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Sample records for 800-cdc-info 800-232-4636 tty

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tti2 Regulates PIKK Proteins and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kyle S.; Duennwald, Martin L.; Karagiannis, Jim; Genereaux, Julie; McCarton, Alexander S.; Brandl, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The TTT complex is composed of the three essential proteins Tel2, Tti1, and Tti2. The complex is required to maintain steady state levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) proteins, including mTOR, ATM/Tel1, ATR/Mec1, and TRRAP/Tra1, all of which serve as regulators of critical cell signaling pathways. Due to their association with heat shock proteins, and with newly synthesized PIKK peptides, components of the TTT complex may act as cochaperones. Here, we analyze the consequences of depleting the cellular level of Tti2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that yeast expressing low levels of Tti2 are viable under optimal growth conditions, but the cells are sensitive to a number of stress conditions that involve PIKK pathways. In agreement with this, depleting Tti2 levels decreased expression of Tra1, Mec1, and Tor1, affected their localization and inhibited the stress responses in which these molecules are involved. Tti2 expression was not increased during heat shock, implying that it does not play a general role in the heat shock response. However, steady state levels of Hsp42 increase when Tti2 is depleted, and tti2L187P has a synthetic interaction with exon 1 of the human Huntingtin gene containing a 103 residue polyQ sequence, suggesting a general role in protein quality control. We also find that overexpressing Hsp90 or its cochaperones is synthetic lethal when Tti2 is depleted, an effect possibly due to imbalanced stoichiometry of a complex required for PIKK assembly. These results indicate that Tti2 does not act as a general chaperone, but may have a specialized function in PIKK folding and/or complex assembly. PMID:27172216

  2. 78 FR 15682 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity TTI, Inc.; Subzone 196A (Electromechanical and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... production equipment. The components and materials sourced from abroad include: Rubber and plastic gaskets... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity TTI, Inc.; Subzone 196A (Electromechanical and Circuit Protection Devices Production/ Kitting); Fort Worth, TX TTI, Inc. (TTI), operator...

  3. 78 FR 37203 - Authorization of Production Activity; Subzone 196A; TTI, Inc. (Electromechanical and Circuit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... comment (78 FR 15683, 03-12-2013). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of the activity is... and Circuit Protection Devices Production/Kitting); Fort Worth, Texas On February 13, 2013, TTI,...

  4. Calibrations between the variables of microbial TTI response and ground pork qualities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunji; Choi, Dong Yeol; Kim, Hyun Chul; Kim, Keehyuk; Lee, Seung Ju

    2013-10-01

    A time-temperature indicator (TTI) based on a lactic acid bacterium, Weissella cibaria CIFP009, was applied to ground pork packaging. Calibration curves between TTI response and pork qualities were obtained from storage tests at 2°C, 10°C, and 13°C. The curves of the TTI vs. total cell number at different temperatures coincided to the greatest extent, indicating the highest representativeness of calibration, by showing the least coefficient of variance (CV=11%) of the quality variables at a given TTI response (titratable acidity) on the curves, followed by pH (23%), volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) (25%), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (47%). Similarity of Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) could also reflect the representativeness of calibration. The total cell number (104.9 kJ/mol) was found to be the most similar to that of the TTI response (106.2 kJ/mol), followed by pH (113.6 kJ/mol), VBN (77.4 kJ/mol), and TBARS (55.0 kJ/mol). PMID:23747630

  5. Neutron diffraction analysis of Nd3Fe29 - xTx (T=Ti, Cr, Mn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelon, W. B.; Hu, Z.

    1996-02-01

    Rietveld analysis of neutron-diffraction data from Nd3Fe29-xTx (T=Ti, Cr, and Mn) has been used to determine the location of the substitutional atoms and the magnetic moments. Reanalysis of the T=Ti data confirms that the space group A2/m is a better choice than P21/c, which had previously been used to describe the structure. The Ti atom locations and concentrations remain unaffected in the two space groups, but for the other substituents the refined concentrations are well behaved in A2/m, whereas in P21/c the refinements were unstable due to the symmetry relations between certain substituted sites. The site occupancies are analyzed in terms of steric and environment effects. A possible explanation for the high Curie temperature of the Cr compound is proposed.

  6. Traveltime computation and imaging from rugged topography in 3D TTI media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaoyong; Wang, Huazhong; Yang, Qinyong; Fang, Wubao

    2014-02-01

    Foothill areas with rugged topography are of great potential for oil and gas seismic exploration, but subsurface imaging in these areas is very challenging. Seismic acquisition with larger offset and wider azimuth is necessary for seismic imaging in complex areas. However, the scale anisotropy in this case must be taken into account. To generalize the pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) to 3D transversely isotropic media with vertical symmetry axes (VTI) and tilted symmetry axes (TTI) from rugged topography, a new dynamic programming approach for the first-arrival traveltime computation method is proposed. The first-arrival time on every uniform mesh point is calculated based on Fermat's principle with simple calculus techniques and a systematic mapping scheme. In order to calculate the minimum traveltime, a set of nonlinear equations is solved on each mesh point, where the group velocity is determined by the group angle. Based on the new first-arrival time calculation method, the corresponding PSDM and migration velocity analysis workflow for 3D anisotropic media from rugged surface is developed. Numerical tests demonstrate that the proposed traveltime calculation method is effective in both VTI and TTI media. The migration results for 3D field data show that it is necessary to choose a smooth datum to remove the high wavenumber move-out components for PSDM with rugged topography and take anisotropy into account to achieve better images.

  7. Applicability of a microbial Time Temperature Indicator (TTI) for monitoring spoilage of modified atmosphere packed minced meat.

    PubMed

    Vaikousi, Hariklia; Biliaderis, Costas G; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2009-08-15

    The applicability of a microbial Time Temperature Indicator (TTI) prototype, based on the growth and metabolic activity of a Lactobacillus sakei strain developed in a previous study, in monitoring quality of modified atmosphere packed (MAP) minced beef was evaluated at conditions simulating the chill chain. At all storage temperatures examined (0, 5, 10, 15 degrees C), the results showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the dominant bacteria and can be used as a good spoilage index of MAP minced beef. The end of product's shelf life as revealed by the sensory evaluation coincided with a LAB population level of 7 log(10) CFU/g. For all temperatures tested, the growth of L. sakei in the TTI resembled closely the growth of LAB in the meat product, with similar temperature dependence of the micro(max) and thus similar activation energy values calculated as 111.90 and 106.90 kJ/mol, for the two systems, respectively. In addition, the end point of TTI colour change coincided with the time of sensory rejection point of the beef product during its storage under isothermal chilled temperature conditions. The estimated activation energy, E(alpha), values obtained for parameters related to the response of DeltaE (total colour change of the TTI) describing the kinetics of colour change of the TTI during isothermal storage (i.e. the maximum specific rate of DeltaEpsilon evolution curve, micro(DeltaEpsilon), and also the reciprocal of t(i), time at which half of the maximum DeltaEpsilon is reached), were 112.77 and 127.28 kJ/mol, respectively. Finally, the application of the microbial TTI in monitoring the quality deterioration of MAP minced beef due to spoilage was further evaluated under dynamic conditions of storage, using two separate low temperature periodic changing scenarios, resembling the actual conditions occurring in the distribution chill chain. The results showed that the end point of TTI, after storage at those fluctuating temperature conditions, was noted very

  8. Development of Health Education Learning Module in Bac.TSE-LDPE Programme in TTI: Needs Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujang, Alijah; Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah

    2015-01-01

    This study is to explore the need to develop learning modules of health education for trainee teachers in the Bachelor Of Teaching (Hons)(Special Education-Learning Disabilities For Primary Education) Programme (Bac.TSE-LDPE) in the Teacher Training Institute (TTI). The questionnaire uses the Likert scale with the close ended questions analysed by…

  9. Evidence for tty Production and Measurement of (σ tt)γ/(σtt)

    DOE PAGES

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-08-31

    Using data corresponding to 6.0 fb-1 of pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector, we present a cross section measurement of top-quark pair production with an additional radiated photon, ttγ. The events are selected by looking for a lepton (ell), a photon (γ), significant transverse momentum imbalance (ET), large total transverse energy, and three or more jets, with at least one identified as containing a b quark (b). The ttγ sample requires the photon to have 10 GeV or more of transverse energy, and to be in the central region. Using an event selectionmore » optimized for the ttγ candidate sample we measure the production cross section of tt (σtt), and the ratio of cross sections of the two samples. Control samples in the dilepton+photon and lepton+photon+ET, channels are constructed to aid in decay product identification and background measurements. We observe 30 ttγ candidate events compared to the standard model expectation of 26.9 ± 3.4 events. We measure the ttγ cross section (σtt) to be 0.18 ± 0.08 pb, and the ratio of σttγ to σtt to be 0.024 ± 0.009. Assuming no tty production, we observe a probability of 0.0015 of the background events alone producing 30 events or more, corresponding to 3.0 standard deviations.« less

  10. Modelling spoilage of fresh turbot and evaluation of a time-temperature integrator (TTI) label under fluctuating temperature.

    PubMed

    Nuin, Maider; Alfaro, Begoña; Cruz, Ziortza; Argarate, Nerea; George, Susie; Le Marc, Yvan; Olley, June; Pin, Carmen

    2008-10-31

    Kinetic models were developed to predict the microbial spoilage and the sensory quality of fresh fish and to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial time-temperature integrator (TTI) label, Fresh Check(R), to monitor shelf life. Farmed turbot (Psetta maxima) samples were packaged in PVC film and stored at 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees C. Microbial growth and sensory attributes were monitored at regular time intervals. The response of the Fresh Check device was measured at the same temperatures during the storage period. The sensory perception was quantified according to a global sensory indicator obtained by principal component analysis as well as to the Quality Index Method, QIM, as described by Rahman and Olley [Rahman, H.A., Olley, J., 1984. Assessment of sensory techniques for quality assessment of Australian fish. CSIRO Tasmanian Regional Laboratory. Occasional paper n. 8. Available from the Australian Maritime College library. Newnham. Tasmania]. Both methods were found equally valid to monitor the loss of sensory quality. The maximum specific growth rate of spoilage bacteria, the rate of change of the sensory indicators and the rate of change of the colour measurements of the TTI label were modelled as a function of temperature. The temperature had a similar effect on the bacteria, sensory and Fresh Check kinetics. At the time of sensory rejection, the bacterial load was ca. 10(5)-10(6) cfu/g. The end of shelf life indicated by the Fresh Check label was close to the sensory rejection time. The performance of the models was validated under fluctuating temperature conditions by comparing the predicted and measured values for all microbial, sensory and TTI responses. The models have been implemented in a Visual Basic add-in for Excel called "Fish Shelf Life Prediction (FSLP)". This program predicts sensory acceptability and growth of spoilage bacteria in fish and the response of the TTI at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions. The program is freely

  11. Testing treatments interactive (TTi): helping to equip the public to promote better research for better health care.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaolong; Chalmers, Iain

    2015-05-01

    Testing Treatments is a book written to help everyone understand why testing treatments is so important, why treatment tests have to be fair, and how everyone can help to promote better research for better health care. The book proved to be very popular and its second edition has already been translated into a dozen languages, with more translations in the pipeline. The texts of the original English and all the translations are feely downloadable from Testing Treatments interactive at www.testingtreatments.org. The editors of all the different language websites have established an TTi Editorial Alliance, to share experiences and provide each other with mutual support. The TTi Editorial Alliance seeks to promote a world in which health professionals, patients and the public use reliable research to inform their health decisions. Its missions are (i) To promote a global network, involving members of the public in partnership with professionals, to communicate and discuss basic principles and general knowledge about testing treatments; (ii) to help the public increase critical thinking and skills in accessing, apprehending, appraising and using research evidence; and (iii) to help patients and the public to participate more actively in health research.

  12. Reflection coefficient of qP, qS and SH at a plane boundary between viscoelastic TTI media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongwei; Peng, Suping

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a calculation method for the effective elastic stiffness tensor matrix of the viscous-elastic TTI medium based on the Chapman theory. We then obtain the phase velocity formula and seismic wave polarization formula of the viscous-elastic TTI medium, by solving the Christoffel equation; solve the phase angle of reflection and transmission wave through the numerical method in accordance with the wave slowness ellipsoid; on the basis of this assumption, and assuming that qP, qS and SH waves occurred simultaneously at the viscous-elastic anisotropic interface, establish the sixth-order Zoeppritz equation in accordance with the boundary conditions; establish the models for the upper and lower media which are viscous-elastic HTI, TTI, etc., on the basis of the sixth-order Zoeppritz equation; and study the impact of fracture dip angle, azimuth angle and frequency on the reflection coefficient. From this we obtain the following conclusions: the reflection coefficient can identify the fracture strike and dip when any information pertaining to the media is unknown; dispersion phenomenon is obvious on the axial plane of symmetry and weakened in the plane vertical to the axial plane of symmetry; the vertical-incidence longitudinal wave can stimulate the qS wave when the dip angle is not 0° or 90° under the condition of coincidence between the symmetry planes of the upper and lower media; when the symmetry planes of the upper and lower media do not coincide and the dip angle is not 0° or 90°, then the vertical-incidence qP will stimulate the qS and SH waves at the same time; the dip angle can cause the reflection coefficient curve to have a more obvious dispersion phenomenon, while the included angle between the symmetry planes of the upper and lower media will weaken the dispersion except SH; and the intercept of reflection coefficient is affected by the fracture dip and included angle between the symmetry planes of the upper and lower media.

  13. Functionalized S 4Zn (II) complexes as structural modelling for the active site of thiolate-alkylating enzymes: The crystal structure of [TtiZn-SpyH] 2·HClO 4 [Tti = tris(thioimidazolyl)hydroborate and SpyH = pyridine-2-thiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M.

    2009-11-01

    Two new functionalized S 3Zn-bound pyridinethiol complexes [TtiZn-SpyH] 2·HClO 41 and [TtiZn-Spy] 2 [Tti = tris(2-mercapto-1-xylyl-imidazolyl)hydroborate, SpyH = pyridine-2-thiol, and Spy = pyridine-4-thiol] were synthesized and characterized. Structural determination of complex 1 showed that the coordination geometry around zinc atom is ideally regular tetrahedral with three thione donors from the ligand Tti and one thiolate donor from the coligand pyridine-2-thiol. The average Zn(1)-S(thione) bond length is 2.349 Å and the Zn(1)-S(thiolate) bond length is 2.289 Å. The reactivity studies of both complexes 1 and 2 as models for the active sites of thiolate-alkylating enzymes toward methylation reactions showed that 1 is much less susceptible to methylation than that of complex 2. This decrease in the nucleophilicity of complex 1 could be explained by electronic effects of the pyridinum salts as well as the steric hindrance, which is provided by the perchlorate anion.

  14. Evidence for tty Production and Measurement of (σ tt)γ/(σtt)

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-08-31

    Using data corresponding to 6.0 fb-1 of pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector, we present a cross section measurement of top-quark pair production with an additional radiated photon, ttγ. The events are selected by looking for a lepton (ell), a photon (γ), significant transverse momentum imbalance (ET), large total transverse energy, and three or more jets, with at least one identified as containing a b quark (b). The ttγ sample requires the photon to have 10 GeV or more of transverse energy, and to be in the central region. Using an event selection optimized for the ttγ candidate sample we measure the production cross section of tt (σtt), and the ratio of cross sections of the two samples. Control samples in the dilepton+photon and lepton+photon+ET, channels are constructed to aid in decay product identification and background measurements. We observe 30 ttγ candidate events compared to the standard model expectation of 26.9 ± 3.4 events. We measure the ttγ cross section (σtt) to be 0.18 ± 0.08 pb, and the ratio of σttγ to σtt to be 0.024 ± 0.009. Assuming no tty production, we observe a probability of 0.0015 of the background events alone producing 30 events or more, corresponding to 3.0 standard deviations.

  15. Tailored and Integrated Web-Based Tools for Improving Psychosocial Outcomes of Cancer Patients: The DoTTI Development Framework

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jamie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Tzelepis, Flora; Henskens, Frans; Paul, Christine; Stevenson, William

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective communication with cancer patients and their families about their disease, treatment options, and possible outcomes may improve psychosocial outcomes. However, traditional approaches to providing information to patients, including verbal information and written booklets, have a number of shortcomings centered on their limited ability to meet patient preferences and literacy levels. New-generation Web-based technologies offer an innovative and pragmatic solution for overcoming these limitations by providing a platform for interactive information seeking, information sharing, and user-centered tailoring. Objective The primary goal of this paper is to discuss the advantages of comprehensive and iterative Web-based technologies for health information provision and propose a four-phase framework for the development of Web-based information tools. Methods The proposed framework draws on our experience of constructing a Web-based information tool for hematological cancer patients and their families. The framework is based on principles for the development and evaluation of complex interventions and draws on the Agile methodology of software programming that emphasizes collaboration and iteration throughout the development process. Results The DoTTI framework provides a model for a comprehensive and iterative approach to the development of Web-based informational tools for patients. The process involves 4 phases of development: (1) Design and development, (2) Testing early iterations, (3) Testing for effectiveness, and (4) Integration and implementation. At each step, stakeholders (including researchers, clinicians, consumers, and programmers) are engaged in consultations to review progress, provide feedback on versions of the Web-based tool, and based on feedback, determine the appropriate next steps in development. Conclusions This 4-phase framework is evidence-informed and consumer-centered and could be applied widely to develop Web-based programs

  16. Protect Your Child against Hib Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 722 KB] View the Hib Vaccine Information Statement ( English ) or other languages ) Call 1-800-232-4636 (1-800-CDC- ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  17. Hello IM, Goodbye TTY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lori; Peters, Tom

    2006-01-01

    According to the National Association of the Deaf, there are approximately 28 million deaf and hearing-impaired people in the U.S.--roughly 10 percent of the total population. This hearing-impaired population may be even more isolated than the visually impaired community. Although technology is making it easier for libraries to provide effective…

  18. Rotavirus and the Vaccine (Drops) to Prevent It

    MedlinePlus

    ... 800-CDC-INFO or visit CDC Vaccines for Parents site . The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Academy of Pediatrics strongly recommend all children receive their vaccines according ... Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  19. Final report for the Tera Computer TTI CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, G.S.; Pavlakos, C.; Silva, C.

    1997-01-01

    Tera Computer and Sandia National Laboratories have completed a CRADA, which examined the Tera Multi-Threaded Architecture (MTA) for use with large codes of importance to industry and DOE. The MTA is an innovative architecture that uses parallelism to mask latency between memories and processors. The physical implementation is a parallel computer with high cross-section bandwidth and GaAs processors designed by Tera, which support many small computation threads and fast, lightweight context switches between them. When any thread blocks while waiting for memory accesses to complete, another thread immediately begins execution so that high CPU utilization is maintained. The Tera MTA parallel computer has a single, global address space, which is appealing when porting existing applications to a parallel computer. This ease of porting is further enabled by compiler technology that helps break computations into parallel threads. DOE and Sandia National Laboratories were interested in working with Tera to further develop this computing concept. While Tera Computer would continue the hardware development and compiler research, Sandia National Laboratories would work with Tera to ensure that their compilers worked well with important Sandia codes, most particularly CTH, a shock physics code used for weapon safety computations. In addition to that important code, Sandia National Laboratories would complete research on a robotic path planning code, SANDROS, which is important in manufacturing applications, and would evaluate the MTA performance on this code. Finally, Sandia would work directly with Tera to develop 3D visualization codes, which would be appropriate for use with the MTA. Each of these tasks has been completed to the extent possible, given that Tera has just completed the MTA hardware. All of the CRADA work had to be done on simulators.

  20. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection has constructed interim surface barriers over a portion of the T and TY tank farms as part of the Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The interim surface barriers (hereafter referred to as the surface barriers or barriers) are designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the soil zones containing radioactive contaminants and minimize the movement of the contaminants. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barriers at reducing soil moisture. Solar-powered systems were installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations in the T (i.e., instrument Nests TA, TB, TC, and TD) and the TY (i.e., instrument Nests TYA and TYB) Farms beneath the barriers and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nests TA and TYA are placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serve as controls, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barriers. Nest TB provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests TC, TD, and TYB are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barriers.

  1. Convenience of immobilized Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase as time-temperature-integrator (TTI).

    PubMed

    De Cordt, S F; Hendrickx, M E; Maesmans, G J; Tobback, P P

    1994-02-01

    For the immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase to porous glass beads, the performances of three possible linking agents, glutaric dialdehyde, benzoquinone and s-trichlorotriazine were assessed in respect of the protein yield, the enzymic activity and the thermostability of the immobilized enzyme. These three properties are to be evaluated in view of the possible use of the enzyme preparations as time-temperature-integrators (TTIs) for assessing the severity of heat pasteurization or sterilization processes of food or pharmaceuticals. All three linkers improved the enzyme's resistance to irreversible heat inactivation to a similar extent and in each case biphasic inactivation kinetics were observed, whereas the dissolved B. licheniformis alpha-amylase showed a simple first order decay. The immobilization yield, measured as protein per carrier weight, did not differ markedly for the three linkers, although the enzymic activity of the glutaric dialdehyde-linked enzyme was lower than that of the benzoquinone- and s-trichlorotriazine-linked preparations. PMID:7764538

  2. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration—Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-09-27

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank of the 241-T Tank Farm in 1973. Five tanks are assumed to have leaked in the TY Farm. Many of the contaminants from those leaks still reside within the vadose zone within the T and TY Tank Farms. The Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection seeks to minimize the movement of these contaminant plumes by placing interim barriers on the ground surface. Such barriers are expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plumes and moving them further. The soil water regime is monitored to determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barriers. Soil-water content and water pressure are monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. Four instrument nests were installed in the T Farm in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY2007; two nests were installed in the TY Farm in FY2010. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, and four heat-dissipation units. A meteorological station has been installed at the north side of the fence of the T Farm. This document summarizes the monitoring methods, the instrument calibration and installation, and the vadose zone monitoring plan for interim barriers in T farm and TY Farm.

  3. Simultaneous elastic parameter inversion in 2-D/3-D TTI medium combined later arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chao-ying; Wang, Tao; Yang, Shang-bei; Li, Xing-wang; Huang, Guo-jiao

    2016-04-01

    Traditional traveltime inversion for anisotropic medium is, in general, based on a "weak" assumption in the anisotropic property, which simplifies both the forward part (ray tracing is performed once only) and the inversion part (a linear inversion solver is possible). But for some real applications, a general (both "weak" and "strong") anisotropic medium should be considered. In such cases, one has to develop a ray tracing algorithm to handle with the general (including "strong") anisotropic medium and also to design a non-linear inversion solver for later tomography. Meanwhile, it is constructive to investigate how much the tomographic resolution can be improved by introducing the later arrivals. For this motivation, we incorporated our newly developed ray tracing algorithm (multistage irregular shortest-path method) for general anisotropic media with a non-linear inversion solver (a damped minimum norm, constrained least squares problem with a conjugate gradient approach) to formulate a non-linear inversion solver for anisotropic medium. This anisotropic traveltime inversion procedure is able to combine the later (reflected) arrival times. Both 2-D/3-D synthetic inversion experiments and comparison tests show that (1) the proposed anisotropic traveltime inversion scheme is able to recover the high contrast anomalies and (2) it is possible to improve the tomographic resolution by introducing the later (reflected) arrivals, but not as expected in the isotropic medium, because the different velocity (qP, qSV and qSH) sensitivities (or derivatives) respective to the different elastic parameters are not the same but are also dependent on the inclination angle.

  4. A Study on Social Intelligence in Relation to Scholastic Achievement of Student Teachers of B.Ed. and TTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindhamani, M.; Manichander, T.

    2014-01-01

    These are difficult times for educators who believe that learning is worth pursuing for its own sake and that the chief purpose of school is the nurturing of students as whole human beings. Higher test scores seem to be the order of the day. The adventure of learning, the wonder of nature and culture, the richness of human experience, and the…

  5. 78 FR 2657 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196-Fort Worth, TX, Foreign-Trade Subzone 196A-TTI, Inc.; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... Board's regulations, Camille Evans of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to review the application and....gov/ftz . For further information, contact Camille Evans at Camille.Evans@trade.gov or (202)...

  6. A Critical Examination of the Construct Validity of the TTI Performance DNA[TM] Survey for the Purpose of Differentiating the Entrepreneurially-Minded Engineer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    The United States needs workers with more than technical skills to meet the demands of global competition; more specifically, a new breed of engineer is necessary, one who possesses leadership skills and business acumen in addition to the technical engineering skills. One Midwestern foundation has recognized this challenge and is working with…

  7. 75 FR 11887 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Tuesday, March 16, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Media Relations, (202) 418- 0500; TTY 1-888-835-5322. Audio/Video coverage of the meeting will be...; TTY (202) 488-5562. These copies are available in paper format and alternative media, including...

  8. 47 CFR 6.17 - Informal complaints; form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, audio-cassette... transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, audio-cassette recording, braille;...

  9. 47 CFR 6.17 - Informal complaints; form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, audio-cassette... transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, audio-cassette recording, braille;...

  10. 47 CFR 6.17 - Informal complaints; form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, audio-cassette... transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, audio-cassette recording, braille;...

  11. 47 CFR 6.17 - Informal complaints; form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, audio-cassette... transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, audio-cassette recording, braille;...

  12. 78 FR 75368 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Restrictions on Assistance to Noncitizens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay...). Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number via TTY by calling the...

  13. A Trypsin Inhibitor from Tamarind Reduces Food Intake and Improves Inflammatory Status in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Regardless of Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fabiana M. C.; Lima, Vanessa C. O.; Costa, Izael S.; Medeiros, Amanda F.; Serquiz, Alexandre C.; Lima, Maíra C. J. S.; Serquiz, Raphael P.; Maciel, Bruna L. L.; Uchôa, Adriana F.; Santos, Elizeu A.; Morais, Ana H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Trypsin inhibitors are studied in a variety of models for their anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory bioactive properties. Our group has previously demonstrated the satietogenic effect of tamarind seed trypsin inhibitors (TTI) in eutrophic mouse models and anti-inflammatory effects of other trypsin inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated TTI effect upon satiety, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Three groups of n = 5 male Wistar rats with obesity-based MetS received for 10 days one of the following: (1) Cafeteria diet; (2) Cafeteria diet + TTI (25 mg/kg); and (3) Standard diet. TTI reduced food intake in animals with MetS. Nevertheless, weight gain was not different between studied groups. Dyslipidemia parameters were not different with the use of TTI, only the group receiving standard diet showed lower very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG) (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.05). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production did not differ between groups. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was lower in animals receiving TTI. Our results corroborate the satietogenic effect of TTI in a MetS model. Furthermore, we showed that TTI added to a cafeteria diet may decrease inflammation regardless of weight loss. This puts TTI as a candidate for studies to test its effectiveness as an adjuvant in MetS treatment. PMID:27690087

  14. 77 FR 77067 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form No. 556); Comment Request; Extension

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  15. 78 FR 36229 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Mortgage Insurance Termination, Application for...

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    .... Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free...- free number. Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling... SW., Room 4176, Washington, DC 20410-5000; telephone 202-402-5564 (this is not a toll-free number)...

  16. 78 FR 36230 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA-Insured Mortgage Loan Servicing of Payments...

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  17. 77 FR 51965 - Southwest Mississippi Resource Advisory Committee

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    ..., TTY 601-384-8056, bprudhomme@fs.fed.us or Dave Chabreck, Operations Leader, 601-384-5876, dochabreck@fs.fed.us , TTY 601-384- 8056. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may... proposed projects. A full agenda may be previewed at:...

  18. 78 FR 38975 - Sunshine Act Meetings

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    ... obtained from Meribeth McCarrick, Office of Media Relations, (202) 418-0500; TTY 1- 888-835-5322. Audio...-5563; TTY (202) 488-5562. These copies are available in paper format and alternative media, including large print/ type; digital disk; and audio and video tape. Best Copy and Printing, Inc. may be...

  19. 75 FR 34064 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards, Test Procedures for Roof Trusses

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    ... number through TTY by calling the Federal Information Relay Service at 800-877-8339. Copies of all... INFORMATION CONTACT: The Office of Regulatory Affairs and Manufactured Housing, Office of Housing, Department... impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Information Relay Service at...

  20. 77 FR 41404 - Sunshine Act Meeting

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    ... Commission sessions.) Please telephone (202) 663-7100 (voice) and (202) 663-4074 (TTY) at any time for... Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable accommodations may be made by using the voice and TTY numbers listed above. CONTACT PERSON...

  1. 76 FR 31611 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

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    ... Commission sessions.) Please telephone (202) 663-7100 (voice) and (202) 663-4074 (TTY) at any time for... Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable accommodations may be made by using the voice and TTY numbers listed above. CONTACT PERSON...

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    ....) Please telephone (202) 663-7100 (voice) and (202) 663-4074 (TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation... other reasonable accommodations may be made by using the voice and TTY numbers listed above....

  3. 78 FR 67144 - Sunshine Act Notice

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    ... Commission sessions.) Please telephone (202) 663-7100 (voice) and (202) 663-4074 (TTY) at any time for... Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable accommodations may be made by using the voice and TTY numbers listed above. CONTACT PERSON...

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  5. 78 FR 11179 - Sunshine Act Notice

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    ... sessions.) Please telephone (202) 663-7100 (voice) and (202) 663-4074 (TTY) at any time for information on... Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable accommodations may be made by using the voice and TTY numbers listed above. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE...

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    ... Commission sessions.) Please telephone (202) 663-7100 (voice) and (202) 663-4074 (TTY) at any time for... Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable accommodations may be made by using the voice and TTY numbers listed above. CONTACT PERSON...

  7. 78 FR 26031 - Sunshine Act Notice

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    2013-05-03

    ... Commission sessions.) Please telephone (202) 663-7100 (voice) and (202) 663-4074 (TTY) at any time for... Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable accommodations may be made by using the voice and TTY numbers listed above. CONTACT PERSON...

  8. Empirical relation between carbonate porosity and thermal maturity: an approach to regional porosity prediction.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Carbonate porosity can be predicted approximately on a regional scale as a function of thermal maturity. Thus: theta = a (TTI) b, where theta = regional porosity, a = a constant for a given region and varies by an order of magnitude, TTI = Lopatin's time-T index of thermal maturity and b approx -0.372. -K.A.R.

  9. WWC Review of the Report "Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the 2013 study, "Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment," researchers examined the impact of the Talent Transfer Initiative (TTI) on students' reading and mathematics achievement in 10 school districts. The TTI enabled principals of low-performing schools to provide…

  10. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 226-4267 Toll-Free; (301) 565-2966 TTY Internet Address: http://www.niams.nih.gov/ National Institute ... 352-9424 Toll-Free; (301) 468-5981 TTY Internet Address: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/ National Institute ...

  11. 47 CFR 73.674 - Digital television transition notices by broadcasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FCC's Call Center number, 1-888-CALL-FCC, the FCC's TTY number, 1-888-TELL-FCC, and the Web site... the station's market area; the FCC Call Center telephone number and TTY number; and the station's.... (8) Help center notices—Beginning April 1, 2009, as part of its DTV consumer education...

  12. 47 CFR 73.674 - Digital television transition notices by broadcasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FCC's Call Center number, 1-888-CALL-FCC, the FCC's TTY number, 1-888-TELL-FCC, and the Web site... the station's market area; the FCC Call Center telephone number and TTY number; and the station's.... (8) Help center notices—Beginning April 1, 2009, as part of its DTV consumer education...

  13. Hoarseness

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    ... MD 20892-3456 Toll-free Voice: (800) 241-1044 Toll-free TTY: (800) 241-1055 Email: nidcdinfo@ ... questions in English or Spanish. Voice: (800) 241-1044 TTY: (800) 241-1055 nidcdinfo@nidcd.nih.gov ...

  14. Computers = Equality for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackall, Phil

    1996-01-01

    Highlights the equality that computers bring to children with hearing impairments and the different ways computers can be used. The ability of the computer to facilitate communication (regardless of hearing ability), provide informational materials, and operate as a TTY (the phone-teletype device for the deaf), TTY answering machine, and fax…

  15. Tel2 structure and function in the Hsp90-dependent maturation of mTOR and ATR complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, Hiroyuki; Xie, Yihu; de Lange, Titia; Pavletich, Nikola P.

    2010-09-20

    We reported previously that the stability of all mammalian phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs) depends on their interaction with Tel2, the ortholog of yeast Tel2 and Caenorhabditis elegans Clk-2. Here we provide evidence that Tel2 acts with Hsp90 in the maturation of PIKK complexes. Quantitative immunoblotting showed that the abundance of Tel2 is low compared with the PIKKs, and Tel2 preferentially bound newly synthesized ATM, ATR, mTOR, and DNA-PKcs. Tel2 complexes contained, in addition to Tti1-Tti2, the Hsp90 chaperone, and inhibition of Hsp90 interfered with the interaction of Tel2 with the PIKKs. Analysis of in vivo labeled nascent protein complexes showed that Tel2 and Hsp90 mediate the formation of the mTOR TORC1 and TORC2 complexes and the association of ATR with ATRIP. The structure of yeast Tel2, reported here, shows that Tel2 consists of HEAT-like helical repeats that assemble into two separate {alpha}-solenoids. Through mutagenesis, we identify a surface patch of conserved residues involved in binding to the Tti1-Tti2 complex in vitro. In vivo, mutation of this conserved patch affects cell growth, levels of PIKKs, and ATM/ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling, highlighting the importance of Tti1-Tti2 binding to the function of Tel2. Taken together, our data suggest that the Tel2-Tti1-Tti2 complex is a PIKK-specific cochaperone for Hsp90.

  16. Survival Impact of Increasing Time to Treatment Initiation for Patients With Head and Neck Cancer in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Colin T.; Handorf, Elizabeth A.; Egleston, Brian L.; Wang, Lora S.; Mehra, Ranee; Flieder, Douglas B.; Ridge, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the overall survival (OS) impact from increasing time to treatment initiation (TTI) for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods Using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), we examined patients who received curative therapy for the following sites: oral tongue, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. TTI was the number of days from diagnosis to initiation of curative treatment. The effect of TTI on OS was determined by using Cox regression models (MVA). Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) identified TTI thresholds via conditional inference trees to estimate the greatest differences in OS on the basis of randomly selected training and validation sets, and repeated this 1,000 times to ensure robustness of TTI thresholds. Results A total of 51,655 patients were included. On MVA, TTI of 61 to 90 days versus less than 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.19) independently increased mortality risk. TTI of 67 days appeared as the optimal threshold on the training RPA, statistical significance was confirmed in the validation set (P < .001), and the 67-day TTI was the optimal threshold in 54% of repeated simulations. Overall, 96% of simulations validated two optimal TTI thresholds, with ranges of 46 to 52 days and 62 to 67 days. The median OS for TTI of 46 to 52 days or fewer versus 53 to 67 days versus greater than 67 days was 71.9 months (95% CI, 70.3 to 73.5 months) versus 61 months (95% CI, 57 to 66.1 months) versus 46.6 months (95% CI, 42.8 to 50.7 months), respectively (P < .001). In the most recent year with available data (2011), 25% of patients had TTI of greater than 46 days. Conclusion TTI independently affects survival. One in four patients experienced treatment delay. TTI of greater than 46 to 52 days introduced an increased risk of death that was most consistently detrimental beyond 60 days. Prolonged TTI is currently affecting survival. PMID:26628469

  17. Preliminary Analysis of Images from the Thermospheric Temperature Image on Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Marcello; Jones, Sarah; Mentzell, Eric; Gill, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    The Thermospheric Temperature Imager (TTI) on Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology SATellite (FASTSAT) measures the upper atmospheric atomic oxygen emission at 135.6 nm and the molecular nitrogen LBH emission at 135.4 nm to determine the atmospheric O/N2 density ratio. Observations of variations in this thermospheric ratio correspond to electron density variations in the ionosphere. The TTI design makes use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to measure Doppler widened atmospheric emissions to determine neutral atmospheric temperature from low Earth orbit. FASTSAT launched November 10, 2010 and TTI is currently observing geomagnetic signatures in the aurora and airglow. This work is supported by NASA.

  18. 75 FR 43195 - Notice of Availability: Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Doctoral...

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    2010-07-23

    ...; telephone 202-402-3852 (this is not a toll-free number). Persons with speech or hearing impairments may access this telephone number via TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Information Relay Service...

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    2010-11-12

    ...., Room 7262, Washington, DC 20410; telephone (202) 708-1234; TTY number for the hearing- and speech-impaired (202) 708-2565, (these telephone numbers are not toll-free), or call the toll-free Title...

  20. 29 CFR 2.35 - Effect of DOL support on Title VII employment nondiscrimination requirements and on other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Avenue, NW., Room N4123, Washington, DC 20210, (202) 693-6500. Individuals with hearing or speech impairments may access this telephone number via TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Information...

  1. 75 FR 25285 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

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    2010-05-07

    ..., Washington, DC 20410; telephone (202) 708-1234; TTY number for the hearing- and speech-impaired (202) 708-2565, (these telephone numbers are not toll- free), or call the toll-free Title V information line...

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    2013-08-26

    ... or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. This is not a toll- free number. Copies of available documents submitted to...

  3. 75 FR 43196 - Notice of Availability: Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 the...

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    2010-07-23

    ..., Washington DC 20410; telephone 202-402-4200 (this is not a toll-free number). Persons with speech or hearing impairments may access this telephone number via TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Information...

