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Sample records for 80-year-old danish men

  1. Unexplained weight loss in an 80-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Imogen Aleksandra; Gill, Isaac; Harripaul, Azad

    2015-01-23

    An 80-year-old woman presented with long-standing history of weight loss and malnutrition, which had caused her to become reliant on the use of a wheelchair. Her symptoms were initially attributed to her medical comorbidities, however, during admission it became apparent that she had been suffering from depression and had gone on to develop an eating disorder. Eating disorders are most common in young adults but can affect all age groups, including the elderly population. The diagnosis is rarely considered in such patients and easily overlooked, especially when in the presence of chronic conditions and cognitive decline. A pre-existing psychiatric issue, most often depression, may also be present in this age group. There are no current treatment methods targeting patients in this population, who may not respond as effectively to the available strategies directed at young adults. It is important to always consider an eating disorder as a contributor or direct cause of unexplained weight loss in elderly patients.

  2. Fatal lymphomatoid granulomatosis with primary CNS-involvement in an immunocompetent 80-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Olmes, David G; Agaimy, Abbas; Kloska, Stephan; Linker, Ralf A

    2014-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with weight loss, fatigue, dizziness and a brain stem lesion. Extensive work-up revealed lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) with primary clinical manifestation in the central nervous system (CNS), a rare Epstein-Barr virus-driven multisystem lymphoproliferative disorder, to be causative for the symptoms. Immunochemotherapy consisting of rituximab and temozolomide was started, but the disease progressed and the patient subsequently died. Histology, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis and treatment options for LYG with CNS involvement are discussed. This case demonstrates that LYG with CNS involvement may necessitate more aggressive treatment approaches than combination therapy with rituximab and temozolomide. PMID:25535225

  3. Use of the Konno procedure in an 80-year-old woman with aortic stenosis, a narrow left ventricular outflow tract, and a small aortic annulus.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Hiroyasu; Katayama, Yukihiro; Takaji, Kentaro; Oshitomi, Takashi; Uesugi, Hideyuki; Hirayama, Touitsu; Takeuchi, Takamasa

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a technique for repairing an aortic stenosis in an elderly patient with a small aortic annulus and a narrow left ventricular outflow tract. Preoperative echocardiography in an 80-year-old woman showed severe aortic stenosis with a narrow outflow tract: the aortic valve area was 0.48 cm(2), the aortic annular diameter was 14 mm, and the left ventricular outflow tract diameter was 14 mm. The Konno procedure was used to enlarge both the small aortic annulus and the left ventricular outflow tract, and a 19-mm Carpentier-Edwards bioprosthetic valve was implanted. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. The left ventricular mass decreased from a preoperative value of 236 g to 96 g, 3 years after surgery. Only a few reports have described the use of the Konno operation in adult patients. In the present case, the Konno operation was demonstrated to be a good option for aortic stenosis accompanied by a small aortic annulus and a narrow left ventricular outflow tract, even in an elderly patient.

  4. Physical activity and functional fitness in institutionalized vs. independently living elderly: a comparison of 70-80-year-old city-dwellers.

    PubMed

    Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Kusy, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Jacek; Osiński, Wiesław

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the level of energy expenditure due to physical activity (EEPA) and functional fitness (FF) in 59 women and 82 men aged 70-80 years, divided into three groups: permanent residents in assisted-living facilities (ALFs), participants in adult day care centers (DCCs) and older people living independently, members in community senior centers (CSCs). EEPA and FF were analyzed taking into consideration sex differences. The energy expenditure tended to be lower in DCCs and ALFs subjects than in CSCs members, but significant differences were obtained only in women. Women in different living settings differed only in endurance. In men, the differences were clear in most tests (endurance, strength, agility/dynamic balance) except for flexibility. Institutionalization was connected with a significantly lower level of FF and equalization of sex differences. Education seemed to be an important factor influencing the level of FF in men.

  5. Kidney function and specific mortality in 60-80 years old post-myocardial infarction patients: A 10-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; de Goede, Janette; Oude Griep, Linda M.; Stijnen, Theo; Kromhout, Daan

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent among older post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. It is not known whether CKD is an independent risk factor for mortality in older post-MI patients with optimal cardiovascular drug-treatment. Therefore, we studied the relation between kidney function and all-cause and specific mortality among older post-MI patients, without severe heart failure, who are treated with state-of-the-art pharmacotherapy. From 2002–2006, 4,561 Dutch post-MI patients were enrolled and followed until death or January 2012. We estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) with cystatin C (cysC) and creatinine (cr) using the CKD-EPI equations and analyzed the relation with any and major causes of death using Cox models and restricted cubic splines. Mean (SD) for age was 69 years (5.6), 79% were men, 17% smoked, 21% had diabetes, 90% used antihypertensive drugs, 98% used antithrombotic drugs and 85% used statins. Patients were divided into four categories of baseline eGFRcysC: ≥90 (33%; reference), 60–89 (47%), 30–59 (18%), and <30 (2%) ml/min/1.73m2. Median follow-up was 6.4 years. During follow-up, 873 (19%) patients died: 370 (42%) from cardiovascular causes, 309 (35%) from cancer, and 194 (22%) from other causes. After adjustment for age, sex and classic cardiovascular risk factor, hazard ratios (95%-confidence intervals) for any death according to the four eGFRcysC categories were: 1 (reference), 1.4 (1.1–1.7), 2.9 (2.3–3.6) and 4.4 (3.0–6.4). The hazard ratios of all-cause and cause-specific mortality increased linearly below kidney functions of 80 ml/min/1.73 m2. Weaker results were obtained for eGFRcr. To conclude, we found in optimal cardiovascular drug-treated post-MI patients an inverse graded relation between kidney function and mortality for both cardiovascular as well as non-cardiovascular causes. Risk of mortality increased linearly below kidney function of about 80 ml/min/1.73 m2. PMID:28182761

  6. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Smallpox Vaccine (MVA-BN®) in 56-80-Year-Old Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Richard N.; Hay, Christine M.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Marbury, Thomas C.; Wagner, Eva; Kreitmeir, Eva; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Young, Philip; Nichols, Richard; Meyer, Thomas P.; Weigl, Josef; Virgin, Garth; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® is a live, highly attenuated, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. In this Phase II trial, the safety and immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® (MVA) was assessed in a 56–80 years old population. Methods MVA with a virus titer of 1 x 108 TCID50/dose was administered via subcutaneous injection to 56–80 year old vaccinia-experienced subjects (N = 120). Subjects received either two injections of MVA (MM group) or one injection of Placebo and one injection of MVA (PM group) four weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events (AE), focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings and safety laboratories. Solicited AEs consisted of a set of pre-defined expected local reactions (erythema, swelling, pain, pruritus, and induration) and systemic symptoms (body temperature, headache, myalgia, nausea and fatigue) and were recorded on a memory aid for an 8-day period following each injection. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated in terms of humoral immune responses measured with a vaccinia-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) before and at different time points after vaccination. Results Vaccinations were well tolerated by all subjects. No serious adverse event related to MVA and no case of myopericarditis was reported. The overall incidence of unsolicited AEs was similar in both groups. For both groups immunogenicity responses two weeks after the final vaccination (i.e. Visit 4) were as follows: Seroconversion (SC) rates (doubling of titers from baseline) in vaccine specific antibody titers measured by ELISA were 83.3% in Group MM and 82.8% in Group PM (difference 0.6% with 95% exact CI [-13.8%, 15.0%]), and 90.0% for Group MM and 77.6% for Group PM measured by PRNT (difference 12.4% with 95% CI of [-1.1%, 27.0%]). Geometric mean titers (GMT) measured by ELISA two weeks after

  7. Effects of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Mediastinal Drainage and the Use of Blood Products in the Intensive Care Unit in 60- to 80-Year-Old Patients Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Aygün, Fatih; Özülkü, Mehmet; Günday, Murat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study consisted of patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and off-pump CABG and investigated effect of using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the amount of postoperative drainage and blood products, red blood cell (RBC), free frozen plasma (FFP) given in the intensive care unit in 60-80-year-old patients who underwent CABG. METHODS The present study comprises a total of 174 patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft (off-pump or on-pump CABG) surgery in our clinic in between 2012-2015 year. RESULTS It was observed that the amount of drainage in the first 24 postoperative hours was lower in the on-pump CABG group (Group 1) when compared to off-pump group (Group 2) (Group 1 vs. Group 2; 703.5±253.8 ml vs. 719.6±209.4 ml; P =0.716). However, the amount of drainage in the second 24 hours was statistically significantly lower in the off-pump CABG group (Group 1 vs. Group 2; 259.8±170.6 ml vs. 190.1±129.1 ml; P =0.016). With regard to the amount of overall drainage, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups. Group 1 needed RBC transfusion higher than Group 2 (Group 1 vs. Group 2; 2.2±1.3 bag vs. 1.2±0.9 bag; P <0.001). CONCLUSION We can say that CPB influences the amount of second 24-hour drainage which indexed body surface area. In addition, CPB decreases hct, hb, thrombocyte count in ICU arrived, after 24 hours in postoperative period. Reduced thrombocyte counting effect can be appeared after 48 hours in the postoperative period of CPB. PMID:26934397

  8. Estimated daily intake and hazard quotients and indices of phthtalate diesters for young danish men.

    PubMed

    Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e., the ratio between the daily intake and an acceptable level of exposure), a hazard index (HI) for each man was calculated as the sum of HQs for the individual phthalates. All men were exposed to all phthalates during the urine collection periods. Median HIs were all below 1 (i.e., below an acceptable cumulative threshold) ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 over the three different sample collections. Of the 33 men, 2 men had HIs above 1 in one of their three samples, indicating that occasionally the combined exposure to the investigated phthalates reached a level that may not be considered safe. Besides the phthalates investigated here, humans are exposed to numerous other chemicals that also may contribute to a cumulative antiandrogenic exposure.

  9. Relationship between serum ferritin, alcohol intake, and social status in 2235 Danish men and women.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Kirchhoff, M

    1996-03-01

    The objective was to examine the relationships between serum ferritin, alcohol intake, and socioeconomic factors (school education, occupational education, occupation, income, marital status, cohabitation status, housing, social class) in a population survey performed in Copenhagen County during 1982-1984. The participants were selected at random from the census register and comprised 2235 healthy Danish individuals, non-blood donors (1044 men, 1191 women) in cohorts being 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old. The participants gave a detailed social and medical history and had a clinical examination including blood samples. In all age-groups, men had significantly higher serum ferritin and alcohol intake than women. In men, there was no relationship between serum ferritin and social class. Significant relationships were observed between ferritin and occupation (unemployed and self-employed men had higher ferritin than those with other occupations) and ferritin and income (in younger men, ferritin displayed a steady increase with income). None of the social variables were related to the prevalence of iron deficiency or iron overload. Alcohol intake was related to occupation and income, but not to social class. In women, none of the social variables showed any significant relationship to ferritin levels or iron overload. The prevalence of small iron stores (serum ferritin < or = 30 micrograms/l) was lower and the intake of alcohol was higher in women from high social classes. In both men and women, serum ferritin displayed highly significant positive correlations with alcohol intake. Likewise, the prevalence of iron overload (serum ferritin > 90th percentile) was closely correlated to alcohol intake. In conclusion, socioeconomic factors per se had a minor influence on serum ferritin levels and iron status in Danes. The distinct association between alcohol intake and serum ferritin levels should be considered in future iron status surveys.

  10. Testing the hypothesis that treatment can eliminate HIV: a nationwide, population-based study of the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Justin T.; Robbins, Danielle; Palk, Laurence; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels; Blower, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Worldwide, ~35 million individuals are infected with HIV; ~25 million in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The WHO proposes using “treatment as prevention” (TasP) to eliminate HIV. Treatment suppresses viral load, decreasing the probability an individual transmits HIV. The elimination threshold is one new HIV infection per 1,000 individuals. Here, we test the hypothesis that TasP can substantially reduce epidemics and eliminate HIV. We estimate the impact of TasP, between 1996–2013, on the Danish HIV epidemic in Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men (MSM), an epidemic UNAIDS has identified as a priority for elimination. Methods We use a CD4-staged Bayesian back-calculation approach to estimate incidence, and the “hidden epidemic” (the number of HIV-infected undiagnosed MSM). We use data from an ongoing nationwide population-based study: the Danish HIV Cohort Study. Findings Incidence, and the hidden epidemic, decreased substantially after treatment was introduced in 1996. By 2013, incidence was close to the elimination threshold: 1·4 (median, 95% Bayesian Credible Interval (BCI): 0·4–2·1) new HIV infections per 1,000 MSM. There were only 617 (median, 95% BCI: 264–858) undiagnosed MSM. Decreasing incidence and increasing treatment coverage are highly correlated; a threshold effect is apparent. Interpretation Our study is the first to show that TasP can substantially reduce a country’s HIV epidemic, and bring it close to elimination. However, we have shown the effectiveness of TasP under optimal conditions: very high treatment coverage, and exceptionally high (98%) viral suppression rate. Unless these extremely challenging conditions can be met in SSA, the WHO’s global elimination strategy is unlikely to succeed. Funding NIAID/NIH PMID:27174504

  11. Characteristics of symptomatic men with testicular microlithiasis - A Danish cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M R; Møller, H; Rafaelsen, S R; Jørgensen, M M B; Osther, P J; Vedsted, P

    2017-03-07

    Testicular microlithiasis (TML) is an incidental finding at ultrasonography of the scrotum. A link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer has been suggested. However, the majority of studies are retrospective using ultrasonography with minor data on health status and life style characteristics. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle and health are associated with TML. In 2014, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey including 1538 men, who all due to testicular/scrotal symptoms had an ultrasound investigation of the scrotum during 2004-2013. The men were divided into men with TML and men without. The 23-items questionnaire included items on age, height, weight, lifestyle (alcohol consumptions, smoking habits, workload, exercise and food), previous diseases in the testicles, pain and consumption of analgesics. The prevalence of TML was 12.8%. Overall, lifestyle factors did not vary between men with or without TML. However, men with TML did consume more crisp than men without. Development of TML was not associated to classic life style factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking habits, or mothers smoking during pregnancy. Also, age and height could not be linked to presence of TML. We did find, however, that men with TML experienced less physical activity and consumed more crisp than men without TML. Since ingestion of crisps has potential carcinogenic effect (acrylamide), this finding needs confirmation in a separate study.

  12. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    PubMed Central

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. Methods We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was used as the statistical model. Results During 53,302 person-years of observation, 571 participants were hospitalized for infection. Similarly, during 26,125 person-years of observation, 7,276 participants filled a prescription of antimicrobials. LGI was associated with increased risk of hospital-based treatment for infection only among men (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–2.34) and specifically infections were abscesses and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Similarly, LGI was associated with the overall use of antimicrobials among men, and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin and broad-spectrum antimicrobials for treatment of urinary tract infections. The difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Conclusions In a large cohort of healthy individuals, LGI was associated with an increased risk of infection among healthy male blood donors. PMID:27701463

  13. Parabens in urine, serum and seminal plasma from healthy Danish men determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Parabens are used as anti-microbial preservatives in a range of consumer products, especially in cosmetics. In vitro and animal studies have shown weak estrogenic and other endocrine disrupting effects of parabens, including reduced testosterone levels in exposed male rats. The knowledge of paraben exposure, distribution and excretion in humans is limited. In this study we determined the concentration of five parabens; methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben in urine, serum and seminal plasma samples from 60 healthy Danish men. To conduct the study a sensitive and specific method using LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of the five parabens was developed for all three different matrices. Highest concentrations of the parabens were found in urine, wherein methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl- and n-butyl parabens were measurable in 98%, 80%, 98% and 83% of the men, respectively. Benzyl paraben was only measurable in urine from 7% of the men. Methyl- and n-propyl parabens were also measurable in the majority of serum and seminal plasma samples, whereas the other parabens could only be detected in some of the samples. In all the three matrices significant correlations between the parabens were seen. Furthermore, urinary paraben concentrations correlate to the paraben concentrations in both serum and seminal plasma.

  14. Associations between Recreational and Commuter Cycling, Changes in Cycling, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: A Cohort Study of Danish Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Martin G.; Grøntved, Anders; Blond, Kim; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Jensen, Majken K.; Østergaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Cycling is a recreational activity and mode of commuting with substantial potential to improve public health in many countries around the world. The aim of this study was to examine prospective associations between recreational and commuter cycling, changes in cycling habits, and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Danish adults from the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Methods and Findings At baseline from 1993 to 1997, 24,623 men and 27,890 women from Denmark, 50–65 y of age and free of T2D and other chronic diseases, underwent a number of assessments, including completing a lifestyle questionnaire also addressing cycling habits. Approximately 5 y later, at a second examination, participants completed a new, updated lifestyle questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of incident T2D registered in the Danish National Diabetes Registry, according to recreational and commuter cycling and changes in cycling habits, with adjustment for a priori known T2D risk factors. During 743,245.4 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up 14.2 y), 6,779 incident cases of T2D were documented. Multivariable adjusted HRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) were 1, 0.87 (0.82, 0.93), 0.83 (0.77, 0.89), 0.80 (0.74, 0.86) and 0.80 (0.74, 0.87) (p for trend = <0.001) for 0, 1–60, 61–150, 151–300, and >300 min/wk of total cycling (recreational and commuter cycling), respectively. In analysis of seasonal cycling, multivariable adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1, 0.88 (0.83, 0.94), and 0.80 (0.76, 0.85) for non-cyclists, seasonal cyclists (those cycling only in summer or winter), and those cycling during both summer and winter, respectively. How changes in total cycling from baseline to the second examination affected risk was also investigated, and multivariable adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1, 0.88 (0.78, 1.01), 0.80 (0.69, 0.91), and 0.71 (0.65, 0.77) for non-cyclists and for those who ceased, initiated, or continued cycling between baseline and the

  15. Oral flora in independent over 80-year-olds with more than 20 teeth.

    PubMed

    Ohazama, Jun; Motegi, Etsuko; Nomura, Mayumi; Miyazaki, Haruyo; Takane, Yumi; Harazaki, Morihiro; Yamaguchi, Hideharu; Ishihara, Kazuyuki; Okuda, Katsuji; Matsuda, Ichiro

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate oral flora in independent persons aged over 80 years with more than 20 remaining teeth. The subjects were 22 participants of the 8020 campaign (6 males and 16 females) with a mean age of 81.3+/-1.6 years and an average of 24.7 teeth (Independent 8020 group). This group was compared with a group of 38 elderly people residing in nursing homes (10 males and 28 females) who had a mean age of 81.3+/-8.5 years and an average of 4.2 teeth (Nursing group with fewer teeth). Saliva samples were collected from the vestibular areas of the maxilla and mandible using cotton swabs. Cell numbers of microorganisms were expressed as colony forming units/ml (CFUs/ml) and compared between the two groups. The average number of Staphylococcus species was 65.2+/-74.4 CFUs/ml in the Independent 8020 group and 400.3+/-352.1 CFUs/ml in the group with fewer teeth (p<0.01); that of Candida albicans was 18.0+/-37.7 CFUs/ml in the Independent 8020 group and 152.9+/-211.9 CFUs/ml in the Nursing group with fewer teeth (p<0.05). Both species showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. This suggests that the Independent 8020 achiever group had better oral hygiene and that the presence of many teeth may be associated with an increased awareness of dental health.

  16. [Radical oncological stomach, liver and pancreatic surgery in patients over 80 years old].

    PubMed

    Lyadov, V K; Kozyrin, I A; Kovalenko, Z A

    2017-01-01

    Цель — изучить результаты радикальных операций по поводу опухолей верхних отделов желудочно-кишечного тракта, выполненных пациентам в возрасте 80 лет и старше. Материал и методы. С ноября 2010 г. по июнь 2015 г. в отделении хирургической онкологии ФГАУ «Лечебно-реабилитационный центр» выполнено 14 радикальных операций по поводу опухолей желудка, печени и поджелудочной железы пациентам в возрасте 80 лет и старше. Произведено 4 панкреатодуоденальные резекции, 1 панкреатодуоденоспленэктомия, 4 гастрэктомии, 2 дистальные резекции желудка, центральная резекция печени, лапароскопическая резекция V сегмента и резекция II, III, VII сегментов печени. Изучены ближайшие результаты хирургического лечения, включая объем кровопотери, длительность операций, наличие послеоперационных осложнений и летальности в течение 90 сут после вмешательства, продолжительность пребывания на койке после операции. Результаты. Объем кровопотери составил от 0 до 1500 мл, продолжительность операций — от 150 до 560 мин. Умер один пациент на 17-е сутки после панкреатодуоденальной резекции в связи с развитием аррозионного кровотечения на фоне панкреатической фистулы. Осложнения возникли у 8 пациентов, в 3 наблюдениях потребовалось повторное оперативное вмешательство. Длительность пребывания в стационаре после операции составила в среднем 15±6 сут (от 8 до 29 сут). Вывод. Проведение обширных онкологических операций на органах верхних отделов желудочно-кишечного тракта у пациентов 80 лет и старше возможно и сопровождается удовлетворительными показателями летальности и числа осложнений. Залогом успеха является детальная предоперационная подготовка и компенсация сопутствующих заболеваний.

  17. Reasons for playing casual video games and perceived benefits among adults 18 to 80 years old.

    PubMed

    Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Ellenberg, Stacy; Akimoto, Kyoko

    2013-12-01

    Casual video games (CVGs) are becoming increasingly popular among middle-aged and older adults, yet there are few studies documenting why adults of different ages play these games, what benefits they perceive, and how regularly they play. The present study compared the online survey responses of 10,308 adults ranging from 18 to 80 years of age to questions regarding PopCap's popular free online game, Bejeweled Blitz (BJB). All respondents cited playing against friends as their main reason for playing. However, there were differences by age in the second most frequently cited reason. Middle-aged adults cited stress relief, and older adults reported that they seek the game's challenges. As a result of playing CVGs, younger adults noted that they felt sharper and experienced improved memory; older adults were more likely to feel that their visuospatial skills and response time benefited. Adults aged 60 and older had heavier patterns of game play than did adults under the age of 60 years. A significant number of respondents (14.7%) spontaneously noted that they felt that BJB had addictive qualities. CVG players seem to be drawn into this activity by its social nature and to a certain extent by its reinforcing properties. Once involved, however, they believe that they derive a number of benefits that, for older adults, appear to offset declines in age-sensitive cognitive functions.

  18. Low Cognitive Functioning in Nondemented 80+-Year-Old Twins Is Not Heritable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Johansson, Boo; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Berg, Stig; Plomin, Robert; Ahern, Frank; McClearn, Gerald E.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the genetic influence of low cognitive functioning in 200 pairs of twins aged at least 80 years and identified as not demented. Results suggest that the heritability of low cognitive functioning in this group was nonsignificant, but above-average cognitive functioning shows substantial group heritability. (SLD)

  19. Causes of sexual decline in aging married men: Germany and America.

    PubMed

    Mazur, A; Mueller, U; Krause, W; Booth, A

    2002-04-01

    Married men in Germany (n=48) and America (n=50) between 50 and 80 years old, none in poor health, provided comparable information on sexual behavior and attitudes, and gave saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Sexuality declines with age, as expected. Neither testosterone nor psychological depression explain levels of sexuality. In both nations, wife's desire for intercourse, subject's ability to maintain an erection, and subject's imagination about other women, explain certain aspects of sexuality. Subject's health and marital satisfaction are related to sexuality among Americans but not among Germans. Behavioral models for the two nations are compared.

  20. Obesity in young men, and individual and combined risks of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular morbidity and death before 55 years of age: a Danish 33-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Morten; Johannesdottir, Sigrun A; Lemeshow, Stanley; Lash, Timothy L; Ulrichsen, Sinna P; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Toft Sørensen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and cardiovascular risks, including venous thromboembolism, before 55 years of age. Design Cohort study using population-based medical databases. Setting Outcomes registered from all hospitals in Denmark from 1977 onwards. Participants 6502 men born in 1955 and eligible for conscription in Northern Denmark. Main outcome measures Follow-up began at participants’ 22nd birthday and continued until death, emigration or 55 years of age, whichever came first. Using regression analyses, we calculated the risks and HRs, adjusting for cognitive test score and years of education. Results 48% of all obese young men (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) were either diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke or venous thromboembolism or died before reaching 55 years of age. Comparing obese men with normal weight men (BMI 18.5 to <25.0 kg/m2), the risk difference for any outcome was 28% (95% CI 19% to 38%) and the HR was 3.0 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.0). Compared with normal weight, obesity was associated with an event rate that was increased more than eightfold for type 2 diabetes, fourfold for venous thromboembolism and twofold for hypertension, myocardial infarction and death. Conclusions In this cohort of young men, obesity was strongly associated with adverse cardiometabolic events before 55 years of age, including venous thromboembolism. Compared with those of normal weight, young obese men had an absolute risk increase for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular morbidity or premature death of almost 30%. PMID:23628994

  1. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  2. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish “Pathology Registry”, the “National Patient Registry”, and the “Cause of Death Registry” using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Descriptive data Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications. PMID:27822089

  3. Elemental composition of human semen is associated with motility and genomic sperm defects among older men

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Thomas E.; Grant, Patrick G.; Marchetti, Francesco; Weldon, Rosana H.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Older men tend to have poorer semen quality and are generally at higher risks for infertility and abnormal reproductive outcomes. METHODS We employed proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE, 3 MeV proton beam) to investigate the concentrations of zinc, copper, calcium, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, titanium, iron and nickel in washed sperm and seminal plasma from non-smoking groups of 10 older men (65–80 years old) and 10 younger men (22–28 years old) who were concurrently assayed for sperm function and genomicly defective sperm. RESULTS The older group showed elevated zinc, copper and calcium in sperm and elevated sulfur in seminal plasma compared with the younger men. The older group also showed reduced motility as well as increased sperm DNA fragmentation, achondroplasia mutations, DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations. Sperm calcium and copper were positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (P < 0.03). Seminal sulfur was positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation and chromosomal aberrations (P < 0.04), and negatively associated with sperm motility (P < 0.05). Sperm calcium was negatively associated with sperm motility, independent of male age (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS We identified major differences in elemental concentrations between sperm and seminal plasma and that higher sperm copper, sulfur and calcium are quantitatively associated with poorer semen quality and increased frequencies of genomic sperm defects. PMID:23042799

  4. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    PubMed Central

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. Study population All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. Main variables The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. Descriptive data The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001–2003 to <2% since 2013. Conclusion The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish

  5. The Danish Melanoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. Study population All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. Main variables The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. Descriptive data The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. Conclusion DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research. PMID:27822097

  6. The Danish System Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, John S.

    The paper is a supplement to an earlier paper in the same series which reviews Danish higher education until 1977. Expansion in higher education in the last 20 years, approaching the scale of mass higher education, culminated in a crisis in 1977. At that time, a trend toward self-government and participatory governing boards was seen as the end of…

  7. The Danish Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager; Schaarup, Susanne Zielke; Gyllenborg, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. Study population All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. Main variables The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients with acute stroke and TIA. Patient outcomes are currently monitored using 30-day mortality, unplanned readmission, and for patients receiving revascularization therapy, also functional level at 3 months poststroke. Descriptive data Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors with potential prognostic impact are registered. Conclusion The Danish Stroke Registry is a well-established clinical registry which plays a key role for monitoring and improving stroke and TIA care in Denmark. In addition, the registry is increasingly used for research. PMID:27843349

  8. Increased Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) Is Associated With Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer in Jamaican Men

    PubMed Central

    Shivappa, Nitin; Jackson, Maria D.; Bennett, Franklyn; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy; and it accounts for the most cancer deaths among Jamaican males. Diet has been implicated in the etiology of prostate cancer, including through its effects on inflammation. Method We examined the association between a newly developed dietary inflammatory index (DII) and prostate cancer in a case-control study of 40-80 year-old Jamaican males. A total of 229 incident cases and 250 controls attended the same urology out-patient clinics at 2 major hospitals and private practitioners in the Kingston, Jamaica Metropolitan area between March 2005 and July 2007. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was expanded to assess diet and cancer in this Jamaican population. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios, with DII as continuous and expressed as quartiles. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, total energy intake, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, physical activity and family history of prostate cancer. Results Men in the highest quartile of the DII were at higher risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.14–5.04 (Ptrend = 0.08)] compared to men in the lowest DII quartile. Conclusion These data suggest a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by increasing DII score, may be a risk factor for prostate cancer in Jamaican men. PMID:26226289

  9. Serum Estradiol Levels Are Inversely Associated With Cortical Porosity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Vandenput, Liesbeth; Lorentzon, Mattias; Sundh, Daniel; Nilsson, Maria E.; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Mellström, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Context: The key role of serum estradiol (E2) for bone health in men is well established. The effect of serum sex steroids on bone microstructure, measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, remains unknown in elderly men. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the associations between serum sex steroids and bone microstructural parameters in older men. Methods: Trabecular and cortical bone microstructure at the tibia was measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in 440 men (mean 80 y of age) participating in the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sweden cohort. Serum levels of E2 and T were analyzed with mass spectrometry and free E2 and free T levels were calculated using law-of-mass-action equations. Results: Age-adjusted models demonstrated that E2 and free E2 but not T or free T associated significantly inversely with cortical porosity. The associations between E2 and free E2 and cortical porosity remained significant after further adjustment for height, weight, physical activity, calcium intake, and smoking. Models including both serum E2 and T demonstrated that E2 (standardized β = −.12, P < .05) but not T associated independently with cortical porosity. A similar independent association was found for free E2 (standardized β = −.12, P < .05) but not free T. Free E2 associated significantly with trabecular bone volume fraction in the age-adjusted models, but this association did not remain significant after further adjustment. Conclusions: Serum E2 levels associated inversely with cortical porosity in 80-year-old men. We propose that low serum E2 may reduce cortical bone strength, at least partly, by increasing cortical porosity and thereby increase fracture risk in older men. PMID:24694340

  10. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  11. Danish Cultural Identity and the Teaching of Danish to Foreigners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Hedwig

    2006-01-01

    Danish as a second language textbooks published over the last 15 years have presented the Danish cultural identity as a homogenous and purely national phenomenon. Research into teaching theory, on the other hand, has been more broad-minded, and is based on interactivity. The aim of this paper is to explain this divergence. (Contains 2 notes.)

  12. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption.

  13. The Danish Heart Registry

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Flensted Lassen, Jens; von Kappelgaard, Lene Mia; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. Study population All adult (≥15 years) patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. Main variables The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR and WDHR). For each type of procedure, up to 70 variables are registered in the DHR. Since 2010, the data quality protocol encompasses fulfillment of web-based validation rules of daily-submitted records and yearly approval of the data by the EDHR and WDHR. Descriptive data The data collection on procedure has been complete for PCI and surgery since 2000, and for CAG as of 2006. From 2000 to 2014, the number of CAG, PCI, and surgical procedures changed by 231%, 193%, and 99%, respectively. Until the end of 2014, a total of 357,476 CAG, 131,309 PCI, and 60,831 surgical procedures had been performed, corresponding to 249,445, 100,609, and 55,539 first-time patients, respectively. The DHR generally has a high level of completeness (1–missing) of each procedure (>90%) when compared to the National Patient Registry. Variables important for assessing the quality of care have a high level of completeness for surgery since 2000, and for CAG and PCI since 2010. Conclusion The DHR contains valuable data on cardiac invasive procedures, which makes it an important national monitoring and quality system and at the same time serves as a platform for research projects in the cardiovascular field. PMID:27822091

  14. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy); complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative complications, and recurrence within 5 years follow-up. The database is also a valuable research tool to study the impact of technical and medical interventions on prognosis of sarcoma patients. PMID:27822116

  15. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  16. Danish Urogynaecological Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures per year. The variables are collected along the course of treatment of the patient from the referral to a postoperative control. Main variables are prior obstetrical and gynecological history, symptoms, symptom-related quality of life, objective urogynecological findings, type of operation, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3–6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database has a completeness of over 90% of all urogynecological surgeries performed in Denmark. Some of the main variables have been validated using medical records as gold standard. The positive predictive value was above 90%. The data are used as a quality monitoring tool by the hospitals and in a number of scientific studies of specific urogynecological topics, broader epidemiological topics, and the use of patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27826217

  17. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  18. Danish Palliative Care Database

    PubMed Central

    Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. Main variables The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. Descriptive data In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness. PMID:27822111

  19. [Risk of cancer among Danish electricity workers. A cohort study].

    PubMed

    Johansen, C; Olsen, J H

    1999-04-05

    We report the incidence of cancer in a large cohort of employees identified from all 99 Danish utility companies. Personal data, and information on employment and exposure to magnetic fields and asbestos were obtained from manual files at the companies, the Danish Supplementary Pension Fund and the public payroll administration. A total of 32,006 individuals with more than three months of employment were linked with the files of the Danish Cancer Registry. Overall, 3008 cancers were observed, with 2825 expected, yielding a small but significantly increased risk of 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.10). No excess was observed for all leukemias or for cancers of the brain or breast among men or women. There was no association of electromagnetic field exposure with risk of these cancers even when the level and length of exposure to magnetic fields were taken into account. Increased risks for cancers of the lung and pleural cavity were seen mainly for workers whose jobs involve exposure to asbestos. Our results do not support the hypothesis of an association between occupational exposures to magnetic fields in the electric utility industry and the risk for cancer.

  20. Street Men, Family Men: Race and Men's Extended Family Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisian, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    Disorganization theories postulate that black men have largely abandoned their familial roles. Using the NSFH data, this article refutes the hypothesis of black men's familial disengagement by focusing on extended family integration. Black men are more likely than white men to live with or near extended kin, as well as to frequently see kin in…

  1. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian…

  2. Men Learning through Life (and Men's Sheds)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    This "Futures" column shares insights about men's learning beyond work, based on several decades of research in men's learning in international community contexts. The article focuses' particularly on men who want and need to learn to re-create and broaden their identities beyond their working lives. This practice, well established in…

  3. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Risor, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  4. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. Study population The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995. All Danish orthopedic departments – both public and private – report to the register, and registration is compulsory. Main variables The main variables in the register include civil registration number, indication for primary and revision surgery, operation date and side, and postoperative complications. Completeness of primary and revision surgery is evaluated annually and validation of a number of variables has been carried out. Descriptive data A total of 139,525 primary THAs and 22,118 revisions have been registered in the DHR between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. Since 1995, completeness of procedure registration has been high, being 97.8% and 92.0% in 2014 for primary THAs and revisions, respectively. Several risk factors, such as comorbidity, age, specific primary diagnosis and fixation types for failure of primary THAs, and postoperative complications, have been identified through the DHR. Approximately 9,000 primary THAs and 1,500 revisions are reported to the register annually. Conclusion The DHR is important for monitoring and improvement of treatment with THA and is a valuable tool for research in THA surgery due to the high quality of prospective collected data with long-term follow-up and high completeness. The register can be used for population-based epidemiology studies of THA surgery and can be linked to a range of other national databases. PMID:27822092

  5. Gender stereotyping in television advertisements: a study of French and Danish television.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Babitzkow, M; Uguccioni, S

    2000-02-01

    Two similar, but not identical, content analyses of the portrayals of men and women in French and Danish television advertisements are reported. By partially replicating and extending past investigations conducted in America, Australia, Britain, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, and New Zealand, it was predicted that there would be more gender stereotyping in French television advertisements and less gender stereotyping in Danish television advertisements. In the first study, 165 French television advertisements were analyzed by following established coding categories (A. Furnham & E. Skae, 1997; L. Z. McArthur & B. G. Resko, 1975). Contrary to prediction, the results showed that traditional gender role portrayal on French television was no different from that found in other countries. Separate statistical analyses were carried out for visually versus aurally classified central figures, yet this yielded relatively few significant differences. In the second study, a sample of 151 Danish advertisements was analyzed; results showed that Danish television was generally less gender stereotypic than French television in its portrayal of women. Exactly half (5) of the coding categories showed significant differences. Finally, an international statistical comparison between these two studies and similar research in Australia, Britain, and Italy was carried out. The methodological implications of these results are discussed as well as the theoretical issues arising from other studies of this sort.

  6. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi; Nørgaard, Mette; Thind, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. Study population All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47%) patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC) and 512 (53%) were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). A total of 300 (31%) patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50%) received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5) in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31) in 2013. Conclusion This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and monitor treatment and mortality. In the future, DaBlaCa-data will be a valuable data source and expansive observational studies on BC will be available. PMID:27822081

  7. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Brasso, Klaus; Jakobsen, Erik Breth; Moe, Mette; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Nakano, Anne; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). Descriptive data In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015. A key feature of DAPROCAdata is the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), including data on quality-of-life (pain levels, physical activity, sexual function, depression, urine and fecal incontinence) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index). PROM data are derived from questionnaires distributed at diagnosis and at 1-year and 3-year follow-up. Hitherto, the PROM data have been limited by low completeness (26% among newly diagnosed patients in 2014). Conclusion DAPROCAdata is a comprehensive, yet still young clinical database. Efforts to improve data collection, data validity, and completeness are ongoing and of high priority. PMID:27843346

  8. The Future of the Danish Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    as a natural consequence of being a co-founder of the United Nations, focused on promoting peace and stability in the world, as a relatively large...Soviet invasion to a more expeditionary course of deploying forces to promote peace and stability around the globe. As a result, Danish defense policy...Danish government including the armed forces. As a consequence Defense Agreement 2010 – 2014 was replaced by Defense Agreement 2013 – 2017 including

  9. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  10. Men and Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some symptoms related to sexual trauma in boys and men? Particularly when the assailant is a ... those who do not. Emotional Disorders Men and boys who have been sexually assaulted are more likely ...

  11. Men and Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Longer: Men Recovering from Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse by Mike Lew, Foreword by Ellen Bass. (1990). ... Heroic Men: A Man's Guide to Recovering from Child Abuse by Daniel Jay Sonkin and Lenore E. A. ...

  12. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in ... whole community. Return to top Get help for violence in your life Are you a victim of ...

  13. Osteoporosis in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Men Osteoporosis in Men Publication available in: PDF (71 KB) ... as life expectancy continues to rise. What Causes Osteoporosis? Bone is constantly changing—that is, old bone ...

  14. Domestic violence against men.

    PubMed

    Barber, Christopher F

    This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.

  15. Determinants related to gender differences in general practice utilization: Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to describe the determinants related to gender differences in the GP utilization in Danish population aged 50–65 years. Design Cohort-based cross-sectional study. Setting Danish general practice. Subjects Totally, 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (50–65 years). Main outcome measures The sum of cohort members’ face-to-face consultations with general practitioner (GP) at the cohort baseline year (1993–1997). We obtained data on GP visits from the Danish National Health Service Register at the cohort baseline (1993–1997), when information on lifestyle (smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, physical activity), medical conditions (somatic and mental), employment, education, gravidity, and hormone therapy (HT) use was collected by questionnaire. Results Women had on average 4.1 and men 2.8 consultations per year. In a crude model, women had 47% higher rate of GP visits than men (incidence rate ratio: 1.47; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.45–1.50), which remained unchanged after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demographic and medical factors, but attenuated to 18% (1.18; 1.13–1.24) after adjustment for female factors (gravidity and post-menopausal HT. In a fully adjusted model, subjects with hypertension (1.63; 1.59–1.67), mental illness (1.63; 1.61–1.66), diabetes (1.56; 1.47–1.65), angina pectoris (1.28; 1.21–1.34), and unemployed persons (1.19; 1.18–1.21) had highest rates of GP visits. Conclusions Gravidity and HT use explain a large proportion, but not all of the gender difference in GP utilization. Medical conditions (somatic and mental) and unemployment are the main determinants of GP utilization in men and women, while lifestyle has minor effect. Key Points Female gender remained a dominant determinant of GP utilization, after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demography, medical and gender specific factors, with females consulting their GP 18% more often than males

  16. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. PMID:27822082

  17. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database

    PubMed Central

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Study population Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Main variables Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Descriptive data Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. Conclusion The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients. PMID:27822083

  18. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  19. Increasing Staff Mobility--A Danish Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Henning

    1985-01-01

    Recent Danish government proposals to increase the national and international mobility of scientists are reviewed, including a formalized sabbatical system in the universities, new rules for obtaining leaves of absence with or without salary, and plans for increased mobility between public and private sectors. (MSE)

  20. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  1. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  2. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  3. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  4. Genital Problems in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men SeniorsIn The NewsYour Health ResourcesHealthcare Management End-of- ... Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men SeniorsIn The NewsYour Health ResourcesHealthcare Management End-of- ...

