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Sample records for 800-nm laser pulses

  1. Optical limiting property of a liquid malononitrile derivative on 800 nm laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan; Wang, Liuheng; Xie, Na; Sun, Li; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yuxia; Wu, Feipeng

    2016-08-01

    A new liquid malononitrile derivative (LBDBP) has been synthesized by incorporating four tetraethylene glycol groups into the prototype scaffold of 2-[Bis-(4‧-diethylamino-biphenyl-4-yl)-methylene]-malononitrile (BDBP). The linear photophysical properties, optical/thermal stabilities and optical limiting behaviors of LBDBP and BDBP have been investigated. The results show that LBDBP has equivalent optical/thermal stability but much better solubility compared with BDBP. Its saturation concentration in DMF is increased to 0.075 M, while the corresponding datum for BDBP is only 0.01 M. The improved solubility of LBDBP insures a very significant optical limiting behavior. The saturated DMF solution of LBDBP can significantly reduce the intensity fluctuation of laser pulses in an 800 nm laser setup.

  2. Generation of 0.19-mJ THz pulses in LiNbO3 driven by 800-nm femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Sen-Cheng; Li, Jun; Zhai, Zhao-Hui; Zhu, Li-Guo; Li, Jiang; Zhou, Ping-Wei; Zhao, Jian-Heng; Li, Ze-Ren

    2016-06-27

    A cylindrical lens telescope tilted-pulse-front pumping scheme was proposed for high energy terahertz (THz) pulse generation. This scheme allows higher pump energy to be used with lower saturation effects under high pump fluence, and higher THz generation efficiency was achieved within large range of pump energy. The optimum pump pulse duration and crystal cooling temperature for THz generation in LiNbO3 (LN) crystal were also researched systematically. Excited by 800-nm laser, up to 0.19 mJ THz pulse energy and 0.27% conversion efficiency was demonstrated under 800-nm 400-fs laser excitation with ~100-mJ pulse energy and 150-K LN cooling temperature. PMID:27410634

  3. High-brightness 800nm fiber-coupled laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Yuri; Levy, Moshe; Rappaport, Noam; Tessler, Renana; Peleg, Ophir; Shamay, Moshe; Yanson, Dan; Klumel, Genadi; Dahan, Nir; Baskin, Ilya; Shkedi, Lior

    2014-03-01

    Fiber-coupled laser diodes have become essential sources for fiber laser pumping and direct energy applications. Single emitters offer reliable multi-watt output power from a 100 m lateral emission aperture. By their combination and fiber coupling, pump powers up to 100 W can be achieved from a low-NA fiber pigtail. Whilst in the 9xx nm spectral range the single emitter technology is very mature with <10W output per chip, at 800nm the reliable output power from a single emitter is limited to 4 W - 5 W. Consequently, commercially available fiber coupled modules only deliver 5W - 15W at around 800nm, almost an order of magnitude down from the 9xx range pumps. To bridge this gap, we report our advancement in the brightness and reliability of 800nm single emitters. By optimizing the wafer structure, laser cavity and facet passivation process we have demonstrated QCW device operation up to 19W limited by catastrophic optical damage to the 100 μm aperture. In CW operation, the devices reach 14 W output followed by a reversible thermal rollover and a complete device shutdown at high currents, with the performance fully rebounded after cooling. We also report the beam properties of our 800nm single emitters and provide a comparative analysis with the 9xx nm single emitter family. Pump modules integrating several of these emitters with a 105 μm / 0.15 NA delivery fiber reach 35W in CW at 808 nm. We discuss the key opto-mechanical parameters that will enable further brightness scaling of multi-emitter pump modules.

  4. Generation of spectrally-stable continuous-wave emission and ns pulses at 800 nm and 975 nm with a peak power of 4 W using a distributed Bragg reflector laser and a ridge-waveguide power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klehr, A.; Wenzel, H.; Fricke, J.; Bugge, F.; Liero, A.; Hoffmann, Th.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2015-03-01

    Semiconductor based sources which emit high-power spectrally stable nearly diffraction-limited optical pulses in the nanosecond range are ideally suited for a lot of applications, such as free-space communications, metrology, material processing, seed lasers for fiber or solid state lasers, spectroscopy, LIDAR and frequency doubling. Detailed experimental investigations of 975 nm and 800 nm diode lasers based on master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) light sources are presented. The MOPA systems consist of distributed Bragg reflector lasers (DBR) as master oscillators driven by a constant current and ridge waveguide power amplifiers which can be driven DC and by current pulses. In pulse regime the amplifiers modulated with rectangular current pulses of about 5 ns width and a repetition frequency of 200 kHz act as optical gates, converting the continuous wave (CW) input beam emitted by the DBR lasers into a train of short optical pulses which are amplified. With these experimental MOPA arrangements no relaxation oscillations in the pulse power occur. With a seed power of about 5 mW at a wavelength of 973 nm output powers behind the amplifier of about 1 W under DC injection and 4 W under pulsed operation, corresponding to amplification factors of 200 (amplifier gain 23 dB) and 800 (gain 29 dB) respectively, are reached. At 800 nm a CW power of 1 W is obtained for a seed power of 40 mW. The optical spectra of the emission of the amplifiers exhibit a single peak at a constant wavelength with a line width < 10 pm in the whole investigated current ranges. The ratios between laser and ASE levels were > 50 dB. The output beams are nearly diffraction limited with beam propagation ratios M2lat ~ 1.1 and M2ver ~ 1.2 up to 4 W pulse power.

  5. Generation of Terahertz Radiation from Fe-doped InGaAsP Using 800 nm to 1550 nm Pulsed Laser Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatem, O.; Freeman, J. R.; Cunningham, J. E.; Cannard, P. J.; Robertson, M. J.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Moodie, D. G.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate efficient generation of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation by pulsed excitation, at wavelengths between 800 and 1550 nm, of photoconductive (PC) switches fabricated using Fe-doped InGaAsP wafers, grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Compared to our previous studies of Fe-doped InGaAs wafers, Fe:InGaAsP wafers exhibited five times greater dark resistivity to give a value of 10 kΩ cm, and Fe:InGaAsP PC switches produced five times higher THz power emission. The effect of Fe-doping concentration (between 1E16 and 1.5E17 cm-3) on optical light absorption (between 800 and 1600 nm), on resistivity, and on THz emission is also discussed.

  6. High Harmonic Inverse Free-Electron-Laser Interaction at 800nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Christopher M.S.; Colby, Eric; Cowan, Ben; Siemann, Robert H.; Spencer, James; Byer, Robert L.; Plettner, Tomas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-05-13

    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and used as a short wavelength modulator for micro bunching of beams for laser acceleration experiments [1,2]. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.5 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. We also compare the experimental results to a simple analytic model that describes coupling to high order harmonics of the interaction.

  7. High-Harmonic Inverse Free-Electron-Laser Interaction at 800nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, C

    2006-02-17

    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and used as a short wavelength modulator for micro bunching of beams for laser acceleration experiments [1,2]. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.5 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. We also compare the experimental results to a simple analytic model that describes coupling to high order harmonics of the interaction.

  8. Experimental study on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of fused silica in air and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shi-zhen; Yao, Cai-zhen; Liao, Wei; Yuan, Xiao-dong; Wang, Tao; Zu, Xiao-tao

    2016-10-01

    Ablation rates of fused silica were studied as a function of femtosecond laser pulse fluences (0.7-41 J/cm2) in air and vacuum. The experiment was conducted by using a Ti:sapphire laser that emits radiation at 800 nm with a pulse width of 35 fs and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The morphology and ablation depth of laser-induced damage crater were evaluated by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ablation rates were calculated from the depth of craters induced by multiple laser pulses. Results showed that two ablation regimes, i.e. non-thermal and thermal ablation co-existed in air and vacuum at low and moderate fluences. A drop of ablation rate was observed at high fluence (higher than 9.5 J/cm2) in air. While in vacuum, the ablation rate increased continuously with the increasing of laser fluence and much higher than that in air. The drop of ablation rate observed at high fluence in air was due to the strong defocusing effects associated with the non-equilibrium ionization of air. Furthermore, the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), which was determined from the relationship between crater area and the logarithm of laser energy, was found to depend on the number of incident pulses on the same spot, and similar phenomenon was observed in air and vacuum.

  9. Acousto-optic Q-switched self-frequency-doubling Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 800 nm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujin; Lin, Yanfu; Gong, Xinghong; Huang, Jianhua; Luo, Zundu; Huang, Yidong

    2012-05-01

    Actively Q-switched self-frequency-doubling laser at 800 nm was first reported in an Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 crystal by using an acousto-optical modulator. At incident pump power of 16 W and pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, 1600 nm fundamental pulse laser with energy of 130 μJ and width of 170 ns, and self-frequency-doubling 800 nm pulse laser with energy of 20 μJ and width of 96 ns were respectively achieved in a hemispherical resonator end-pumped by a 970 nm laser diode. Pulse characteristics of fundamental and self-frequency-doubling lasers at different pulse repetition frequencies were also investigated.