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    2011-10-07

    ..., Washington, DC 20410-6000, telephone number 202-708-0005. (This is not a toll-free number.) Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal...

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    ..., Washington, DC 20410; telephone (202) 708-1234; TTY number for the hearing- and speech-impaired (202) 708-2565, (these telephone numbers are not toll- free), or call the toll-free Title V information line...

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    ... 7262, Washington, DC 20410; telephone (202) 708-1234; TTY number for the hearing- and speech-impaired (202) 708-2565, (these telephone numbers are not toll- free), or call the toll-free Title V...

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  10. Development of Aa New Time Temperature Indicator for Enzymatic Validation of Pasteurization of Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a new smart time-temperature indicator (TTI) of pasteurization whose operating principle is based on the complexation reaction between starch and iodine, and the subsequent action of an amylase on this complex causing its discoloration at a rate dependent on time and temperature of the medium. Laboratory simulations and tests in a manufacturing plant evaluated different enzyme concentrations in the TTI prototypes when exposed to pasteurization conditions. The results showed that the color response of the indicators was visually interpreted as adaptive to measurement using appropriate equipment, with satisfactory reliability in all conditions studied. The TTI containing 6.5% amylase was one whose best results were suited for use in validating the cooking of hams. When attached to the primary packaging of the product, this TTI indicated the pasteurization process inexpensively, easily, accurately, and nondestructively. PMID:25944498

  11. Computer Workstations: Wrist/Palm Supports

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  2. Computer Workstations: Good Working Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800-321-6742 (OSHA) TTY www.OSHA.gov FEDERAL GOVERNMENT White House Affordable Care Act Disaster Recovery ...

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    ... OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800-321-6742 (OSHA) TTY www.OSHA.gov FEDERAL GOVERNMENT White House Affordable Care Act Disaster Recovery ...

  4. 76 FR 58275 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Thursday, September 22, 2011

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    2012-07-16

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  7. 77 FR 18814 - Emergency Access Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

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    2012-03-28

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  8. Finite Difference Modeling of Wave Progpagation in Acoustic TiltedTI Media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Linbin; Rector III, James W.; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2005-03-21

    Based on an acoustic assumption (shear wave velocity is zero) and a dispersion relation, we derive an acoustic wave equation for P-waves in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media (transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis). This equation has fewer parameters than an elastic wave equation in TTI media and yields an accurate description of P-wave traveltimes and spreading-related attenuation. Our TTI acoustic wave equation is a fourth-order equation in time and space. We demonstrate that the acoustic approximation allows the presence of shear waves in the solution. The substantial differences in traveltime and amplitude between data created using VTI and TTI assumptions is illustrated in examples.

  9. 78 FR 43882 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Friday, July 19, 2013

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    2013-07-22

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    2012-01-27

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  12. 47 CFR 68.417 - Informal complaints; form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reasonable means, e.g., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII... complaint by the Commission and defendant (e.g., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone...

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    2013-10-01

    ..., telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, Internet e-mail, audio-cassette recording, and... complaint by the Commission and defendant (e.g., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone...

  14. 47 CFR 68.417 - Informal complaints; form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  15. 47 CFR 7.17 - Informal complaints; form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, Internet e-mail, audio-cassette recording, and... complaint by the Commission and defendant (e.g., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone...

  16. 47 CFR 68.417 - Informal complaints; form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reasonable means, e.g., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII... complaint by the Commission and defendant (e.g., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone...

  17. 47 CFR 6.17 - Informal complaints; form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... recording, and braille. (b) An informal complaint shall include: (1) The name and address of the complainant... transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, audio-cassette recording, braille;...

  18. 77 FR 61032 - Notice of Sunshine Act Meetings; Correction

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  1. 78 FR 45945 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition-Project Mortgages

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  1. Development of Aa New Time Temperature Indicator for Enzymatic Validation of Pasteurization of Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a new smart time-temperature indicator (TTI) of pasteurization whose operating principle is based on the complexation reaction between starch and iodine, and the subsequent action of an amylase on this complex causing its discoloration at a rate dependent on time and temperature of the medium. Laboratory simulations and tests in a manufacturing plant evaluated different enzyme concentrations in the TTI prototypes when exposed to pasteurization conditions. The results showed that the color response of the indicators was visually interpreted as adaptive to measurement using appropriate equipment, with satisfactory reliability in all conditions studied. The TTI containing 6.5% amylase was one whose best results were suited for use in validating the cooking of hams. When attached to the primary packaging of the product, this TTI indicated the pasteurization process inexpensively, easily, accurately, and nondestructively.

  2. 78 FR 4160 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

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    2013-01-18

    ...-3970; TTY number for the hearing- and speech-impaired (202) 708-2565 (these telephone numbers are not... estate document to remove bldg; contact Army for more info. Land Washington 1.8 Ac. of the Richland FB...

  3. Validity of infrared tympanic temperature for the evaluation of heat strain while wearing impermeable protective clothing in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Nakao, Kouhei; Takahashi, Naoki; Son, Su-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of infrared tympanic temperature (IR T(ty)) as a thermal index to evaluate the heat strain of workers in hot environments, in comparison with rectal temperatures at various depths (T(re-4, -8, and -16) for 4, 8 and 16 cm from the anal sphincter). Eight males underwent twelve experimental conditions: two activities (rest and exercise) × three clothing levels [Control, HDPE (high-density polyethylene coverall) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride coverall) condition] × two air temperatures (25 and 32℃ with 50%RH). The results showed that 1) in the conditions with most heat strain (HDPE or PVC condition at 32℃), IR T(ty) was equal to or even higher than T(re); 2) during exercise, physiological strain index (PSI) using IR T(ty) did not underestimate PSI-values using T(re-16), and overestimated those PSI-values from T(re-16) in HDPE and PVC conditions at 32℃; 3) during exercise, the relationships between IR T(ty) and heart and total sweat rate were stronger than those between T(re-16) and heart and total sweat rate. These results indicated that IR T(ty) is valid as a thermal index to evaluate the heat strain of workers wearing impermeable protective coveralls in hot environments. However, the application of IR T(ty) is limited only for strenuous works wearing encapsulated personal protective clothing with a hood in heat.

  4. Development of a microbial time/temperature indicator prototype for monitoring the microbiological quality of chilled foods.

    PubMed

    Vaikousi, Hariklia; Biliaderis, Costas G; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2008-05-01

    A time/temperature indicator (TTI) system based on the growth and metabolic activity of a Lactobacillus sakei strain was developed for monitoring food quality throughout the chilled-food chain. In the designed system, an irreversible color change of a chemical chromatic indicator (from red to yellow) progressively occurs due to the pH decline that results from microbial growth and metabolism in a selected medium. The relation of the TTI response (color change) to the growth and metabolic activity (glucose consumption, lactic acid production, pH decrease) of L. sakei was studied. In addition, the temperature dependence of the TTI kinetics was investigated isothermally in the range of 0 to 16 degrees C and modeled with a system of differential equations. At all temperatures tested, the pH and color changes of the TTI system followed closely the growth of L. sakei, with the endpoint (the time at which a distinct visual color change to the final yellow was observed) of the TTI coinciding with a population level of 10(7) to 10(8) CFU/ml. The endpoint decreased from 27 days at 0 degrees C to 2.5 days at 16 degrees C, yielding an activation energy of 97.7 kJ/mol, which was very close to the activation energy of the L. sakei growth rate in the TTI substrate (103.2 kJ/mol). Furthermore, experiments conducted on the effect of the inoculum level showed a negative linear relationship between the level of L. sakei inoculated in the system medium and the endpoint of the TTI. For example, the endpoint at 8 degrees C ranged from 6 to 2 days for inoculum levels of 10(1) and 10(6) CFU/ml, respectively. This relationship allows the easy adjustment of the TTI endpoint at a certain temperature according to the shelf life of the food product of concern by using an appropriate inoculum level of L. sakei. The microbial TTI prototype developed in the present study could be used as an effective tool for monitoring shelf life during the distribution and storage of food products that are

  5. Development of a Microbial Time/Temperature Indicator Prototype for Monitoring the Microbiological Quality of Chilled Foods▿

    PubMed Central

    Vaikousi, Hariklia; Biliaderis, Costas G.; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P.

    2008-01-01

    A time/temperature indicator (TTI) system based on the growth and metabolic activity of a Lactobacillus sakei strain was developed for monitoring food quality throughout the chilled-food chain. In the designed system, an irreversible color change of a chemical chromatic indicator (from red to yellow) progressively occurs due to the pH decline that results from microbial growth and metabolism in a selected medium. The relation of the TTI response (color change) to the growth and metabolic activity (glucose consumption, lactic acid production, pH decrease) of L. sakei was studied. In addition, the temperature dependence of the TTI kinetics was investigated isothermally in the range of 0 to 16°C and modeled with a system of differential equations. At all temperatures tested, the pH and color changes of the TTI system followed closely the growth of L. sakei, with the endpoint (the time at which a distinct visual color change to the final yellow was observed) of the TTI coinciding with a population level of 107 to 108 CFU/ml. The endpoint decreased from 27 days at 0°C to 2.5 days at 16°C, yielding an activation energy of 97.7 kJ/mol, which was very close to the activation energy of the L. sakei growth rate in the TTI substrate (103.2 kJ/mol). Furthermore, experiments conducted on the effect of the inoculum level showed a negative linear relationship between the level of L. sakei inoculated in the system medium and the endpoint of the TTI. For example, the endpoint at 8°C ranged from 6 to 2 days for inoculum levels of 101 and 106 CFU/ml, respectively. This relationship allows the easy adjustment of the TTI endpoint at a certain temperature according to the shelf life of the food product of concern by using an appropriate inoculum level of L. sakei. The microbial TTI prototype developed in the present study could be used as an effective tool for monitoring shelf life during the distribution and storage of food products that are spoiled primarily by lactic acid

  6. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  7. Applicability of biological time temperature integrators as quality and safety indicators for meat products.

    PubMed

    Ellouze, M; Augustin, J-C

    2010-03-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate (eO), a biological time temperature integrator (TTI) as a quality and safety indicator for ground beef packed under modified atmosphere and spiced cooked chicken slices packed under modified atmosphere. Storage trials and challenge tests were thus performed on several batches of the studied food to monitor and model the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and the indigenous food flora. Then, two different prototypes of the TTI (eO) were set and manufactured according to the studied products shelf lives. The TTI evolution with time at static and dynamic temperatures was monitored and modeled. Finally, exposure assessment models were set and used under several realistic storage profiles to assess the distributions of the concentration of the indigenous food flora and the distributions of the increase in the pathogens populations obtained at the end of the product shelf life or at the end point of the TTI, taking into account the TTIs batch variability. Results showed that in case of poor storage conditions, TTI can reduce the consumer exposure to altered or hazardous foods. PMID:20074826

  8. Development characterization and use of a high-performance enzymatic time-temperature integrator for the control of sterilization process' impacts.

    PubMed

    Guiavarc'h, Yann; Van Loey, Ann; Zuber, François; Hendrickx, Marc

    2004-10-01

    A small sized single-component enzymatic time temperature integrator (TTI) was developed. It consisted of glass beads coated with Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (BLA) and stabilizing additives in a dehydrated form. Post heating residual enzymatic activity was used as a response property of the TTI. Under isothermal conditions, different batches of the system were characterized by z(TTI)-values around 13.5 degrees C in the temperature range 100-130 degrees C as well as by their ability to provide a response within 5 min after thermal processing. When used under non-isothermal conditions in a model food (silicone spheres), the system allowed to measure process-values (zTTI)F(121.1 degrees C) up to 60 min with an average error of 10.9%. The capabilities of the system were validated in a real solid/liquid food matrix sterilized by retorting. The combination of F(TTI)-values with heat transfer simulations based on finite difference calculations allowed for the determination of process values, which evaluated actual process-values (10 degrees C)F(121.1 degrees C) up to 90 min with an average error of 11.4%. The good performances of the system as well as its easiness of preparation and use, make the latter a valuable biological device for thermal process assessment.

  9. Integrated Science: Florida Manatees and Everglades Hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Slone, Daniel H.; Decker, Jeremy; Butler, Susan M.; Doyle, Terry; Snow, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting and monitoring restoration effects on Florida manatees, which are known to make extended movements, will be incomplete if modeling and monitoring are limited to the smaller areas defined by the various res-toration components. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) efforts, thus far, have focused on (1) collecting manatee movement data throughout the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) region, and (2) developing an individual-based model for manatees to illustrate manatee responses to changes in hydrology related to the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP). In 2006, new regional research was begun to extend an Everglades hydrology model into the TTI region; extend the manatee movement model into the southern estuaries of Everglades National Park (ENP); and integrate hydrology and manatee data, models, and monitoring across the TTI region and ENP. Currently (2008), three research tasks are underway to develop the necessary modeling components to assess restoration efforts across the Greater Everglades Ecosystem.

  10. Time--temperature indicator for perishable products based on kinetically programmable Ag overgrowth on Au nanorods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Yin, An-Xiang; Jiang, Ruibin; Rong, Jie; Dong, Lu; Zhao, Tian; Sun, Ling-Dong; Wang, Jianfang; Chen, Xing; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2013-05-28

    Food safety is a constant concern for humans. Besides adulteration and contamination, another major threat comes from the spontaneous spoilage of perishable products, which is basically inevitable and highly dependent on the temperature history during the custody chain. For advanced quality control and assessment, time-temperature indicators (TTIs) can be deployed to document the temperature history. However, the use of TTIs is currently limited by either relatively high cost or poor programmability. Here we describe a general, kinetically programmable, and cost-efficient TTI protocol constructed from plasmonic nanocrystals. We present proof-of-principle demonstrations that our TTI can be specifically tailored and thus used to track perishables, dynamically mimic the deteriorative processes therein, and indicate product quality through sharp-contrast multicolor changes. The flexible programmability of our TTI, combined with its substantially low cost and low toxicity, promises a general applicability to each single packaged item of a plethora of perishable products. PMID:23627773

  11. Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.

  12. Advances in vaccine stability monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Stephen E

    2006-08-14

    Electronic time-temperature indicator (eTTI) monitors can be programmed to exactly follow the stability characteristics of vaccines with a high degree of realism. The monitors have a visual output, enabling vaccine status to be assessed at a glance, and can also output more detailed statistical data. When packaged with vaccine vials in groups of about 10 vials per box, the eTTI can remain with a vaccine throughout most of the vaccine's lifetime. The monitors can detect essentially all cold-chain breaks, and can detect issues, such as inadvertent freezing, that are presently not detected by other vaccine stability monitors such as Vaccine Vial Monitors (VVM). PMID:16759766

  13. A shared regulatory perspective on deferral from blood donation of men who have sex with men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Epstein, J; Ganz, P R; Seitz, R; Jutzi, M; Schaerer, C; Michaud, G; Agbanyo, F; Smith, G; Prosser, I; Heiden, M; Saint-Marie, I; Oualikene-Gonin, W; Hamaguchi, I; Yasuda, N

    2014-11-01

    National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) establish deferral criteria for donors with risk factors for transfusion transmissible infections (TTI). In most jurisdictions, epidemiological data show that men who have sex with men (MSM) have a significantly higher rate of TTI than the general population. Nevertheless, changes from an indefinite donor deferral for MSM have been considered in many countries in response to concerns over a perceived discrimination and questioning of the scientific need. Changes to MSM donor deferral criteria should be based on sound scientific evidence. Safety of transfusion recipients should be the first priority, and stakeholder input should be sought.

  14. [Monitoring myocardial performance after open heart surgery by calculation of diastolic and systolic pressure time index (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Seybold-Epting, W; Fenchel, G; Stunkat, R; Seboldt, H; Hoffmeister, H E

    1978-10-01

    In order to determine the incidence of subendocardial ischemia after open heart surgery, subendocardial blood flow was monitored in 171 patients subjected to mitral and/or aortic valve replacement or coronary revascularization by on-line calculation of Diastolic (DPTI) and Systolic Pressure Time Index (TTI). Body hypothermia with an esophageal temperature of 25 degrees C and magnesium-aspartate-procaine cardioplegia were applied for myocardial protection. Ten patients developed low cardiac output state with two early deaths. In the two patients with fatal low cardiac output DPTI/TTI remained below 0.8. In the remaining 8 patients DPTI/TTI rose to 1.4 after a mean recovery time of 36 hours. In 161 patients (94%) no low cardiac output state evolved and DPTI/TTI rose to 1.3 within 60 min. after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass. Our results indicate that body hypothermia of 25 degrees C combined with magnesium-aspartate-procaine cardioplegia can reduce the incidence of subendocardial ischemia, but does not prevent this complication completely after anoxic times beyond 60-70 minutes. PMID:715754

  15. 78 FR 36231 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA-Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages...

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  16. 77 FR 801 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

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  1. 77 FR 22720 - Service Rules for Advanced Wireless Services in the 2000-2020 MHz and 2180-2200 MHz Bands, etc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... purchased from the Commission's duplicating contractor, Best Copy and Printing, Inc. (BCPI), Portals II, 445... print, audio cassette, and Braille) are available by contacting Brian Millin at (202) 418-7426, TTY (202... Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63...

  2. 76 FR 59559 - Facilitating the Use of Microwave for Wireless Backhaul and Other Uses and Providing Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... documents may be purchased from the Commission's duplicating contractor, Best Copy and Printing, Inc. (BCPI... print, audio cassette, and Braille) are available by contacting Brian Millin at (202) 418- 7426, TTY... cost-effective alternative to traditional copper circuits and fiber optic links has been increasing....

  3. New TPEG applications based on digital multimedia broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Youngho; Cho, Sammo; Kim, Geon; Ahn, Chunghyun; Lee, Sooin; Kim, Whanwoo

    2006-02-01

    The digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) allows can provide an economical way of massive multimedia data services, thus, it is emerging as an optimal solution to address the several drawbacks of the mobile communication network. Among the data services based on the DMB, the traffic and travel Information (TTI) service has been spotlighted in aspects of economic influence and information usability. For example, the demand of TTI service has dramatically increased due to rapid increase in the number of vehicles and population of frequently traveling on long-weekends. In order to satisfying such a demanding, a transport protocol experts group (TPEG) protocol was developed. However, TPEG has been applied merely to two application areas up to now and there is no consideration to standardize new services very valuable for drivers and travelers. This paper presents new economic and effective point of interest (POI) and news services compatible to TPEG that can be provided in the DMB. To verify the stability of POI and news protocols, we implemented the TTI data server/client, and the DMB/DAB receiver with the TTI decoder. Through the experimental broadcasting in the local DMB network, it is shown that the proposed protocol operates stably and effectively in the navigation system.

  4. 78 FR 63152 - Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Internet-based relay services (iTRS) and public switched telephone network-based captioned telephone... Printing, Inc., Portals II, 445 12th Street SW., Room CY-B402, Washington, DC 20554, telephone: (800) 378... disability to utilize a text telephone, or TTY, to transmit text over the PSTN to a communications...

  5. 76 FR 73689 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... (202) 693-2350 (TTY (887) 889-5627). Deliveries (hand, express mail, messenger, courier service) are... the building at the Visitors' Entrance, at 3rd and C Streets NW., and pass through Building Security. Attendees must have valid government-issued photo identification to enter the building. Please contact...

  6. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - 741-Guidelines on a Contractor's Duty To Provide Reasonable Accommodation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) implementing the ADA (29 CFR part..., telephones compatible with hearing aids, and TTY machines. For persons with limited physical dexterity, the... learning disorder such as dyslexia to provide oral answers for a written test, and permitting an...

  7. 76 FR 80358 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket... Numbers: RP12-235-000 Applicants: Gas Transmission Northwest LLC Description: Reservation Charge Credit.../filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-...

  8. 77 FR 35370 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    .... Description: El Paso Natural Gas Company's 2011 (Jan-Mar) Penalty Credit Report. Filed Date: 5/31/12... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket...-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY,...

  9. 77 FR 71790 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket... Credit Response Filing to be effective 12/31/9998. Filed Date: 11/26/12. Accession Number: 20121126-5216.../filing-req.pdf . For other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-...

  10. Bio-potency of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H. armigera.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10 µg/ml and 1.68 µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21 kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H. armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H. armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H. armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H. armigera.

  11. 78 FR 27369 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ...@cns.gov subject line: MAY 2013 CNCS BOARD MEETING by 4:00 p.m. (ET) on May 10, 2013. Individuals.... Anyone who needs an interpreter or other accommodation should notify Ida Green at igreen@cns.gov or 202..., DC 20525. Phone: (202) 606-6615. Fax: (202) 606-3460. TTY: (800) 833-3722. Email:...

  12. 77 FR 14353 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized... . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call 1-800-833- 3722 between 8 a.m... information on those who are expected to respond, including the use of appropriate automated,...

  13. 76 FR 64328 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is... through http://www.regulations.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD..., including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological...

  14. 77 FR 67344 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, and the impact....gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call 1-800- 833-3722... information on those who are expected to respond, including the use of appropriate automated,...

  15. 78 FR 41386 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection....regulations.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call 1-800-833... expected to respond, including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or...

  16. 78 FR 65298 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection....gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY- TDD) may call 1-800-833-3722... information on those who are expected to respond, including the use of appropriate automated,...

  17. 78 FR 43862 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection...) Electronically through www.regulations.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information...

  18. 76 FR 2088 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is...://www.regulations.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call..., including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological...

  19. 77 FR 66864 - Delegation of Concurrent Authority to the Deputy Secretary

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...: Lawrence D. Reynolds, Assistant General Counsel for Administrative Law, Office of General Counsel... number 202-402-3502. (This is not a toll-free number.) Individuals with speech or hearing impairments may access this number through TTY by calling 1-800-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under Section...

  20. 76 FR 20297 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ..., ] Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People who are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision, CG Docket No. 10... phone: (202) 418-0530 or TTY: (202) 418-0432. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey Tignor, Broadband... 76 FR 13800 (March 14, 2011). 2. On April 1, 2011, the American Foundation for the Blind,...

  1. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... mobile repeaters by public safety licensees on certain frequencies in the VHF band. DATES: Submit..., CART, etc.) by email: FCC504@fcc.gov or phone: 202-418- 0530 or TTY: 202-418-0432. For detailed... Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (May 1, 1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using...

  2. 75 FR 62535 - Farm Credit Administration Board; Sunshine Act; Regular Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    .... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given, pursuant to the Government in the Sunshine Act (5 U.S.C. 552b(e)(3)), of... October 14, 2010, from 9 a.m. until such time as the Board concludes its business. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Roland E. Smith, Secretary to the Farm Credit Administration Board, (703) 883-4009, TTY (703)...

  3. 75 FR 17140 - Sunshine Act; Farm Credit Administration Board; Regular Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ...: Notice is hereby given, pursuant to the Government in the Sunshine Act (5 U.S.C. 552b(e)(3)), of the..., 2010, from 9 a.m. until such time as the Board concludes its business. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Roland E. Smith, Secretary to the Farm Credit Administration Board, (703) 883-4009, TTY (703)...

  4. 76 FR 22898 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Submission for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... review, by advance appointment only, at the Commission's library between the hours of 9 a.m. and 5 p.m... comments at EEOC's library, contact the library staff at (202) 663-4630 (voice) or (202) 663-4641 (TTY... secondary school districts. Description of Affected Public: Certain public elementary and secondary...

  5. Did You Have Gestational Diabetes When You Were Pregnant? What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... play time in front of the computer, tablets, smartphones, and TV to 2 hours per day. Contact your local parks department or local health department to learn where you can find safe places to be active and get healthy foods. National Diabetes Education Program 1-800-860-8747, TTY: 1-866- ...

  6. Elevations and distances in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Further information about U.S. Geological Survey products can be obtained from: U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Science Information Center, 507 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 or phone 1-888-ASK-USGS, E-mail: ask@usgs.gov, TTY: 703-648-4119.

  7. 78 FR 2684 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Annual Progress Report (APR) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ..., (this is not a toll-free number) or email Ms. Pollard at Colette_Pollard@hud.gov for a copy of proposed... through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Information Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. FOR FURTHER... 7262, Washington, DC 20410; telephone (202) 708-1590 (This is not a toll-free number.)...

  8. 76 FR 73608 - Reliability Technical Conference, North American Electric Reliability Corporation, Public Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... 1- (800) 336-6646). A free webcast of this event is also available through http://www.ferc.gov... accessibility@ferc.gov or call toll free 1-(866) 208- 3372 (voice) or (202) 208-1659 (TTY), or send a FAX to.... Lunch 12:45 p.m. Continuation of Panel III Discussion with Commissioners: Open dialogue and...

  9. 76 FR 45249 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice of Staff Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...-6646). A free webcast of this event is also available through http://www.ferc.gov . Anyone with... Capitol Connection provides technical support for the free webcasts. If you have any questions, visit http... accessibility@ferc.gov or call toll free (866) 208- 3372 (voice) or (202) 502-8659 (TTY), or send a fax to...

  10. 75 FR 36385 - Reliability Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement Supplemental Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... accommodate participants outside of Washington, DC a free webcast of the conference will be available on http... provides technical support for free webcasts and offers the option of listening via phone-bridge for a fee... accessibility@ferc.gov or call toll free 1-866-208- 3372 (voice) or 202-208-1659 (TTY), or send a FAX to...

  11. 75 FR 34734 - Improving Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Agenda and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... at http://www.ferc.gov . A free webcast of this event is available through http://www.ferc.gov... webcast. The Capitol Connection provides technical support for the free webcasts. It also offers access to... accessibility@ferc.gov or call toll free 1-866-208- 3372 (voice) or 202-208-8659 (TTY), or send a fax to...

  12. 76 FR 72203 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Reliability Workshop Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... free 1-(866) 208- 3372 (voice) or (202) 208-1659 (TTY), or send a FAX to (202) 208-2106 with the... Interconnection Bruce Rew, Southwest Power Pool 11:30 a.m.-1 p.m.--Lunch Break. 1-4 p.m.--The next generation...

  13. 77 FR 53841 - Amador County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ..., Placerville, CA (530) 621-5268, TTY (530) 642-5122, fmosbacher@fs.fed.us . Individuals who use... posted on the Web at: https://fsplaces.fs.fed.us/fsfiles/unit/wo/secure_rural_schools.nsf/Web_Agendas... Mosbacher, RAC Coordinator; 100 Forni Road; Placerville, CA 95667 or by email to fmosbacher@fs.fed.us ,...

  14. 77 FR 49779 - Meeting of the Amador County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ..., 100 Forni Road, Placerville, CA (530) 621-5268, TTY (530) 642-5122, fmosbacher@fs.fed.us . Individuals.... The full agenda will be posted on the Web at: https://fsplaces.fs.fed.us/fsfiles/unit/wo/secure_rural... fmosbacher@fs.fed.us , or ] via facsimile to 530-621-5297. A summary of the meeting will be posted at...

  15. 78 FR 26261 - Connect America Fund; Developing a Unified Intercarrier Compensation Regime

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... (voice) or (202) 418-0432 (TTY). I. Introduction 1. In the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 81,562... to ] determine the allocation of the Transport Interconnection Charge (TIC) among the various access....415 to clarify that the amount of a rate-of-return carrier's TIC costs to be reallocated to...

  16. 78 FR 57798 - Program Integrity Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... requirements, Selective Service System, Student aid, Vocational education. Dated: September 17, 2013. Arne... the deaf (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1- 800.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The October 29, 2010, final regulations (75 FR 66832) amended the regulations...

  17. 75 FR 35966 - Farm Credit Administration Board Meetings; Assessment and Apportionment of Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ..., Office of Regulatory Policy, Farm Credit Administration, McLean, VA 22102-5090, (703) 883-4498, TTY (703... extension of credit and the collection of loans would also necessarily include the administration of credit... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT...

  18. 76 FR 53379 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the List of Endangered and Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...) and revise the listing to conform to current statutory and policy requirements (76 FR 26086). In that... for TTY assistance. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In our May 5, 2011, proposed rule (76 FR... FR 25590). This action became effective upon publication in the Federal Register. The May 5,...

  19. The Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R.; Ketcham, Patricia L.; Smit, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) is a substance use behavior that remains prevalent on college campuses. As theory can guide research and practice, we provide a systematic review of the college-based IUPS epidemiological literature guided by one ecological framework, the theory of triadic influence (TTI). We aim to assess…

  20. 77 FR 38804 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Comment on Model Design and Data Inputs for Phase II of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Bureau at (202) 418-0530 (voice), (202) 418-0432 (tty). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ted Burmeister.../cgi-bin/leaving.cgi?from=leavingFR.html&log=linklog&to=http://www.bcpiweb.comhttp://www.bcpiweb.com... consistent with the requirements set forth in the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November...

  1. 75 FR 37803 - Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau Seeks Comment on a Petition for Expedited Clarification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... states that its interactive voice recognition platform is neither a predictive dialer nor a form of..., Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, Policy Division, at (202) 418-7706 (voice), or e-mail Karen...) 418-0530 (voice), (202) 418-0432 (TTY). Document DA 10-997 can also be downloaded in Word or...

  2. 78 FR 25916 - Authorization of Radiofrequency Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... recognition of laboratory accreditation bodies, and measurement procedures used to determine RF equipment...). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers... at 202-418-0530 (voice), 202- 418-0432 (tty). Summary of Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 1....

  3. 77 FR 33972 - Channel Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic Area (EA)-based 800 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Affairs Bureau at 202-418-0530 (voice), 202- 418-0432 (tty). Summary I. Introduction and Background 1. As... intent in the Executive Summary of the 800 MHz SMR First Report and Order, at 61 FR 6138, Feb. 16, 1996... Reconfiguration Report and Order, at 69 FR 67823, Nov. 22, 2004, to ``address the ongoing and growing problem...

  4. 76 FR 2625 - Comment Sought on 2010 Review of Hearing Aid Compatibility Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may... Bureau at (202) 418-0530 (voice), (202) 418-0432 (TTY). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Rowan... FR 54508 and 75 FR 54546 (Sept. 8, 2010), the ] Commission reiterated its intention, first stated...

  5. Electrophysiology of Memory-Updating Differs with Age

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Gonsalvez, Craig J.; De Blasio, Frances M.; Barry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In oddball tasks, the P3 component of the event-related potential systematically varies with the time between target stimuli—the target-to-target interval (TTI). Longer TTIs result in larger P3 amplitudes and shorter latencies, and this pattern of results has been linked with working memory-updating processes. Given that working memory and the P3 have both been shown to diminish with age, the current study aimed to determine whether the linear relationship between P3 and TTI is compromised in healthy aging by comparing TTI effects on P3 amplitudes and latencies, and reaction time (RT), in young and older adults. Older adults were found to have an overall reduction in P3 amplitudes, longer latencies, an anterior shift in topography, a trend toward slower RTs, and a flatter linear relationship between P3 and TTI than young adults. Results suggest that the ability to maintain templates in working memory required for stimulus categorization decreases with age, and that as a result, neural compensatory mechanisms are employed. PMID:27378908

  6. 77 FR 75420 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian Children

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... increase competency and skills in challenging subject matters, including math and science, to enable Indian.... Telephone, toll free: 1-877-433-7827. FAX: (703) 605-6794. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY), call, toll free: 1-877-567-7734. You can contact ED Pubs at...

  7. 76 FR 71037 - Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens: Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 67200) and is available on the NTP Web site ( http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go... on the NTP Web site ( http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/rocprocess ) prior to the November 29, 2011... the NTP Web site ( http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/rocprocess ). TTY users should contact the Federal...

  8. 76 FR 19357 - FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting, Thursday, April 7, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload (PS Docket No. 10-92); Independent... can contact you if we need more information. Last minute requests will be accepted, but may be... 202-418-0530 (voice), 202-418-0432 (tty). Additional information concerning this meeting may...

  9. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to abandon...

  10. 76 FR 42461 - Consolidated Delegation of Authority to the General Counsel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... through TTY by calling 1-800-877- 8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 1, 2009, at 74 FR 62801... Property Rights, issued March 15, 1987, (53 FR 8859, March 18, 1988) consistent with Executive Order 13406, Protecting the Property Rights of the American People, issued June 23, 2006 (71 FR 36973, June 28, 2006)....

  11. 77 FR 53877 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-715); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... public comment on the currently approved information collection, Annual Transmission Planning and...-8659 for TTY. Docket: Users interested in receiving automatic notification of activity in this docket...: Title: FERC-715: Annual Transmission Planning and Evaluation Report. OMB Control No.: 1902-0171. Type...

  12. Sequential Processing and the Matching-Stimulus Interval Effect in ERP Components: An Exploration of the Mechanism Using Multiple Regression

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Barry, Robert J.; Gonsalvez, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    In oddball tasks, increasing the time between stimuli within a particular condition (target-to-target interval, TTI; nontarget-to-nontarget interval, NNI) systematically enhances N1, P2, and P300 event-related potential (ERP) component amplitudes. This study examined the mechanism underpinning these effects in ERP components recorded from 28 adults who completed a conventional three-tone oddball task. Bivariate correlations, partial correlations and multiple regression explored component changes due to preceding ERP component amplitudes and intervals found within the stimulus series, rather than constraining the task with experimentally constructed intervals, which has been adequately explored in prior studies. Multiple regression showed that for targets, N1 and TTI predicted N2, TTI predicted P3a and P3b, and Processing Negativity (PN), P3b, and TTI predicted reaction time. For rare nontargets, P1 predicted N1, NNI predicted N2, and N1 predicted Slow Wave (SW). Findings show that the mechanism is operating on separate stages of stimulus-processing, suggestive of either increased activation within a number of stimulus-specific pathways, or very long component generator recovery cycles. These results demonstrate the extent to which matching-stimulus intervals influence ERP component amplitudes and behavior in a three-tone oddball task, and should be taken into account when designing similar studies. PMID:27445774

  13. Technology Transfer and Innovation Initiatives in Strategic Management: Generating an Alternative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper taps the strategic management discipline to inform our understanding of technology transfer and innovation (TTI) initiatives. With special focus on the UK Foresight programme it considers the impacts that the resource-based and core competence approaches to strategy can have on understanding the nature and effectiveness of TTI…

  14. 76 FR 7562 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... in advance on future Commission sessions). Please telephone (202) 663-7100 (voice) and (202) 663-4074... Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable accommodations may be made by using the voice and TTY numbers listed...

  15. 75 FR 62815 - Sunshine Act; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... in advance on future Commission sessions.) Please telephone (202) 663-7100 (voice) and (202) 663-4074... Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable accommodations may be made by using the voice and TTY numbers listed...

  16. 77 FR 9653 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... in advance on future Commission sessions.) Please telephone (202) 663-7100 (voice) and (202) 663-4074... Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable accommodations may be made by using the voice and TTY numbers listed...

  17. Message transmission efficiency through five telecommunication technologies for signing deaf users.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Claude; Bergeron, François; Hotton, Mathieu; Deaudelin, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional research design compares the efficiency of videoconferencing in distance communication for signing deaf persons with that of teletypewriter (TTY)-based telecommunication for the deaf. The efficiency of message transmission was evaluated among 30 signing deaf persons (18 to 65 years) under the six following experimental conditions: (a) Omnitor Allan eC software, (b) Polycom ViaVideo II software, (c) Microsoft Windows Live Messenger software, (d) the D-Link videophone, (e) TTY (written French), and (f) face to face (reference standard). Three timed intelligibility tests and a satisfaction assessment were carried out for each of the experimental conditions. Results showed that videoconferencing technologies offer a better efficacy/time ratio for communication than does TTY. Communication using videoconferencing technologies was very similar to face-to-face communication; this was also true for technologies that are not designed specifically for the deaf population. Equivalent satisfaction levels were observed between TTY and videoconferencing technologies. Microsoft Windows Live Messenger was less preferred due to image fluidity issues.

  18. 77 FR 4806 - Dominion Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ...-free at (866) 206-3676, or, for TTY, contact (202) 502-8659. Comments, protests and interventions may... (18 CFR 385.214) a motion to intervene or notice of intervention and pursuant to Section 157.205 of... within the time allowed therefore, the proposed activity shall be deemed to be authorized effective...

  19. 78 FR 11639 - Dominion Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... (866) 206-3676, or, for TTY, contact (202) 502-8659. Comments, protests and interventions may be filed... motion to intervene or notice of intervention and pursuant to Section 157.205 of the regulations under... therefore, the proposed activity shall be deemed to be authorized effective the day after the time...

  20. 50 CFR 226.218 - Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Unit and the southern unit is the Ten Thousand Islands/Everglades (TTI/E) Unit. The units encompass... Charlotte Harbor, Gasparilla Sound, Pine Island Sound, Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, and the... and in Gasparilla Sound by the SR-771 Bridge. The COLREGS-72 lines between Gasparilla Island,...

  1. 50 CFR 226.218 - Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Unit and the southern unit is the Ten Thousand Islands/Everglades (TTI/E) Unit. The units encompass... Charlotte Harbor, Gasparilla Sound, Pine Island Sound, Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, and the... and in Gasparilla Sound by the SR-771 Bridge. The COLREGS-72 lines between Gasparilla Island,...

  2. 50 CFR 226.218 - Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Unit and the southern unit is the Ten Thousand Islands/Everglades (TTI/E) Unit. The units encompass... Charlotte Harbor, Gasparilla Sound, Pine Island Sound, Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, and the... and in Gasparilla Sound by the SR-771 Bridge. The COLREGS-72 lines between Gasparilla Island,...