  5. Lost Men on Campus. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Elizabeth Redden, author of the "Inside Higher Ed" article, "Lost Men on Campus," succinctly articulated the growing concerns about many college men at postsecondary institutions. Her review of results and issues presented at the "ND Conference on College Men" highlighted decreased rates of enrollment for men, underrepresentation of men in campus…

  6. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  7. The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry

    PubMed Central

    Gimsing, Peter; Holmström, Morten O; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfelt; Andersen, Niels Frost; Gregersen, Henrik; Pedersen, Robert Schou; Plesner, Torben; Pedersen, Per Trøllund; Frederiksen, Mikael; Frølund, Ulf; Helleberg, Carsten; Vangsted, Annette; de Nully Brown, Peter; Abildgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry (DMMR) is a population-based clinical quality database established in January 2005. The primary aim of the database is to ensure that diagnosis and treatment of plasma cell dyscrasia are of uniform quality throughout the country. Another aim is to support research. Patients are registered with their unique Danish personal identification number, and the combined use of DMMR, other Danish National registries, and the Danish National Cancer Biobank offers a unique platform for population-based translational research. Study population All newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma (MM), smoldering MM, solitary plasmacytomas, and plasma cell leukemia in Denmark are registered annually; ~350 patients. Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with polyneuropathy have been registered since 2014. Main variables The main registered variables at diagnosis are patient demographics, baseline disease characteristics, myeloma-defining events, clinical complications, prognostics, first- and second-line treatments, treatment responses, progression free, and overall survival. Descriptive data Up to June 2015, 2,907 newly diagnosed patients with MM, 485 patients with smoldering MM, 64 patients with plasma cell leukemia, and 191 patients with solitary plasmacytomas were registered. Registration completeness of new patients is ~100%. A data validation study performed in 2013–2014 by the Danish Myeloma Study Group showed >95% data correctness. Conclusion The DMMR is a population-based data validated database eligible for clinical, epidemiological, and translational research. PMID:27822103

  8. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  9. Self-reported versus measured body height and weight in Polish adult men: the risk of underestimating obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Łopuszańska, Monika; Lipowicz, Anna; Kołodziej, Halina; Szklarska, Alicja; Bielicki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Background: In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between self-reported and measured height and weight in adult men, and to determine how the accuracy of self-reported data depended on age and education. The prevalence of obesity was also calculated based both on self-reported and measured data. Material and methods: Data were collected during two population studies carried out in Wroclaw in 2010. One study included 1,194 19-year-old males who reported for the health examination mandated by the National Conscription Board (younger group). The other group included 355 men between 35 and 80 years old who reported for a ten-year follow-up (older group). Data were analyzed separately for both age groups. Results: Both younger and older subjects overestimated their height by 1.4 cm and 1.0 cm (1.4 cm, 95   %CI: 1.26, 1.51, and 1.0 cm, 95   %CI: 0.85, 1.26, respectively). On average, younger subjects overestimated their weight by 0.7 kilograms (95   %CI: 0.55, 0.92), whereas older subjects underestimated their weight by 0.9 kilograms (95   %CI: –1.15, –0.48). The lower the level of education, the more the subjects overestimated their height. Conclusions: Adult men systematically overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. The magnitude of the inaccuracy depends on level of education. When self-reported data are used, the prevalence of obesity is generally underestimated. Using self-reported data to calculate BMI can lead to a substantial underestimation of the proportion of underweight and obese individuals in a population. Finally, using self-reported values for height in studies on social inequality may lead to false conclusions.

  10. Cancer incidence in Danish phenoxy herbicide workers, 1947-1993.

    PubMed Central

    Lynge, E

    1998-01-01

    A cohort study was undertaken of 2119 workers from Denmark who were potentially exposed to phenoxy herbicides. The workers were from two factories that produced phenoxy herbicides since 1947 and 1951, respectively. They had been employed either in the manufacture of phenoxy herbicide or in the manual service functions. The main product was 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). From 1947 to 1993 the 2119 workers had a slightly lower overall cancer incidence than the Danish population (observed = 204; expected [Exp] = 234.23; standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-1.0). Four soft-tissue sarcoma cases were observed (Exp = 2.47; SIR = 1.62; 95% CI = 0.4-4.1). All four cases occurred among men from Kemisk Vaerk Køge (Exp = 1.68; SIR = 2.38; 95% CI = 0.7-6.1). There were six cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Exp = 5.07; SIR = 1.10; 95% CI = 0.4-2.6) and no significantly elevated risk of other cancers. Based on small numbers, the study suggests an association between the exposure to MCPA and related phenoxy herbicides and the risk of soft-tissue sarcoma. The study does not indicate a risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after exposure to these phenoxy herbicides or a risk of other cancer diseases. PMID:9599717

  11. Validity of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Danish cohort 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations'.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Lene; Olsen, Anja; Petersen, Kristina Elin Nielsen; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2017-03-07

    Valid assessments of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential in epidemiological studies to define dose-response relationship for e.g. formulating thorough recommendations of an appropriate pattern of PA to maintain good health. The aim of this study was to validate the Danish step test, the physical activity questionnaire Active-Q and self-rated fitness against directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). A population based subsample (n=125) was included from the 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations' (DCH-NG) cohort which is under establishment. Validity coefficients, which express the correlation between measured and 'true' exposure, were calculated and misclassification across categories was evaluated. The validity of the Danish step test was moderate (women: r=0.66, and men: r=0.56), however, men were systematically underestimated (43% misclassification). When validating the questionnaire-derived measures of PA, leisure time physical activity was not correlated with VO2 max. Positive correlations were found for sports overall, but these were only significant for men: total hours per week of sports (r=0.26), MET-hours per week of sports (r=0.28) and vigorous sports (0.28) alone were positively correlated with VO2 max. Finally, the percentage of misclassification was low for self-rated fitness (women: 9% and men: 13%). Thus, self-rated fitness was found to be a superior method to the Danish step test, as well as being less cost prohibitive and more practical than the VO2 max method. Finally, even if correlations were low, they support the potential for questionnaire outcomes, particularly sports, vigorous sports and self-rated fitness to be used to estimate CRF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. For men only.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In 1985 the Colombian Family Planning Association PROFAMILIA realized that men did not want to come to its family planning centers simply because they felt intimidated by the feminine atmosphere there. Nor did they dare disclose their problems and sexual questions even to a female professional. The solution was to establish a family planning center, La Clinica del Hombre (Men's Clinic), providing services exclusively for men and staffed with men to provide the necessary privacy. Latin American men's attitudes are changing. In 1985 in Bogota, the majority of men were convinced that a vasectomy was equivalent to castration. In 1993, 300 vasectomies were performed in the clinic each month. The Colombian Family Planning Association is not only providing contraception, but also information on sexual and reproductive education to avoid misunderstanding of the available methods. PROFAMILIA has incorporated a sexuality consultation into its services, so they can deal with husbands and wives separately, without spoiling the couple's relationship. PROFAMILIA now has 7 family planning clinics for men and 48 for women, thanks to the contribution of international donors. The Challenge Grant for Men's Programs, given by an anonymous donor from the United States, helped with the fund-raising to open 3 clinics in the Atlantic Coast Region where needs were vital. The Clinica del Hombre will incorporate a program to treat infertility, in addition to the department of urology, general medicine, ambulatory surgery, and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. In January, 1994, they will begin offering dental and plastic surgery services because, owing to the violence that exists in the country, there are many men whose faces are disfigured and who need to have corrective plastic surgery.

  13. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  14. Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... of potassium from fruits, vegetables, fish and milk. Energy Foods Since men have more muscle and are ... 000 to 2,800 calories per day. Your energy needs depend on your height, weight and activity ...

  15. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  16. Men and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  17. [The shipwreck of "Der Brandtaucher" in the then territory of the Danish monarchy - in Kiel's harbor - February 1, 1851].

    PubMed

    Brorson, I

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the first German submarine - "Der Brandtaucher" - constructed in Schleswig-Holstein by Wilhelm V. Bauer in 1850. The submarine was built as a special weapon to attack the Danish blokading warships of the harbour of Kiel during the First Danish-German War 1848-51. The military-medical aspects are dealing with the shipwreck of a submarine because of an overpressure during submerge, and the rescue of its crew of 3 men through a "free ascent" of 52 feet - followed by comments of today. As for the description of the construction of "Der Brandtaucher", the shipwreck and the "free ascent", it was originally retold in German by Gerd Stolz in his book: "Die Schleswig-Holsteinische Marine 1848-1852". (1987).

  18. Why Men Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    A Review Essay WHY MEN FIGHT DR MARK R. SHULMAN FOR TOO LONG, military historians have attempted to adhere to Clausewitz’s description of war as...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1996 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1996 to 00-00-1996 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Why Men Fight

  19. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann.

  20. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  1. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.

  2. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section. Descriptive data Data have been collected since 2010. As of August 2015, data on women and children representing 269,597 births and 274,153 children have been collected. All data for the DNQDB is collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion Measuring quality of care during childbirth has inspired and enabled staff to attend to the quality of the care they provide and has led to improvements in most of the areas covered. PMID:27822105

  3. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. Study population DNOR has registered clinical data on diagnostics and treatment of all adult patients diagnosed with glioma since January 1, 2009, which numbers approximately 400 patients each year. Main variables The database contains information about symptoms, presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, performance status, surgical procedures, residual tumor on postsurgical MRI, postsurgical complications, diagnostic and histology codes, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Descriptive data DNOR publishes annual reports on descriptive data. During the period of registration, postoperative MRI is performed in a higher proportion of the patients (Indicator II), and a higher proportion of patients have no residual tumor after surgical resection of the primary tumor (Indicator IV). Further data are available in the annual reports. The indicators reflect only minor elements of handling brain tumor patients. Another advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. Conclusion The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research. PMID:27822109

  4. Health Information Needs of Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To understand the views of men and service providers concerning the health information needs of men. Design: A men's health programme was implemented aimed at developing new health information resources designed for use by local organizations with men in socially disadvantaged groups. Research was carried out at the scoping stage to…

  5. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  6. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  7. Contraceptive developments for men.

    PubMed

    Amory, John K

    2007-03-01

    Efforts are underway to develop new methods of contraception for men. The most promising approach to male contraceptive development is hormonal and involves the administration of testosterone. When testosterone is administered to a man, it functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland, thereby depriving the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis. After two to three months of treatment, low levels of gonadotropins lead to markedly decreased sperm counts and effective contraception in a majority of men. In many clinical trials, male hormonal contraception has proven to be free from serious adverse effects and is well-tolerated by men. In addition, sperm parameters uniformly normalize when treatment is discontinued. The main drawback to this approach is the observation that spermatogenesis is not suppressed to zero in all men, meaning that some potential for fertility persists. Because of this, recent studies have combined testosterone with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing antagonists to synergistically suppress pituitary gonadotropins and improve suppression of spermatogenesis. Current combinations of testosterone and progestogens severely suppress spermatogenesis without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with significant suppression in the remainder of individuals. Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable testosterone, such as testosterone undecanoate, which can be administered every 8-10 weeks, combined with progestogens, administered either orally or by long-acting implant, have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible and effective hormonal contraceptive for men.

  8. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  9. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under…

  10. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  11. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  12. Cohort description: The Danish study of Functional Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Linneberg, Allan; Skovbjerg, Sine; Madsen, Anja Lykke; Mehlsen, Jesper; Brinth, Louise; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Carstensen, Tina Wisbech; Schroder, Andreas; Fink, Per Klausen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD) cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors, delimitate the pathogenic pathways, and explore the consequences of FSS. The study population comprises a random sample of 9,656 men and women aged 18–76 years from the general population examined from 2011 to 2015. The survey comprises screening questionnaires for five types of FSS, ie, fibromyalgia, whiplash-associated disorder, multiple chemical sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome, and for the unifying diagnostic category of bodily distress syndrome. Additional data included a telephone-based diagnostic interview assessment for FSS, questionnaires on physical and mental health, personality traits, lifestyle, use of health care services and social factors, and a physical examination with measures of cardiorespiratory and morphological fitness, metabolic fitness, neck mobility, heart rate variability, and pain sensitivity. A biobank including serum, plasma, urine, DNA, and microbiome has been established, and central registry data from both responders and nonresponders are similarly available on morbidity, mortality, reimbursement of medicine, heath care use, and social factors. A complete 5-year follow-up is scheduled to take place from year 2017 to 2020, and further reexaminations will be

  13. Men's Clothing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerum, B. Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An informal consumer interview study, using 187 men, was conducted to highlight directions that clothing and textiles education and research might take. Mentioned most often were problems of fabric durability and garment construction as well as size and fit. Suggestions for curbing economic waste in the male fashion industry and implications for…

  14. College Men and Jealousy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; Breed, Rhonda; Zusman, Marty

    2007-01-01

    Cultural meanings (e.g. the green eyed monster) and research interests have traditionally focused on female jealousy. In contrast, this research focused on male jealousy. Two-hundred ninety-one undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential, anonymous forty-four-item questionnaire on jealousy. Men reacted differently…

  15. Men, Women, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Rhona; Rapoport, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of equity is proposed as having advantages over that of equality. By equity, we mean a fair allocation both of opportunity and of constraints. It is put forward as a concept which goes beyond that of equality; it acknowledges differences between men and women and the need to think in terms of variations of patterns. Paper presented at…

  16. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  17. Older Men as Learners: Irish Men's Sheds as an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Lucia; Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    To date, little attention has been placed on older men (aged 50+ years) as learners, with much of the literature on adult learning concerned with younger age-groups and issues around gender equity directed mainly at women. This article examines the impact of community-based men's sheds on informal and nonformal learning by older men in Ireland. It…

  18. The physician's civil liability under Danish law.

    PubMed

    Fenger, N; Broberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The physician's liability in Danish law is based on negligence, which is assessed by the courts largely on the basis of expert opinions. Such opinions are provided primarily by the Medico-Legal Council rather than by experts selected by the parties. The evaluation of negligence is based on a "reasonable man" standard and the performance expected of a competent colleague; a hospital will be responsible for the negligence of its employees. The burden of proof generally lies with the plaintiff; negligence will not be presumed and the assessment of the evidence of negligence will be adapted to the individual situation, e.g. factors such as the degree of specialization involved, the time which the physician had at his disposal to make his decision and the resources available to him will be taken into consideration. The courts have shown themselves willing to allow for the fact that doctors differ, i.e. recognizing that there must be scope for reasonable discretion. Because the culpa principle is central, the standard applied to medical knowledge will be that which pertained at the time of the treatment. Where a non-specialist is confronted with a problem which may go beyond the knowledge of his limits and experience, he is under an obligation to refer the patient. The principle of informed consent to treatment is accepted in Danish law, but such consent will readily be considered to have been given tacitly.

  19. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  20. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... often not cancerous (benign). Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is ... fatal cancer, but early diagnosis and surgery can often lead ...

  1. FastStats: Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Sinusitis Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to ... Disparities in Men’s Use of Mental Health Treatments Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care ...

  2. Birth order among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray; Siegelman, Marvin

    2003-02-01

    Nicolosi and Byrd in 2002 summarized empirical research on birth order and sexual orientation in men, which research has documented that homosexual men have a later birth order than heterosexual men. They did not, however, note a more refined analysis of an earlier null finding by Siegelman. This 1998 reanalysis by Blanchard, Zucker, Siegelman, Dickey, and Klassen also confirmed the later birth order of homosexual men.

  3. Men's work: men's voices and actions against sexism and violence.

    PubMed

    Funk, Rus Ervin

    2008-01-01

    This short article details the initial findings from a 3-month conversation between 21 male activists who work to prevent violence against women. Using Participatory Action Research methodology, this research project investigates what men who do this work would like to learn from other men who do this work. To date, no research has been done that examines what it is that motivates and sustains men who work, as their primary effort, to prevent men's violence against women. This article examines some of the initial findings from this research, and examines the implications for engaging and mobilizing other men to prevent men's violence against women. This article begins with a description of the research project, followed by an overview of the findings, continues with a discussion of the implications from these initial findings for preventing men's violence against women, and ends with some lessons learned from the process of this research project and a brief overview of the next step of this conversation.

  4. Transgender men and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Obedin-Maliver, Juno

    2015-01-01

    Transgender people have experienced significant advances in societal acceptance despite experiencing continued stigma and discrimination. While it can still be difficult to access quality health care, and there is a great deal to be done to create affirming health care organizations, there is growing interest around the United States in advancing transgender health. The focus of this commentary is to provide guidance to clinicians caring for transgender men or other gender nonconforming people who are contemplating, carrying, or have completed a pregnancy. Terms transgender and gender nonconforming specifically refer to those whose gender identity (e.g., being a man) differs from their female sex assigned at birth. Many, if not most transgender men retain their female reproductive organs and retain the capacity to have children. Review of their experience demonstrates the need for preconception counseling that includes discussion of stopping testosterone while trying to conceive and during pregnancy, and anticipating increasing experiences of gender dysphoria during and after pregnancy. The clinical aspects of delivery itself fall within the realm of routine obstetrical care, although further research is needed into how mode and environment of delivery may affect gender dysphoria. Postpartum considerations include discussion of options for chest (breast) feeding, and how and when to reinitiate testosterone. A positive perinatal experience begins from the moment transgender men first present for care and depends on comprehensive affirmation of gender diversity. PMID:27030799

  5. Transgender men and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Makadon, Harvey J

    2016-03-01

    Transgender people have experienced significant advances in societal acceptance despite experiencing continued stigma and discrimination. While it can still be difficult to access quality health care, and there is a great deal to be done to create affirming health care organizations, there is growing interest around the United States in advancing transgender health. The focus of this commentary is to provide guidance to clinicians caring for transgender men or other gender nonconforming people who are contemplating, carrying, or have completed a pregnancy. Terms transgender and gender nonconforming specifically refer to those whose gender identity (e.g., being a man) differs from their female sex assigned at birth. Many, if not most transgender men retain their female reproductive organs and retain the capacity to have children. Review of their experience demonstrates the need for preconception counseling that includes discussion of stopping testosterone while trying to conceive and during pregnancy, and anticipating increasing experiences of gender dysphoria during and after pregnancy. The clinical aspects of delivery itself fall within the realm of routine obstetrical care, although further research is needed into how mode and environment of delivery may affect gender dysphoria. Postpartum considerations include discussion of options for chest (breast) feeding, and how and when to reinitiate testosterone. A positive perinatal experience begins from the moment transgender men first present for care and depends on comprehensive affirmation of gender diversity.

  6. Kegel Exercises for Men: Understand the Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Kegel exercises for men can help improve bladder control and possibly improve sexual performance. ... 13, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/mens-health/in-depth/kegel-exercises-for-men/ ...

  7. Psychological defenses of Danish medical students.

    PubMed

    la Cour, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Patterns in the psychological defenses of medical students may have implications for the way they handle and respond to the pressures and developmental issues they encounter in medical school and beyond. Using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ40) to assess psychological defenses, a sample of first-year Danish medical students was compared with a sample of students at a short-term boarding school for general education. The medical students scored significantly higher on items connected with pseudo-altruism, denial, and undoing. Trends in the data furthermore suggest a greater use of sublimation, rationalization, and dissociation among medical students. When defense mechanisms were labeled into mature, neurotic, and immature categories, there were no differences between the groups or in the total defense scores.

  8. The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Öztürk, Buket; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database (DaPeCa-data) aims to improve the quality of cancer care and monitor the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of all incident penile cancer cases in Denmark. The aim is to assure referral practice, guideline adherence, and treatment and development of the database in order to enhance research opportunities and increase knowledge and survival outcomes of penile cancer. Study population The DaPeCa-data registers all patients with newly diagnosed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in Denmark since June 2011. Main variables Data are systematically registered at the time of diagnosis by a combination of automated data-linkage to the central registries as well as online registration by treating clinicians. The main variables registered relate to disease prognosis and treatment morbidity and include the presence of risk factors (phimosis, lichen sclerosus, and human papillomavirus), date of diagnosis, date of treatment decision, date of beginning of treatment, type of treatment, treating hospital, type and time of complications, date of recurrence, date of death, and cause of death. Descriptive data Registration of these variables correlated to the unique Danish ten-digit civil registration number enables characterization of the cohort, individual patients, and patient groups with respect to age; 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival; recurrence patterns; and morbidity profile related to treatment modality. As of August 2015, more than 200 patients are registered with ∼65 new entries per year. Conclusion The DaPeCa-data has potential to provide meaningful, timely, and clinically relevant quality data for quality maintenance, development, and research purposes. PMID:27822104

  9. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Jens; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Godballe, Christian; Grau Eriksen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database is a nationwide clinical quality database that contains prospective data collected since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this study was to describe the outcome of the national strategy for multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark and to create a basis for clinical trials. Study population The study population consisted of all Danish patients referred for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, or neck nodes from unknown primary or any histopathological type (except lymphoma) of cancer in the nasal sinuses, salivary glands, or thyroid gland (corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, classifications C.01–C.11, C.30–C.32, C.73, and C.80). Main variables The main variables used in the study were symptoms and the duration of the symptoms; etiological factors; pretreatment and diagnostic evaluation, including tumor–node–metastasis classification, imaging, histopathology, and laboratory tests; primary treatment with semidetailed information of radiotherapy, surgery, and medical treatment; follow-up registration of tumor status and side effects; registration of relapse and treatment thereof; and registration of death and cause of death. Main results Data from >33,000 patients have been recorded during a period of >45 years. In this period, the outcome of treatment improved substantially, partly due to better treatment as a result of a series of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time, changed epidemiology, and influence of comorbidity and socioeconomic parameters. Conclusion Half a century of registration of head and neck cancer treatment and outcome has created the basis for understanding and has substantially contributed to improve the treatment of head and neck cancer at both

  10. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    PubMed Central

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen’s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. Descriptive data In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen’s disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. Conclusion The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance. PMID:27822110

  11. The Immigrant Worker and the Danish Public Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Bulletin for Libraries, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A summary of a survey conducted in 1973 of Danish library services available to immigrant workers and their families, especially those speaking Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and the languages used in Yugoslavia. (Author/KP)

  12. Comparison of the frequency of atrial fibrillation in young obese versus young nonobese men undergoing examination for fitness for military service.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Morten; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-03-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and long-term risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) has not yet been examined for men. We conducted a population-based 36-year cohort study to examine the BMI-associated risk of AF in 12,850 young men who had BMI measured at their examination of fitness for military service. AF was identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals since 1977. We began follow-up on the twenty-second birthday of each subject and continued until the occurrence of AF, emigration, death, or December 31, 2012. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for education and height. The cohort contributed a total of 375,888 person-years of follow-up and the median follow-up time was 26 years (mean 29 years). The incidence of AF per 100,000 person-years was 53 for men of normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), 54 for underweight men (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)), 106 for overweight men (BMI: 25.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), and 144 for obese men (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). With normal weight as the reference group, the adjusted HR for AF was 0.99 (95% CI 0.52 to 1.87) for underweight men, 2.08 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.92) for overweight men, and 2.87 (95% CI 1.46 to 5.62) for obese men. The adjusted HR associating 1 unit increase in BMI with AF was 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.16). In conclusion, overweight and obese young men had more than twice the risk of AF compared with young men of normal weight.

  13. Men at sport: gay men's experiences in the sport workplace.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Elizabeth S

    2011-01-01

    Research on sexual identity and sport has revealed a shifting narrative about the experiences of gay men. While some suggest the atmosphere is hostile, others posit that homophobia and sexual prejudice are playing less of a role in gay men's experiences. This research focuses on the experiences of 10 gay men working in professional, collegiate, and club sport, as part of a larger dataset of 37 male and female employees. Five of the men were overtly and publicly out at work, while five were closeted (to varying degrees). This article focuses on three themes for gay men working in sport: 1) the importance of coming out in the workplace; 2) the role of the locker room as a contested terrain, and 3) the disconnect between their experiences at work and their perceptions of the workplace environment as negative or positive. Men in this study were basing their impressions on their total experience in sport (as current and former players, as employees, and as fans). It also suggests that the public "story" of gay men working in sport represents one of two extremes-either the proverbial "horror story," or the extremely positive representation of gay men's experiences. This research suggests that gay men's experiences in sport are more complex and nuanced than the public narrative implies.

  14. House dust in seven Danish offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  15. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss.

  16. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  17. The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register

    PubMed Central

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register (DMSTR) serves as a clinical quality register, enabling the health authorities to monitor the quality of the disease-modifying treatment, and it is an important data source for epidemiological research. Study population The DMSTR includes all patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with disease-modifying drugs since 1996. At present, more than 8,400 patients have been registered in this database. Data are continuously entered online into a central database from all sites in Denmark at start and at regular visits. Main variables Include age, sex, onset year and year of the diagnosis, basic clinical information, and information about treatment, side effects, and relapses. Descriptive data Notification is done at treatment start, and thereafter at every scheduled clinical visit 3 months after treatment start, and thereafter every 6 months. The longitudinally collected information about the disease activity and side effects made it possible to investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse events of different disease-modifying therapies. Conclusion The database contributed to a certain harmonization of treatment procedures in Denmark and will continue to be a major factor in terms of quality in clinical praxis, research and monitoring of adverse events, and plays an important role in research. PMID:27822098

  18. Occurrence of Ionophores in the Danish Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren Alex; Björklund, Erland

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  19. Violent Men: Ordinary and Deviant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edin, Kerstin E.; Lalos, Ann; Hogberg, Ulf; Dahlgren, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with discourses of intimate partner violence and is based on interviews with professionals who meet violent men. The professionals emphasized the importance of men taking unreserved responsibility for their violent behavior. Intimate partner violence was viewed not only as "power and control" but as the result of…

  20. Mantalk: Fraternity Men and Masculinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Shane Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A majority of college men struggle to successfully navigate the college environment and their newfound independence and freedom upon leaving home for the first time. Although recent research makes it clear that there is a college male crisis within higher education (Kimmel, 2004) and men are more likely to struggle navigating their identity and…

  1. Physical activity and risk for lung cancer in a Danish cohort.

    PubMed

    Bak, Helle; Christensen, Jane; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2005-09-01

    Physical activity might reduce the risk for lung cancer by various mechanisms, but the evidence is inconclusive. We therefore examined the relationship between physical activity and risk for lung cancer in a large population-based Danish cohort with detailed information about number of hours per week spent on specific physical activities as well as lifetime smoking patterns. Between 1993 and 1997, a total of 57,053 persons aged 50-64 years agreed to participate in the cohort. After exclusions of persons with cancer diagnosis before invitation and persons for whom data regarding study variables were missing, 26,070 men and 28,352 women remained for study. By 31 December 2002, lung cancer had been diagnosed in 194 men and 175 women. A questionnaire registered average number of hours per week spent on each of 6 types of leisure time physical activity. Level of occupational physical activity was registered in 5 categories. Cox's proportional hazard model stratified according to age at entry (1-year intervals) was adjusted for smoking, school education, possible occupational exposure to lung carcinogens and intake of fruit and vegetables. No significant association was found between number of hours per week spent on 6 types of physical activity during leisure time and the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for lung cancer. For each type of activity, the IRR of lung cancer was lower for active compared to nonactive women, whereas for men lower IRRs were only observed for sports and gardening. Higher levels of occupational physical activity had no protective effect; the lowest IRR was found for sitting work. Our study shows no convincing protective effect of physical activity on lung cancer risk.

  2. [Epidemiology of Osteoporosis in Men].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2016-07-01

    Estimated number of those with osteoporosis was about 12,800,000, and about 23%, 3,000,000 were male osteoporosis in Japan. Incidence of hip, vertebral, distal radius, and proximal humeral fracture in men was half of that in women. Lifetime risk of hip fracture was 5.6% in men. Risk factors for osteoporotic fracture in men were low bone mineral density(BMD), previous fracture, low body mass index, smoking, family history of fracture, glucocorticoid use and others. For osteoporotic fractures, the fracture risk in smokers was significantly higher in men than in women. There was no differences in fracture risks by BMD, previous fracture, glucocorticoid use, and family fracture history between men and women.

  3. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children. PMID:25299657

  4. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  5. Liberalization in the Danish waste sector: an institutional perspective.

    PubMed

    Kørnøv, Lone; Hill, Amanda Louise; Busck, Ole; Løkke, Søren

    2016-12-01

    The push for creating a more competitive and liberalized system for traditional public services, including waste management, has been on the European agenda since the late 1980s. In 2008, changes were made in EU waste legislation allowing source-separated industrial/commercial waste that is suitable for incineration to be traded within the European market. This change has had broad implications for the Danish waste sector, which is characterized by institutionalized municipal control with all streams of waste and municipal ownership of the major treatment facilities allowing the municipal sector to integrate combustible waste in local heat and power generation. This article, applying an institutional approach, maps the institutions and actors of the Danish waste sector and analyses how the regulatory as well as normative pressure to liberalize has been met and partly neutralized in the institutional and political context. The new Danish regulation of 2010 has thus accommodated the specific requirement for liberalization, but in fact only represents a very small step towards a market-based waste management system. On the one hand, by only liberalizing industrial/commercial waste, the Danish Government chose to retain the main features of the established waste system favouring municipal control and hence the institutionalized principles of decentralized enforcement of environmental legislation as well as welfare state considerations. On the other hand, this has led to a technological and financial deadlock, particularly when it comes to reaching the recycling targets of EU, which calls for further adjustments of the Danish waste sector.

  6. Algorithm linking patients and general practices in Denmark using the Danish National Health Service Register

    PubMed Central

    Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Vedsted, Peter; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vestergaard, Mogens; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient list system in Denmark assigns virtually all residents to a general practice. Nevertheless, historical information on this link between patient and general practice is not readily available for research purposes. Objectives To develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of an algorithm linking individual patients to their general practice by using information from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. Materials and methods The National Health Service Register contains information on all services provided by general practitioners from 1990 and onward. On the basis of these data and information on migration history and death obtained from the Civil Registration System, we developed an algorithm that allocated patients to a general practice on a monthly basis. We evaluated the performance of the algorithm between 2002 and 2007. During this time period, we had access to information on the link between patients and general practices. Agreement was assessed by the proportion of months for which the algorithm allocated patients to the correct general practice. We also assessed the proportion of all patients in the patient list system for which the algorithm was able to suggest an allocation. Results The overall agreement between algorithm and patient lists was 98.6%. We found slightly higher agreement for women (98.8%) than for men (98.4%) and lower agreement in the age group 18–34 years (97.1%) compared to all other age groups (≥98.6%). The algorithm had assigned 83% of all patients in the patient list system after 1 year of follow-up, 91% after 2 years of follow-up, and peaked at 94% during the fourth year. Conclusion We developed an algorithm that enables valid and nearly complete linkage between patients and general practices. The algorithm performs better in subgroups of patients with high health care needs. The algorithm constitutes a valuable tool for primary health care research. PMID

  7. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men? For many men with breast cancer, ... Breast Cancer in Men Stops Working More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  8. Women and men.

    PubMed

    Bartle, D

    1989-01-01

    If equal employment opportunities were a reality, one would expect all salaries to be more or less randomly distributed between the genders. The data does not show random distribution. Of the awards studied in depth, 11 of the 18 showed a statistically significant different salary between women and men. Two awards had a marginal probability of significance, and five had a probability of significance of less than five per cent. The data shows clearly the need for EEO initiatives for women within the health service and identifies the areas of greatest concern. The many questions raised through this general analysis of the data will guide further research and the development of an EEO management plan that is specific to the needs of the Palmerston North Area Health Board. Also highlighted is the need for similar statistics showing the composition of the workforce by ethnicity and disability. Only when this has been obtained and analysed can specifically targeted EEO programmes be developed to meet the workforce needs of the Board. Other Boards interested in receiving a statistical analysis of their workforce by gender should contact Patrick Mulcahy at the National Health Statistics Centre, Private Bag 2, Upper Willis Street, Wellington, phone (04) 844-167.

  9. The Danish Registry of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Nis; Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard; Schielke, Katja Christina; Bek, Toke; Grauslund, Jakob; Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andresen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database To monitor the development of diabetic eye disease in Denmark and to evaluate the accessibility and effectiveness of diabetic eye screening programs with focus on interregional variations. Target population The target population includes all patients diagnosed with diabetes. Denmark (5.5 million inhabitants) has ~320,000 diabetes patients with an annual increase of 27,000 newly diagnosed patients. The Danish Registry of Diabetic Retinopathy (DiaBase) collects data on all diabetes patients aged ≥18 years who attend screening for diabetic eye disease in hospital eye departments and in private ophthalmological practice. In 2014–2015, DiaBase included data collected from 77,968 diabetes patients. Main variables The main variables provide data for calculation of performance indicators to monitor the quality of diabetic eye screening and development of diabetic retinopathy. Data with respect to age, sex, best corrected visual acuity, screening frequency, grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy at each visit, progression/regression of diabetic eye disease, and prevalence of blindness were obtained. Data analysis from DiaBase’s latest annual report (2014–2015) indicates that the prevalence of no diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy is 78%, 18%, and 4%, respectively. The percentage of patients without diabetic maculopathy is 97%. The proportion of patients with regression of diabetic retinopathy (20%) is greater than the proportion of patients with progression of diabetic retinopathy (10%). Conclusion The collection of data from diabetic eye screening is still expanding in Denmark. Analysis of the data collected during the period 2014–2015 reveals an overall decrease of diabetic retinopathy compared to the previous year, although the number of patients newly diagnosed with diabetes has been increasing in Denmark. DiaBase is a useful tool to observe the quality of screening

  10. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level.

  11. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  12. Death in nursing homes: a Danish qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gorlén, Tanja Fromberg; Gorlén, Thomas; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the quality of end-of-life care in Danish nursing homes (NHs). This qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured group interviews with nursing staff members in three NHs in Copenhagen, Denmark, aimed to describe the participants' perceptions of end-of-life care in Danish NHs, with particular focus on medication administration and collaboration with GPs. Four main categories of problematic issues emerged: medication (problems with 'as needed' medication and lack of knowledge of subcutaneous administration), interpersonal relations (difficulties in cooperation and communication between relatives and GPs), decision making (problems concerning termination of life-prolonging treatment and the need for early planning of end-of-life care), and professional development (documentation and education). Considerable improvements may be achieved primarily by educating and training nursing staff and GPs. More research is warranted to optimise end-of-life care in Danish NHs.

  13. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results.

  14. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-09

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.

  15. Testosterone treatment in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Srinivas-Shankar, U; Sharma, D

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone has been used in testicular and hypothalamo-pituitary diseases since the 1940s. There is growing interest in the use of testosterone in aging men, and this has stimulated research into the benefits of male hormone replacement. Testosterone treatment of men with hypogonadism might have beneficial effects on body composition, muscle strength, sexual function, and cognition. There are several modes of administration of the male hormone, with injectable testosterone esters and implanted testosterone pellets being the mainstay of treatment until recently. These preparations are increasingly being replaced by transdermal patches, gels, and long-acting parenteral preparations. Testosterone patches and gels are ideally for elderly men. Treatment with the male hormone is relatively safe, if patients are selected appropriately and monitored carefully. The most important adverse effects are on the prostate. In this review, we briefly discuss the indications, contraindications, and benefits of testosterone treatment. Further, we list the adverse effects, advantages, and disadvantages of various testosterone preparations in elderly men.

  16. BODY VOLUME OF ADULT MEN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ideal weight given on the USAF standard weight table was found to have a correlation coefficient of only .672 with calculated percent body fat....volume from height and weight revealed the chart to be biased for adult men. Body volume was found to correlate well with body weight ( correlation ... coefficient of .996). Body volume of men in liters, V, may be estimated from body weight in kilograms, W, by using the formula: V = -4.7573 + 1.0153 W

  17. Leaching of bentazon from Danish agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Kjær, Jeanne; Brüsch, Walter; Olsen, Preben

    2013-04-01

    Bentazone (CAS No. 25057-89-0) is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for a variety of crops. Rapid photo degradation occurs in soil and water; however, bentazone is very mobile in soil and moderately persistent in the environment. Bentazone has been reported to occur in surface water, groundwater and drinking water at concentrations of a few micro g per L or less. With its high affinity for the water compartment in the soil media, it does not seem to accumulate in the subsurface. Results from 12 evaluations/applications on six intensive-monitored and agricultural fields (two sandy and four loamy soils) in the Danish Pesticide Leaching risk Assessment Programme (PLAP) verified these findings. Bentazone was applied in the timeframe May - beginning of June. It was detected in 1 m depth (suctions cups and drains) at all the PLAP-fields. In 4 out of 12 applications, the average concentration of the period after the first detection until July the following year, was found to exceed 0.1 micro g per L in 1 meters depth. At all of the fields groundwater level was dropping at the time of bentazon application. This seemed to result in detection in groundwater at the loamy but not the sandy fields, which indicate the prescence of rapid preferential transport in the macropore systems of the loamy fields and a piston-alike transport in the sandy fields. Even though detections in 1 m depth indicated a relative high mass of bentazon leaching as a puls through sandy soil, bentazon was not found below this depth. The degree of detections in the groundwater at the loamy fields seemed to be impacted by the hydraulic contact to deeper fracture systems in the soil. At the loamy fields with a good hydraulic contact, bentazon was detected in groundwater from both vertical and horisontal filters shortly after application - also in concentrations exceeding 0.1 micro g per L. By applying bentazon on different crops, results clearly showed that the leaf-area-index at application and the ability

  18. Outside the Box: The Danish Folkehojskole as Educational Innovator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    Travelling between various Scandinavian adult educational institutions in 1978, the author, John Collins, picked up a couple of hitchhikers--Danish students returning to their school after a short vacation period. As they neared the Funen Island harbour village, which was their destination, the students invited Collins to visit their school. What…

  19. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  20. The Danish Civil Registration System as a tool in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Morten; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-08-01

    The methodological advances in epidemiology have facilitated the use of the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in ways not previously described systematically. We reviewed the CRS and its use as a research tool in epidemiology. We obtained information from the Danish Law on Civil Registration and the Central Office of Civil Registration, and used existing literature to provide illustrative examples of its use. The CRS is an administrative register established on April 2, 1968. It contains individual-level information on all persons residing in Denmark (and Greenland as of May 1, 1972). By January 2014, the CRS had cumulatively registered 9.5 million individuals and more than 400 million person-years of follow-up. A unique ten-digit Civil Personal Register number assigned to all persons in the CRS allows for technically easy, cost-effective, and unambiguous individual-level record linkage of Danish registers. Daily updated information on migration and vital status allows for nationwide cohort studies with virtually complete long-term follow-up on emigration and death. The CRS facilitates sampling of general population comparison cohorts, controls in case-control studies, family cohorts, and target groups in population surveys. The data in the CRS are virtually complete, have high accuracy, and can be retrieved for research purposes while protecting the anonymity of Danish residents. In conclusion, the CRS is a key tool for epidemiological research in Denmark.