  10. S100a8/NF-κB signal pathway is involved in the 800-nm diode laser-induced skin collagen remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaolin; Ge, Minggai; Qin, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Zhu, Pingya; Dang, Yongyan; Gu, Jun; Ye, Xiyun

    2016-05-01

    The 800-nm diode laser is widely used for hair removal and also promotes collagen synthesis, but the molecular mechanism by which dermis responses to the thermal damage induced by the 800-nm diode laser is still unclear. Ten 2-month-old mice were irradiated with the 800-nm diode laser at 20, 40, and 60 J/cm(2), respectively. Skin samples were taken for PCR, Western blot analysis, and histological study at day 3 or 30 after laser irradiation. The expression of S100a8 and its two receptors (advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor, RAGE and toll-like receptor 4, TRL4) was upregulated at day 3 after laser treatments. P-p65 levels were also elevated, causing the increase of cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6) and MMPs (MMP1a, MMP9). At day 30, PCR and Western blot analysis showed significant increase of type I and III procollagen in the dermis treated with laser. Importantly, skin structure was markedly improved in the laser-irradiated skin compared with the control. Thus, it seemed that S100a8 upregulation triggered NF-κB signal pathway through RAGE and TLR4, responding to laser-induced dermis wound healing. The involvement of the NF-κB pathway in MMP gene transcription promoted the turnover of collagen in the skin, accelerating new collagen synthesis.

  11. S100a8/NF-κB signal pathway is involved in the 800-nm diode laser-induced skin collagen remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaolin; Ge, Minggai; Qin, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Zhu, Pingya; Dang, Yongyan; Gu, Jun; Ye, Xiyun

    2016-05-01

    The 800-nm diode laser is widely used for hair removal and also promotes collagen synthesis, but the molecular mechanism by which dermis responses to the thermal damage induced by the 800-nm diode laser is still unclear. Ten 2-month-old mice were irradiated with the 800-nm diode laser at 20, 40, and 60 J/cm(2), respectively. Skin samples were taken for PCR, Western blot analysis, and histological study at day 3 or 30 after laser irradiation. The expression of S100a8 and its two receptors (advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor, RAGE and toll-like receptor 4, TRL4) was upregulated at day 3 after laser treatments. P-p65 levels were also elevated, causing the increase of cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6) and MMPs (MMP1a, MMP9). At day 30, PCR and Western blot analysis showed significant increase of type I and III procollagen in the dermis treated with laser. Importantly, skin structure was markedly improved in the laser-irradiated skin compared with the control. Thus, it seemed that S100a8 upregulation triggered NF-κB signal pathway through RAGE and TLR4, responding to laser-induced dermis wound healing. The involvement of the NF-κB pathway in MMP gene transcription promoted the turnover of collagen in the skin, accelerating new collagen synthesis. PMID:26914682

  12. Direct writing of 150 nm gratings and squares on ZnO crystal in water by using 800 nm femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jukun; Jia, Tianqing; Zhou, Kan; Feng, Donghai; Zhang, Shian; Zhang, Hongxin; Jia, Xin; Sun, Zhenrong; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-12-29

    We present a controllable fabrication of nanogratings and nanosquares on the surface of ZnO crystal in water based on femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). The formation of nanogrooves depends on both laser fluence and writing speed. A single groove with width less than 40 nm and double grooves with distance of 150 nm have been produced by manipulating 800 nm femtosecond laser fluence. Nanogratings with period of 150 nm, 300 nm and 1000 nm, and nanosquares with dimensions of 150 × 150 nm2 were fabricated by using this direct femtosecond laser writing technique.

  13. Mechanisms of the blue emission of NaYF4:Tm(3+) nanoparticles excited by an 800 nm continuous wave laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxin; Jia, Tianqing; Shang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-10-01

    A thorough understanding of energy transfer and upconversion (UC) processes between trivalent lanthanide (Ln(3+)) ions is essential and important for improving UC performance. However, because of the abundant energy states of Ln(3+) ions, UC mechanisms are very complicated, which makes it a challenge to exclusively verify and quantitatively evaluate the dominant process. In this study, the fundamental excitation processes of Tm(3+)-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals under 800 nm continuous wave (CW) laser excitation were experimentally investigated on the basis of the quantum transition principle. An 800 nm CW laser combined with other wavelength CW lasers, including 471 nm, 657 nm, 980 nm, and 1550 nm lasers, were designed to study in-depth the excitation processes of UC luminescence via simultaneous two-wavelength laser excitation. The results indicate that the excited state absorption of (3)H6→(3)H4∼∼(3)H5→(1)G4 is the dominant pathway of the 481 nm and 651 nm emission bands, and two kinds of energy transfer UC pathways, uniformly expressed as (1)G4 + (3)H4→(1)D2 + (3)F4, play the primary roles in the 456 nm emission band. PMID:27604173

  14. Enhancement of 800 nm upconversion emission in a thulium doped tellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhixu; Yao, Chuanfei; Wang, Shunbin; Zheng, Kezhi; Xiong, Liangming; Luo, Jie; Lv, Dajuan; Qin, Guanshi; Ohishi, Yasutake; Qin, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    We report enhanced upconversion (UC) fluorescence in Tm3+ doped tellurite microstructured fibers (TDTMFs) fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. Under the pumping of a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser, ultrabroadband supercontinuum light expanding from ˜1050 to ˜2700 nm was generated in a 4 cm long TDTMF. Simultaneously, intense 800 nm UC emission from the 3H4 → 3H6 transition of Tm3+ was observed in the same TDTMF. Compared to that pumped by a 1560 nm continuous wave fiber laser, the UC emission intensity was enhanced by ˜4.1 times. The enhancement was due to the spectral broadening in the TDTMF under the pumping of the 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser.

  15. Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenko, A.; Ergler, Th.; Zrost, K.; Feuerstein, B.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.; Jesus, V. L. B. de

    2007-12-31

    We report on a kinematically complete experiment on nonsequential double ionization of He by 25 fs 800 nm laser pulses at 1.5 PW/cm{sup 2}. The suppression of the recollision-induced excitation at this high intensity allows us to address in a clean way direct (e,2e) ionization by the recolliding electron. In contrast with earlier experimental results, but in agreement with various theoretical predictions, the two-electron momentum distributions along the laser polarization axis exhibit a pronounced V-shaped structure, which can be explained by the role of Coulomb repulsion and typical (e,2e) kinematics.

  16. Broadband and high-efficiency metal-multilayer dielectric grating centered at 800 nm based on non-quarter wave coatings as reflective mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuhua; Kong, Weijin; Yun, Maojin; Zhang, Wenfei; You, Chenglong; Wang, Zhao; Pan, Guoqing; Zhang, Mengmeng; Li, Xiaohong; Sun, Xin

    2013-07-01

    This article deals with designing broadband and high efficiency metal multi-layer dielectric grating (MMDG) used to compress and stretch ultra-short laser pulse. The diffraction characteristics of MMDG are analyzed with the method of rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Taking the diffraction efficiency of the -1 order as the value of merit function, the parameters such as groove depth, residual thickness, duty cycle are optimized to obtain broadband and high diffraction efficiency. The optimized MMDG shows an ultra-broadband working spectrum with the average efficiency exceeding 97% over 135nm wavelength centered at 800nm and TE polarization. The optimized MMDG should be useful for chirped pulse amplification.

  17. Transforming graphite to nanoscale diamonds by a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Nueske, R.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Enquist, H.; Harb, M.; Larsson, J.; Fang, Y.; Haakanson, U.

    2012-01-23

    Formation of cubic diamond from graphite following irradiation by a single, intense, ultra-short laser pulse has been observed. Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples were irradiated by a 100 fs pulse with a center wavelength of 800 nm. Following laser exposure, the HOPG samples were studied using Raman spectroscopy of the sample surface. In the laser-irradiated areas, nanoscale cubic diamond crystals have been formed. The exposed areas were also studied using grazing incidence x-ray powder diffraction showing a restacking of planes from hexagonal graphite to rhombohedral graphite.

  18. Cornea surgery with nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Wang, Bagui; Riemann, Iris; Kobow, Jens

    2005-04-01

    We report on a novel optical method for (i) flap-generation in LASIK procedures as well as (ii) for flap-free intrastromal refractive surgery based on nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses. The near infrared 200 fs pulses for multiphoton ablation have been provided by ultracompact turn-key MHz laser resonators. LASIK flaps and intracorneal cavities have been realized with high precision within living New Zealand rabbits using the system FemtoCutO (JenLab GmbH, Jena, Germany) at 800 nm laser wavelength. Using low-energy sub-2 nJ laser pulses, collateral damage due to photodisruptive and self-focusing effects was avoided. The laser ablation system consists of fast galvoscanners, focusing optics of high numerical aperture as well as a sensitive imaging system and provides also the possibility of 3D multiphoton imaging of fluorescent cellular organelles and SHG signals from collagen. Multiphoton tomography of the cornea was used to determine the exact intratissue beam position and to visualize intraocular post-laser effects. The wound healing process has been investigated up to 90 days after instrastromal laser ablation by histological analysis. Regeneration of damaged collagen structures and the migration of inflammation cells have been detected.

  19. Research on optical damage to sodium chloride by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavasheli, Yu. O.; Komarov, P. S.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Savintsev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    Thresholds of optical damage to sodium chloride by ultrashort laser pulses with a duration of about 40 fs are determined. Experiments were carried out using a terawatt titanium-sapphire laser device. p-polarized laser radiation at a wavelength of 800 nm fell on the specimen surface at an angle of 60°. Optical damage to the surface was observed when the critical electric field strength attained 94 MV/cm.

  20. High-power Femtosecond Optical Parametric Amplification at 1 kHz in BiB(3)O(6) pumped at 800 nm.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Valentin; Noack, Frank; Tzankov, Pancho; Ghotbi, Masood; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Majid; Nikolov, Ivailo; Buchvarov, Ivan

    2007-01-22

    Substantial power scaling of a travelling-wave femtosecond optical parametric amplifier, pumped near 800 nm by a 1 kHz Ti:sapphire laser amplifier, is demonstrated using monoclinic BiB(3)O(6) in a two stage scheme with continuum seeding. Total energy output (signal plus idler) exceeding 1 mJ is achieved, corresponding to an intrinsic conversion efficiency of approximately 32% for the second stage. The tunability extends from 1.1 to 2.9 microm. The high parametric gain and broad amplification bandwidth of this crystal allowed the maintenance of the pump pulse duration, leading to pulse lengths less than 140 fs, both for the signal and idler pulses, even at such high output levels.