  3. 50 CFR 226.218 - Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Unit and the southern unit is the Ten Thousand Islands/Everglades (TTI/E) Unit. The units encompass... Charlotte Harbor, Gasparilla Sound, Pine Island Sound, Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, and the... and in Gasparilla Sound by the SR-771 Bridge. The COLREGS-72 lines between Gasparilla Island,...

  4. 76 FR 54756 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Dated: August 4, 2011... 35.13(a)(2)(iii: BPA AC Intertie Agreement 4th Revised to be effective 10/3/2011. Filed Date:...

  5. 75 FR 33688 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be... covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions are... are also published on PBGC=s Web site ( http://www.pbgc.gov ). DATES: Effective July 1, 2010....

  6. 75 FR 69588 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in.... Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site ( http://www.pbgc.gov ). DATES:...

  7. 76 FR 8649 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in.... Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site ( http://www.pbgc.gov ). DATES: Effective...

  8. The text telephone as an empowering technology in the daily lives of deaf people-A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Roos, Carin; Wengelin, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    Text-telephone technology (TTY) has been used for communication between deaf people since 1964. There is a gap in the scientific knowledge about the influence this may have had especially in relation to effective participation in society as well as the feeling of capability, confidence and collective meaningfulness. The aim of the present paper is, first, to disentangle the different aspects of TTY as an empowering artifact; and, second, to explore the role of TTY in their lives. To provide a framework for the empirical analysis, the paper draws on Empowerment Theory: personal control, a proactive approach to life, and a critical awareness of one's socio-political environment. Twenty-four people aged 16-64 with Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as their first language were interviewed. The findings indicate that the introduction of the TTY was of great importance for self-esteem, equality and independence. The findings show that feelings of empowerment are closely linked to language use and contextually driven, and it is in interaction between deaf and hearing that such feelings arise (or not). The results indicate the need for further research into Deaf people's use of other means of interacting, using modern technique for example in social digital media and interactive platforms. PMID:26479953

  9. 78 FR 16262 - J.P. Morgan Ventures Energy Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission J.P. Morgan Ventures Energy Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of J.P. Morgan Ventures Energy Corporation's application for... . or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Dated: March 7, 2013. Nathaniel...

  10. 76 FR 73632 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Wednesday, November 30, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... literacy and the employment skills gap. The meeting site is fully accessible to people using wheelchairs or... Audrey Spivack or David Fiske, Office of Media Relations, (202) 418- 0500; TTY 1-(888) 835-5322. Audio... format and alternative media, including large print/ type; digital disk; and audio and video tape....

  11. 78 FR 75368 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Multifamily Energy Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Multifamily Energy Assessment...; telephone 202-402-3400 (this is not a toll-free number) or email at Colette.Pollard@hud.gov for a copy of... access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. ]...

  12. Medicare and You

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ ssa, and use the “Benefit Eligibility Screening Tool” to find out if you’re eligible for SSI or other benefits. Call Social Security at 1-800-772-1213 or contact your local Social Security office for more information. TTY users should call 1‑ ...

  13. 75 FR 14590 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Station 2, including a withdrawal separator, heat exchanger, hot oil pump, pressure regulator, and... appropriate date range. For assistance, please contact FERC Online Support at FercOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or toll free at 1-866-208-3676, or for TTY, contact (202) 502-8659. The eLibrary link also provides...

  14. 77 FR 50172 - Expert Forum on the Use of Performance-Based Regulatory Models in the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... delivery, express mail, or messenger or courier service: You may submit comments and attachments to the... messenger or courier service) during the Department of Labor's and Docket Office's normal business hours, 8... service, please contact the OSHA Docket Office at (202) 693-2350 (TTY (877) 889-5627). Docket: To read...

  15. 76 FR 47226 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2011-2)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ..., extension 3927. Hearing- or speech-impaired individuals may call 202-708-4594 (TTY). These are not toll-free... before June 30, 2011; Freedom of Information Act Requests HUD reserves the right, in its sole and... HUD is obligated to disclose pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act and all...

  16. 77 FR 76064 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Reform Act: Changes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... other interested parties informally or through the Freedom of Information Act. Written documentation of... Colette_Pollard@hud.gov . Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by...-402-4109, (this is not a toll-free number). Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access...

  17. 29 CFR 4000.4 - Where do I file my submission?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forms, or call our Customer Service Center (1-800-400-7242 for participants, or 1-800-736-2444 for practitioners; TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to...

  18. 76 FR 40729 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Tuesday, July 12, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... enabling a more effective emergency response system by ensuring that 911 call centers continue to receive...@fcc.gov or call the Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau at 202-418-0530 (voice), 202-418-0432 (tty... these services call (703) 993-3100 or go to http://www.capitolconnection.gmu.edu ....

  19. 75 FR 70045 - Proposed Submission of Information Collections for OMB Review; Comment Request; Multiemployer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... hours. (TTY and TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be... rules are appropriate for the industry in which the plan functions and do not pose a significant risk to.... Variances for Sale of Assets (29 CFR Part 4204) (OMB control number 1212-0021) (expires April 30, 2011)...

  20. 77 FR 44610 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on July 13, 2012, Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P. filed a revised Statement of... TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on Monday, July 30, 2012. Dated:...

  1. 78 FR 41391 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Amendment Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... the eComment system at http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/ecomment.asp . You must include your name and contact information at the end of your comments. For assistance, please contact FERC Online Support at FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or toll free at 1- 866-208-3676, or for TTY, (202) 502-8659. Although...

  2. 78 FR 5175 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Mohawk Power Corporation submits tariff filing per 35.13(a)(2)(iii: SA No. 1949 NiMo and EDGE Corp... detailed information relating to filing requirements, interventions, protests, service, and qualifying... information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Dated: January 15, 2013....

  3. 78 FR 28749 - Private Land Mobile Radio Stations Below 800 MHz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... (tty). 1. In the Second Report and Order, at 75 FR 19277, April 14, 2010, in this proceeding, the...), at 75 FR 19340, April 14, 2010, proposed various changes to the PLMR licensing and service rules... Rulemaking (NPRM), at 72 FR 32582, June 13, 2007, most PLMR communication systems employ mobile...

  4. 77 FR 28592 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    .... Description: Application of FirstEnergy Solutions Corp. for authorization to sell electricity at wholesale to.... Description: Application of FirstEnergy Solutions Corp. for authorization to sell electricity at wholesale to... other information, call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Dated: May 8,...

  5. 77 FR 31837 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call 1-800-833-3722 between 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time... Corps to describe their satisfaction with involvement in CNCS- supported service initiatives. CNCS... impact of serving. The information will be used to better understand participants' satisfaction with...

  6. 75 FR 52671 - YouthBuild Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Development and Research at (202) 693-3700 (this is not a toll-free number). You may also contact this office..., Washington, DC 20210; telephone (202) 693-3700 (this is not a toll-free number). Individuals with hearing or speech impairments may access the telephone number above via TTY by calling the toll-free...

  7. 78 FR 76289 - Request for Information To Gather Technical Expertise Pertaining to Data Elements, Metrics, Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... increasingly expensive. The average tuition at a public four-year college has increased by more than 300... taxpayers to students; tuition has almost doubled as a share of public college revenues over the past 25... deaf (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at...

  8. 77 FR 66087 - Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D. Ford Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339... enrollment and rising tuition has contributed to a significant increase in student loan debt among Americans. The ability of recent college graduates to find immediate employment with wages adequate enough...

  9. 78 FR 22467 - Negotiated Rulemaking Committee; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... (TDD) or text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1- 800-877-8339... INFORMATION: On May 1, 2012, we published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 25658) announcing our intent... charges for tuition and fees and other educationally related costs, amending the regulations relating...

  10. 76 FR 59074 - State Fiscal Stabilization Fund Program and Discretionary and Other Formula Grant Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1- 800-877-8339... November 2009 Notice (74 FR 58436), we established specific data and information requirements (assurance... denominator) who complete at least one year's worth of college credit (applicable to a degree) within...

  11. 77 FR 42085 - Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D. Ford Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877- 8339. Individuals... enrollment and rising tuition has contributed to a significant increase in student loan debt among Americans. The ability of recent college graduates to find immediate employment with wages adequate enough...

  12. 75 FR 44885 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... received by any means (e.g., letter, fax, e-mail, electronic instant message) concerning matters covered... (ACAA) rule in the Federal Register on Tuesday, May 13, 2008 (73 FR 27614). That rule amended the ACAA...), clereece.kroha@dot.gov (e-mail). TTY users may reach the individual via the Federal Relay Service...

  13. 78 FR 4427 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...; telephone (202) 402-4778 (this is not a toll-free number). Individuals with speech or hearing impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Information Relay Service at (800...-month period beginning January 1, 2013, is 1\\3/8\\ percent. The subject matter of this notice...

  14. 78 FR 67303 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... document that appeared in the Federal Register of September 26, 2013 (78 FR 59476). The document issued a... (TTY). Email address: board.gov ">raggio@access- board.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-22876 appearing on page 59476 in the Federal Register of Thursday, September 26, 2013 (78 FR 59476),...

  15. 75 FR 37785 - Louisville Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Louisville Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Baseline Filing June 23, 2010. Take notice that on June 21, 2010, Louisville Gas and Electric Company submitted a baseline filing of...Support@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5...

  16. 77 FR 11529 - Louisville Gas and Electric Company; Kentucky Utilities Company; Notice of Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Louisville Gas and Electric Company; Kentucky Utilities Company; Notice of... Gas and Electric Company and Kentucky Utilities Company, filed a Petition for Declaratory Order... (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5 p.m. Eastern Time on March 15, 2012....

  17. 75 FR 81601 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing December 20, 2010. Take notice that on December 1, 2010, North American Electric Reliability Corporation... free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5 p.m. Eastern Time on January 10, 2011. Kimberly...

  18. 75 FR 67960 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing October 28, 2010. Take notice that on October 25, 2010, the North American Electric Reliability... FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment...

  19. 78 FR 18333 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 11, 2013, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and SERC Reliability..., please email FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202)...

  20. 76 FR 56194 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Rate Election

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Rate Election Take notice that on September 2, 2011, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) filed a new Rate Election and an... FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date:...

  1. 76 FR 62802 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 30, 2011, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) filed a..., please e-mail FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202)...

  2. 75 FR 27338 - San Diego Gas & Electric Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission San Diego Gas & Electric Company; Notice of Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice...Support@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5...

  3. 77 FR 38623 - NSTAR Electric Company; Notice of Request for Waiver or Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission NSTAR Electric Company; Notice of Request for Waiver or Exemption Take notice that on October 1, 2010, NSTAR Electric Company filed a petition requesting full waiver or..., please email FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov . or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202)...

  4. Brain temperature asymmetries and emotional perception in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    PubMed

    Parr, L A; Hopkins, W D

    The lateralization of emotion has received a great deal of attention over the last few decades, resulting in two main theories. The Right Hemisphere Theory states that the right hemisphere is primarily responsible for emotional processes, while the Valence Theory suggests that the right hemisphere regulates negative emotion and the left hemisphere regulates positive emotion. Despite the important implications of these theories for the evolution of emotion processes, few studies have attempted to assess the lateralization of emotion in non-human primates. This study uses the novel technique of measuring tympanic membrane temperature (Tty) to assess asymmetries in the perception of emotional stimuli in chimpanzees. The tympanic membrane is an indirect, but reliable, site from which to measure brain temperature, and is strongly influenced by autonomic and behavioral activity. Six chimpanzees were shown positive, neutral, and negative emotional videos depicting scenes of play, scenery, and severe aggression, respectively. During the negative emotion condition, right Tty was significantly higher than the baseline temperature. This effect was relatively stable, long lasting, and consistent across subjects. Temperatures did not change significantly from baseline in the neutral or positive emotion condition, although a significant number of measurements showed increased left Tty during the neutral emotion condition. These data suggest that viewing emotional stimuli results in asymmetrical changes in brain temperature, in particular increased right Tty during the negative emotion condition, evidence of emotional arousal in chimpanzees, and in providing partial support of both the Right Hemisphere and Valence Theories of emotional lateralization in our closest living ancestor.

  5. 75 FR 49407 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Guaranty Corporation, 1200 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326- 4024.)...

  6. 75 FR 2437 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Guaranty Corporation, 1200 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326- 4024.)...

  7. 76 FR 17613 - Aviation Service Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Affairs Bureau at 202-418-0530 (voice), 202-418-0432 (tty). I. Procedural Matters A. Ex Parte Rules-Permit... FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the Internet by... watts for each frequency authorized. (2) The antenna used in transmitting the audible warnings must...

  8. A Systems Approach to Diagnostic Prescriptive Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Robert B.; And Others

    This five-part document presents three approaches to research on instructional improvement, with the final two sections concentrating on problems and implications for diagnostic prescriptive instruction. Part 1 reviews comparative instructional effectiveness studies. Part 2 discusses the Trait-Treatment Interaction Approach (TTI) which is…

  9. 76 FR 56749 - Northern Laramie Range Alliance; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Laramie Range Alliance; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on July 12, 2011, Northern Laramie Range Alliance filed a Petition for Declaratory...Support@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5...

  10. 78 FR 70546 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...Support@ferc.gov , (866) 208-3676 (toll free), or (202) 502- 8659 (TTY). In lieu of electronic filing... environmental analysis provided for in 5.22: (1) A copy of the water quality certification; (2) a copy of the...; or (3) evidence of waiver of water quality certification. Dated: November 19, 2013. Kimberly D....

  11. 76 FR 25319 - Putnam Green Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Support at FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or toll free at 1-866-208-3676, or for TTY, (202) 502-8659. Although... by a 70-foot-long natural rock outcrop; (2) an existing 13-acre upper reservoir with a normal water... analysis at this time. n. Project description: (1) Two existing concrete gravity dams consisting of a...

  12. 75 FR 352 - Enloe Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... at FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov ; call toll-free at (866) 208- 3676; or, for TTY, contact (202) 502... notice: (1) A copy of the water quality certification; (2) a copy of the request for certification... of water quality certification. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  13. 77 FR 58367 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... 1.6-MW generator. Water flowing through the turbines is discharged via the draft tubes into the... ] Support at FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or toll-free at 1-866-208-3676, or for TTY, (202) 502-8659. A copy... Description: The Conowingo Project consists of a concrete gravity dam with a maximum height of...

  14. 75 FR 17872 - High-Cost Universal Service Support, Jurisdictional Separations, and Coalition for Equity in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission addresses an inequitable asymmetry... April 8, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Theodore Burmeister, Wireline Competition Bureau, Telecommunications Access Policy Division, (202) 418-7400 or TTY: (202) 418-0484. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This...

  15. Autophagy induction is a Tor- and Tp53-independent cell survival response in a zebrafish model of disrupted ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boglev, Yeliz; Badrock, Andrew P; Trotter, Andrew J; Du, Qian; Richardson, Elsbeth J; Parslow, Adam C; Markmiller, Sebastian J; Hall, Nathan E; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A; Ng, Annie Y; Verkade, Heather; Ober, Elke A; Field, Holly A; Shin, Donghun; Shin, Chong H; Hannan, Katherine M; Hannan, Ross D; Pearson, Richard B; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Ess, Kevin C; Lieschke, Graham J; Stainier, Didier Y R; Heath, Joan K

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis underpins cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation are deleterious to development and underlie a spectrum of diseases known collectively as ribosomopathies. Here, we describe a novel zebrafish mutant, titania (tti(s450)), which harbours a recessive lethal mutation in pwp2h, a gene encoding a protein component of the small subunit processome. The biochemical impacts of this lesion are decreased production of mature 18S rRNA molecules, activation of Tp53, and impaired ribosome biogenesis. In tti(s450), the growth of the endodermal organs, eyes, brain, and craniofacial structures is severely arrested and autophagy is up-regulated, allowing intestinal epithelial cells to evade cell death. Inhibiting autophagy in tti(s450) larvae markedly reduces their lifespan. Somewhat surprisingly, autophagy induction in tti(s450) larvae is independent of the state of the Tor pathway and proceeds unabated in Tp53-mutant larvae. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a survival mechanism invoked in response to ribosomal stress. This response may be of relevance to therapeutic strategies aimed at killing cancer cells by targeting ribosome biogenesis. In certain contexts, these treatments may promote autophagy and contribute to cancer cells evading cell death. PMID:23408911

  16. 75 FR 17707 - Arlington Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... located in Schuyler County, New York known as the Seneca Lake Facility. The application is on file with...Support@ferc.gov or toll free at (866) 208-3676, or for TTY, contact (202) 502-8659. ] The Seneca Lake... storage capacity of the Seneca Lake Facility is 2.34 Bcf and the facility has a working gas capacity of...

  17. 75 FR 18496 - Notice of Complaint Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ..., PSEG Power Connecticut LLC, NRG Power marketing LLC, Connecticut Jet Power LLC, Devon Power LLC..., NRG Power marketing LLC, Connecticut Jet Power LLC, Devon Power LLC, Middletown Power LLC, Montville..., please e-mail FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202)...

  18. 75 FR 63450 - Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...Support@ferc.gov , or toll-free at 1-866-208-3676, or for TTY, (202) 502-8659. Although the Commission...-jet-type fixed cone valve; (5) an 80-foot-long by 30-foot-wide powerhouse containing one 2.0-MW...

  19. 47 CFR 7.17 - Informal complaints; form and content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subpart may be transmitted to the Commission by any reasonable means, e.g., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, Internet e-mail, audio-cassette recording, and...), Internet e-mail, ASCII text, audio-cassette recording, braille; or some other method that will...

  20. [Monitoring myocardial performance after open heart surgery by calculation of diastolic and systolic pressure time index (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Seybold-Epting, W; Fenchel, G; Stunkat, R; Seboldt, H; Hoffmeister, H E

    1978-10-01

    In order to determine the incidence of subendocardial ischemia after open heart surgery, subendocardial blood flow was monitored in 171 patients subjected to mitral and/or aortic valve replacement or coronary revascularization by on-line calculation of Diastolic (DPTI) and Systolic Pressure Time Index (TTI). Body hypothermia with an esophageal temperature of 25 degrees C and magnesium-aspartate-procaine cardioplegia were applied for myocardial protection. Ten patients developed low cardiac output state with two early deaths. In the two patients with fatal low cardiac output DPTI/TTI remained below 0.8. In the remaining 8 patients DPTI/TTI rose to 1.4 after a mean recovery time of 36 hours. In 161 patients (94%) no low cardiac output state evolved and DPTI/TTI rose to 1.3 within 60 min. after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass. Our results indicate that body hypothermia of 25 degrees C combined with magnesium-aspartate-procaine cardioplegia can reduce the incidence of subendocardial ischemia, but does not prevent this complication completely after anoxic times beyond 60-70 minutes.

  1. 77 FR 43813 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... (CNCS) has submitted a public information collection request (ICR) entitled VISTA Progress Report... to vista@americorps.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may... Notice. Description: CNCS is seeking approval of its VISTA Progress Report Supplement (VPRS) which...

  2. 36 CFR 1193.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., but are not limited to, voice, fax, relay service, TTY, Internet posting, captioning, text-to-speech.... Alternate formats may include, but are not limited to, Braille, ASCII text, large print, and audio cassette recording. Alternate modes. Different means of providing information to users of products including...

  3. 36 CFR 1193.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., but are not limited to, voice, fax, relay service, TTY, Internet posting, captioning, text-to-speech.... Alternate formats may include, but are not limited to, Braille, ASCII text, large print, and audio cassette recording. Alternate modes. Different means of providing information to users of products including...

  4. 36 CFR 1193.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., but are not limited to, voice, fax, relay service, TTY, Internet posting, captioning, text-to-speech.... Alternate formats may include, but are not limited to, Braille, ASCII text, large print, and audio cassette recording. Alternate modes. Different means of providing information to users of products including...

  5. 36 CFR 1193.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., but are not limited to, voice, fax, relay service, TTY, Internet posting, captioning, text-to-speech.... Alternate formats may include, but are not limited to, Braille, ASCII text, large print, and audio cassette recording. Alternate modes. Different means of providing information to users of products including...

  6. 47 CFR 7.20 - Review and disposition of informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 7.20 Section 7.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.20 Review and... requested by the complainant, (e.g., letter, facsimile transmission, telephone (voice/TRS/TTY), Internet...

  7. The Association between Attitude towards the Implementation of Staff Development Training and the Practice of Knowledge Sharing among Lecturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassim, Abd. Latif; Raman, Arumugam; Don, Yahya; Daud, Yaakob; Omar, Mohd Sofian

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify the association of teachers' attitude towards the implementation of Staff Development Training with Knowledge Sharing Practices among the lecturers of the Teacher Training Institution (TTI). In addition, this study was also to examine the differences in attitudes towards the implementation of Staff Development…

  8. 76 FR 66065 - Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... minimizing the possibility of critical delays in response time. The annual TTY reports will be used to... working with the same information. Coordination between carriers and state and local entities to determine... carrier's obligation to deliver that information becomes due. This will reduce the possibility of...

  9. 75 FR 33803 - Sabine Pipe Line LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pipe Line LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 1, 2010, Sabine Pipe Line LLC (Sabine), 4800 Fournace Place, Bellaire...-free, (866) 208-3676 or TTY, (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Sabine proposes to abandon, in place,...

  10. 29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ; also available through EEOC's web site, at www.eeoc.gov., or by calling the EEOC Publications Distribution Center, at 1-800-669-3362 (voice), 1-800-800-3302 (TTY). (Title VII, Pub. L. 88-352, 78 Stat....

  11. 29 CFR 4000.4 - Where do I file my submission?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forms, or call our Customer Service Center (1-800-400-7242 for participants, or 1-800-736-2444 for practitioners; TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to...

  12. 29 CFR 4000.4 - Where do I file my submission?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... forms, or call our Customer Service Center (1-800-400-7242 for participants, or 1-800-736-2444 for practitioners; TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to...

  13. Telecommunications: Tools for Learning and Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Judith E.; Virvan, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Describes Project TFA (Telecommunications For All), a 3-year research and demonstration project designed to bring modern text telecommunications technology into five classrooms of residential and day schools for deaf children. The project provided computers, software, online services, fax machines, advanced text telephones (TTY's), telephone…

  14. 76 FR 65112 - James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... that appeared in the Federal Register of August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54112). That document issued...., Washington, DC 20530, telephone 855-885-1555 (TTY 855-885-1558). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011..., employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or on the ability of United States-based companies...

  15. Bio-potency of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Tamarindus indica seeds on the developmental physiology of H. armigera.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of Tamarindus indica by Sephadex G-75, DEAE-Sepharose and Trypsin-Sepharose CL-4B columns was studied for its antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Tamarindus trypsin inhibitor (TTI) exhibited inhibitory activity towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera (~87%) and bovine trypsin (~84%). Lethal doses which caused mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 1% w/w and 0.50% w/w, respectively. IC50 of TTI against Helicoverpa midgut proteases and bovine trypsin were ~2.10 µg/ml and 1.68 µg/ml respectively. In larval feeding studies the 21 kDa Kunitz-type protein was found to retard growth and development, prolonged the larval-pupal development durations along with adversely affecting the fertility and fecundity of H. armigera. In artificial diet at 0.5% w/w TTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food as well as of digested food, relative growth rate, growth index declined whereas approximate digestibility, metabolic cost, relative consumption rate, consumption index and total developmental period enhanced for H. armigera larvae. These results suggest that TTI has toxic and adverse effect on the developmental physiology of H. armigera and could be useful in controlling the pest H. armigera. PMID:25454525

  16. 77 FR 56815 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ....m. PLACE: The Washington Hilton Hotel, 1919 Connecticut Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20525. CALL-IN... notify Ida Green at igreen@cns.gov or 202- 606-6861 by 5 p.m., September 14, 2012. CONTACT PERSON FOR...: (202) 606-3460. TTY: (800) 833-3722. Email: jmauk@cns.gov . Dated: September 11, 2012. Valerie...

  17. 75 FR 70730 - EBD Hydro; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... public inspection: a. Type of Application: Conduit Exemption. b. Project No.: 13817-000. c. Date filed...- long, 96-inch diameter reinforced Krah/HDPE pipe; (3) a proposed powerhouse containing three proposed...-mail FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov . For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. A copy is also available for review...

  18. 36 CFR 1194.23 - Telecommunications products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... functionality shall support all commonly used cross-manufacturer non-proprietary standard TTY signal protocols... effective magnetic wireless coupling to hearing technologies shall be provided. (i) Interference to hearing... product. (j) Products that transmit or conduct information or communication, shall pass through...

  19. 77 FR 35060 - Employment and Training Administration; Proposed Information Collection Request for the ETA 538...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... addresses section below on or before August 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Scott Gibbons... toll-free Federal Information Relay Service at 1-877-889-5627 (TTY/TDD). Email: gibbons.scott@dol.gov.... Gibbons. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The ETA 538 and ETA 539 reports are weekly reports...

  20. Comparison of an extraaortic counterpulsation device versus intraaortic balloon pumping in severe cardiac failure.

    PubMed

    Zelano, J A; Ko, W; Lazzaro, R; Lazenby, W D; Topaz, S; Kolff, W J; Isom, O W; Krieger, K H

    1991-01-01

    A valveless, single orifice polyurethane ventricle was implanted on the brachiocephalic artery in sheep (n = 14) to provide extraaortic counterpulsation. In parallel, an intraaortic balloon was placed in the descending thoracic aorta. Both devices were pneumatically driven by a standard intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) console at a preload of 40 cc. Severe cardiac failure was induced with high dosages of esmolol. Measured parameters were aortic pressure (PA) and flow (QA), coronary flow (QC), and left ventricular pressure (PLV). Tension time index (TTI), total QA and QC, and end-diastolic aortic pressure (EDP) were computed to compare the efficacy of counterpulsation between assisted and unassisted conditions. Three conditions of inflation/deflation timing were examined: Normal timing (NT), early inflation (EI), and late deflation (LD). Results indicated that extraaortic counterpulsation device actuation yielded statistically significant increases in QC, and significant decreases in EDP and TTI for all timing conditions examined, when compared with unassisted conditions. Flow was significantly increased only for EI and NT timing conditions. Counterpulsation delivered with IABP yielded statistically significant increases in EDP for LD timing, and significant decreases in TTI for NT only. These results indicate that EACD is much less dependent on inflation/deflation timing when compared with IABP. The extraaortic counterpulsation device consistently increases QC and decreases TTI, which enhances the oxygen supply/consumption ratio (S/C) of the left ventricle. The intraaortic balloon pump does not significantly increase S/C in severe cardiac failure, and will increase afterload if deflation timing is not properly set.

  1. 78 FR 34550 - Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and Operations, and Funding Operations; Accounting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... on April 9, 2013 (78 FR 21035) is effective June 3, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael T. Wilson, Policy Analyst, Office of Regulatory Policy, Farm Credit Administration, McLean, VA 22102-5090... Credit Administration, McLean, Virginia 22102-5090, (703) 883-4431, TTY (703) 883-4056....

  2. Use of Radiolabelled Thymidine and Leucine To Estimate Bacterial Production in Soils from Continental Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Tibbles, B. J.; Harris, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Tritiated thymidine incorporation (TTI) into DNA was used to examine bacterial production in two soil types from the Robertskollen group of nunataks in northwestern Dronning Maud Land, providing the first estimates of bacterial production in soil habitats on the Antarctic continent. Although estimates of bacterial productivity in soils near to bird nests (344 (plusmn) 422 ng of C g [dry weight](sup-1) h(sup-1)) were higher than those for soils from beneath mosses (175 (plusmn) 90 ng of C g [dry weight](sup-1) h(sup-1); measured by TTI at 10(deg)C), these differences were not significant because of patchiness of bacterial activity (P > 0.05). TTI- and [(sup14)C]leucine ([(sup14)C]Leu)-derived estimates of bacterial production were similar when incubations of 3 h were used, although incubations as short as 1 h were sufficient for measurable uptake of radiolabel. Dual-label incorporation of [(sup3)H]thymidine ([(sup3)H]TdR) into DNA and [(sup14)C]Leu into protein indicated that TTI did not reflect bacterial production of in situ assemblages when incubations were longer than 3 h. Isotope dilution analysis indicated that dilution of the specific activity of exogenously supplied [(sup3)H]TdR by de novo synthesis of TdR precursor could be limited by additions of [(sup3)H]TdR at a concentration of 1 nmol per ca. 115 mg of soil. TTI exhibited a psychrotrophic response to variation in temperature, with a temperature optimum of ca. 15(deg)C and a Q(inf10) value for 0 to 10(deg)C of 2.41. PMID:16535246

  3. A prospective, randomised, clinical study to compare the use of McGrath®, Truview® and Macintosh laryngoscopes for endotracheal intubation by novice and experienced Anaesthesiologists

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Sumitra G; Vanjari, Vinayak S; Divatia, Jigeeshu V

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Video laryngoscopy has been recommended as an alternative during difficult conventional direct laryngoscopy using the Macintosh blade (MAC). However, successful visualisation of the larynx and tracheal intubation using some of the indirect laryngoscopes or video laryngoscopes (VL) requires hand-eye coordination. We conducted this study to determine whether non-channel VLs are easy to use for novices and whether there is any association between expertise with MAC and ease of tracheal intubation with VLs. Methods: Anaesthesiologists participating in the study were divided into three groups: Group novice to intubation (NTI), Group novice to videoscope (NVL)- experienced with MAC, novice to VLs and Group expert (EXP) experienced in all. Group NTI, NVL received prior mannequin training. VLs- Truview® and McGrath series 5 (MGR) were compared with MAC. One hundred and twenty six adult patients with normal airway were randomised to both, the intubating anaesthesiologist and laryngoscope. The time taken to intubate (TTI) and participants’ rating of the ease of use was recorded on a scale of 1–10 (10-most difficult). Results: In Group NTI, there was no difference in mean TTI with the three scopes (P = 0.938). In Group NVL, TTI was longer with the VLs than MAC (P < 0.001). In Group EXP, TTI with VL took 20 s more (P < 0.001). There was significant difference in participants’ rating of ease of use of laryngoscope in Group NVL (P = 0.001) but not in the NTI (P = 0.205), EXP (P = 0.529) groups. A high failure was seen with MGR in Group NTI and NVL. Conclusion: In Group NTI, TTI and the ease of use were similar for all scopes. Expertise with standard direct laryngoscopy does not translate to expertise with VLs. Separate training and experience with VLs is required. PMID:26257415

  4. Development, Testing, and Application of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Surface-Water/Groundwater Model (FTLOADDS) with Heat and Salinity Transport in the Ten Thousand Islands/Picayune Strand Restoration Project Area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model application was developed for the coastal area inland of the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) in southwestern Florida using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density-Dependent System (FTLOADDS) model. This model couples a two-dimensional dynamic surface-water model with a three-dimensional groundwater model, and has been applied to several locations in southern Florida. The model application solves equations for salt transport in groundwater and surface water, and also simulates surface-water temperature using a newly enhanced heat transport algorithm. One of the purposes of the TTI application is to simulate hydrologic factors that relate to habitat suitability for the West Indian Manatee. Both salinity and temperature have been shown to be important factors for manatee survival. The inland area of the TTI domain is the location of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to restore predevelopment hydrology through the filling and plugging of canals, construction of spreader channels, and the construction of levees and pump stations. The effects of these changes are simulated to determine their effects on manatee habitat. The TTI application utilizes a large amount of input data for both surface-water and groundwater flow simulations. These data include topography, frictional resistance, atmospheric data including rainfall and air temperature, aquifer properties, and boundary conditions for tidal levels, inflows, groundwater heads, and salinities. Calibration was achieved by adjusting the parameters having the largest uncertainty: surface-water inflows, the surface-water transport dispersion coefficient, and evapotranspiration. A sensitivity analysis did not indicate that further parameter changes would yield an overall improvement in simulation results. The agreement between field data from GPS-tracked manatees and TTI application results demonstrates that the model can predict the salinity and temperature

  5. A Syndromic Intellectual Disability Disorder Caused by Variants in TELO2, a Gene Encoding a Component of the TTT Complex.

    PubMed

    You, Jing; Sobreira, Nara L; Gable, Dustin L; Jurgens, Julie; Grange, Dorothy K; Belnap, Newell; Siniard, Ashley; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Schrauwen, Isabelle; Richholt, Ryan F; Vallee, Stephanie E; Dinulos, Mary Beth P; Valle, David; Armanios, Mary; Hoover-Fong, Julie

    2016-05-01

    The proteins encoded by TELO2, TTI1, and TTI2 interact to form the TTT complex, a co-chaperone for maturation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs). Here we report six affected individuals from four families with intellectual disability (ID) and neurological and other congenital abnormalities associated with compound heterozygous variants in TELO2. Although their fibroblasts showed reduced steady-state levels of TELO2 and the other components of the TTT complex, PIKK functions were normal in cellular assays. Our results suggest that these TELO2 missense variants result in loss of function, perturb TTT complex stability, and cause an autosomal-recessive syndromic form of ID. PMID:27132593

  6. Use of smart photochromic indicator for dynamic monitoring of the shelf life of chilled chicken based products.

    PubMed

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of a photochromic time temperature indicator (TTI) to monitor the time-temperature history and shelf life of chilled boneless chicken breast. The results showed that the smart indicator showed good reproducibility during the discoloring process in all the conditions investigated. The response was not only visibly interpretable but also well adaptable to measurement using appropriate equipment. For an activation configuration of 4 s of ultraviolet light (UV) per label, the TTI's rate of discoloration was similar to the quality loss of the meat samples analyzed. Thus, the photochromic label (4 s UV/label) attached to the samples set out to be a dynamic shelf-life label, assuring consumers the final point of quality of chilled boneless chicken breast in an easy and precise form, providing a reliable tool to monitor the supply chain of this product. PMID:24334043

  7. Youth culture and smoking: Integrating social group processes and individual cognitive processes in a model of health-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Penelope E; Pattison, Philippa E; Hill, David J; Borland, Ron

    2003-05-01

    This article assesses four theoretical models proposed to predict future smoking. Young adults were surveyed at three six-month intervals, the first occurring three months after leaving school. Models 1 and 2 were versions of theory of triadic influence (TTI), which links a person's behavioural experience and cognitions to their future behaviour. Model 1 did not fit the data; the fit of model 2 was just adequate. Model 3 combined TTI and self-categorization theory (ST), by allowing norms of the individual's peer group to influence cognitions and future behaviour. It fitted the data well. Model 4, which extended model, provided the best fit. Strength of identification to the peer group was found to enhance the effect of the peer group norm.

  8. Formation resistivity as an indicator of the onset of oil generation in the Woodford Shale, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, James W.; Hester, Timothy C.

    1989-01-01

    The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Woodford Shale is a black, organic-rich shale that is a major hydrocarbon source rock in the Anadarko basin. With the onset of oil generation, nonconductive hydrocarbons begin to replace conductive pore water in the Woodford, and formation resistivity increases. Crossplots of formation resistivity versus either vitrinite reflectance (RO) or Lopatin's time-temperature index of thermal maturity (TTI) define two data populations that represent immature shales and shales that have generated oil. The midpoint of the resistivity zone marking the transition between immature and mature shales is -35 ohm-m. The onset of appreciable oil generation in the Woodford Shale of the study area occurs at maturity levels of RO near 0.57% and of TTI between 33 and 48.

  9. Use of smart photochromic indicator for dynamic monitoring of the shelf life of chilled chicken based products.

    PubMed

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of a photochromic time temperature indicator (TTI) to monitor the time-temperature history and shelf life of chilled boneless chicken breast. The results showed that the smart indicator showed good reproducibility during the discoloring process in all the conditions investigated. The response was not only visibly interpretable but also well adaptable to measurement using appropriate equipment. For an activation configuration of 4 s of ultraviolet light (UV) per label, the TTI's rate of discoloration was similar to the quality loss of the meat samples analyzed. Thus, the photochromic label (4 s UV/label) attached to the samples set out to be a dynamic shelf-life label, assuring consumers the final point of quality of chilled boneless chicken breast in an easy and precise form, providing a reliable tool to monitor the supply chain of this product.

  10. Tympanic temperature and heart rate changes in firefighters during treadmill runs performed with different fireproof jackets.

    PubMed

    Ftaiti, F; Duflot, J C; Nicol, C; Grélot, L

    2001-04-15

    Six well-trained firefighters performed six treadmill runs at 70% of the velocity at VO2max (Maximal aerobic velocity MAV = 13.2+/-0.3 km h(-1)). A recovery time of 1 week was allowed between trials. The first session was performed by subjects wearing only shorts (i.e. no fire jacket, J0). A similar protocol was applied subsequently to test the physiological effects associated with the wearing of one of five different fire jackets: one leather (J1) and four textile-type jackets: VTN with membrane (J2), VTN without membrane (J3), Vidal with Kermel HTA (Haute Teneur en Aramide i.e. high density in Aramide) (J4); and Rolland with Kermel HTA (J5). All sessions were performed in a randomized order and in laboratory conditions. Exercise with the fireproof jackets resulted in higher tympanic temperature (Tty), heart rate (HR) and body mass loss (BML) changes compared to J0 (p<0.001). The magnitudes of these changes depended on the type of the jacket. Exercise in the leather jacket (J1) resulted in the highest Tty and HR, which differed significantly from values in all other conditions (p<0.001). The exercise-induced increases in Tty wearing jackets J3 and J5 were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those observed with jackets J2 and J4. In conclusion, textile jackets induced less HR and Tty stresses than the leather one. The magnitude of the physiological responses induced by textile jackets were correlated to jacket weight. J2 and J4 jackets were more effective in limiting hyperthermia and any potential detrimental effect on the exercise capacity.