  1. Is Sedentary Lifestyle Associated With Testicular Function? A Cross-Sectional Study of 1,210 Men.

    PubMed

    Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bang, Anne Kirstine; Nordkap, Loa; Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels

    2016-08-15

    Based on cross-sectional data on 1,210 healthy young Danish men, we investigated whether sedentary lifestyle was associated with testicular function (semen quality and reproductive hormones) independent of physical activity. The men were invited to participate in the study between 2008 and 2012, when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine their fitness for military service. Information on sedentary behavior (television watching and computer time) and physical activity was obtained by questionnaire. The men had a physical examination, delivered a semen sample, and had a blood sample drawn. Time spent watching television, but not time sitting in front of a computer, was associated with lower sperm counts. Men who watched television more than 5 hours/day had an adjusted sperm concentration of 37 million/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 30, 44) versus 52 million/mL (95% CI: 43, 62) among men who did not watch television; total sperm counts in those 2 groups were 104 million (95% CI: 84, 126) and 158 million (95% CI: 130, 189), respectively. Furthermore, an increase in follicle-stimulating hormone and decreases in testosterone and the testosterone/luteinizing hormone ratio were detected in men watching many hours of television. Self-rated physical fitness, but not time spent on physical activity, was positively associated with sperm counts.

  2. Arrest History among Men and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Milroy, Michael E.; Reynolds, Grace L.; Klahn, Jennifer A.; Wood, Michele M.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored associations between ever having been arrested and other variables among 490 male drug users. Participants were classified into three groups based on recent sexual history: men who had not had sex (NOSEX), men who had had sex with women (HETERO), and men who had had sex with men (MSM). We found that MSM who had been arrested…

  3. Men's Health Studies: Origins and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Don

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the development of men's health studies, situating its development in a general historical context; discussing the study of men's health within the context of critical feminist theories and theories of men and masculinities; outlining and illustrating a relational theory for understanding men's health in an effort to integrate this study…

  4. Retroviral infection in Peruvian men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Alberto M; Zunt, Joseph R; Peinado, Jesus; Lama, Javier R; Ton, Thanh G N; Suarez, Luis; Pun, Monica; Cabezas, Cesar; Sanchez, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    We tested 2655 Peruvian men who have sex with men for the presence of retroviral infection. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was detected in 48 (1.8%) of the patients, HTLV-2 was detected in 28 (1.1%), and HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were both detected in 5 (0.2%). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was detected in 329 (12.4%) of the patients; 24 (7.3%) had HTLV coinfection. Risk factors for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection varied with sexual role.

  5. What Are the Key Statistics about Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Men What Are the Key Statistics About Breast Cancer in Men? The American Cancer Society estimates for ... Treatment in Breast Cancer in Men? More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  6. Relative Earnings of Black Men to White Men by Region, Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    The earnings gap between black men and white men widened from 1979-89. Black men were more likely to experience declines in regions where they were concentrated. White men's earnings rose relative to black men's in lower-paying industries. (SK)

  7. Men's Studies as a Foundation for Student Development Work with College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Rocco L.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter surveys the history and theory of men's studies, a field concerned primarily with masculinity and other aspects of men's experience and identity. It argues that men's studies would be an ideal foundation for our work with college men and offers guidelines for programs for men.

  8. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  9. Women, Men and the Doctorate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centra, John A; Kuykendall, Nancy M.

    This study describes the current status and professional development of a sample of women doctorates and compares them to a sample of men who have attained the same educational status. Chapters cover the sample and procedures used; employment patterns; doctorates in academe; publications, income, and job satisfaction; marriage and family life;…

  10. Women's Liberation: Are Men Victims?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary; Aladjem, Sonia

    Varied theoretical approaches provide insight into the complexity of the process of role shift for men and women. The concept of role "shift" as opposed to role "change" recognizes the need to consider the progressively complex interactions and processes which occur intraindividually, interindividually, culturally, and historically as individuals…

  11. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  12. The Wages of Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    1982-01-01

    Net depreciation rates in human capital are estimated from wage data on a longitudinal sample of men aged 45 to 64. The results indicate that wage rates begin to decline in the early 50s at rates under one percent annually and decline at about two percent annually after age 60. (Author)

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases in men.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kenneth D; Dudgeon, Wesley D; Becker, Joel; Bopp, Christopher M

    2004-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are the most common infectious diseases in the United States. Physicians, nurses, and other health care providers are uncomfortable discussing sexual issues with their clients. Therefore many health care needs are not addressed, and many opportunities for education aimed at preventing STDs are missed. In the periodic health history, the health care provider must elicit information about sexual practices (vaginal,oral, or anal intercourse), sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual), sexual risk behaviors (ie, unprotected intercourse with multiple partners), contraceptive use (particularly condoms), and prior STDs. Based on this information, the health care practitioner moves to more specific questions regarding sexual health. The health care practitioner asks about sores on the penis, dripping or discharge from the penis, staining of the underwear, testicular pain, and scrotal swelling. For the client who engages in oral sex, the health care practitioner asks about sore throat. For the client who engages in anal intercourse ask about diarrhea, rectal bleeding, anal itching, and pain. Probe the desire phase, the arousal phase (erection), and the ejaculation phase. Ask about the desire for fatherhood and concerns about fatherhood. An important part of health care is prevention. Culturally specific and sensitive information should be available for patients. Patient education should not consist of simply handing a brochure to a man. Using the brochure as a guide for including all the necessary information and ascertaining the man's understanding may be a very effective method of patient education. For men who are at increased risk for STDs or who present with symptoms of STDs, offering diagnostic testing is necessary. Men who have multiple sexual partners especially need diagnostic testing and prevention counseling. The CDC recommends annual HIV and hepatitis C testing for men who have sex with men and other men who have

  14. [Dark visions and adaptation in Danish ophthalmology 1889-1940].

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    The scotopticometer is a small, light and handy instrument from 1935, which was developed in Denmark by Carsten Edmund Zeuthen (1897-1973) and Hans Ulrik Møller (1894-1954) for the measurement of dark vision without the use of a dark chamber. The prerequisites are Jannik Bjerrum's contrast letters from 1889 and Marius Tscherning's photometric neutral-gray filter-glasses with a logaritmic scale (Ph 1-8); both Bjerrum (1851-1920) and Tscherning (1854-1939) were Danish ophthalmologists. Tescherning's basic experiments and theories are reported, based on a study of his scientific publications, scientific protocols, letters and scrapbook. Tscherning inspired many young Danish scientists to further studies of dark adaptation, which is still an important topic (traffic, military, art, illumination, gerontology).

  15. Recent changes in Danish law on drugs and drug offences.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, J; Laursen, L

    1998-09-01

    The article recounts changes in Danish Drug Law and Enforcement since the beginning of the 1990s and relates them to general trends in Danish criminal policy during the period. In addition to the implementation of EU directives, e.g. on money laundering and growth hormones, legislation has been passed to curb conspicuous dealing of drugs in the streets of Copenhagen. This part of the legislation is seen as a reaction to public fears and reactions to visible aliens dealing in drugs in a conspicuous way, albeit in minor quantities. The legal changes imply a considerable rise in penalties for repeated dealings in minor quantities and easier access to deportation of aliens. The latter has been criticized as potential violation of the human rights of aliens. This and other recent changes in criminal law and related legislation is seen as an indication of politicians' concerns with voters' anxieties, possibly at the edge of moral panics.

  16. "Cum play" among gay men.

    PubMed

    Prestage, Garrett; Hurley, Michael; Brown, Graham

    2013-10-01

    The exchange of semen, often referred to as "cum play," has featured in gay literature and may be a unique aspect of many gay men's sexual behavior. We investigated the prevalence of "cum play" and its context among 1153 HIV-negative and 147 HIV-positive Australian gay men in an online survey. Receptive cum play (partner ejaculating or rubbing his semen over participant's anus, or participant using partner's semen as lubricant) was reported by one in six HIV-negative and one quarter of HIV-positive men on the same occasion of protected anal intercourse with a casual partner (PAIC). HIV-negative men who engaged in receptive cum play during PAIC often believed that their partner was HIV seroconcordant and tended to trust that partner. They were also generally more optimistic about the likelihood of HIV transmission, and they often only used condoms at their partners' instigation. Cum play was not uncommon and highlights the narrowness (or danger) of focusing on condom use without considering the implications of broader sexual practices and their meaning for sexual health promotion. "Safe sex" for some gay and bisexual men does not necessarily mean consistent commitment to condom use or to avoiding semen exchange. Many feel confident in their knowledge of their partner's HIV serostatus and only use condoms with these partners at their partner's request. Their commitment to safe sex may not necessarily be compromised by their practice of cum play, but the extent to which this could represent a risk for HIV transmission depends on the reliability of their assessment of their partners' HIV serostatus.

  17. Struggles for health and safety in the Danish construction industry.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An encouraging trend of reductions in accidents and fatalities in the Danish construction industry, brought about by the combined sustained efforts of unions, management, and government, is suffering a reverse. While some large construction companies have achieved excellent safety records through effective internal programs combining rewards and penalties as incentives, the overall picture is worsening as government eases pressures on small and medium-sized enterprises by relaxing occupational health and safety regulations.

  18. Sexually transmitted diseases in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H

    2011-12-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) compared with demographically matched controls. The reasons for the disproportionate infection burden are complex, including biological, behavioral, and sociocultural factors. HIV and syphilis may often be coprevalent among MSM. The use of nucleic acid amplification testing has enhanced the ability to detect frequently asymptomatic gonococcal and chlamydial infections of the rectum and other sites. Lymphogranuloma proctitis outbreaks among MSM were noted in the developed world several years ago but have not been common recently. MSM are at increased risk for viral hepatitis and anal human papillomavirus disease. Preventive interventions include vaccination for the former and anal cytologic screening for the latter. Because of the diverse ways in which MSM may be exposed to STDs, it is essential for clinicians to obtain a thorough sexual history in a culturally competent manner.

  19. The Lisbon Cohort of men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Paula; Lucas, Raquel; Martins, Ana; Carvalho, Ana Cláudia; Fuertes, Ricardo; Brito, João; Campos, Maria José; Mendão, Luís; Barros, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Newly diagnosed HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) are rising in many European countries. Surveillance tools must be tailored to the current state of the epidemic, and include decentralised prospective monitoring of HIV incidence and behavioural changes in key populations. In this scenario, an open prospective cohort study was assembled—The Lisbon Cohort of MSM—aiming to dynamically monitor the frequency of disease and its predictors. Participants The Lisbon Cohort of MSM is an ongoing observational prospective study conducted at a community-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing centre in Lisbon, Portugal (CheckpointLX). Men testing negative for HIV, aged 18 or over and reporting having had sex with men are invited to follow-up visits every 6 months. At each evaluation, a face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire is conducted, and HIV and syphilis rapid tests are performed by trained peer counsellors. From April 2011 to February 2014, 3106 MSM were eligible to the cohort of whom 923 (29.7%) did not participate. The remaining 2183 (70.3%) MSM were enrolled and 804 had at least one follow-up evaluation, for a total of 893 person-years of observation. Future plans The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. The follow-up of this cohort of HIV-negative MSM will be a valuable tool for monitoring HIV incidence in a setting where limited prospective information existed. Moreover, it will allow for a deeper analytical approach to the study of population time trends and individual changes in risk factors that currently shape the HIV epidemic among MSM. PMID:25967995

  20. Attitudes of women and men physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Heins, M; Hendricks, J; Martindale, L; Smock, S; Stein, M; Jacobs, J

    1979-01-01

    Attitudinal data obtained from interviewing random samples of women and men physicians in metropolitan Detroit indicated that women were generally more liberal and egalitarian than men. Older women were more liberal/egalitarian than older men while younger men were closer in attitudes to younger women. Within specialities, women and men physicians frequently held similar attitudinal scores; however, controlling for age, sex accounted for more variation than did specialty. A weighted combination of variables which together most significantly discriminated between age and sex subgroups pointed to a sensitivity dimension. This was stronger in the women; yet men demonstrating a similar sensitivity were found in almost every age and specialty grouping. Although younger men physicians are less conservative than older men physicians, both younger and older women physicians demonstrated strong liberalism/egalitarianism. PMID:507244

  1. Men More Prone to Severe Psoriasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164498.html Men More Prone to Severe Psoriasis: Study Researchers say this may explain why more ... 2017 THURSDAY, April 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Severe psoriasis is much more common in men than women, ...

  2. Men's Health: Prevent the Top Threats

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Many of the leading causes of death among men can be prevented. Here's what ... reduce your risks is another. Start by making healthy lifestyle choices. The impact might be greater than you' ...

  3. Aging-Related Hormone Changes in Men

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Aging-related hormone changes in men — sometimes called male menopause — are different from those ... to erectile dysfunction and other sexual issues. Make healthy lifestyle choices. Eat a healthy diet and include physical ...

  4. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  5. Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Dustin C.

    2011-01-01

    Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive relationships…

  6. Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

  7. Stereotypes of Older Lesbians and Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…

  8. Poetry therapy, men and masculinities

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Rich; Dill, LeConté

    2016-01-01

    Therapists have long utilized poetry with various at risk male populations. Yet, in spite of its use, therapists have also been aware of the dilemmas associated with using poetry in a population whose behavior and identity may at times run counter to the core tenants of poetry therapy. However, the literature of poetry therapy does not fully explore what therapists need to know about men and masculinities in order to work with them. This article helps prepare therapists using poetry to become more sensitive to gender issues and utilize this understanding in their practice with men. It explores some of the key concepts from gender and masculinities studies and provides examples for how these concepts can be used in practice. PMID:27134327

  9. A Men's Workplace Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven T.; Stolp, Sean; Seaton, Cherisse; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Oliffe, John L.; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Lamont, Sonia; Medhurst, Kerensa; Errey, Sally; Healy, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore physical activity and eating behaviors among men following the implementation of a gender-sensitive, workplace health promotion program. Methods: Using a pre-post within-subjects design, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) was used to collect health-related information along with physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At baseline, participants (N = 139) consumed 3.58 servings of fruit and vegetables/day and engaged in an average of 229.77 min/week moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). At 6 months, daily fruit/vegetable intake did not increase, whereas MVPA increased by 112.3 min/week. Conclusions: The POWERPLAY program successfully increased weekly MVPA. Engaging men in health promotion can be a challenge; here, the workplace served as a valuable environment for achieving positive change. PMID:27281710

  10. Poetry therapy, men and masculinities.

    PubMed

    Furman, Rich; Dill, LeConté

    2012-04-01

    Therapists have long utilized poetry with various at risk male populations. Yet, in spite of its use, therapists have also been aware of the dilemmas associated with using poetry in a population whose behavior and identity may at times run counter to the core tenants of poetry therapy. However, the literature of poetry therapy does not fully explore what therapists need to know about men and masculinities in order to work with them. This article helps prepare therapists using poetry to become more sensitive to gender issues and utilize this understanding in their practice with men. It explores some of the key concepts from gender and masculinities studies and provides examples for how these concepts can be used in practice.

  11. Chronic Urogenital Pain in Men

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Current terminology uses the 2008 European Association of Urology guidelines, but variably used historical terms suggest inflammation or infection that is rarely found. Central sensitisation is important in causing visceral and muscle hyperalgesia throughout the pelvis. There can be considerable overlap between urogenital pain conditions. Men who have a chronic urological pain condition often have a disturbance of urinary, bowel and sexual function. Working with urologists as well as a multidisciplinary team is essential. PMID:26526127

  12. Mortality differentials among Israeli men.

    PubMed Central

    Manor, O; Eisenbach, Z; Peritz, E; Friedlander, Y

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined differentials in mortality among adult Israeli men with respect to ethnic origin, marital status, and several measures of social status. METHODS: Data were based on a linkage of records from a 20% sample of the 1983 census to records of deaths occurring before the end of 1992. The study population included 72,527 men, and the number of deaths was 17,378. RESULTS: Differentials is mortality by origin show that mortality was higher among individuals of North African origin than among those of Asian and European origin. After allowance for several socioeconomic indicators, the excess mortality among North African Jews was eliminated. Substantial and consistent differences in mortality were found according to education, occupation, income, possession of a car, housing, and household amenities. Differentials among the elderly were markedly narrower than those among men younger than 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Some sectors of Israeli society have higher risks of death than others, including, among the male population, these who are poor, less educated, unmarried, unskilled, out of the labor force, and of North African origin. PMID:10589307

  13. Frequent Transmission of Gonorrhea in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Jane S.; Zhang, Lei; Chow, Eric P.F.

    2017-01-01

    The rate of gonorrhea is much higher in men who have sex with men than in heterosexuals. Because of unique behavioral characteristics, asymptomatic sites of infection, mainly the pharynx, are principal drivers of gonorrhea prevalence in men who have sex with men. On the basis of this observation, we call for interventions. PMID:27983487

  14. Frequent Transmission of Gonorrhea in Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Christopher K; Hocking, Jane S; Zhang, Lei; Chow, Eric P F

    2017-01-01

    The rate of gonorrhea is much higher in men who have sex with men than in heterosexuals. Because of unique behavioral characteristics, asymptomatic sites of infection, mainly the pharynx, are principal drivers of gonorrhea prevalence in men who have sex with men. On the basis of this observation, we call for interventions.

  15. The Men's Stress Workshop: A Gender-Sensitive Treatment for Depressed Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primack, Jennifer M.; Addis, Michael E.; Syzdek, Matthew; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    Over 10% of men will meet lifetime criteria for major depressive disorder, yet men often are unwilling to enter treatment, and have more negative attitudes toward therapy than do depressed women. The Men's Stress Workshop was developed as a gender-sensitive group therapy protocol for men that explicitly addresses the role of masculine norms in the…

  16. Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care ...

  17. From men to the media and back again: help-seeking in popular men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Anstiss, David; Lyons, Antonia

    2014-11-01

    Men's help-seeking behaviour for health issues is apparent in advice columns in men's magazines. This study discursively analysed men's help-seeking letters and expert replies within two international and popular men's magazines, Men's Health and For Him Magazine or FHM. Findings showed that the texts reinforced hegemonic ideals. Letters positioning men as self-reliant, independently knowledgeable, stoic and avoiding associations with femininity were positively reinforced in expert replies, while other types of positioning were responded to with condescension or ridicule. Results suggest the policing of boundaries by 'experts' around unacceptable/acceptable enactments of masculinity, which may have implications for if, how and when men seek help from experts.

  18. Danish version of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator--translation, cross-cultural adaption and validity pretest by cognitive interviewing.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Jane; Sørensen, Erik E; Gobbens, Robbert J J; Lund, Hans; Aadahl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) is a self-administered questionnaire with a bio-psycho-social integrated approach that measures the degree of frailty in elderly persons. The TFI was developed in the Netherlands and tested in a population of elderly Dutch men and women. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the TFI to a Danish context, and to test face validity of the Danish version by cognitive interviewing. An internationally recognized procedure was applied as a basis for the translation process. The primary tasks were forward translation, reconciliation, back translation, harmonization and pretest. Pretest and review of the preliminary version by cognitive interviewing, were performed at a local community center and in an acute medical ward at the University Hospital in Aalborg, Denmark respectively. A large agreement regarding meaning of the items in the forward translation and reconciliation process was seen. Minor discrepancies were solved by consensus. Back translation revealed unclear wording in one matter. The harmonization committee agreed on a version for cognitive interviewing after revision of minor issues and thirty-four participants were interviewed. Two issues became evident and these were revised. The cognitive interviews and final lay-out resulted in minor adjustments as text type size, specific font, and lining for optimizing readability. In conclusion, we consider the TFI to be translated in such rigorous manner that the instrument can be further tested in clinical practice. The overall objective of the questionnaire being to identify frailty and improve the interventions relating to frail elderly persons in Denmark.

  19. Osteoporosis in men: findings from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS).

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Shahnazari, Mohammad; Orwoll, Eric S; Lane, Nancy E

    2016-02-01

    The lifespan of men is increasing and this is associated with an increased prevalence of osteoporosis in men. Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fracture. Fractures are associated with increased disability and mortality, and public health problems. We review here the study of osteoporosis in men as obtained from a longitudinal cohort of community-based older men, the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS).

  20. Educational Assessment in Danish Schools. Profiles of Educational Assessment Systems Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelund, Niels

    2005-01-01

    This profile describes the methods used for assessing pupils in Danish schools. The Danish school system is rooted in traditions going back almost 200 years. The per pupil expenditure is the highest of any country at the level of primary education and at the lower secondary level is only exceeded by three countries. Public satisfaction with the…

  1. Towards an Understanding of "Udeskole:" Education outside the Classroom in a Danish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Peter; Mygind, Erik; Randrup, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, an increasing number of Danish public, private and independent schools have introduced regular compulsory education outside the classroom for children aged 7-16 as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day--known in Danish as "udeskole." An analysis of this form of outdoor education, its impacts and…

  2. The History We Need: Strategies of Citizen Formation in the Danish History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Simon Laumann

    2015-01-01

    Teaching history in schools can be a significant policy instrument for shaping the identities of future citizens. The Danish curriculum for teaching history of 2009 aims at strengthening a sense of "Danishness" which calls for theoretical analysis. Focusing on this particular case, the paper develops a political theoretical frame for…

  3. Is Danish Difficult to Acquire? Evidence from Nordic Past-Tense Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Vach, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linguistic findings have shown that Danish children's early receptive vocabulary development is slower relative to children learning other languages. In this study, we examined whether Danish children's acquisition of inflectional past-tense morphology is delayed relative to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish children. Our comparison of data…

  4. Sharing reference data and including cows in the reference population improve genomic predictions in Danish Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such as the Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing the size of the reference population for Danish Jerseys. The first ap...

  5. The Value of Open Geographical Data - The Danish Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colding, T. S.; Folner, M.; Krarup, S.; Kongsbak, J.

    2013-12-01

    Good basic data for everyone is part of the common public-sector digitization strategy for 2011 to 2015. The vision is that basic data is to be the high-quality common foundation for public sector administration; efficiently updated at one place, and used by everyone - including the private sector. Open basic data will benefit public-sector efficiency as well as innovation and value creation by Danish society in general. With basic data as a new digital raw material, commercial products can be developed and public information and services can be improved, providing for greater insight and stronger democracy. On the first of January 2013 Denmark released this digital raw material. As a general rule, all basic data is to be made freely available to all public authorities, private businesses and individuals. This makes basic data a common digital resource, which can be exploited freely for commercial as well as non-commercial purposes. A positive business case contributed in convincing Danish politicians to approve the basic data program. Once the initiatives have been fully implemented, the revenues for society are expected to be approx. DKK 800 million annually. Private-sector revenues will be up to DKK half a billion annually, and it is expected that e.g. the real estate, insurance, financial, and telecom sectors, as well as GPS (sat-nav) manufacturers, public companies and entrepreneurs will be among those to benefit hugely from the initiatives. The financial gain for the private sector of open geographical data alone is expected to be approx. 100 million DKK annually. As part of the Basic data program The Danish Geodata Agency (Ministry of the Environment) gave free access to all topographic data, cadastral maps and Digital Elevation Model on Jan. 1st, 2013. The Danish Geodata Agency has decided to measure the effect of the open geographic data in the public sector (efficiency) and in the private sector (growth). The effect will be measured by using reference

  6. [The development of antibiotics use in Danish food production].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2011-11-07

    In the Danish husbandry antimicrobial growth promoters were phased out 1994-2000 and the therapeutic use has been increasingly regulated. Hitherto, a minimum in therapeutic use was reached in 1997. The antimicrobial use in pigs increased by 44% during 2002-2009; a 12% decrease in second half of 2010 was likely due to the announcement of the "yellow card" regulation. From July 2010, a voluntary two years stop of cephalosporins use in pigs was realized, due to increasing occurrence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) resistance in animal and meat isolates; highest levels of ESBL are observed in imported poultry.

  7. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Vogel, B F; Holt, H M; Gerner-Smidt, P; Bundvad, A; Sogaard, P; Gram, L

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection.

  8. Increasing illness among people out of labor market - A Danish register-based study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Finn Kenneth; Diderichsen, Finn

    2016-05-01

    In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i) the prevalence of four chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and mental disorders) among those out-of-work had changed, ii) the occurrence of new cases of those diseases were higher among those who were already out-of-work, or iii) if non-health-related benefits were disproportionately given to individuals recently diagnosed with a disease compared to those without disease. The study was register-based and comprised all Danish residents aged 20-60. During the study period, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders increased among both employed and non-employed people. The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4.83 (4.53-5.14) for the period 2007-2010. The estimates were similar for women.

  9. Pituitary disease in MEN type 1 (MEN1): data from the France-Belgium MEN1 multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Vergès, Bruno; Boureille, Françoise; Goudet, Pierre; Murat, Arnaud; Beckers, Albert; Sassolas, Geneviève; Cougard, Patrick; Chambe, Béatrice; Montvernay, Corinne; Calender, Alain

    2002-02-01

    To date, data on pituitary adenomas in MEN type 1 (MEN1) still have to be evaluated. We analyzed the data of a large series of 324 MEN1 patients from a French and Belgian multicenter study. Data on pituitary disease were compared with those from 110 non-MEN1 patients with pituitary adenomas, matched for age, year of diagnosis, and follow-up period. Genetic analysis of the MEN1 gene was performed in 197 of the MEN1 patients. In our MEN1 series, pituitary disease occurred in 136 of 324 (42%), less frequently than hyperparathyroidism (95%, P < 0.001) and endocrine enteropancreatic tumors (54%, P < 0.01). Mean age of onset of pituitary tumors was 38.0+/-15.3 yr (range, 12-83 yr). Pituitary disease was associated with hyperparathyroidism in 90% of cases, with enteropancreatic tumors in 47%, with adrenal tumors in 16%, and with thoracic neuroendocrine tumors in 4%. Pituitary disease was the initial lesion of MEN1 in 17% of all MEN1 patients. MEN1 pituitary adenomas were significantly more frequent in women than in men (50% vs. 31%, P < 0.001). Among the 136 pituitary adenomas, there were 85 prolactinomas and 12 GH-secreting, 6 ACTH-secreting, 13 cosecreting, and 20 nonsecreting tumors. Eighty-five percent of MEN1-related pituitary lesions were macroadenomas (vs. 42% in non-MEN1 patients, P < 0.001), including 32% of invasive cases. Among secreting adenomas, hormonal hypersecretion was normalized, after treatment, in only 42% (vs. 90% in non-MEN1 patients, P < 0.001), with a median follow-up of 11.4 yr. No correlation was found between the type of MEN1 germ-line mutation and the presence or absence of pituitary adenoma. Our study, based on a large group of MEN1 patients, shows that pituitary adenomas occur in 42% of the cases and are characterized by a larger size and a more aggressive presentation than without MEN1.

  10. The Sexual Networks of Racially Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Latkin, Carl; Muth, Stephen; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men are at increased risk for HIV. Research with older men and high risk populations suggests that network dynamics may contribute to the spread of infectious disease and HIV, but little is known about the sexual networks of young men who have sex with men. Utilizing a unique dataset, this study presents novel descriptive data about the sexual networks of racially diverse 17- to 23-year-old young men who have sex with men. Additionally, individual, partner, and network characteristics of these young men who have sex with men were examined as potential drivers of HIV, STI, and unprotected intercourse. Results indicated several partner- and network-level factors associated with HIV and associated outcomes. PMID:26201650

  11. Dating violence among gay men in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Liu, Kirin Qilin

    2013-08-01

    This is the first study on the prevalence of dating violence and threats of being forced to "come out of the closet" among Chinese gay men. Data on social demographic information and the experience of dating violence, including types of abuse, threats of "outing," and the gender of abusers were collected from 418 gay men and 330 heterosexual men by self-administered questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U test, χ(2) test, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test group differences. Up to 32.8% of the gay men had experienced one abuse or more. Among those experiencing abuse, 83.9% of the gay men never told anyone about their abuse. The experience of any form of abuse by gay men was 5.07 times higher than the rate of abuse among heterosexual men controlling for age in logistic regression models. In addition, 12.4% of the gay men have experienced the threat of being outed. Overall, dating violence is more prevalent in gay men than in heterosexuals. Efforts to prevent dating violence, especially among gay men, should be made in China.

  12. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  13. The Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services

    PubMed Central

    Frischknecht Christensen, Erika; Berlac, Peter Anthony; Nielsen, Henrik; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services (QEMS) is to assess, monitor, and improve the quality of prehospital emergency medical service care in the entire prehospital patient pathway. The aim of this review is to describe the design and the implementation of QEMS. Study population The study population consists of all “112 patient contacts” defined as emergency patients, where the entrance to health care is a 112 call forwarded to one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers in Denmark since January 1, 2014. Estimated annual number of included “112 patients” is 300,000–350,000. Main variables We defined nine quality indicators and the following variables: time stamps for emergency calls received at one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers, dispatch of prehospital unit(s), arrival of first prehospital unit, arrival of first supplemental prehospital unit, and mission completion. Finally, professional level and type of the prehospital resource dispatched to an incident and end-of-mission status (mission completed by phone, on scene, or admission to hospital) are registered. Descriptive data Descriptive data included age, region, and Danish Index for Emergency Care including urgency level. Conclusion QEMS is a new database under establishment and is expected to provide the basis for quality improvement in the prehospital setting and in the entire patient care pathway, for example, by providing prehospital data for research and other quality databases. PMID:27843347

  14. Macroecological signals of species interactions in the Danish avifauna.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Graves, Gary R; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-03-16

    The role of intraspecific and interspecific interactions in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well documented, but the signature of species interactions at coarser spatial scales is unclear. We present evidence that species interactions may be a significant factor in mediating the regional assembly of the Danish avifauna. Because >95% of breeding species (n = 197) are migratory, we hypothesized that dispersal limitation would not be important and that breeding distributions would largely reflect resource availability and autecological habitat preferences. Instead, we detected a striking pattern of spatial segregation between ecologically similar species at two spatial scales with a suite of null models that factored in the spatial distribution of habitats in Denmark as well as population size and biomass of each species. Habitat utilization analyses indicated that community-wide patterns of spatial segregation could not be attributed to the patchy distribution of habitat or to gross differences in habitat utilization among ecologically similar species. We hypothesize that, when habitat patch size is limited, conspecific attraction in concert with interspecific territoriality may result in spatially segregated distributions of ecologically similar species at larger spatial scales. In the Danish avifauna, the effects of species interactions on community assembly appear pervasive and can be discerned at grain sizes up to four orders of magnitude larger than those of individual territories. These results suggest that species interactions should be incorporated into species distribution modeling algorithms designed to predict species occupancy patterns based on environmental variables.

  15. [The early history of the Danish twin registry].

    PubMed

    Harvald, B; Hauge, G

    1999-01-01

    The Danish Twin Registry was initiated at the Copenhagen University Institute for Human Genetics in 1954 by professor Tage Kemp and his assistants, Bent Harvald and Mogens Hauge. The project was until 1960 primarily financed by US National Cancer Institutes. Twin pairs both of same and different sex, born 1870-1910 were drawn from the birth registers and followed-up through the national registers until death or present place of living. Later on same sex pairs born 1911-30 were added. Besided cancer a multitude of other disorders were registered. Intensive studies on identical twins grown up apart were undertaken by Niels Juel-Nielsen, on criminal behaviour by Karl O. Christiansen, on smoking habits by Elisabeth Raaschou-Nielsen, on peptic ulcer by Kaj Gotlieb Jensen, on schizophrenia by Margit Fischer. Among early remarkable results should be mentioned the modest influence of genetic versus environmental factors in most cases of cancer, the strong genetic impact in mental and moral qualities, the approximate genetic/environmental ratio of 50/50 for the orgin of criminal behaviour and a corresponding ratio of 25/75 for life expectancy. In 1971 the Danish Twin Registry was moved to Odense Universty.

  16. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2016-04-12

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects' relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects.

  17. Macroecological signals of species interactions in the Danish avifauna

    PubMed Central

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Graves, Gary R.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The role of intraspecific and interspecific interactions in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well documented, but the signature of species interactions at coarser spatial scales is unclear. We present evidence that species interactions may be a significant factor in mediating the regional assembly of the Danish avifauna. Because >95% of breeding species (n = 197) are migratory, we hypothesized that dispersal limitation would not be important and that breeding distributions would largely reflect resource availability and autecological habitat preferences. Instead, we detected a striking pattern of spatial segregation between ecologically similar species at two spatial scales with a suite of null models that factored in the spatial distribution of habitats in Denmark as well as population size and biomass of each species. Habitat utilization analyses indicated that community-wide patterns of spatial segregation could not be attributed to the patchy distribution of habitat or to gross differences in habitat utilization among ecologically similar species. We hypothesize that, when habitat patch size is limited, conspecific attraction in concert with interspecific territoriality may result in spatially segregated distributions of ecologically similar species at larger spatial scales. In the Danish avifauna, the effects of species interactions on community assembly appear pervasive and can be discerned at grain sizes up to four orders of magnitude larger than those of individual territories. These results suggest that species interactions should be incorporated into species distribution modeling algorithms designed to predict species occupancy patterns based on environmental variables. PMID:20194760

  18. Determinants of sunbed use in a population of Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Joan; Krarup, Anne F; Castberg, Ida-Marie; Jensen, Poul D; Philip, Anja

    2013-03-01

    In Denmark, melanoma is the most common type of cancer in individuals aged 15-34 years. Ultraviolet radiation from sunbeds is a risk factor for melanoma. Knowledge of the characteristics of sunbed users is important in the development and implementation of prevention strategies of sunbed use. The objective of this study was to examine sunbed use and its association with smoking, parental socioeconomic status (SES), friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, and school environment among adolescents aged 14-18 years at continuation schools in Denmark. We conducted a survey among adolescents in Danish continuation schools in 2011. We examined sunbed use and its association with age, smoking, friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, parental SES, and shared environment of the continuation school, using logistic regression. Within the past 12 months, 38% of the pupils had used a sunbed (70% girls and 28% boys). There was no difference in sunbed use according to age. Smoking and friends' positive attitudes towards, and higher use of sunbeds were associated with increased use of sunbeds. High SES of mothers' was associated with lower odds for sunbed use among girls. The association of school environment with sunbed use was modest compared with the other variables. Adolescents in continuation schools report a higher use of sunbeds than Danish adolescents as such. Educational interventions should be targeted at preteens, as sunbed use is common in 14-year-olds. Special educational tools are tested in the continuation school environment and may prove effective in this population.

  19. Integrated exploration study of Norwegian-Danish basin, northwestern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.; Haselton, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Norwegian-Danish basin (NDB) extends from offshore Norway southeast through Denmark. This study, initiated by the Danish Energy Agency to evaluate hydrocarbon potential, consists of geophysical structural and stratigraphic mapping combined with geologic source rock and reservoir analysis. Approximately 25 wells and 15,000 km of seismic data were included. Formation of the NDB resulted from uplift of the Variscan foldbelt followed by subsidence of the foreland, i.e., the NDB and the North German basin. The Ringkoebing-Fyn High, a positive feature probably established in the late Precambrian and persisting to present, separates the basins, thus constituting the southern boundary of the NDB. Northeast the basin is bounded by the Fennoscandian shield and to the west by the North Sea graben system. Following deposition of Rotliegendes eolian and fluviatile sandstones, a major Late Permian marine transgression deposited up to 2000 m of evaporites and carbonates. Early Triassic regression resulted in thick red-bed deposits. Halokinesis commencing in the Upper Triassic dominated subsequent structural development. Continued subsidence led to deposition of Early Jurassic shelf mudstones overlain by deltaic sandstones. Rising seas during Late Cretaceous allowed widespread deposition of oceanic pelagic chalk. Early Paleocene wrench movements produced inversion. Basinal downwarping during the Tertiary was accompanied by progradation from the northeast. The complex tectonic history provides numerous different structural styles and a variety of depositional environments. To date only obvious structural features have been tested. This integrated basin study demonstrates that a number of other hydrocarbon plays remain to be explored.

  20. Men's Educational Group Appointments in Rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce B; Gonzalez, Hugo; Campbell, McKenzie; Campbell, Kent

    2017-03-01

    Men's preventive health and wellness is largely neglected in rural Nicaragua, where a machismo culture prevents men from seeking health care. To address this issue, a men's educational group appointment model was initiated at a rural health post to increase awareness about hypertension, and to train community health leaders to measure blood pressure. Men's hypertension workshops were conducted with patient knowledge pretesting, didactic teaching, and posttesting. Pretesting and posttesting performances were recorded, blood pressures were screened, and community leaders were trained to perform sphygmomanometry. An increase in hypertension-related knowledge was observed after every workshop and community health leaders demonstrated proficiency in sphygmomanometry. In addition, several at-risk patients were identified and follow-up care arranged. Men's educational group appointments, shown to be effective in the United States in increasing patient knowledge and satisfaction, appear to function similarly in a resource-constrained environment and may be an effective mechanism for reaching underserved men in Nicaragua.

  1. Do men overperceive women's sexual interest?

    PubMed

    Perilloux, Carin; Kurzban, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence comparing men's perceptions of women's sexual intentions with women's own reports of their sexual intentions has shown a systematic pattern of results that has been interpreted as support for the idea that men overestimate women's true sexual intentions. However, because women's true sexual intentions cannot be directly measured, an alternative interpretation of the existing data is that women understate their sexual intentions and that men's assessments of women's intentions are generally accurate. In three studies, we (a) replicated the typical sex difference in sexual-intent ratings, (b) showed that men maintain their ratings of women's sexual intentions even when incentivized to tell the truth, and (c) showed that women believe that other women are understating their sexual intentions in self-report measures. Taken together, these results imply that men might be accurate in perceiving and reporting women's sexual intentions and that men might be managing errors through biased behavior rather than biased beliefs.

  2. Cognitive Change during the Life Course and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Late Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Rask, Lene; Bendix, Laila; Harbo, Maria; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik L.; Lauritzen, Martin J.; Osler, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Cognitive skills are known to decline through the lifespan with large individual differences. The molecular mechanisms for this decline are incompletely understood. Although leukocyte telomere length provides an index of cellular age that predicts the incidence of age-related diseases, it is unclear whether there is an association between cognitive decline and leukocyte telomere length. Objective: To examine the association between changes in cognitive function during adult life and leukocyte telomere length after adjusting for confounding factors such as education, mental health and life style. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two groups of men with negative (n = 97) and positive (n = 93) change in cognitive performance were selected from a birth cohort of 1985 Danish men born in 1953. Cognitive performance of each individual was assessed at age ~20 and 56 years. Leukocyte telomere length at age ~58 was measured using qPCR. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between cognitive function and leukocyte telomere length. Results: Men with negative change in cognitive performance during adult life had significantly shorter mean leukocyte telomere length than men with positive change in cognitive performance (unadjusted difference β = −0.09, 95% CI −0.16 to −0.02, p = 0.02). This association remained significant after adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time activity, body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol (adjusted difference β = −0.09, 95% CI −0.17 to −0.01, p = 0.02) but was non-significant after adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time activity, BMI, cholesterol, current cognitive function, depression and education (adjusted difference β = −0.07, 95% CI −0.16 to −0.01, p = 0.08). Conclusion and Relevance: Preclinical cognitive changes may be associated with leukocyte telomere length. PMID:28018213

  3. Double-blind Y chromosome microdeletion analysis in men with known sperm parameters and reproductive hormone profiles: microdeletions are specific for spermatogenic failure.

    PubMed

    Krausz, C; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Frydelund-Larsen, L; Quintana-Murci, L; McElreavey, K; Skakkebaek, N E

    2001-06-01

    Y chromosome microdeletions have been reported as a possible genetic factor of male infertility. Despite a large number of studies in this subject, there is still considerable debate and confusion surrounding the role of Y chromosome microdeletions in male infertility. This has been further compounded by observations of Y microdeletions in fertile males. The aim of the present study was to evaluate: 1) the incidence of Y microdeletions in control male population and infertile males, where complete semen and hormonal analysis was available to define whether Y microdeletions are specific for spermatogenic failure or if they can be found also in normospermic men; and 2) whether the suboptimal semen quality reported in Denmark is associated with a higher incidence of Y microdeletions in respect to other populations. Double-blind molecular study of deletions was performed in 138 consecutive patients seeking intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, 100 men of known fertility, and 107 young military conscripts from the general Danish population. Microdeletions or gene-specific deletions were not detected in normospermic subjects or in subfertile men with a sperm count of more than 1 x 10(6)/mL. Deletions of the Azoospermia factor (AZF)c region were detected in 17% of individuals with idiopathic azoo/cryptozoospermia and in 7% of individuals with nonidiopathic azoo/cryptozoospermia. The data indicate that: 1) the composition of the study population is the major factor in determining deletion frequency; 2) Y chromosome microdeletions are specifically associated with severe spermatogenic failure; therefore, the protocol described here is reliable for the routine clinical workup of severe male factor infertility; and 3) the frequency of Yq microdeletions in the Danish population is similar to that from other countries and argues against the involvement of microdeletions in the relatively low sperm count of the Danish population.