  1. Hemifusion of cells using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katchinskiy, Nir; Godbout, Roseline; Goez, Helly R.; Elezzabi, Abdulhakem Y.

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of single cells via hemifusion of cellular membranes using femtosecond laser pulses is reported in this manuscript. This is a method to attach single cells using sub-10 femtosecond laser pulses, with 800 nm central wavelength delivered from a Ti:Sapphire laser is described. A fluorescent dye, Calcein AM, was used to verify that the cell's cytoplasm did not migrate from a dyed cell to a non-dyed cell, in order to ascertain that the cells did not go through cell-fusion process. An optical tweezer was used in order to assess the mechanical integrity of the attached joint membranes. Hemifusion of cellular membranes was successful without initiating full cell fusion. Attachment efficiency of 95% was achieved, while the cells' viability was preserved. The attachment was performed via the delivery of one to two trains of sub-10 femtosecond laser pulses lasting 15 milliseconds each. An ultrafast reversible destabilization of the phospholipid molecules in the cellular membranes was induced due to a laser-induced ionization process. The inner phospholipid cell membrane remained intact during the attachment procedure, and cells' cytoplasm remained isolated from the surrounding medium. The unbounded inner phospholipid molecules bonded to the nearest free phospholipid molecule, forming a joint cellular membrane at the connection point. The cellular membrane hemifusion technique can potentially provide a platform for the creation of engineered tissue and cell cultures.

  2. Laser pulse shaping for generating uniform three-dimensional ellipsoidal electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Chmnerisov, S.; Lewellen, J. W.

    2009-02-01

    A scheme of generating a uniform ellipsoidal laser pulse for high-brightness photoinjectors is discussed. The scheme is based on the chromatic aberration of a dispersive lens. Fourier optics simulation reveals the interplay of group velocity delay and dispersion in the scheme, as well as diffractions. Particle tracking simulation shows that the beam generated by such a laser pulse approaches the performance of that by an ideal ellipsoidal laser pulse and represents a significant improvement from the traditionally proposed cylindrical beam geometry. The scheme is tested in an 800-nm, optical proof-of-principle experiment at lower peak power with excellent agreement between the measurement and simulation.

  3. Diode laser based water vapor DIAL using modulated pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Phong Le Hoai; Abo, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a diode laser based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measuring lower-tropospheric water vapor profile using the modulated pulse technique. The transmitter is based on single-mode diode laser and tapered semiconductor optical amplifier with a peak power of 10W around 800nm absorption band, and the receiver telescope diameter is 35cm. The selected wavelengths are compared to referenced wavelengths in terms of random error and systematic errors. The key component of modulated pulse technique, a macropulse, is generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, and the modulation within the macropulse is coded according to a pseudorandom sequence with 100ns chip width. As a result, we evaluate both single pulse modulation and pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique. The water vapor profiles conducted from these modulation techniques are compared to the real observation data in summer in Japan.

  4. Cloning assay thresholds on cells exposed to ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Becker, Thomas P.; Oehring, Hartmut; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen

    1999-06-01

    The influence of the peak power, laser wavelength and the pulse duration of near infrared ultrashort laser pulses on the reproduction behavior of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been studied. In particular, we determined the cloning efficiency of single cell pairs after exposure to ultrashort laser pulses with an intensity in the range of GW/cm2 and TW/cm2. A total of more than 3500 non- labeled cells were exposed to a highly focused scanning beam of a multiphoton laser microscope with 60 microsecond(s) pixel dwell time per scan. The beam was provided by a tunable argon ion laser pumped mode-locked 76 MHz Titanium:Sapphire laser as well as by a compact solid-state laser based system (Vitesse) at a fixed wavelength of 800 nm. Pulse duration (tau) was varied in the range of 100 fs to 4 ps by out-of- cavity pulse-stretching units consisting of SF14 prisms and blazed gratings. Within an optical (laser power) window CHO cells could be scanned for hours without severe impact on reproduction behavior, morphology and vitality. Ultrastructural studies reveal that mitochondria are the major targets of intense destructive laser pulses. Above certain laser power P thresholds, CHO cells started to delay or failed to undergo cell division and, in part, to develop uncontrolled cell growth (giant cell formation). The damage followed a P2/(tau) relation which is typical for a two- photon excitation process. Therefore, cell damage was found to be more pronounced at shorter pulses. Due to the same P2/(tau) relation for the efficiency of fluorescence excitation, two-photon microscopy of living cells does not require extremely short femtosecond laser pulses nor pulse compression units. Picosecond as well as femtosecond lasers can be used as efficient light sources in safe two photon fluorescence microscopy. Only in three photon fluorescence microscopy, femtosecond laser pulses are advantageous over picosecond pulses.

  5. Cloning assay thresholds on cells exposed to ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Becker, Thomas P.; Oehring, Hartmut; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen

    1999-06-01

    The influence of the peak power, laser wavelength and the pulse duration of near infrared (NIR) ultrashort laser pulses on the reproduction behavior of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been studied. In particular we determined the cloning efficiency of single cell pairs after exposure to ultrashort laser pulses with an intensity in the range of GW/cm2 and TW/cm2. A total of more than 3500 non- labeled cells were exposed to a highly focused scanning beam of a multiphoton laser microscope with 60 microsecond pixel dwell time per scan. The beam was provided by a tunable argon ion laser pumped mode-locked 76 MHz Titanium:Sapphire laser as well as by a compact solid-state laser based system (Vitesse) at a fixed wavelength of 800 nm. Pulse duration (tau) was varied in the range of 100 fs to 4 ps by out-of-cavity pulse- stretching units consisting of SF14 prisms and blazed gratings. Within an optical (laser power) window CHO cells could be scanned for hours without severe impact on reproduction behavior, morphology and vitality. Ultrastructural studies reveal that mitochondria are the major targets of intense destructive laser pulses. Above certain laser power P thresholds, CHO cells started to delay or failed to undergo cell division and, in part, to develop uncontrolled cell growth (giant cell formation). The damage followed a P2/(tau) relation which is typical for a two-photon excitation process. Therefore, cell damage was found to be more pronounced at shorter pulses. Due to the same P2/(tau) relation for the efficiency of fluorescence excitation, two- photon microscopy of living cells does not require extremely short femtosecond laser pulses nor pulse compression units. Picosecond as well as femtosecond layers can be used as efficient light sources in safe two photon fluorescence microscopy. Only in three photon fluorescence microscopy, femtosecond laser pulses are advantageous over picosecond pulses.

  6. Pulsed Laser Tissue Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Joseph T.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Jansen, E. Duco; Motamedi, Massoud; Welch, Ashley J.

    Pulsed lasers, by virtue of their ability to deliver energy in a spatially and temporally confined fashion, are able to micromachine biological tissues. The clinical success of pulsed laser treatment, however, is often limited by the extent of damage that is caused to the tissue in the vicinity of the ablation crater. In general, pulsed ablation is a trade off between thermal damage to surrounding tissue, caused by relatively long pulses (>100 ms), and mechanical damage to surrounding tissue, caused by relatively short pulses (<1 ms). To identify the origin of pulsed laser induced damage, the possible laser tissue interactions and ablation are discussed here and in Chapter 14. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with a condensed overview of the parameters that must be considered in the process of pulsed laser ablation of soft tissue. In this chapter, pulsed infrared ablation of biological soft tissue is used as a paradigm to illustrate the concepts and design considerations. Generally speaking, the absorption of laser light may lead to photothermal, photomechanical or photochemical interaction with the irradiated tissue [1-5]. The vast majority of therapeutic laser-tissue interactions is based on photothermal interactions where laser energy is converted into heat. Subsequent to thermalization of the absorbed optical energy, heat transfer mechanisms, in particular conduction allow thermal diffusion from high temperature areas to surrounding regions. When laser penetration depth is less than the laser spot radius, the thermal diffusion time, τ th, can be defined as:

  7. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  8. Laser fusion pulse shape controller

    DOEpatents

    Siebert, Larry D.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for controlling the pulse shape, i.e., the pulse duration and intensity pattern, of a pulsed laser system, and which is particularly well adapted for controlling the pellet ignition pulse in a laser-driven fusion reaction system. The apparatus comprises a laser generator for providing an optical control pulse of the shape desired, a pulsed laser triggered by the control pulse, and a plurality of optical Kerr-effect gates serially disposed at the output of the pulsed laser and selectively triggered by the control pulse to pass only a portion of the pulsed laser output generally corresponding in shape to the control pulse.

  9. Cell perforation mediated by plasmonic bubbles generated by a single near infrared femtosecond laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Boutopoulos, Christos; Bergeron, Eric; Meunier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report on transient membrane perforation of living cancer cells using plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enhanced single near infrared (NIR) femtosecond (fs) laser pulse. Under optimized laser energy fluence, single pulse treatment (τ = 45 fs, λ = 800 nm) resulted in 77% cell perforation efficiency and 90% cell viability. Using dark field and ultrafast imaging, we demonstrated that the generation of submicron bubbles around the AuNPs is the necessary condition for the cell membrane perforation. AuNP clustering increased drastically the bubble generation efficiency, thus enabling an effective laser treatment using low energy dose in the NIR optical therapeutical window.