  11. 78 FR 59924 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426. This conference is free of charge and open to the public... call toll free 1-866-208- 3372 (voice) or 202-502-8659 (TTY), or send a FAX to 202-208-2106 with the... Consultant 7. Todd Snitchler, Chairman, Public Utilities Committee of Ohio 12:30 p.m.-1:30 p.m. Lunch 1:30...

  12. 76 FR 77270 - Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Annual Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal relay service toll-free at 1-(800) 877- 8339 and ask to be connected to (202) 326-4040.) FOR...; (202) 326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-(800) 877-8339 and ask... resources on situations that pose the greatest risk to the system. Because other sources of information...

  13. Malignant pleural effusions and the role of talc poudrage and talc slurry: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mummadi, Srinivas; Kumbam, Anusha; Hahn, Peter Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Malignant Pleural Effusion (MPE) is common with advanced malignancy. Palliative care with minimal adverse events is the cornerstone of management. Although talc pleurodesis plays an important role in treatment, the best modality of talc application remains controversial.   Objective: To compare rates of successful pleurodesis, rates of respiratory and non-respiratory complications between thoracoscopic talc insufflation/poudrage (TTI) and talc slurry (TS).  Data sources and study selection: MEDLINE (PubMed, OVID),  EBM Reviews (Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews, ACP Journal Club, DARE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Technology Assessment and NHS Economic Evaluation Database), EMBASE and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials published between 01/01/1980 - 10/1/2014 and comparing the two strategies were selected.  Results: Twenty-eight potential studies were identified of which 24 studies were further excluded, leaving four studies. No statistically significant difference in the probability of successful pleurodesis was observed between TS and TTI groups (RR 1.06; 95 % CI 0.99-1.14; Q statistic, 4.84). There was a higher risk of post procedural respiratory complications in the TTI group compared to the TS group (RR 1.91, 95% CI= 1.24-2.93, Q statistic 3.15). No statistically significant difference in the incidence of non-respiratory complications between the TTI group and the TS group was observed (RR 0.88, 95% CI= 0.72-1.07, Q statistic 4.61). Conclusions: There is no difference in success rates of pleurodesis based on patient centered outcomes between talc poudrage and talc slurry treatments.  Respiratory complications are more common with talc poudrage via thoracoscopy. PMID:25878773

  14. 77 FR 790 - Grant Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ...-feet and a water surface area of 1,790 acres at full pool elevation of 700 feet above mean seal level... Support at FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or toll free at 1-(866) 208-3676, or for TTY, (202) 502-8659...-foot-high by 120-foot-long, concrete gravity dam at Grant Lake, or (b) a natural lake outlet, with a...

  15. 78 FR 32385 - Lewis County Development Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... normal water surface elevation of 818 feet mean sea level extending 2.7 miles upstream; (3) a new 75-foot... Online Support at FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or toll free at 1-866-208-3676, or for TTY, (202) 502-8659... would consist of: (1) An existing concrete gravity dam structure consisting of an 11.5-foot-high by...

  16. Non-electrical-power temperature-time integrating sensor for RFID based on microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Mike; Hoffmann, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The integration of RFID tags into packages offers the opportunity to combine logistic advantages of the technology with monitoring different parameters from inside the package at the same time. An essential demand for enhanced product safety especially in pharmacy or food industry is the monitoring of the time-temperature-integral. Thus, completely passive time-temperature-integrators (TTI) requiring no battery, microprocessor nor data logging devices are developed. TTI representing the sterilization process inside an autoclave system is a demanding challenge: a temperature of at least 120 °C have to be maintained over 45 minutes to assure that no unwanted organism remains. Due to increased temperature, the viscosity of a fluid changes and thus the speed of the fluid inside the channel increases. The filled length of the channel represents the time temperature integral affecting the system. Measurements as well as simulations allow drawing conclusions about the influence of the geometrical parameters of the system and provide the possibility of adaptation. Thus a completely passive sensor element for monitoring an integral parameter with waiving of external electrical power supply and data processing technology is demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown how to adjust the specific TTI parameters of the sensor to different applications and needs by modifying the geometrical parameters of the system.

  17. Use of global sensitivity analysis in quantitative microbial risk assessment: application to the evaluation of a biological time temperature integrator as a quality and safety indicator for cold smoked salmon.

    PubMed

    Ellouze, M; Gauchi, J-P; Augustin, J-C

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a global sensitivity analysis (SA) method in model simplification and to evaluate (eO)®, a biological Time Temperature Integrator (TTI) as a quality and safety indicator for cold smoked salmon (CSS). Models were thus developed to predict the evolutions of Listeria monocytogenes and the indigenous food flora in CSS and to predict TTIs endpoint. A global SA was then applied on the three models to identify the less important factors and simplify the models accordingly. Results showed that the subset of the most important factors of the three models was mainly composed of the durations and temperatures of two chill chain links, out of the control of the manufacturers: the domestic refrigerator and the retail/cabinet links. Then, the simplified versions of the three models were run with 10(4) time temperature profiles representing the variability associated to the microbial behavior, to the TTIs evolution and to the French chill chain characteristics. The results were used to assess the distributions of the microbial contaminations obtained at the TTI endpoint and at the end of the simulated profiles and proved that, in the case of poor storage conditions, the TTI use could reduce the number of unacceptable foods by 50%. PMID:21511136

  18. Targeting an efficient target-to-target interval for P300 speller brain–computer interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Eric W.; Wang, Xingyu

    2013-01-01

    Longer target-to-target intervals (TTI) produce greater P300 event-related potential amplitude, which can increase brain–computer interface (BCI) classification accuracy and decrease the number of flashes needed for accurate character classification. However, longer TTIs requires more time for each trial, which will decrease the information transfer rate of BCI. In this paper, a P300 BCI using a 7 × 12 matrix explored new flash patterns (16-, 18- and 21-flash pattern) with different TTIs to assess the effects of TTI on P300 BCI performance. The new flash patterns were designed to minimize TTI, decrease repetition blindness, and examine the temporal relationship between each flash of a given stimulus by placing a minimum of one (16-flash pattern), two (18-flash pattern), or three (21-flash pattern) non-target flashes between each target flashes. Online results showed that the 16-flash pattern yielded the lowest classification accuracy among the three patterns. The results also showed that the 18-flash pattern provides a significantly higher information transfer rate (ITR) than the 21-flash pattern; both patterns provide high ITR and high accuracy for all subjects. PMID:22350331

  19. Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis frequency among blood donors: A single center study.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Sule Menziletoglu; Candevir, Aslihan; Kibar, Filiz; Karaboga, Gulser; Turhan, Ferda Tekin; Kis, Cem; Dincer, Suleyman; Guvenc, Birol

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to provide updated results for seroprevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C viruses while presenting first data for human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis seropositivity amongst blood donors in Adana, Turkey. Screening and confirmatory test results of 62,461 donors were evaluated. HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV1/2 and syphilis seropositivity was 1.92%, 0.48%, 0.20%, 0.18% respectively, based on screening tests, and 1.66%, 0.05%, 0.003%, 0.10% respectively, according to confirmatory tests. Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) was more prevalent in low-educated donors. HBsAg and syphilis seropositivity rates were higher in married subjects. We found that the prevalence of HBV and HCV was significantly decreased in the last two decades in Adana. Importantly, this study provides first data in HIV and syphilis seropositivity rates among blood donors in our region and both HIV and syphilis seroprevalences were found to be low compared to many regions of Turkey. However, considering the fact that increasing number of immigrants may change prevalences and trends of TTI both in Adana and in Turkey, strict monitorization and yearly reporting of TTI rates seem necessary to be able to take proactive measures.

  20. Long-term effects of tetanus toxoid inoculation on the demography and life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Matthew J; Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Ruiz-Lambrides, Angelina; Delgado, Diana L; Sabat, Alberto M

    2015-02-01

    Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population's age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates.

  1. Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Freshwater Flow and Salinity in the Ten Thousand Islands Estuary, Florida, 2007-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soderqvist, Lars E.; Patino, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The watershed of the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) estuary has been substantially altered through the construction of canals and roads for the Southern Golden Gate Estates (SGGE), Barron River Canal, and U.S. 41 (Tamiami Trail). Two restoration projects designed to improve freshwater delivery to the estuary are the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which includes the Southern Golden Gate Estates, and the Tamiami Trail Culverts Project; both are part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To address hydrologic information needs critical for monitoring the effects of these restoration projects, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in October 2006 to characterize freshwater outflows from the rivers, internal circulation and mixing within the estuary, and surface-water exchange between the estuary and Gulf of Mexico. The effort is conducted in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District and complemented by monitoring performed by the Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Surface salinity was measured during moving boat surveys using a flow-through system that operated at planing speeds averaging 20 miles per hour. The data were logged every 10 seconds by a data recorder that simultaneously logged location information from a Global Positioning System. The major rivers, bays, and nearshore Gulf of Mexico region of the TTI area were surveyed in approximately 5 hours by two boats traversing about 200 total miles. Salinity and coordinate data were processed using inverse distance weighted interpolation to create salinity contour maps of the entire TTI region. Ten maps were created from salinity surveys performed between May 2007 and May 2009 and illustrate the dry season, transitional, and wet season salinity patterns of the estuarine rivers, inner bays, mangrove islands, and Gulf of Mexico boundary. The effects of anthropogenic activities are indicated by exceptionally low salinities associated with point discharge into the

  2. Failure of self-disclosure of deferrable risk behaviors associated with transfusion-transmissible infections in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Horas Tze Hoo; Lee, Shui Shan; Lee, Cheuk-Kwong; Chan, Denise Pui Chung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND To date, most studies on deferral of blood donors have focused on men who have sex with men (MSM) and/or injecting drug users. Few have examined deferrable risk behaviors relating to transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) in general. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, nondisclosure of TTI-related risk behaviors in donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Chinese-speaking donors who had just given blood in Hong Kong were invited to self-complete an anonymous questionnaire. Practices of one or more of seven deferrable risk behaviors associated with TTI were inquired. Factors associated with noncompliance with self-disclosure were evaluated by logistic regression. RESULTS Over a 4-week study period in 2012, a total of 1143 donors were recruited. Overall, 0.2% gave a history of drug injection, 1.7% had had sex with sex worker(s), and 0.3% had had sex with a human immunodeficiency virus–infected partner, while none had been paid for sex. Some 1.5% of male donors reported having same-sex behaviors. Factors associated with noncompliance were male gender (odds ratio [OR] 31.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-263.6), having multiple sex partners (OR, 89.7; 95% CI, 28.7-279.9), and previous history of temporary deferral (OR, 11.4; 95% CI, 2.5-53.3). If suspected noncompliance was included, the overall prevalence of nondisclosure of deferrable behaviors could be high at 6.5%. CONCLUSION Albeit uncommon, some donors fail to provide accurate answers to predonation screening questions and are not deferred appropriately. There is room for improvement to make deferral policy acceptable and understandable, so as to minimize the risk of TTI. Efforts are also needed to tackle the paucity of data on noncompliance of non-MSM donors. PMID:25846739

  3. Human skeletal muscle metabolic economy in vivo: effects of contraction intensity, age, and mobility impairment

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Anita D.; Tonson, Anne; Larsen, Ryan G.; DeBlois, Jacob P.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that older muscle has greater metabolic economy (ME) in vivo than young, in a manner dependent, in part, on contraction intensity. Twenty young (Y; 24 ± 1 yr, 10 women), 18 older healthy (O; 73 ± 2, 9 women) and 9 older individuals with mild-to-moderate mobility impairment (OI; 74 ± 1, 7 women) received stimulated twitches (2 Hz, 3 min) and performed nonfatiguing voluntary (20, 50, and 100% maximal; 12 s each) isometric dorsiflexion contractions. Torque-time integrals (TTI; Nm·s) were calculated and expressed relative to maximal fat-free muscle cross-sectional area (cm2), and torque variability during voluntary contractions was calculated as the coefficient of variation. Total ATP cost of contraction (mM) was determined from flux through the creatine kinase reaction, nonoxidative glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and used to calculate ME (Nm·s·cm−2·mM ATP−1). While twitch torque relaxation was slower in O and OI compared with Y (P ≤ 0.001), twitch TTI, ATP cost, and economy were similar across groups (P ≥ 0.15), indicating comparable intrinsic muscle economy during electrically induced isometric contractions in vivo. During voluntary contractions, normalized TTI and total ATP cost did not differ significantly across groups (P ≥ 0.20). However, ME was lower in OI than Y or O at 20% and 50% MVC (P ≤ 0.02), and torque variability was greater in OI than Y or O at 20% MVC (P ≤ 0.05). These results refute the hypothesis of greater muscle ME in old age, and provide support for lower ME in impaired older adults as a potential mechanism or consequence of age-related reductions in functional mobility. PMID:25163917

  4. Specialized brain cooling in humans?

    PubMed

    Brengelmann, G L

    1993-09-01

    Humans, compared to other species, have exceptional capability for dissipation of heat from the entire skin surface. We can secrete more than two liters per hour of sweat, indefinitely. The corresponding potential for evaporative cooling is near a thousand watts, sufficient to compensate for the extreme high levels of heat production during exercise. Also, the blood vessels of our skin have exceptional capability to dilate and deliver heat to the body surface. These are our special adaptations for thermal stress. They allow prolonged heavy exercise with modest elevations in the temperature of the fluid that cools all the internal organs, not just the brain-arterial blood. The vascular architecture of the human head is radically different from that of animals that exhibit SBC. These species have special adaptations that reflect their dependence on respiratory evaporation, particularly the limitation imposed on capability to dispose of heat produced during exercise. The increase in blood temperature in an intense sprint would heat the well-perfused brain rapidly. But the heat exchange over the large surface area of contact between a venous plexus cooled by respiratory evaporation and the meshwork of arterial vessels in the carotid rete precools blood bound for the brain. Specialized cooling of the brain (SBC) has not been demonstrated by direct measurements in humans. Changes in tympanic temperature (Tty) are taken as evidence for SBC. This continues an unfortunate tradition of exaggeration of the significance of Tty. In the only direct measurements available, brain temperature was unaffected by fanning the face although Tty did fall. What may appear to be a remnant of the carotid rete heat exchanger in humans is the intimate association between a short segment of the internal carotid artery and the plexus of veins in the cavernous sinus. Fortunately, the brain need not rely for its cooling on countercurrent heat exchange across this small surface area of contact. In

  5. The tension-time index and the frequency/tidal volume ratio are the major pathophysiologic determinants of weaning failure and success.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulos, T; Zakynthinos, S; Roussos, C

    1998-08-01

    We have previously shown (Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1995;152:1248-1255) that in patients needing mechanical ventilation, the load imposed on the inspiratory muscles is excessive relative to their neuromuscular capacity. We have therefore hypothesized that weaning failure may occur because at the time of the trial of spontaneous breathing there is insufficient reduction of the inspiratory load. We therefore prospectively studied patients who initially had failed to wean from mechanical ventilation (F) but had successful weaning (S) on a later occasion. Compared with S, during F patients had greater intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (6. 10 +/- 2.45 versus 3.83 +/- 2.69 cm H2O), dynamic hyperinflation (327 +/- 180 versus 213 +/- 175 ml), total resistance (Rmax, 14.14 +/- 4.95 versus 11.19 +/- 4.01 cm H2O/L/s), ratio of mean to maximum inspiratory pressure (0.46 +/- 0.1 versus 0.31 +/- 0.08), tension time index (TTI, 0.162 +/- 0.032 versus 0.102 +/- 0.023) and power (315 +/- 153 versus 215 +/- 75 cm H2O x L/min), less maximum inspiratory pressure (42.3 +/- 12.7 versus 53.8 +/- 15.1 cm H2O), and a breathing pattern that was more rapid and shallow (ratio of frequency to tidal volume, f/VT 98 +/- 38 versus 62 +/- 21 breaths/min/L). To clarify on pathophysiologic grounds what determines inability to wean from mechanical ventilation, we performed multiple logistic regression analysis with the weaning outcome as the dependent variable. The TTI and the f/VT ratio were the only significant variables in the model. We conclude that the TTI and the f/VT are the major pathophysiologic determinants underlying the transition from weaning failure to weaning success.

  6. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Methods Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007–2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Results Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Conclusion Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product. PMID

  7. Core temperature thresholds for hyperpnea during passive hyperthermia in humans.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M; White, M D

    1995-01-01

    Humans have higher ventilation when they are hyperthermic but it is not known whether core temperature thresholds for ventilation exist, nor has a physiological rationale been presented for this response. To examine this question, ventilation was studied in relation to core temperatures in humans rendered hyperthermic in a warm bath. Seven subjects [mean (SE), 23.3 (1.4) years] wearing only shorts and a thick felt hat with ear flaps were immersed to the neck in a bath at 41 (0.5) degrees C for 25 min. Tympanic (Tty), esophageal (Tes), thigh skin and forehead skin temperatures, heart rate, inspired minute ventilation (V1 at body temperature and pressure, saturated), ventilation frequency and oxygen consumption (VO2 at standard temperature and pressure, dry) were recorded at 30-s intervals. At immersion V1 briefly increased to 18.6 (3.0) l.min-1, returned to about the pre-immersion value, and significantly increased to 19.3 (3.0) l.min-1 by the end of immersion. VO2 increased significantly from the pre-immersion value of 0.27 l.min-1 to 0.67 l.min-1 by the first 0.5 min of immersion, but then returned to its pre-immersion value. Tty increased to 38.7 (0.2) degrees C and Tes increased to 39.0 (0.2) degrees C by the end of immersion. Core temperature thresholds for increases in V1 were evident at 38.1 degrees C when expressed against Tty and at 38.5 degrees C when expressed against Tes. The results indicated that during body warming core temperature thresholds for V1 are reached and subsequently a hyperpnea was evident, despite VO2 remaining at a resting value.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Engineering and management experience at Texas A&M Transportation Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Arif Tahjibul

    This manuscript presents the author's engineering and management experience during his internship in the Materials and Pavements (M&P) Division at the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI), and is a record of study for the Doctor of Engineering at Texas A&M University. Through this internship, he met his established internship objectives of gaining technical knowledge as well as knowledge and skills in project management, organizational communication, and quality management of pavement condition data, and of attaining professional development. In meeting these objectives, the author describes the history, mission, and organizational structure of his workplace. He also presents his experience of developing and delivering a two-week training course on pavement design and construction in Kosovo. Participating in a number of professional development training courses and other activities prepared him for working as an engineering manager. These activities include Delta-T leadership training, an instructor development course, a time management and organizational skills course, and the M&P Division lecture series. Leadership and skills learned through the Delta-T program were beneficial for the employee as well as the employer. For the class project, the author and his teammates performed a study dealing with improving TTI's deliverables. The Delta-T team composed a report summarizing their efforts of examining the current state of TTI's project deliverables, the deliverables' shortcomings, and potential enhancements to expand the deliverables' appeal to additional types of potential users outside the traditional research community. The team also developed a prototype web-based model of deliverables and presented some implementation recommendations. Participating in the Texas Department of Transportation's (TxDOT's) pavement surface distress data collection program enabled the author to become familiar with pavement distress data quality management and thus attain the

  9. Timing of compaction and quartz cementation from integrated petrographic and burial-history analyses, Lower Cretaceous Fall River Formation, Wyoming and South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated petrographic and burial-history studies of Fall River sandstones from outcrop and the subsurface provide insight into the timing of compaction and quartz cementation, the two main porosity-reducing processes in quartzose sandstones. Petrographic study of 95 thin sections of Fall River fluvial valley-fill sandstones from outcrop, Donkey Creek field at 2 km burial depth, and Buck Draw field at 3.8 km indicates that reservoir quality differs significantly in these three areas. Fall River sandstones at the surface contain an average of 31% intergranular volume (IGV) and 2% quartz cement. In both Donkey Creek and Buck Draw fields, the sandstones average 22% IGV, but quartz-cement volume averages 8% in the shallower field and 12% in the deeper. Geometric mean permeability at the surface is 4,700 md, compared with 42 md at 2 km and 2 md at 3.8 km. Burial history of the Fall River sandstone differs greatly in the three areas. The outcropping sandstones were buried to 2 km and had reached 80 C by the end of the Cretaceous. They were then uplifted and have remained at near-surface temperatures since the Paleocene; the calculated time-temperature index (TTI) of these sandstones is 1. Fall River sandstones at Donkey Creek were also buried to 2 km and had reached 80 C by the end of the Cretaceous but remained at that depth during the Tertiary; TTI is 14. In Buck Draw field, Fall River sandstones were buried to 2.5 km during the Cretaceous and then continued to subside during the Tertiary, reaching depths of 4 km and temperatures of 140 C; TTI is 512.

  10. Rate of seroconversion in repeat blood donors at the national blood centre, kuala lumpur.

    PubMed

    Nafishah, A; Asiah, M Nor; Syimah, A T Nur; Mohd Zahari, T H; Yasmin, A; Normi, M; Anza, E; Shahnaz, M; Narazah, M Y

    2014-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend that all donated blood are to be screened for at least three viral infections [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV)]. The National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur (NBCKL) aims to reduce transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) as it still remains as one of the major risk for blood transfusion. A cross sectional study was conducted at the National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur from 1st January 2009 to 31st June 2010. Data from 581,020 donors were analyzed from year 2004 to 2008. All data were retrieved from NBCKL Blood Bank Information System (BBIS). A total of 201 repeat donors were included in the study based on the inclusion criteria but only 132 repeat donors agreed to participate. Information on sociodemographic, risk factors, knowledge of donors and high risk behavior were extracted from standardize questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14.0. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of the seropositive infectivity among repeat blood donors at the NBCKL. The results showed Syphilis accounts for the highest and increasing seroconversion rate among other infections from 20.83 % in year 2004 to 44.6 % in year in year 2008. HIV and HCV infection also showed increasing seroconversion rate in 5 years' time from 6.41 % in year 2004 to 17.54 % in year 2008 and 4.8 % in year 2004 to 5.94 % in year 2008 respectively. However, HBV infection alone showed a decreasing seroconversion rate from 20.83 % in year 2004 to 10.4 % in year 2008. Level of donors' awareness regarding high risk factors (activities or behaviour) can lead to higher risk of TTI with significant p value in this predictors model(p < 0.05). Repeat blood donors with high risk activities are more likely to have seropositive results for HBV, HIV and Syphilis. This study found that the frequency of HCV seropositivity is higher among lapsed donor. Socio demographic factors such as male and

  11. Organic Materials for Time-Temperature Integrator Devices.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Massimiliano; Melucci, Manuela

    2015-08-12

    Time-temperature integrators (TTIs) are devices capable of recording the thermal history of a system. They have an enormous impact in the food and pharmaceutical industries. TTIs exploit several irreversible thermally activated transitions such as recrystallization, dewetting, smoothening, chemical decomposition, and polymorphic transitions, usually considered drawbacks for many technological applications. The aim of this article is to sensitize research groups working in organic synthesis and surface science toward TTI devices, enlarging the prospects of many new materials. We reviewed the principal applications highlighting the need and criticisms of TTIs, which offer a new opportunity for the development of many materials.

  12. Double-to-single target ionization ratio for electron capture in fast p-He collisions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H T; Fardi, A; Schuch, R; Schwartz, S H; Zettergren, H; Cederquist, H; Bagge, L; Danared, H; Källberg, A; Jensen, J; Rensfelt, K-G; Mergel, V; Schmidt, L; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Cocke, C L

    2002-10-14

    We have used the ion storage ring CRYRING and its internal gas-jet target and recoil-ion-momentum spectrometer to measure absolute cross sections for transfer ionization (TI: p+He-->H0+He2++e(-)) in 2.5-4.5 MeV p-He collisions with separate Thomas (TTI) and kinematic (KTI) TI contributions. The probability for electron emission in kinematical capture decreases with increasing velocity and appears to approach the photoionization shakeoff value (1.63%) [T. Aberg, Phys. Rev. A 2, 1726 (1970)

  13. Optimization of Forward Wave Modeling on Contemporary HPC Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Jens; Micikevicius, Paulius; Williams, Samuel

    2012-07-20

    Reverse Time Migration (RTM) is one of the main approaches in the seismic processing industry for imaging the subsurface structure of the Earth. While RTM provides qualitative advantages over its predecessors, it has a high computational cost warranting implementation on HPC architectures. We focus on three progressively more complex kernels extracted from RTM: for isotropic (ISO), vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) and tilted transverse isotropic (TTI) media. In this work, we examine performance optimization of forward wave modeling, which describes the computational kernels used in RTM, on emerging multi- and manycore processors and introduce a novel common subexpression elimination optimization for TTI kernels. We compare attained performance and energy efficiency in both the single-node and distributed memory environments in order to satisfy industry’s demands for fidelity, performance, and energy efficiency. Moreover, we discuss the interplay between architecture (chip and system) and optimizations (both on-node computation) highlighting the importance of NUMA-aware approaches to MPI communication. Ultimately, our results show we can improve CPU energy efficiency by more than 10× on Magny Cours nodes while acceleration via multiple GPUs can surpass the energy-efficient Intel Sandy Bridge by as much as 3.6×.

  14. A gain-of-function senescence bypass screen identifies the homeobox transcription factor DLX2 as a regulator of ATM–p53 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yifan; Xu, Qikai; Sack, Laura; Kang, Chanhee; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Senescence stimuli activate multiple tumor suppressor pathways to initiate cycle arrest and a differentiation program characteristic of senescent cells. We performed a two-stage, gain-of-function screen to select for the genes whose enhanced expression can bypass replicative senescence. We uncovered multiple genes known to be involved in p53 and Rb regulation and ATM regulation, two components of the CST (CTC1–STN1–TEN1) complex involved in preventing telomere erosion, and genes such as REST and FOXO4 that have been implicated in aging. Among the new genes now implicated in senescence, we identified DLX2, a homeobox transcription factor that has been shown to be required for tumor growth and metastasis and is associated with poor cancer prognosis. Growth analysis showed that DLX2 expression led to increased cellular replicative life span. Our data suggest that DLX2 expression reduces the protein components of the TTI1/TTI2/TEL2 complex, a key complex required for the proper folding and stabilization of ATM and other members of the PIKK (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase) family kinase, leading to reduced ATM–p53 signaling and senescence bypass. We also found that the overexpression of DLX2 exhibited a mutually exclusive relationship with p53 alterations in cancer patients. Our functional screen identified novel players that may promote tumorigenesis by regulating the ATM–p53 pathway and senescence. PMID:26833729

  15. Seasonal acclimation in sudomotor function evaluated by QSART in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Oh; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART) is a classic test of routine postganglionic sudomotor function. We investigated sudomotor function by QSART after summer (July 2012) and winter (January 2013) seasonal acclimation (SA) in the Republic of Korea. QSART with acetylcholine (ACh) iontophoresis were performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR1, 2) sweating rate. Onset time of axon reflex, activated sweat gland density (ASGD), activated sweat gland output (ASGO), tympanic and skin temperatures (Tty, Tsk), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and evaporative loss volume changes were measured. Tympanic and mean body temperature (Tb; calculated from Tty, Tsk) were significantly lower after summer-SA than that of winter-SA. Sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA. BMR, AXR(1), AXR(2), and DIR sweat rates, ASGD and ASGO, and evaporative loss volume were significantly diminished after winter-SA relative to after summer-SA. In conclusion, changes in sweating activity measured by QSART confirmed the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in variation of sudomotor activity in seasonal acclimation. PMID:27610036

  16. The effects of imagery training on fast isometric knee extensor torque development.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Cornelis J; Hutter, Vana; Icke, Chris; Groen, Bart; Gemmink, Anne; Smilde, Hiltsje; de Haan, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that imagery training would improve the fast onset of neuromuscular activation and thereby fast knee extensor isometric torque development. Forty young healthy participants, not involved in strength training, were assigned to one of four groups: physical training, imagery training, placebo training or control. The three training groups had three 15 min sessions per week for 4 weeks, with a 90 ° knee angle but were tested also at 120 °. At 90 ° knee angle, maximal torque increased (-8%) similarly in all three training groups. The torque-time integral (contractile impulse) over the first 40 ms after torque onset (TTI40) increased (P < 0.05) after physical training (by -100%), but only at 90 °. This increase was significantly different from the delta values (change pre to post) in the control and placebo groups, whereas delta values in the imagery group were similar to those in the placebo group. The increases in TTI40 following physical training were related (r (2) = 0.81, P < 0.05) to significant increases of knee extensor rectified surface EMG at torque onset (EMG40). In conclusion, only physical training led to a knee angle specific increase of contractile impulse that was significantly different from placebo and controls and that was related to improved onset of neuromuscular activation.

  17. Passive thermal refugia provided warm water for Florida manatees during the severe winter of 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stith, B.M.; Slone, D.H.; de Wit, M.; Edwards, H.H.; Langtimm, C.A.; Swain, E.D.; Soderqvist, L.E.; Reid, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Haloclines induced by freshwater inflow over tidal water have been identified as an important mechanism for maintaining warm water in passive thermal refugia (PTR) used by Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris during winter in extreme southwestern Florida. Record-setting cold during winter 2009–2010 resulted in an unprecedented number of manatee deaths, adding to concerns that PTR may provide inadequate thermal protection during severe cold periods. Hydrological data from 2009–2010 indicate that 2 canal systems in the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) region acted as PTR and maintained warm bottom-water temperatures, even during severe and prolonged cold periods. Aerial survey counts of live and dead manatees in TTI during the winter of 2009–2010 suggest that these PTR were effective at preventing mass mortality from hypothermia, in contrast to the nearby Everglades region, which lacks similar artificial PTR and showed high manatee carcass counts. Hydrological data from winter 2008–2009 confirmed earlier findings that without haloclines these artificial PTR may become ineffective as warm-water sites. Tidal pumping of groundwater appears to provide additional heat to bottom water during low tide cycles, but the associated thermal inversion is not observed unless salinity stratification is present. The finding that halocline-driven PTR can maintain warm water even under extreme winter conditions suggests that they may have significant potential as warm-water sites. However, availability and conflicting uses of freshwater and other management issues may make halocline-driven PTR unreliable or difficult to manage during winter.

  18. Non Infectious Complications Related to Blood Transfusion: An 11 year Retrospective Analysis in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Philip, J; Pawar, A; Chatterjee, T; Mallhi, R S; Biswas, A K; Dimri, U

    2016-09-01

    In India transmission of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) has shown a relative decrease as a result of mandatory screening of donated blood for TTI's. However, reducing the incidence of non infectious complications poses a major challenge, mainly due to the fact that a number of adverse reactions go unreported. Blood transfusion reaction, can be categorized based on the time interval between transfusion of blood products and the presentation of adverse reactions as acute i.e. those presenting during or within 24 h and as delayed i.e. those presenting anytime after 24 h. Transfusion reactions can further be classified as immune and non immune or infectious and non infectious based on the pathophysiology. In this retrospective study which was undertaken with an aim to determine the type and frequency of non infectious complications due to transfusion of blood and blood products recorded the incidence of febrile non hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) 51.40 %, allergic reactions 40.14 %, non immune hemolytic reactions 4.22 %, hypothermia 2.81 %, anaphylaxis 0.70 % and iron overload 0.70 %. FNHTR which was found to be the most common complication in this study can certainly be minimized, if not completely eliminated by adopting a policy of universal leucodepletion, the implementation of which solely depends on the financial and infrastructure resources available. This study also reiterates the importance of hemovigilance as a tool to improve the safety of blood transfusion.

  19. Seasonal acclimation in sudomotor function evaluated by QSART in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young Oh; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART) is a classic test of routine postganglionic sudomotor function. We investigated sudomotor function by QSART after summer (July 2012) and winter (January 2013) seasonal acclimation (SA) in the Republic of Korea. QSART with acetylcholine (ACh) iontophoresis were performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR1, 2) sweating rate. Onset time of axon reflex, activated sweat gland density (ASGD), activated sweat gland output (ASGO), tympanic and skin temperatures (Tty, Tsk), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and evaporative loss volume changes were measured. Tympanic and mean body temperature (Tb; calculated from Tty, Tsk) were significantly lower after summer-SA than that of winter-SA. Sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA. BMR, AXR(1), AXR(2), and DIR sweat rates, ASGD and ASGO, and evaporative loss volume were significantly diminished after winter-SA relative to after summer-SA. In conclusion, changes in sweating activity measured by QSART confirmed the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in variation of sudomotor activity in seasonal acclimation. PMID:27610036

  20. An integrated GPS-FID system for airborne gas detection of pipeline right-of-ways

    SciTech Connect

    Gehue, H.L.; Sommer, P.

    1996-12-31

    Pipeline integrity, safety and environmental concerns are of prime importance in the Canadian natural gas industry. Terramatic Technology Inc. (TTI) has developed an integrated GPS/FID gas detection system known as TTI-AirTrac{trademark} for use in airborne gas detection (AGD) along pipeline right-of-ways. The Flame Ionization Detector (FID), which has traditionally been used to monitor air quality for gas plants and refineries, has been integrated with the Global Positioning System (GPS) via a 486 DX2-50 computer and specialized open architecture data acquisition software. The purpose of this technology marriage is to be able to continuously monitor air quality during airborne pipeline inspection. Event tagging from visual surveillance is used to determine an explanation of any delta line deviations (DLD). These deviations are an indication of hydrocarbon gases present in the plume that the aircraft has passed through. The role of the GPS system is to provide mapping information and coordinate data for ground inspections. The ground based inspection using a handheld multi gas detector will confirm whether or not a leak exists.

  1. Seasonal acclimation in sudomotor function evaluated by QSART in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young Oh; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART) is a classic test of routine postganglionic sudomotor function. We investigated sudomotor function by QSART after summer (July 2012) and winter (January 2013) seasonal acclimation (SA) in the Republic of Korea. QSART with acetylcholine (ACh) iontophoresis were performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR1, 2) sweating rate. Onset time of axon reflex, activated sweat gland density (ASGD), activated sweat gland output (ASGO), tympanic and skin temperatures (Tty, Tsk), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and evaporative loss volume changes were measured. Tympanic and mean body temperature (Tb; calculated from Tty, Tsk) were significantly lower after summer-SA than that of winter-SA. Sweat onset time was delayed during winter-SA compared to that after summer-SA. BMR, AXR(1), AXR(2), and DIR sweat rates, ASGD and ASGO, and evaporative loss volume were significantly diminished after winter-SA relative to after summer-SA. In conclusion, changes in sweating activity measured by QSART confirmed the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in variation of sudomotor activity in seasonal acclimation.

  2. Tensile and burning properties of clay/phenolic/GF composite and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diharjo, Kuncoro; Armunanto, V. Bram; Kristiawan, S. Adi

    2016-03-01

    Composite material has been widely used in automotive due to its properties can be improved by combining with reinforcement, like fiber and particle to enhance mechanical properties and burning resistance. This study aims to investigate the tensile and burning properties of hybrid composite combining glass fiber and clay in phenolic resin. The clay was produced from roof tile rejected by tile industries in Sokka, Kebumen, Indonesia. The composite was made using a press mold method for different number of laminates and orientation of woven-roving-glass-fiber/ WRGF (0/90 and ±45), and the total volume fraction of fiber and clay is constant 40%. The specimens were tested using universal testing machine for tensile properties and burning tests apparatus for burning resistance (time to ignite/ TTI and burning rate/ BR). The enhancing of the Clay/Penolic/GF composite can be performed by the increasing of GF laminates, and the composite with 0/90 orientation of WRGF has higher tensile strength and modulus compared to that with ±45 orientation of WRGF. Both composite with 0/90 and ±45 orientation of WRGF have similar burning resistance (TTI and BR) and the composite containing 13 laminates of WR-GF shows the best burning resistance. According to these properties, this composite has good opportunity to be applied as car body panels or other structure in industries due to save weight and high burning resistance.

  3. Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: An example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowery, Claiborne L.E.; Miller, C.F.; Walker, B.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Bea, F.

    2006-01-01

    Zirconium and Hf are nearly identical geochemically, and therefore most of the crust maintains near-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios of ???35-40. By contrast, many high-silica rhyolites and granites have anomalously low Zr/Hf (15-30). As zircon is the primary reservoir for both Zr and Hf and preferentially incorporates Zr, crystallization of zircon controls Zr/ Hf, imprinting low Zr/Hf on coexisting melt. Thus, low Zr/Hf is a unique fingerprint of effective magmatic fractionation in the crust. Age and compositional zonation in zircons themselves provide a record of the thermal and compositional histories of magmatic systems. High Hf (low Zr/ Hf) in zircon zones demonstrates growth from fractionated melt, and Ti provides an estimate of temperature of crystallization (TTiZ) (Watson and Harrison, 2005). Whole-rock Zr/Hf and zircon zonation in the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada, document repeated fractionation and thermal fluctuations. Ratios of Zr/Hf are ???30-40 for cumulates and 18-30 for high-SiO2 granites. In zircons, Hf (and U) are inversely correlated with Ti, and concentrations indicate large fluctuations in melt composition and TTiZ (>100??C) for individual zircons. Such variations are consistent with field relations and ion-probe zircon geochronology that indicate a >1 million year history of repeated replenishment, fractionation, and extraction of melt from crystal mush to form the low Zr/Hf high-SiO2 zone. ?? 2006 The Mineralogical Society.