  4. Conjugal violence: a comparison of violence against men by women and women by men.

    PubMed

    Thureau, S; Le Blanc-Louvry, I; Thureau, S; Gricourt, C; Proust, B

    2015-04-01

    Because few studies demonstrated the types of violence performed by women, the aim of our study was to access violence men against women as well as women against men. A retrospective study was performed based on all the medical certificates for victims who consulted our centre specialized in assault victims. Eleven percent of the victims were men (81 men, 626 women). Episodes of violence were most often repeated against women than men (p < 0.05). Injuring, in most cases mild, were more frequently found in men than women (p < 0.01). They were primarily cutaneous in 66% of cases (85% men, 64% women) and severe in 5% of cases i.e. fractures, with no difference in gender. Three cases of sexual assault and one case of chemical submission was observed in women. Insults were made more often by men than by women (p < 0.002). A psychological impact was more frequently found in women than in men (p < 0.01). The duration of the total incapacity (incapacité totale de travail = ITT) was less than 0-3 days in most cases, and this occurred more often in 91% men than in 65% women (p < 0.01). Consultations for domestic violence occur less frequently in men than in women. Men present more often with injuries that are less severe compared to those observed in women. In contrast, the psychological impact is less frequent in men. Also episodes of violence were most often repeated when the aggressor was a man.

  5. Will the global HIV response fail gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men?

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, George; Santos, Glenn-Milo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men are among the small number of groups for whom HIV remains uncontrolled worldwide. Although there have been recent and notable decreases in HIV incidence across several countries, prevalence and incidence is consistently higher or rising among men who have sex with men when compared with other groups. Methods In 2014, MSMGF (the Global Forum on MSM & HIV) conducted its third biennial Global Men's Health and Rights Study, an international, multilingual, web-based cross-sectional survey of men who have sex with men recruited through online convenience sampling. We tested hypothesized correlates (selected a priori) of successfully achieving each step along the HIV prevention and treatment continuum by fitting separate generalized estimating equation models adjusted for clustering by country in multivariate analyses. All models controlled for ability to meet basic financial needs, age, healthcare coverage, having a regular provider, region and country-level income. Results Higher provider discrimination and sexual stigma were associated with lower odds of perceived access to services, service utilization and virologic suppression. Conversely, accessing services from community-based organizations focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; greater engagement in gay community; and comfort with healthcare providers were associated with higher odds of achieving steps along the prevention and treatment continuum. Conclusions To meet accelerated global HIV targets, global leaders must adopt a differentiated and bolder response, in keeping with current epidemiologic trends and community-based research. The HIV-related needs of gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men must be addressed openly, quickly and with sufficient resources to support evidence-based, community-led and human rights-affirming interventions at scale. PMID:27876454

  6. Men, HIV/AIDS, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J

    2009-07-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as "the problem", and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally.

  7. Men, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779

  8. Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behavior among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women, and Transgender Women

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Jane Rohde; Branson, Catherine M.; Fletcher, Jesse B.; Reback, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men, men who have sex with men and women, and transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection. This study seeks to clarify which known HIV risk factors (partner type, sex location, serodiscordance, multiple sex partners, substance use during sex) contribute to engagement in high-risk (unprotected receptive anal) sex in each population. Data collected from June 2005 through June 2008 indicate all three populations display different HIV sexual risk profiles. The data suggest that HIV-prevention interventions should be individually tailored to address the specific needs of these three highly vulnerable and impacted populations. PMID:24660042

  9. Perceptions of general practice among homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Dawson, J; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Hart, G; Brookes, M

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Primary care has an important role to play in the prevention and management of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been suggested that homosexual men experience a variety of problems in relation to primary care. AIM. As part of a larger study, it was decided to examine the extent to which a sample of homosexually active men experienced difficulties in general practice and whether they consulted their general practitioner for problems related to HIV or the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). METHOD. Homosexual men were recruited for interview in 1991-92 from a variety of sources including genitourinary clinics and homosexual organizations. RESULTS. Of 623 men registered with a general practitioner 44% had not informed their general practitioner of their sexual orientation and 44% of the 77 men who were HIV antibody positive, as confirmed by the study, had not informed their general practitioner of this fact. Men who viewed their practice as unsympathetic towards homosexual men were less likely to have informed their general practitioner of their sexual orientation or HIV status. The majority of men (87%) nevertheless viewed primary care as an appropriate source of HIV/AIDS advice. CONCLUSION. There is considerable scope for improvement in the acceptability of general practice to homosexual men. PMID:8179951

  10. RET mutations in MEN 2 associated diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstra, R.M.W.; Stelwagen, T.; Stulp, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) comprises three clinically distinct dominantly inherited cancer syndromes namely MEN 2A, MEN 2B and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Germline (point) mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have been reported to occur in all these syndromes. In MEN 2A and FMTC patients the mutations occurred within codons specifying cysteine residues in the transition of the RET extracellular and transmembrane domains, while in MEN 2B patients we could detect a single RET mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain in all patients. Also in patients suffering from Hirschsprung`s disease (HSCR), mutations in the RET gene have been found. These mutations are spread all over the gene. Several families have been described in which MEN 2 and HSCR are associated. MEN 2A is also found associated with cutaneous lichen amyloidosis (CLA). It might be that specific RET mutations correlate with these disease associations. We therefore scanned DNA from patients from a family with MEN 2A and HSCR, MEN 2A and CLA and CLA only for RET mutations. Results obtained thus far do not support the existence of specific correlations.

  11. Men-Invasion of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Last year I was given the fantastic opportunity by ESA to go to the IAF congress in Toulouse. This was one of the most exciting experiences of my life. I loved every minute of it, listening to the brilliant men from different areas of space research, telling us wonderfully interesting things about space. After a couple of sessions I understood there were very few women standing up there and giving presentations. Except of course, the Russian women translators and the students that were invited. This struck me and I started to think about it and wondered why? This encouraged me to investigate. I realized that I had to turn to the children, the ones that are going to take over after us, our new faces in space. When we were children we all wanted to become astronauts, both boys and girls. But after a couple of years it changed, why? So I started my research by asking questions to the children in different ages concerning their lives and upbringing. I was curious to find out when and how their personal goals changed in life, compared to the men. Could it depend on what our parents did when we were growing up or maybe where we were raised geographically? Perhaps the encouragement of our teachers in our first years in school or our social background, genes, manners and customs. When we have the answers we also must ask ourselves how we can make women choose a more engineering and scientific profile. Should we try to convert them to engineers or should we use their other special abilities and try to integrate them into the space program for example as medical doctors? I think that ESA and other space organizations should use their university students in a new outreach project. The students should visit their local schools and inform the children about space and the wonderful opportunities it can give us. This would give the boys, but mostly the girls, a chance to discover space.

  12. Mens' attitudes about abortion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Jagwe-Wadda, Gabriel; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2011-01-01

    Abortion is illegal in Uganda except to save the life of the woman. Nevertheless, the practice is quite common: about 300,000 induced abortions occur annually among Ugandan women aged 15-49 (Singh et al., 2005) and a large proportion of these women require treatment for post-abortion complications. In the male-dominant culture of Uganda, where men control most of the financial resources, men play a critical part in determining whether women receive a safe abortion, or appropriate treatment if they experience abortion complications. This study examines men's roles in determining women's access to a safer abortion and post-abortion care. It draws on in-depth interviews carried out in 2003 with 61 women aged 18-60 and 21 men aged 20-50 from Kampala and Mbarara, Uganda. Respondents' descriptions of men's involvement in women's abortion care agreed that men's stated attitudes about abortion often prevented women from involving them in either the abortion or post-abortion care. Most men believe that if a woman is having an abortion, it must be because she is pregnant with another man's child, although this does not correspond with women's reasons for having an abortion--a critical disjuncture revealed by the data between men's perceptions of, and women's realities regarding, reasons for seeking an abortion. If the woman does experience post-abortion complications, the prevailing attitude among men in the sample was that they cannot support a woman in such a situation seeking care because if it had been his child, she would not have had a covert abortion. Since money is critical to accessing appropriate care, without men's support, women seeking an abortion may not be able to access safer abortion options and if they experience complications, they may delay care-seeking or may not obtain care at all. Barriers to involving men in abortion decision-making endanger women's health and possibly their lives.

  13. Latino gay and bisexual men's relationships with non-gay-identified men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J; Shedlin, Michele G; Penha, Marcelo Montes

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between Latino gay-identified men in metropolitan New York City and their non-gay-identified male partners. Phase 1 consisted of in-depth interviews (N = 33), and Phase 2 consisted of quantitative surveys (N = 120) with Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). A majority of participants reported having had sex with heterosexually identified men, and in many cases, the relationship was sustained over time. We found mixed results concerning an attitude sometimes attributed to Latinos that sexual orientation is defined by sexual role, with receptive MSM seen as gay and insertive MSM seen as straight. Although there were no significant associations between partner sexual orientation and unprotected anal intercourse, gay men were less likely to take the insertive role in oral or anal sex with straight-identified male partners than with gay partners.

  14. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men's and women's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-07-01

    Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.

  15. Positive Portrayals of Feminist Men Increase Men's Solidarity with Feminists and Collective Action Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Shaun; Srinivasan, Ruhi; Finke, Elizabeth; Firnhaber, Joseph; Shilinsky, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether positive portrayals of feminist men could increase men's sense of solidarity with feminists and, through it, their intentions to engage in collective action in support of women. A sample of 102 mostly White men between the ages of 18 and 63 was recruited from Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing marketplace.…

  16. Asymptomatic Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Saxon, Cara; Ison, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic. PMID:26691688

  17. Asymptomatic Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Saxon, Cara; Hughes, Gwenda; Ison, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic.

  18. Men on the Move: A Pilot Program to Increase Physical Activity among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Langford, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. "Men on the Move" was a pilot study to increase African American men's levels of…

  19. Workplace Etiquette for Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baridon, Andrea P.; Eyler, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that sexual harassment would be less of a problem if men and women paid more attention to commonplace rules of workplace etiquette. Offers examples of etiquette rules that suggest how to behave reasonably while respecting the rights of both men and women. (Author/JOW)

  20. Toward a Mandatory Work Policy for Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Lawrence M.

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence Mead addresses the problem of nonwork among low-income men, particularly low-income black men, and its implications for families and children. The poor work effort, he says, appears to be caused partly by falling wages and other opportunity constraints but principally by an oppositional culture and a breakdown of work discipline. Mead…

  1. Latino men's sexual behavior with transgender persons.

    PubMed

    Bockting, Walter; Miner, Michael; Rosser, B R Simon

    2007-12-01

    Male-to-female transgender persons are thought to be "vectors" for HIV/STI transmission, yet little quantitative information exists about the risk behavior of their male sexual partners who may serve as a "bridge" for HIV transmission into the general population. As part of an online survey examining the sexual risk behavior of Latino men who have sex with men (N = 1,026), we identified 44 (4%) participants who reported having had sex with a transgender partner. Compared with a randomly selected sub-sample of 200 men who did not report sex with a transgender person, sexual partners of transgender persons were almost three times more likely to have had unprotected sexual intercourse in the last three months. In addition, men who had sex with transgender persons were more likely to be HIV-positive; married, separated, or divorced; identify as bisexual or straight; have sex with women; and live in rural or small town communities. Regression analysis revealed that community size, sexual compulsivity, and having had a transgender partner were independent predictors of unprotected sex. Among Latino men who have sex with men, men with a history of sex with a transgender person appear more likely to be sexually compulsive and at greater risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. These men may, therefore, also serve as a "bridge" for HIV transmission to (as opposed to from) the transgender population.

  2. Engaging Men in Difficult Dialogues about Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loschiavo, Chris; Miller, David S.; Davies, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Male privilege is one aspect of social inequality that underlies much of the oppression and violence that occurs on college campuses. Mad Skills, a program addressing power and privilege with college men, is described along with general recommendations about how to engage men in difficult dialogues. The PIE Model is used to describe defensive…

  3. The "Marital" Liaisons of Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Reports research on the nature of enduring sexual liaisons among homosexual men. Such relationships vary widely and may be subinstitutional adaptions to lack of community support. Gay men committed to the heterosexual world were less likely to enter enduring relationships. Open marriage is the more enduring form of gay male liaisons. (Author)

  4. Young Men, Masculinities and Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limmer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on focus group and interview data from 45 young men from the north of England to explore the barriers to effective sex and relationships education (SRE). Recent policy debates in relation to establishing statutory SRE in schools provide an opportunity to revisit how it is currently delivered to, and received by, young men. The…

  5. Household and kin provisioning by Hadza men.

    PubMed

    Wood, Brian M; Marlowe, Frank W

    2013-09-01

    We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of men's foraging and food sharing. We find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not like common goods, but in ways that significantly advantaged producers' households. Food sharing and consumption data show that men channeled the foods they produced to their wives, children, and their consanguineal and affinal kin living in other households. On average, single men brought food to camp on 28% of days, married men without children at home on 31% of days, and married men with children at home on 42% of days. Married men brought fruit, the least widely shared resource, to camp significantly more often than single men. A model of the relationship between hunting success and household food consumption indicates that the best hunters provided 3-4 times the amount of food to their families than median or poor hunters. These new data fill important gaps in our knowledge of the subsistence economy of the Hadza and uphold predictions derived from the household and kin provisioning hypotheses. Key evidence and assumptions backing prior claims that Hadza hunting is largely a form of status competition were not replicated in our study. In light of this, family provisioning is a more viable explanation for why good hunters are preferred as husbands and have higher fertility than others.

  6. Men and Families = Hombres y Familias, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Men and Families Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter, published in both English and Spanish versions, focuses on men and their roles in families. It stems from a 3-day workshop held at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City. The 24 participating researchers and practitioners discussed ways to support men in fathering roles in order to enhance the…

  7. Older Men's Explanatory Model for Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solimeo, Samantha L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Gold, Deborah T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the nature of men's experiences of osteoporosis by developing an understanding of men's explanatory models. Design and Methods: This descriptive study invited community-residing male osteoporosis patients aged 50+ to participate in interviews about osteoporosis. Participants were recruited from a hospital-affiliated bone…

  8. Men of Color Focus Group Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Community College Student Engagement received funding from"The Kresge Foundation to deepen its work on improving outcomes for men of color in community colleges. The primary goals of the initiative were: (1) to advance the understanding within the community college field regarding the assets and challenges that men of color…

  9. Family Life Education--For Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katherine K.; MacFarlane, Ann

    1971-01-01

    Account of a family-life film-lecture series for poor farm laborers, primarily men. Some of the topics discussed were: priorities in human needs, family communications, sexuality, family planning and masculine and feminine roles. The program improved the men's ability to communicate and made them more receptive to counseling. (Authors/JB)

  10. Medical informatic research management in academia - the Danish setting.

    PubMed

    Kjær Andersen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The condition that the Danish universities have been subject to severe changes through the last decade has had huge consequences for management of research at the level of a discipline as Medical Informatics. The presentation pinpoints some of the instruments, which is on top of the management agenda in the new academic reality in Denmark. Performance contracts, organizational structure, general management, research constraints, ranking and performance issues, economy linked to production, ownership, and incitements are issues affecting the way research are done. The issue of effective research management is to navigate in this reality, ensure inspiration and influx from other environments dealing with medical informatics problems, in theory as well as in praxis - and shield the individual researcher from emerging bureaucracy, leaving room for creativity.

  11. Identifying divergent foster care careers for Danish children.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care drift, instability, and placement disruptions to define the unstable foster care career as a subset of foster care careers. I then use administrative data on 30,239 Danish children born 1982-1987 who entered foster care to generate nine foster care careers, two of which meet the criteria for an unstable career. Children with a high number of risk factors associated with foster care entry were also the most likely to enter an unstable career. I end by discussing implications for recent studies of the effect of foster care on children's later life outcomes and the relevance of the findings for practitioners.

  12. New developments in the Danish Wind Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Denmark are among the best in Europe. In recent years there has been a rapid growth in number of wind turbines connected to the grid in Denmark. By the end of 1995 more than 3800 wind turbines were installed on-shore with a capacity of over 600 MW. The total production of electricity from these turbines in 1995 was more than 1200 GWh, corresponding to approximately 3.6 % of the Danish electricity consumption. For several years Denmark has pursued an energy policy with an increasing weight on environmental aspects and new and renewable energy sources like wind energy. Therefore wind energy already plays an important part as supplement to the traditional sources of fuel in the electricity production, and the share of wind energy and other renewables is expected to increase significantly in the years to come. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  13. Danish initiatives to improve the safety of meat products.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Henrik C

    2010-02-01

    During the last two decades the major food safety problems in Denmark, as determined by the number of human patients, has been associated with bacterial infections stemming from meat products and eggs. The bacterial pathogens causing the majority of human infections has been Salmonella and Campylobacter, and to a lesser extent Yersinia, Escherichiacoli O157 and Listeria. Danish initiatives to improve the safety of meat products have focused on the entire production chain from the farm to the consumer, with a special emphasis on the pre-harvest stage of production. The control of bacterial pathogens which are resistant to antibiotics has been a new area of attention in the recent decade, and recently, the increasing globalization of the domestic food supply has called for a complete rethinking of the national food safety strategies. The implementations of a "case-by-case" risk assessment system, as well as increased international collaboration on surveillance, are both elements in this new strategy.

  14. Postpartum amenorrhoea and breast-feeding in a Danish sample.

    PubMed

    Vestermark, V; Høgdall, C K; Plenov, G; Birch, M

    1994-01-01

    The duration of postpartum amenorrhoea was studied in a Danish sample of 361 women. The median duration of amenorrhoea was 17 weeks. The 25th and 75th percentiles were 10 and 30 weeks, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea and of breast-feeding. However, lactation for more than 9 months did not extend the duration of amenorrhoea. Menstruation before weaning occurred in 57% of the women, and 43% terminated breast-feeding before the first menstruation. Four weeks after weaning menstruation had returned in 79% and by 8 weeks after in 93% of the mothers. At 6 months postpartum, frequency of breast-feeding, and of night-time feeding were determinants of amenorrhoea.

  15. Infection with Bartonella henselae in a Danish Family

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Ricardo G.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Bradley, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species constitute emerging, vector-borne, intravascular pathogens that produce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (natural host or passive carrier of a microorganism) and opportunistic hosts. With the advent of more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, there is evolving microbiological evidence supporting concurrent infection with one or more Bartonella spp. in more than one family member; however, the mode(s) of transmission to or among family members remains unclear. In this study, we provide molecular microbiological evidence of Bartonella henselae genotype San Antonio 2 (SA2) infection in four of six Danish family members, including a child who died of unknown causes at 14 months of age. PMID:25740763

  16. Brief report: Danish emerging adults' conceptions of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Four hundred Danish emerging adults ages 17-29 were surveyed regarding their conceptions of adulthood and their self-assessments of their adult status. A majority of the 17-24-year-olds and nearly half the 25-29-year-olds viewed themselves as being adults in some ways but not others. Participants reported feeling most adult when with co-workers or romantic partners, and least adult with mothers, fathers, or friends. The most widely-endorsed criteria for adulthood were accepting responsibility for one's self, making independent decisions, and becoming financially independent. Among the least-endorsed criteria were the traditional transition events of entering marriage and parenthood, as well as "avoid becoming drunk."

  17. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M; Ersbøll, A K

    2013-05-01

    Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of Campylobacter in the Danish broiler population. In this study, we observed a non-random temporal occurrence of Campylobacter, with high prevalence during summer and low during winter. Significant spatio-temporal clusters were identified in the same areas in the summer months from 2007 to 2009. Range of influence between broiler farms were estimated at distances of 9.6 km and 13.5 km in different years. Identification of areas and time with greater risk indicates variable presence of risk factors with space and time. Implementation of safety measures on farms within high-risk clusters during summer could have an impact in reducing prevalence.

  18. Long-term mobile phone use and the risk of vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Olsen, Jørgen H; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-08-15

    Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of ≥11 years was not related to an increased vestibular schwannoma risk in men (relative risk estimate = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 1.46), and no vestibular schwannoma cases among long-term subscribers occurred in women versus 1.6 expected. Vestibular schwannomas did not occur more often on the right side of the head, although the majority of Danes reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma and possible diagnostic delay, further surveillance is indicated.

  19. Sub-Clinical Cognitive Decline and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Hansen, Naja Liv; Osler, Merete; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hallam, Dorte Merete; Pedersen, Esben Thade; Chappell, Michael; Lauritzen, Martin Johannes; Rostrup, Egill

    2017-01-01

    Background Although dementia is associated with both global and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes, little is known about cerebral perfusion in the early pre-clinical stages of cognitive decline preceding overt cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of early sub-clinical cognitive decline with CBF. Materials and Methods The study participants were recruited from a cohort of Danish men born in 1953. Based on a regression model we selected men who performed better (Group A, n = 94) and poorer (Group B, n = 95) on cognitive testing at age 57 than expected from testing at age 20. Participants underwent supplementary cognitive testing, blood sampling and MRI including measurements of regional and global CBF. Results Regional CBF was lower in group B than in group A in the posterior cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. The associations were attenuated when corrected for global atrophy, but remained significant in regions of interest based analysis adjusting for regional gray matter volume and vascular risk factors. No influence of group on global CBF was observed. Conclusions We conclude that early sub-clinical cognitive decline is associated with reduced perfusion in the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus independently of regional atrophy and vascular risk factors, but cannot be statistically separated from an association with global atrophy. PMID:28095458

  20. IQ, the Urban Environment, and Their Impact on Future Schizophrenia Risk in Men.

    PubMed

    Toulopoulou, Timothea; Picchioni, Marco; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-02-22

    Exposure to an urban environment during early life and low IQ are 2 well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. It is not known, however, how these factors might relate to one another. Data were pooled from the North Jutland regional draft board IQ assessments and the Danish Conscription Registry for men born between 1955 and 1993. Excluding those who were followed up for less than 1 year after the assessment yielded a final cohort of 153170 men of whom 578 later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. We found significant effects of having an urban birth, and also experiencing an increase in urbanicity before the age of 10 years, on adult schizophrenia risk. The effect of urban birth was independent of IQ. However, there was a significant interaction between childhood changes in urbanization in the first 10 years and IQ level on the future adult schizophrenia risk. In short, those subjects who moved to more or less urban areas before their 10th birthday lost the protective effect of IQ. When thinking about adult schizophrenia risk, the critical time window of childhood sensitivity to changes in urbanization seems to be linked to IQ. Given the prediction that by 2050, over 80% of the developed world's population will live in an urban environment, this represents a major future public health issue.

  1. Men and women, alcohol and aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.

  2. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    PubMed

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  3. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS <1.28. All participants were characterized by anthropometrics (weight, height, and waist circumference) and fasting serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine (fT4) at baseline. Results: The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (p<0.0001) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) (p<0.0001) independent of age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage, whereas fasting serum fT4 concentrations were associated positively only with WHtR. The odds ratio of exhibiting SH was 1.8 when being overweight/obese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). Conclusion: The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity. PMID:27611730

  4. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds☆

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Signe A.; Sörensen, Camilla R. L.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark. PMID:25076056

  5. PAH biomarkers in common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) from Danish waters.

    PubMed

    Tairova, Zhanna M; Strand, Jakob; Chevalier, Julie; Andersen, Ole

    2012-04-01

    Eelpouts (Zoarces viviparus) sampled at surveillance stations during the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 in different Danish coastal areas, were studied for biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and effects. Two analytical techniques, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (SFS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/F), were applied for detecting PAH metabolites in bile and urine. CYP1A activity, in this study regarded as potential biomarker of effect, was measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver of eelpouts from different stations. Biliary PAH metabolite measurements were used for monitoring the environmental PAH load at the surveillance stations. There was found significant difference in biliary PAH metabolite content between sexes with male fish containing higher concentrations of PAH metabolites than females. The urinary PAH metabolite content did not show the same spatial trends as biliary PAH metabolites. However, fish from Aarhus Bight and Vejle Fjord had significantly higher levels of PAH metabolites in both urine and bile compared to the reference station Agersø. Normalisation methods applied for bile and urine matrices did not have any effect or only slightly reduced the coefficients of variation in data sets. The CYP1A activity in eelpout liver did not show the same spatial distribution trends between sampling sites as did biliary or urinary PAH metabolite contents. Male eelpouts showed significantly higher CYP1A activity than females in fall sampling period but there were no differences found in the spring period. General comparison between both seasons showed that eelpouts sampled in the fall had significantly higher CYP1A activity than fish sampled during spring season. Overall, the results of this study describe selected biomarker responses in eelpouts to environmental PAH load at the different areas along Danish coasts.

  6. Prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among Danish prisoners.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P B; Krarup, H B; Niesters, H G; Norder, H; Georgsen, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among prisoners, we conducted a prospective study in a Danish medium security prison for males. The prisoners were offered an interview and blood test for hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus HIV at inclusion as well as at release from prison or end of study. Of 403 prisoners available 325 (79%) participated in the initial survey and for 142 (44%) a follow-up test was available. 43% (140/325) of the participants were injecting drug users (IDUs) of whom 64% were positive for hepatitis B (HBV) and 87% for hepatitis C (HCV) markers. No cases of HIV or human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) were found. 32% of all prisoners could transmit HBV and/or HCV by blood contact. 70% of IDUs had shared injecting equipment, and 60% had injected inside prison. Only 2% of IDUs were vaccinated against HBV. Duration of injecting drug use, numbers of imprisonments, and injecting in prison were independently and positively associated with the presence of HBV antibodies among IDUs by logistic regression analysis. The HBV incidence was 16/100 PY (95% CI: 2-56/100 PY) and the HCV incidence 25/100 PY (1-140) among injecting drug users (IDUs). We conclude that IDUs in prison have an incidence of hepatitis B and C 100 times higher than reported in the general Danish population. They should be vaccinated against hepatitis B and new initiatives to stop sharing of injecting equipment in and outside prison is urgently needed.

  7. Understanding older men and their male friendships: a comparison of african american and white men.

    PubMed

    Greif, Geoffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Friendships can lead to longer and healthier lives. Yet little is known about how older men, particularly African American men, define and carry out their friendships with other men. This article presents the findings from qualitative interviews with 23 African American and 23 White older men who were part of a larger study. The subjects were asked whether friendships are important; if they have enough male friends; how they define, carry out, and maintain their friendships; and the nature of their fathers' friendships. Comparisons are drawn between the African American and White men. Implications for social work practice are included.

  8. Higher Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men than Non-Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men: Data from the Urban Men's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, S.G.; Neilands, T.B.; Pollack, L.M.; Paul, J.P.; Catania, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Latino adult men who have sex with men who live in the US was estimated because a history of childhood sexual abuse increases HIV sexual risk behaviors and other negative health outcomes in adulthood. Method:: The Urban Men's Health Study is a random-digit telephone probability survey of…

  9. Exploring U.S. men's birth intentions.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Kost, Kathryn

    2014-04-01

    While recently there have been renewed interest in women's childbearing intentions, the authors sought to bring needed research attention to understanding men's childbearing intentions. Nationally representative data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was used to examine pregnancy intentions and happiness for all births reported by men in the 5 years preceding the interview. We used bivariate statistical tests of associations between intention status, happiness about the pregnancy, and fathers' demographic characteristics, including joint race/ethnicity and union status subgroups. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios of a birth being intended, estimated separately by father's union status at birth. Using comparable data and measures from the male and female NSFG surveys, we tested for gender differences intentions and happiness, and examined the sensitivity of our results to potential underreporting of births by men. Nearly four out of ten of births to men were reported as unintended, with significant variation by men's demographic traits. Non-marital childbearing was more likely to be intended among Hispanic and black men. Sixty-two percent of births received a 10 on the happiness scale. Happiness about the pregnancy varied significantly by intention status. Men were significantly happier than women about the pregnancies, with no significant difference in intention status. Potential underreporting of births by men had little impact on these patterns. This study brings needed focus to men's childbearing intentions and improves our understanding of the context of their role as fathers. Men need to be included in strategies to prevent unintended pregnancy.

  10. 26 CFR 521.115 - Credit against United States tax liability for Danish tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who... liability for Danish tax. For the purpose of avoidance of double taxation, Article XV provides that, on...

  11. Intimate partner, familial and community violence among men who have sex with men in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113

  12. Thorium in occupationally exposed men.

    SciTech Connect

    Stehney, A. F.

    1999-02-24

    Higher than environmental levels of {sup 232}Th have been found in autopsy samples of lungs and other organs from four former employees of a thorium refinery. Working periods of the subjects ranged from 3 to 24 years, and times from end of work to death ranged from 6 to 31 years. Examination of the distribution of thorium among the organs revealed poor agreement with the distribution calculated from the dosimetric models in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radioprotection (ICRP). Concentrations in the lungs relative to pulmonary lymph nodes, bone or liver were much higher than calculated from the model for class Y thorium and the exposure histories of the workers. Much better agreement was found with more recently proposed models in Publications 68 and 69 of the ICRP. Radiation doses estimated from the amounts of thorium in the autopsy samples were compatible with health studies that found no significant difference in mortality from that of the general population of men in the US.

  13. Men, Masculinities, and Murder-Suicide.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S E; Drummond, Murray; Sta Maria, Estephanie; Bottorff, Joan L; Creighton, Genevieve

    2015-11-01

    Murder-suicide (M-S) is a complex phenomenon that can involve a multifaceted set of interrelated biological and social factors. M-S is also sexed and gendered in that the perpetrators are most often male and their underpinning motives and actions link to masculinities in an array of diverse ways. With the overarching goal to describe connections between men, masculinities, and M-S, 296 newspaper articles describing 45 North American M-S cases were analyzed. The inductively derived findings revealed three themes: (a) domestic desperation, (b) workplace justice, and (c) school retaliation. Cases in the domestic desperation theme were characterized by the murder of a family member(s) and were often underpinned by men's self-perceptions of failing to provide economic security. Workplace justice cases emerged from men's grievances around paid-work, job insecurity, and perceptions of being bullied and/or marginalized by coworkers or supervisors. The school retaliation cases were strongly linked to "pay back" against individuals and/or society for the hardships endured by M-S perpetrators. Prevailing across the three themes was men's loss of control in their lives, hopelessness, and marginalized masculine identities. Also evident were men's alignments to hegemonic masculinities in reasserting one's masculine self by protesting the perceived marginalization invoked on them. Overall, the findings give pause to consider the need for men-centered M-S prevention strategies to quell the catastrophic impacts of this long-standing but understudied men's health issue.

  14. Testosterone replacement therapy for older men

    PubMed Central

    Borst, Stephen E; Mulligan, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Despite intensive research on testosterone therapy for older men, important questions remain unanswered. The evidence clearly indicates that many older men display a partial androgen deficiency. In older men, low circulating testosterone is correlated with low muscle strength, with high adiposity, with insulin resistance and with poor cognitive performance. Testosterone replacement in older men has produced benefits, but not consistently so. The inconsistency may arise from differences in the dose and duration of testosterone treatment, as well as selection of the target population. Generally, studies reporting anabolic responses to testosterone have employed higher doses of testosterone for longer treatment periods and have targeted older men whose baseline circulating bioavailable testosterone levels were low. Most studies of testosterone replacement have reported anabolic that are modest compared to what can be achieved with resistance exercise training. However, several strategies currently under evaluation have the potential to produce greater anabolic effects and to do so in a safe manner. At this time, testosterone therapy can not be recommended for the general population of older men. Older men who are hypogonadal are at greater risk for the catabolic effects associated with a number of acute and chronic medical conditions. Future research is likely to reveal benefits of testosterone therapy for some of these special populations. Testosterone therapy produces a number of adverse effects, including worsening of sleep apnea, gynecomastia, polycythemia and elevation of PSA. Efficacy and adverse effects should be assessed frequently throughout the course of therapy. PMID:18225456

  15. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Men Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early? Early detection improves ... be treated successfully. Differences affecting early detection of breast cancers in men and women There are many similarities ...

  16. Indonesian men's perceptions of violence against women.

    PubMed

    Nilan, Pam; Demartoto, Argyo; Broom, Alex; Germov, John

    2014-07-01

    This article explores male perceptions and attitudes toward violence against women in Indonesia. It analyzes interview data from Indonesian men collected as part of a large multimethod Australian government-funded project on masculinities and violence in two Asian countries. Reluctance to talk about violence against women was evident, and the accounts of those men who did respond referred to three justificatory discourses: denial, blaming the victim, and exonerating the male perpetrator. The findings support continuation of government and nongovernmental organization (NGO) projects aimed at both empowering women and reeducating men.

  17. Shackleton's men: life on Elephant Island.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Jan R

    2004-09-01

    The experiences of the 22 men from Ernest Shackleton's Endurance expedition of 1914-1916 who were marooned on Elephant Island during the Antarctic winter are not as well known as the narrative of the ship being beset and sunk, and Shackleton's open boat journey to South Georgia to rescue them. Frank Wild was left in charge of the marooned men by Shackleton and saved them from starvation and despair. The morale of the men in the face of extreme exposure to the elements, the ingenuity of their devices for survival and their diet, conversation and entertainments all reveal heroic qualities of Shackletonian endurance.

  18. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring: a study of 1,925 young men from the general population.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Holm, Mette; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2007-03-01

    Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample, had a physical examination performed and a blood sample drawn, and responded to a questionnaire. Their mothers were questioned about whether they had received fertility treatment in order to conceive their sons. Forty-seven mothers reported having received fertility treatment to conceive the index subject. After control for confounders, men whose mothers had received fertility treatment to conceive them had a 46% lower sperm concentration (95% confidence interval (CI): -63, -20) and a 45% lower total sperm count (95% CI: -64, -16). They had a smaller testis size (-0.9 ml, 95% CI: -2.2, 0.4), fewer motile sperm (-4.0%, 95% CI: -8.0, -0.1), and fewer morphologically normal spermatozoa (-2.0%, 95% CI: -4.1, 0.0). They also had a lower serum testosterone level and free androgen index (results not statistically significant). These findings should be viewed in light of the increasing use of fertility treatments. Although the cause of these findings is unknown, they raise concern about possible late effects of fertility treatment. Larger-scale studies of children born after fertility treatment should be performed.

  19. Heteronormativity and 'troubled' masculinities among men who have sex with men in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Tadele, Getnet

    2011-04-01

    In most societies, heterosexuality is the dominant way of expressing sexuality and masculinity and those men outside of it are stigmatised and discriminated against. This paper explores the sexual lives of men who have sex with men and the personal and social conflicts that arise as they attempt to both live up to societal expectations and manage their sexual desires. It critically explores how an overriding heteronormativity structures and influences men's perception and understanding of sexuality and masculinity/femininity. The paper draws on data from 24 in-depth/life history interviews, one focus group discussion and ethnographic observation conducted between July 2006 and June 2007. The study reveals that powerful and dominating beliefs about heteronormativity and masculinity result in men who have sex with men dealing with a number of issues of personal conflict and contradiction resulting in uncertainty, resentment, ambivalence, worry and discomfort. Heteronormativity or the expectations of parents, community and society at large is far more influential on the sexuality of men who have sex with men than their own individual desires and needs. The paper concludes that there is little room for individuality for Ethiopian men who have sex with men with their sexual bodies 'belonging' to parents, families and to society at large.

  20. Sexual Stereotypes Ascribed to Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Intersectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Magnus, Manya; Hansen, Nathan B; Krakower, Douglas S; Underhill, Kristen; Mayer, Kenneth H; Kershaw, Trace S; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2017-02-21

    Sexual stereotypes may adversely affect the health of Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Greater understanding of the nature and nuances of these stereotypes is needed. This online, survey-based study used an inductive, intersectional approach to characterize the sexual stereotypes ascribed to Black MSM by the U.S. general public, their distinctiveness from those ascribed to Black men and MSM in general, and their relative prototypicality as compared to dominant subgroups. Members of the public, recruited in 2014-2015, were randomly assigned to survey conditions that varied systematically by race (Black, White, or unspecified) and sexual orientation (gay, heterosexual, or unspecified) of a designated social group. Participants (n = 285) reported stereotypes of their assigned group that they perceived to exist in U.S. culture in an open-response format. Cross-condition comparisons revealed that, overall, Black gay male stereotypes were non-prototypical of Black men or gay men. Rather, stereotypes of Black men were more similar to Black heterosexual men and stereotypes of gay men were more similar to White gay men. Nonetheless, 11 of the 15 most frequently reported Black gay male stereotypes overlapped with stereotypes of Black men (e.g., large penis), gay men (e.g., deviant), or both (e.g., promiscuous). Four stereotypes were unique relative to both Black men and gay men: down low, diseased, loud, and dirty. Findings suggest that Black MSM face multiple derogatory sexual stereotypes, several of which are group-specific. These stereotypes are consistent with cultural (mis)representations of Black MSM and suggest a need for more accurate portrayals of existing sexual diversity within this group.

  1. HIV risk among drug-using men who have sex with men, men selling sex, and transgender individuals in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Bao Ngoc; Mulvey, Kevin P; Baldwin, Simon; Nguyen, Son Thanh

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about drug use and its association with HIV risk among men who have sex with men is limited. Although the HIV epidemic among this population in Vietnam is increasingly acknowledged, understanding the impact of drug use on the spread of HIV is largely lacking. Using qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 93 drug users, 15 non-drug users and 9 community stakeholders, this analysis explores emerging patterns of drug use and risk factors for engaging in risk behaviours among drug-using men having sex with men, men selling sex and transgender individuals in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Findings revealed that drug use is shifting from heroin to ecstasy and ice. Drug users reported unsafe sex associated with drug use and men selling sex were particularly at elevated risk because of using drugs as a tool for sex work and trading sex for drugs. These findings are guiding development of programmes addressing unmet HIV-prevention needs in Vietnam.

  2. Risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing and HIV/STI prevalence between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women in China

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Alissa; Best, John; Luo, Juhua; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Dodge, Brian; Meyerson, Beth; Aalsma, Matthew; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Background Differences in risk behaviours between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women have important implications for HIV and STI transmission. We examined differences in risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing, self-reported HIV/STI diagnoses, and linkage to HIV care between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women across China. Methods Participants were recruited through three men who have sex with men-focused websites in China. An online survey containing items on socio-demographics, risk behaviours, testing history, self-reported HIV/STI diagnosis, and linkage to and retention in HIV care was completed from September to October 2014. Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Men who have sex with both men and women were less likely to use a condom during last anal sex (p ≤ 0.01) and more likely to engage in group sex (p ≤ 0.01) and transactional sex (p ≤ 0.01) compared to men who have sex with men. Self-reported HIV/STI testing and positivity rates between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women were similar. Among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, there was no difference in rates of linkage to or retention in antiretroviral therapy when comparing men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women. Conclusions Chinese men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women may benefit from different HIV and STI intervention and prevention strategies. Achieving a successful decrease in HIV/STI epidemics among Chinese men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women will depend on the ability of targeted and culturally congruent HIV/STI control programmes to facilitate a reduction in risk behaviours. PMID:26185041

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MEN DURING SLEEP DEPRIVATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The effects of 84 hours of sleep deprivation were examined in a group of six young men and compared with a group of six controls. Subjects were... sleep deprivation , physiological regulating systems are relatively unaffected by sleep loss. (Author)

  4. Differences and Similarities in HIV Testing Among Men Who have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW) and Men Who Have Sex with Men Only (MSMO).

