investigated cultural differences in moral responses to ostracism and showed that children from the farming community punished an individual who ostracized someone else less harshly than did children from the independent herding community. Thus different economic cultures are associated with striking differences in social interdependence and responses to ostracism from early in development. (PsycINFO Database Record