  4. Deaf and hard of hearing Americans' instant messaging and e-mail use: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Frank G

    2002-10-01

    An online survey of 884 deaf and hard of hearing adults asked about their current and past use of communication technologies, notably TTY, telecommunications relay services, e-mail, and instant messaging (IM). Results showed that respondents were using e-mail and IM far more than TTY and relay services. The study participants virtually all had e-mail and IM at home. In fact, about one quarter had a high-speed ("broadband") connection at home. While the vast majority also had and used e-mail at work, just 1 in 3 had IM at his or her place of employment. The findings have several implications. Most important for educators is that strong reading and writing skills are essential if adults who are deaf or hard of hearing are to take advantage of today's communications technologies. Another conclusion is that some workers who are deaf or hard of hearing appear to face discrimination in employment because office policies forbid the use of a highly effective reasonable accommodation, instant messaging.

  5. Laboratory heterogeneity of the lupus anticoagulant: a multicentre study using different clotting assays on a panel of 78 samples. Hemostasis Committee of the "Société Française de Biologie Clinique".

    PubMed

    1992-05-15

    The laboratory heterogeneity of the lupus anticoagulant (LA) was investigated in a multicentre study using a panel of 78 plasma samples diagnosed as containing a LA. Consecutive samples were collected by 12 participants using various screening tests, and sent to 7 laboratories which performed one or more clotting assays among the following: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), dilute Russell viper venom time, kaolin clotting time (KCT), dilute tissue thromboplastin time (dTTI) and a platelet neutralization test. For APTT and dTTI, 10 versions of these tests including standard and mixing procedures were carried out. They varied by reagents, phospholipid concentration or methodology. Cut-off times were determined for each test by comparing the results of the panel to those of a control population. When the data of all clotting assays were pooled, 70 of the 78 selected plasmas were considered to contain LA, 15 of them having a low-titer inhibitor. Sensitivity, defined as the proportion of positive results among LA-containing plasmas, varied from 62 to 100% and was positively related to responsiveness (defined as the mean ratio of clotting time to cut-off time). Laboratory heterogeneity of LA-containing plasma was illustrated by a star symbol plot analysis. Different populations of samples, with LA preferentially recognized by one assay (or group of assays) irrespective of the overall sensitivity of this assay, were identified. Multiple component analysis demonstrated the heterogeneity of low-titer inhibitors, which complicates their recognition in routine laboratory investigation.

  6. High Earth orbit design for lunar assisted small Explorer class missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, M.; Hametz, M.; Cooley, J.; Skillman, D.

    1994-05-01

    Small Expendable launch vehicles are capable of injecting modest payloads into high Earth orbits having apogee near the lunar distance. However, lunar and solar perturbations can quickly lower perigee and cause premature reentry. Costly perigee raising maneuvers by the spacecraft are required to maintain the orbit. In addition, the range of inclinations achievable is limited to those of launch sites unless costly spacecraft maneuvers are performed. This study investigates the use of a lunar swingby in a near-Hohmann transfer trajectory to raise perigee into the 8 to 25 solar radius range and reach a wide variety of inclinations without spacecraft maneuvers. It is found that extremely stable orbits can be obtained if the postencounter spacecraft orbital period is one-half of a lunar sidereal revolution and the Earth-vehicle-Moon geometry is within a specified range. Criteria for achieving stable orbits with various perigee heights and ecliptic inclinations are developed, and the sensitivity of the resulting mission orbits to transfer trajectory injection (TTI) errors is examined. It is shown that carefully designed orbits yield lifetimes of several years, with excellent ground station coverage characteristics and minimal eclipses. A phasing loop error correction strategy is considered with the spacecraft propulsion system delta V demand for TTI error correction and a postlunar encounter apogee trim maneuver typically in the 30 to 120 meters per second range.

  7. Thermoregulatory responses during exercise and a hot water immersion and the affective responses to peripheral thermal stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishima, K.

    1986-03-01

    Tympanic (Tty), mean skin (¯Tsk) and mean body (¯Tb) temperatures and heart rate (HR) increased more in low Vo2 max group (LG) than in high Vo2 max group (HG) during exercise. The regression coefficient of body temperatures (Tty and ¯Tb) on HR and the increased rate of heat storage were larger in LG than in HG during exercise. The local sweat rate (per min/cm2) during a hot water bath exhibited a considerable large quantity in comparison with the amount during exercise. Internal and skin temperatures during a hot water bath increased more immediately than those during exercise. The levels of comfort sensation during the preovulatory phase in women and pre-exercise period in men were higher at 40‡C than at 20‡C as peripheral thermal stimulus. The levels during the postovulatory and post-exercise phases in the same subjects were higher with the cool stimuli than with the warm stimuli. Above results suggest that thermoregulatory responses during submaximal exercise are different according to physical fitness and that these responses are different from those during hot water immersion. In addition, these suggest that the scores of thermal sensation with warm and cool stimuli are different during the pre- and post-ovulatory phases and the pre- and post-exercise periods.

  8. Validation and use of an enzymic time-temperature integrator to monitor thermal impacts inside a solid/liquid model food.

    PubMed

    Guiavarc'h, Yann P; Dintwa, Edward; Van Loey, Ann M; Zuber, François T; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2002-01-01

    Heat denaturation kinetics of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase, equilibrated at 81% equilibrium relative humidity at 4 degrees C (BLA81), was studied with help of isothermal and nonisothermal conditions by monitoring the decrease in enthalpy associated with the heat denaturation of the enzyme. Due to its low water content, BLA81 denaturation could be studied in the range of 118-124 degrees C. Two batches of BLA81 were successfully validated under nonisothermal conditions allowing the determinations of process values (reference temperature of 121.1 degrees C) in the range of 1-15 min. In a second step, BLA81 was used as a time-temperature integrator (TTI) to investigate potential differences of process values received by freely moving spherical particles as compared to a centrally fixed particle (single-position impact) inside cans containing water as brine. Results showed that the process value received by freely moving particles can be from 5.6% (4 rpm) to 19.7% (8 rpm) smaller than the process value received by the centrally fixed sphere. This means that evaluating the process value by means of a particle fixed at the critical point in a package can lead to potentially overestimations of the actual process value with possible hazardous quality/safety implications. These results highlight the potentials of the TTI technology to monitor the safety of heat-processed agitated solid/liquid foodstuffs.

  9. Truview EVO2 and standard Macintosh laryngoscope for tracheal intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a comparative randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Gaszynska, Ewelina; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the Truview EVO2 laryngoscope in manikin-simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and no-CPR scenarios with standard intubation technique. Participants performed 4 scenarios in random order: endotracheal intubation (ETI) using Macintosh laryngoscope (MCL), Truview EVO2 laryngoscope in no-CPR patient scenario, and intubation during uninterrupted chest compressions using both laryngoscopes. The participants were directed to make 3 attempts in each scenario. Primary outcomes were time to tracheal intubation (TTI) and intubation success, whereas secondary outcomes were cumulative success ratio and the number of esophageal intubation (EI). TTI and success ratios were reported per attempt. Thirty paramedics completed the study. Median TTI with Truview EVO2 with CPR was 36 (interquartile range [IQR] 29.00-52.00), 22.5 (IQR 18.33-35.00), and 18 (IQR 11.00-23.00) seconds; MCL with CPR was 23 (IQR 18.92-36.90), 16.8 (IQR 14.00-22.31), and 14.5 (IQR 11.12-16.36) seconds; Truview EVO2 without CPR was 28.6 (IQR 24.02-38.34), 21.7 (IQR 17.00-25.00), and 13 (IQR 11.90-17.79) seconds; MCL without CPR was 17 (IQR 13.23-22.29), 13 (IQR 12.09-15.26), and 12.4 (IQR 10.08-19.84) seconds for first, second, and third attempts, respectively. The P values for differences in TTI between Truview EVO2 and MCL were P < 0.0001, P = 0.0540, and P = 0.7550 in CPR scenario and P = 0.0080, P = 0.1570, and P = 0.7652 in no-CPR scenario for first, second, and third attempts, respectively. The success ratios for each of the scenarios were as follows: in CPR scenario it was 0.73 versus 0.53 (P = 0.0558), 0.83 versus 0.76 (P = 0.2633), and 1 versus 0.8 (P = 0.0058); in no-CPR scenario it was 0.63 versus 0.73 (P = 0.2068), 0.86 versus 0.86, and 0.97 versus 1 (P = 0.1637) for Truview EVO2 vs MCL in first, second, and third attempts, respectively. The cumulative success ratio related to the time of ETI

  10. Continuous Non-Invasive Monitoring of Tidal Volumes by Measurement of Tidal Impedance in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Florian; Zinnow, Fabienne; Prakapenia, Alexandra; Dietl, Sabrina; Winkler, Stefan; Ifflaender, Sascha; Rüdiger, Mario; Burkhardt, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Background Electrical Impedance measurements can be used to estimate the content of intra-thoracic air and thereby give information on pulmonary ventilation. Conventional Impedance measurements mainly indicate relative changes, but no information concerning air-volume is given. The study was performed to test whether a 3-point-calibration with known tidal volumes (VT) during conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) allows subsequent calculation of VT from total Tidal-Impedance (tTI) measurements using Quadrant Impedance Measurement (QIM). In addition the distribution of TI in different regions of the thorax was examined. Methodology and Principal Findings QIM was performed in five neonatal piglets during volume-controlled CMV. tTI values at three different VT (4, 6, 8 ml/kg) were used to establish individual calibration curves. Subsequently, each animal was ventilated with different patterns of varying VT (2–10 ml/kg) at different PEEP levels (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 cmH2O). VT variation was repeated after surfactant depletion by bronchoalveolar lavage. VT was calculated from tTI values (VTcalc) and compared to the VT delivered by the ventilator (VTPNT). Bland-Altman analysis revealed good agreement between VTcalc and VTPNT before (bias −0.08 ml; limits of agreement −1.18 to 1.02 ml at PEEP = 3 cmH2O) and after surfactant depletion (bias −0.17 ml; limits of agreement −1.57 to 1.22 ml at PEEP = 3 cmH2O). At higher PEEP levels VTcalc was lower than VTPNT, when only one fixed calibration curve (at PEEP 3 cmH2O) was used. With a new calibration curve at each PEEP level the method showed similar accuracy at each PEEP level. TI showed a homogeneous distribution over the four assessed quadrants with a shift toward caudal regions of the thorax with increasing VT. Conclusion Tidal Impedance values could be used for precise and accurate calculation of VT during CMV in this animal study, when calibrated at each PEEP level. PMID:21687746

  11. Stability analysis for acoustic wave propagation in tilted TI media by finite differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Peter M.; Duveneck, Eric

    2011-05-01

    Several papers in recent years have reported instabilities in P-wave modelling, based on an acoustic approximation, for inhomogeneous transversely isotropic media with tilted symmetry axis (TTI media). In particular, instabilities tend to occur if the axis of symmetry varies rapidly in combination with strong contrasts of medium parameters, which is typically the case at the foot of a steeply dipping salt flank. In a recent paper, we have proposed and demonstrated a P-wave modelling approach for TTI media, based on rotated stress and strain tensors, in which the wave equations reduce to a coupled set of two second-order partial differential equations for two scalar stress components: a normal component along the variable axis of symmetry and a lateral component of stress in the plane perpendicular to that axis. Spatially constant density is assumed in this approach. A numerical discretization scheme was proposed which uses discrete second-derivative operators for the non-mixed second-order derivatives in the wave equations, and combined first-derivative operators for the mixed second-order derivatives. This paper provides a complete and rigorous stability analysis, assuming a uniformly sampled grid. Although the spatial discretization operator for the TTI acoustic wave equation is not self-adjoint, this operator still defines a complete basis of eigenfunctions of the solution space, provided that the solution space is somewhat restricted at locations where the medium is elliptically anisotropic. First, a stability analysis is given for a discretization scheme, which is purely based on first-derivative operators. It is shown that the coefficients of the central difference operators should satisfy certain conditions. In view of numerical artefacts, such a discretization scheme is not attractive, and the non-mixed second-order derivatives of the wave equation are discretized directly by second-derivative operators. It is shown that this modification preserves

  12. Slowed muscle oxygen uptake kinetics with raised metabolism are not dependent on blood flow or recruitment dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Rob C I; McDonald, James R; Sun, Yi; Ferguson, Brian S; Rogatzki, Matthew J; Spires, Jessica; Kowalchuk, John M; Gladden, L Bruce; Rossiter, Harry B

    2014-04-15

    Oxygen uptake kinetics (τVO2) are slowed when exercise is initiated from a raised metabolic rate. Whether this reflects the recruitment of muscle fibres differing in oxidative capacity, or slowed blood flow (Q) kinetics is unclear. This study determined τVO2 in canine muscle in situ, with experimental control over muscle activation and Q during contractions initiated from rest and a raised metabolic rate. The gastrocnemius complex of nine anaesthetised, ventilated dogs was isolated and attached to a force transducer. Isometric tetanic contractions (50 Hz; 200 ms duration) via supramaximal sciatic nerve stimulation were used to manipulate metabolic rate: 3 min stimulation at 0.33 Hz (S1), followed by 3 min at 0.67 Hz (S2). Circulation was initially intact (SPON), and subsequently isolated for pump-perfusion (PUMP) above the greatest value in SPON. Muscle VO2 was determined contraction-by-contraction using an ultrasonic flowmeter and venous oximeter, and normalised to tension-time integral (TTI). τVO2/TTI and τQ were less in S1SPON (mean ± s.d.: 13 ± 3 s and 12 ± 4 s, respectively) than in S2SPON (29 ± 19 s and 31 ± 13 s, respectively; P < 0.05). τVO2/TTI was unchanged by pump-perfusion (S1PUMP, 12 ± 4 s; S2PUMP, 24 ± 6 s; P < 0.001) despite increased O2 delivery; at S2 onset, venous O2 saturation was 21 ± 4% and 65 ± 5% in SPON and PUMP, respectively. VO2 kinetics remained slowed when contractions were initiated from a raised metabolic rate despite uniform muscle stimulation and increased O2 delivery. The intracellular mechanism may relate to a falling energy state, approaching saturating ADP concentration, and/or slowed mitochondrial activation; but further study is required. These data add to the evidence that muscle VO2 control is more complex than previously suggested. PMID:24469073

  13. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores by a combination of biocides and heating under high-temperature short-time pasteurization conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sa; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    The milk supply is considered a primary route for a bioterrorism attack with Bacillus anthracis spores because typical high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization conditions cannot inactivate spores. In the event of intentional contamination, an effective method to inactivate the spores in milk under HTST processing conditions is needed. This study was undertaken to identify combinations and concentrations of biocides that can inactivate B. anthracis spores at temperatures in the HTST range in less than 1 min. Hydrogen peroxide (HP), sodium hypochlorite (SH), and peroxyacetic acid (PA) were evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating spores of strains 7702, ANR-1, and 9131 in milk at 72, 80, and 85 degrees C using a sealed capillary tube technique. Strains ANR-1 and 9131 were more resistant to all of the biocide treatments than strain 7702. Addition of 1,260 ppm SH to milk reduced the number of viable spores of each strain by 6 log CFU/ml in less than 90 and 60 s at 72 and 80 degrees C, respectively. After neutralization, 1,260 ppm SH reduced the time necessary to inactivate 6 log CFU/ml (TTI6-log) at 80 degrees C to less than 20 s. Treatment of milk with 7,000 ppm HP resulted in a similar level of inactivation in 60 s. Combined treatment with 1,260 ppm SH and 1,800 ppm HP inactivated spores of all strains in less than 20 s at 80 degrees C. Mixing 15 ppm PA with milk containing 1,260 ppm SH resulted in TTI6-log of 25 and 12 s at 72 and 80 degrees C, respectively. TTI6-log of less than 20 s were also achieved at 80 degrees C by using two combinations of biocides: 250 ppm SH, 700 ppm HP, and 150 ppm PA; and 420 ppm SH (pH 7), 1,100 ppm HP, and 15 ppm PA. These results indicated that different combinations of biocides could consistently result in 6-log reductions in the number of B. anthracis spores in less than 1 min at temperatures in the HTST range. This information could be useful for developing more effective thermal treatment strategies which could be

  14. Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections and evaluation of the pre-donation screening performance at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends universal and quality-controlled screening of blood donations for the major transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs): human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis. The study objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donors at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique, and to assess the local pre-donation screening performance. Methods All consenting voluntary and replacement candidate blood donors were consecutively included from February to May 2009. Sera of all candidates, independent of deferral by questionnaire, were submitted to screening with quality-assured rapid or simple assays for HIV, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV and syphilis. Assays locally used by the blood bank for HBV and syphilis screening were run in parallel to quality-assured external assays supplied during the study, and all discordant samples were submitted to confirmation testing in reference laboratories in Mozambique and Belgium. Results Of 750 consenting candidates (50.5% of voluntary donors), 71 (9.5%) were deferred by the questionnaire, including 38 specifically because of risk behavior for TTI. Of the 679 non-deferred candidates, 127 (18.7%) had serological confirmation of at least one TTI, with a lower prevalence in voluntary than in replacement donors (15.2% versus 22.4%, p = 0.016). Seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg and syphilis infections was 8.5%, 10.6 % and 1.2%. No confirmed HCV infection was found. Seroprevalence of TTIs was similar in the 38 candidates deferred for TTI risk as in the non-deferred group, except for HBsAg (26.3 % versus 10.6 %; p = 0.005). The local assays used for HBV and syphilis had sensitivities of 98.4% and 100% and specificities of 80.4% and 98.8% respectively. This resulted in the rejection of 110 of the 679 blood donations (16.2%) because of false positive results. Conclusions The seroprevalence of TTIs after

  15. Comparison of the Pentax Airwayscope, Glidescope Video Laryngoscope, and Macintosh Laryngoscope During Chest Compression According to Bed Height.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonhee; Lee, Yoonje; Kim, Changsun; Lim, Tae Ho; Oh, Jaehoon; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lee, Sanghyun

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to investigate whether bed height affects intubation performance in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and which type of laryngoscope shows the best performance at each bed height.A randomized crossover manikin study was conducted. Twenty-one participants were enrolled, and they were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group A (n = 10) and group B (n = 11). The participants underwent emergency endotracheal intubation (ETI) using the Airwayscope (AWS), Glidescope video laryngoscope, and Macintosh laryngoscope in random order while chest compression was performed. Each ETI was conducted at 2 levels of bed height (minimum bed height: 68.9  cm and maximum bed height: 101.3 cm). The primary outcomes were the time to intubation (TTI) and the success rate of ETI. The P value for statistical significance was set at 0.05 and 0.017 in post-hoc test.The success rate of ETI was always 100% regardless of the type of laryngoscope or the bed height. TTI was not significantly different between the 2 bed heights regardless of the type of laryngoscope (all P > 0.05). The time for AWS was the shortest among the 3 laryngoscopes at both bed heights (13.7  ±  3.6 at the minimum bed height and 13.4  ±  4.7 at the maximum bed height) (all P < 0.017). The TTI of Glidescope video laryngoscope was not significantly shorter than that of Macintosh laryngoscope at the minimum height (17.6  ±  4.0 vs 19.6  ±  4.8; P = 0.02).The bed height, whether adjusted to the minimum or maximum setting, did not affect intubation performance. In addition, regardless of the bed height, the intubation time with the video laryngoscopes, especially AWS, was significantly shorter than that with the direct laryngoscope during chest compression.

  16. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores by a Combination of Biocides and Heating under High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization Conditions ▿

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sa; Labuza, Theodore P.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The milk supply is considered a primary route for a bioterrorism attack with Bacillus anthracis spores because typical high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization conditions cannot inactivate spores. In the event of intentional contamination, an effective method to inactivate the spores in milk under HTST processing conditions is needed. This study was undertaken to identify combinations and concentrations of biocides that can inactivate B. anthracis spores at temperatures in the HTST range in less than 1 min. Hydrogen peroxide (HP), sodium hypochlorite (SH), and peroxyacetic acid (PA) were evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating spores of strains 7702, ANR-1, and 9131 in milk at 72, 80, and 85°C using a sealed capillary tube technique. Strains ANR-1 and 9131 were more resistant to all of the biocide treatments than strain 7702. Addition of 1,260 ppm SH to milk reduced the number of viable spores of each strain by 6 log CFU/ml in less than 90 and 60 s at 72 and 80°C, respectively. After neutralization, 1,260 ppm SH reduced the time necessary to inactivate 6 log CFU/ml (TTI6-log) at 80°C to less than 20 s. Treatment of milk with 7,000 ppm HP resulted in a similar level of inactivation in 60 s. Combined treatment with 1,260 ppm SH and 1,800 ppm HP inactivated spores of all strains in less than 20 s at 80°C. Mixing 15 ppm PA with milk containing 1,260 ppm SH resulted in TTI6-log of 25 and 12 s at 72 and 80°C, respectively. TTI6-log of less than 20 s were also achieved at 80°C by using two combinations of biocides: 250 ppm SH, 700 ppm HP, and 150 ppm PA; and 420 ppm SH (pH 7), 1,100 ppm HP, and 15 ppm PA. These results indicated that different combinations of biocides could consistently result in 6-log reductions in the number of B. anthracis spores in less than 1 min at temperatures in the HTST range. This information could be useful for developing more effective thermal treatment strategies which could be used in HTST milk plants to process

  17. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores by a combination of biocides and heating under high-temperature short-time pasteurization conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sa; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    The milk supply is considered a primary route for a bioterrorism attack with Bacillus anthracis spores because typical high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization conditions cannot inactivate spores. In the event of intentional contamination, an effective method to inactivate the spores in milk under HTST processing conditions is needed. This study was undertaken to identify combinations and concentrations of biocides that can inactivate B. anthracis spores at temperatures in the HTST range in less than 1 min. Hydrogen peroxide (HP), sodium hypochlorite (SH), and peroxyacetic acid (PA) were evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating spores of strains 7702, ANR-1, and 9131 in milk at 72, 80, and 85 degrees C using a sealed capillary tube technique. Strains ANR-1 and 9131 were more resistant to all of the biocide treatments than strain 7702. Addition of 1,260 ppm SH to milk reduced the number of viable spores of each strain by 6 log CFU/ml in less than 90 and 60 s at 72 and 80 degrees C, respectively. After neutralization, 1,260 ppm SH reduced the time necessary to inactivate 6 log CFU/ml (TTI6-log) at 80 degrees C to less than 20 s. Treatment of milk with 7,000 ppm HP resulted in a similar level of inactivation in 60 s. Combined treatment with 1,260 ppm SH and 1,800 ppm HP inactivated spores of all strains in less than 20 s at 80 degrees C. Mixing 15 ppm PA with milk containing 1,260 ppm SH resulted in TTI6-log of 25 and 12 s at 72 and 80 degrees C, respectively. TTI6-log of less than 20 s were also achieved at 80 degrees C by using two combinations of biocides: 250 ppm SH, 700 ppm HP, and 150 ppm PA; and 420 ppm SH (pH 7), 1,100 ppm HP, and 15 ppm PA. These results indicated that different combinations of biocides could consistently result in 6-log reductions in the number of B. anthracis spores in less than 1 min at temperatures in the HTST range. This information could be useful for developing more effective thermal treatment strategies which could be

  18. Laboratory data manipulation tools basic data handling programs. Volume 2: Detailed software/hardware documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The set of computer programs described allows for data definition, data input, and data transfer between the LSI-11 microcomputers and the VAX-11/780 minicomputer. Program VAXCOM allows for a simple method of textual file transfer from the LSI to the VAX. Program LSICOM allows for easy file transfer from the VAX to the LSI. Program TTY changes the LSI-11 operators console to the LSI's printing device. Program DICTIN provides a means for defining a data set for input to either computer. Program DATAIN is a simple to operate data entry program which is capable of building data files on either machine. Program LEDITV is an extremely powerful, easy to use, line oriented text editor. Program COPYSBF is designed to print out textual files on the line printer without character loss from FORTRAN carriage control or wide record transfer.

  19. Reverse time migration in tilted transversely isotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Linbing; Rector III, James W.; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a reverse time migration (RTM) method for the migration of shot records in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. It is based on the tilted TI acoustic wave equation that was derived from the dispersion relation. The RTM is a full depth migration allowing for velocity to vary laterally as well as vertically and has no dip limitations. The wave equation is solved by a tenth-order finite difference scheme. Using 2D numerical models, we demonstrate that ignoring the tilt angle will introduce both lateral and vertical shifts in imaging. The shifts can be larger than 0.5 wavelength in the vertical direction and 1.5 wavelength in the lateral direction.

  20. Spray Nozzles, Pressures, Additives and Stirring Time on Viability and Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) for Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed. PMID:23755280

  1. DABI: A data base for image analysis with nondeterministic inference capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakimovsky, Y.; Cunningham, R.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the data base used in the perception subsystem of the Mars robot vehicle prototype being implemented at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This data base contains two types of information. The first is generic (uninstantiated, abstract) information that specifies the general rules of perception of objects in the expected environments. The second kind of information is a specific (instantiated) description of a structure, i.e., the properties and relations of objects in the specific case being analyzed. The generic knowledge can be used by the approximate reasoning subsystem to obtain information on the specific structures which is not directly measurable by the sensory instruments. Raw measurements are input either from the sensory instruments or a human operator using a CRT or a TTY.

  2. What does tympanostomy tube placement in children teach us about the association between atopic conditions and otitis media?

    PubMed

    Juhn, Young J; Wi, Chung-Il

    2014-07-01

    Otitis media is the most common infection second only to viral upper respiratory infection in the outpatient setting. Tympanostomy tube insertion (TTI) is the most common ambulatory surgical procedure in the USA. While many risk factors for otitis media have been identified, atopic conditions have been underrecognized as risk factors for recurrent and persistent otitis media. Given that asthma and other atopic conditions are the most common chronic conditions during childhood, it is worth examining the association between atopic conditions and risk of otitis media, which can provide insight into how atopic conditions influence the risk of microbial infections. This paper focuses its discussion on otitis media; however, it is important that the association between atopic conditions and risk of otitis media be interpreted in the context of the association of atopic conditions with increased risks of various microbial infections.

  3. What Does Tympanostomy Tube Placement in Children Teach Us About the Association Between Atopic Conditions and Otitis Media?

    PubMed Central

    Juhn, Young J.; Wi, Chung-Il

    2014-01-01

    Otitis media is the most common infection second only to viral upper respiratory infection in the outpatient setting. Tympanostomy tube insertion (TTI) is the most common ambulatory surgical procedure in the United States. While many risk factors for otitis media have been identified, atopic conditions have been under-recognized as risk factors for recurrent and persistent otitis media. Given that asthma and other atopic conditions are the most common chronic conditions during childhood, it is worth examining the association between atopic conditions and risk of otitis media, which can provide insight into how atopic conditions influence the risk of microbial infections. This paper focuses its discussion on otitis media, however it is important that the association between atopic conditions and risk of otitis media be interpreted in the context of the association of atopic conditions with increased risks of various microbial infections. PMID:24816652

  4. Hypocoprins A-C: new sesquiterpenoids from the coprophilous fungus Hypocopra rostrata.

    PubMed

    Jayanetti, Dinith R; Yue, Qun; Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B

    2015-03-27

    Studies of the coprophilous fungus Hypocopra rostrata (TTI-0009, NRRL 66178) isolated from a sample of horse dung collected in Texas led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpenoids that we named hypocoprins A-C (1-3), together with the known fungal metabolite helvolic acid. The new metabolites have a distinctive ring system consisting of fused cyclopropane and cyclodecene units not previously reported from a fungal source. Compounds 1 and 3 moderately inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The structures of these metabolites were assigned mainly by analysis of 2D NMR and HRESITOFMS data. Relative and absolute configurations were assigned by interpretation of NMR J-values and NOESY data and by application of Mosher's method. These results represent the first report of chemistry from any strain of the genus Hypocopra.

  5. Effect of single flame retardant aluminum tri-hydroxide and boric acid against inflammability and biodegradability of recycled PP/KF composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharty, Neng Sri; Dihardjo, Kuncoro; Handayani, Desi Suci; Firdaus, Maulidan

    2016-03-01

    Composites rPP/DVB/AA/KF had been reactively synthesized in melt using starting material: recycled polypropylene (rPP), kenaf fiber (KF), multifunctional compound acrylic acid (AA), compatibilizer divinyl benzene (DVB). To improve the inflammability of composites, single flame retardant aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH) and boric acid (BA) as an additive was added. The inflammability of the composites was tested according to ASTM D635. By using 20% ATH and 5% BA additive in the composites it is effectively inhibiting its time to ignition (TTI). Its burning rate (BR) can be reduced and its heat realease (%HR) decreases. The biodegradability of composites was quantified by its losing weight (LW) of composites after buried for 4 months in the media with rich cellulolytic bacteria. The result shows that the LW of composites in the presence 20% ATH and 5% BA is 6.3%.

  6. CVD diamond substrate for microelectronics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, J.; Gat, R.

    1996-11-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of diamond films has evolved dramatically in recent years, and commercial opportunities for diamond substrates in thermal management applications are promising. The objective of this technology transfer initiative (TTI) is for Applied Science and Technology, Inc. (ASTEX) and AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM&T) to jointly develop and document the manufacturing processes and procedures required for the fabrication of multichip module circuits using CVD diamond substrates, with the major emphasis of the project concentrating on lapping/polishing prior to metallization. ASTEX would provide diamond films for the study, and FM&T would use its experience in lapping, polishing, and substrate metallization to perform secondary processing on the parts. The primary goal of the project was to establish manufacturing processes that lower the manufacturing cost sufficiently to enable broad commercialization of the technology.

  7. Past, current and potential utilisation of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: A review.

    PubMed

    Kerry, J P; O'Grady, M N; Hogan, S A

    2006-09-01

    Interest in the use of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into packaging systems with the aim of maintaining or extending meat product quality and shelf-life. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents and anti-microbial packaging technologies. Intelligent packaging systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged foods to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transport and storage. The potential of sensor technologies, indicators (including integrity, freshness and time-temperature (TTI) indicators) and radio frequency identification (RFID) are evaluated for potential use in meat and meat products. Recognition of the benefits of active and intelligent packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.

  8. Hypocoprins A–C: New Sesquiterpenoids from the Coprophilous Fungus Hypocopra rostrata

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the coprophilous fungus Hypocopra rostrata (TTI-0009, NRRL 66178) isolated from a sample of horse dung collected in Texas led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpenoids that we named hypocoprins A–C (1–3), together with the known fungal metabolite helvolic acid. The new metabolites have a distinctive ring system consisting of fused cyclopropane and cyclodecene units not previously reported from a fungal source. Compounds 1 and 3 moderately inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The structures of these metabolites were assigned mainly by analysis of 2D NMR and HRESITOFMS data. Relative and absolute configurations were assigned by interpretation of NMR J-values and NOESY data and by application of Mosher’s method. These results represent the first report of chemistry from any strain of the genus Hypocopra. PMID:25549014

  9. Investigating the potential of Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase as a pressure-temperature-time indicator for high hydrostatic pressure pasteurization processes.

    PubMed

    Grauwet, Tara; Van der Plancken, Iesel; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The potential of Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase (BSA) as a pressure-temperature-time indicator (pTTI) for high pressure pasteurization processing (400-600 MPa; T(i) 10-40 degrees C; 1-15 min) was investigated. A stepwise approach was followed for the development of an enzyme-based, extrinsic, isolated pTTI. First, based on literature data on the pressure stability, BSA was selected as a candidate indicator. Next to the accuracy and ease of the measurement of the indicator's response (residual activity) to the pressure treatment, the storage and handling stability of BSA at atmospheric pressure was verified. Second, the stability of BSA at a constant temperature (T) and time in function of pressure (p) was investigated. Solvent engineering was used to shift the inactivation window of BSA in the processing range of interest. Third, the enzyme (1 g/L BSA-MES 0.05 M pH 5.0) was kinetically calibrated under isobaric-isothermal conditions. Time dependent changes in activity could be modeled best by a first-order model. Except for low pressures and high temperatures, a synergistic effect between pressure and temperature could be observed. Based on the model selected to describe the combined p,T-dependency of the inactivation rate constant, an elliptically shaped isorate contour plot could be constructed, illustrating the processing range where BSA can be used to demonstrate temperature gradients. Fourth, the validity of the kinetic model was tested successfully under dynamic conditions similar to those used in food industry. Finally, the indicator was found suitable to demonstrate nonuniformity in two-sectional planes of a vertical, single vessel system.

  10. Prediction of severe thunderstorms over Sriharikota Island by using the WRF-ARW operational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa Rao, G.; Rajasekhar, M.; Pushpa Saroja, R.; Sreeshna, T.; Rajeevan, M.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.

    2016-05-01

    Operational short range prediction of Meso-scale thunderstorms for Sriharikota(13.7°N ,80.18°E) has been performed using two nested domains 27 & 9Km configuration of Weather Research & Forecasting-Advanced Research Weather Model (WRF- ARW V3.4).Thunderstorm is a Mesoscale system with spatial scale of few kilometers to a couple of 100 kilometers and time scale of less than an one hour to several hours, which produces heavy rain, lightning, thunder, surface wind squalls and down-bursts. Numerical study of Thunderstorms at Sriharikota and its neighborhood have been discussed with its antecedent thermodynamic stability indices and Parameters that are usually favorable for the development of convective instability based on WRF ARW model predictions. Instability is a prerequisite for the occurrence of severe weather, the greater the instability, the greater will be the potential of thunderstorm. In the present study, K Index, Total totals Index (TTI), Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE), Lifted Index (LI), Precipitable Water (PW), etc. are the instability indices used for the short range prediction of thunderstorms. In this study we have made an attempt to estimate the skill of WRF ARW predictability and diagnosed three thunderstorms that occurred during the late evening to late night of 31st July, 20th September and 2nd October of 2015 over Sriharikota Island which are validated with Local Electric Field Mill (EFM), rainfall observations and Chennai Doppler Weather Radar products. The model predicted thermodynamic indices (CAPE, CINE, K Index, LI, TTI and PW) over Sriharikota which act as good indicators for severe thunderstorm activity.

  11. Non Infectious Complications Related to Blood Transfusion: An 11 year Retrospective Analysis in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Philip, J; Pawar, A; Chatterjee, T; Mallhi, R S; Biswas, A K; Dimri, U

    2016-09-01

    In India transmission of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) has shown a relative decrease as a result of mandatory screening of donated blood for TTI's. However, reducing the incidence of non infectious complications poses a major challenge, mainly due to the fact that a number of adverse reactions go unreported. Blood transfusion reaction, can be categorized based on the time interval between transfusion of blood products and the presentation of adverse reactions as acute i.e. those presenting during or within 24 h and as delayed i.e. those presenting anytime after 24 h. Transfusion reactions can further be classified as immune and non immune or infectious and non infectious based on the pathophysiology. In this retrospective study which was undertaken with an aim to determine the type and frequency of non infectious complications due to transfusion of blood and blood products recorded the incidence of febrile non hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) 51.40 %, allergic reactions 40.14 %, non immune hemolytic reactions 4.22 %, hypothermia 2.81 %, anaphylaxis 0.70 % and iron overload 0.70 %. FNHTR which was found to be the most common complication in this study can certainly be minimized, if not completely eliminated by adopting a policy of universal leucodepletion, the implementation of which solely depends on the financial and infrastructure resources available. This study also reiterates the importance of hemovigilance as a tool to improve the safety of blood transfusion. PMID:27429521

  12. The acute effects of smokeless tobacco on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Beck, Darren T; Gurovich, Alvaro N; Braith, Randy W

    2010-10-01

    The main objectives of this study were to examine the acute effect of a single dose of smokeless tobacco (ST) on central aortic blood pressure and wave reflection characteristics. Fifteen apparently healthy male subjects (aged 30.6 ± 6.2 y) were given a 2.5 g oral dose of ST after baseline measurements were recorded. Pulse wave analysis using radial artery applanation tonometry was performed in triplicate at baseline (0 min) and at 10-min intervals during (10, 20 and 30 min) and after (40, 50 and 60 min) ST use. An acute dose of ST was associated with a significant increase in heart rate (HR), central aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and aortic augmentation index normalized to a fixed heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75). Furthermore, ejection duration and round trip travel time of the reflected pressure wave (Δt(p)) were significantly decreased as a result of one time ST use. As a result of changes in aortic pressure wave reflection characteristics, there was a significant increase in wasted left ventricular pressure energy (LVE(w)) and the tension-time index (TTI) as a result of ST use. In conclusion, one time use of ST elicits significant transient increases in HR, central aortic pressures, AIx@75, the TTI and LVE(w). Chronic users subjected to decades of elevated central pressures and left ventricular work may have an increased cardiovascular risk as central aortic pressures are even more strongly related to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral blood pressures.

  13. Transfusion transmitted infections in thalassaemics: need for reappraisal of blood screening strategy in India.

    PubMed

    Shyamala, V

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the blood safety in India through prevalence in thalassaemic population. Safety of the blood supply is a subject of great concern for all recipients. This review attempts to assess the relevance and format of tests for viruses in the context of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) prevalence in India. Serological marker testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1/2 (HIV-1/2), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mandatory in India. Numerous TTI incidents in the repeat recipients supported by results from nucleic acid technology (NAT) testing indicate the deficiencies in blood safety. The β-thalassaemic population (3-17%) in India has been used to reflect on blood safety. The prevalence of HIV-1/2, HCV and HBV in the Indian donor population, the limitations in accessing safe donors, quality of serological tests and the impact on repeat recipients is evaluated. The reports point to prevalence of ˜2% of viral diseases in the blood donor population, and the insufficiency of serology testing resulting in up to 45% TTIs in thalassaemics. The revelation by individual donation (ID) NAT testing, of 1 per 310 units being serology negative-NAT reactive is alarming. Extrapolating the serology negative NAT reactive yields, for an annual blood supply of 7.9 million units, 23,700 units or nearly 100,000 blood components are likely to be infectious. Though the cost for ID-NAT testing is considered unaffordable for a medium development country such as India, the enormity of TTIs will place an unmanageable cost burden on the society.