    PubMed

    Maulsby, Cathy; Sifakis, Frangiscos; German, Danielle; Flynn, Colin P; Holtgrave, David

    2012-01-01

    The study examined differences in HIV testing between men who have sex with men only (MSMO) (n=300) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) (n=105) and assessed associations with HIV testing among MSMW. A venue-based cross-sectional HIV surveillance study in 2008 (BESURE-MSM2) was examined. Prevalence of HIV testing was similar for MSMO and MSMW. One-on-one counseling (excluding counseling that is part of HIV testing) and having seen a health care provider in the past twelve months were associated with HIV testing in the past six months among MSMW in multivariate analyses. One-on-one counseling interventions may increase rates of HIV testing among MSMW.

  5. The Window Men, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Window Men, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lynchburg, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Lynchburg and Amherst, Virginia.

  6. Treatment options for men with sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J H

    1992-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction can occur in men of any age, but it is more common in older men. It is one of the most devastating problems a man can face. An estimated 10 to 12 million American men experience impotence. Increased sexual expectations for an aging population have resulted in an increased interest in the treatment of impotence. Treatment options range from a simple adjustment in medication to surgical implantation of a penile prosthesis. The good news is that sexual function can almost always be restored. The bad news is that many men with chronic erectile dysfunction never seek help. A sensitive nurse who has an understanding of sexual health and functioning and the conditions that interfere with them can steer those who need help in the direction of treatment.

  7. Black Men and the Digital Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceição, Simone C. O.; Martin, Larry G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role adult educators can play in assisting Black men to overcome the challenges faced in accessing and using digital technology and acquiring appropriate skills in a digital society.

  8. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Cancer.gov

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  9. For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... Man's Guide to Living Well with Diabetes. Simpler Diabetes Care: Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) The American Diabetes ...

  10. Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, P.J.; Bhasin, S.; Cunningham, G.R.; Matsumoto, A.M.; Stephens-Shields, A.J.; Cauley, J.A.; Gill, T.M.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Swerdloff, R.S.; Wang, C.; Ensrud, K.E.; Lewis, C.E.; Farrar, J.T.; Cella, D.; Rosen, R.C.; Pahor, M.; Crandall, J.P.; Molitch, M.E.; Cifelli, D.; Dougar, D.; Fluharty, L.; Resnick, S.M.; Storer, T.W.; Anton, S.; Basaria, S.; Diem, S.J.; Hou, X.; Mohler, E.R.; Parsons, J.K.; Wenger, N.K.; Zeldow, B.; Landis, J.R.; Ellenberg, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serum testosterone concentrations decrease as men age, but benefits of raising testosterone levels in older men have not been established. METHODS We assigned 790 men 65 years of age or older with a serum testosterone concentration of less than 275 ng per deciliter and symptoms suggesting hypoandrogenism to receive either testosterone gel or placebo gel for 1 year. Each man participated in one or more of three trials — the Sexual Function Trial, the Physical Function Trial, and the Vitality Trial. The primary outcome of each of the individual trials was also evaluated in all participants. RESULTS Testosterone treatment increased serum testosterone levels to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age. The increase in testosterone levels was associated with significantly increased sexual activity, as assessed by the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire (P<0.001), as well as significantly increased sexual desire and erectile function. The percentage of men who had an increase of at least 50 m in the 6-minute walking distance did not differ significantly between the two study groups in the Physical Function Trial but did differ significantly when men in all three trials were included (20.5% of men who received testosterone vs. 12.6% of men who received placebo, P=0.003). Testosterone had no significant benefit with respect to vitality, as assessed by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue scale, but men who received testosterone reported slightly better mood and lower severity of depressive symptoms than those who received placebo. The rates of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS In symptomatic men 65 years of age or older, raising testosterone concentrations for 1 year from moderately low to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age had a moderate benefit with respect to sexual function and some benefit with respect to mood and depressive symptoms but no benefit with respect to vitality or

  11. Psoriasis and Sleep Apnea: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Mallbris, Lotus; Skov, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Psoriasis and sleep apnea are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both diseases have been linked with systemic inflammation, studies on their potential bidirectional association are lacking. We investigate the potential association between psoriasis and sleep apnea. Methods: All Danish citizens age 18 y or older between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011 (n = 5,522,190) were linked at individual level in nationwide registries. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10,000 person-years were calculated and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking history, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression. Results: There were 53,290, 6,885, 6,348, and 39,908 incident cases of mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and sleep apnea, respectively. IRRs (95% confidence interval) for sleep apnea were 1.30 (1.17–1.44), 1.65 (1.23–2.22), and 1.75 (1.35–2.26) in subjects with mild and severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis, and IRRs for mild and severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis in sleep apnea without continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy were 1.62 (1.41–1.86), 2.04 (1.47–2.82), and 1.94 (1.34–2.79), respectively. In patients with sleep apnea and CPAP therapy (i.e., severe sleep apnea) the IRRs were 1.82 (1.43–2.33), 3.27 (2.03–5.27), and 5.59 (3.74–8.37), respectively. Conclusions: Psoriasis was associated with increased risk of sleep apnea, and sleep apnea was associated with increased risk of psoriasis. The clinical significance of this bidirectional relationship warrants further study. Citation: Egeberg A, Khalid U, Gislason GH, Mallbris L, Skov L, Hansen PR. Psoriasis and sleep apnea: a Danish nationwide cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):663–671. PMID:26715401

  12. Danish heathland manipulation experiment data in Model-Data-Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thum, Tea; Peylin, Philippe; Ibrom, Andreas; Van Der Linden, Leon; Beier, Claus; Bacour, Cédric; Santaren, Diego; Ciais, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In ecosystem manipulation experiments (EMEs) the ecosystem is artificially exposed to different environmental conditions that aim to simulate circumstances in future climate. At Danish EME site Brandbjerg the responses of a heathland to drought, warming and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are studied. The warming manipulation is realized by passive nighttime warming. The measurements include control plots as well as replicates for each three treatment separately and in combination. The Brandbjerg heathland ecosystem is dominated by heather and wavy hairgrass. These experiments provide excellent data for validation and development of ecosystem models. In this work we used a generic vegetation model ORCHIDEE with Model-Data-Fusion (MDF) approach. ORCHIDEE model is a process-based model that describes the exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and the vegetation. It can be run at different spatial scales from global to site level. Different vegetation types are described in ORCHIDEE as plant functional types. In MDF we are using observations from the site to optimize the model parameters. This enables us to assess the modelling errors and the performance of the model for different manipulation treatments. This insight will inform us whether the different processes are adequately modelled or if the model is missing some important processes. We used a genetic algorithm in the MDF. The data available from the site included measurements of aboveground biomass, heterotrophic soil respiration and total ecosystem respiration from years 2006-2008. The biomass was measured six times doing this period. The respiration measurements were done with manual chamber measurements. For the soil respiration we used results from an empirical model that has been developed for the site. This enabled us to have more data for the MDF. Before the MDF we performed a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters to different data streams. Fifteen most influential

  13. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--8. Lundbeck].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2016-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 8 deals with products from Lundbeck. Lundbeck which today is known as a considerable international pharmaceutical company could in 2015 celebrate its 100 years' jubilee. Among the early Danish medicinal companies H. Lundbeck & Co. is in many ways an exception as the company was not originally established as a pharmaceutical company. Not until several years after the foundation the company began to import foreign ready-made medicinal products and later-on to manufacture these medicinal products in own factory and even later to do research and development of own innovative products. When Lundbeck was established in 1915 several Danish medicinal companies, not only the well-known such as Alfred Benzon and Løvens kemiske Fabrik (LEO Pharma), but also Skelskør Frugtplantage, Ferrin and Ferraton, had emerged due to the respective enterprising pharmacy owners who had expanded their traditional pharmacy business and even with commercial success. Other medicinal companies, such as C.R. Evers & Co., Leerbeck & Holms kemiske Fabriker, Chr. F. Petri, Erslevs kemiske Laboratorium, Edward Jacobsen, Th. Fallesen-Schmidt, and yet other companies which were named after the founder had all been established by pharmacists with the primary intention to manufacture and sell medicinal products. Also for the limited companies Medicinalco, Ferrosan, Pharmacia, and GEA the primary task was to manufacture and sell medicinal products, and also in these companies pharmacists were involved in the foundation. Not until 1924, fully 9 years after the foundation, Lundbeck started to be interested in medicinal products and initiated import and sale of foreign medicinal products manufactured by a.o. German and French companies which had not established their own sales companies in Denmark. Almost all contemporary Danish manufacturers of

  14. HIV Knowledge and Beliefs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pando, MA; Balan, I; Marone, R; Dolezal, C; Barreda, V; Carballo Dieguez, A; Avila, MM

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred men who have sex with men (MSM), recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were interviewed in order to assess knowledge and beliefs about HIV infection. The mean proportion of HIV correct knowledge answers was 62%; however participants whose sexual partners in the prior year included women (MSM&W) had lower frequencies of correct answers than participants with no women partners. Men with previous HIV testing experience and those who were HIV positive had higher HIV knowledge. In relation to HIV beliefs, less than half of participants responded correctly to each of the scenarios presented. Accurate answers for all items were more likely among those who only have sex with men. Men have basic HIV knowledge but also many misconceptions about transmission and prevention. Furthermore, MSM&W have less information than those who are exclusively MSM, probably related to the fact that information campaigns specifically targeted gay identified men. PMID:23297085

  15. Men's recognition of violence against women and spousal abuse: comparison of three groups of men.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Claire; Fortin, Andrée; Turgeon, Joane; Laporte, Lise

    2007-01-01

    Our goal was to assess whether men in the following three groups differ in their ability to recognize and judge the severity of diverse forms of aggressive behavior: (a) men who reported being physically aggressive toward their spouses and who were entering treatment for domestic violence; (b) men who, after participating in a treatment program, were no longer physically violent; and (c) men who reported never having been physically violent towards their spouses (NPV group-non-physically violent). All 81 men in the study reported being verbally aggressive toward their spouses. Men who had been in treatment for spousal abuse and who had not been physically violent toward their spouses since finishing the program were better able than the other two groups to recognize emotionally abusive behaviors.

  16. "Macho men" and preventive health care: implications for older men in different social classes.

    PubMed

    Springer, Kristen W; Mouzon, Dawne M

    2011-06-01

    The gender paradox in mortality--where men die earlier than women despite having more socioeconomic resources--may be partly explained by men's lower levels of preventive health care. Stereotypical notions of masculinity reduce preventive health care; however, the relationship between masculinity, socioeconomic status (SES), and preventive health care is unknown. Using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the authors conduct a population-based assessment of masculinity beliefs and preventive health care, including whether these relationships vary by SES. The results show that men with strong masculinity beliefs are half as likely as men with more moderate masculinity beliefs to receive preventive care. Furthermore, in contrast to the well-established SES gradient in health, men with strong masculinity beliefs do not benefit from higher education and their probability of obtaining preventive health care decreases as their occupational status, wealth, and/or income increases. Masculinity may be a partial explanation for the paradox of men's lower life expectancy, despite their higher SES.

  17. Masculinity and health in late life men.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Frank, Blye

    2011-05-01

    Masculinity is a social construction that defines itself according to context. Older men constitute an unseen minority when it comes to their health, and thus the study of masculinity as it relates to health in older men requires deeper understanding. This article offers insights into how gender, health, and ageing interact for older men and explores how men negotiate the concept of masculinity in later life. The findings from two complementary studies are presented and discussed. The first study, a qualitative analysis of focus group discussions held with 48 community-dwelling older men, indicates that the desire to uphold hegemonic ideals of independence, self-reliance, and imperviousness to pain and illness are embedded in older men's health-related beliefs and behaviors. Ill health and help seeking are often perceived as a threat to the masculine identity, and taking action for health is considered only when health status jeopardizes independence. In the second study, more than 2,000 men aged 55 to 97 years responded to a postal survey on health behaviors and masculinity. Results of the survey indicated that age predicts health behaviors and health care seeking better than scores on a masculinity index, which tended to remain stable regardless of age. Both the qualitative and quantitative findings support the hypothesis that with age men will succeed in incorporating actions into their daily lives in a way that does not conflict with their perceived resilience to frailty and weakness, even if such actions involve seeking help for illness or adopting healthier lifestyle behaviors.

  18. Cardiometabolic Risk in Hyperlipidemic Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Leutner, Michael; Wielandner, Alice; Howorka, Eleonora; Prünner, Marlies; Bozkurt, Latife; Harreiter, Jürgen; Prosch, Helmut; Schlager, Oliver; Charwat-Resl, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate sex specific differences of metabolic and clinical characteristics of treated hyperlipidemic men and women (HL-men and HL-women). Methods. In this study vascular and metabolic characteristics of 35 HL-women and 64 HL-men were assessed. In addition a sex specific analysis of metabolic and nutritional habits of HL-patients with prediabetes (HL-IGR) was done. Results. HL-women were older and had favourable concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), triglycerides (TG), and triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-ratio) but were also shown to have higher concentrations of lipoprotein-a compared to HL-men. HL-men were characterized as having higher levels of liver-specific parameters and body weight as well as being more physically active compared to HL-women. Brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) was higher in HL-women than HL-men, while no differences in metabolic syndrome and glycemic parameters were shown. HL-IGR-women were also older and still had a better profile of sex specific lipid parameters, as well as a lower body weight compared to HL-IGR-men. No differences were seen in vascular parameters such as the intima media thickness (IMT). Conclusion. HL-women were older and had overall more favourable concentrations of lipid parameters and liver enzymes but did not differ regarding vascular morphology and insulin sensitivity compared to HL-men of comparable body mass index (BMI). PMID:27895666

  19. Men targeted for family planning in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chirambo, K

    1992-08-01

    80% of women using contraception in Zambia use oral contraceptives (OCs), yet they often complain about side effects. 66% of people polled at family planning (FP) clinics prefer OCs and 30% chose condoms. Nevertheless only 10% of the 60% of married couples familiar with FP use contraception. This contributes to Zambia having 1 of the highest annual population growth rates in the world (3.4%). The Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) thinks that if males become more knowledgeable about FP, the population growth would slow down. At least 60% of men in Zambia approve of their wives using FP, yet they are slow to use male contraception. They say condoms reduce sensation and wives often consider condoms a nuisance. The AIDS epidemic forces men to rethink their views toward condom use, however. Those 30% of men who do use condoms are more likely to use them with their girlfriends or women with whom they are unfamiliar. So they are not using them for FP purposes. Men fear vasectomy because they perceive it to cause impotence. Considerable education to counter this myth is needed to increase the number of vasectomies. Besides some men prefer their wives be sterilized rather than themselves because if the men lose all their children they can have other children with other wives. PPAZ aims programs at men in order to expand their participation and nurture their influence in FP matters. It has a male counseling program serving rural villages along the railroad lines which begin in the northern copper belt and end in urban areas in the south to promote birth spacing. It is working with companies to include FP services in their clinics so men can learn more about FP. FP specialists in Zambia foresee an increase in male support of FP as they realize the difficulty of supporting large families during the economic crises.

  20. "You're in that realm of unpredictability": mateship, loyalty, and men challenging men who use domestic violence against women.

    PubMed

    Towns, Alison J; Terry, Gareth

    2014-08-01

    This study reports on discourse analysis of transcripts from focus group discussions held with 28 "ordinary" men about domestic violence. Two broad "mateship" themes emerged: (a) a strong "mateship" discourse that produced public/private boundaries around discussions about intimate heterosexual relationships. Policed by the threat of violence, these boundaries prevented some men from challenging men about their violence. (b) "Loyalty to mates" discourses constituted attention to men's violence against women as threatening the moral integrity of all men. Finally, some men positioned themselves against men's domestic violence, distinguishing their masculinity from men who abuse women. Implications for prevention campaigns are discussed.

  1. Men's changing social roles in the 1990s: emerging issues in the psychiatric treatment of men.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, L J; Stein, T S; Pleck, J H; Myers, M F; Lewis, R A; Duncan, S F; Brod, H

    1991-07-01

    In the last two decades, men's social roles have changed to incorporate the increasing time they spend with their families, their greater concern about adult children's leaving or returning home, and alternative sexual preferences and life-styles. One related development is the increased amounts of psychiatric distress reported by men in recent years. Mental health professionals should be familiar with these and other complex issues specific to men and with how such issues might manifest themselves in psychotherapy.

  2. Osteoporosis in men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Greenspan, S.L.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Crowley, W.F. Jr.

    1987-03-01

    To assess the effect of testosterone deficiency on skeletal integrity in men, we determined bone density in 23 hypogonadal men with isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency and compared those values with ones from controls. Cortical bone density, as assessed by single-photon absorptiometry of the nondominant radius, ranged from 0.57 to 0.86 g/cm2 (mean +/- SE, 0.71 +/- 0.02) in patients with fused epiphyses and from 0.57 to 0.67 g/cm2 (mean, 0.61 +/- 0.01) in patients with open epiphyses, both of which were significantly (p less than 0.001) lower than normal. Spinal trabecular bone density, as assessed by computed tomography, was similarly decreased (p less than 0.0001) and ranged from 42 to 177 mg K2HPO4/cm3 (mean, 112 +/- 7). Cortical bone density was at least 2 SD below normal in 16 of 23 men, and 8 men had spinal bone densities below the fracture threshold of 80 to 100 mg K2HPO4/cm3. Osteopenia was equally severe in men with immature and mature bone ages, suggesting that abnormal bone development plays an important role in the osteopenia of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  3. Moderators of Sexual Behavior in Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated factors that might moderate the association between sexual behavior desires and sexual behavior enactments in gay men. Condom eschewal, number of STIs, HIV serostatus, age, and relationship status were each hypothesized to moderate this association. An Internet survey collected data from 219 self-identifying gay men. Results indicated that sexual behavior desires and enactments were highly correlated, and of the five moderators tested, four varied this association. Condom eschewers had a stronger association between desires and enactments than condom users. Gay men with fewer STIs/STDs (excluding HIV) also had a stronger association between the two variables. HIV serostatus did not exclusively moderate the association. Rather, a three-way interaction was produced such that HIV-positive men with STIs had a stronger association between sexual behavior desires and enactments than HIV-negative men with STIs. Finally, gay men in monogamous relationships were least likely to have their desires associated with enactments. Age was not found to be a significant moderator. Overall, we concluded the moderators representing sexual health and sexual health behaviors were most influential over the enactment of sexual behavior desires. PMID:18719988

  4. Evaluation of Impotence in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Susan Stanik; Viosca, Sharon P.; Guralnik, Mordechai; Windsor, Clara; Mehta, Arun J.; Korenman, Stanley G.; Buttiglieri, Matthew W.; Baker, J. Dennis

    1985-01-01

    Careful evaluation was carried out in 93 men older than 50 with erectile dysfunction. Their mean age was 61 years and the disorder had been present for a mean of 4.5 years. While 14 men (15%) had psychosocial factors that may have been pertinent, only 2 scored poorly on an Affect Balance Scale and 3 were receiving psychoactive medications. Results of nocturnal penile tumescence were abnormal in 91%. In 39% penile-brachial pressure indices were suggestive of pelvic vascular disease and in 9% were consistent with a pelvic “steal syndrome.” Pelvic or peripheral nerve conduction disorders were also commonly seen in 54%. Endocrinopathy may have contributed to the dysfunction in 35%. Twenty-one men had diabetes mellitus, two new cases of hypothyroidism were discovered and hypogonadism was diagnosed definitely in four and considered likely in five others. Coexisting medical conditions were found in more than 90% of the men, especially hypertension, use of antihypertensive medications and atherosclerotic disease. Previous prostatectomies (19%) and vasectomies (30%) were common in the surgical histories. Given the wide range of disorders uncovered in older men complaining of impotence, diagnostic study of potential causes may lead to a more rational approach for the evaluation and management of these men. PMID:4013264

  5. Cigarette smoking and leukocyte subpopulations in men.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D S; Flanders, W D; Barboriak, J J; Malarcher, A M; Gates, L

    1996-07-01

    Because of previously reported associations among the total leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease, we examined the relation of cigarette smoking to various leukocyte subpopulations among 3467 men aged 31 to 45 years. The median total leukocyte count was 36% higher (7840 vs. 5760 cells/mL) among current cigarette smokers than among men who had never smoked, and both stratification and regression analyses were used to examine independent associations with leukocyte subpopulations. At equivalent counts of other subpopulations, CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils were the cell types most strongly associated with cigarette smoking; each standard deviation change in counts of these subpopulations increased the odds of current (vs. never) smoking by approximately threefold. Furthermore, whereas 15% of the 238 men with relatively low (< 25 percentile) counts of both neutrophils and CD4+ lymphocytes were cigarette smokers, 96% of the 249 men with relatively high counts of both subpopulations were current smokers. Counts of T lymphocytes also tended to be higher among the 32 men with self-reported ischemic heart disease than among other men. These results, along with previous reports of immunologically active T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic plaques, suggest that this subpopulation may be of particular interest in studies examining the relation of leukocytes to cardiovascular disease.

  6. Psychological violence experienced by men who have sex with men in Puducherry, India: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Elouard, Yajna; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men are a hidden population in India. This study explores the psychological violence such men are exposed to in Puducherry, India. Eleven in-depth interviews probe experiences of blackmail, discrimination, and rejection. Some informants modified their behaviors or appearances to avoid harassment and safeguard their families' reputations. Others told how Indian men accepted their behaviors, but rejected their identities. Social pressure to marry was also a recurring theme. Understanding the factors behind these violent experiences may facilitate their amelioration.

  7. Men's talk: men's understandings of violence against women and motivations for change.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Nicky; Fell, Benedict; Miller, Pam; Thomson, Gill; Watson, John

    2012-11-01

    This article reports research undertaken to inform a social marketing campaign targeting men's violence toward women in a city in northern England. Eighty-four men drawn from community groups participated in 15 focus groups. Participants struggled with wider definitions of domestic abuse and resisted depictions of men as wholly responsible for domestic violence. The potential loss of the relationship with children and, to a lesser degree, the relationship with their partner were identified as powerful incentives for changing abusive behavior. Men were particularly affected by the prospect of damage to their own self-image that children's perceptions of their fathers' violence conveyed.

  8. Evaluation of the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs using Bayesian methods.

    PubMed

    Baptista, F M; Alban, L; Olsen, A M; Petersen, J V; Toft, N

    2012-10-01

    Residues of pharmacological active substances or their metabolites might be found in food products from food-producing animals. Maximum Residue Limits for pharmacological active substances in foodstuffs of animal origin are established to assure high food safety standards. Each year, more than 20,000 samples are analysed for the presence of antibacterial residues in Danish pigs. This corresponds to 0.1% of the size of the slaughter pig population and more than 1% of the sows slaughtered. In this study, a Bayesian model was used to evaluate the Danish surveillance system accuracy and to investigate the impact of a potential risk-based sampling approach to the residue surveillance programme in Danish slaughter pigs. Danish surveillance data from 2005 to 2009 and limited knowledge about true prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity were included in the model. According to the model, the true antibacterial residue prevalence in Danish pigs is very low in both sows (∼0.20%) and slaughter pigs (∼0.01%). Despite data constraints, the results suggest that the current screening test used in Denmark presents high sensitivity (85-99%) and very high specificity (>99%) for the most relevant antibacterial classes used in Danish pigs. If high-risk slaughter pigs could be identified by taking into account antibacterial use or meat inspection risk factors, a potential risk-based sampling approach to antibacterial residue surveillance in slaughter pigs would allow reducing the sample size substantially, while increasing or maintaining the probability of detection. Hence, the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs would be more cost-effective than today.

  9. Variation in residential radon levels in new Danish homes.

    PubMed

    Bräuner, E V; Rasmussen, T V; Gunnarsen, L

    2013-08-01

    Radon-222 gas arises from the radioactive decay of radium-226 and has a half-life of 3.8 days. This gas percolates up through soil into buildings, and if it is not evacuated, there can be much higher exposure levels indoors than outdoors, which is where human exposure occurs. Radon exposure is classified as a human carcinogen, and new Danish homes must be constructed to ensure indoor radon levels below 100 Bq/m(3). Our purpose was to assess how well 200 newly constructed single detached homes perform according to building regulations pertaining to radon and identify the association between indoor radon in these homes and municipality, home age, floor area, floor level, basement, and outer wall and roof construction. Median (5-95 percentile) indoor radon levels were 36.8 (9.0-118) Bq/m(3) , but indoor radon exceeded 100 Bq/m(3) in 14 of these new homes. The investigated variables explained nine percent of the variation in indoor radon levels, and although associations were positive, none of these were statistically significant. In this study, radon levels were generally low, but we found that 14 (7%) of the 200 new homes had indoor radon levels over 100 Bq/m(3). More work is needed to determine the determinants of indoor radon.

  10. Exposure to silica dust in the Danish stone industry.

    PubMed

    Guénel, P; Breum, N O; Lynge, E

    1989-04-01

    Exposure to silica dust among Danish stone workers was assessed from data collected in 1948-1980. After 1970, the exposure level was given in milligrams per cubic-meter and an exposure index (concentration of respirable dust divided by the threshold limit value for quartz) was calculated. The median index was 2.1 for the road and building material industry and 0.6 for the stonecutting industry. Crushing showed a median index of 2.6, compared to 1.0 for drilling, 0.9 for sieving, and 0.5 for cutting. The median index for the road and building material industry was higher for Bornholm than for other parts of Denmark. The median index of the stonecutting industry was 1.0 for Copenhagen and 0.5 for other parts of Denmark, and no data were available for Bornholm. Before 1970, the exposure level was given in particles per cubic meter, and few data were available on quartz content. Crushing showed the highest exposure before 1970.

  11. Microchimerism of male origin in a cohort of Danish girls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Amanda Cecilie; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Barington, Torben; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-10-02

    Male microchimerism, the presence of a small number of male cells, in women has been attributed to prior pregnancies. However, male microchimerism has also been reported in women with only daughters, in nulliparous women and prepubertal girls suggesting that other sources of male microchimerism must exist. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of male microchimerism in a cohort of healthy nulliparous Danish girls aged 10-15 y using DNA extracted from cells from whole blood (buffy coats) and report the association with potential sources of male cells. A total of 154 girls were studied of which 21 (13.6%) tested positive for male microchimerism. There was a tendency that girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism if their mothers previously had received transfusion, had given birth to a son or had had a spontaneous abortion. Furthermore, the oldest girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism. However, less than half of microchimerism positivity was attributable to these factors. In conclusion, data suggest that male microchimerism in young girls may originate from an older brother either full born or from a discontinued pregnancy or from transfusion during pregnancy. We speculate that sexual intercourse may be important but other sources of male cells likely exist in young girls.

  12. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant.

  13. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-7].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    A/S GEA Farmaceutisk Fabrik was established as a family business in 1927 by the pharmacist Knud L. Gad Andresen who until then had been employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Gad Andresen wanted to run a company focusing on the development of generics, and he wanted this development to take place in a close cooperation with Danish physicians. This has indeed been achieved with success. In 1995 GEA was purchase'd by the American pharmaceutical company Bristol-Myers Squibb who in a press release characterized GEA as Denmark's second largest manufacturer of generics. Immediately after this takeover GEA's R&D department ceased the research in innovative products and from now on exclusively focused on the development of generics. Three years later GEA was sold to the German generic company Hexal who later on resold GEA to the Swiss generic company Sandoz. GEA changed ownership another couple of times until the last owner went bankrupt in 2011. GEA is yet again a model example of an early Danish pharmaceutical company which was established as an individual company, and which had a long commercial success with the production and marketing of generics. GEA's earliest products, the organotherapeutics, were not innovations. The innovative products were developed already in the 1890s in Denmark by Alfred Benzon, and later on copies followed a.o. from Medicinalco and from foreign companies before GEA marketed their generics. Therefore GEA had to promote their preparations as especially qualified medicinal products and to intimate that the products of the competitors were less "active'". At the end of the 1920s the Ministry of Health became aware of the fact that there might be health problems related to the none-existing control of both the or- ganotherapeutic preparations and actually also the other medicinal products of the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore the Ministry had requested the National Board of Health for a statement regarding this problem. The National Board

  14. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Anne Ø; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per W; Nejsum, Peter; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2016-03-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy and subjected to molecular investigation by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA for species identification. Additionally, snail hosts belonging to the genus Radix were identified by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA. Three out of 499 snails shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings are of concern and, particularly, the presence of the potentially neuro-pathogenic species, T. regenti, in Danish freshwaters calls for attention.

  15. Changing epidemiology of HBV infection in Danish children.

    PubMed

    Gjørup, I E; Skinhøj, P; Böttiger, B; Plesner, A-M

    2003-10-01

    Hepatitis B continues to be a worldwide threat to human health, especially if infection occurs in childhood. Universal vaccination is recommended by WHO, but has not been implemented in the Scandinavian countries, Holland and UK, because of a low incidence rate. However, clinically overt infections are rare in childhood. We therefore performed a nation wide serosurvey for HBV markers in 2428 children aged primarily 6-16 years from 16 primary schools in Denmark. Anti-HBc was found in altogether 20 children (0.8%), 12 of whom were among 144 immigrant children (8.3%) compared to 8 (0.4%) in those born in Denmark. Three of the children, all immigrants, were HBsAg positive indicating chronic infection. At school level no relation of anti-HBc in Danish born children was found to schools with high number of immigrant children or schools with HBsAg positive children indicating a low risk of Hepatitis B transmission in this setting. The results do not support implementation of general vaccination, but stress the need for HBV screening in immigrants as it provides a mean for immunization of close contacts at risk and information on prevention.

  16. Widening social inequality in life expectancy in Denmark. A register-based study on social composition and mortality trends for the Danish population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dynamics of the social composition of the population might influence the interpretation of statements of the increasing gap of social inequality in life expectancy. The aim of the study was to estimate trends during a quarter of a century in social inequality in life expectancy and to compare results based on different social stratifications. Methods Life tables by sex and various levels of education and income were constructed for each year in the period 1987–2011 by linking individual data from nationwide registers comprising information on all Danish citizens on date of birth, date of death, education and income. Trends in life expectancies were compared for different categories of social grouping of the population. Results When categories of educational level were kept fixed, implying a decreasing proportion of persons with a short education, the educational inequality in life expectancy increased. Thus, the difference in life expectancy at age 30 between men with primary or lower secondary education and men with tertiary education increased from 4.8 years in 1987 to 6.4 years in 2011. For women the difference increased from 3.7 years in 1987 to 4.7 in 2011. A similar growing social disparity was observed when educational level was based on quartiles established from prescribed length of education. A considerable increasing inequality was reached for men when the population was divided in quartiles of equivalent disposable income, whereas the change was only modest for women. Conclusions During the past 25 years, the social gap in life expectancy has widened in Denmark. This conclusion could not be explained by changes of the social compositions of the population. PMID:23158780

  17. The Association between Penis Size and Sexual Health among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bimbi, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Larger penis size has been equated with a symbol of power, stamina, masculinity, and social status. Yet, there has been little research among men who have sex with men assessing the association between penis size and social-sexual health. Survey data from a diverse sample of 1,065 men who have sex with men were used to explore the association between perceived penis size and a variety of psychosocial outcomes. Seven percent of men felt their penis was “below average,” 53.9% “average,” and 35.5% “above average.” Penis size was positively related to satisfaction with size and inversely related to lying about penis size (all p < .01). Size was unrelated to condom use, frequency of sex partners, HIV status, or recent diagnoses of HBV, HCV, gonorrhea/Chlamydia/urinary tract infections, and syphilis. Men with above average penises were more likely to report HPV and HSV-2 (Fisher’s exact p ≤ .05). Men with below average penises were significantly more likely to identify as “bottoms” (anal receptive) and men with above average penises were significantly more likely to identify as tops (anal insertive). Finally, men with below average penises fared significantly worse than other men on three measures of psychosocial adjustment. Though most men felt their penis size was average, many fell outside this “norm.” The disproportionate number of viral skin-to-skin STIs (HSV-2 and HPV) suggest size may play a role in condom slippage/breakage. Further, size played a significant role in sexual positioning and psychosocial adjustment. These data highlight the need to better understand the real individual-level consequences of living in a penis-centered society. PMID:19139986

  18. Thermal maps of young women and men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  19. Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

  20. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  1. Gay Men: Negotiating Procreative, Father, and Family Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Dana; Marsiglio, William

    2007-01-01

    Our qualitative study examines the social psychology of gay men's experiences with their procreative, father, and family identities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 childless gay men and 20 gay men in the United States who have fathered using diverse means excluding heterosexual intercourse. By focusing on men aged 19-55 residing…

  2. Sexual and Intimacy Issues for Aging Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexual men, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.

  3. Reasons for Alcohol Use in Maritally Violent Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Ronald W.; And Others

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with aggressive behaviors. This study compared the contexts and reasons for drinking of maritally violent men (N=44) and three maritally nonviolent comparison groups: happily married men (N=54), unhappily married men (N=41), and men who had been convicted of a violent offense, but who did not beat their…

  4. Evaluation and validity of the Danish version of the Adult Strabismus Questionnaire AS-20

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nafisa; Sørensen, Mette S; Sørensen, Torben L; Mortzos, Panteleimon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with strabismus is important in evaluating the clinical benefits of strabismus treatment. The purpose of this study was to translate the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) into Danish and evaluate its reliability and validity in adult patients with strabismus in Denmark. Methods The AS-20 was translated into Danish in accordance with standard international adopted methods. We presented the questionnaire to 64 adults with strabismus and to 13 non-strabismic adult controls. We tested the reliability of the Danish version by reassuring test–retest reliability, estimated the internal consistency, and analyzed the validity (discriminatory power) of the questionnaire by comparing patient scores with scores from control individuals. Results The Danish AS-20 produced high level of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α values) for both subscales (psychosocial: 0.95 and functional: 0.85). We found good discriminatory power of the AS-20. The patients scored significantly lower not only on AS-20 composite score (median =63, interquartile range [IQR] =44–79) compared to healthy individuals (median =98, IQR =93–100) (P<0.0001) but also on all individual questions in both subscales (psychosocial: 1–10 and functional: 11–20). Conclusion The Danish version of AS-20 shows high reliability and validity, and in our opinion, AS-20 is therefore a suitable instrument for evaluating self-perceived psychosocial and functional influence of strabismus. PMID:26770057

  5. Vital exhaustion increases the risk of ischemic stroke in women but not in men: Results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Kornerup, Henriette; Marott, Jacob Louis; Schnohr, Peter; Boysen, Gudrun; Barefoot, John; Prescott, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have indicated an association between depression and the development of stroke, but few studies have focused on gender differences, although both depression and stroke are more common in women than in men. The aim of the present study was to describe whether vital exhaustion, a measure of fatigue and depression, prospectively predicts ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in a large cohort, with particular focus on gender differences. Methods The cohort was composed of 5219 women and 3967 men without cardiovascular disease who were examined in the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991–1994. Subjects were followed for 6–9 years. Fatal and nonfatal strokes were ascertained from the Danish National Register of Patients. Cox proportional hazards model was used to describe vital exhaustion as a potential risk factor for stroke. Results Four hundred nine validated strokes occurred. A dose–response relationship between vital exhaustion score and the risk of stroke was found in women reaching a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.42–3.62) for the group with the highest score. HR was only slightly attenuated by multivariate adjustment. There was no association between vital exhaustion score and stroke in men. HR was strongest for ischemic stroke, whereas no association was seen for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusion Vital exhaustion, a measure of fatigue, conveyed an increased risk of ischemic stroke in women, but not in men, in this study sample. PMID:20105695

  6. Sex Differences in Task Distribution and Task Exposures among Danish House Painters: An Observational Study Combining Questionnaire Data with Biomechanical Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Wulff Svendsen, Susanne; Frølund Thomsen, Jane; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sex differences in occupational biomechanical exposures may be part of the explanation why musculoskeletal complaints and disorders tend to be more common among women than among men. We aimed to determine possible sex differences in task distribution and task-specific postures and movements of the upper extremities among Danish house painters, and to establish sex-specific task exposure matrices. Methods To obtain task distributions, we sent out a questionnaire to all members of the Painters' Union in Denmark (N = 9364), of whom 53% responded. Respondents reported their task distributions in a typical week. To obtain task exposures, postures and movements were measured in 25 male and 25 female house painters for one whole working day per person. We used goniometers on the wrists, and inclinometers on the forehead and the upper arms. Participants filled in a logbook allowing task-specific exposures to be identified. Percentiles and % time with non-neutral postures were used to characterise postures. Velocity, range of motion, repetitiveness, and variation were used as measures of movement. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics and unpaired double-sided t-tests with post-hoc Bonferroni correction were used to evaluate sex differences. Results Statistically significant (p<0.05) sex differences were revealed in task proportions, but the proportions differed by less than 4%. For task exposures, no statistically significant sex differences were found. Conclusions Only minor sex differences were found in task distribution and task exposures regarding postures and movements among Danish house painters. Sex-specific task exposure matrices were established. PMID:25365301

  7. Marriage, parenting, and testosterone variation among Kenyan Swahili men.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2003-11-01

    Male variation in testosterone (T) levels may, in part, reflect a differential behavioral allocation to mating and parenting effort. This research tests whether demographic indicators of pair bonding and parenting were associated with salivary T levels among Kenyan Swahili men. Men in the sample were either unmarried (N = 17), monogamously married (N = 57), or polygynously married (N = 14), and between ages 29-52. In contrast with earlier findings among North American men, monogamously married men did not have lower T levels than unmarried men. However, among all married men, men with younger genetic children tended to have marginally lower T levels. Polygynously married men, all of whom had two wives, had higher T levels than all other Swahili men. Possible explanations of higher T levels among polygynously married men are explored.

  8. Space: The New Frontier in HIV Prevention for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Delia; Iverson, Ellen; Cribbin, Melissa; Wilson, Erin; Weiss, George

    2007-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of the United States continue to be vulnerable to HIV infection. Qualitative data collected with participants in a community level HIV intervention in West Hollywood and Orange County, California, suggest that space--both actual physical space and the concept of having space--should be an…

  9. HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheldon, Christopher W.; Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA until the age of 26 years. Despite this recommendation, vaccine uptake remains low. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe salient beliefs related to HPV vaccination among young MSM; (2) determine factors that underlie these…

  10. Men who have sex with men's sexual relations with women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sharful Islam; Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2005-03-01

    Studies of men who have sex with men in South Asian countries including Bangladesh have tended to focus mainly on measuring male-to-male sexual risk behaviours, with less attention being given to understanding the nature and meaning of their sexual relations with women. This can result in missed opportunities for HIV/AIDS-related intervention. This paper, based on a small scale qualitative study, attempts to develop a cultural model to understand men who have sex with men's sexual relations with women within a gender and masculinity framework. Findings reveal that in Bangladesh men who have sex with men frequently surrender to societal pressures to marry, become husbands and shoulder fatherhood. This forces some women to become the silent sufferers of some of the negative consequences of hetero-normative patriarchal practice. Importantly, however, men who have sex with men consider sex with women a form of real sex within a framework of masculine sexual potency irrespective of preference, desire or eroticism. Thus, challenges exist to undertaking sexual health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention in culturally sensitive ways.

  11. "Macho Men" and Preventive Health Care: Implications for Older Men in Different Social Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Kristen W.; Mouzon, Dawne M.