  10. TCSPC FLIM in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1700 nm (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Shcheslavsky, Vladislav

    2016-03-01

    Excitation and detection in the wavelength range above 800nm is a convenient and relatively inexpensive way to increase the penetration depth in optical microscopy. Moreover, detection at long wavelength avoids the problem that tissue autofluorescence contaminates the signals from endogenous fluorescence probes. FLIM at NIR wavelength may therefore be complementary to multiphoton microscopy, especially if the lifetimes of NIR fluorophores report biological parameters of the tissue structures they are bound to. Unfortunately, neither the excitation sources nor the detectors of standard confocal and multiphoton laser scanning systems are directly suitable for excitation and detection of NIR fluorescence. Most of these problems can be solved, however, by using ps diode lasers or Ti:Sapphire lasers at their fundamental wavelength, and NIR-sensitive detectors. With NIR-sensitive PMTs the detection wavelength range can be extended up to 900 nm, with InGaAs SPAD detectors up to 1700 nm. Here, we demonstrate the use of a combination of laser scanning, multi-dimensional TCSPC, and advanced excitation sources and detectors for FLIM at up to 1700 nm. The performance was tested at tissue samples incubated with NIR dyes. The fluorescence lifetimes generally get shorter with increasing absorption and emission wavelengths of the dyes. For the cyanine dye IR1061, absorbing around 1060 nm, the lifetime was found to be as short as 70 ps. Nevertheless the fluorescence decay could still be clearly detected. Almost all dyes showed clear lifetime changes depending on the binding to different tissue constituents.

  11. Optical emission generated from silicon under dual-wavelength femtosecond double-pulse laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anmin; Wang, Ying; Sui, Laizhi; Li, Suyu; Li, Shuchang; Liu, Dunli; Jiang, Yuanfei; Jin, Mingxing

    2015-09-21

    In femtosecond double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, collinear double-pulse performance is investigated experimentally using various laser wavelength combinations of 800 nm and 400 nm Ti: sapphire lasers. The induced plasma emission line collected by BK7 lenses is the Si (I) at 390.55 nm. The double-pulse time separation ranges from -300 ps to 300 ps. The line intensity is dependent on the time separation of the dual-wavelength femtosecond double-pulse, and its behavior is unlike that of single-wavelength femtosecond double-pulses. Optical emission intensity can be enhanced by selecting appropriate time separation between sub-pulses. This result is particularly advantageous in the context of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  12. Optical emission generated from silicon under dual-wavelength femtosecond double-pulse laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anmin; Wang, Ying; Sui, Laizhi; Li, Suyu; Li, Shuchang; Liu, Dunli; Jiang, Yuanfei; Jin, Mingxing

    2015-09-21

    In femtosecond double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, collinear double-pulse performance is investigated experimentally using various laser wavelength combinations of 800 nm and 400 nm Ti: sapphire lasers. The induced plasma emission line collected by BK7 lenses is the Si (I) at 390.55 nm. The double-pulse time separation ranges from -300 ps to 300 ps. The line intensity is dependent on the time separation of the dual-wavelength femtosecond double-pulse, and its behavior is unlike that of single-wavelength femtosecond double-pulses. Optical emission intensity can be enhanced by selecting appropriate time separation between sub-pulses. This result is particularly advantageous in the context of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. PMID:26406666

  13. Multiple pulse thresholds in live eyes for ultrashort laser pulses in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarski, David J.; Cain, Clarence P.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Noojin, Gary D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    1999-06-01

    Damage thresholds using multiple laser pulses to produce minimum visible lesions (MVL) in rhesus monkey eyes are reported for near-infrared (800 nm) at 130 femtoseconds. Previous studies by our research group using single pulses in the near-infrared (1060 nm) have determined damage thresholds and retinal spot size dependence. We report the first multiple pulse damage thresholds using femtosecond pulses. MVL thresholds at 1 hour and 24 hours postexposure were determined for 1, 100 and 1,000 pulses and we compare these with other reported multiple pulse thresholds. These new data will be added to the databank for retinal MVL's as a function of pulse repetition rate for this pulsewidth and a comparison will be made with the ANSI standard for multiple pulse exposures. Our measurements show that the retinal ED50 threshold/pulse in the paramacula decreases for increasing number of pulses. The MVL-ED50 at the threshold/pulse decreased by a factor of 4 (0.55 (mu) J to 0.13 (mu) J/pulse) for an increase from 1 to 100 pulses.

  14. Controlling the formation of excited neutral D* fragments of D2 using intense ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feizollah, Peyman; Berry, Ben; Severt, T.; Jochim, Bethany; Zohrabi, M.; Kanaka Raju, P.; Rajput, Jyoti; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2016-05-01

    Excited neutral D* fragments (n >> 1) are produced by the interaction of strong-field laser pulses with D2 molecules. In this work, we focus on the formation of low kinetic energy release (KER) D* fragments, which are relatively unstudied, using NIR (800-nm) and UV (400-nm) laser pulses. The KER spectrum is found to be very sensitive to the laser parameters, including laser chirp. By changing the chirp of the UV laser pulses, two separate low-KER peaks are generated instead of a single peak. Moreover, the ratio between these peaks can be controlled with the chirp. Similarly, by chirping the NIR pulses, the low-KER peak is attenuated and shifted to lower energy. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy. BJ was also supported in part by DOE-SCGF (DE-AC05-06OR23100).

  15. Efficient 1 kHz femtosecond optical parametric amplification in BiB(3)O(6) pumped at 800 nm.

    PubMed

    Ghotbi, Masood; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Majid; Petrov, Valentin; Tzankov, Pancho; Noack, Frank

    2006-10-30

    We demonstrate efficient operation of a tunable femtosecond optical parametric amplifier based on BiB(3)O(6) pumped at 800 nm by a 1 kHz Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier. The idler wavelength coverage extends to beyond 3 mum and the pulse duration at this wavelength is of the order of 110 fs. This new nonlinear borate crystal offers exceptionally high nonlinearity, making it a very promising candidate for power scaling of such frequency converters in the near-IR.

  16. Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused laser pulses in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuk, Donghoon; Yoo, Yungjun; Rosenthal, Eric; Jhajj, Nihal; Milchberg, Howard; Kim, Ki-Yong

    We have demonstrated scalable terahertz (THz) generation via cylindrical focusing of two-color laser pulses in air. In this experiment, we have used a terawatt (TW) laser system which can deliver >50 mJ, 800 nm, 50 fs pulses at a 10 Hz repetition rate. A 800 nm pulse passing through a nonlinear crystal (BBO) generates its second harmonic pulse (400 nm). Both pulses pass through a cylindrical lens and are focused together to generate a 2-dimensional plasma sheet in air. This yields two diverging THz lobes, characterized by an uncooled microbolometer. This observed radiation angle and pattern is explained by the optical-Cherenkov radiation theory. The diverging THz radiation is re-focused to yield strong THz field strengths (>20 MV/cm) at the focus. At laser energy of 40 mJ, cylindrical focusing provides THz energy of >30 microjoules, far exceeding the output produced by spherical focusing. This shows that cylindrical focusing can effectively minimize ionization-induced defocusing, previously observed in spherical focusing, and can allow scalable THz generation with relatively high laser energies (>20 mJ). Work supported by DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. 014216-001.

  17. Nanofabrication with Pulsed Lasers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An overview of pulsed laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication, which are currently developed in our Institute (LP3), is presented. The methods compass a variety of possibilities for material nanostructuring offered by laser–matter interactions and imply either the nanostructuring of the laser-illuminated surface itself, as in cases of direct laser ablation or laser plasma-assisted treatment of semiconductors to form light-absorbing and light-emitting nano-architectures, as well as periodic nanoarrays, or laser-assisted production of nanoclusters and their controlled growth in gaseous or liquid medium to form nanostructured films or colloidal nanoparticles. Nanomaterials synthesized by laser-assisted methods have a variety of unique properties, not reproducible by any other route, and are of importance for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, biological sensing, imaging and therapeutics. PMID:20672069

  18. Pulsed gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Louis W.; Fitzsimmons, William A.

    1978-01-01

    A pulsed gas laser is constituted by Blumlein circuits wherein space metal plates function both as capacitors and transmission lines coupling high frequency oscillations to a gas filled laser tube. The tube itself is formed by spaced metal side walls which function as connections to the electrodes to provide for a high frequency, high voltage discharge in the tube to cause the gas to lase. Also shown is a spark gap switch having structural features permitting a long life.

  19. Radiation pressure acceleration of protons to 93 MeV with circularly polarized petawatt laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I. Jong; Pae, Ki Hong; Choi, Il Woo; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kim, Hyung Taek; Singhal, Himanshu; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Lee, Hwang Woon; Nickles, Peter V.; Jeong, Tae Moon; Kim, Chul Min; Nam, Chang Hee

    2016-07-01

    The radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of charged particles has been a challenging task in laser-driven proton/ion acceleration due to its stringent requirements in laser and target conditions. The realization of radiation-pressure-driven proton acceleration requires irradiating ultrathin targets with an ultrahigh contrast and ultraintense laser pulses. We report the generation of 93-MeV proton beams achieved by applying 800-nm 30-fs circularly polarized laser pulses with an intensity of 6.1 × 10 20 W / cm 2 to 15-nm-thick polymer targets. The radiation pressure acceleration was confirmed from the obtained optimal target thickness, quadratic energy scaling, polarization dependence, and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We expect this clear demonstration of RPA to facilitate the realization of laser-driven proton/ion sources delivering energetic and short-pulse particle beams for novel applications.

  20. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon two-color double-pulse irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2013-12-16

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of laser pulse pairs (50 fs single-pulse duration) of two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm) is studied experimentally. Parallel polarized double-pulse sequences with a variable delay Δt between −10 and +10 ps and between the individual fs-laser pulses were used to investigate the LIPSS periods versus Δt. These two-color experiments reveal the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface by the first laser pulse for LIPSS formation. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS frequencies.