  14. Effects of respirator ambient air cooling on thermophysiological responses and comfort sensations.

    PubMed

    Caretti, David M; Barker, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    This investigation assessed the thermophysiological and subjective impacts of different respirator ambient air cooling options while wearing chemical and biological personal protective equipment in a warm environment (32.7 ± 0.4°C, 49.6 ± 6.5% RH). Ten volunteers participated in 90-min heat exposure trials with and without respirator (Control) wear and performed computer-generated tasks while seated. Ambient air cooling was provided to respirators modified to blow air to the forehead (FHC) or to the forehead and the breathing zone (BZC) of a full-facepiece air-purifying respirator using a low-flow (45 L·min(-1)) mini-blower. An unmodified respirator (APR) trial was also completed. The highest body temperatures (TTY) and least favorable comfort ratings were observed for the APR condition. With ambient cooling over the last 60 min of heat exposure, TTY averaged 37.4 ± 0.6°C for Control, 38.0 ± 0.4°C for APR, 37.8 ± 0.5°C for FHC, and 37.6 ± 0.7°C for BZC conditions independent of time. Both the FHC and BZC ambient air cooling conditions reduced facial skin temperatures, reduced the rise in body temperatures, and led to more favorable subjective comfort and thermal sensation ratings over time compared to the APR condition; however statistical differences among conditions were inconsistent. Independent of exposure time, average breathing apparatus comfort scores with BZC (7.2 ± 2.5) were significantly different from both Control (8.9 ± 1.4) and APR (6.5 ± 2.2) conditions when ambient cooling was activated. These findings suggest that low-flow ambient air cooling of the face under low work rate conditions and mild hyperthermia may be a practical method to minimize the thermophysiological strain and reduce perceived respirator discomfort. PMID:24730706

  15. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). Methods A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Results Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Conclusions Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended. PMID:26448460

  16. Contribution of central versus sweat gland mechanisms to the seasonal change of sweating function in young sedentary males and females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Nishimura, Naoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Maki

    2011-03-01

    In summer and winter, young, sedentary male ( N = 5) and female ( N = 7) subjects were exposed to heat in a climate chamber in which ambient temperature (Ta) was raised continuously from 30 to 42°C at a rate of 0.1°C min-1 at a relative humidity of 40%. Sweat rates (SR) were measured continuously on forearm, chest and forehead together with tympanic temperature (Tty), mean skin temperature ( {overline {{T}} {{s}}} ) and mean body temperature ( {overline {{T}} {{b}}} ) . The rate of sweat expulsions (Fsw) was obtained as an indicator of central sudomotor activity. Tty and ( {overline {{T}} {{b}}} ) were significantly lower during summer compared with winter in males; SR was not significantly different between summer and winter in males, but was significantly higher during summer in females; SR during winter was higher in males compared with females. The regression line relating Fsw to ( {overline {{T}} {{b}}} ) shifted significantly from winter to summer in males and females, but the magnitude of the shift was not significantly different between the two subject groups. The regression line relating SR to Fsw was steepened significantly from winter to summer in males and females, and the change in the slope was significantly greater in females than in males. Females showed a lower slope in winter and a similar slope in summer compared to males. It was concluded that sweating function was improved during summer mediated by central sudomotor and sweat gland mechanisms in males and females, and, although the change of sweat gland function from winter to summer was greater in females as compared with males, the level of increased sweat gland function during summer was similar between the two subject groups.

  17. Theophylline increases oxygen consumption during inspiratory resistive loading.

    PubMed

    Janssens, S; Derom, E; Vanhaecke, J; Decramer, M

    1995-04-01

    The effect of theophylline on diaphragmatic blood flow (Qdi) and oxygen consumption (VO2di) was studied in eight lightly anesthetized dogs during quiet breathing and inspiratory resistive loading. Qdi was determined with the radioactive microsphere tracer technique, and VO2di was calculated as the product of Qdi and the diaphragmatic arterio-venous oxygen difference. During quiet breathing, theophylline increased minute ventilation (9.3 +/- 1.7 versus 5.1 +/- 0.4 L/min), mean inspiratory flow (547 +/- 60 versus 378 +/- 56 ml/s), and duty cycle (0.270 +/- 0.042 versus 0.192 +/- 0.024) but did not significantly alter Qdi or VO2di. Conversely, Qdi increased significantly during loaded breathing compared with quiet breathing (37 +/- 4 versus 27 +/- 3 ml/100 g/min) and was further increased by theophylline (45 +/- 7 ml/100 g/min). Theophylline did not alter the tension-time index of the diaphragm (TTdi) during inspiratory resistive loading (0.054 +/- 0.006 versus 0.056 +/- 0.004, p NS) but resulted in a disproportionate and significant increase in VO2di (2.66 +/- 0.53 versus 1.78 +/- 0.26 ml/100 g/min). Similarly, total-body oxygen consumption (VO2TB) during inspiratory loading increased significantly after theophylline (24%), but the tension-time index of the inspiratory muscles (TTi), a measure of the total respiratory load, was unchanged. We conclude that theophylline significantly increases VO2di and VO2TB at the same TTdi and TTi during resistive loading. This enhanced energy expenditure needs consideration in the clinical management of pulmonary disorders that increase the work of breathing. PMID:7697222

  18. Effect of cyclical thermal to mechanical properties of Hybrid Laminate Composites (HLC) with skin recycle polypropylene/natural fiber/halloysite and core PP/KF composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Suharty, Neng; Ismail, Hanafi; Suci Handayani, Desi; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Rachman Wibowo, Fajar; Arnita Wuri, Margaretha

    2016-02-01

    This research has successfully synthesized six hybrid laminate composites (HLC). These HLC consist of two layers skin composites and one layer of core PP/KF composites. There are sticked with epoxy adhesive by using cold press method. In this research 6 types of skin are used, namely the rPP (recycled polypropylene, HC1); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/KF (HC2); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Hall (HC3); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Hall+ZB (HC4); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/KF/Hall (HC5) and rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/KF/Hall+ZB (HC6) composites. The mechanical properties assessment tensile strength (TS) of various HLC before and after cyclical thermal (CT) was done by ASTM D638. While testing the flame retardant: such as time to ignition (TTI) and burning rate (BR) was done by ASTM D635. Heat stability of HLC can be recognized by conducting the CT treatment. It is to determine the effect of fluctuating heat loads on mechanical properties of HLC materials. The TS result of five HLCs (HC2, HC3, HC4, HC5 and HC6) before CT treatment were higher than HC1 (blank HLC). Those five HLC are also able to increase the TTI and reduce the BR compared to HC1. The CT treatment conditions performed at 45 oC as much as 125 times. After CT treatment, the TS values only slightly decline compared to before CT treatment.

  19. Integrating sequence stratigraphy and rock-physics to interpret seismic amplitudes and predict reservoir quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Tanima

    improves the predictions of shear wave velocities. In addition, we provide empirical relations on normal compaction depth trends of porosity, velocities, and VP/VS ratio for shale and clean sands in shallow, supra-salt sediments in the Gulf of Mexico. Next, we identify probable spatial trends of sand/shale ratio and sorting as predicted by the conventional sequence stratigraphic model in minibasin settings (spill-and-fill model). These spatial trends are evaluated using well data from offshore West Africa, and the same well data are used to calibrate rock physics models (modified soft-sand model) that provide links between P-impedance and quartz/clay ratio, and sorting. The spatial increase in sand/shale ratio and sorting corresponds to an overall increase in P-impedance, and AVO intercept and gradient. The results are used as a guide to interpret sedimentological parameters from seismic attributes, away from the well locations. We present a quantitative link between carbonate cement and seismic attributes by combining stratigraphie cycles and the rock physics model (modified differential effective medium model). The variation in carbonate cement volume in West Africa can be linked with two distinct stratigraphic cycles: the coarsening-upward cycles and the fining-upward cycles. Cemented sandstones associated with these cycles exhibit distinct signatures on P-impedance vs. porosity and AVO intercept vs. gradient crossplots. These observations are important for assessing reservoir properties in the West Africa as well as in other analogous depositional environments. Finally, we investigate the relationship between seismic velocities and time temperature index (TTI) using basin and petroleum system modeling at Rio Muni basin, West Africa. We find that both VP and VS increase exponentially with TTI. The results can be applied to predict TTI, and thereby thermal maturity, from observed velocities.

  20. Prestack reverse time migration for tilted transversely isotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seonghyung; Hien, Doan Huy

    2013-04-01

    According to having interest in unconventional resource plays, anisotropy problem is naturally considered as an important step for improving the seismic image quality. Although it is well known prestack depth migration for the seismic reflection data is currently one of the powerful tools for imaging complex geological structures, it may lead to migration error without considering anisotropy. Asymptotic analysis of wave propagation in transversely isotropic (TI) media yields a dispersion relation of couple P- and SV wave modes that can be converted to a fourth order scalar partial differential equation (PDE). By setting the shear wave velocity equal zero, the fourth order PDE, called an acoustic wave equation for TI media, can be reduced to couple of second order PDE systems and we try to solve the second order PDE by the finite difference method (FDM). The result of this P wavefield simulation is kinematically similar to elastic and anisotropic wavefield simulation. We develop prestack depth migration algorithm for tilted transversely isotropic media using reverse time migration method (RTM). RTM is a method for imaging the subsurface using inner product of source wavefield extrapolation in forward and receiver wavefield extrapolation in backward. We show the subsurface image in TTI media using the inner product of partial derivative wavefield with respect to physical parameters and observation data. Since the partial derivative wavefields with respect to the physical parameters require extremely huge computing time, so we implemented the imaging condition by zero lag crosscorrelation of virtual source and back propagating wavefield instead of partial derivative wavefields. The virtual source is calculated directly by solving anisotropic acoustic wave equation, the back propagating wavefield on the other hand is calculated by the shot gather used as the source function in the anisotropic acoustic wave equation. According to the numerical model test for a simple

  1. Determinants of Neonatal Mortality in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kolola, Tufa; Ekubay, Meseret; Tesfa, Endalamaw; Morka, Wogene

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, neonatal mortality has been declined since the declaration of Millennium Developmental Goals, but the rate was slower since 2006. Thus, this study was designed to assess the determinants of neonatal mortality (NM) in North Shoa Zone. A community based case-control study was conducted on 84 cases and 252 controls. Cases were deceased new-borns within 28 days of birth while controls were infants survived beyond the first 28 days. Data were collected from mothers of the cases and controls using interviewer administered questionnaires. Multivariate analysis was done to examine determinants of NM. Variables significantly associated with NM in bivariate analysis were selected for multivariate analysis. Neonates whose mothers not attended antenatal care (AOR: 3.47; 95%CI: 1.44–8.32), delivered at home (AOR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.56–5.26), and not received postnatal care services (AOR: 3.09; 95%CI: 1.73–5.51) were more likely to die. The odds of neonatal death was higher among neonates not breastfed within the first hour of delivery than those who breastfed within the first hour of delivery (AOR: 23.48; 95%CI: 8.43–65.37). Likewise, no-colostrum intake was positively associated with neonatal death. Neonates born to mothers who not received or received a single dose of tetanus toxoid injection (TTI) were more likely to experience death than those neonates born to mothers who received two or more doses of TTI (AOR: 2.05; 95%CI: 1.14–3.70). Furthermore, being small in size at birth (AOR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.33–5.33) and male in sex (AOR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.06–3.26) were risk factors for NM. In conclusion, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with factors that are modifiable through addressing the continuum-of-care approach in healthcare services in North Shoa. This implies that ensuring a continuity of health care services for maternal and new-borns from antenatal to postnatal care will improve neonatal survival. PMID:27741284

  2. Red-light running violation prediction using observational and simulator data.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Arash; Rakha, Hesham; Dingus, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, 683 people were killed and an estimated 133,000 were injured in crashes due to running red lights in 2012. To help prevent/mitigate crashes caused by running red lights, these violations need to be identified before they occur, so both the road users (i.e., drivers, pedestrians, etc.) in potential danger and the infrastructure can be notified and actions can be taken accordingly. Two different data sets were used to assess the feasibility of developing red-light running (RLR) violation prediction models: (1) observational data and (2) driver simulator data. Both data sets included common factors, such as time to intersection (TTI), distance to intersection (DTI), and velocity at the onset of the yellow indication. However, the observational data set provided additional factors that the simulator data set did not, and vice versa. The observational data included vehicle information (e.g., speed, acceleration, etc.) for several different time frames. For each vehicle approaching an intersection in the observational data set, required data were extracted from several time frames as the vehicle drew closer to the intersection. However, since the observational data were inherently anonymous, driver factors such as age and gender were unavailable in the observational data set. Conversely, the simulator data set contained age and gender. In addition, the simulator data included a secondary (non-driving) task factor and a treatment factor (i.e., incoming/outgoing calls while driving). The simulator data only included vehicle information for certain time frames (e.g., yellow onset); the data did not provide vehicle information for several different time frames while vehicles were approaching an intersection. In this study, the random forest (RF) machine-learning technique was adopted to develop RLR violation prediction models. Factor importance was obtained for different models and different data sets to show how differently the factors influence the

  3. Verification of a two-dimensional infiltration model for the resin transfer molding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Vincent H.; Loos, Alfred C.; Dexter, H. Benson; Hasko, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model for the infiltration of a dry textile preform by an injected resin was verified. The model, which is based on the finite element/control volume technique, determines the total infiltration time and the pressure increase at the mold inlet associated with the RTM process. Important input data for the model are the compaction and permeability behavior of the preform along with the kinetic and rheological behavior of the resin. The compaction behavior for several textile preforms was determined by experimental methods. A power law regression model was used to relate fiber volume fraction to the applied compaction pressure. Results showed a large increase in fiber volume fraction with the initial application of pressure. However, as the maximum fiber volume fraction was approached, the amount of compaction pressure required to decrease the porosity of the preform rapidly increased. Similarly, a power law regression model was used to relate permeability to the fiber volume fraction of the preform. Two methods were used to measure the permeability of the textile preform. The first, known as the steady state method, measures the permeability of a saturated preform under constant flow rate conditions. The second, denoted the advancing front method, determines the permeability of a dry preform to an infiltrating fluid. Water, corn oil, and an epoxy resin, Epon 815, were used to determine the effect of fluid type and viscosity on the steady state permeability behavior of the preform. Permeability values measured with the different fluids showed that fluid viscosity had no influence on the permeability behavior of 162 E-glass and TTI IM7/8HS preforms. Permeabilities measured from steady state and advancing front experiments for the warp direction of 162 E-glass fabric were similar. This behavior was noticed for tests conducted with corn oil and Epon 815. Comparable behavior was observed for the warp direction of the TTI IM7/8HS preform

  4. Zircon trace element geochemistry and growth of the Pleistocene to Holocene Mono Craters rhyolite magma system, California (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, N.; Miller, J. S.; Vazquez, J. A.; Marcaida, M.; Lidzbarski, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Mono Craters, part of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain in eastern California, comprise at least 27 high-silica Pleistocene to Holocene rhyolite domes, lava flows and tephra cones. The Holocene chronology of the Mono Craters is well constrained but only recently has 238U-230Th zircon and 40Ar/39Ar dating elucidated the Pleistocene eruptive history. We performed trace element analysis on dated zircon crystal rims and sectioned interiors (using SHRIMP-RG) from 3 rhyolite domes (21, 12.5, and 7 ka) with additional rim data on 5 ashes separated from juvenile pumice clasts in the correlative Wilson Creek Formation (spanning from 62 to 21 ka). Ti-in-zircon (TTi,zrc) thermometry (titania activity from coexisting Fe-Ti oxides) gives temperatures predominantly between 650°C and 750°C, similar to average zircon saturation temperatures (Tzrc,sat). The observation that Tzrc,sat ≈ TTi,zrc indicates that Mono Craters rhyolite magmas were zircon-saturated and erupted at these temperatures (near water-saturated granite eutectic). Variations in key trace elements are relatively limited overall and zircons display similar REE patterns with generally curved MREE to HREE patterns and prominent negative Eu anomalies. Most of the variation is observed in zircons from older eruptions (62-41 ka). Zircon rims from Ash 17 of the Wilson Creek Formation (59 ka) have elevated Th/U, Eu/Eu*, and Ti and lower Hf compared to Ash 19 (62 ka), which suggests a thermal rejuvenation event between these two eruptions. Zircon rims from Ash 15 (41 ka) are characterized by a trend toward high Hf, at relatively low and relatively constant Ti, and low Eu/Eu*, consistent with rhyolite magma undergoing eutectic-like crystallization just prior to eruption. Zircon surfaces and interiors for the 21, 12.5, and 7 ka dome eruptions have very similar Hf, low Eu/Eu*, low Ti, and low Th/U. This requires zircon crystallization in a very uniform thermal and chemical environment from the latest Pleistocene to Holocene

  5. New insights into the North Taranaki Basin from New Zealand's first broadband 3D survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzcategui, Marjosbet; Francis, Malcolm; Kong, Wai Tin Vincent; Patenall, Richard; Fell, Dominic; Paxton, Andrea; Allen, Tristan

    2016-06-01

    The Taranaki Basin is the only hydrocarbon producing basin in New Zealand. The North Taranaki Basin has widespread two-dimensional (2D) seismic coverage and numerous wells that have not encountered commercial accumulations. This is attributed to the structural complexity in the central graben and the absence of necessary information to help understand the basin's evolution. An active petroleum system has been confirmed by hydrocarbon shows and non-commercial oil and gas discoveries (Karewa-1 and Kora-1). A broadband long offset three-dimensional (3D) seismic survey was acquired and processed by Schlumberger in 2013 to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the North Taranaki Basin. Innovative acquisition techniques were combined with advanced processing and imaging methods. Raypath distortions and depth uncertainty were significantly reduced by processing through tilted transverse isotropy (TTI) anisotropic Kirchhoff prestack depth migration with a geologically constrained velocity model. The survey provided the necessary information to understand the petroleum system and provide evidence for material hydrocarbon accumulations. In this investigation, we assessed the hydrocarbon potential of the North Taranaki Basin using the newly acquired data. 3D seismic interpretation and amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) analysis support the renewed potential of the basin and demonstrate effectiveness of these technologies that together can achieve encouraging results for hydrocarbon exploration.

  6. Production of scandium-44 m and scandium-44 g with deuterons on calcium-44: cross section measurements and production yield calculations.

    PubMed

    Duchemin, C; Guertin, A; Haddad, F; Michel, N; Métivier, V

    2015-09-01

    HIGHLIGHTS • Production of Sc-44 m, Sc-44 g and contaminants. • Experimental values determined using the stacked-foil technique. • Thick-Target production Yield (TTY) calculations. • Comparison with the TALYS code version 1.6.Among the large number of radionuclides of medical interest, Sc-44 is promising for PET imaging. Either the ground-state Sc-44 g or the metastable-state Sc-44 m can be used for such applications, depending on the molecule used as vector. This study compares the production rates of both Sc-44 states, when protons or deuterons are used as projectiles on an enriched Calcium-44 target. This work presents the first set of data for the deuteron route. The results are compared with the TALYS code. The Thick-Target production Yields of Sc-44 m and Sc-44 g are calculated and compared with those for the proton route for three different scenarios: the production of Sc-44 g for conventional PET imaging, its production for the new 3 γ imaging technique developed at the SUBATECH laboratory and the production of a Sc-44 m/Sc-44 g in vivo generator for antibody labelling.

  7. Epidemiology of Transfusion Transmitted Infection among Patients with β-Thalassaemia Major in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Kiani, Rizwan; Anwar, Muhammad; Waheed, Usman; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Abbasi, Saleem; Abbas Zaheer, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTIs) continue to be a major risk in transfusions in many parts of the world. The transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients are particularly at risk of acquiring TTIs. The current study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study of 1253 multitransfused thalassaemia major patients was conducted in five different centres of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi. The study subjects were screened for HIV, HCV, and HBV. The screening was performed at two centres: Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (SZAB) Medical University, and Blood Transfusion Services, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, from July to December 2015. The confirmatory screening was performed by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CLIA). Results. Out of the 1253 multiple transfused patients, 317 (25.3%) were infected with TTIs. HCV was positive in 273 cases (21.7%), HBV in 38 cases (3.0%), and HIV in 6 cases (0.5%). Conclusion. HCV was the leading TTI in multitransfused thalassaemia major patients in the study. Presence of HIV in thalassaemia patients is a recent disturbing development in Pakistan. Improved regulation of blood banks including use of internationally or nationally evaluated kits will bring down the incidence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. More stringent behavioral and serological pretransfusion screening of blood for TTIs must be implemented in blood banks. PMID:27559490

  8. ENHANCED EXTERNAL COUNTERPULSATION REDUCES INDICES OF CENTRAL BLOOD PRESSURE AND MYOCARDIAL OXYGEN DEMAND IN PATIENTS WITH LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Darren T.; Casey, Darren P.; Martin, Jeffrey S.; Sardina, Paloma D.; Braith, Randy W.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy decreases angina episodes and improves quality of life in patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). However, the underlying mechanisms relative to the benefits of EECP therapy in patients with LVD have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EECP on indices of central hemodynamics, aortic pressure wave reflection characteristics and estimates of LV load and myocardial oxygen demand in patients with LVD. Patients with chronic stable angina and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%, but > 30%, were randomized to either an EECP (LVEF=35.1±4.6%; n=10) or sham-EECP (LVEF=34.3±4.2%; n=7) group. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) of the central aortic pressure waveform (AoPW) and LV function were evaluated by applanation tonometry before and after 35 1-hr sessions of EECP or Sham EECP. EECP therapy was effective in reducing indices of left ventricular wasted energy (LVEw) and myocardial oxygen demand (TTI) by 25% and 19%, respectively. In addition, indices of coronary perfusion pressure (DTI) and subendocardial perfusion (SEVR) were increased by 9% and 30% after EECP, respectively. Our data indicate that EECP may be useful as adjuvant therapy for improving functional classification in heart failure patients through reductions in central blood pressure, aortic pulse pressure, wasted left ventricular energy, and myocardial oxygen demand which suggests improvements in ventricular-vascular interactions. PMID:25676084

  9. Effect of cationic surfactants on characteristics and colorimetric behavior of polydiacetylene/silica nanocomposite as time-temperature indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopwinyuwong, Atchareeya; Kitaoka, Takuya; Boonsupthip, Waraporn; Pechyen, Chiravoot; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2014-09-01

    Polydiacetylene (PDA)/silica nanocomposites were synthesized by self-assembly method using polymerizable amphiphilic diacetylene monomers, 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA). Addition of cationic surfactants (PDADMAC and CTAB) to PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites induced higher intermolecular force which affected their size, shape and color transition. Pure PDA, PDA/SiO2, PDA/SiO2/PDADMAC and PDA/SiO2/CTAB were investigated by particle size analysis, TEM, SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy and FT-IR. It was found that the PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites exhibited slightly larger particle sizes than those of other samples. The PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites with a core-shell structure were almost regarded as spherical-shaped particles. Cationic surfactants, especially CTAB, presumably affected the particle size and shape of PDA/SiO2 nanocomposites due to the disruption of hydrogen bonding between PDA head group and ammonium group. The colorimetric response of both PDA/SiO2/surfactant and surfactant-free PDA/SiO2 aqueous solutions directly changed in relation to time and temperature; thus they were expected to be applied as a new polymer-based time-temperature indicator (TTI).

  10. Competition between Quadrupole and Magnetic Kondo Effects in Non-Kramers Doublet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusunose, Hiroaki; Onimaru, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    We discuss possible competition between magnetic and quadrupole Kondo effects in non-Kramers doublet systems in cubic symmetry. The quadrupole Kondo effect leads to non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) ground state, while the magnetic one favors ordinary Fermi-liquid (FL) ground state. In terms of the j-j coupling scheme, we argue that the orbital fluctuation must develop in the vicinity of the NFL-FL boundary. A change of temperature dependence of the f-electron entropy in both the FL and NFL regimes is demonstrated by the Wilson's numerical renormalization-group (NRG) method on the basis of the extended two-channel Kondo exchange model. We present implications to PrT2X20 (T=Ti, V, Ir; X=Al, Zn) systems which exhibit both quadrupole ordering and peculiar superconductivity. We discuss how the magnetic field lifts the non-Kramers degeneracy. Our model also represents the alternative FL state accompanied by a free magnetic spin, as a consequence of stronger competition between the magnetic and the quadrupole Kondo effects.

  11. Mapping spatial resources with GPS animal telemetry: foraging manatees locate seagrass beds in the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slone, Daniel H.; Reid, James P.; Kenworthy, W. Judson

    2013-01-01

    Turbid water conditions make the delineation and characterization of benthic habitats difficult by traditional in situ and remote sensing methods. Here, we develop and validate modeling and sampling methodology for detecting and characterizing seagrass beds by analyzing GPS telemetry records from radio-tagged manatees. Between October 2002 and October 2005, 14 manatees were tracked in the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) in southwest Florida (USA) using Global Positioning System (GPS) tags. High density manatee use areas were found to occur off each island facing the open, nearshore waters of the Gulf of Mexico. We implemented a spatially stratified random sampling plan and used a camera-based sampling technique to observe and record bottom observations of seagrass and macroalgae presence and abundance. Five species of seagrass were identified in our study area: Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, Halophila engelmannii, and Halophila decipiens. A Bayesian model was developed to choose and parameterize a spatial process function that would describe the observed patterns of seagrass and macroalgae. The seagrasses were found in depths <2 m and in the higher manatee use strata, whereas macroalgae was found at moderate densities at all sampled depths and manatee use strata. The manatee spatial data showed a strong association with seagrass beds, a relationship that increased seagrass sampling efficiency. Our camera-based field sampling proved to be effective for assessing seagrass density and spatial coverage under turbid water conditions, and would be an effective monitoring tool to detect changes in seagrass beds.

  12. Factors in enhancing blood safety by nucleic acid technology testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, Venkatakrishna

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI), a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP) and occult HBV infections (OBI). Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT) testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID) format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases. PMID:24678167

  13. Railroad system of Texas: A component of the state and national transportation infrastructure. Research report, September 1996--November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, S.S.; Warner, J.E.; Rosa, D.; Dickinson, R.W.

    1998-11-01

    Railroads continue to play an important role in the Texas transportation system. This study addresses the potential for implementing a rail planning process in the Texas Department of Transportation. The study is documented in three reports, produced in coordinated and parallel efforts by the Center for Transportation Research and the Texas Transportation Institute. This report documents the work performed by TTI, whereby a rail planning framework is presented which formalizes the planning process and presents the key elements as a series of discrete and logical steps. These steps may be used to guide TxDOT in the formation of goals, identification of issues and affected parties, selection of appropriate analytical methodologies, location of data sources, and implementation of results. The report also presents an in-depth discussion of several key issues facing transportation agencies. These include rail line abandonment, intermodal service planning, and urban rail rationalization. A discussion of the Texas rail system covers the Class 1 railroads, shortline railroads, Amtrak, and the Mexican rail system.

  14. Screening Donated Blood for Transfusion Transmitted Infections by Serology along with NAT and Response Rate to Notification of Reactive Results: An Indian Experience.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Rahul; Zaman, Shamsuz; Das, Bankim; Chatterjee, Kabita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transfusion safety begins with healthy donors. A fundamental part of preventing transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) is to notify and counsel reactive donors. Donor notification and counselling protect the health of the donor and prevent secondary transmission of infectious diseases. Methods. 113,014 donations were screened for TTIs, namely, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis, by serology and nucleic acid testing. All reactive donors were retested (wherever possible) and notified of their status by telephone or letter. All initial reactive screens were followed over six months. Results. We evaluated 2,838 (2.51%) cases with reactive screening test results (1.38% HBV, 0.54% HCV, 0.27% HIV, and 0.32% syphilis). Only 23.3% of donors (662) responded to notification. The response among voluntary donors was better as compared to the replacement donors (43.6% versus 21.2%). Only 373 (56.3%) responsive donors followed their first attendance at referral specialties. Over six months, only 176 of 662 (26.6%) reactive donors received treatment. Conclusion. Our study shed light on the importance of proper donor counselling and notification of TTI status to all reactive donors who opt to receive this information. There is also an urgent need to formulate the nationally acceptable guidelines for notification and follow-up of reactive donors. PMID:25485163

  15. Production of scandium-44 m and scandium-44 g with deuterons on calcium-44: cross section measurements and production yield calculations.

    PubMed

    Duchemin, C; Guertin, A; Haddad, F; Michel, N; Métivier, V

    2015-09-01

    HIGHLIGHTS • Production of Sc-44 m, Sc-44 g and contaminants. • Experimental values determined using the stacked-foil technique. • Thick-Target production Yield (TTY) calculations. • Comparison with the TALYS code version 1.6.Among the large number of radionuclides of medical interest, Sc-44 is promising for PET imaging. Either the ground-state Sc-44 g or the metastable-state Sc-44 m can be used for such applications, depending on the molecule used as vector. This study compares the production rates of both Sc-44 states, when protons or deuterons are used as projectiles on an enriched Calcium-44 target. This work presents the first set of data for the deuteron route. The results are compared with the TALYS code. The Thick-Target production Yields of Sc-44 m and Sc-44 g are calculated and compared with those for the proton route for three different scenarios: the production of Sc-44 g for conventional PET imaging, its production for the new 3 γ imaging technique developed at the SUBATECH laboratory and the production of a Sc-44 m/Sc-44 g in vivo generator for antibody labelling. PMID:26301533

  16. Genome-Wide Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family across Fungal Lineage Shows Presence of Novel and Diverse Activation Loop Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Mohanta, Nibedita; Parida, Pratap; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Ponpandian, Lakshmi Narayanan; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is characterized by the presence of the T-E-Y, T-D-Y, and T-G-Y motifs in its activation loop region and plays a significant role in regulating diverse cellular responses in eukaryotic organisms. Availability of large-scale genome data in the fungal kingdom encouraged us to identify and analyse the fungal MAPK gene family consisting of 173 fungal species. The analysis of the MAPK gene family resulted in the discovery of several novel activation loop motifs (T-T-Y, T-I-Y, T-N-Y, T-H-Y, T-S-Y, K-G-Y, T-Q-Y, S-E-Y and S-D-Y) in fungal MAPKs. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that fungal MAPKs are non-polymorphic, had evolved from their common ancestors around 1500 million years ago, and are distantly related to plant MAPKs. We are the first to report the presence of nine novel activation loop motifs in fungal MAPKs. The specificity of the activation loop motif plays a significant role in controlling different growth and stress related pathways in fungi. Hence, the presences of these nine novel activation loop motifs in fungi are of special interest. PMID:26918378

  17. Performance indicators: A tool for continuous quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi M; Soni, Shital; Gajjar, Maitrey; Shah, Mamta; Shah, Sangita; Patel, Vaidehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Performance monitoring is an important tool which can be used for setting priorities for process improvement. At our centre, we have been monitoring every step in the processes, right from inventory of consumables (both critical and routine) to number of donors reactive for TTI. We conducted a study to measure the impact of monitoring Performance Indicators and how it could be used as a tool for Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). Materials and Methods: The present study was a retrospective study where the performance indicator (PI) data of blood bank was analyzed for over four years. For certain parameters, benchmarks or thresholds were set that represented warning limits or action limits. The yearly data were collated from monthly data. Shifts or Trends, if any, were identified and Corrective and Preventive Action (CAPA) taken accordingly. At the end, outcomes of the analysis were charted. Results: After the yearly data evaluation, outcomes obtained were used to plan, correct and amend processes and systems in the blood center. It was observed that the workload of the center showed an upward trend. This helped us to plan for the purchase of consumables and management of manpower. The monitoring of usage and discard of blood helped in the efficient management of blood stocks. The need for any new equipment could also be judged by the trends in workload. Conclusion: Performance indicators are indispensible tools which various stakeholders in the Blood Transfusion centres should implement to improve on quality performance. PMID:27011669

  18. Properties of Wheat-Straw Boards with Frw Based on Interface Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. D.; Wang, F. H.; Liu, Y.

    This paper explored the effect of MDI, UF and FRW content on the mechanical and fire retardant property of straw based panels with surface alkali liquor processing. In order to manufacture the straw based panel with high quality, low toxic and fire retardant, the interface of wheat-straw was treated with alkaline liquid, and the orthogonal test was carried out to optimize the technical parameters. The conductivity and diffusion coefficient K of the straw material after alkaline liquid treatment increased obviously. This indicated that alkaline liquid treatment improved the surface wet ability of straw, which is helpful for the infiltration of resin. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized treating condition was alkaline liquid concentration as 0.4-0.8%, alkaline dosage as 1:2.5-1:4.5, alkalinetreated time as 12h-48 h.The physical and mechanical properties of wheat-straw boards after treated increased remarkably and it could satisfy the national standard. The improvement of the straw surface wet ability is helpful to the forming of chemical bond. Whereas the variance analysis of the fire retardant property of straw based panel showed that TTI, pkHRR and peak value appearance time were not affected by the MDI, UF and FRW content significantly. The results of orthogonal test showed that the optimized processing condition was MDI content as 3%, UF resin content as 6% and the FRW content as 10%.

  19. Quantifying the impact of model uncertainties on chemical budgets in trans-Atlantic pollution transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, D. A.; Arnold, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical transport models rely upon parameterised gas-phase reaction and photolysis rates, based on data from laboratory studies. These data have associated uncertanties that may impact upon the prediction of the concentrations of key species, such as O3, OH and nitrogen oxides. A unique set of linked aircraft observations in single air masses from the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) pseudo-Lagrangian experiment allow the isolation of chemical change from transport. We exploit this to investigate the impact of chemical model uncertainties on tropospheric photochemistry in plumes undergoing long-range transport. The aim is to characterise key process which contribute to large uncertainty in oxidant budgets, and identify rates and processes that are a priority for better quantification in the lab. The impact of uncertainties in bimolecular and termolecular rates has been investigated using a tropospheric trajectory chemical transport model (CiTTyCAT) and linked aircraft observations for both anthropogenic polluted and biomass burning air masses. A Monte-Carlo methodology is used to sample the parameter space and ensembles of several thousand model runs generated to provide a firm statistical basis for analysis. Initial results show that uncertainty in ozone concentration is approximately +/-10ppb as a result of the uncertainty in bimolecular and termolecular reaction rates. We will present quantification of the key reaction rates that cause the large uncertainty in ozone photochemistry.

  20. Ground-to-ground communications for mission support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the NASA Communications Division is to provide operational communications in support of NASA projects and mission activities. Nascom is a generic term referring collectively to a global system of circuits and switching and terminal facilities established and operated by NASA to provide longhaul operational communications support for all NASA projects. Aspects of network evolution are discussed, taking into account the integrated Nascom network. A description is presented of the present Nascom network, giving attention to the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN), the Deep Space Network (DSN), the voice network, and the Teletypewriter (TTY) Network. Concepts and techniques for the 1980's are also considered. It is pointed out that the Nascom Network will extend the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) forward- and return-link services to users of the TDRSS by providing ground-to-ground data communications links between the NASA Ground Terminal at White Sands, New Mexico, and major user spacecraft control centers and data capture/data processing facilities.

  1. [The francophone Africa blood transfusion research network: a five-year report].

    PubMed

    Tagny, Claude Tayou; Murphy, Edward L; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques

    2014-03-01

    There has been little blood safety research in sub-Saharan Africa, often consisting of local efforts whose findings had limited impact The "Francophone Africa Transfusion Research Network" was created in May 2007 with the objective of developing common evidence-based blood safety policies that may be adapted to each country's situation. The Group's activities to date have focused mainly on obtaining epidemiological and laboratory data on blood transfusion and on suggesting blood safety strategies, particularly in the field of TTIs. To carry out such research activities, the group works closely with the National Blood Transfusion Services (NBTS), the Regional Blood Transfusion Services (RBTS), the hospital blood banks (HBB) and collection stations. For the first 5years, four research priorities were identified: (i) descriptive studies of the characteristics of francophone African blood donors and blood centers; (ii) estimation of the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted major viral infections; (iii) an analysis of blood donor deferral strategies; and (iv) a description of TTI screening strategies and an external quality assurance system (EQAS) project. During this period, seven projects have been implemented at the national level and published and five multicenter studies were conducted and published. The present review reports the main observations and recommendations from those studies that could improve blood safety statute in Africa.

  2. STS-96 crew takes part in payload Interface Verification Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During a payload Interface Verification Test (IVT) in the SPACEHAB Facility, STS-96 Mission Specialist Valery Tokarev of Russia (second from left) and Commander Kent Rominger learn about the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU) in front of them from Lynn Ashby (far right), with Johnson Space Center. At the far left looking on is TTI interpreter Valentina Maydell. Other crew members at KSC for the IVT are Pilot Rick Husband and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara Jernigan, Dan Barry and Julie Payette. The SSU is part of the cargo on Mission STS-96, which carries the SPACEHAB Logistics Double Module, with equipment to further outfit the International Space Station service module and equipment that can be off-loaded from the early U.S. assembly flights. The SPACEHAB carries internal logistics and resupply cargo for station outfitting, plus an external Russian cargo crane to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment and used to perform space walking maintenance activities. The double module stowage provides capacity of up to 10,000 lbs. with the ability to accommodate powered payloads, four external rooftop stowage locations, four double-rack locations (two powered), up to 61 bulkhead-mounted middeck locker locations, and floor storage for large unique items and Soft Stowage. STS-96 is targeted to launch May 20 about 9:32 a.m.