    2011-01-01

    The gender paradox in mortality--where men die earlier than women despite having more socioeconomic resources--may be partly explained by men's lower levels of preventive health care. Stereotypical notions of masculinity reduce preventive health care; however, the relationship between masculinity, socioeconomic status (SES), and preventive health…

  12. Correlates of unprotected anal sex among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in Mexico, data on current risk behaviors in this population are lacking. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of 260 MSM in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods In June 2010, men attending a gay pride celebration were invited to complete a sexual risk survey. Men who reported UAI with a male partner in the past year were compared with men who reported only protected anal sex during the same period. Results Mean age of participants was 29.7; 54% had a high school diploma or less; and 43% were unemployed. In the past year, 55% had been tested for HIV, 21% reported using illicit drugs before or during sex, and 94% had sex only with men. Overall, 50% reported having UAI with another male in the past year. Factors independently associated with UAI in the past year were unemployment (AOR = 1.87), attending adult movie theaters (AOR = 2.21), using illicit drugs before or during sex (AOR = 2.43), and not having a recent HIV test (AOR = 1.85). Conclusions Interventions to promote HIV testing and condom use among men who have sex with men may want to consider venue-specific approaches, as well as focus on drug-use issues in the context of unsafe sex. PMID:22694837

  13. HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): Systematic Review of Qualitative Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenc, Theo; Marrero-Guillamon, Isaac; Llewellyn, Alexis; Aggleton, Peter; Cooper, Chris; Lehmann, Angela; Lindsay, Catriona

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of qualitative evidence relating to the views and attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) concerning testing for HIV. Studies conducted in high-income countries (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development members) since 1996 were included. Seventeen studies were identified, most of gay or bisexual…

  14. Methamphetamine Treatment Issues and Considerations among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine use is epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), but treatment has lagged for this group. The author reviews literature concerning use, individual effects of the drug, and treatment for MSM and discusses implications for counselor training, future practice, and research.

  15. Increase in Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men, England, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Holly; Sile, Bersabeh; Duffell, Stephen; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance data from sexual health clinics indicate recent increases in sexually transmitted infections, particularly among men who have sex with men. The largest annual increase in syphilis diagnoses in a decade was reported in 2014. Less condom use may be the primary reason for these increases. PMID:26689861

  16. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  17. Exploring Sexual Health among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martos, A. J.; Valera, P.; Bockting, W. O.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for approximately 10% of the total HIV infection in the United States but represent <1% of the population. Few interventions exist that address their unique needs, and those that do adopt a narrow, risk-based framework for prevention. Qualitative data from the Brothers Connect Study were…

  18. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei among men who have sex with men, Canada, 2010.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Ratnayake, Ruwan; Pilon, Pierre A; Gagnon, Simon; Roger, Michel; Lévesque, Simon

    2011-09-01

    In 2010, we observed isolates with matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns from 13 cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei in Montréal. We report on the emergence of this resistance type and a study of resistance mechanisms. The investigation suggested local transmission among men who have sex with men associated with sex venues.

  19. Campylobacter coli outbreak in men who have sex with men, Quebec, Canada, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Helferty, Melissa; Sylvestre, Jean-Loup; Allard, Robert; Pilon, Pierre A; Poisson, Michel; Bekal, Sadjia

    2013-05-01

    During September 2010-November 2011, a cluster of erythromycin-susceptible, tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter coli pulsovar 1 infections was documented, involving 10 case-patients, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The findings suggested sexual transmission of an enteric infection among men who have sex with men.

  20. Working towards Men's Health: Findings from the Sefton Men's Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve; McCullagh, Jo; Hacking, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a health improvement initiative aimed at enhancing the health of men in deprived areas. Design: A healthy lifestyle programme was undertaken with men to increase their health knowledge, and encourage behaviour modification and access to health improvement services. A peer mentoring programme was implemented and a training…

  1. Two Cases of Neisseria meningitidis Proctitis in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Fernandez, José; Medina, Verónica; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Abad, Raquel

    2017-03-01

    We report 2 cases from Spain of infectious proctitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Genetic characterization of the isolates showed that they are unusual strains not found in other more frequent meningococcal locations. This finding suggests an association between specific strains and anogenital tract colonization.

  2. Prevalence Estimates of Health Risk Behaviors of Immigrant Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Alegria-Ortega, Jose; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the health status of rural immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). These MSM comprise a subpopulation that tends to remain "hidden" from both researchers and practitioners. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and sexual risk behaviors of Latino MSM…

  3. Two Cases of Neisseria meningitidis Proctitis in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Fernandez, José; Medina, Verónica; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    We report 2 cases from Spain of infectious proctitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Genetic characterization of the isolates showed that they are unusual strains not found in other more frequent meningococcal locations. This finding suggests an association between specific strains and anogenital tract colonization. PMID:28221124

  4. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  5. Andropause. Testosterone replacement therapy for aging men.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the rationale for treating symptomatic aging men whose testosterone levels are mildly reduced or low-normal with testosterone replacement therapy. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Large-scale multicentre prospective studies on the value of treating andropausal men with hormone therapy do not exist because the whole area of hormone therapy is barely 10 years old. Evidence presented is based on physiologic studies, particularly studies in which treatment has been assessed. These were largely uncontrolled open studies. Studies to date report positive responses to testosterone treatment with very few serious side effects. MAIN MESSAGE: Physicians should consider hypoandrogenism if male patients complain of loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, weakness, fatigue, lethargy, loss of motivation, or mood swings. Less obvious associations with reduced levels of testosterone are anemia and osteoporosis. The main cause of reduced testosterone production is primary gonadal insufficiency, but secondary causes, such as hypothalamic-pituitary disease, should be considered. Evidence shows that most men treated with testosterone will feel better about themselves and their lives. CONCLUSION: Andropause is a term of convenience describing a complex of symptoms in aging men who have low testosterone levels. Physicians should be aware of its existence, should consider ordering tests for men who have symptoms, and should treat carefully selected patients whose serum testosterone levels are low. PMID:11212438

  6. Azithromycin-Nonsusceptible Shigella flexneri 3a in Men Who Have Sex with Men, Taiwan, 2015–2016

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ying-Shu; Liu, Yen-Yi; Lo, Yi-Chun

    2017-01-01

    We report an outbreak of azithromycin-nonsusceptible Shigella flexneri 3a infection in Taiwan associated with men who have sex with men. The bacterial strains belonged to the sublineage A of a recently reported outbreak lineage associated with men who have sex with men, characterized by reduced azithromycin susceptibility and circulation in shigellosis low-risk regions. PMID:28098533

  7. Role versatility among men who have sex with men in urban Peru.

    PubMed

    Goodreau, Steven M; Peinado, Jesus; Goicochea, Pedro; Vergara, Jorge; Ojeda, Nora; Casapia, Martin; Ortiz, Abner; Zamalloa, Victoria; Galvan, Rosa; Sanchez, Jorge R

    2007-08-01

    Role versatility refers to the practice in which individual men who have sex with men (MSM) play both insertive and receptive sexual roles over time. Versatility has been thought to be relatively uncommon among Latin American MSM but possibly rising. Versatility has also been shown to be a potentially large population-level risk factor for HIV infection. In this study we examine the correlates of versatile behavior and identity among 2,655 MSM in six Peruvian cities. Versatile behavior with recent male partners was found in 9% of men and versatile ("moderno") identity was reported by 16%. Significant predictors included high education, white-collar occupation, sex work, and residence in Lima. Age was not significant in any analysis. Since sex work is negatively correlated with other predictors, versatile men appear to comprise two distinct sub-populations. Insertive-only men appear to play a strong role in bridging the HIV epidemic between MSM and women.

  8. Men's sex-dominance inhibition: do men automatically refrain from sexually dominant behavior?

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Amy K; Sanchez, Diana T

    2007-12-01

    Men receive conflicting messages about their sexual roles in heterosexual relationships. Men are socialized to initiate and direct sexual activities with women; yet societal norms also proscribe the sexual domination and coercion of women. The authors test these competing hypotheses by assessing whether men inhibit the link between sex and dominance. In Studies 1a and b, using a subliminal priming procedure embedded in a lexical decision task, the authors demonstrate that men automatically suppress the concept of dominance following exposure to subliminal sex primes relative to neutral primes. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors show that men who are less likely to perceive sexual assertiveness as necessary, to refrain from dominant sexual behavior, and who do not invest in masculine gender ideals are more likely to inhibit dominant thoughts following sex primes. Implications for theories of automatic cognitive networks and gender-based sexual roles are discussed.

  9. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  10. Early Signs of Autism in Toddlers: A Follow-Up Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemcke, Sanne; Juul, Svend; Parner, Erik T.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    To identify possible early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within the Danish National Birth Cohort, we studied prospectively collected interviews from 76,441 mothers about their children's development and behaviour at 6 and 18 months. In Danish national registries, 720 children with ASD and 231 children with intellectual disability (ID)…

  11. Loss of hip BMD in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) study.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Ewing, Susan K; McCulloch, Charles E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; Orwoll, Eric S

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies in older men have not evaluated whether loss of BMD or BMC accelerates nonlinearly with age. This study aimed to describe hip bone loss (both in BMC and BMD) in older men and to test whether BMD loss accelerates with age in an exponential manner in a cohort of 4720 community-dwelling men >or=65 yr of age. Men had two to three measures of femoral neck (FN) BMD (by DXA) over an average follow-up of 4.6 yr. Change in BMD during follow-up was estimated from mixed effects regression models; the significance of a quadratic term for age was evaluated. Mean FN BMD loss was 0.013 g/cm(2) (-1.72%) during follow-up. The quadratic term for age was significant, and the model showed that bone loss accelerated with age. Estimated loss of FN BMD over follow-up for men 85 yr of age (0.021 g/cm(2)) was 2.5 times greater than the loss expected for men 65 yr of age (0.008 g/cm(2)); such bone loss in 85-yr-old men may be sufficient to increase the risk of hip fracture by 25% (HR per 0.021 g/cm(2) cross-sectional decrease in FN BMD: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18-1.31) over 4.6 yr. Men with lower BMD at baseline lost the most BMD over follow-up. Although average bone loss over time is modest in older men, there is considerable variability in rate of loss. Older men and those with lower BMD lose bone more rapidly, offering potential explanation for the increasing risk of fracture with advancing age.

  12. Prevalence of Sexual Concerns and Sexual Dysfunction among Sexually Active and Inactive Men and Women with Screen‐Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Morten; Kristensen, Ellids; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Type 2 diabetes negatively impacts sexual health. Only limited information is available regarding sexual health among sexually inactive patients with type 2 diabetes. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of sexual concerns among sexually active and sexually inactive men and women with type 2 diabetes and of sexual dysfunction (SD) among sexually active. Methods Data from the Anglo–Danish–Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen‐Detected Diabetes in Primary Care‐Denmark study was used. A total of 1,170 Danish patients with screen‐detected type 2 diabetes attended a health examination, including assessment of sexual concerns using self‐report questionnaires and of SD using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI‐R) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF‐5) instruments. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures used regarding sexual concerns are the following: prevalence of failure to fill sexual needs, of experiencing sexual distress, finding it important to have a good sexual life, and additionally, prevalence of SD. Results Data regarding sexual activity status during the last 12 months were available among 583 men and 377 women. Seventeen percent of men and 47% of women reported to be sexually inactive, among whom 57% of men and 42% of women reported failure to fill sexual needs; 31% of men and 10% of women that it was important to have a good sexual life, and 32% of men and 11% of women that they were experiencing sexual distress. Around half of men and women were excluded from the SD analysis, mainly because of reporting lack of sexual intercourse during the last 4 weeks. Among those included, 54% of men and 12% of women were found to have SD. Conclusions Sexual inactivity is highly prevalent among middle‐aged and older men and women with early type 2 diabetes and these patients often have sexual concerns. The high exclusion rates when assessing SD using the FSFI

  13. The Danish National Database for Asthma: establishing clinical quality indicators

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Susanne; Hoffmann-Petersen, Benjamin; Sverrild, Asger; Bräuner, Elvira V.; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Bodtger, Uffe; Agertoft, Lone; Korshøj, Lene; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide affecting more than 300 million people. Symptoms are often non-specific and include coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthma may be highly variable within the same individual over time. Although asthma results in death only in extreme cases, the disease is associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased absenteeism, and large costs for society. Asthma can be diagnosed based on report of characteristic symptoms and/or the use of several different diagnostic tests. However, there is currently no gold standard for making a diagnosis, and some degree of misclassification and inter-observer variation can be expected. This may lead to local and regional differences in the treatment, monitoring, and follow-up of the patients. The Danish National Database for Asthma (DNDA) is slated to be established with the overall aim of collecting data on all patients treated for asthma in Denmark and systematically monitoring the treatment quality and disease management in both primary and secondary care facilities across the country. The DNDA links information from population-based disease registers in Denmark, including the National Patient Register, the National Prescription Registry, and the National Health Insurance Services register, and potentially includes all asthma patients in Denmark. The following quality indicators have been selected to monitor trends: first, conduction of annual asthma control visits, appropriate pharmacological treatment, measurement of lung function, and asthma challenge testing; second, tools used for diagnosis in new cases; and third, annual assessment of smoking status, height, and weight measurements, and the proportion of patients with acute hospital treatment. The DNDA will be launched in 2016 and will initially include patients treated in secondary care facilities in Denmark. In the nearby future, the database aims to include asthma

  14. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from a danish estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker Jørgensen, Bo; Okholm-Hansen, Bolette

    The diurnal variations in sulfur emission were studied at seven sites in a Danish estuary, Norsminde Fjord. The sites comprised grass vegetation, intertidal mud flats, accretions of green algae, an exposed shore and a river outlet. Direct measurements of emission rates from soil and water were done by a dynamic flux chamber technique in connection with gas Chromatographie detection and separation of the cryogenically trapped sulfur gases. Sulfur gas concentrations in air and sea water were measured together with emission rates at 0.5-1 h intervals over 25-40 h periods. DMS was the most important sulfur gas released from grass and algae, while mostly H 2S was released from intertidal mud flats. OCS, CH 3SH and CS 2 were released from most sites at lower rates. Emission of DMS followed the daylight variations, often with a delay towards maximum emission rates in the evening. H 2S was mostly emitted at night or in short outbursts during low tides. Total sulfur emission rates were 1-10μmol Sm -2 d -1. Extreme rates of 335μmol DMSm -2 d -1 were measured over decomposing green algae ( Ulva lactuca). H 2S emission fractions were < 10 -6 to 2.10 -4. H 2S was detected, along with DMS, CH 3SH, OCS and CS 2, in the oxic seawater of the estuary at diurnal mean concentrations of 0.1-6.5nmol S/ol -1. This may indicate a more widespread occurrence of H 2S in shallow, near-shore waters at nanomolar levels.

  15. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sorensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  16. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus E.; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective To investigate the long-term effect of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for primary brain tumour associated with each 100 Bq/m3 increment in average residential radon levels was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.58) and this was exposure-dependently higher over the four radon exposure quartiles. This association was not modified by air pollution. Conclusions We found significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies. PMID:24066143

  17. Validity of data in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Mette Kielsholm; Njor, Sisse Helle; Rasmussen, Morten; Linnemann, Dorte; Andersen, Berit; Baatrup, Gunnar; Friis-Hansen, Lennart Jan; Jørgensen, Jens Christian Riis; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    Background In Denmark, a nationwide screening program for colorectal cancer was implemented in March 2014. Along with this, a clinical database for program monitoring and research purposes was established. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the agreement and validity of diagnosis and procedure codes in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database (DCCSD). Methods All individuals with a positive immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) result who were invited to screening in the first 3 months since program initiation were identified. From these, a sample of 150 individuals was selected using stratified random sampling by age, gender and region of residence. Data from the DCCSD were compared with data from hospital records, which were used as the reference. Agreement, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were estimated for categories of codes “clean colon”, “colonoscopy performed”, “overall completeness of colonoscopy”, “incomplete colonoscopy”, “polypectomy”, “tumor tissue left behind”, “number of polyps”, “lost polyps”, “risk group of polyps” and “colorectal cancer and polyps/benign tumor”. Results Hospital records were available for 136 individuals. Agreement was highest for “colorectal cancer” (97.1%) and lowest for “lost polyps” (88.2%). Sensitivity varied between moderate and high, with 60.0% for “incomplete colonoscopy” and 98.5% for “colonoscopy performed”. Specificity was 92.7% or above, except for the categories “colonoscopy performed” and “overall completeness of colonoscopy”, where the specificity was low; however, the estimates were imprecise. Conclusion A high level of agreement between categories of codes in DCCSD and hospital records indicates that DCCSD reflects the hospital records well. Further, the validity of the categories of codes varied from moderate to high. Thus, the DCCSD may be a valuable data source for future research on

  18. [Andrological aspects of men's health in Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Khamzin, A; Frolov, R

    2015-05-01

    To study the prevalence of male sexual disorders in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the survey by the urologist and endocrinologist with the use of self-reported questionnaires (IIEF and AMS) was conducted in 2007. 2203 of 2676 men (70,4% - urban, 29,6% - rural residents) aged 18-74 years completed the survey. The prevalence rates for erectile dysfunction were 50,8% (1,3%) for 18- to 74-year olds which numbered 1550 urban residents and 55,6% (1,9%) for 18- to 74-year olds with a number of 653 rural residents; symptoms of androgen deficiency were defined at 29,3% (1,2%) (454/1550) of men and 30,3% (1,8%) (198/653) of men respectively. The scale devised by Prins was used for the survey in order to be considered a valid epidemiological study.

  19. Ecological Model of Australian Indigenous Men's Health.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Mellor, David; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Mussap, Alexander J; Hallford, David J

    2016-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the health behaviors as well as the enablers and barriers to health behaviors among Indigenous Australian men. One hundred and fifty Indigenous Australian men in rural, regional, and urban locations were interviewed about their health behaviors. The results revealed several themes of importance: (a) role of community activities, (b) the Indigenous man as a leader and role model, (c) negative impact of discrimination/racism, (d) importance of partner and family, (e) positive and negative role of peer relationships, (f) central role of culturally appropriate health care facilities, and (g) association between employment and health care problems. These findings highlight the importance of broad community-based (rather than individualistic) approaches to promoting health behavior in Indigenous men.

  20. Men's facial masculinity: when (body) size matters.

    PubMed

    Holzleitner, Iris J; Hunter, David W; Tiddeman, Bernard P; Seck, Alassane; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that judgments of facial masculinity reflect more than sexually dimorphic shape. Here, we investigated whether the perception of masculinity is influenced by facial cues to body height and weight. We used the average differences in three-dimensional face shape of forty men and forty women to compute a morphological masculinity score, and derived analogous measures for facial correlates of height and weight based on the average face shape of short and tall, and light and heavy men. We found that facial cues to body height and weight had substantial and independent effects on the perception of masculinity. Our findings suggest that men are perceived as more masculine if they appear taller and heavier, independent of how much their face shape differs from women's. We describe a simple method to quantify how body traits are reflected in the face and to define the physical basis of psychological attributions.

  1. Chiropractor perceptions and practices regarding interprofessional service delivery in the Danish primary care context.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Corrie; Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Fogh-Schultz, Anders Lyck

    2014-03-01

    For the past 20 years, chiropractors have enjoyed access to the Danish health care system and have been free to build integrated health care delivery partnerships. An electronic survey of chiropractic clinics around Denmark was conducted in order to observe interprofessional practice trends. From the available population of 252 practices, 166 responses were received. Ninety-six percent of respondents considered inter-disciplinary/interprofessional practice to be either "very" or "extremely" important in the context of modern Danish health care. Three occupational groups appear to be commonly involved in practice alongside chiropractors, these being massage therapists (82%), physiotherapists (58%) and acupuncturists (37%). Interestingly only 11% considered a medical practitioner to be an active participant in their current interprofessional service delivery. Danish chiropractors consider interprofessional practice to be important and as a group, perceive themselves to be offering such models of service provision. Medical practitioners are perceived as desirable, but under utilized partners.

  2. Linkage between the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database, the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, and other Danish registries as a tool for the study of drug safety in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Lars H; Petersen, Olav B; Nørgaard, Mette; Ekelund, Charlotte; Pedersen, Lars; Tabor, Ann; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2016-01-01

    A linked population-based database is being created in Denmark for research on drug safety during pregnancy. It combines information from the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database (with information on all prescriptions reimbursed in Denmark since 2004), the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, the Danish National Registry of Patients, and the Medical Birth Registry. The new linked database will provide validated information on malformations diagnosed both prenatally and postnatally. The cohort from 2008 to 2014 will comprise 589,000 pregnancies with information on 424,000 pregnancies resulting in live-born children, ∼420,000 pregnancies undergoing prenatal ultrasound scans, 65,000 miscarriages, and 92,000 terminations. It will be updated yearly with information on ∼80,000 pregnancies. The cohort will enable identification of drug exposures associated with severe malformations, not only based on malformations diagnosed after birth but also including those having led to termination of pregnancy or miscarriage. Such combined data will provide a unique source of information for research on the safety of medications used during pregnancy. PMID:27274312

  3. [Why do Hungarian men die early?].

    PubMed

    Kopp, Mária; Skrabski, Arpád

    2009-09-01

    The mortality rate for 40- 69-year-old men was 12.2/thousand males of corresponding age in 1960 and 16.2 in 2005: it increased by 33%, while among 40- 69-year-old women it decreased from 9.6 0/thousand females of corresponding age to 7.8. The aim of the present follow up study was to analyze which psychosocial risk factors might explain the high premature mortality rates among Hungarian men. Participants in the Hungarostudy 2002 study, a nationally representative sample, 1130 men and 1529 women were contacted again in the follow up study in 2006, who in 2002 were between the age of 40-69 years. By 2006, 99 men (8.8%) and 53 women (3.5%) died in this age group. Socio-economic, psychosocial and work-related measures, self-rated health, chronic disorders, depressive symptoms (BDI), WHO well-being, negative affect, self-efficacy, meaning in life and health behavioral factors were included in the analysis. After adjustment according to smoking, alcohol abuse, BMI, education and age, a number of variables were significant predictors of mortality only in men: low education, low subjective social status, low personal and family income, insecurity of work, no control in work, severe depression, no meaning in life, low social support from spouse, low social support from child. Socio-economic and work related risk factors predicted only male premature death. Among women dissatisfaction with personal relations was the most important risk factor. Among men depression seems to mediate between these chronic stress factors and premature death.

  4. Genetic contribution to rate of change in functional abilities among Danish twins aged 75 years or more.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kaare; Gaist, David; Vaupel, James W; McGue, Matt

    2002-01-15

    In a previous cross-sectional study of twins, the authors found evidence of a substantial genetic influence on functional abilities among elderly women. It has been suggested that rate of change in functional abilities over time could underlie such findings and that rate-of-change phenotypes may have an even larger genetic component than "level" phenotypes (e.g., functional abilities per se). If so, rate-of-change phenotypes could be more powerful than level phenotypes in studies aimed at identifying specific polymorphisms of importance for aging. In 1995, the authors assessed a population-based sample of 2,401 Danish twins aged 75 years or more. The survivors were recontacted after 2 years and again after 4 years. Consistent mean-level declines, high within-person correlations over time, and substantial heritability in the female sample were observed for functional abilities. Nonetheless, structural-equation analyses revealed only a very modest and nonsignificant heritability for rate of change in functional abilities: 16% (95% confidence interval: 0, 35) for women and 9% (95% confidence interval: 0, 44) for men. This study had a large initial sample size, high participation rates, and a valid and reliable measure of rate of change in a phenotype that had previously shown substantial heritability in cross-sectional analyses in the same twin population. Still, the present study revealed only a modest and nonsignificant genetic influence on rate of change, which suggests that detection of polymorphisms influencing rate of change in functional abilities among the elderly may prove to be difficult.

  5. Patterns of attendance to health checks in a municipality setting: the Danish 'Check Your Health Preventive Program'.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle T; Bruun, Niels Henrik; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the determinants of attendance to a preventive health check program and to explore the homogeneity of the attenders.4853 eligible persons living in the municipality of Randers, Denmark, from 2012 to 2013, aged 30–49 years, received an invitation to attend the ‘Check Your Health Preventive Program’. Data was obtained from the Danish National Registers. Socio-demographic factors, use of preventive services, morbidity were examined as determinants of attendance by Poisson regression analyses. A chi-squared automatic interaction detection decision tree analysis was used to identify mutually exclusive groups.In total, 55% of the invited population attended (49% men). Attenders were more likely to be: of higher age; immigrants; cohabiting; have: higher socio-economic status; higher use of preventive services and lower morbidity. Decision tree analysis revealed six groups, with the most important variable being income: 1) low income, low education (A = attendance rate: 38%; P = population size: 11%); 2) low income, education higher than 10 years, living alone (A: 41%; P: 5%); 3) low income, education higher than 10 years, cohabiting (A: 56%; P: 16%); 4) middle income (A: 60%; P: 34%); 5) high income, living alone (A: 56%; P: 4%); 6) high income, cohabiting (A: 69%; P: 30%).More than half of a general population voluntarily attended a general health check, despite a resource intensive offer. People with low resources had lower attendance rates. This study adds a detailed description of mutually exclusive groups of attenders, for use in future planning and implementation of preventive actions.

  6. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of long-term selenium supplementation on plasma cholesterol in an elderly Danish population.

    PubMed

    Cold, Frederik; Winther, Kristian H; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rayman, Margaret P; Guallar, Eliseo; Nybo, Mads; Griffin, Bruce A; Stranges, Saverio; Cold, Søren

    2015-12-14

    Although cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between Se and cholesterol concentrations, a recent randomised controlled trial in 501 elderly UK individuals of relatively low-Se status found that Se supplementation for 6 months lowered total plasma cholesterol. The Danish PRECISE (PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with Selenium) pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01819649) was a 5-year randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with four groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1:1). Men and women aged 60-74 years (n 491) were randomised to 100 (n 124), 200 (n 122) or 300 (n 119) μg Se-enriched yeast or matching placebo-yeast tablets (n 126) daily for 5 years. A total of 468 participants continued the study for 6 months and 361 participants, equally distributed across treatment groups, continued for 5 years. Plasma samples were analysed for total and HDL-cholesterol and for total Se concentrations at baseline, 6 months and 5 years. The effect of different doses of Se supplementation on plasma lipid and Se concentrations was estimated by using linear mixed models. Plasma Se concentration increased significantly and dose-dependently in the intervention groups after 6 months and 5 years. Total cholesterol decreased significantly both in the intervention groups and in the placebo group after 6 months and 5 years, with small and nonsignificant differences in changes in plasma concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and total:HDL-cholesterol ratio between intervention and placebo groups. The effect of long-term supplementation with Se on plasma cholesterol concentrations or its sub-fractions did not differ significantly from placebo in this elderly population.

  7. [The Danish Debate on Priority Setting in Medicine--An Update].

    PubMed

    Pornak, S C; Raspe, H

    2015-09-01

    In the last years, the Danish debate about priority setting in medicine has gained new strength. This paper shows the main focuses of the current discussion based on a research of Danish primary literature. For the first time since the 1990s the Danish Council of Ethics has been involved with priority setting in medicine in a project running from 2011 to 2013. The Council emphasises the importance of legitimate processes and calls for visible values and criteria. A focus of the debate is how to deal with new expensive drugs. Politicians, physicians, health economists and the Council of Ethics have called for a national institution for priority setting in medicine. They have mainly looked to the Norwegian National Council for Priority Setting in Health Care and the British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for inspiration. The Danish Government considered establishing a national institute for priority setting, but the plans were not put into practice. In the year 2012 a new national project was launched to create clinical guidelines. Danish doctors welcome the guidelines as a good basis for priority setting. Just like in earlier Danish priority setting debates, a coordinating institution is lacking to bundle the discussion and keep it going. The debate seems to have come to an end once again. The fact that it was seriously considered to establish an institute for priority setting is a new development. It can be expected that the discussion will be resumed in the near future, possibly the idea of an institute for priority setting will be readopted. The general conditions for priority setting in health care have improved.

  8. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  9. Characteristics of homosexual men who donate blood.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W; Drew, P A; Beal, R W

    1985-03-18

    A number of demographic, psychological, medical, immunological and haematological indices, as well as sexual practices and partner numbers, were investigated in 97 homosexual men in Adelaide. A comparison of blood donors with non-donors among these men showed that the donors were younger, spent more time in the homosexual subculture, maintained a stable blood-donation pattern, and were significantly less likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease. Donors contacted their sexual partners in non-anonymous settings more frequently than did non-donors.

  10. Treatment of primary osteoporosis in men.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Andrea; Bianchi, Gerolamo

    2015-01-01

    With the aging of the population worldwide, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are becoming a serious health care issue in the Western world. Although less frequent than in women, osteoporosis in men is a relatively common problem. Hip and vertebral fractures are particularly relevant, being associated with significant mortality and disability. Since bone loss and fragility fractures in men have been recognized as serious medical conditions, several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been undertaken in males with osteoporosis to investigate the anti-fracture efficacy of the pharmacological agents commonly used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Overall, treatments for osteoporosis in men are less defined than in women, mainly due to the fact that there are fewer RCTs performed in male populations, to the relatively smaller sample sizes, and to the lack of long-term extension studies. However, the key question is whether men are expected to respond differently to osteoporosis therapies than women. The pharmacological properties of bisphosphonates, teriparatide, denosumab, and strontium ranelate make such differentiation unlikely, and available clinical data support their efficacy in men with primary osteoporosis as well as in women. In a series of well-designed RCTs, alendronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid, and teriparatide were demonstrated to reduce the risk of new vertebral fractures in men presenting with primary osteoporosis (including osteoporosis associated with low testosterone levels) and to improve the bone mineral density (BMD). In preliminary studies, ibandronate, denosumab, and strontium ranelate also showed their beneficial effects on surrogate outcomes (BMD and markers of bone turnover) in men with osteoporosis. Although direct evidence about their non-vertebral anti-fracture efficacy are lacking, the effects of bisphosphonates, denosumab, teriparatide, and strontium ranelate on surrogate outcomes (BMD and markers of bone turnover

  11. Chemokine receptor CCR2b 64I polymorphism and its relation to CD4 T-cell counts and disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Copenhagen AIDS cohort.

    PubMed

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Iversen, A K; Benfield, T L; Koppelhus, U; Garred, P

    1998-06-01

    We have investigated the role of the recently described mutation in CCR2b named 64I in relation to HIV resistance, CD4 T-cell counts, and disease progression in Danish individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods as well as sequenced full-length CXCR4 and CCR5 genes from HIV-infected long-term nonprogressors for possible mutations. In total, 215 Danish individuals were analyzed for 64I allele frequency; disease progression was followed in 105 HIV-1-positive homosexual Danish men from their first known positive HIV-1 test result and up to 11 years. In 87 individuals, the CD4 T-cell count was monitored closely. We found no significant difference in 64I allele frequency between HIV-1-seropositive persons (0.08), high-risk HIV-1-seronegative persons (0.11), and blood donors (0.06). No significant difference was observed in annual CD4 T-cell decline, CD4 T-cell counts at the time of AIDS, in AIDS-free survival as well as survival with AIDS, between 64I allele carriers and wild-type individuals. Among 9 long-term nonprogressors, 2 carried the 64I allele, while none of 9 fast progressors carried the 64I allele. However, this was not significantly different (p=.47). Long-term nonprogression could not be explained by CXCR4 polymorphism or other polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene than the CCR5delta32 allele. Furthermore, we were not able to detect any significant independent effect of the 64I allele on development to AIDS, overall survival, and annual CD4 T-cell decline in this cohort.

  12. Utilization of dating apps by men who have sex with men for persuading other men toward substance use

    PubMed Central

    Boonchutima, Smith; Kongchan, Watsayut

    2017-01-01

    Background Dating apps play a major role in connecting men who are interested in meeting other men for sex. Besides finding a partner, these tools are also exploited for other activities such as encouraging people to get involved in the habit of illicit drug consumption (substance use). Methods This study evaluated the overall usage of dating apps among Thai men who have sex with men (MSMs), with an emphasis on abusing these apps to convey messages encouraging substance use. A well-structured Survey Monkey questionnaire posted on specialized websites and social sites used by MSMs was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using regression and correlation analysis in order to establish the relationship between variables. Results A substantial proportion (73%) of the Thai MSM community is using dating apps to find their partners as well as for inviting others into illicit drug practice. Unfortunately, persuasion through dating significantly influenced people toward accepting a substance use invitation, with a 77% invitation success rate. Substance use was also linked with unprotected sex, potentially enhancing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion Dating apps significantly increased motivational substance use through messaging from their counterparts. One of the major concerns revealed in this study is that Thai MSMs who reported being involved in substance use also reported avoiding use of condoms during intercourse. PMID:28138269

  13. Assessment of the probability of introducing Mycobacterium tuberculosis into Danish cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis

    2015-11-01

    Tuberculosis is a zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. International trade in cattle is regulated with respect to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), despite that cattle can become infected with both species. In this study we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population, by the import of cattle and/or by immigrants working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2013 with date, number, and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish cattle database. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent to Danish cattle farmers. The gained inputs were fed into three stochastic scenario trees to assess the PIntro for the current and alternative test-and-manage strategies, such as testing of imported animals and/or testing immigrant workers with the tuberculin skin test. We considered the population of Danish farmers and practitioners free of tuberculosis, because in Denmark, the incidence of the disease in humans is low and primarily related to immigrants and socially disadvantaged people. The median annual probability of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population due to imported live cattle was 0.008% (90% P.I.: 0.0007%; 0.03%), while the probability due to immigrant workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.1%). The median combined probability (PIntro) due to imported cattle plus workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.6%). Hence, on average at least one introduction each 24 (90% P.I.: 8; 125) years could be expected. Imported live cattle appeared to play a marginal role on the overall annual PIntro, because they represented only approximately 0.2% of the median annual probability. By testing immigrant workers the overall annual PIntro could be reduced to 0.2% (90% P.I.: 0.04%; 0.7%). Thus, testing of immigrant workers could be considered as a risk mitigation strategy to markedly reduce

  14. Internet use, recreational travel, and HIV risk behaviors in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Martin, Aaron M; Espil, Flint M; Nettles, Christopher D; Seal, David W; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have documented higher rates of HIV risk behavior in gay and bisexual men traveling for leisure. Most of these studies collected data in high-risk tourist areas known for promoting alcohol and other substance use. The present study sampled a broader range of men by collecting data at a Gay Pride celebration, and asking participants about vacation experiences over the past 12 months. We also collected information about men's use of the Internet to find sexual partners before they traveled. Overall, two-thirds of participants reported recreational travel in the previous year. Of these men, 17% reported having sex with a new partner during their most recent vacation. Forty-three percent of the respondents were sexually active during their vacation. Sexually-active participants reported a mean of 2.01 unprotected anal sex acts during their brief vacation stay (M = 6.2 days). Close to half of the sexually-active men reported having sex with a partner of unknown HIV status. Alcohol and drug use were associated with unprotected sex. Men who used the Internet to set up dates prior to travel reported significantly more sexual partners and were significantly more likely to report having sex with a new partner. Many gay and bisexual men on vacation report behaviors that may place their health at risk, including substance use and unprotected sexual activity. Interventions designed to reduce risk behaviors in this population are needed.

  15. The Internet profiles of men who have sex with men within bareback websites

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Pamela; Ventuneac, Ana; Maynard, Emily; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has become a venue for men who have sex with men (MSM) to search for sexual partners. Some of these men intentionally seek unprotected anal intercourse with other men (a.k.a., “bareback” sex). This paper focuses on the creation, use,and content of Internet personal profiles of MSM in the greater New York Citymetropolitan area whouse bareback sites for sexual networking. We used a mixed-methods approach to examine data from a cybercartography of Internet sites conducted during the first phase of the research (199 personal profiles), and from in-depth interviews conducted during its second phase (120 MSM who sought partners online for bareback sex). Results indicate that men generally followed offline stereotypical patterns in their online profiles. However, men who disclosed being HIV positive were more likely to include face and head pictures. Overall, the images they used were heavily sexualised in accordance with group norms perceived and reinforced by the websites’ design and imagery. Bottom-identified men tended to be more explicit in the exposition of their sexual and drug use interests online. This paper highlights how certain virtual and social performances play upon and reinforce other, in the flesh, performances. PMID:21815842

  16. Heterosexually married men who have sex with men: marital separation and psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, James P

    2008-01-01

    There have been few investigations of sexual identity and psychological adjustment among behaviorally-bisexual married men. A critical issue is whether such men experience increased psychological adjustment if they exit their primary heterosexual relationship and assume a gay identity. Two hundred and one ever-married men (n = 201) with same-sex sexual interests and behaviors were administered the Brady and Busse (1994) gay identity development questionnaire (GIQ) and the symptom check list-90 (SCL-90) as part of a larger investigation of sexual identity development. The measurement of homosexual identity formation (HIF) using the original nominal scoring criteria for the GIQ did not adequately detail processes of HIF among respondents, and an alternative scoring system that allowed continuous, rather than stage, measurement of HIF was utilized. Psychological adjustment was found to be significantly correlated with HIF among ever-married gay-identified men. Within bisexual-identified men, no relationships between HIF and psychological adjustment were found. Future studies of HIF should clearly differentiate between gay and bisexual men. The findings suggest significant psychological gains accompany public affirmation of gay identity among self-identified gay men who have been in a previous heterosexual relationship.

  17. High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Soweto, South Africa: results from the Soweto Men's Study.

    PubMed

    Lane, Tim; Raymond, H Fisher; Dladla, Sibongile; Rasethe, Joseph; Struthers, Helen; McFarland, Willi; McIntyre, James

    2011-04-01

    The Soweto Men's Study assessed HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among MSM in Soweto, South Africa. Using respondent driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methods, we recruited 378 MSM (including 15 seeds) over 30 weeks in 2008. All results were adjusted for RDS sampling design. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated at 13.2% (95% confidence interval 12.4-13.9%), with 33.9% among gay-identified men, 6.4% among bisexual-identified men, and 10.1% among straight-identified MSM. In multivariable analysis, HIV infection was associated with being older than 25 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.8, 95% CI 3.2-4.6), gay self-identification (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-3.0), monthly income less than ZAR500 (AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7), purchasing alcohol or drugs in exchange for sex with another man (AOR 3.9, 95% CI 3.2-4.7), reporting any URAI (AOR 4.4, 95% CI 3.5-5.7), reporting between six and nine partners in the prior 6 months (AOR 5.7, 95% CI 4.0-8.2), circumcision, (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.2), a regular female partner (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.2-0.3), smoking marijuana in the last 6 months (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8), unprotected vaginal intercourse in the last 6 months (AOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6), and STI symptoms in the last year (AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.8). The results of the Soweto Men's Study confirm that MSM are at high risk for HIV infection, with gay men at highest risk. HIV prevention and treatment for MSM are urgently needed.

  18. Challenging machismo: promoting sexual and reproductive health with Nicaraguan men.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, P

    2000-03-01

    This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of male attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan culture views men in a machismo concept. The study examined the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of men in relation to the social construction of masculinity: sexuality, reproduction, and fatherhood. Employing 90 men from both rural and urban communities, attitudes towards sexuality, reproduction, abortion and fatherhood were discussed. Several insights were gathered from the research, which explains men's behavior. Thus, it was deemed imperative that in empowering women by promoting sexual and reproductive health among men would require challenging male hegemony and persuading men to participate in health promotion. However, the setting and application of a men's agenda for sexual health promotion should not result in the curtailment of services for women because funds are being reallocated to men, nor should it give men the opportunity to more subtle forms of domination and exploitation.

  19. Demonstrating Group Process Using "12 Angry Men"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen A.; Berg, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    The feature film "12 Angry Men" focuses on an organizational task group that demonstrates the dynamics of a working group. The film is discussed as an effective tool for illuminating group process. The authors describe their experiences using the movie as a teaching tool and provide examples of how it can be used to depict critical incidents, the…

  20. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  1. [Addiction: are women and men equal?].

    PubMed

    Pelet, A

    2010-07-28

    When illicit drugs are taken, men and women have a different biological response to drug used. Likewise, gender differences show more stigmas, more complex familial environment, and more history of sexual abuse for drug addicted women. The expression of psychiatric co-morbidities differs according to gender, with increased mood disorders, eating disorders, anxiety, and post traumatic disorders among drug addicted women.