  1. Laser pulse sampler

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.

    1998-03-24

    The Laser Pulse Sampler (LPS) measures temporal pulse shape without the problems of a streak camera. Unlike the streak camera, the laser pulse directly illuminates a camera in the LPS, i.e., no additional equipment or energy conversions are required. The LPS has several advantages over streak cameras. The dynamic range of the LPS is limited only by the range of its camera, which for a cooled camera can be as high as 16 bits, i.e., 65,536. The LPS costs less because there are fewer components, and those components can be mass produced. The LPS is easier to calibrate and maintain because there is only one energy conversion, i.e., photons to electrons, in the camera. 5 figs.

  2. Laser pulse sampler

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The Laser Pulse Sampler (LPS) measures temporal pulse shape without the problems of a streak camera. Unlike the streak camera, the laser pulse directly illuminates a camera in the LPS, i.e., no additional equipment or energy conversions are required. The LPS has several advantages over streak cameras. The dynamic range of the LPS is limited only by the range of its camera, which for a cooled camera can be as high as 16 bits, i.e., 65,536. The LPS costs less because there are fewer components, and those components can be mass produced. The LPS is easier to calibrate and maintain because there is only one energy conversion, i.e., photons to electrons, in the camera.

  3. Laser pulse detector

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Akerman, M. Alfred

    1981-01-01

    A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

  4. Laser pulse detector

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.; Akerman, M.A.

    1979-08-13

    A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

  5. Multiple pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.S.; Jernigan, J.L.

    1981-02-10

    A multiple pulse laser from a single resonant cavity is disclosed. An acousto-optic cell is used to modulate coherent light from a lasing element. Either multiple chirp signals or a masked mirror are used to provide distinct pulses of light. Through proper choice of materials for the acousto-optic cell and use of divergent optics, a higher power level is obtained. Use of a multi-tapped delay line permits a shorter period between pulses due to the linear superposition principle. When the mask embodiment is used, the acousto-optic cell focuses light which scans across the mask. Whenever the focused light passes through the mask, lasing occurs which generates an output pulse.

  6. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Generation of Continuum Extreme-Ultraviolet Radiation by Carrier-Envelope-Phase-Stabilized 5-fs Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Hao; Yun, Chen-Xia; Zhu, Jiang-Feng; Han, Hai-Nian; Zhong, Xin; Zhang, Wei; Hou, Xun; Wei, Zhi-Yi

    2009-11-01

    Coherent extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation is studied by interaction of carrier-envelope (CE) phase stabilized high energy 5-fs infrared (800 nm) laser pulses with neon gas at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. A broadband continuum XUV spectrum in the cut-off region is demonstrated when the CE phase is shifted to about zero, rather than modulated spectral harmonics when setting of CE phase is nonzero. The results show the generation of isolated attosecond XUV pulses.

  7. Reduction of Sm(3+) to Sm(2+) by an intense femtosecond laser pulse in solution.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Daisuke; Yamade, Eriko; Kusaba, Mitsuhiro; Yatsuhashi, Tomoyuki; Nakashima, Nobuaki

    2010-05-13

    Samarium 3+ ions in methanol were found to be reduced to the corresponding 2+ ions upon irradiation with intense femtosecond laser pulses. The reduction was observed at both pulses with central wavelengths of 403 nm converted from an 800 fs fundamental pulse and 800 nm with a duration of 43 fs. When the laser wavelength was tuned to the 4f-4f absorption at 403 nm corresponding to the (6)P(3/2) <-- (6)H(5/2) transition, the reduction occurred by multiphoton absorption, presumably due to reaching the deep charge transfer state. In the case of excitation by 800 nm pulses of the fundamental wavelength of the Ti:sapphire laser, the reduction is considered to occur via solvent ionization followed by electron capture by Sm(3+). The product Sm(2+) was detected by its fluorescence, which was observed for the first time in solution and showed a broad spectrum peak around 750 nm with a quantum yield of 0.050 in methanol in the presence of 15-crown-5-ether. PMID:20405937

  8. Ablation dynamics and shock wave expansion during laser processing of CFRP with ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenmann, Margit; Haist, Christoph; Freitag, Christian; Onuseit, Volkher; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) have a large potential in the automotive lightweight construction due to their low density and high mechanical stability. Compared with today's laser processing methods of metals the main issues in laser processing of CFRP are the very differing thermal, optical and mechanical properties of the components. To understand the process in detail, the ablation process of CFRP with ultrashort laser pulses was investigated. The shock wave and the vapor resulting from processing with single laser pulses were recorded. Shadow photography and luminescence photography with an ultra-high-speed camera was used to show the ablation process with a temporary resolution of up to 3 ns. The field of view was 250 μm × 250 μm. An ultrashort laser pulse with pulse duration of 4 ps and a wavelength of 800 nm was focused onto the workpiece. The energy content of the shock wave was calculated from the resulting images. The energy content of the shock wave was about 20 % of the incident energy and the speed of propagation of the shock wave was more than 2000 m/s. The high intensities in the range of 1013 W/cm2 lead to formation of a plasma plume which was clearly seen in the shadow photography images.

  9. Production of petawatt laser pulses by backward Raman amplification in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaohui; Zuo, Yanlei; Su, Jingqin; Liu, Lanqin; Jiao, Zhihong; Wei, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    Backward Raman amplification (BRA) in plasma has been demonstrated an effective way to produce high power laser pulses. However, most experiments of BRA are carried out around the pump wavelength of 800 nm. In recent years, the 1053 nm pump pulse becomes more and more essential as the development of the chirped pulse amplification (CPA) around this wavelength. Here we design an experiment of BRA with a 1053 nm, 20 ps pump pulse and a 1200 nm, 50 fs seed pulse based on the facility of XG III. The simulation results obtained by a 1-d particle-in-cell (PIC) code show that the amplified peak seed intensity of ˜ 5 × 1016 W/cm2 is obtained, with an energy transfer up to 16.8%. An output pulse of petawatt power is theoretically demonstrated feasible.

  10. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Rohloff, M.; Das, S. K.; Hoehm, S.; Grunwald, R.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krueger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2011-07-01

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of five Ti:sapphire femtosecond (fs) laser pulse pairs (150 fs, 800 nm) is studied experimentally. A Michelson interferometer is used to generate near-equal-energy double-pulse sequences with a temporal pulse delay from -20 to +20 ps between the cross-polarized individual fs-laser pulses ({approx}0.2 ps resolution). The results of multiple double-pulse irradiation sequences are characterized by means of Scanning Electron and Scanning Force Microscopy. Specifically in the sub-ps delay domain striking differences in the surface morphologies can be observed, indicating the importance of the laser-induced free-electron plasma in the conduction band of the solids for the formation of LIPSS.

  11. Efficient reflection grisms for pulse compression and dispersion compensation of femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Emily A.; Gaudiosi, David M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Jimenez, Ralph; Kane, Steve; Huff, Rachel; Durfee, Charles; Squier, Jeff

    2006-11-01

    Efficient reflection grisms for pulse-compression and material-dispersion compensation have been designed and demonstrated in a 40 fs, 300 μJ, 5 kHz downchirped pulse amplification system for the first time to our knowledge. A grism design for 800nm femtosecond laser pulse dispersion compensation applications is realized by using standard, commercial diffraction gratings.

  12. Frequency doubling and tripling of ultrashort laser pulses in biological tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, L. B.; Eichler, J.; Joslin, E. J.; Kim, B.-M.

    1998-07-24

    Structural proteins such as collagen and elastin are known to generate second harmonic at high laser intensities. Second and third harmonic generations (SHG, THG) of 0.4 ps Ti-Sapphire laser radiation at 800 nm were observed in various biological tissues. Dependence of SHG on laser pulse energy and pulse width was investigated. Reflected second harmonic yield was measured for animal tissue in vitro and human skin in vivo. The yield varies about a factor of 20 for various areas of the skin while the scattered laser radiation (diffuse reflectance) varies only by a factor of 2. In some cases the THG efficiency was comparable to the SHG. Possible applications of higher harmonic radiation for diagnostics and microscopy are discussed.

  13. Design and construction of a PW ultrashort laser facility with ns, ps, and fs outputting pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qihua; Huang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xiao; Zeng, Xiaoming; Xie, Xudong; Wang, Fang; Wang, Fengrui; Lin, Donghui; Jiang, Dongbin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Kainan; Zuo, Yanlei; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Ying; Wei, Xiaofeng; Fan, Dianyuan

    2007-06-01

    A petawatt laser facility with three beams for fast ignition research and strong-field physics applications has been designed and is being constructed. The first beam (referred as SILEX-I) is a Ti:sapphire femto-second laser which pulse width is 30 fs, and till now, output power has reached to 330 TW. The other two beams are Nd 3+:glass lasers which output energy are larger than 1kJ and pulse width are about 1ps and 1ns respectively. By using the technology of OPA pumped by 800nm femtosecond laser and seeded by super-continuum white light (SWL), the three beams are synchronized with each other without jitter time. Tiled multilayer dielectric coating gratings are used for the compressor of the PW beam.