  3. Lagrangian modelling of OPALE dataset.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Jaime E.; Thomas, Jennie; Bekki, Slimane; Kukui, Alexandre; Ancellet, Gerad; Preunkert, Susanne; Legrand, Michel; Frey, Markus; Savarino, Joel; Jourdain, Bruno; Kerbrat, Michel; France, James; King, Martin; Toumi, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    The OPALE measurement campaign aimed to characterize the atmospheric chemistry of the East Antarctic Plateau making a range of measurements at two sites, a coastal one, Dumont d'Urville (DDU) (From December 2010 until March 2011, 66o S, 123oE, coastal site) and on top of the Antarctic plateau Dome C (From December 2011 until January 2012 at Dome C, 75oS, 123o E, 3233 m a.s.l.). There are relatively few observations of chemistry occurring inland and coastal sites Antarctic sites. During the campaign air masses originating from the marine boundary layer, the free troposphere, the Antarctic continent, and of mixed origins were observed. We present analyses of chemical measurements (including O3, NO2, OH, RO2, hydrocarbons) using the CiTTyCAT photochemical trajectory model. The model simulates the chemistry of air masses over multiple (~5) days back trajectories provided by a stochastic trajectory model (FLEXPART). In some cases, the initial chemical conditions are taken from a chemistry-transport model (MOZART). The effect of clouds on the photolysis rates is also accounted for using MODIS satellite data. The model results are compared with measurements performed during both OPALE campaign years. Differences between the reactive nitrogen and hydroxyl radical chemistry at DDU and Dome C and the strong influence of reactive exchanges of trace gases between the snow and the atmosphere at Dome C are highlighted. The implications for the oxidizing capacity of the Antarctic boundary layer are also discussed.

  4. Measurement of 167Er(n,p)167Ho reaction at 13.5 and 14.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuning; Jiang, Li; Liu, Rong; Ge, Suhong; Liu, Zhenlai

    2013-11-01

    We have measured the 167Er(n,p)167Ho cross-sections at two different neutron energies 13.5 and 14.8 MeV. Measurements were performed at Pd-300 neutron generator of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) with monoenergetic neutrons produced via the 3H(d,n)4He reaction using a tritium-titanium (T-Ti) target. Induced gamma activities were measured by a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The data for 167Er(n,p)167Ho reaction cross-sections are reported to be 2.2±0.6 and 2.8±1.4 mb at 13.5±0.2 and 14.8±0.2 MeV incident neutron energies, respectively. The cross sections were also estimated with the TALYS-1.4 nuclear model code and compared with experimental data found in the literature, and with the comprehensive evaluation data in ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.1/A libraries.

  5. Dallas Freeway/HOV system planning study: Year 2015. A summary of recommended hov improvements. Interim research report, September 1992-August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, C.H.; Lomax, T.J.; Poe, C.M.; Henk, R.H.; Skowronek, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Dallas Freeway/High-Occupany Vehicle Lane System Planning Study is a joint project in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART), the North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), and the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI). The intent of this effort is to assist in the development of an area-wide freeway/HOV system that recognizes implementation constraints (right-of-way and construction costs) and provides reasonable peak-hour operating conditions on all freeway facilities, while incorporating the long-range plans developed by TxDOT, DART, and NCTCOG. The proposed system is a set of recommendations to be considered and evaluated as part of the development of the NCTCOG Mobility 2010 Plan Update, the long-range transportation plan for the Dallas area. HOV facilities are a significant part of the recommended system in the Dallas System Planning Study, and their implementation is important to the successful operation of the Dallas area transportation system in the future. The report, therefore, focuses on the recommended HOV improvements from the methodology.

  6. Epidemiology of Transfusion Transmitted Infection among Patients with β-Thalassaemia Major in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Kiani, Rizwan; Anwar, Muhammad; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Abbasi, Saleem; Abbas Zaheer, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTIs) continue to be a major risk in transfusions in many parts of the world. The transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients are particularly at risk of acquiring TTIs. The current study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study of 1253 multitransfused thalassaemia major patients was conducted in five different centres of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi. The study subjects were screened for HIV, HCV, and HBV. The screening was performed at two centres: Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (SZAB) Medical University, and Blood Transfusion Services, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, from July to December 2015. The confirmatory screening was performed by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CLIA). Results. Out of the 1253 multiple transfused patients, 317 (25.3%) were infected with TTIs. HCV was positive in 273 cases (21.7%), HBV in 38 cases (3.0%), and HIV in 6 cases (0.5%). Conclusion. HCV was the leading TTI in multitransfused thalassaemia major patients in the study. Presence of HIV in thalassaemia patients is a recent disturbing development in Pakistan. Improved regulation of blood banks including use of internationally or nationally evaluated kits will bring down the incidence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. More stringent behavioral and serological pretransfusion screening of blood for TTIs must be implemented in blood banks. PMID:27559490

  7. DLMS voice data entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, P. B.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes the design, principles of operation, and performance characteristics of an Advanced Development Model of a voice recognition system (VRS) which can serve to input cartographic data to a computer. The completed system has been installed at the Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center (DMAAC) at St. Louis, MO, for evaluation and testing. The VRS is intended for use in entering by voice cartographic data to the Digital Landmass System (DLMS) Data Base. It was designed to satisfy the DMAAC product specifications. The software developed for the VRS includes two complete stand-alone programs. Performance tests conducted at TTI disclosed an average system word recognition accuracy of just under 99 percent for five talkers. The recognition tests were conducted by the use of tape recordings. These tape recordings were made during a previous contract involving cartographic data entry. Each person spoke approximately 536 words after uttering five training repetitions. The test results were virtually identical to those obtained during the previous contract.

  8. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a Medical College of Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Prasanta Ray; Shrivastava, Prabha; Ray, Tapobrata Guha

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors can be used to monitor the prevalence among apparently healthy adult population. The present study was conducted to determine the profile of blood donors and seroprevalence of TTI among them. Retrospective analysis of the donors of a blood bank attached with a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata in 2011 was carried out. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Majority (85%) of the donors were male, two-third in the age group of 21-40 years. Among the donors 2.79% were positive for any of the screened TTIs. Seroprevalence was highest for hepatitis B (1.41%) followed by human immunodeficiency virus (0.60%) and hepatitis C (0.59%) and least for syphilis (0.23%). Seropositivity increased with age up to 50 years. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between male and female. Highly sensitive donor screening and public awareness program can make transfusion of blood products safe.

  9. Combustion characteristics of bamboo-biochars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijia; Fei, Benhua; Jiang, Zehui; Liu, Xing'e

    2014-09-01

    Combustion characteristics of biomass are very important to directly utilize as an energy resource. Bamboo was carbonized using a XD-1200N muffle furnace in the nitrogen environment and its combustion characteristics were investigated. Results showed that bamboo-biochars had better combustion characteristics compared to bamboo materials, such as a lower content of moisture and volatiles, a higher energy density, HHV and EHC, a lower H/C and O/C ratios and a shorter TTI. Characteristic peak of bamboo-biochars shifted to higher temperature in thermal decomposition process, indicating a more steady-state burning and a higher combustion efficiency. Bamboo-biochars had a low content of S and N, which was helpful to decrease pollutant emissions. A higher content of K and Na was observed in the ash of bamboo-biochars, resulting in slagging, fouling, corrosion and agglomeration. The data from this research will be very helpful to efficiently design and operate its combustion systems. PMID:24971950

  10. Thermal maturation and petroleum source rocks in Forest City and Salina basins, mid-continent, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D.; Watney, W.L.; Hatch, J.R.; Xiaozhong, G.

    1986-05-01

    Shales in the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group are probably the source rocks for a geochemically distinct group of lower pristane and low phytane oils produced along the axis of the Forest City basin, a shallow cratonic Paleozoic basin. These oils, termed Ordovician-type oils, occur in some fields in the southern portion of the adjacent Salina basin. Maturation modeling by time-temperature index (TTI) calculations indicate that maturation of both basins was minimal during the early Paleozoic. The rate of maturation significantly increased during the Pennsylvanian because of rapid regional subsidence in response to the downwarping of the nearby Anadarko basin. When estimated thicknesses of eroded Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Cretaceous strata are considered, both basins remain relatively shallow, with maximum basement burial probably not exceeding 2 km. According to maturation modeling and regional structure mapping, the axes of both basins should contain Simpson rocks in the early stages of oil generation. The probability of finding commercial accumulations of Ordovician-type oil along the northwest-southeast trending axis of the Salina basin will decrease in a northwestward direction because of (1) westward thinning of the Simpson Group, and (2) lesser maturation due to lower geothermal gradients and shallower paleoburial depths. The optimum localities for finding fields of Ordovician-type oil in the southern Salina basin will be in down-plunge closures on anticlines that have drainage areas near the basin axis.

  11. [Connection between cancer- and alcohol-related mortality in a rural practice of a South-Hungarian village].

    PubMed

    Péter, Arpád

    2013-05-01

    Bevezetés: A több mint negyedszázada ugyanazon egykörzetes községben dolgozó szerző az 1987 és 1999 közötti vizsgálati periódusban a daganatos halálozásnak az alkohollal kapcsolatos halálozással összefüggő hányadát férfiak körében 50%-nak, nők körében 7,9%-nak találta. Célkitűzés: A szerző célként tűzte ki a halálozás e két meghatározó tényezőjének hosszabb távú nyomon követéséhez és elemzéséhez a halálozási mutatók ismételt felmérését a 2000 és 2011 közötti időszakra vonatkozóan. Módszer: Az elhunyt betegek valamennyi fontos előzményi adatát összefoglaló háziorvosi halotti epikrízisekbe tömörítette és a halálokok kiválasztásakor ezeket döntő súllyal vette figyelembe. Eredmények: A vizsgált 12 év alatt a szerző úgynevezett „tisztított praxislakossága” körében 326 ember halt meg (167 férfi, 159 nő). Bár a részeredményeket tekintve is jelentős átstruktúrálódás következett be a daganatos és alkoholos halálozási kategóriákon belül, és ezek összes halálozáson belüli aránya is megváltozott (az alkohollal kapcsolatos halálozásé számottevően csökkent, míg a daganatos halálozásé kisebb mértékben nőtt), az újabb vizsgálati periódusban a daganatos halálozásnak alkohollal kapcsolatos hányada mindkét nemben nőtt (a férfiak körében 60%-ra, a nők körében 9,1%-ra). Következtetés: Legfőbb epidemiológiai következtetésként megerősítést nyert, hogy a daganatos betegségek megelőzésének, különösen bizonyos lokalizációjú daganatok mint halálokok csökkentésének egyik kulcskérdése – megkülönböztetetten a férfiak körében – az alkoholabúzus visszaszorítása. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 700–706.

  12. [The role of virological tests in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Mihály, Ilona; Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Prinz, Gyula; Lukács, Adrienne; Kolozsi, Tímea; Liptai, Zoltán; Bábinszky, Agota; Kodaj, Imre; Petik, Dóra; Lázár, Gábor

    2014-10-12

    Bevezetés: A leggyakoribb magzatkárosító ágens a cytomegalovirus. A diagnosztika eszközeinek és a terápiás lehetőségeknek a fejlődése új perspektívát nyitott a terhességi cytomegalovirusfertőzések kiderítésében és kezelésében. Célkitűzés: A 2007 és 2012 közötti hat év terhességi cytomegalovirus szűrővizsgálati eredményeinek elemzése. Módszer: 956 várandós klinikai adatainak és virológiai eredményeinek retrospektív analízise. Eredmények: 65,4%-uk védett, 33,3%-uk fogékony volt cytomegalovirusfertőzés iránt. A szerzők 10 primer fertőzést igazoltak, három esetben kétes eredményt találtak. A 13 várandós közül hat tünetmentes, öt beteg, kettőnek magzati ultrahangeltérése volt. A négy követett terhes közül egy spontán elvetélt, kettő gyermekénél igazolódott, egynél kizárható volt a congenitalis fertőzés. Következtetések: A magyarországi terhességi cytomegalovirusátvészeltségi arány a magas higiénés viszonyokra jellemző. Klinikai gyanú esetén és enzimimmunoassay típusú vizsgálattal talált IgM-pozitív esetekben kötelező a konfirmációs vizsgálatok elvégzése. A szűrővizsgálatot a terhességvállalást megelőzően kellene beiktatni. Szükség van az érintett szakmák közötti szorosabb együttműködésre a kiszámíthatatlan szűrővizsgálati kérelmek szabályozása és az indokolatlan terhességmegszakítások megelőzése érdekében. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(41), 1632–1642.

  13. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of a new implant design supporting immediately loaded full arch rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tetè, Stefano; Zizzari, Vincenzo; De Carlo, Alessandro; Sinjari, Bruna; Gherlone, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study is to evaluate macroscopic and microscopic appearance of a new implant design, with particular emphasis given to the type of prosthesis connection. Two dental implants of the same type (Torque Type®, WinSix®, BioSAFin. S.r.l. - Ancona, Italy), with sandblasted and acid etched surfaces (Micro Rough Surface®), but differing from each other for the prosthesis connection system, were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis at different magnifications: TTI implant, with a hexagonal internal connection, and TTX implant, with a hexagonal external connection. SEM analysis showed that the Torque Type® implant is characterized by a truncated cone shape with tapered tips. The implant body showed a double loop thread and double pitch with blunt tips. For both types of connection, the implant neck was 0.7 mm in height with a 3% taper. This implant design may be able to guarantee osteotomic properties at the time of insertion in a surgical site suitably prepared, a facilitated screwing, thanks to the thread pitch and to the broad and deep draining grooves, thereby ensuring a good primary stability. The different connection design appears defined and precise, in order to ensure a good interface between the fixture and the prosthetic components. Therefore, this design appears to be particularly suitable in cases where a good primary stability is necessary and a precise coupling between endosseous and prosthetic components, as it allows an easy insertion of the fixture even in conditions of reduced bone availability, and in cases of immediately loaded full-arch rehabilitations. PMID:23087785

  14. Efficient Flame Retardant Thin Films Synthesized by Atmospheric Pressure PECVD through the High Co-deposition Rate of Hexamethyldisiloxane and Triethylphosphate on Polycarbonate and Polyamide-6 Substrates.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Florian; Gherardi, Nicolas; Duday, David; Berné, Aurélien; Choquet, Patrick

    2016-05-18

    An innovative approach to produce high-performance and halogen-free flame-retardant thin films at atmospheric pressure is reported. PDMS-based coatings with embedded dopant-rich polyphosphates are elaborated thanks to a straightforward approach, using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD). Deposition conditions have been tailored to elaborate various thin films that can match the fire performance requirements. Morphology, chemical composition, and structure are investigated, and results show that the coatings performances are increased by taking advantage of the synergistic effect of P and Si flame retardant compounds. More specifically, this study relates the possibility to obtain flame retardant properties on PolyCarbonate and PolyAmide-6 thanks to their covering by a 5 μm thick coating, i.e. very thin films for this field of application, yet quite substantial for plasma processes. Hence, this approach enables deposition of flame retardant coatings onto different polymer substrates, providing a versatile fireproofing solution for different natures of polymer substrates. The presence of an expanded charred layer at the surface acts as a protective barrier limiting heat and mass transfer. This latter retains and consumes a part of the PC or PA-6 degradation byproducts and then minimizes the released flammable gases. It may also insulate the substrate from the flame and limit mass transfers of remaining volatile gases. Moreover, reactions in the condensed phase have also been highlighted despite the relatively thin thickness of the deposited layers. As a result of these phenomena, excellent performances are obtained, illustrated by a decrease of the peak of the heat release rate (pHRR) and an increase of the time to ignition (TTI).

  15. Development of blood transfusion product pathogen reduction treatments: a review of methods, current applications and demands.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Vishal; van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk; Seghatchian, Jerard; Gutiérrez, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) have been greatly reduced in numbers due to the strict donor selection and screening procedures, i.e. the availability of technologies to test donors for endemic infections, and routine vigilance of regulatory authorities in every step of the blood supply chain (collection, processing and storage). However, safety improvement is still a matter of concern because infection zero-risk in transfusion medicine is non-existent. Alternatives are required to assure the safety of the transfusion product and to provide a substitution to systematic blood screening tests, especially in less-developed countries or at the war-field. Furthermore, the increasing mobility of the population due to traveling poses a new challenge in the endemic screening tests routinely used, because non-endemic pathogens might emerge in a specific population. Pathogen reduction treatments sum a plethora of active approaches to eliminate or reduce potential threatening pathogen load from blood transfusion products. Despite the success of pathogen reduction treatments applied to plasma products, there is still a long way to develop and deploy pathogen reduction treatments to cellular transfusion products (such as platelets, RBCs or even to whole blood) and there is divergence on its acceptance worldwide. While the use of pathogen reduction treatments in platelets is performed routinely in a fair number of European blood banks, most of these treatments are not (or just) licensed in the USA or elsewhere in the world. The development of pathogen reduction treatments for RBC and whole blood is still in its infancy and under clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the available and emerging pathogen reduction treatments and their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of characterizing standard transfusion products with current and emerging approaches (OMICS) and clinical outcome, and integrating this information on a database

  16. Efficient Flame Retardant Thin Films Synthesized by Atmospheric Pressure PECVD through the High Co-deposition Rate of Hexamethyldisiloxane and Triethylphosphate on Polycarbonate and Polyamide-6 Substrates.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Florian; Gherardi, Nicolas; Duday, David; Berné, Aurélien; Choquet, Patrick

    2016-05-18

    An innovative approach to produce high-performance and halogen-free flame-retardant thin films at atmospheric pressure is reported. PDMS-based coatings with embedded dopant-rich polyphosphates are elaborated thanks to a straightforward approach, using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD). Deposition conditions have been tailored to elaborate various thin films that can match the fire performance requirements. Morphology, chemical composition, and structure are investigated, and results show that the coatings performances are increased by taking advantage of the synergistic effect of P and Si flame retardant compounds. More specifically, this study relates the possibility to obtain flame retardant properties on PolyCarbonate and PolyAmide-6 thanks to their covering by a 5 μm thick coating, i.e. very thin films for this field of application, yet quite substantial for plasma processes. Hence, this approach enables deposition of flame retardant coatings onto different polymer substrates, providing a versatile fireproofing solution for different natures of polymer substrates. The presence of an expanded charred layer at the surface acts as a protective barrier limiting heat and mass transfer. This latter retains and consumes a part of the PC or PA-6 degradation byproducts and then minimizes the released flammable gases. It may also insulate the substrate from the flame and limit mass transfers of remaining volatile gases. Moreover, reactions in the condensed phase have also been highlighted despite the relatively thin thickness of the deposited layers. As a result of these phenomena, excellent performances are obtained, illustrated by a decrease of the peak of the heat release rate (pHRR) and an increase of the time to ignition (TTI). PMID:27115773

  17. Initial Results from the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric Atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) on the FASTSAT Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Rowland, Douglas; Keller, John W.; Chornay, Dennis; Khazanov, George; Herrero, Federico; Moore, Thomas E.; Kujawski, Joseph; Casas, Joseph C.; Wilson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The MINI-ME instrument is a collaborative effort between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the U.S. Naval Academy, funded solely through GSFC Internal Research and Development (IRAD) awards. It detects neutral atoms from about 10 eV to about 700 eV (in 30 energy steps) in its current operating configuration with an approximately 10 degree by 360 degree field-of-view, divided into six sectors. The instrument was delivered on August 3, 2009 to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for integration with the FASTSAT-HSV01 small spacecraft bus developed by MSFC and a commercial partner, one of six Space Experiment Review Board (SERB) experiments on FASTSAT and one of three GSFC instruments (PISA and TTI being the other two). The FASTSAT spacecraft was launched on November 21, 2010 from Kodiak, Alaska on a Minotaur IV as a secondary payload and inserted into a 650 km, 72 degree inclination orbit, very nearly circular. MINI-ME has been collecting science data, as spacecraft resources would permit, in "optimal science mode" since January 20, 2011. In this presentation, we report initial science results including the potential first observations of neutral molecular ionospheric outflow. At the time of this abstract, we have identified 15 possible molecular outflow events. All these events occur between about 65 and 82 degrees geomagnetic latitude and most map to the auroral oval. The MINI-ME results provide an excellent framework for interpretation of the MILENA data, two instruments almost identical to MINI-ME that will launch on the VISIONS suborbital mission

  18. Prospective evaluation of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system in a hospital clinical microbiology laboratory for identification of bacteria and yeasts: a bench-by-bench study for assessing the impact on time to identification and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Tan, K E; Ellis, B C; Lee, R; Stamper, P D; Zhang, S X; Carroll, K C

    2012-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been found to be an accurate, rapid, and inexpensive method for the identification of bacteria and yeasts. Previous evaluations have compared the accuracy, time to identification, and costs of the MALDI-TOF MS method against standard identification systems or commercial panels. In this prospective study, we compared a protocol incorporating MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI protocol) with the current standard identification protocols (standard protocol) to determine the performance in actual practice using a specimen-based, bench-by-bench approach. The potential impact on time to identification (TTI) and costs had MALDI-TOF MS been the first-line identification method was quantitated. The MALDI protocol includes supplementary tests, notably for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella, and indications for repeat MALDI-TOF MS attempts, often not measured in previous studies. A total of 952 isolates (824 bacterial isolates and 128 yeast isolates) recovered from 2,214 specimens were assessed using the MALDI protocol. Compared with standard protocols, the MALDI protocol provided identifications 1.45 days earlier on average (P < 0.001). In our laboratory, we anticipate that the incorporation of the MALDI protocol can reduce reagent and labor costs of identification by $102,424 or 56.9% within 12 months. The model included the fixed annual costs of the MALDI-TOF MS, such as the cost of protein standards and instrument maintenance, and the annual prevalence of organisms encountered in our laboratory. This comprehensive cost analysis model can be generalized to other moderate- to high-volume laboratories.

  19. Tumor Touch Imprints as Source for Whole Genome Analysis of Neuroblastoma Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Clemens; Brunner-Herglotz, Bettina; Ziegler, Andrea; Frech, Christian; Amann, Gabriele; Ladenstein, Ruth; Ambros, Inge M.; Ambros, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumor touch imprints (TTIs) are routinely used for the molecular diagnosis of neuroblastomas by interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization (I-FISH). However, in order to facilitate a comprehensive, up-to-date molecular diagnosis of neuroblastomas and to identify new markers to refine risk and therapy stratification methods, whole genome approaches are needed. We examined the applicability of an ultra-high density SNP array platform that identifies copy number changes of varying sizes down to a few exons for the detection of genomic changes in tumor DNA extracted from TTIs. Material and Methods DNAs were extracted from TTIs of 46 neuroblastoma and 4 other pediatric tumors. The DNAs were analyzed on the Cytoscan HD SNP array platform to evaluate numerical and structural genomic aberrations. The quality of the data obtained from TTIs was compared to that from randomly chosen fresh or fresh frozen solid tumors (n = 212) and I-FISH validation was performed. Results SNP array profiles were obtained from 48 (out of 50) TTI DNAs of which 47 showed genomic aberrations. The high marker density allowed for single gene analysis, e.g. loss of nine exons in the ATRX gene and the visualization of chromothripsis. Data quality was comparable to fresh or fresh frozen tumor SNP profiles. SNP array results were confirmed by I-FISH. Conclusion TTIs are an excellent source for SNP array processing with the advantage of simple handling, distribution and storage of tumor tissue on glass slides. The minimal amount of tumor tissue needed to analyze whole genomes makes TTIs an economic surrogate source in the molecular diagnostic work up of tumor samples. PMID:27560999

  20. Evolution of oil-generative window (OGW) in Niger delta basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ejedawe, J.E.; Coker, S.J.L.; Lambert-Aikhionbare, D.O.; Alofe, K.B.; Adoh, F.O.

    1983-03-01

    Assuming a simple model of delta development involving progradation and uniform subsidence to present depths (rate, 500 m/m.y.; 1640 ft/m.y.), oil-genesis nomographs derived from the TTI method were constructed for various geothermal gradients of the Niger delta (2.2., 2.5., 2.9, 3.6, 4.0, 4.4, and 4.7/sup 0/C/100 m) and utilized in mapping the positions (depth, temperature) of the top of the oil-generative window (OGW) at arbitrarily selected times (40 m.y.B.P., 30 m.y.B.P., 15 m.y.B.P., and the present). About 200 data points were evaluated. During the active subsidence phase, oil generation within any megastructure was initiated at a temperature of 140 to 146/sup 0/C (284 to 294/sup 0/F) and depth of 3000 to 5200 m (9842 to 17,060 ft) within 7 to 11 m.y. after deposition of the potential source rocks. After cessation of subsidence, upward movement of the OGW by 800 to 1600 m (2624 to 5249 ft) was accompanied by a temperature lowering of 23 to 54/sup 0/C (73 to 129/sup 0/F). Lower temperatures produced correspondingly heavier crudes. In some parts of the delta oil generation and expulsion from the lower part of the Agbada Formation predates the cessation of subsidence and structural deformation, while in others it postdates those events. In most parts of the Niger delta, the upper and normally compacted part of the Akata Formation appears to constitute the major source rock.

  1. Basin analysis of South Mozambique graben

    SciTech Connect

    Iliffe, J.; Lerche, I.; De Buyl, M.

    1987-05-01

    Basin analysis of the South Mozambique graben between latitudes 25/sup 0/ and 26/sup 0/ and longitudes 34/sup 0/ and 35/sup 0/ demonstrates how modeling techniques may help to assess the oil potential of a speculative basin with only minimal seismic data. Two-dimensional restoration of the seismic profiles, using a backstripping and decompaction program on pseudowells linked with structural reconstruction, assesses the rift's two-phase extensional history. Since no well or thermal indicator data exist within the basin, the thermal history had to be derived from extensional models. The best fit of observed subsidence curves and those predicted by the models results in values of lithospheric extension (gamma). The disagreement in observed and theoretical basement subsidence curves was minimized by taking a range of gamma for each model for each well. These extension factors were then used in each model's equations for paleoheat flux to derive the heat-flow histories. (It is noted that a systematic basinwide variance of gamma occurs.) The heat-flux histories were then used with a one-dimensional fluid flow/compaction model to calculate TTI values and oil windows. A Tissot generation model was applied to each formation in every well for kerogen Types I, II, and III. The results were contoured across the basin to assess possible oil- and gas-prone formations. The extensional, burial, and thermal histories are integrated into an overall basin development picture and provide an oil and gas provenance model. Thus they estimate the basinwide hydrocarbon potential and also gain insight into the additional data necessary to significantly decrease the uncertainty.

  2. Effects of sound intensity on temporal properties of inhibition in the pallid bat auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Khaleel A.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory neurons in bats that use frequency modulated (FM) sweeps for echolocation are selective for the behaviorally-relevant rates and direction of frequency change. Such selectivity arises through spectrotemporal interactions between excitatory and inhibitory components of the receptive field. In the pallid bat auditory system, the relationship between FM sweep direction/rate selectivity and spectral and temporal properties of sideband inhibition have been characterized. Of note is the temporal asymmetry in sideband inhibition, with low-frequency inhibition (LFI) exhibiting faster arrival times compared to high-frequency inhibition (HFI). Using the two-tone inhibition over time (TTI) stimulus paradigm, this study investigated the interactions between two sound parameters in shaping sideband inhibition: intensity and time. Specifically, the impact of changing relative intensities of the excitatory and inhibitory tones on arrival time of inhibition was studied. Using this stimulation paradigm, single unit data from the auditory cortex of pentobarbital-anesthetized cortex show that the threshold for LFI is on average ~8 dB lower than HFI. For equal intensity tones near threshold, LFI is stronger than HFI. When the inhibitory tone intensity is increased further from threshold, the strength asymmetry decreased. The temporal asymmetry in LFI vs. HFI arrival time is strongest when the excitatory and inhibitory tones are of equal intensities or if excitatory tone is louder. As inhibitory tone intensity is increased, temporal asymmetry decreased suggesting that the relative magnitude of excitatory and inhibitory inputs shape arrival time of inhibition and FM sweep rate and direction selectivity. Given that most FM bats use downward sweeps as echolocation calls, a similar asymmetry in threshold and strength of LFI vs. HFI may be a general adaptation to enhance direction selectivity while maintaining sweep-rate selective responses to downward sweeps. PMID:23761762

  3. Behavior and Release of Nitrogen at Mines and Quarries in Nordic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Teemu; Neitola, Raisa; Jermakka, Johannes; Merta, Elina; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija

    2015-04-01

    project with GTK, VTT and TTY together with several industrial and international partners and financed by Tekes Green Mining Programme.

  4. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, N. K.; Bharucha, Z. S.; Sonawane, Vandana; Ahmed, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out. Against the current scenario introducing NAT for screening of blood donors in India would pose a challenge. Aim: To study the prudence of universal NAT testing in India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 5 years from 2008-2012 was undertaken to study the true reactivity of donors using WHO strategy II and III and therefore the true seroprevalence of TTI infections in the donor populations. Results: The true reactivity of the donors was much less as compared to the initially reactive donors due to the use of a well designed testing algorithm. In addition having a total voluntary blood collection along with good pre-donation counseling program also reduces the transmission of infections. Conclusions: What India essentially needs to do is religiously implement the strategies outlined in the WHO Aide-memoire. The blood should be collected only from voluntary non remunerative and repeat donors, there should be stringent donor selection with pre-donation counseling instituted. Strict implementation of quality management system, development of well defined testing startegies and strong haemovigilance system could take us a step in the right direction. PMID:27011677

  5. Accelerated growth in outgoing links in evolving networks: deterministic versus stochastic picture.

    PubMed

    Sen, Parongama

    2004-04-01

    In several real-world networks such as the Internet, World Wide Web, etc., the number of links grow in time in a nonlinear fashion. We consider growing networks in which the number of outgoing links is a nonlinear function of time but new links between older nodes are forbidden. The attachments are made using a preferential attachment scheme. In the deterministic picture, the number of outgoing links m (t) at any time t is taken as N (t)(theta) where N (t) is the number of nodes present at that time. The continuum theory predicts a power-law decay of the degree distribution: P (k) proportional to k-(1-2/ (1-theta ) ), while the degree of the node introduced at time t(i) is given by k(t(i),t)=t(theta)(i) [t/t(i) ]((1+theta)/2) when the network is evolved till time t. Numerical results show a growth in the degree distribution for small k values at any nonzero theta. In the stochastic picture, m (t) is a random variable. As long as is independent of time, the network shows a behavior similar to the Barabási-Albert (BA) model. Different results are obtained when is time dependent, e.g., when m (t) follows a distribution P (m) proportional to m(-lambda). The behavior of P (k) changes significantly as lambda is varied: for lambda>3, the network has a scale-free distribution belonging to the BA class as predicted by the mean field theory; for smaller values of lambda it shows different behavior. Characteristic features of the clustering coefficients in both models have also been discussed.

  6. Namibia’s transition from whole blood–derived pooled platelets to single-donor apheresis platelet collections

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, John P.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Wilkinson, Robert; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Lowrance, David W.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Postma, Maarten; Mataranyika, Mary; Sibinga, Cees Th. Smit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few African countries separate blood donations into components; however, demand for platelets (PLTs) is increasing as regional capacity to treat causes of thrombocytopenia, including chemotherapy, increases. Namibia introduced single-donor apheresis PLT collections in 2007 to increase PLT availability while reducing exposure to multiple donors via pooling. This study describes the impact this transition had on PLT availability and safety in Namibia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Annual national blood collections and PLT units issued data were extracted from a database maintained by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS). Production costs and unit prices were analyzed. RESULTS In 2006, NAMBTS issued 771 single and pooled PLT doses from 3054 whole blood (WB) donations (drawn from 18,422 WB donations). In 2007, NAMBTS issued 486 single and pooled PLT doses from 1477 WB donations (drawn from 18,309 WB donations) and 131 single-donor PLT doses. By 2011, NAMBTS issued 837 single-donor PLT doses per year, 99.1% of all PLT units. Of 5761 WB donations from which PLTs were made in 2006 to 2011, a total of 20 (0.35%) were from donors with confirmed test results for human immunodeficiency virus or other transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). Of 2315 single-donor apheresis donations between 2007 and 2011, none of the 663 donors had a confirmed positive result for any pathogen. As apheresis replaced WB-derived PLTs, apheresis production costs dropped by a mean of 8.2% per year, while pooled PLT costs increased by an annual mean of 21.5%. Unit prices paid for apheresis- and WB-derived PLTs increased by 9 and 7.4% per year on average, respectively. CONCLUSION Namibia’s PLT transition shows that collections from repeat apheresis donors can reduce TTI risk and production costs. PMID:25727921

  7. Spherical gravitational collapse in N dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2007-10-01

    We investigate here spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in a space-time with an arbitrary number of dimensions and with a general type I matter field, which is a broad class that includes most of the physically reasonable matter forms. We show that given the initial data for matter in terms of the initial density and pressure profiles at an initial surface t=ti from which the collapse evolves, there exist the rest of the initial data functions and classes of solutions of Einstein equations which we construct here, such that the space-time evolution goes to a final state which is either a black hole or a naked singularity, depending on the nature of initial data and evolutions chosen, and subject to validity of the weak energy condition. The results are discussed and analyzed in the light of the cosmic censorship hypothesis in black hole physics. The formalism here combines the earlier results on gravitational collapse in four dimensions in a unified treatment. Also the earlier work is generalized to higher-dimensional space-times to allow a study of the effect of the number of dimensions on the possible final outcome of the collapse in terms of either a black hole or naked singularity. No restriction is adopted on the number of dimensions, and other limiting assumptions such as self-similarity of space-time are avoided, in order to keep the treatment general. Our methodology allows us to consider to an extent the genericity and stability aspects related to the occurrence of naked singularities in gravitational collapse.

  8. The external quality assessment scheme: Five years experience as a participating laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Rajendra; Das, Sudipta S.; Ojha, Shashank; Khetan, Dheeraj; Sonker, Atul

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim: Quality assurance in blood banking includes active participation in the external quality program. Such a program offers valuable benefits to patient care, their safety, and an overall quality of laboratory practices. In the year 2002, we participated in the External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) under the World Health Organization (WHO), Bureau of Laboratory Quality Standards, Thailand. Materials and Methods: In the current study we evaluated our EQAS test result of the past five years, from 2003 to 2007. Test results of all blood samples such as ABO grouping, D typing, antibody screening, antibody identification, and transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) testing were analyzed and documented. Results: Discordant results in one or more instances were observed with antibody identification, weak D testing, and tests for anti-HIV1/2 and HBsAg. Twice we failed to detect the ‘anti-Mia’ antibody in the issued sample and that could be attributed to the absence of the corresponding antigen in the used cell panel. HBsAg was missed due to its critically low titer in the serum and the comparatively low sensitivity of our Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit. Conclusion: All these failures in the last five years have helped us to significantly improve our transfusion service in terms of performance evaluation, patient care and safety issues, and the overall quality of laboratory practices. We therefore recommend all laboratories and hospitals to participate in the EQAS program, which will definitely help them to improve from what they learn. PMID:20376263

  9. Development of blood transfusion product pathogen reduction treatments: a review of methods, current applications and demands.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Vishal; van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk; Seghatchian, Jerard; Gutiérrez, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) have been greatly reduced in numbers due to the strict donor selection and screening procedures, i.e. the availability of technologies to test donors for endemic infections, and routine vigilance of regulatory authorities in every step of the blood supply chain (collection, processing and storage). However, safety improvement is still a matter of concern because infection zero-risk in transfusion medicine is non-existent. Alternatives are required to assure the safety of the transfusion product and to provide a substitution to systematic blood screening tests, especially in less-developed countries or at the war-field. Furthermore, the increasing mobility of the population due to traveling poses a new challenge in the endemic screening tests routinely used, because non-endemic pathogens might emerge in a specific population. Pathogen reduction treatments sum a plethora of active approaches to eliminate or reduce potential threatening pathogen load from blood transfusion products. Despite the success of pathogen reduction treatments applied to plasma products, there is still a long way to develop and deploy pathogen reduction treatments to cellular transfusion products (such as platelets, RBCs or even to whole blood) and there is divergence on its acceptance worldwide. While the use of pathogen reduction treatments in platelets is performed routinely in a fair number of European blood banks, most of these treatments are not (or just) licensed in the USA or elsewhere in the world. The development of pathogen reduction treatments for RBC and whole blood is still in its infancy and under clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the available and emerging pathogen reduction treatments and their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of characterizing standard transfusion products with current and emerging approaches (OMICS) and clinical outcome, and integrating this information on a database

  10. Isoprene chemistry in pristine and polluted Amazon environments: Eulerian and Lagrangian model frameworks and the strong bearing they have on our understanding of surface ozone and predictions of rainforest exposure to this priority pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, J. G.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Squire, O. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Griffiths, P. T.; Abraham, N. L.; Pyle, J. A.; Oram, D. E.; Forster, G.; Brito, J. F.; Lee, J. D.; Hopkins, J. R.; Lewis, A. C.; Bauguitte, S. J. B.; Demarco, C. F.; Artaxo, P.; Messina, P.; Lathière, J.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; House, E.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.