  2. Civic Engagement among Young Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Kirby, Emily Hoban

    2007-01-01

    Political scientists and sociologists have long established significant differences in civic engagement between women and men. Utilizing data from the 2006 Civic and Political Health of the Nation Survey, and several other sources, new information is provided on the civic engagement of youth, confidence in government, and following public affairs…

  3. Women and Men: An Intergroup Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortu, Stephanie

    Henri Tajfel's theory on intergroup relations is used as a model for thinking about men and women on a group level and discussing the differences between intergroup and interpersonal behavior to integrate the study of the individual within the larger social system. Strategies are described to help women challenge the imbalance of power between the…

  4. Why Men Choose to Become Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Vaughan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a critical analysis of literature relating to why males choose to become primary school teachers. Discussion within the paper concentrates on identifying and exploring connections between what is currently known about being a male primary school teacher and what motivates these men as they both pursue and practice within the…

  5. [Suicide of elderly men in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses the suicide of elderly men in Brazil. The text is based on studies of gender and masculinity and emphasizes the sense of "hegemonic masculinity" within the logic of patriarchalism that, in the case of suicide, is expressed in the loss of employment as an existential reference and as a loss of honor. The study includes 40 cases of men over 60 who committed suicide between 2007 and 2010 in ten districts of the country. Using the psychosocial autopsy technique, data were collected and analyzed from their history and lifestyle; evaluation of the background to the act; the impact on their families; lethality of the method; proximity to sources of support; previous attempts; mental status which preceded the act; reaction of families and communities. Although many factors are associated with self-inflicted death in this social group, the influence of a hegemonic masculinity culture in the predominance of suicides among elderly men compared with elderly women is undeniable. It is essential to give special attention to men at the moment of transition from working life to retirement, loss or important family members, and when they are diagnosed with chronic and degenerative diseases that cause disabilities, loss of autonomy or sexual impotence.

  6. The Hollow Men: A Cautionary Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruman, Norman

    1991-01-01

    A review of Charles Sykes' book "The Hollow Men: Politics and Corruption in Higher Education" focuses on the portion that chronicles the political history of Dartmouth College (New Hampshire) from 1769. It is found to be a comprehensive analysis of the college's decline resulting from a "radically politicized and…

  7. Male Categories: Are All Men "Masculine?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Eileen M.; Hyland, Diane T.

    Research on gender stereotypes has contrasted males with females, describing males by competency traits and females by traits which denote warmth or emotionality. However, it has become clear that these traits do not satisfactorily describe all members of either sex, since not all men possess only masculine characteristics and not all women…

  8. Men and Sexuality: Bibliography of Selected Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This selective, annotated bibliography covers a range of topics associated with male sexuality, reproductive health, and sexism. The books listed in this document are organized in five categories which are not strictly exclusive, as most of the entries overlap topic areas. Part I, Men in Society, contains 10 entries dealing with masculinity,…

  9. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    PubMed

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base.

  10. Comparing the Heroism of Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Becker, Selwyn W.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Definitions and Omissions of Heroism" by Jeffery W. Martens which is a comment on the original article "The Heroism of Women and Men" by Selwyn W. Becker and Alice H. Eagly. Becker and Eagly welcome the opportunity to discuss the questions about defining heroism that Martens raised in his comment on their…

  11. Enhancing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy's Effectiveness with Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broder, Michael S.

    Until recently, most of the emphasis on the understanding of sex roles has focused on how sexist attitudes and sex role stereotypes affect women. Often times men are the objects of stereotypical thinking, which results in certain assumptions about masculinity that can prove to be self-defeating and destructive to relationships on all levels. Male…

  12. The Heroism of Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Selwyn W.; Eagly, Alice H.

    2004-01-01

    Heroism consists of actions undertaken to help others, despite the possibility that they may result in the helper's death or injury. The authors examine heroism by women and men in 2 extremely dangerous settings: the emergency situations in which Carnegie medalists rescued others and the holocaust in which some non-Jews risked their lives to…

  13. Medical students’ attitudes toward gay men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668

  14. Of Mice and Men: Interdisciplinary Unit. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck Middle School, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    "Of Mice and Men" is developed as an interdisciplinary unit to be team taught by math, science, language arts, and social studies teachers and team guidance counselors. Developed as an individualized program for middle school students, a variety of supplementary materials is provided to exemplify the types of activities suggested for students.…

  15. Nineteen Negro Men, Personality and Manpower Retraining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Aaron L.; Gass, Gertrude Zemon

    In 1963, 19 unemployed Negro men entered a one-year program sponsored by the Office of Manpower, Automation and Training at Sinai Hospital, Detroit to learn practical nursing. Simultaneously a demonstration project to identify trainee and teaching staff problems and their possible solutions was carried out by two psychologists who provided…

  16. Acceptability of contraception for men: a review.

    PubMed

    Glasier, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Methods of contraception for use by men include condoms, withdrawal and vasectomy. Prevalence of use of a method and continuation rates are indirect measures of acceptability. Worldwide, none of these "male methods" accounts for more than 7% of contraceptive use although uptake varies considerably between countries. Acceptability can be assessed directly by asking about intended (hypothetical) use and assessing satisfaction during/after use. Since they have been around for a very long time, there are very few data of this nature on condoms (as contraceptives rather than for prevention of infection), withdrawal or vasectomy. There are direct data on the acceptability of hormonal methods for men but from relatively small clinical trials which undoubtedly do not represent the real world. Surveys undertaken among the male general public demonstrate that, whatever the setting, at least 25% of men - and in most countries substantially more - would consider using hormonal contraception. Although probably an overestimate of the number of potential users when such a method becomes available, it would appear that hormonal contraceptives for men may have an important place on the contraceptive menu. Despite commonly expressed views to the contrary, most women would trust their male partner to use a hormonal method.

  17. Using Biography to Counsel Gifted Young Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Thomas P.

    1995-01-01

    The use of biographies in counseling young men who are gifted is recommended, to assist them in dealing with such issues as underachievement, self-inflicted pressure in athletics, cultural alienation, and father-son relationships. Biographical works that may be used and strategies for using this counseling approach are examined, including case…

  18. Differences in substance use and sexual partnering between men who have sex with men, men who have sex with men and women and transgender women.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jane Rohde; Branson, Catherine M; Fletcher, Jesse; Reback, Cathy J

    2011-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex with men and women (MSM/W) and transgender women (TGW) remain the populations most severely and disproportionately impacted upon by HIV in Los Angeles County. Baseline data from community-based HIV-prevention programmes serving these populations were analysed to explore differences in demographic characteristics, substance use and sexual partnering between the three groups. Despite high HIV prevalence overall (MSM 34.7% versus MSM/W 16.1% versus TGW 21.9%, p < .001), there were striking differences in risk behaviours. Higher rates of homelessness were reported by MSM/W compared to MSM and TGW. Lower rates of education and less substance use were reported by TGW (62.2%), compared to MSM (79.7%) and MSM/W (92.6%). A much higher number of male sexual exchange partners were reported by TGW (MSM 1.04 [SD = 4.8] versus MSM/W 1.54 [SD = 10.3] versus TGW 12.37 [SD = 23.9], p < .001). Findings support the need for HIV-prevention interventions that specifically address the unique risk patterns among each population in order to curb HIV acquisition and transmission.

  19. Aging and masculinity: portrayals in men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Hurd Clarke, Laura; Bennett, Erica V; Liu, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Textual and visual representations of age are instructive as they suggest ideals towards which individuals should strive and influence how we perceive age. The purpose of our study was to investigate textual and visual representations of later life in the advertisements and interest stories of six widely read North American male-oriented magazines (namely, Esquire, GQ, Maxim, Men's Health, Men's Journal, and Zoomer). Through a content analysis and a visual textual analysis, we examined how older men were depicted in the magazine images and accompanying texts. Our findings revealed that older men were largely absent, and when portrayed, were positively depicted as experienced and powerful celebrities or as healthy and happy unknown individuals. The magazine advertisements and interest stories collectively required individuals to engage in consumer culture in order to achieve age and masculinity ideals and stave off the transition from the Third Age to the Fourth Age. We consider our findings in relation to theorizing about ageism, age relations, the Third and Fourth Ages, and idealized aging masculinity.

  20. Men, Teaching, and Caring: Perspectives and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitrano, Barbara S.

    2014-01-01

    This article continues and extends the conversation regarding an ethic of care as reflected by two male elementary school teachers. It seeks to discover ways in which these men approach and practice their teaching that demonstrate the ethic of care traditionally linked with women. This article looks in depth at two male teachers in an effort to…

  1. Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Causes in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in men Scarring of the urinary channel (urethra) or bladder neck, as a result of injury or surgery Use of certain medications, including antihistamines, decongestants ... of bladder outlet obstruction is important to prevent serious problems caused by ...

  2. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  3. Lower urinary tract symptoms in men

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, John M

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent and costly condition that affects older men worldwide. Many affected men develop lower urinary tract symptoms, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. In the past, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was the mainstay of treatment. However, several efficacious drug treatments have been developed, which have transformed BPH from an acute surgical entity to a chronic medical condition. Specifically, multiple clinical trials have shown that α adrenoceptor antagonists can significantly ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, 5α reductase inhibitors, alone or combined with an α adrenoceptor antagonist, can reverse the natural course of BPH, reducing the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Newer medical regimens including the use of antimuscarinic agents or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, have shown promise in men with predominantly storage symptoms and concomitant erectile dysfunction, respectively. For men who do not adequately respond to conservative measures or pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive surgical techniques (such as transurethral needle ablation, microwave thermotherapy, and prostatic urethral lift) may be of benefit, although they lack the durability of TURP. A variety of laser procedures have also been introduced, whose improved hemostatic properties abrogate many of the complications associated with traditional surgery. PMID:25125424

  4. The Persistence of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Tyson J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…

  5. Counseling and Psychotherapy for Bisexual Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph; Damon, Will

    1995-01-01

    Clinical research on sexual behavior has increased dramatically in the last decade. Connected with these efforts has been the need to understand more about sexuality in order to help reduce the spread of human immunodeficiency virus. This report details the results of a study of men (N=536) aged 18 to 30 years, who reported having had sex with a…

  6. Counseling Men: The Effects of Gender Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham-Smith, Denise

    A client's gender role plays an important part in his or her life, emotional well being, and the therapeutic relationship. The process of male socialization begins early in a boy's life, typically with primary care givers. In North American culture, men are conditioned to disconnect from relationships, minimize emotional pain, and deal with…

  7. Toward a mandatory work policy for men.

    PubMed

    Mead, Lawrence M

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence Mead addresses the problem of nonwork among low-income men, particularly low-income black men, and its implications for families and children. The poor work effort, he says, appears to be caused partly by falling wages and other opportunity constraints but principally by an oppositional culture and a breakdown of work discipline. Mead argues that if government policies are to increase work among poor men, they must not merely improve wages and skills but enforce work in available jobs. Using the same "help with hassle" approach that welfare reform has used successfully to increase work among poor mothers, policymakers should adapt the child support enforcement and criminal justice systems so that both actively help their clients find employment and then back up that help with a requirement that they work. Men with unpaid child support judgments and parolees leaving prison would be told to get a job or pay up, as they are now. But if they did not, they would be remanded to a required work program where their efforts to work would be closely supervised. They would have to participate and get a private job and have their subsequent employment verified. Failing that, they would be assigned to work crews, where again compliance would be verified. Men who failed to participate and work steadily would--unless there were good cause--be sent back to the child support or parole authorities to be imprisoned. But men who complied would be freed from the work program after a year or two. They would then revert to the looser supervision practiced by the regular child support and parole systems. If their employment record deteriorated, they could again be remanded to the work program. Mead estimates that such a program would involve as many as 1.5 million men who are already in the child support and criminal justice systems and would cost $2.4 billion to $4.8 billion a year. It is premature, says Mead, for such a program to be mandated nationwide. Rather, the best role

  8. Sociodemographic Study of Danish Individuals Diagnosed with Transsexualism

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Rikke; Hald, Gert Martin; Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) individuals with transsexualism (International Classification of Diseases-10) may differ in core clinical and sociodemographic variables such as age, sexual orientation, marriage and parenthood, school, educational level, and employment. Assessing and understanding the implication of such differences may be a key to developing appropriate and effective treatment and intervention strategies for this group. However, research in the area remains sparse and is often on small populations, making the generalization of results from current studies on individuals diagnosed with transsexualism difficult. Aims (i) To describe and assess key sociodemographic and treatment-related differences between MtF and FtM individuals in a Danish population of individuals diagnosed with transsexualism; (ii) to assess possible implications of such difference, if any, for clinical treatment initiatives for individuals diagnosed with transsexualism. Methods Follow-up of 108 individuals who had permission to undergo sex reassignment surgery (SRS, meaning castration and genital plastic surgery) over a 30-year period from 1978 to 2008 through the Gender Identity Unit in Copenhagen, Denmark. The individuals were identified through Social Security numbers. Clinical and sociodemographic data from medical records were collected. Results The sex ratio was 1.16:1 (MtF : FtM). Mean age at first referral was 26.9 (standard deviation [SD] 8.8) years for FtM and 30.2 (SD 9.7) for MtF individuals. Compared with MtF, FtM had a significantly lower onset age (before 12 years of age) and lower age when permission for SRS was granted. Further, FtM individuals were significantly more often gynephilic (sexually attracted to females) during research period and less likely to start self-initiated hormonal sex reassignment (SR) (treatment with cross-sex hormones). The MtF and FtM groups did not differ in years of school, educational level, employment

  9. Seismic geomorphology of the Danish Chalks, offshore, North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Florian; van Buchem, Frans; Schmidt, Ingelise

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Cretaceous and Lowermost Paleocene chalk deposits of the North Sea Basin constitute a unique phase in the evolution of carbonate facies, through the rock-forming dominance of fine grained calcareous plankton, particularly coccolithophorids. These planktonic organisms were deposited over extensive areas and very often laid down as laterally extensive, regular dm-scale bedded packages, that locally may reach a thickness of up to 1250 m. In the Danish Graben, the depositional conditions for the chalk sedimentation changed dramatically during the middle of the Upper Cretaceous. At this time the basin topography was inverted, radically changing the position of the depocenters and the ocean floor morphology. In uplifted areas local erosion and long phases of non-deposition occurred, whereas in areas of subsidence thick packages of chalk accumulated. Along the newly created highs, mass waste deposition took place at the deca-kilometre scale. In this presentation we will document evidence for the tectonic inversion, and pay particular attention to the rich pallet of geomorphological features that characterise this tectonically active period. This study benefitted from a recently re-processed 3D seismic dataset (6000 km²), and a regional well-log and biostratigraphic dataset. In addition, the seismic interpretation applied advanced seismic interpretation software (PaleoScan™), which uses a patented model grid that links up seismic points and honours interpreted horizon constraints resulting in a seismic Relative Geological Time model. Standard seismic attributes, displayed upon horizons from a 3D RGT model of the chalk package, have shown to be very effective in the illustration and interpretation of complex chalk depositional features. Special attention has been focussed on mass waste deposits around inverted structures and salt diapirs. Several different mass waste complexes have been documented in 3D, illustrating a number of typical features such as

  10. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  11. Manufacturing technology in the Danish pig slaughter industry.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, Lars

    2010-02-01

    The Danish pig meat industry is very export oriented. Ninety per cent of the production of the big cooperative slaughterhouses is exported to more than 100 countries all over the world. This poses a requirement for the industry to be globally competitive in the sense of quality, product safety and--of course--price. A big challenge for the industry is therefore to maintain sufficient low unit costs in spite of the high factor costs of Denmark. In particular the high labour costs must be accompanied by correspondingly high labour productivity. And, it should be emphasized, this high labour productivity must be achieved without compromising the concern for good working conditions of the employees in the manufacturing. Technology is one of the means to achieve this combination of good working conditions and high labour productivity. One of the most important benefits from automation is the improved working environment. Pig slaughtering, cutting and boning is traditionally very labour intensive and requires hard and repetitive work. For many people a job in a slaughterhouse is therefore not their first choice. This situation can be changed by automation, which will not only reduce arduous and repetitive work but in addition will introduce more motivating jobs in terms of planning, supervision and control of the new technology. Automation will also improve the hygiene and thereby the food safety. This applies in particular to the clean slaughter line where cross contamination between carcasses is reduced because of less manual handling and because the tools in the machines can be sterilised more effectively between each carcass. Automated processes are more accurate and repeatable than manual work. For some processes, in particular in cutting and boning, this will enhance the product yield. New technology can also improve the animal welfare. The group-stunning system and mechanised lairage systems are examples of that. Improved animal welfare has an ethical value in

  12. Antisperm protein targets in azoospermia men

    PubMed Central

    Zangbar, Mohammad-Sadegh Soltani; Keshtgar, Sara; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of couples that meet the definition of infertility at reproductive ages is increasing worldwide. One of the most known conditions of infertility in males is azoospermia, defined as complete absence of spermatozoa in the semen. Azoospermia manifests in two forms, namely obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia. Although the presence of antisperm antibody (ASA) has been reported in 88% of the patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA), interestingly, there is no data regarding ASA targets in OA individuals. AIM: The present study aimed to identify sperm antibody targets in a group of OA men. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study was carried out on 27 OA infertile men and 27 healthy fertile age-matched males as cases and controls, respectively. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sperm proteome was separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis technique, transferred onto the polyvinylidene fluoride membrane, and blotted with the sera of a group of OA men. Then, it was compared with the membranes blotted with the sera of a group of healthy fertile men. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry was used to identify the different blotted spots and finally the results of the mass analysis were confirmed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS: The results indicated that OA patients might produce antibody against two sperm proteins, Tektin-2 and triose phosphate isomerase. Moreover, the expressions of the two targeted proteins were confirmed at RNA level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study revealed two functionally important sperm proteins as antibody targets in azoospermic men. PMID:27110078

  13. Social responsibility, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aaron M; Benotsch, Eric G; Cejka, Anna; Luckman, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable public health literature focuses on relationships between problematic human characteristics (e.g., psychopathology) and unhealthy behaviors. A recent movement termed positive psychology emphasizes the advantages of assessing relationships between human strengths (e.g., altruism) and beneficial health behaviors. The present study assessed social responsibility, an orientation to help or protect others even when there is nothing to be gained as an individual, and its relationship to HIV-relevant behaviors. In our sample of 350 men who have sex with men (MSM), social responsibility was negatively correlated with substance use and HIV risk behaviors. Men who had been tested for HIV and knew their HIV status-a behavior that helps men protect their partners but does not protect themselves from the virus-also scored higher in social responsibility. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk behavior in MSM may benefit from efforts to promote human strengths.

  14. Special antigens on sperm from autoimmune infertile men.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Chao, L; Goust, J M; Milroy, G T; Woodley-Miller, C; Caldwell, J Z; Daru, J; Williamson, H O

    1988-05-01

    Sera from three fertile men and four infertile men without sperm antibodies, 17 infertile men with sperm antibodies in serum and seminal plasma (S.P.), and 25 infertile men with sperm antibodies in S.P. were tested by Western Blot analysis against sperm membrane extracts and S.P. from fertile nonautoimmune men and infertile autoimmune men. Sera from fertile men reacted against common antigens with molecular weights (MW) of 28, 38, 48, 60, and 68 kD present on sperm from autoimmune and nonautoimmune men and special antigen of MW 76 kD on the sperm of fertile men. Sera from 15 of 17 (88%) autoimmune infertile men with sperm antibodies in serum and S.P. detected special antigens with MW of 58 kD (sera reactivity in 47% of these men), 43kD (in 29%), 30 kD (in 24%), 35 kD (in 18%), 52 kD (in 12%), 41 kD (in 6%), and 71 kD (in 6%) on the sperm of autoimmune men in addition to the common antigens. Sera from 15 of 25 (60%) men with sperm antibodies in their S.P. showed reactivity to special antigens with MW 52 kD (in 20%), 35 kD (in 16%), 41 kD (in 16%), 58 kD (in 8%), 70/71 kD (in 8%), 30 kD (in 8%), and 56 kD (in 4%). Sera from 18 of 42 (43%) infertile men with sperm antibodies also detected special antigens of MW 26, 46, and 76 kD present only in fertile men's sperm. Sera from only 15 of 42 (36%) autoimmune infertile men reacted against special antigens with MW 17, 20, 23, 30, 43, and 58 kD in the seminal plasma of autoimmune infertile men.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Pampered sons, (wo)manly men, or do-nothing machos? Costa Rican men coming of age under neoliberalism.

    PubMed

    Mannon, Susan E; Kemp, Eagan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how young men in Costa Rica negotiate ideas of manhood under neoliberalism. We draw on interview data involving 23 men, ages 15–35, residing in one Costa Rican city. Comparing men across three different class locations, we find diverse "markers of manhood." Our data suggest an emerging globally dominant masculine ideal among an elite class of men, a declining locally dominant masculine ideal among working-class men, and a cynical, possibly counter-cultural masculine ideal among poor men. We conclude that masculinities are not only fluid, but tied to changing economic circumstances and class structures.

  16. Sexual Dysfunction, HIV, and AIDS in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Shindel, Alan W.; Horberg, Michael A.; Smith, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract HIV infection is associated with sexual dysfunction. Using validated instruments, we investigated the relationship between HIV/AIDS and sexual function in a contemporary cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM). An anonymous Internet-based survey was disseminated to MSM via organizations and social networking sites that cater to this population. Information on ethnodemographic variables, health status (including HIV status, disease stage, and other health conditions), and sexual behavior was collected. Men were categorized as HIV-negative, HIV-positive/AIDS-negative, or HIV-positive /AIDS-positive. A modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for use in MSM and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) were used to stratify risk of sexual dysfunction. The study cohort included 1361 men (236 of whom were HIV-positive) who provided complete data on HIV status, IIEF, and PEDT. There was a significant trend toward greater prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with progressive HIV infection 40–59 years of age relative to age matched HIV-negative men (p=0.02). In a logistic regression model controlling for other variables, HIV infection without AIDS was not associated with greater odds of ED; however, HIV infection with AIDS was associated with greater odds of ED (p=0.006). In a separate logistic regression model, HIV infection with or without AIDS was not significantly associated with greater odds of premature ejaculation (p>0.05). Use of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor drugs was much more common in HIV-infected men. HIV infection is a risk factor for poorer sexual function primarily due to higher risk of erectile dysfunction in men with AIDS. PMID:21501095

  17. Predictors of Risky Sexual Behavior Among Young African American Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Trevor; Peterson, John L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse among 758 young African American men who have sex with men. A quarter of the sample reported unprotected anal intercourse in the past 3 months; nonsupportive peer norms and not carrying condoms predicted risky sexual behavior. Effective interventions are needed that promote the use of condoms by changing peer norms and encouraging carrying condoms. PMID:15226130

  18. What might interrupt men's suicide? Results from an online survey of men

    PubMed Central

    Shand, Fiona L; Proudfoot, Judy; Player, Michael J; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Wilhelm, Kay; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; McTigue, Isabel; Spurrier, Michael; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Men are almost two times more likely to die by suicide than women, yet little research has focused on what is required to prevent suicide among men. This paper aims to investigate what factors interrupt suicidal behaviour in men, and to examine differences according to known suicide risk factors. Setting Australia. Participants 251 Australian men aged 18 years and over who had made a suicide attempt 6–18 months prior to completing the survey. Outcomes The survey canvassed the language men use to describe their depression and suicidality, warning signs, barriers to accessing help and what is needed to interrupt a suicide attempt. ORs and χ2 were used to test for differences by age, geographic location and current depression severity. Results Of 299 men screened and eligible to participate, 251 completed all or part of the survey. Participants identified different words and warning signs for depression compared with suicidality. The most commonly endorsed barriers to accessing help were not wanting to burden others (66%) and having isolated themselves (63%). Men overwhelmingly endorsed ‘I thought about the consequences for my family’ as the factor which stopped a suicide attempt (67%). ‘I need support from someone I really trust and respect’ was also strongly endorsed. There were few differences by age, region or depression severity. Conclusions Participants were able to identify signs, albeit often subtle ones, that they were becoming depressed or suicidal. Similarly, most were able to identify active strategies to interrupt this downward spiral. Men wanted others to notice changes in their behaviour, and to approach them without judgement. PMID:26474936

  19. Anorectal sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men--special considerations for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Stephen E; Welton, Mark L

    2004-11-01

    Men who have sex with men have special health-care issues and are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. In managing their anorectal health it is important to modify the history and physical and handle patients in a nonjudgmental fashion. It is important to understand behavioral patterns including recreational drug use, unprotected sex, and HIV infection. Screening and counseling play important roles in effective management of these patients.

  20. Waiting Time: The De-Subjectification of Children in Danish Asylum Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between time and subjectification, focusing on the temporal structures created within Danish asylum centres and politics, and on children's experiences of and reactions to open-ended waiting. Such waiting leads to existential boredom which manifests in the children as restlessness, fatigue and despair. The…

  1. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  2. An Introductory Survey of the Danish Investigations in Experimental Reader Response Research. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay

    This paper presents a brief survey of interdisciplinary Danish studies in experimental reader response since 1965. The paper describes nine projects or studies, including information on their purposes and methods, stages, persons responsible, supporters, funding institutions, internal reports, and publications. Project titles include…

  3. Autonomy and Control: Danish University Reform in the Context of Modern Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan; Orberg, Jakob Williams

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 the Danish government reformed universities to "set them free" from the state. Yet ministers are actively trying to shape universities and even set research agendas. How does the government's notion of "freedom" reconcile independence with control? We identify three discourses of freedom: freedom to use academic…

  4. Gender Differences in the Daily Physical Activities of Danish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Glen; Pfister, Gertrud; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the daily physical activities of Danish children with a focus on describing and explaining gender differences. Accelerometer measurements of physical activity in different contexts, as well as questionnaire data, were collected from more than 500 children at pre-school and later at third grade. The study…

  5. Multilingual Acquisition of Vowels in L1 Polish, L2 Danish and L3 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sypianska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether all languages in the linguistic repertoire of a multilingual speaker manifest cross-linguistic influence (CLI) and establish the directions of CLI on the basis of chosen vowels from the linguistic repertoire of two groups: the Bilingual group (L1 Polish/L2 Danish) and the Multilingual group (L1…

  6. Exploring the Heterogeneity of Class in Higher Education: Social and Cultural Differentiation in Danish University Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between social background, choice of university programme and academic culture among Danish university students. Statistically and sociologically, university students are often treated as a homogeneous group, but the ever-increasing number of students in higher education demands a closer examination of the…

  7. Language Choice as a Power Resource in Bilingual Adolescents' Conversations in the Danish "Folkeskole."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esdahl, Trine

    2003-01-01

    Deals with the negotiations of social relations among adolescents at a critical point in their development of a bilingual identity. Based on a general study of bilingual Turkish-Danish folkskole pupils' development of language choice and code switching, finds that the seventh grade is a pivotal stage in their linguistic development. (Author/VWL)

  8. Genome Sequences of Two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides Strains Isolated from Danish Dairy Starter Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kot, W. P.; Hansen, L. H.; Sørensen, S. J.; Broadbent, J. R.; Vogensen, F. K.; Ardö, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters. PMID:24903866

  9. Europeanisation and Policy Change in the Danish Vocational Education and Training System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the interrelationship between the Copenhagen Process, EU vocational education and training policy, and Danish initial vocational education and training policies in order to shed light on the role of EU policies in policy and institutional change. The article points to the complexity of policy-making and the…

  10. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

  11. The Courage to Be: The Impact of Lebensphilosophie on Danish RE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowadt, Pia Rose

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the impact of Lebensphilosophie on Danish RE in the elementary and lower secondary school--an impact which is subjected to a critical analysis with special attention given to anti-intellectualism, criticism of reason and criticism of modernity as well as the romantic view of the child. The thesis of this article is that…

  12. Situating beyond the Social: Understanding the Role of Materiality in Danish Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soffer, Ann Katrine B.

    2016-01-01

    Situated learning serves as an analytical framework for learning in a community of practice and has been widely used to understand the learning process that is entailed in becoming a nurse. Yet in this paper, the difficulties encountered with the original notion of situated learning once it is applied to contemporary Danish nursing education are…

  13. Biographical Learning as Health Promotion in Physical Education. A Danish Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case study concerning biographical learning as health promotion among 16-18-year-old school girls in a Danish upper-secondary school. The case study shows a conflict in the students' perception of the learning in traditional physical education (PE) compared to a four-week pilot project employing dialogue groups as a…

  14. "We Got Incredibly Drunk...It Was Damned Fun": Drinking Stories among Danish Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutenges, Sebastien; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2009-01-01

    Drinking stories are immensely popular among contemporary Danish youth. The stories are shared with much enthusiasm in school, at parties, over the telephone and via the Internet. But why are the young so compelled by these seemingly vulgar stories? Applying the theories of, most importantly, Bakhtin (1968), Ricoeur (1991), and Jackson (2002),…

  15. Change Management at a Danish University: The Introduction of a Common Market for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the approach to the management of change taken by a Danish university when introducing a university-wide market for education and it explores the different positions taken by some of the central stakeholders in one of the faculties involved. I argue that neither the inadequacies of a popular management model nor insufficient…

  16. 26 CFR 521.106 - Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise. 521.106 Section 521.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens...

  17. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…

  18. Social Origin and Graduation Age: A Cohort Comparison of Danish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960-1975. These are cohorts for whom university attendance increased steeply. Contrary to recent findings…

  19. Discriminative Validity of the Danish Version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahlhut, Michelle; Gard, Gunvor; Aadahl, Mette; Christensen, Jette

    2011-01-01

    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) assesses functional status in children with disabilities aged 0.5-7.5 years. The purpose of this study was to examine if the Danish version of the PEDI was able to discriminate between nondisabled children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).…

  20. Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Relation to the Danish Results in TIMMS Population 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and other measures of achievement show that the achievement of Danish students is below the international TIMSS average when considered by age, but above the TIMSS average when considered by grade. Discusses results in the context of the later entrance to school in Denmark…

  1. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  2. Football Fitness - a new version of football? A concept for adult players in Danish football clubs.

    PubMed

    Bennike, S; Wikman, J M; Ottesen, L S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities and parental environment.

  3. Educational Testing as an Accountability Measure: Drawing on Twentieth-Century Danish History of Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ydesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article reveals perspectives based on experiences from twentieth-century Danish educational history by outlining contemporary, test-based accountability regime characteristics and their implications for education policy. The article introduces one such characteristic, followed by an empirical analysis of the origins and impacts of test-based…

  4. Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Siegfredsen, Jane

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Forest School Approach in Denmark and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach…

  5. The Perception of Selected Danish Vowels by Native Speakers of British English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of sounds from L1 to L2 can obviously lead to inappropriate pronunciations, but assumptions about the effects such transfer may have on native listeners are often based on intuition or casual observation. This paper investigates the effects of direct transfer of four Danish vowels into English through a forced-choice word identification…

  6. The Danish large wind turbine program. [feasibility of wind power in a utility grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pederson, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Danish wind energy program and its present status is given. Results and experiences from tests on the Gedser windmill (200 kW) are presented. The key results are presented from the preliminary design study and detailed design of two new WECS (630 kW each) is described.

  7. The Transnational and the Individual: A Life-History Narrative in a Danish University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores linguistic and cultural border crossing and the long-term consequences of transnational mobility on a professional international academic. It provides an in-depth qualitative analysis of a research interview which investigated the internationalisation background of a Danish academic within an English-speaking context. This…

  8. A Lexical Comparison of Signs from Icelandic and Danish Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldersson, Russell R.; McEntee-Atalianis, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a comparison of lexical items in the vocabulary of Icelandic and Danish sign languages prompted by anecdotal reports of similarity and historical records detailing close contact between the two communities. Drawing on previous studies, including Bickford (2005), McKee and Kennedy (1998, 2000a, 2000b) and Parkhurst and…

  9. Comparative Analysis of U.S. and Danish Army Leader Development Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    regarding competency development, work-life balance for employees, the Danish Armed Forces social responsibility and policies regarding safety and health...for example, teams, work groups, organizations, partnerships, communities , and nations” (Van Velsor et al. 2010, 20). Clearly, CCL understands...activity throughout an officers’ career, which contributes to grow the officer and add to the officers’ personal competence, social competence

  10. Information Literacy, Learning, and the Public Library: A Study of Danish High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Bo Gerner; Borlund, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on a study of 12 Danish high school students' perceptions of public libraries' role in learning, user education, information literacy, and librarians' information competencies. The study is undertaken by use of literature review and interviews with a purposive select sample of public library users in Denmark. The study…

  11. Increased urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in a Danish family.

    PubMed

    Sjølin, K E

    1988-08-01

    During collection of a control material for determination of urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), female high excretors were found in four generations in a Danish family. The heredity seemed to be sex related and dominant, unlike previous communications about genetically conditioned high excretors of beta-AIB.

  12. Sexual Behavior Latent Classes Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: Associations With Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Rice, Cara E; Turner, Abigail Norris; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2016-08-12

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at disproportionate risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine patterns of sexual behavior among MSM and how those patterns are related to STIs. We examined patterns of sexual behavior using behavioral and clinical data from a cross-sectional study of 235 MSM who presented to an urban sexual health clinic for STI testing. Analyzed data were collected using a combination of interviewer- and self-administered surveys and electronic health records. We used LCA to identify underlying subgroups of men based on their sexual behavior, described the demographics of the latent classes, and examined the association between the latent classes and STI status. We identified three latent classes of sexual behavior: Unprotected Anal Intercourse (UAI) Only (67%), Partner Seekers (14%), and Multiple Behaviors (19%). Men in the Multiple Behaviors class had a 67% probability of being STI positive, followed by men in the UAI Only class (27%) and men in the Partner Seekers class (22%). Examining the intersection of a variety of sexual practices indicates particular subgroups of MSM have the highest probability of being STI positive.

  13. Partner Selection among Latino Immigrant Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Shedlin, Michele G.; Brooks, Kelly D.; Penha, Marcelo Montes; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation. PMID:19688592

  14. HIV knowledge and risks among Vietnamese men who have sex with men travelling abroad.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Hoang Quan; Colby, Donn Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Rapid economic and social development in Vietnam has resulted in increased opportunities for travel and new potential routes of HIV transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional study examining demographics, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviour amongst 100 Vietnamese men who have sex with men who traveled abroad in the previous 12 months. Men who have sex with men surveyed were mostly university-educated, single, and under 30. Most travel (73%) was within Southeast Asia and was undertaken for tourism (51%) or for work (29%). Casual sex with a foreign partner occurred on 39% of trips. Only four were reported to have involved in unsafe sex with a casual partner. Four reported illicit drug use. Alcohol was widely consumed. Multivariate analysis showed that two variables, travelling alone (OR = 5.26,p < 0.001) and a university education (OR = 4.05,p = 0.004), were significantly associated with casual sex abroad. More HIV prevention education on the risks of sex while travelling abroad is needed for men who have sex with men in Vietnam.

  15. Sources of HIV infection among men having sex with men and implications for prevention ✻

    PubMed Central

    Ratmann, O.; van Sighem, A.; Bezemer, D.; Gavryushkina, A.; Jurriaans, S.; Wensing, A.; de Wolf, F.; Reiss, P.; Fraser, C.

    2016-01-01

    New HIV diagnoses among men having sex with men (MSM) have not decreased appreciably in most countries, even though care and prevention services have been scaled up substantially in the past twenty years. To maximize the impact of prevention strategies, it is crucial to quantify the sources of transmission at the population level. We used viral sequence and clinical patient data from one of Europe’s nation-wide cohort studies to estimate probable sources of transmission for 617 recently infected MSM. 71% of transmissions were from undiagnosed men, 6% from men who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), 1% from men with no contact to care for at least 18 months, and 43% from those in their first year of infection. The lack of substantial reductions in incidence amongst Dutch MSM is not a result of ineffective ART provision or inadequate retention in care. In counterfactual modeling scenarios, 19% of these past cases could have been averted with current annual testing coverage and immediate ART to those testing positive. 66% of these cases could have been averted with available antiretrovirals (immediate ART provided to all MSM testing positive, and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis taken by half of all who test negative for HIV), but only if half of all men at risk of transmission had tested annually. With increasing sequence coverage, molecular epidemiological analyses can be a key tool to direct HIV prevention strategies to the predominant sources of infection, and help send HIV epidemics amongst MSM into a decisive decline. PMID:26738795

  16. Where are all the men? The marginalization of men in social scientific research on infertility.

    PubMed

    Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Lohan, Maria

    2013-09-01

    There is a wealth of research exploring the psychological consequences of infertility and assisted reproduction technology, a substantial body of sociological and anthropological work on 'reproductive disruptions' of many kinds and a small but growing literature on patient perspectives of the quality of care in assisted reproduction. In all these fields, research studies are far more likely to be focused on the understandings and experiences of women than those of men. This paper discusses reasons for the relative exclusion of men in what has been called the 'psycho-social' literature on infertility, comments on research on men from psychological and social perspectives and recent work on the quality of patient care, and makes suggestions for a reframing of the research agenda on men and assisted reproduction. Further research is needed in all areas, including: perceptions of infertility and infertility treatment seeking; experiences of treatment; information and support needs; decisions to end treatment; fatherhood post assisted conception; and the motivation and experiences of sperm donors and men who seek fatherhood through surrogacy or co-parenting. This paper argues for multimethod, interdisciplinary research that includes broader populations of men which can contribute to improved clinical practice and support for users of assisted reproduction treatment.

  17. Men More Likely to Use Marijuana Than Women, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162372.html Men More Likely to Use Marijuana Than Women, Study Finds Researchers suggest 2007 recession ... more American adults choose to puff at the marijuana pipe, a gender difference is becoming clear -- men ...

  18. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  19. Geneticists Get to The Roots of Hair Loss in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Genes and Gene Therapy Men's Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Genes and Gene Therapy Hair Loss Men's Health About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  20. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCHS Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS ... other not-married men to have had a health care visit in the past 12 months. Figure 1. ...

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor before treatment. I ... other health issues are also important. Questions from men about sexual problems: What sexual problems might I ...

  2. Men: Here Are Ways to Healthier, Younger-Looking Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163115.html Men: Here Are Ways to Healthier, Younger-Looking Skin ... 2017 WEDNESDAY, Jan. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many men don't think about skin care but they ...

  3. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have treatment to control their cholesterol levels. Mental health Women are more likely to show signs of ... men are. Depression is the most common women’s mental health problem, 5 and more women than men are ...

  4. Marriage Role Expectations of Divorced Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph W.; Andress, Elizabeth L.