  14. Optical field ionization of atoms and ions using ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, D.N.

    1993-12-01

    This dissertation research is an investigation of the strong optical field ionization of atoms and ions by 120-fs, 614-run laser pulses and 130-fs, 800-nm laser pulses. The experiments have shown ionization that is enhanced above the predictions of sequential tunneling models for He{sup +2}, Ne{sup +2} and Ar{sup +2}. The ion yields for He{sup +l}, Ne{sup +l} and Ar{sup +l} agree well with the theoretical predictions of optical tunneling models. Investigation of the polarization dependence of the ionization indicates that the enhancements are consistent with a nonsequential ionization mechanism in which the linearly polarized field drives the electron wavefunction back toward the ion core and causes double ionization through inelastic e-2e scattering. These investigations have initiated a number of other studies by other groups and are of current scientific interest in the fields of high-irradiance laser-matter interactions and production of high-density plasmas. This work involved: (1) Understanding the characteristic nature of the ion yields produced by tunneling ionization through investigation of analytic solutions for tunneling at optical frequencies. (2) Extensive characterization of the pulses produced by 614-nm and 800-ran ultrashort pulse lasers. Absolute calibration of the irradiance scale produced shows the practicality of the inverse problem--measuring peak laser irradiance using ion yields. (3) Measuring the ion yields for three noble gases using linear, circular and elliptical polarizations of laser pulses at 614-nm and 800-nm. The measurements are some of the first measurements for pulse widths as low as 120-fs.

  15. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOEpatents

    Daly, T.P.; Moses, E.I.; Patterson, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.

    1994-08-09

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse using one or more delay loops is disclosed. The delay loops have a partially reflective beam splitter and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors arranged such that the laser beam pulse enters into the delay loop through the beam splitter and circulates therein along a delay loop length defined by the mirrors. As the laser beam pulse circulates within the delay loop a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse strikes the beam splitter. The laser beam pulse is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses. The delay loops are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses using additive waveform synthesis. 8 figs.

  16. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P.; Moses, Edward I.; Patterson, Ralph W.; Sawicki, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse (20) using one or more delay loops (10). The delay loops (10) have a partially reflective beam splitter (12) and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors (14) arranged such that the laser beam pulse (20) enters into the delay loop (10) through the beam splitter (12) and circulates therein along a delay loop length (24) defined by the mirrors (14). As the laser beam pulse (20) circulates within the delay loop (10) a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse (20) strikes the beam splitter (12). The laser beam pulse (20) is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56). The delay loops (10) are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56) using additive waveform synthesis.

  17. Micro pulse laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An eye safe, compact, solid state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering is disclosed. The transmitter of the micro pulse lidar is a diode pumped micro-J pulse energy, high repetition rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver employs a photon counting solid state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited to optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that micropulse lider systems are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring which require full time, unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure.

  18. Training Ultrafast Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averin, Ruslan; Wells, N.; Todt, M.; Smolnisky, N.; Jastram, N.; Jochim, B.; Gregerson, N.; Wells, E.; Sayler, A.; McKenna, J.; Carnes, K.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Kling, M. F.

    2009-11-01

    Closed loop control of molecular processes utilizing shaped ultrafast laser pulses has been around for a number of years, yet this type of control has primarily utilized Time of Flight ion yield data for feedback. We present experiments using Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) as the feedback source for the closed loop control. Using VMI allows for pulse optimization not only with respect to the disassociation species but also angular information of the final state. We demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating this kind of feedback into the control loop. Using this technique, we controlled the dissociation branching ratio of CO^+ into C^+ +O or C ^+O^+ and used the VMI information to recover additional information about the control mechanism.

  19. Effects of electron relaxation on multiple harmonic generation from metal surfaces with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatzas, N. E.; Georges, A. T.

    2006-11-01

    Calculations are presented for the first four (odd and even) harmonics of an 800 nm laser from a gold surface, with pulse widths ranging from 100 down to 14 fs. For peak laser intensities above 1 GW/cm 2 the harmonics are enhanced because of a partial depletion of the initial electron states. At 10 11 W/cm 2 of peak laser intensity the calculated conversion efficiency for 2nd-harmonic generation is 3 × 10 -9, while for the 5th-harmonic it is 10 -10. The generated harmonic pulses are broadened and delayed relative to the laser pulse because of the finite relaxation times of the excited electronic states. The finite electron relaxation times cause also the broadening of the autocorrelations of the laser pulses obtained from surface harmonic generation by two time-delayed identical pulses. Comparison with recent experimental results shows that the response time of an autocorrelator using nonlinear optical processes in a gold surface is shorter than the electron relaxation times. This seems to indicate that for laser pulses shorter than ˜30 fs, the fast nonresonant channel for multiphoton excitation via continuum-continuum transitions in metals becomes important as the resonant channel becomes slow (relative to the laser pulse) and less efficient.

  20. Formation of Si nanocrystals in SiOx, SiOx:C:H films and Si/SiO2 multilayer nano-heterostructures by pulse laser treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neizvestniy, I. G.; Volodin, V. A.; Gismatulin, A. A.; Kamaev, G. N.; Antonenko, A. H.; Cherkov, A. G.; Litovchenko, V. G.; Lisovsky, I. P.; Maidanchuk, I. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Furnace annealing and pulse laser treatments, including nanosecond laser treatments (KrF laser 248 nm wavelength, 20 ns pulse duration and XeCl laser 308 nm wavelength, 10 ns pulse duration) and femtosecond laser treatments (Tisapphire laser, 800 nm wavelength, <30 fs pulse duration) were applied for crystallization of amorphous hydrogenated silicon films, SiOx films and multilayer nanostructures. The as-deposited and annealed structures were studied using optical methods and electron microscopy techniques. The influence of impurities on crystallization and formation of Si nanoclusters was studied. Regimes for pulse laser crystallization of amorphous Si nanoclusters and nanolayers were found. The developed approach can be used for the creation of dielectric films with semiconductor nanoclusters on nonrefractory substrates.

  1. Ablation of crystalline oxides by infrared femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Fumiya; Cahill, David G.; Gundrum, Bryan; Averback, R. S.

    2006-10-15

    We use focused laser pulses with duration of 180 fs and wavelength of 800 nm to study the interactions of high power near-infrared light with the surfaces of single-crystal transparent oxides (sapphire, LaAlO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3}, yttria-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, and MgO); the morphologies of the ablation craters are studied by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. With the exception of LaAlO{sub 3}, the high temperature annealing of these oxide crystals produces atomically flat starting surfaces that enable studies of the morphology of ablation craters with subnanometer precision. The threshold fluence for ablation is determined directly from atomic-force microscopy images and increases approximately linearly with the band gap of the oxide. For all oxides except sapphire, the depth of the ablation crater increases approximately as the square root of the difference between the peak laser fluence and the threshold fluence for ablation. Sapphire shows unique behavior: (i) at laser fluences within 1 J/cm{sup 2} of the threshold for ablation, the depth of the ablation crater increases gradually instead of abruptly with laser fluence, and (ii) the rms roughness of the ablation crater shows a pronounced minimum of <0.2 nm at a laser fluence of 1 J/cm{sup 2} above the threshold.

  2. Laser pulse duration dependence of blister formation on back-radiated Ti thin films for BB-LIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, N. T.; Starinskiy, S. V.; Nerushev, O. A.; Bulgakova, N. M.; Bulgakov, A. V.; Campbell, E. E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of the laser pulse duration on the mechanism of blister formation in the particle transfer technique, blister-based laser-induced forward transfer, was investigated. Pulses from a fs Ti:Sapphire laser (120 fs, 800 nm) and from a ns Nd:YAG laser (7 ns, 532 nm) were used to directly compare blister formation on thin titanium films of ca. 300 nm thickness, deposited on glass. The different blister morphologies were compared and contrasted by using optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results provide evidence for different blister formation mechanisms: for fs pulses the mechanism is predominantly ablation at the metal-glass interface accompanied by confined plasma expansion and deformation of the remaining metal film; for ns pulses it is heating accompanied by thermal expansion of the metal film.

  3. Angular resolved photoionization of C60 by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Zhenhua; Suessmann, Frederik; Zherebtsov, Sergey; Skruszewicz, Slawomir; Tiggesbaeumker, Josef; Fennel, Thomas; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz; Cocke, C.; Kling, Matthias; JRM laboratory, Kansas State University Team; University of Rostock Collaboration; Max-Planck InstitutQuantumoptik Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Neutral C60 molecules are ionized by intense femtosecond laser pulses around the wavelength of 800 nm with pulse durations 4 fs and 30 fs. We measure photoelectrons utilizing velocity-map imaging (VMI) and analyze the photoelectron angular distributions. For particular photoelectron energies, these distributions might reflect the excitation and ionization of superatomic molecular orbitals (SAMOs) which have been theoretically predicted and only recently experimentally observed. SAMOs arise from the hollow core spherical structures of the C60 molecules and differ from Rydberg states of C60 by their potential to exhibit electron density within the C60 cage. We have recorded the carrier envelope phase (CEP) dependence of the electron emission for 4 fs pulses using single shot CEP-tagging. The CEP-dependent asymmetry in the electron emission is observed to strongly depend on the laser polarization. Furthermore, the amplitudes and phases of the CEP-dependent electron emission are analyzed and show that thermal electron emission can be avoided enabling a more direct comparison to theory.

  4. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, M.D.

    1994-10-07

    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced.

  5. Tailoring the surface plasmon resonance of embedded silver nanoparticles by combining nano- and femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doster, J.; Baraldi, G.; Gonzalo, J.; Solis, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that the broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a single layer of near-coalescence silver nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in a dielectric matrix can be tailored by irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse into a distribution featuring a sharp resonance at 435 nm. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal the underlying mechanism to be a transformation into a distribution of well-separated spherical particles. Additional exposure to multiple femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm or 800 nm wavelength induces polarization anisotropy of the SPR, with a peak shift that increases with laser wavelength. The spectral changes are measured in-situ, employing reflection and transmission micro-spectroscopy with a lateral resolution of 4 μm. Spectral maps as a continuous function of local fluence can be readily produced from a single spot. The results open exciting perspectives for dynamically tuning and switching the optical response of NP systems, paving the way for next-generation applications.