    2015-09-01

    This study explores our ability to simulate the atmospheric chemistry stemming from isoprene emissions in pristine and polluted regions of the Amazon basin. We confront two atmospheric chemistry models - a global, Eulerian chemistry-climate model (UM-UKCA) and a trajectory-based Lagrangian model (CiTTyCAT) - with recent airborne measurements of atmospheric composition above the Amazon made during the SAMBBA campaign of 2012. The simulations with the two models prove relatively insensitive to the chemical mechanism employed; we explore one based on the Mainz Isoprene Mechanism, and an updated one that includes changes to the chemistry of first generation isoprene nitrates (ISON) and the regeneration of hydroxyl radicals via the formation of hydroperoxy-aldehydes (HPALDS) from hydroperoxy radicals (ISO2). In the Lagrangian model, the impact of increasing the spatial resolution of trace gas emissions employed from 3.75° × 2.5° to 0.1° × 0.1° varies from one flight to another, and from one chemical species to another. What consistently proves highly influential on our simulations, however, is the model framework itself - how the treatment of transport, and consequently mixing, differs between the two models. The lack of explicit mixing in the Lagrangian model yields variability in atmospheric composition more reminiscent of that exhibited by the measurements. In contrast, the combination of explicit (and implicit) mixing in the Eulerian model removes much of this variability but yields better agreement with the measurements overall. We therefore explore a simple treatment of mixing in the Lagrangian model that, drawing on output from the Eulerian model, offers a compromise between the two models. We use this Lagrangian/Eulerian combination, in addition to the separate Eulerian and Lagrangian models, to simulate ozone at a site in the boundary layer downwind of Manaus, Brazil. The Lagrangian/Eulerian combination predicts a value for an AOT40-like accumulated

  11. Hybrid FES-robot cooperative control of ambulatory gait rehabilitation exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    stimulation; HKAFO: hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis; ILC: iterative error-based learning control; MFE: muscle fatigue estimator; NILC: Normalized stimulation output from ILC controller; PID: Proportional-Integral-derivative Control; PW: Stimulation pulse width; QUEST: Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology; SCI: Spinal cord injury; TTI: torque-time integral; VAS: Visual Analog Scale. PMID:24594302

  12. Two-dimensional simulation of clastic and carbonate sedimentation, consolidation, subsidence, fluid flow, heat flow and solute transport during the formation of sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitzer, Klaus

    1999-05-01

    Geological processes that create sedimentary basins or act during their formation can be simulated using the public domain computer code `BASIN'. For a given set of geological initial and boundary conditions the sedimentary basin evolution is calculated in a forward modeling approach. The basin is represented in a two-dimensional vertical cross section with individual layers. The stratigraphic, tectonic, hydrodynamic and thermal evolution is calculated beginning at an initial state, and subsequent changes of basin geometry are calculated from sedimentation rates, compaction and pore fluid mobilization, isostatic compensation, fault movement and subsidence. The sedimentologic, hydraulic and thermal parameters are stored at discrete time steps allowing the temporal evolution of the basin to be analyzed. A maximum flexibility in terms of geological conditions is achieved by using individual program modules representing geological processes which can be switched on and off depending on the data available for a specific simulation experiment. The code incorporates a module for clastic and carbonate sedimentation, taking into account the impact of clastic sediment supply on carbonate production. A maximum of four different sediment types, which may be mixed during sedimentation, can be defined. Compaction and fluid flow are coupled through the consolidation equation and the nonlinear form of the equation of state for porosity, allowing nonequilibrium compaction and overpressuring to be calculated. Instead of empirical porosity-effective stress equations, a physically consistent consolidation model is applied which incorporates a porosity dependent sediment compressibility. Transient solute transport and heat flow are calculated as well, applying calculated fluid flow rates from the hydraulic model. As a measure for hydrocarbon generation, the Time-Temperature Index (TTI) is calculated. Three postprocessing programs are available to provide graphic output in Post

  13. Hybrid FES-robot cooperative control of ambulatory gait rehabilitation exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    del-Ama, Antonio J; Gil-Agudo, Angel; Pons, José L; Moreno, Juan C

    2014-03-04

    stimulation; HKAFO: hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis; ILC: iterative error-based learning control; MFE: muscle fatigue estimator; NILC: Normalized stimulation output from ILC controller; PID: Proportional-Integral-derivative Control; PW: Stimulation pulse width; QUEST: Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology; SCI: Spinal cord injury; TTI: torque-time integral; VAS: Visual Analog Scale.

  14. Sedimentary modeling and analysis of petroleum system of the upper Tertiary sequences in southern Ulleung sedimentary Basin, East Sea (Sea of Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, D.; Kim, D.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The block 6-1 located in the southwestern margin of the Ulleung basin, East Sea (Sea of Japan) is an area where recently produces commercial natural gas and condensate. A total of 17 exploratory wells have been drilled, and also many seismic explorations have been carried out since early 1970s. Among the wells and seismic sections, the Gorae 1 well and a seismic section through the Gorae 1-2 well were chosen for this simulation work. Then, a 2-D graphic simulation using SEDPAK elucidates the evolution, burial history and diagenesis of the sedimentary sequence. The study area is a suitable place for modeling a petroleum system and evaluating hydrocarbon potential of reservoir. Shale as a source rock is about 3500m deep from sea floor, and sandstones interbedded with thin mud layers are distributed as potential reservoir rocks from 3,500m to 2,000m deep. On top of that, shales cover as seal rocks and overburden rocks upto 900m deep. Input data(sea level, sediment supply, subsidence rate, etc) for the simulation was taken from several previous published papers including the well and seismic data, and the thermal maturity of the sediment was calculated from known thermal gradient data. In this study area, gas and condensate have been found and commercially produced, and the result of the simulation also shows that there is a gas window between 4000m and 6000m deep, so that three possible interpretations can be inferred from the simulation result. First, oil has already moved and gone to the southeastern area along uplifting zones. Or second, oil has never been generated because organic matter is kerogen type 3, and or finally, generated oil has been converted into gas by thermally overcooking. SEDPAK has an advantage that it provides the timing and depth information of generated oil and gas with TTI values even though it has a limit which itself can not perform geochemical modeling to analyze thermal maturity level of source rocks. Based on the result of our simulation

  15. [Long-term treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Lukács, Regina; Resch, Miklós; Papp, András; Szabó, Antal; Borbándy, Ágnes; Menkens, Hanna; Kiss, Huba; Németh, János

    2013-11-10

    Bevezetés: Az exsudativ időskori maculadegeneráció kezelésére alkalmazott intravitrealis ranibizumabinjekcióval szerzett eddigi tapasztalatok kedvezőek. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célul tűzték ki az intravitrealis ranibizumabterápia kétéves/hosszú távú funkcionális és anatómiai eredményeinek felmérését. Módszer: Egycentrumú prospektív vizsgálatban 46 beteg (átlagéletkor: 75±9,1 év) adatait dolgozták fel. A kezelési protokoll szerint a betegek az első három hónapban havonta kaptak 0,5 mg ranibizumabinjekciót, majd szükség szerint (pro re nata). A legjobb korrigált visus, illetve a centrális retinavastagság változását követték. Eredmények: A legjobb korrigált látóélesség változása a követési idő végére sem a kezelés előtti értékhez képest (p = 0,760), sem az első év végi eredményhez képest nem volt statisztikailag szignifikáns (p = 0,154). A centrális retinavastagság a kiindulási értékhez képest szignifikánsan csökkent (p = 0,000001), az első év végi értékhez képest nem volt szignifikáns a változás (p = 0,875). Következtetések: Nedves típusú maculadegenerációban szenvedő betegeknél pro re nata protokoll szerinti intravitrealis ranibizumabkezeléssel hosszú távon a látóélesség stabil marad, az exsudatio hatékonyan csökkenthető Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154(45), 1790–1797.

  16. [Antimicrobal resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Nemes-Nikodém, Éva; Brunner, Alexandra; Tóth, Béla; Tóth, Veronika; Bánvölgyi, András; Ostorházi, Eszter

    2015-02-01

    Bevezetés: A Neisseria gonorrhoeae-infekciók kezelésére kiadott európai ajánlás elsősorban a nyugat-európai adatok alapján készült, és nem egyértelműen használható a magyarországi helyzet ismeretében. Célkitűzés: A szerzők 2011. január és 2014. június közötti időszakban a Semmelweis Egyetem, Bőr-, Nemikórtani és Bőronkológiai Klinika Országos Szexuális Úton Terjedő Betegségek Centrumában izolált Neisseria gonorrhoeae törzsek rezisztenciaadatait összevetették az izolált törzsek molekuláris tipizálási eredményeivel, azzal a céllal, hogy pontos adatokat kapjanak a hazánkban előforduló Neisseria gonorrhoeae törzsek antimikrobiális rezisztenciájáról. Módszer: Az antibiotikumrezisztencia-meghatározás minimális inhibitorkoncentráció-méréssel, a szekvenciameghatározás a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Multi Antigen Sequence Typing módszerrel történt. Eredmények: A jelenleg terápiának ajánlott széles spektrumú cefalosporinok elleni rezisztencia ritka, az utóbbi években az azithromycinrezisztencia előfordulása viszont rohamosan növekedett. Következtetések: Az új terápiás irányelvek készítésekor figyelembe kell venni, hogy a gyakran fertőzést okozó molekuláris típusba sorolható törzsek között kiemelkedően magas az azithromycinrezisztensek aránya. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(6), 226–229.

  17. [Incidence of haematological malignancies in adults in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, Hungary, between 1983 and 2012. Analysis of data from a thirty-year period].

    PubMed

    Jakó, János; Szerafin, László; Nagy, Péter

    2013-11-24

    Bevezetés: A szerzők 25 év tapasztalatait közreadó közleménye óta nem jelent meg tanulmány a malignus hematológiai betegségek hazai incidenciájáról. Célkitűzés: A szerzők a Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megyei leukaemia/lymphoma regiszter 1983 és 2012 közötti adatainak elemzésével e betegség incidenciájának tanulmányozását tűzték ki célul. Módszer: A Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megyei leukaemia/lymphoma regiszterben az elmúlt 30 év alatt 3964 újonnan felismert, malignus hematológiai megbetegedésben szenvedő felnőtt beteg adatait rögzítették. Myelodysplasiás szindrómás és monoklonális gammopathiás betegek a regisztráltak között nem szerepeltek. Eredmények: A megbetegedések évenkénti száma Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megyében is, miként világszerte, emelkedő tendenciát mutatott. A növekedést elsősorban a nem-Hodgkin-lymphoma, a krónikus lymphoid leukaemia és az essentialis thrombocythaemia első években tapasztaltnál jóval gyakoribb megjelenése magyarázta. Következtetések: A szerzők megfigyelései összhangban vannak a nemzetközi felmérések eredményeivel. Az egyes hematológiai entitások Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megyei incidenciája lényegében egyezik a nyugat-európai és az észak-amerikai adatokkal. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154(47), 1858–1864.

  18. Modelling component evaporation and composition change of traffic-induced ultrafine particles during travel from street canyon to urban background.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Irina; MacKenzie, A Rob; Cai, Xiaoming; Alam, Mohammed S; Harrison, Roy M

    2016-07-18

    We developed a model (CiTTy-Street-UFP) of traffic-related particle behaviour in a street canyon and in the nearby downwind urban background that accounts for aerosol dynamics and the variable vapour pressure of component organics. The model simulates the evolution and fate of traffic generated multicomponent ultrafine particles (UFP) composed of a non-volatile core and 17 Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC, modelled as n-alkane proxies). A two-stage modelling approach is adopted: (1) a steady state simulation inside the street canyon is achieved, in which there exists a balance between traffic emissions, condensation/evaporation, deposition, coagulation and exchange with the air above roof-level; and (2) a continuing simulation of the above-roof air parcel advected to the nearby urban park during which evaporation is dominant. We evaluate the component evaporation and associated composition changes of multicomponent organic particles in realistic atmospheric conditions and compare our results with observations from London (UK) in a street canyon and an urban park. With plausible input conditions and parameter settings, the model can reproduce, with reasonable fidelity, size distributions in central London in 2007. The modelled nucleation-mode peak diameter, which is 23 nm in the steady-state street canyon, decreases to 9 nm in a travel time of just 120 s. All modelled SVOC in the sub-10 nm particle size range have evaporated leaving behind only non-volatile material, whereas modelled particle composition in the Aitken mode contains SVOC between C26H54 and C32H66. No data on particle composition are available in the study used for validation, or elsewhere. Measurements addressing in detail the size resolved composition of the traffic emitted UFP in the atmosphere are a high priority for future research. Such data would improve the representation of these particles in dispersion models and provide the data essential for model validation. Enhanced knowledge of the

  19. Rate Control Management of Atrial Fibrillation: May a Mathematical Model Suggest an Ideal Heart Rate?

    PubMed Central

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Camporeale, Carlo; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR) to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation. Methods The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively. Results Left ventricular pressure increased by 57%, from 33.92±37.56 mmHg to 53.15±47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27%, from 82.66±14.04 mmHg to 105.3±7.6 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45±8.50 to 39.09±8.08 mL), ejection fraction (from 61.10±4.40 to 39.32±5.42%) and stroke work (SW, from 0.88±0.04 to 0.58±0.09 J) decreased by 50, 36 and 34%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen consumption indexes (rate pressure product – RPP, tension time index per minute – TTI/min, and pressure volume area per minute – PVA/min) increased from the 50 to the 130 bpm simulation, respectively, by 186% (from 5598±1939 to 15995±3219 mmHg/min), 56% (from 2094±265 to 3257±301 mmHg s/min) and 102% (from 57.99±17.90 to 117.4±26.0 J/min). In fact, left ventricular efficiency (SW/PVA) decreased from 80.91±2.91% at 50 bpm to 66.43±3.72% at the 130 bpm HR simulation. Conclusion Awaiting compulsory direct clinical evidences, the present mathematical model suggests that lower HRs during permanent AF relates to improved hemodynamic parameters, cardiac efficiency, and lower oxygen consumption. PMID:25764321

  20. Effects of weathering on performance of intumescent coatings for structure fire protection in the wildland-urban interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, Babak

    as SDT). For each coating type and weathering period, three different radiative heat flux levels were used in the combustibility tests. Data obtained from the tests, including flammability and thermal properties, were gathered, analyzed, and compared to non-weathered specimens. The results revealed visible effects of weathering on pre (and up to)-ignition flammability and intumescent properties, especially decreases in Time-to-Ignition (TTI), Time-to-Intumescence (tintu.), and (maximum) Intumescence Height (Hintu.) values in weathered specimens. These results showed that the ignition resistance of the coating layers decreased after weathering exposure. On the other hand, the obtained results from weathered specimens for the post-ignition flammability properties, especially Peak Heat Release Rate (PHRR) and Effective Heat of Combustion (EHC) did not show a significant difference in comparison to the non-weathered samples. These results demonstrated that the weathered coating layer would not likely to act as an additional combustible fuel to increase fire spread.

  1. [Professions and fear of death--are they correlated?].

    PubMed

    Zana, Ágnes; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Limpár, Imre; Henczi, Eszter; Golovics, Petra; Pilling, János; Hegedűs, Katalin

    2014-08-01

    Bevezetés: A haláltól való félelem és a foglalkozás közötti kapcsolatról viszonylag kevés szakirodalmi adat áll rendelkezésre. Célkitűzés: A szerzők a foglalkozás és a halálfélelem összefüggéseinek vizsgálatát tűzték ki célul. Módszer: Orvosok, orvostanhallgatók és egyéb egészségügyi dolgozók, lelkészek, pszichológusok és egyéb, nem egészségügyi dolgozók (N = 1062) halállal kapcsolatos attitűdjeit elemezték a Multidimenzionális Halálfélelem Skála segítségével. Eredmények: Szignifikáns különbségeket találtak az összesített halálfélelem-pontszám tekintetében, valamint egyes vizsgált csoportok esetében is a halálfélelem különböző faktorait illetően. A halálfélelem a lelkészek körében volt a legalacsonyabb. A holttesttől való félelem a pszichológusoknál és a nem egészségügyi dolgozóknál volt a legmagasabb, akiknek nincs közvetlen tapasztalatuk holttesttel, illetve haldoklókkal. Következtetések: Úgy tűnik, hogy a halálfélelem olyan foglalkozási csoportok tagjaira jellemző elsősorban, akik nem foglalkoznak közvetlenül halottakkal és haldoklókkal. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(31), 1236–1240.

  2. Modelling component evaporation and composition change of traffic-induced ultrafine particles during travel from street canyon to urban background.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Irina; MacKenzie, A Rob; Cai, Xiaoming; Alam, Mohammed S; Harrison, Roy M

    2016-07-18

    We developed a model (CiTTy-Street-UFP) of traffic-related particle behaviour in a street canyon and in the nearby downwind urban background that accounts for aerosol dynamics and the variable vapour pressure of component organics. The model simulates the evolution and fate of traffic generated multicomponent ultrafine particles (UFP) composed of a non-volatile core and 17 Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC, modelled as n-alkane proxies). A two-stage modelling approach is adopted: (1) a steady state simulation inside the street canyon is achieved, in which there exists a balance between traffic emissions, condensation/evaporation, deposition, coagulation and exchange with the air above roof-level; and (2) a continuing simulation of the above-roof air parcel advected to the nearby urban park during which evaporation is dominant. We evaluate the component evaporation and associated composition changes of multicomponent organic particles in realistic atmospheric conditions and compare our results with observations from London (UK) in a street canyon and an urban park. With plausible input conditions and parameter settings, the model can reproduce, with reasonable fidelity, size distributions in central London in 2007. The modelled nucleation-mode peak diameter, which is 23 nm in the steady-state street canyon, decreases to 9 nm in a travel time of just 120 s. All modelled SVOC in the sub-10 nm particle size range have evaporated leaving behind only non-volatile material, whereas modelled particle composition in the Aitken mode contains SVOC between C26H54 and C32H66. No data on particle composition are available in the study used for validation, or elsewhere. Measurements addressing in detail the size resolved composition of the traffic emitted UFP in the atmosphere are a high priority for future research. Such data would improve the representation of these particles in dispersion models and provide the data essential for model validation. Enhanced knowledge of the

  3. Half a decade of mini-pool nucleic acid testing: Cost-effective way for improving blood safety in India

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Shivaram

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: It is well established that Nucleic acid testing (NAT) reduces window phase of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) and helps improve blood safety. NAT testing can be done individually or in pools. The objectives of this study were to determine the utility, feasibility and cost effectiveness of an in-house minipool-NAT(MP-NAT). Materials and Methods: Blood donors were screened by history, tested by ELISA and sero-negative samples were subjected to an in-house NAT by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Testing was done in mini-pools of size eight (8). Positive pools were repeated with individual samples. Results: During the study period of Oct 2005-Sept 2010 (5 years) all blood donors (n=53729) were screened by ELISA. Of which 469 (0.87%) were positive for HIV-1, HBV or HCV. Sero-negative samples (n=53260) were screened by in-house MP-NAT. HIV-NAT yield was 1/53260 (n=1) and HBV NAT yield (n=2) was 1/26630. Conclusion: NAT yield was lower than other India studies possibly due to the lower sero-reactivity amongst our donors. Nevertheless it intercepted 9 lives including the components prepared. The in-house assay met our objective of improving blood safety at nominal cost and showed that it is feasible to set up small molecular biology units in medium-large sized blood banks and deliver blood within 24-48 hours. The utility of NAT (NAT yield) will vary based on the donor population, the type of serological test used, the nature of kit employed and the sensitivity of NAT test used. The limitations of our in-house MP-NAT consisted of stringent sample preparation requirements, with labor and time involved. The benefits of our MP-NAT were that it acted as a second level of check for ELISA tests, was relatively inexpensive compared to ID-NAT and did not need sophisticated equipment. PMID:24678172

  4. [Lipid-lowering therapy and patient adherence in the MULTI GAP 2013 trial].

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Gábor

    2014-04-27

    Bevezetés: A dyslipidaemia ismert cardiovascularis kockázati tényező. A lipidterápiában a célértékek elérésének fontos tényezője a megfelelő betegadherencia. Célkitűzés: A MULTI GAP (MULTI Goal Attainment Problem) 2013-as vizsgálatban atheroscleroticus betegségben szenvedő betegek esetében a statinterápia adherenciájának és perzisztenciájának felmérése, amely részben a vizsgálatban részt vevő orvosok becslésén, illetve 319, a megelőző évben elvégzett MULTI GAP vizsgálatban részt vett beteg esetében az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár vénykiváltási adatbázisán alapult. Módszer: A MULTI GAP 2013 vizsgálatban standard, strukturált kérdőívek segítségével 1519 beteg adatai kerültek feldolgozásra. Az elemzésben kiértékelésre kerültek az egyes ellátási szinteken elért lipidértékek, a kezelőorvos által vélt betegadherencia, a 319 beteg Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár vénykiváltási adataira támaszkodó valós adherencia, a kezelőorvosok elégedettsége a statinterápia eredményeivel, illetve az adherencia és a lipideredmények összevetése. Eredmények: Az elmúlt 7 év felméréseinek adatait is figyelembe véve előtérbe kerültek a hatékonyabb statinok; az atorvastatin és rozuvastatin alkalmazásának összesített aránya 49%-ról 83%-ra, azaz mintegy 70%-kal nőtt. A betegadherencia vonatkozásában kimutatták, hogy a 2,5 mmol/l alatti LDL-koleszterin-értékeket elért betegeknél az 1 év alatt kiváltott receptek száma mintegy nyolc gyógyszertári beváltást jelentett. Ehhez képest a 2,5 mmol/l feletti LDL-koleszterin-értékű csoportban a gyógyszerkiváltás lényegesen alacsonyabb volt (5,3 és 6,3 közötti). Éves szinten a 10–12 és a 7–9 gyógyszerkiváltás szignifikánsan alacsonyabb LDL-koleszterin-szintet jelentett a semennyit (0), illetve az 1–3 receptet éves szinten kiváltók csoportjaihoz képest. A kezelőorvosok által 100%-os

  5. [Analysis of health insurance data on home nursing care in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Cs Horváth, Zoltán; Sebestyén, Andor; Molics, Bálint; Ágoston, István; Endrei, Dóra; Oláh, András; Betlehem, József; Imre, László; Bagosi, Gabriella; Boncz, Imre

    2014-04-13

    Bevezetés: Az otthoni szakápolás 1996 végén indult meg Magyarországon. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja a magyar otthoni szakápolási rendszer egészségbiztosítási és igénybevételi mutatóinak bemutatása. Módszer: Az elemzésben szereplő adatok az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár finanszírozási adatbázisából (2001–2012) származnak. Elemezték a betegszámokat, a vizitszámokat, a szakápolási és szakirányú terápiás tevékenységek (gyógytorna, fizioterápia, logopédia) arányát. Eredmények: Az ellátott betegek száma a 2001. évi 36 560-ról 2012-re 51 647-re nőtt, 41,3%-kal emelkedett. A teljesített vizitek száma ugyanezen időszak alatt 841 715-ről 1 194 670-re, 41,9%-kal nőtt. A szakápolási és szakirányú terápiás tevékenységek, valamint az ápolási fokozatok vonatkozásában jelentős megyék közötti eltéréseket figyeltek meg. A szakápolásra kifizetett összegek aránya a legmagasabb volt Nógrád (80,4%), Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (79,7%) és Komárom-Esztergom (74,6%) megyékben, míg a legalacsonyabb Zala (53,0%) és Csongrád (52,7%) megyékben, illetve Budapesten (47,9%). Következtetések: Az otthoni szakápolásban jelentős területi egyenlőtlenségek mutatkoznak, amelyek mérsékléséhez olyan szakmai irányelvek fejlesztésére van szükség, amelyek az otthoni szakápolás speciális vonatkozásait szabályozzák. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(15), 597–603.

  6. [What motivates smoking and alcohol drinking of young people? A behavioural epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Pikó, Bettina; Varga, Szabolcs

    2014-01-19

    Bevezetés: A serdülőkor a káros szenvedélyt okozó szerek kipróbálásának időszaka. A prevencióhoz segítséget nyújthat a fiatalok motivációinak ismerete. Célkitűzés: A szerzők középiskolás fiatalok dohányzással és alkoholfogyasztással kapcsolatos motivációinak vizsgálatát tűzték ki célul. Módszer: Kérdőíves adatfelvételre Debrecenben négy középiskola tanulóinak bevonásával került sor (n = 501; életkor: 14–22 év között; átlagéletkor 16,4 év; 34% fiú és 66% lány). A leíró statisztikán túl logisztikus regresszióelemzéssel állapították meg a szerfogyasztás és a motivációk közötti összefüggéseket jelző esélyhányadosokat. Eredmények: Nemenként alig, szerfogyasztási státus szerint viszont jelentős különbségek voltak a motivációs struktúrában. Az alkoholfogyasztás esetében a társas motiváció bizonyult prediktornak. A cigaretta esetében azonban nemcsak a társas hatások szerepe igazolódott, hanem az unaloműzés és az érzelmi reguláció (coping) jelentősége is. Következtetések: Az eredmények azt sugallják, hogy a fiatalok társas környezetben, kortársaik hatására kezdenek el cigarettázni és alkoholt fogyasztani. A prevenciós stratégiáknak ezért elsősorban a szociális készségek fejlesztésére kell épülniük. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(3), 100–105.

  7. [Cognitive functions in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Kálcza-Jánosi, Kinga; Lukács, Andrea; Barkai, László; Szamosközi, István

    2013-05-01

    Bevezetés: A cukorbetegséget különféle kognitív károsodásokkal társítják. Célkitűzés: A szerzők 1-es és 2-es típusú diabetesben a kognitív működés közötti különbségek pontosítását tűzték ki célul. Módszer: Metaanalízis a Medline, PubMed és ScienceDirect felhasználásával (három tanulmány az 1-es és hat tanulmány a 2-es típusú cukorbetegséggel kapcsolatban). Eredmények: Az 1-es típusú cukorbeteg felnőttek teljesítménye gyengébb volt a kontrollokhoz képest az összes mért területen. A hatásméret a pszichomotoros aktivitásnál volt a legmagasabb (D = –0,69). Kicsi volt a hatásméret a késleltetett verbális memória (D = –0,48), figyelem (D = –0,47), nyelv (D = –0,44), vizuális feldolgozás (D = –0,35), azonnali verbális memória (D = –0,30), munkamemória (D = –0,27) és a végrehajtó funkcióknál (D = –0,26). A felnőtt 2-es típusú cukorbetegek teljesítménye gyengébb volt, mint a kontrolloké a munkamemória kivételével (D = +0,03) az összes kognitív területen. Legmagasabb hatásméretet az azonnali verbális memória (D = –1,12), pszichomotoros aktivitás (D = –0,82) és a késleltetett verbális memória (D = –0,81) mutatott. Közepes volt a hatásméret az általános intellektuális képességek (D = –0,68) területén, míg kicsi volt a hatásméret az általános memória (D = –0,37), a figyelem (D = –0,35), nyelv (D = –0,35), vizuális feldolgozás (D = –0,33) és a végrehajtó funkciók (D = –0,33) terén. Következtetés: Mindkét típusú cukorbetegség csökkent teljesítménnyel társul számos kognitív területen. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 694–699.

  8. [Evaluation of ambulatory antibiotic use in Hungary using drug-specific quality indicators].

    PubMed

    Matuz, Mária; Benkő, Ria; Hajdú, Edit; Viola, Réka; Soós, Gyöngyvér

    2013-06-16

    Bevezetés: A bakteriális rezisztencia visszaszorítására az antibiotikumok átgondolt alkalmazása lehetséges beavatkozási pont. Célkitűzés: A hazai ambuláns antibiotikum-alkalmazás gyakorlatának nemzetközi minőségi indikátorokon keresztül történő bemutatása. Módszer: Az 1996–2010 közötti időszakra vonatkozó nyers, nagykereskedői eladásokon alapuló, ambuláns szisztémás antibiotikum-felhasználási adatokat az Egészségügyi Világszervezet 2010. évi napi terápiás dózisai (defined daily dose – DDD) figyelembevételével DDD/1000 fő/nap egységben adták meg. Az antibiotikum-felhasználás értékelésére a nemzetközileg kidolgozott és validált minőségi indikátorokat alkalmazták. Eredmények: A hazai ambuláns antibiotikum-alkalmazás a vizsgálat során mennyiségileg kiegyenlített (18,0±1,8 DDD/1000 fő/nap) volt, szerkezetében azonban jelentős változások történtek. A széles versus szűk spektrumú béta-laktámok és makrolidek felhasználási aránya többszörösére nőtt (1996: 2,2 vs. 2010: 15,8), a fluorokinolonok felhasználása megháromszorozódott. A vizsgált tíz minőségi indikátor közül Magyarország három indikátor esetében az európai elithez, négy, valamint három esetében a gyengébb, illetve leggyengébb országok közé tartozott. Következtetés: A hazai ambuláns antibiotikum-felhasználás mennyiségileg a skandináv, az összetétel tekintetében a déli országokhoz hasonlít. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 947–956.

  9. Processes Influencing Ozone Levels in Alaskan Forest Fires Plumes during Long-Range Transport over the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Real, E.; Law, K. S.; Wienzierl, B.; Fiebig, M.; Petzold, A.; Wild, O.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S.; Stohl, A.; Huntrieser, H.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Stewart, D.; Avery, M.; Sachse, G.; Browell, E.; Ferrare, R.; Blake, D.

    2006-01-01

    A case of long-range transport of a biomass burning plume from Alaska to Europe is analyzed using a Lagrangian approach. This plume was sampled several times in the free troposphere over North America, the North Atlantic and Europe by 3 different aircraft during the IGAC Lagrangian 2K4 experiment which was part of the ICARTT/ITOP measurement intensive in summer 2004. Measurements in the plume showed enhanced values of CO, VOCs and NOy, mainly in form of PAN. Observed O3 levels increased by 17 ppbv over 5 days. A photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, is used to examine processes responsible for the chemical evolution of the plume. The model was initialized with upwind data, and compared with downwind measurements. The influence of high aerosol loading on photolysis rates in the plume is investigated using in-situ aerosol measurements in the plume and lidar retrievals of optical depth as input into a photolysis code (Fast-J), run in the model. Significant impacts on photochemistry are found with a decrease of 18 percent in O3 production and 24 percent in O3 destruction over 5 days when including aerosols. The plume is found to be chemically active with large O3 increases attributed primarily to PAN decomposition during descent of the plume towards Europe. The predicted O3 changes are very dependent on temperature changes during transport, and also, on water vapor levels in the lower troposphere which can lead to O3 destruction. Simulation of mixing/dilution was necessary to reproduce observed pollutants level in the plume. Mixing was simulated using background concentrations from measurements in air masses in close proximity to the plume, and mixing timescales (averaging 6.25 days) were derived from CO changes. Observed and simulated O3/CO correlations in the plume are also compared in order to evaluate the photochemistry in the model. Observed slopes changed from negative to positive over 5 days. This change, which can be attributed largely to photochemistry, is

  10. [Evaluation of thrombocytosis as predictive factor in colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valéria; Krzystanek, Marcin; Eklund, Aron C; Szász, A Marcell; Szállási, Zoltán

    2013-12-01

    Bevezetés/célkitűzés: A preoperatív thrombocytosist mint negatív prognosztikai markert több szolid tumorban igazolták. Azonban a colorectalis daganatok esetében a szakirodalom nem egységes. Vizsgálatunk célja annak megállapítása volt, hogy a thrombocytosis független rizikófaktora-e a metastasisképződésnek és a túlélésnek colorectalis daganatokban. Anyag és módszerek: A 2001 és 2011 közötti időszakból retrospektív módon 336 colorectalis tumor (CRC) és 118 colorectalis tumor eredetű májáttét (mCRC) miatt resecált beteg klinikopatológiai adatát gyűjtöttük ki. A thrombocytosist 400 G/l < vérlemezkeszámnál definiáltuk. A betegségmentes túlélést (DFS) és a teljes túlélést (OS) Kaplan–Meier- és log-rank módszerrel határoztuk meg. Eredmények: Mind a CRC-, mind a mCRC-csoportban az OS szignifikánsan rosszabb volt azoknál a betegeknél, akiknek emelkedett volt a vérlemezkeszámuk (HR = 2,2, p < 0,001 és HR = 2,9, p = 0,018). A többváltozós elemzés azt mutatta, hogy az emelkedett thrombocytaszám független prognosztikai faktor CRC-ben (HR = 1,7, p = 0,035) és mCRC-ben egyaránt (HR = 3,1, p = 0,017). A DFS szignifikánsan rosszabb volt a CRC-csoport azon betegeinél, akiknek magasabb volt a vérlemezkeszámuk (HR = 2,0, p = 0,011). Következtetések: A thrombocytaszám értékes és viszonylag olcsón elérhető prognosztikai faktor a túlélés vonatkozásában a CRC-ben és az mCRC-ben szenvedő betegeknél.

  11. [Laparoscopic skills training -- novel methods].

    PubMed

    Fábry, György; Haidegger, Tamás

    2013-05-12

    épzettségi szintek közötti eltérés, a követéses vizsgálatok pedig bizonyítható fejlődési lehetőséget mutattak ki az egyes feladatok tekintetében. Következtetés: A gyakorlatok alkalmasak a sebészeti képzésbe való bevezetésre, rutinszerű gyakorlásra, illetve a képzettségi szint felmérésére. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 745–751.

  12. [The "dress" makes the neuron -- different forms of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system of vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Gáti, Georgina; Lendvai, Dávid

    2013-07-01

    Bevezetés: A központi idegrendszerben az idegsejtek, gliasejtek és azok nyúlványai közötti szűk teret extracelluláris mátrix veszi körül. Többkomponensű struktúra, amely a neuron és a glia közös terméke. Előfordulása, összetétele az idegrendszerben eltérő, ugyanakkor változékony is, mert a funkcionális változások a mátrix megjelenésében vagy éppen eltűnésében, átalakulásában jól követhetők. Az extracelluláris mátrix jellegzetes megjelenési formája, bizonyos típusú neuronok teste és proximalis dendritjei körül halmozódik fel. Az így létrejött struktúrát perineuronalis hálónak nevezzük. Ez az „öltözék” rendkívül fontos szerepet tölt be a sejtek védelmében, ionhomeosztázisuk megtartásában, a sejtmembrán receptorainak eloszlásában, illetve a sejtkapcsolatok biztosításában. Az extracelluláris mátrix újabban leírt formája az axonok végbunkói köré rakódik le, amelyet periaxonalis hüvelyeknek nevezünk. Célkitűzés: A szerzők arra kerestek választ, hogy az ember, a csirke és a patkány központi idegrendszerének eddig nem vizsgált területein a mátrix és az előbb említett megjelenési formái hogyan jelennek meg. Megvizsgálták, hogyan befolyásolja a filogenetikai státus a központi idegrendszeri mátrix ingerfüggő megjelenését és plaszticitását. Módszer: Két perfundált humán agy- és gerincvelőt, az Alzheimer-kórral kapcsolatos vizsgálatokra további 23 humán agymintát, 16 felnőttpatkány-agyvelőt és 18, különböző életkorú csirkeagyvelőt dolgoztak fel. Az extracelluláris mátrixot hisztokémiai és immunhisztokémiai festésekkel jelenítették meg. Eredmények: Az emberi hippocampusban azt találták, hogy a mátrixba ágyazott sejttestek és szinapszisok kevésbé pusztulnak degeneratív betegségben. Jellegzetes, csak a periszinaptikus régióra korlátozott mátrixot találtak az emberi látópályához kapcsolt külső t

  13. Astrobiology - The New Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sik, A.; Simon, T.

    to let acids and alkalis into their cells. - Halophiles: these species are identified from salt lakes, salt mines and salt crystals (some of these are 250 million years old). The salt concentration of their cytoplasm is extreme high so the outer salt can not enter. 2. Extremophiles and evolution Jelentősek az extremofilek evolúciós evolution as- pects vonatkozásai, mivel igen sok ősbaktériumot archaea találunk közöttük. A hagyományos nézet, mely szerint az élővilág a baktériumok bacteria és eukar- ióták eukaryotes birodalmára osztható, a 70-es évek végén (Woese et al), 80-as évek elején (Fox et al) ingott meg, amikor a 16S rRNS (az élővilág egyik legkonz- ervatívabb molekuláris szerkezete molecular structure) összehasonlító szekvenciav- izsgálatai comparative sequence analysis alapján kiderült: az ősbaktériumok különválasztása a legmagasabb rendszertani taxonomy level szinten is indokolt, tehát külön birodalmat separate domain képeznek. Az eddigi genomtérképezések genome sequencing során kiderült, hogy az ősbaktériumok egyes génjei csak eukar- iótákban találhatók meg, nagyobb részük pedig teljesen egyedi [14]. Újabb elméletek szerint az eubaktériumok és ősbaktériumok közös őstől származ- nak, az eukarióták pedig az ősbaktériumokból fejlődhettek ki [15]. Az ősbaktériumok az egyetemes őshöz (LUCA - "last universal common ancestor") legközelebb álló élő kövületek living fossils lehetnek. Luca: az RNS-világ RNS world, a ribo-organizmusok ribo organisms utáni első orga- nizmus, amelyben már kialakult a fehérjék proteins és a DNS DNS mai szerepe. Az ősbaktériumok tanulmányozásával tehát a közel 4 milliárd évvel ezelőtti földi körülményekre következtethetünk. Az utóbbi években a földkéregben felfedezett gazdag extremofil-társulások alapján megdőlni látszik az a hagyományos nézet, mely szerint Luca egy meleg felszíni pocsolyában tenyészett, s divatoss