    1982-01-01

    Examined six dimensions of expectations of divorced men and women along the continuum of traditionalism versus egalitarianism in sex roles. Data suggested that women, more than men, view marriage role responsibilities evenly applying to both sexes. (Author)

  5. Urinary tract infection in men with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    De Pinho, A M; Lopes, G S; Ramos-Filho, C F; Santos, O da R; De Oliveira, M P; Halpern, M; Gouvea, C A; Schechter, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether bacteriuria and, specifically, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) occur with increased frequency in men with HIV infection. METHODS--In this cross-sectional study we investigated three groups of men, aged from 18 to 50 years. Group A was composed of patients with a diagnosis of AIDS; Group B, of patients without HIV infection, and group C of patients with asymptomatic HIV infection. Patients with any known predisposing factor for UTI were excluded from the study. A clean-catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient on the first day of hospital admission (groups A and B) or during a visit to the outpatient clinic (group C). Bacteriuria was diagnosed when > or = 100,000 colony forming units/ml, urine were grown. RESULTS--There were 415 patients, 151 in group A, 170 in group B and 94 in group C. Bacteriuria was significantly more frequently in group A (20 cases, 13.3%) than in groups B (3 cases, 1.8%, p = 0.00007) and C (3 cases, 3.2%, p = 0.009). Ten cases of bacteriuria in group A (6.6%) were symptomatic while no case of symptomatic UTI was seen in groups B (p = 0.0004) and C (p = 0.008). The frequency of UTI in homosexual men with AIDS (7 cases, 6.7%) was not significantly different from that observed in men with AIDS who denied homosexuality (3 cases, 6.5%). E coli was the predominant pathogen associated with UTI. Although adequate response to a two-week course of antibiotics was observed in most cases, an in-hospital mortality rate of 20% was found among AIDS patients with symptomatic UTI. CONCLUSIONS--In the present study, the frequency of bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI was found to be increased in men with AIDS. E coli was the predominant pathogen in these cases. These data suggest that symptomatic UTI may represent a relevant cause of morbidity for men with AIDS. PMID:8300097

  6. Genetic and Environmental Regulation on Longitudinal Change of Metabolic Phenotypes in Danish and Chinese Adult Twins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxia; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Duan, Haiping; Tan, Qihua; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Kruse, Torben; Dalgård, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The rate of change in metabolic phenotypes can be highly indicative of metabolic disorders and disorder-related modifications. We analyzed data from longitudinal twin studies on multiple metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins representing two populations of distinct ethnic, cultural, social-economic backgrounds and geographical environments. Materials and Methods The study covered a relatively large sample of 502 pairs of Danish adult twins followed up for a long period of 12 years with a mean age at intake of 38 years (range: 18–65) and a total of 181 Chinese adult twin pairs traced for about 7 years with a mean baseline age of 39.5 years (range: 23–64). The classical twin models were fitted to the longitudinal change in each phenotype (Δphenotype) to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to the variation in Δphenotype. Results Moderate to high contributions by the unique environment were estimated for all phenotypes in both Danish (from 0.51 for low density lipoprotein cholesterol up to 0.72 for triglycerides) and Chinese (from 0.41 for triglycerides up to 0.73 for diastolic blood pressure) twins; low to moderate genetic components were estimated for long-term change in most of the phenotypes in Danish twins except for triglycerides and hip circumference. Compared with Danish twins, the Chinese twins tended to have higher genetic control over the longitudinal changes in lipids (except high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and glucose, higher unique environmental contribution to blood pressure but no genetic contribution to longitudinal change in body mass traits. Conclusion Our results emphasize the major contribution of unique environment to the observed intra-individual variation in all metabolic phenotypes in both samples, and meanwhile reveal differential patterns of genetic and common environmental regulation on changes over time in metabolic phenotypes across the two samples. PMID:26862898

  7. [The Danish debate on priority setting in medicine - characteristics and results].

    PubMed

    Pornak, S; Meyer, T; Raspe, H

    2011-10-01

    Priority setting in medicine helps to achieve a fair and transparent distribution of health-care resources. The German discussion about priority setting is still in its infancy and may benefit from other countries' experiences. This paper aims to analyse the Danish priority setting debate in order to stimulate the German discussion. The methods used are a literature analysis and a document analysis as well as expert interviews. The Danish debate about priority setting in medicine began in the 1970s, when a government committee was constituted to evaluate health-care priorities at the national level. In the 1980s a broader debate arose in politics, ethics, medicine and health economy. The discussions reached a climax in the 1990s, when many local activities - always involving the public - were initiated. Some Danish counties tried to implement priority setting in the daily routine of health care. The Council of Ethics was a major player in the debate of the 1990s and published a detailed statement on priority setting in 1996. With the new century the debate about priority setting seemed to have come to an end, but in 2006 the Technology Council and the Danish Regions resumed the discussion. In 2009 the Medical Association called for a broad debate in order to achieve equity among all patients. The long lasting Danish debate on priority setting has entailed only very little practical consequences on health care. The main problems seem to have been the missing effort to bundle the various local initiatives on a national level and the lack of powerful players to put results of the discussion into practice. Nevertheless, today the attitude towards priority setting is predominantly positive and even politicians talk freely about it.

  8. Phenomenology of men with body dysmorphic disorder concerning penis size compared to men anxious about their penis size and to men without concerns: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    Men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) may be preoccupied with the size or shape of the penis, which may be causing significant shame or impairment. Little is known about the characteristics and phenomenology of such men and whether they can be differentiated from men with small penis anxiety (SPA) (who do not have BDD), and men with no penile concerns. Twenty-six men with BDD, 31 men with SPA, and 33 men without penile concerns were compared on psychopathology, experiences of recurrent imagery, avoidance and safety-seeking behaviours. Men with BDD had significantly higher scores than both the SPA group and no penile concern group for measures of imagery, avoidance, safety seeking and general psychopathology. The groups differed on the phenomenology of BDD specific to penile size preoccupation clearly from the worries of SPA, which in turn were different to those of the men without concerns. The common avoidance and safety seeking behaviours were identified in such men that may be used clinically.

  9. Characteristics of men who have sex with men on the internet but identify as heterosexual, compared with heterosexually identified men who have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Daneback, Kristian; Tikkanen, Ronny

    2005-04-01

    We compared men who have sex with other men on the Internet with the remainder of the sample of men who reported only sex with women on the Internet, in a sample of 1,846 Swedish men recruited from a major Swedish portal. We report on the self-identified heterosexual men in the sample who reported engaging in cybersex in the past year, and for whom there was complete data on sexual identity and the gender of cybersexual partners. Of the 244 cases with full data, 76% were heterosexual in both identity and behavior, 16% were gay or bisexual in identity and reported both male and female cybersexual contacts on the Internet, and 8% indicated their sexual preference was heterosexual but also reported at least one male sexual partner on the Internet. Thus, 11% of self-identified heterosexual men had sex with other men online. Comparing the two groups, the men who had sex with men (MSM) who did not identify (MSM-NI) spent significantly more time per week online, although a similar amount of time on sexual pursuits, as the heterosexual men. The MSM-NI were significantly more likely to agree that their online sexuality had affected their sexuality in a positive way, to have bought sex from prostitutes, to agree that they do things online that they would not do offline, have cybersex more often, use a web-camera and microphone more often, flirt and visit contact sites more often, and agree more often that sexual thoughts and behaviors are causing problems, desire to have sex creates problems, and sometimes fail to meet commitments due to their sexual behavior. These data taken together suggest that MSM-NI online are not uncommon and are characterized by the extent of their cybersexual involvement that sometimes extends to other men. Such men may rationalize this cybersex with other men as not, or minimally, sexual in much the same way as Humphreys characterized MSMs in public restrooms.

  10. Gender and the Internet: Women Communicating and Men Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.; Ervin, Kelly S.; Gardner, Philip D.; Schmitt, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Examined factors responsible for gender differences in Internet use. Surveys of college students indicated that women and men used the Internet equally but differently, with men connecting more frequently to the Web than women and women using e-mail more than men. Computer self-efficacy, loneliness, and depression accounted in part for gender…

  11. Condomless Sex: Gay Men, Barebacking, and Harm Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Social science research as well as a rise in sexually transmitted diseases and new HIV infections among men who have sex with men point to increasing numbers of gay men engaging in unprotected anal intercourse without condoms, a practice called "barebacking." There is some evidence that barebacking is linked to the rise of crystal methamphetamine…

  12. Attitudes toward the Level of Men's Involvement in Abortion Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eileen S.; Coleman, Priscilla K.; Swager, Melinda J.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed college students' (N=366) attitudes regarding males' involvement in abortion decisions. Results indicate that both men and women thought that men should be involved. Men indicated a desire for more responsibility in such decisions than women thought they should have. Women did not view abortion as strictly a women's issue. (RJM)

  13. University Student Beliefs about Sex: Men vs. Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of survey data from 326 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed significant differences between men and women in their sexual beliefs. Specifically, men were more likely to think that oral sex is not sex; that cybersex is not cheating, that men can't tell if a woman is faking orgasm and that sex frequency drops in…

  14. Men in the Triangle: Grief, Inhibition, and Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of emotional experience is a widely acknowledged characteristic of many Western-raised men. While this affective inhibition may impact men chronically in many ways, it becomes particularly salient when men are bereaved or otherwise grieving and are unable fully to experience normative emotional responses to loss. This article briefly…

  15. College Men and Masculinity: Implications for Diversity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The balance of empirical research on college men is a portrait of their maladaptive and antisocial attitudes and behaviors. Studies have demonstrated the correlation between college men's problematic behavior and adherence to gender role traditionalism. Educators have few composites of men's prosocial behavior nor the masculine ideology that…

  16. Men's Health Promotion by General Practitioners in a Workplace Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoun, Samar; Johnson, Lyn

    2002-01-01

    A project to promote rural men's health through diabetes education and screening in the workplace involved 446 men aged 40-65 in Western Australia. Of the 287 men identified at high risk of developing diabetes and referred to their general practitioner, 76 percent visited their physician. However, physician's advice on lifestyle changes was…

  17. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. PMID:26506373

  18. Management of ejaculatory disorders in infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Barazani, Yagil; Stahl, Peter J; Nagler, Harris M; Stember, Doron S

    2012-01-01

    Ejaculatory dysfunction is a highly prevalent clinical condition that may be classified along a continuum that ranges from premature ejaculation (PE), through retarded or delayed ejaculation (DE), to complete anejaculation (AE). Retrograde ejaculation (RE) represents a distinct entity in which ejaculate is expelled either partially or completely into the bladder. While DE and PE are significant sources of sexual dissatisfaction among men and their partners, patients with these disorders retain normal fertility in most cases. Conversely, men with AE and RE are unable to deliver sperm into the female genital tract and are therefore rendered subfertile. Therefore, in reviewing ejaculatory disorders as they relate to fertility, this paper will primarily focus on the diagnosis and management of AE and RE. Physiology, diagnostic strategies, pharmacological treatments, and procedural interventions relevant to AE and RE are discussed. PMID:22580636

  19. Aromatase Activity and Bone Loss in Men

    PubMed Central

    Merlotti, Daniela; Gennari, Luigi; Stolakis, Konstantinos; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase is a specific component of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system responsible for the transformation of androgen precursors into estrogens. This enzyme is encoded by the CYP19A1 gene located at chromosome 15q21.2, that is, expressed in ovary and testis, but also in many extraglandular sites such as the placenta, brain, adipose tissue, and bone. The activity of aromatase regulates the concentrations of estrogens with endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine effects on target issues including bone. Importantly, extraglandular aromatization of circulating androgen precursors is the major source of estrogen in men. Clinical and experimental evidences clearly indicate that aromatase activity and estrogen production are necessary for longitudinal bone growth, the attainment of peak bone mass, pubertal growth spurt, epiphyseal closure, and normal bone remodeling in young individuals. Moreover, with aging, individual differences in aromatase activity may significantly affect bone loss and fracture risk in men. PMID:21772971

  20. Hair transplantation for men and women.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2006-03-01

    The goal of hair transplantation is to restore a natural, undetectable frame of hair to the face. From the 1960s into the late 1990s, using 10 to 25 hair, 3-4 mm grafts was the mainstay of hair transplantation, despite the fact hair naturally grows in the scalp in bundles of 1 to 4 hair follicles. The 10 to 25 hair grafts looked unnatural because they were unnatural on the scalp. Today, surgeons meticulously harvest the natural 1 to 4 hair follicular groupings from donor hair and implant them in the recipient region in men and women. This technique consistently creates natural-appearing hair. Women can benefit from transplantation as much as men.

  1. Inner Contradictions Among Men Who Bareback

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Timothy; Ventuneac, Ana; Balan, Ivan; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2013-01-01

    “Barebacking,” or intentional unprotected anal intercourse when HIV transmission can occur, emerged as a descriptive term in the 1990s and marked greater acceptance by gay and bisexual men of dispensing with condom use under certain circumstances. In an exploratory study of men who used Internet sites to meet partners and who reported recent episodes of barebacking, respondents outlined numerous strategies they deployed to avoid HIV infection instead of universal condom use. However, in interviews many participants acknowledged uneasiness with the flaws in their chosen strategies and the contradiction between their urgent desire to remain HIV-free and their sexual practices. For some, the dissonance between the conflicting cognitions could be resolved through self-justification, mental compartmentalization, or invincibility beliefs so that barebacking can continue. For this sub-population continued reiteration of cognitive-based prevention messages have the potential to reinforce rather than undermine their attachment to inadequate strategies for disease avoidance. PMID:22645221

  2. Evaluation of QuitNow Men: An Online, Men-Centered Smoking Cessation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Paul; Mackay, Martha H; Stolp, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background Men continue to smoke cigarettes in greater numbers than women. There is growing evidence for the value of developing targeted, men-centered health promotion programs. However, few smoking cessation interventions have been designed for men. A gender-specific website, QuitNow Men, was developed based on focus group interview findings, stakeholder feedback, and evidence-based cessation strategies. The website was designed to incorporate a masculine look and feel through the use of images, direct language, and interactive content. Usability experts and end-users provided feedback on navigation and functionality of the website prior to pilot testing. Objectives The objectives of the pilot study were to describe (1) men’s use and evaluations of the interactive resources and information on the QuitNow Men website, and (2) the potential of QuitNow Men to engage men in reducing and quitting smoking. Methods A one-group, pretest-posttest study design was used. Men who were interested in quitting were recruited and invited to use the website over a 6-month period. Data were collected via online questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. A total of 117 men completed the baseline survey. Over half of those (67/117, 57.3%) completed both follow-up surveys. Results At baseline, participants (N=117) had been smoking for an average of 24 years (SD 12.1) and smoked on average 15 cigarettes a day (SD 7.4). The majority had not previously used a quit smoking website (103/117, 88.0%) or websites focused on men’s health (105/117, 89.7%). At the 6-month follow-up, the majority of men used the QuitNow Men website at least once (64/67, 96%). Among the 64 users, 29 (43%) reported using the website more than 6 times. The men using QuitNow Men agreed or strongly agreed that the website was easy to use (51/64, 80%), the design and images were appealing (42/64, 66%), they intended to continue to use the website (42/64, 66%), and that they would recommend Quit

  3. Helping men with the trauma of miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Martha S; Kiselica, Mark S

    2010-09-01

    Although much has been written about women and miscarriage, little has been researched or written about the partners of these women and their reactions to the pregnancy loss. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about the subject and to suggest an approach to psychotherapy that is sensitive to the needs of these men and helps them make sense of their loss.

  4. Young addicted men hormone profile detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Paweł; Wasiewicz, Piotr; Leszczyńska, Bożena; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2010-09-01

    Hormone parameters were determined in the serum of young addicted men in order to compare them with those obtained from the group of healthy subjects. Three groups were investigated which were named opiates, mixed and control group. Statistical and data mining methods were applied to obtain significant differences. R package was used for all computation. The determination of hormones parameters provide important information relative to impact of addiction.

  5. Seroprevalence of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) among men in the multinational HPV Infection in Men study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shams; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Waterboer, Tim; Rollison, Dana E; Ingles, Donna J; Torres, B Nelson; Michel, Angelika; Sudenga, Staci L; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Borenstein, Amy R; Wang, Wei; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-12-01

    Data on cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) seroprevalence are primarily derived from skin cancer case-control studies. Few studies have reported the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV among healthy men. This study investigated the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico and the USA. Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men study. Archived serum specimens were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV genotypes, β-HPV types (5/8/12/14/17/22/23/24/38/48), α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV1 and ν-HPV 41 using a glutathione S-transferase L1-based multiplex serology assay. Risk factor data were collected by a questionnaire. Binomial proportions were used to estimate seroprevalence, and logistic regression to examine factors associated with seropositivity. Overall, 65.4 % of men were seropositive to ≥1 of the 14 cutaneous HPV types, and 39.0 % were positive for ≥1 β-HPV types. Seroprevalence was 8.9, 30.9, 28.6 and 9.4 % for α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV 1 and ν-HPV 41, respectively. In multivariate analyses, seropositivity for any cutaneous HPV type was associated with higher education [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.75; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.83], and seropositivity of any β-HPV type was significantly associated with increasing age (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.12-2.63, for men aged 31-44 years vs men aged 18-30 years). Other factors associated with various type-specific cutaneous HPV seropositivity included country, circumcision and lifetime number of male sexual partners. These data indicate that exposure to cutaneous HPV is common. Future studies are needed to assess the role of cutaneous HPV in diseases.

  6. Female Fertility Affects Men's Linguistic Choices

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Jacqueline M.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women. PMID:22347361

  7. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men.

    PubMed

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.

  8. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Jacqueline M; Kaschak, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  9. Comparative anaerobic power of men and women.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M M; Patton, J F; Frederick, F A

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in anaerobic power (AnP) between men and women and the contribution of anthropometric variables in accounting for these differences. There were 18 female and 19 male subjects who performed the 30-s Wingate test where power outputs in watts are expressed as mean power (MP, the mean for 30 s) and peak power (PP, the highest 5-s interval). Thigh volume (TV), lean body mass (LBM) and body weight (BW) were used as anthropometric variables. Absolute AnP of men was 35% and 40% higher (p less than 0.001) than that of women for PP and MP, respectively. These differences decreased to 10% and 17% for PP and MP when expressed relative to kg LBM. Anthropometric variables explained less than 50% of the variation in PP and MP for men, while in women, TV accounted for 66% and 71% of the variation in PP and MP, respectively. When the data were combined, TV, BW, and LBM explained 48%, 74%, and 79% of variation in MP and 53%, 71%, and 76% in PP, respectively. These data show that gender differences in indices of AnP are similar to those reported for muscular strength and aerobic power. Additionally, a larger portion of the between gender variation compared to the within gender variation in AnP can be accounted for by anthropometric variables.

  10. Women's bust size and men's courtship solicitation.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, Nicolas

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have found that women with larger breasts than the average were considered to be more physically attractive. In these studies attractiveness was measured with the help of silhouette figures or photographs and the effect of breast size on men's behaviour was not considered. In this study two experiments were carried out in order to test the effect of a woman's breast size on approaches made by males. We hypothesized that an increase in breast size would be associated with an increase in approaches by men. A young female confederate was instructed to wear a bra that permitted her to artificially vary her breast size. In the first experiment the female confederate was instructed to sit in a nightclub for one hour whereas in the second experiment she was instructed to take a seat in a pavement area of a bar. It was found that increasing the breast size of the female confederate was associated with an increasing number of approaches by men.

  11. Surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma in MEN 2.

    PubMed

    Pedullà, Giuseppe; Crocetti, Daniele; Paliotta, Annalisa; Tarallo, Maria Rita; De Gori, Antonietta; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; De Toma, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a rare autosomal dominant cancer syndrome. Forty to fifty percent of patients with MEN 2A develops pheochromocytoma. Surgeons treating these patients with pheochromocytoma have always been faced with question of whether to perform mono-or bilateral adrenalectomy and the timing of surgical intervention. Over the past 20 years, thanks to the development of ever more sophisticated techniques of diagnostic imaging (TC, MRI, Scintigraphy, PET), which make it possible to identify small lesions, and to ever more rapid laboratory tests, there has been a change in the surgical management of this condition. Surgeons moved from bilateral open adrenalectomy (6- 9) to laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy and cortical sparing (10-13). After partial adrenalectomy one third of the patients require replacement therapy because the function of the residual parenchyma was compromised by excessive devascularization during surgery. In patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma it is advisable to perform only partial adrenalectomy of at least one gland, i.e. to completely remove the gland with the larger lesion and remove part of the gland with the smaller lesion to reduce the risk of recurrence. The authors report 4 cases of MEN 2, including 2 first-degree relatives, which illustrate the progress made in surgical treatment for pheochromocytoma.

  12. Personality Change Influences Mortality in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Avron

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that high neuroticism is associated with early mortality. However, recent work suggests that people's level of neuroticism changes over long periods of time. We hypothesized that such changes in trait neuroticism affect mortality risk. Growth-curve parameters (levels and slopes) that quantified the trajectories of neuroticism change over 12 years were used to predict 18-year risk of mortality among 1,663 aging men. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate mortality risk from level and slope parameters, controlling for objective and subjective health, depression, and age. Although a parallel analysis of extraversion showed no significant effects, level and slope of neuroticism interacted in their effect on mortality. Men who had both a high average level of neuroticism and an increasing level of neuroticism over time had much lower survival than men without that combination. These findings suggest that it is not just the level of personality traits, but their direction of change, that is related to mortality. PMID:17576273

  13. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  14. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-08-06

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms "IBD AND male infertility", "Crohn's disease AND male infertility", "ulcerative colitis AND male infertility". References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options.

  15. Lack of HIV Testing and Awareness of HIV Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lui, Hui; Guo, Yaqi; Han, Lei; Mandel, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. However, little is known about their HIV testing behavior. From September 2001 to January 2002, we recruited 482 men through social networks and MSM venues. We conducted HIV testing and counseling, and anonymous, standardized face-to-face interviews. Eighty-two percent of…

  16. An Exploratory Assessment of the Validity of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM): Implications for Serving Veteran Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Garza, Thomas; Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2015-01-01

    The Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) assesses predictors of student success for historically underrepresented and underserved men in community colleges. The instrument is designed to inform programming and service-delivery for male students (Wood & Harris, 2013). While the instrument was designed for community college men in general,…

  17. Health Care Access and Health Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: The Cost of Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKirnan, David J.; Du Bois, Steve N.; Alvy, Lisa M.; Jones, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) appear to experience barriers to health care compared with general population men. This report examines individual differences in health care access within a diverse sample of urban MSM ("N" = 871). The authors examined demographic differences in health care access and the relation between access and…

  18. Suboptimal HIV Testing Uptake Among Men Who Engage in Commercial Sex Work with Men in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Harry; Friedman, Mackey Reuel; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Men who have sex with men and are sex workers (MSMSW) are disproportionately affected by the growing and emerging HIV epidemic. As sex work and same-sex behavior are heavily stigmatized and often illegal in most Asian countries, HIV research focusing on MSMSW has been limited. The goal of this analysis is to examine HIV testing practices and identify correlates of HIV testing among MSMSW in Asia. Methods: The Asia Internet MSM Sex Survey, an online cross-sectional survey of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM), was conducted in 2010. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, HIV testing behaviors, and sexual behaviors were collected. Five hundred and seventy-four HIV-negative/unknown respondents reported receiving payment for sex with men at least once in the past 6 months and were included in this analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify independent correlates of HIV testing in the past year. Results: About half (48.6%) of the participants had been tested for HIV at least once within the past year, and 30.5% had never been tested. We also found that MSMSW participants who engaged in risky behaviors were less likely to be tested. Conclusion: While one might expect a high HIV testing rate among MSMSW due to the risks associated with engaging in sex work, we found that HIV testing uptake is suboptimal among MSMSW in Asia. These results suggest that targeted HIV prevention and testing promotion among MSMSW are needed. PMID:26982598

  19. Liminal identities: Caribbean men who have sex with men in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Moji; Elam, Gillian; Gerver, Sarah; Solarin, Ijeoma; Fenton, Kevin; Easterbrook, Phillippa

    2009-04-01

    Accounts by 10 Caribbean men who have sex with men living in the UK reveal them to be liminal beings with unstable and unresolved identities. They are between social states: aware they are not heterosexual and not publicly recognised, or in some cases self-accepted, as homosexual. Caribbean-born respondents especially suffer from homophobia, expressing regret and disappointment at their sexuality. They may also experience cognitive dissonance - as they are aware of their conflict with the heteronormative order - they cannot resolve. Religion contributes to homophobia and cognitive dissonance particularly for Caribbean-born men, some of whom may believe a fundamental conflict exists between Christianity and homosexuality. Heterosexism and homophobia contribute to and reinforce their liminal state, by preventing transition to publicly recognised homosexual status. Respondents may engage in private and public, internal and external, overt and covert policing of their and other gay men's behaviour: through strategic pretence at heterosexuality and/or condemnation of men engaging in behaviour identifiable as stereotypically homosexual, for example. Narratives point to the need to complexify the conventional understanding of Jamaican heterosexism to explain reported variations in the degree of anti-homosexual hostility in the country.

  20. Religiosity, Internalized Homonegativity, and Outness in Christian Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolenski, Derek J.; Brady, Sonya S.; Rosser, B.R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to their congregations’ negative views of homosexuality, Christian men who have sex with men frequently struggle to reconcile their religious and sexual identities, possibly contributing to negative emotional states and behaviors associated with HIV/STI infection. To examine the influence of religiousity on internalized homonegativity and outness among Christian men who have sex with men, we used survey data from 1,165 men who answered questions about their religious beliefs and sexual behavior. We stratified participants based on religious affiliation groupings: Catholic, Mainline Protestant, and Evangelical Protestant. After using confirmatory factor analysis to verify that the selected measures of religiosity were equivalent between groups, we used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between religiosity, internalized homonegativity, and outness. Among Catholics and Mainline Protestants, religiosity was not associated with internalized homonegativy or outness. However, among Evangelical Protestants—a group more likely to ascribe to religious fundamentalism—increased religiosity was associated with increased internalized homonegativity, which contributed to decreased outness. Our findings suggest that mental health providers and sexuality educators should be more concerned about the influence of religiosity on internalized homonegativity and outness when clients have a history of affiliation with Evangelical Protestant faiths more so than Catholic or Mainline Protestant faiths. PMID:23226970

  1. Global pathways to men's caregiving: mixed methods findings from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey and the Men Who Care study.

    PubMed

    Kato-Wallace, Jane; Barker, Gary; Eads, Marci; Levtov, Ruti

    2014-01-01

    Promoting men's participation in unpaid care work is part of the Programme of Action for the International Conference on Population and Development. However, men's involvement in care work does not mirror the advances women have made in paid work outside the home. This mixed method study explores which men are more involved in caregiving, and what childhood and adulthood factors influence their level of involvement. Quantitative research presents findings from 1169 men across six countries with children aged 0-4, and a qualitative study presents findings from in-depth interviews with 83 men engaged in atypical caregiving practices. Survey research finds that being taught to care for children, witnessing one's father take care of one's siblings, respondents' present attitudes about gender equality and having outside help (or none, in some cases) were all also associated with men's higher level of involvement. Qualitative research reveals that men's experiences of violence, the normalisation of domestic work as children and life circumstances rather than greater-than-average beliefs in gender equality all propelled them into care work. Findings suggest that engaging more men into care work implies changes to policies and structural realities in the workplace coupled with changing gender attitudes. These insights inform policy and practice aimed at promoting greater involvement in care work by men.

  2. Patterns of sexual arousal in homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Jerome A; Janssen, Erick

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this stimulus would induce relatively low levels of response in heterosexual and homosexual men. A sample of 59 men (19 homosexual, 13 bisexual, and 27 heterosexual) were presented with a series of 4-min sexual videos while their genital and subjective sexual responses were measured continuously. Bisexual men did not differ significantly in their responses to male homosexual stimuli (depicting men engaging in sex) from homosexual men, and they did not differ significantly in their responses to heterosexual (depicting two women, without same-sex contact, engaged in sex with a man) and lesbian (depicting women engaging in sex) stimuli from heterosexual men. However, bisexual men displayed significantly higher levels of both genital and subjective sexual arousal to a bisexual stimulus (depicting a man engaged in sex with both a man and a woman) than either homosexual or heterosexual men. The findings of this study indicate that bisexuality in men is associated with a unique and specific pattern of sexual arousal.

  3. Hormonal parameters of men with varicoceles before and after varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Hudson, R W; Perez-Marrero, R A; Crawford, V A; McKay, D E

    1985-06-01

    The gonadotropin responses to a 4-hour infusion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and seminal plasma dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone levels were assessed before and 6 to 12 months after varicocelectomy in 22 men with varicoceles. Twelve men were severely oligozoospermic (sperm densities less than 10 X 10(6)/ml), whereas 10 men had sperm densities between 11 and 30 X 10(6)/ml. Each man had excessive gonadotropin responses to GnRH and lower than normal seminal plasma DHT levels preoperatively. Eight of the 12 severely oligozoospermic men and 6 of the other 10 men had postoperative improvements in sperm density. These men (responders) had normalization of gonadotropin response and seminal plasma DHT levels. The nonresponders had identical hormonal parameters before and after surgery. These results indicate that the pantesticular defect in hormonal synthesis and spermatogenesis, seen in some men with varicoceles, can be reversible.

  4. Marriage, cohabitation, and men's use of preventive health care services.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Stephen J; Vahratian, Anjel; Blumberg, Joseph H

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that married men are more likely than not-married men to seek preventive health care services because their spouses encourage them to do so (1,2). It was not known, however, whether cohabiting partners of not-married men play a health-promoting role similar to that of spouses. With data from the 2011-2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), selected measures of preventive health care service use were compared for three groups of men aged 18-64: married men (defined as those living with a spouse), cohabiting men (defined as those living with a partner who is not a spouse), and other not-married men. The consistency of observed differences by age and health insurance coverage status was also investigated.

  5. Men's views on gender and sexuality in a Bangladesh village.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muradul; Karim, K M Rabiul

    The violation of women's sexual rights is a crucial public health problem, which is often related to the way people view gender and sexuality in a society. This study explores married men's typical views on gender, family, and sexuality in a rural Bangladesh context. Using a qualitative methodological approach, 10 married men were purposively included from a northwest village. The study revealed that married men's views about gender and sexuality are heavily influenced by patriarchal norms. Men think that a wife is the property of her husband and that the wife should obey her husband by giving sex to her husband whenever he wants. Men also think that if women fail to obey their husbands or please them sexually, men are allowed to beat their wives. Interviews explored that the violation of women's sexual rights might be closely related to men's gendered views about women's rights.

  6. Methods of HIV Disclosure by Men Who Have Sex with Men to Casual Sexual Partners

    PubMed Central

    SEROVICH, JULIANNE M.; OLIVER, DANIEL G.; SMITH, SARAH A.; MASON, TINA L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report results of a qualitative investigation into the methods that HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) use to disclose their serostatus to casual sexual partners. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 57 HIV-positive adult MSM from a large midwestern city. Using an inductive approach to data analysis, our participants revealed a typology of disclosure consisting of strategies that can be placed into five primary categorizations of disclosure. These include: point-blank disclosure, indirect disclosure, stage setting, buffering, and seeking similars. This information can be especially beneficial to those working with men to develop better disclosure skills. PMID:16375614

  7. Men's violence against women and men are inter-related: Recommendations for simultaneous intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; Gruskin, Sofia; Rojo, Florencia; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    Men are more likely than women to perpetrate nearly all types of interpersonal violence (e.g. intimate partner violence, murder, assault, rape). While public health programs target prevention efforts for each type of violence, there are rarely efforts that approach the prevention of violence holistically and attempt to tackle its common root causes. Drawing upon theories that explain the drivers of violence, we examine how gender norms, including norms and social constructions of masculinity, are at the root of most physical violence perpetration by men against women and against other men. We then argue that simply isolating each type of violence and constructing separate interventions for each type is inefficient and less effective. We call for recognition of the commonalities found across the drivers of different types of violence and make intervention recommendations with the goal of seeking more long-standing solutions to violence prevention. PMID:26482359

  8. Men's violence against women and men are inter-related: Recommendations for simultaneous intervention.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; Gruskin, Sofia; Rojo, Florencia; Dworkin, Shari L

    2015-12-01

    Men are more likely than women to perpetrate nearly all types of interpersonal violence (e.g. intimate partner violence, murder, assault, rape). While public health programs target prevention efforts for each type of violence, there are rarely efforts that approach the prevention of violence holistically and attempt to tackle its common root causes. Drawing upon theories that explain the drivers of violence, we examine how gender norms, including norms and social constructions of masculinity, are at the root of most physical violence perpetration by men against women and against other men. We then argue that simply isolating each type of violence and constructing separate interventions for each type is inefficient and less effective. We call for recognition of the commonalities found across the drivers of different types of violence and make intervention recommendations with the goal of seeking more long-standing solutions to violence prevention.

  9. Partner selection among Latino immigrant men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Shedlin, Michele G; Brooks, Kelly D; Montes Penha, Marcelo; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation.

  10. Services just for men? Insights from a national study of the well men services pilots

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Men continue to have a lower life expectancy in most countries compared to women. Explanations of this gendered health inequality tend to focus on male risk taking, unhealthy lifestyle choices and resistance to seeking help from health services. In the period 2005–2008 the Scottish Government funded a nationwide community health promotion programme aimed at improving men’s health, called Well Men Service Pilots (henceforth WMS). Method This paper explores WMS programme users’ perspectives and experiences of health help-seeking against theories of hegemonic masculinity as explanatory frameworks for men’s behaviour around health and illness, and their views on a male-specific focus of the programme. It is based on a secondary analysis of 43 semi-structured interviews with men who engaged with this programme. Results We challenge the commonly held notion of men as being disinterested in their health, and point to their heterogeneity in relation to their views about health and notions of health seeking. Moreover, men in our study were largely ambivalent about the need for gender specific services, despite their positive reactions to the programme in general. Conclusions Our findings question the utility of some theories of masculinity that posit somewhat simplistic explanations for men’s reluctance to seek help from formal healthcare services. They also suggest that providing male-specific health services may not significantly address men’s supposed reluctance to seek help from formal health services. Essentially, age seemed to be more important than gender. All encompassing health programmes are likely to fail to meet their health improvement objectives if they attempt to engage with men on the simple basis that they are male. PMID:23634701

  11. HIV/AIDS knowledge among men who have sex with men: applying the item response theory

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Raquel Regina de Freitas Magalhães; Batista, José Rodrigues; Ceccato, Maria das Graças Braga; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among men who have sex with men in Brazil using the latent trait model estimated by Item Response Theory. METHODS Multicenter, cross-sectional study, carried out in ten Brazilian cities between 2008 and 2009. Adult men who have sex with men were recruited (n = 3,746) through Respondent Driven Sampling. HIV/AIDS knowledge was ascertained through ten statements by face-to-face interview and latent scores were obtained through two-parameter logistic modeling (difficulty and discrimination) using Item Response Theory. Differential item functioning was used to examine each item characteristic curve by age and schooling. RESULTS Overall, the HIV/AIDS knowledge scores using Item Response Theory did not exceed 6.0 (scale 0-10), with mean and median values of 5.0 (SD = 0.9) and 5.3, respectively, with 40.7% of the sample with knowledge levels below the average. Some beliefs still exist in this population regarding the transmission of the virus by insect bites, by using public restrooms, and by sharing utensils during meals. With regard to the difficulty and discrimination parameters, eight items were located below the mean of the scale and were considered very easy, and four items presented very low discrimination parameter (< 0.34). The absence of difficult items contributed to the inaccuracy of the measurement of knowledge among those with median level and above. CONCLUSIONS Item Response Theory analysis, which focuses on the individual properties of each item, allows measures to be obtained that do not vary or depend on the questionnaire, which provides better ascertainment and accuracy of knowledge scores. Valid and reliable scales are essential for monitoring HIV/AIDS knowledge among the men who have sex with men population over time and in different geographic regions, and this psychometric model brings this advantage. PMID:24897041

  12. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Mata-Marín, José A; Hernández-Figueroa, Jorge; Huerta-García, Gloria; Sandoval-Ramírez, Jorge; Pichardo-Farfán, Miguel; Manjarrez-Tellez, Bulmaro; Ramírez-Mendoza, Pablo; Gaytan-Martínez, Jesús

    2015-11-01

    Neoplasia is the second most common cause of mortality in HIV patients. The prevalence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) has continued to increase since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. We screened 94 HIV-infected MSM patients. We found high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in six of the patients. The calculated prevalence of HSIL was 6.4% (95% confidence interval: 2.9-13.2). The study and implementation of screening programs for high-risk groups is a priority.

  13. Lymphogranuloma venereum detected from the pharynx in four London men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Dosekun, O; Edmonds, S; Stockwell, S; French, P; White, J A

    2013-06-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an established cause of proctitis in men who have sex with men (MSM). Currently in the UK, testing for pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is not routine, and LGV typing is usually only performed in patients with anorectal symptoms. We report four cases where LGV-associated CT DNA was detected from the pharynx in MSM, demonstrating that nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) can be used for detecting and typing pharyngeal CT infection. These cases also highlight other possible routes of infection for LGV, and add to the broad spectrum of clinical presentations associated with this infection.

  14. HIV-1 Transmission during Early Infection in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Phylodynamic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Volz, Erik M.; Ionides, Edward; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Brandt, Mary-Grace; Mokotoff, Eve; Koopman, James S.

    2013-12-10

    Conventional epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases is focused on characterization of incident infections and estimation of the number of prevalent infections. Advances in methods for the analysis of the population-level genetic variation of viruses can potentially provide information about donors, not just recipients, of infection. Genetic sequences from many viruses are increasingly abundant, especially HIV, which is routinely sequenced for surveillance of drug resistance mutations. In this study, we conducted a phylodynamic analysis of HIV genetic sequence data and surveillance data from a US population of men who have sex with men (MSM) and estimated incidence and transmission rates by stage of infection.

  15. Enhanced Immune Activation Linked to Endotoxemia in HIV-1 Seronegative Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Christine D.; Tomassilli, Julia; Sirignano, Michael; Tejeda, Marisol Romero; Arnold, Kelly B.; Che, Denise; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Jost, Stephanie; Allen, Todd; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Altfeld, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study assessed cellular and soluble markers of immune activation in HIV-1-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM immune profiles were characterized by increased expression of CD57 on T cells and endotoxemia. Endotoxin presence was linked to recent high-risk exposure and associated with elevated cytokine levels and decreased CD4/CD8 T cell ratios. Taken together, these data show elevated levels of inflammation linked to periods of endotoxemia resulting in a significantly different immune phenotype in a subset of MSM at high risk of HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:25003719

  16. Acceptability of Sexually Explicit Images in HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J. Michael; Grey, Jeremy A.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM), and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heternormative culture, and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. 79 MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger study of SEM. Three macro-themes—audience, location and community representation—emerged from the analysis, as did the influence of homonormativity on the acceptability of SEM in HIV-prevention messages. PMID:26075485

  17. Acceptability of Sexually Explicit Images in HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J Michael; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM) and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heteronormative culture and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. Seventy-nine MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger study of SEM. Three macro themes-audience, location, and community representation-emerged from the analysis, as did the influence of homonormativity on the acceptability of SEM in HIV-prevention messages.

  18. Internalized homophobia and reduced HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Thomas; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Do, Tri; Hebert, Pato; Beck, Jack; Makofane, Keletso; Wilson, Patrick A; Ayala, George

    2014-03-01

    Although previous research has examined barriers and facilitators of HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, few studies have focused on social factors, including homophobia and internalized homophobia. This study utilized data from a global online survey to determine correlates of HIV testing as part of a subanalysis focused on Chinese MSM. Controlling for age, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners, and other covariates, ever having tested for HIV was significantly correlated with lower internalized homophobia. This study suggests that stigma associated with sexual orientation may serve as a barrier to participation in HIV testing and other health-promoting behaviors.

  19. HIV-1 Transmission during Early Infection in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Phylodynamic Analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Volz, Erik M.; Ionides, Edward; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; ...

    2013-12-10

    Conventional epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases is focused on characterization of incident infections and estimation of the number of prevalent infections. Advances in methods for the analysis of the population-level genetic variation of viruses can potentially provide information about donors, not just recipients, of infection. Genetic sequences from many viruses are increasingly abundant, especially HIV, which is routinely sequenced for surveillance of drug resistance mutations. In this study, we conducted a phylodynamic analysis of HIV genetic sequence data and surveillance data from a US population of men who have sex with men (MSM) and estimated incidence and transmission rates bymore » stage of infection.« less

  20. A narrative review of Men's Sheds literature: reducing social isolation and promoting men's health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie

    2013-09-01

    Men's Sheds are community-based organisations that typically provide a space for older men to participate in meaningful occupation such as woodwork. Men's Sheds are considered an exemplar for the promotion of men's health and well-being by health and social policy-makers. The objective of this literature review was to determine the state of the science about the potential for Men's Sheds to promote male health and well-being. Between October 2011 and February 2012, we conducted searches of databases, the grey literature and manual searches of websites and reference lists. In total, we found 5 reports and 19 articles about Men's Sheds. The majority of the literature has emanated from Australian academics and is about older men's learning in community contexts. There is a limited body of research literature about Men's Sheds; the literature consists of either descriptive surveys or small qualitative studies. The range of variables that might contribute towards best practice in Men's Sheds has not yet been adequately conceptualised, measured, tested or understood. Future research should be focussed on the health and well-being benefits of Men's Sheds; it needs to incorporate social determinants of health and well-being within the study designs to enable comparison against other health promotion research. Without this research focus, there is a danger that the potential health and well-being benefits of Men's Sheds as supportive and socially inclusive environments for health will not be incorporated into future male health policy and practice.