  6. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos; Lozovoy, Vadim V.; Comstock, Matthew

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  7. High-power pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1980-04-02

    The ideas that led to the successful construction and operation of large multibeam fusion lasers at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reviewed. These lasers are based on the use of Nd:glass laser materials. However, most of the concepts are applicable to any laser being designed for fusion experimentation. This report is a summary of lectures given by the author at the 20th Scottish University Summer School in Physics, on Laser Plasma Interaction. This report includes basic concepts of the laser plasma system, a discussion of lasers that are useful for short-pulse, high-power operation, laser design constraints, optical diagnostics, and system organization.

  8. Application of femtosecond ultrashort pulse laser to photodynamic therapy mediated by indocyanine green

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, M; Awazu, K; Takahashi, T; Sakaguchi, H; Horiike, H; Ohji, M; Tano, Y

    2004-01-01

    Backgrounds/aims: To evaluate treatment with high peak power pulse energy by femtosecond ultrashort pulse laser (titanium sapphire laser) delivered at an 800 nm wavelength for corneal neovascularisation using photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated by indocyanine green (ICG). Methods: Using a gelatin solid as an in vitro corneal model, the safety of laser power was studied to determine if it degenerated gelatin with or without ICG. The authors then induced corneal neovascularisation in rabbit eyes by an intracorneal suturing technique. Fluorescein angiography was used to evaluate occlusion before PDT and 0, 1, 3, and 10 days after PDT. The authors performed light microscopy with haematoxylin eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy to determine thrombosis formation in the neovascular regions. Results: The threshold of peak laser power density ranged from 39 to 53 W/cm2. Laser irradiation was started 30 seconds after a 10 mg/kg ICG injection, and all irradiated segments were occluded at 0, 1, 3, and 10 days at 3.8 J/cm2. Light and electron microscopy documented thrombosis formation in the neovascular region. Conclusion: Femtosecond pulse laser enhanced by ICG can be used for PDT. Because of effective closure of corneal neovascularisation at a low energy level, the high peak power pulse energy of the femtosecond pulse laser might be more efficacious than continuous wave laser for use with PDT. PMID:15148220

  9. Lasers for ultrashort light pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, J.; Wilhelmi, B.

    1987-01-01

    The present rapid expansion of research work on picosecond lasers and their application makes it difficult to survey and comprehend the large number of publications in this field. This book aims to provide an introduction to the field starting with the very basic and moving on to an advanced level. Contents: Fundamentals of the interaction between light pulses and matter; Fundamentals of lasers for ultrashort light pulses; Methods of measurement; Active modelocking; Synchronously pumped lasers; Passive modelocking of dye lasers; Passive modelocking of solid state lasers; Nonstationary nonlinear optical processes; Ultrafast spectroscopy.

  10. Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Miura, K; Qiu, J; Mitsuyu, T; Hirao, K

    2000-03-15

    We report on space-selective growth of a second-harmonic-generation beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal inside a BaO-Al(2)O(3)-B(2)O(3) glass sample at the focal point of an 800-nm femtosecond laser beam. A spherical heated region was formed during the focused laser irradiation through observation with an optical microscope. We moved the heated region by changing the position of the focal point of the laser beam relative to the glass sample. We grew BBO crystal continuously in the glass sample by adjusting the moving speed of the heated zone. Our results demonstrate that functional crystals can be formed three dimensionally in glasses by use of a nonresonant ultrashort pulsed laser.

  11. Luminescence of black silicon fabricated by high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Tao; Si Jinhai; Hou Xun; Kanehira, Shingo; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki

    2011-10-01

    We studied the photoluminescence (PL) from black silicon that was fabricated using an 800 nm, 250 kHz femtosecond laser in air. By changing the scan velocity and the fluence of the femtosecond laser, the formation of the PL band between the orange (600 nm) and red bands (near 680 nm) could be controlled. The red band PL from the photoinduced microstructures on the black silicon was observed even without annealing due to the thermal accumulation of high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. The orange band PL was easily quenched under 532 nm cw laser irradiation, whereas the red band PL was more stable; this can be attributed to ''defect luminescence'' and ''quantum confinement'', respectively.

  12. Proof of damage-free selective removal of thin dielectric coatings on silicon wafers by irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rublack, Tino; Muchow, Markus; Schade, Martin; Leipner, Hartmut S.; Seifert, Gerhard

    2012-07-15

    The microstructural impact of selective femtosecond laser ablation of thin dielectric layers from monocrystalline silicon wafers was investigated. Various spots opened by 280 fs laser pulses at {lambda} = 1.03 {mu}m wavelength and 50 fs pulses at 800 nm, respectively, were analyzed in detail using Raman and transmission electron microscopy. The results show clearly that the thin dielectric films can be removed without any detectable modification of the Si crystal structure in the opened area. In contrast, in adjacent regions corresponding to laser fluence slightly below the breaking threshold, a thin layer of amorphous silicon with a maximum thickness of about 50 nm is found at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface after laser irradiation. More than one pulse on the same position, however, causes structural modification of the silicon after thin film ablation in any case.

  13. Nonlinear refraction properties of nickel oxide thin films at 800 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, Ronaldo P. Jr. de; Silva, Blenio J. P. da; Santos, Francisco Eroni P. dos; Azevedo, A.; Araujo, Cid B. de

    2009-11-01

    Measurements of the nonlinear refractive index, n{sub 2}, of nickel oxide films prepared by controlled oxidation of nickel films deposited on substrates of soda-lime glass are reported. The structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffractometry. Samples of excellent optical quality were prepared. The nonlinear measurements were performed using the thermally managed eclipse Z-scan technique at 800 nm. A large value of n{sub 2}approx =10{sup -12} cm{sup 2}/W and negligible nonlinear absorption were obtained.

  14. Calorimeters for pulsed lasers: calibration.

    PubMed

    Thacher, P D

    1976-07-01

    A calibration technique is developed and tested in which a calorimeter used for single-shot laser pulse energy measurements is calibrated with reference to a cw power standard using a chopped cw laser beam. A pulsed laser is required only to obtain the relative time response of the calorimeter to a pulse. With precautions as to beam alignment and wavelength, the principal error of the technique is that of the cw standard. Calibration of two thermopiles with cone receivers showed -2.5% and -3.5% agreement with previous calibrations made by the National Bureau of Standards. PMID:20165270

  15. Megahertz pulse-burst alexandrite laser diagnostic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luff, Jon David

    Megahertz pulse-burst laser systems coupled with megahertz-rate framing cameras have proven (over the last ten years) to be very robust in imaging of high-speed reacting and nonreacting supersonic flows. These Nd:YAG systems produce 20--30 pulses (at variable rates from 500 kHz to 1 MHz) with 50--100 mJ/pulse (lambda = 1064nm) and have been used with narrow, spectral-linewidth, iodine, atomic filters to image turbulence in supersonic boundary layers with great success (when operating at lambda = 532nm). To extend this pulse-burst capability at other wavelengths (wavelengths outside of the 5--30 GHz tuning range of Nd:YAG: lambda = 1064 nm fundamental, and lambda = 532 nm second harmonic), two unique, tunable, megahertz-rate alexandrite laser systems were designed and built. This dissertation documents these two systems and discusses the potential for tunable, megahertz, pulse-burst systems that have more tuning range than Nd:YAG. These tunable alexandrite systems substantially extend the wavelength range of pulse-burst laser technology, but, to date, have pulse-energy limitations. Tunable from 710 nm to 800 nm (in the fundamental), these lasers provide researchers one laser to reach multiple molecular or atomic resonances with variable pulse-burst pulse separations. The molecular and atomic species of interest in reacting and nonreacting flows are presented in Chapter 1, providing a road-map for the development of these tunable lasers. This dissertation presents the design and development of these systems, including mode control, Herriott cell design for pulse separation, and the megahertz-tuning ringmaster-oscillator. Chapter 2 covers the physics of alexandrite as a solid-state, lamp-pumped, tunable medium and compares it to the tunability of Ti:sapphire. Chapter 3 and 4 present the pulse-burst alexandrite systems. The first system, built in Princeton's Applied Physics group (PAPG) (Chapter 3), produced 1-5 mJ total pulse-packet energy of 20--30 pulses, or

  16. Optical absorption and photocurrent enhancement in semi-insulating gallium arsenide by femtosecond laser pulse surface microstructuring.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Shi, Wang-Zhou; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2014-05-19

    We observe an enhancement of optical absorption and photocurrent from semi-insulating gallium arsenide (SI-GaAs) irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The SI-GaAs wafer is treated by a regeneratively amplified Ti: Sapphire laser of 120 fs laser pulse at 800 nm wavelength. The laser ablation induced 0.74 μm periodic ripples, and its optical absorption-edge is shifted to a longer wavelength. Meanwhile, the steady photocurrent of irradiated SI-GaAs is found to enhance 50%. The electrical properties of samples are calibrated by van der Pauw method. It is found that femtosecond laser ablation causes a microscale anti-reflection coating surface which enhances the absorption and photoconductivity.

  17. Progress on developing a PW ultrashort laser facility with ns, ps, and fs outputting pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qihua; Huang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xiao; Zeng, Xiaoming; Xie, Xudong; Wang, Fang; Wang, Fengrui; Lin, Donghui; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Kainan; Jiang, Dongbin; Deng, Wu; Zuo, Yanlei; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Ying; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xiaomin; Fan, Dianyuan

    2008-03-01

    A petawatt laser facility with three beams for fast ignition research and strong-field physics applications has been designed and is being constructed. The first beam (referred as SILEX-I) is a Ti:sapphire femto-second laser which pulse width is 30 fs, and till now, output power has reached to 330 TW. The other two beams are Nd 3+:glass lasers which output energy are larger than 1kJ and pulse width are about 1ps and 1ns respectively. By using the technology of OPA pumped by 800nm femtosecond laser and seeded by super-continuum spectrum white light, the three beams are synchronized with each other without jitter time. By using the seeds from OPA pumped by femtosecond laser, and by using the pre-amplification stage of OPCPA, the signal to noise ratio of the Nd 3+:glass petawatt laser will reach to 10 8. Active methods are taken to control the gain narrowing effect of the Nd 3+:glass amplifiers, giving the option to compress the chirped pulse to ultrashort pulse with width less than 400fs. Tiled multilayer dielectric coating gratings are used for the compressor of the PW beam, which has been successfully demonstrated on a 100J picosecond Nd 3+:glass laser system.

  18. Graphene Oxides as Tunable Broadband Nonlinear Optical Materials for Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Neo, Shu Ting; Venkatesan, T; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2012-03-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) thin films on glass and plastic substrates were found to display interesting broadband nonlinear optical properties. We have investigated their optical limiting activity for femtosecond laser pulses at 800 and 400 nm, which could be tuned by controlling the extent of reduction. The as-prepared GO films were found to exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting behaviors, which were significantly enhanced upon partial reduction by using laser irradiation or chemical reduction methods. The laser-induced reduction of GO resulted in enhancement of effective two-photon absorption coefficient at 400 nm by up to ∼19 times and enhancement of effective two- and three-photon absorption coefficients at 800 nm by ∼12 and ∼14.5 times, respectively. The optical limiting thresholds of partially reduced GO films are much lower than those of various previously reported materials. Highly reduced GO films prepared by using the chemical method displayed strong saturable absorption behavior.

  19. Depth profiling and imaging capabilities of an ultrashort pulse laser ablation time of flight mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Moore, Jerry F.; Milasinovic, Slobodan; Liu, Yaoming; Gordon, Robert J.; Hanley, Luke

    2012-01-01

    An ultrafast laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (AToF-MS) and associated data acquisition software that permits imaging at micron-scale resolution and sub-micron-scale depth profiling are described. The ion funnel-based source of this instrument can be operated at pressures ranging from 10−8 to ∼0.3 mbar. Mass spectra may be collected and stored at a rate of 1 kHz by the data acquisition system, allowing the instrument to be coupled with standard commercial Ti:sapphire lasers. The capabilities of the AToF-MS instrument are demonstrated on metal foils and semiconductor wafers using a Ti:sapphire laser emitting 800 nm, ∼75 fs pulses at 1 kHz. Results show that elemental quantification and depth profiling are feasible with this instrument. PMID:23020378

  20. Dual-Laser-Pulse Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu; Early, James W.; Thomas, Matthew E.; Bossard, John A.

    2006-01-01

    A dual-pulse laser (DPL) technique has been demonstrated for generating laser-induced sparks (LIS) to ignite fuels. The technique was originally intended to be applied to the ignition of rocket propellants, but may also be applicable to ignition in terrestrial settings in which electric igniters may not be suitable.

  1. High resolution spectroscopy of an Orionid meteor from 700 to 800 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passas, M.; Madiedo, J. M.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2016-03-01

    The emission spectrum of a meteor was recorded by the GRASSP instrument during the observation of transient luminous events (TLEs) on 2014 October 16th. The spectroscopic signal was recorded in the wavelength range from 700 to 800 nm, where the emission from atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen dominated. The good spectral resolution of the spectrum (0.24 nm with 0.07 nm/pixel spectral dispersion) has allowed us to determine the physical conditions in the meteor plasma, to identify several emissions from atmospheric (N I, N II, O I) and meteoroid species (Ti I, Cr I, Fe I, Fe II, Zr I, Pd I, W I) and to estimate the upper limit of the temperature of the gaseous environment surrounding the meteoroid. Images recorded for this meteor from two different sites allowed calculating its atmospheric trajectory and the orbital parameters of the progenitor meteoroid. These data revealed that the particle belonged to the Orionid meteoroid stream.

  2. Adjustment of ablation shapes and subwavelength ripples based on electron dynamics control by designing femtosecond laser pulse trains

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Yanping; Jiang Lan; Li Xin; Wang Cong

    2012-11-15

    A quantum model is proposed to investigate femtosecond laser pulse trains processing of dielectrics by including the plasma model with the consideration of laser particle-wave duality. Central wavelengths (400 nm and 800 nm) strongly impact the surface plasmon field distribution, the coupling field intensity distribution (between the absorbed intensity and the surface plasma), and the distribution of transient localized free electron density in the material. This, in turn, significantly changes the localized transient optical/thermal properties during laser materials processing. The effects of central wavelengths on ablation shapes and subwavelength ripples are discussed. The simulation results show that: (1) ablation shapes and the spacing of subwavelength ripples can be adjusted by localized transient electron dynamics control using femtosecond laser pulse trains; (2) the adjustment of the radii of ablation shapes is stronger than that of the periods of subwavelength ripples.

  3. Time-resolved intensity and spectral changes in a wide-ridge terahertz quantum cascade laser by optical pulse injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakasegawa, Yohei; Saito, Shingo; Sekine, Norihiko; Kasamatsu, Akifumi; Ashida, Masaaki; Hosako, Iwao

    2016-10-01

    We report the intensity and spectral changes in a multi-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by injecting λ = 800 nm optical pulses through a cavity facet. We find that photogenerated carriers, via modulation of the intersubband gain, increase the threshold current by up to 0.2 A and cause spectral changes such that the individual peaks of the multi-lateral-mode spectra are varied in amplitude with different ratios. It is found that the indirect recombination of electron-hole pairs and thermal relaxation on timescales of ˜700 ns and ˜10 µs, respectively, are involved in the recovery kinetics.

  4. Movement of magnetic domain walls induced by single femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandig, O.; Shokr, Y. A.; Vogel, J.; Valencia, S.; Kronast, F.; Kuch, W.

    2016-08-01

    We present a microscopic investigation of how the magnetic domain structure in ultrathin films changes after direct excitation by single ultrashort laser pulses. Using photoelectron emission microscopy in combination with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in the resonant absorption of soft x rays, we find that individual laser pulses of ≈60 fs duration and a central wavelength of 800 nm lead to clear changes in the domain structure of a Co layer of three atomic monolayers thickness in an epitaxial Co/Cu/Ni trilayer on a Cu(001) single-crystal substrate. A relatively small enhancement of the sample base temperature by 40 K is sufficient to lower the threshold of laser fluence for domain wall motion by about a factor of two. Pump-probe measurements with a laser fluence just below this threshold indicate that the laser-induced demagnetization of the sample is far from complete in these experiments. Although the domain wall motion appears similar to thermal domain wall fluctuations, quantitatively it cannot be explained by pure thermal activation of domain wall motion by the transient rise of sample temperature after the laser pulse, but it is likely to be triggered by a laser-induced depinning of domain walls.

  5. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silicon upon polarization controlled two-color double-pulse irradiation.

    PubMed

    Höhm, Sandra; Herzlieb, Marcel; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krüger, Jörg; Bonse, Jörn

    2015-01-12

    Two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on silicon wafers to study the temporally distributed energy deposition in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A Mach-Zehnder interferometer generated parallel or cross-polarized double-pulse sequences at 400 and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds between the sub-ablation 50-fs-pulses. Multiple two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample. The resulting LIPSS characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism is proposed to explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments extend previous single-color studies and prove the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition for LIPSS formation.

  6. Generating Independent Preionizing Pulses for Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacala, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Simple pulse-coupling winding on saturable reactor core lets core act as pulse transformer, passing preionizing pulse from winding to tapered transmission line, then to laser. Laser prepared for independent firing pulse, which follows preionizing pulse. Winding is simple, light in weight, low in bulk and power consumption, and inexpensive.

  7. Coaxial short pulsed laser

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1975-08-01

    This invention relates to a laser system of rugged design suitable for use in a field environment. The laser itself is of coaxial design with a solid potting material filling the space between components. A reservoir is employed to provide a gas lasing medium between an electrode pair, each of which is connected to one of the coaxial conductors. (auth)

  8. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, Leland G.; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  9. Half-cycle pulses in the mid-infrared from a two-color laser-induced filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, Alexander A.; Nomura, Yutaka; Shirai, Hideto; Fuji, Takao; Zheltikov, Aleksei

    2014-07-01

    Four-wave mixing (FWM) of femtosecond near-infrared laser pulses and its second harmonic in the filamentation regime is shown to give rise to ultrashort field waveforms in the mid-infrared with pulse widths as short as a half of the field cycle and produce ultrabroadband supercontinuum spectra stretching from the mid-IR to the terahertz region. Generation of 7-fs pulses centered at 4.35 μm is demonstrated by a two-color filamentation experiment, where the 25-fs, 800-nm fundamental-wavelength output of a Ti: Sapphire laser is mixed with its second harmonic. The spectral and temporal properties of the mid-IR waveforms, as well as their emission pattern, are consistent with the FWM scenario of frequency conversion generalized to include the Kerr effect and ionization-induced refractive-index modulation.

  10. Study of the influence of glucose on diffuse reflection of ultrashort laser pulses from a medium simulating a biological tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Bykov, A V; Indukaev, A K; Priezzhev, A V; Myllylae, R

    2008-05-31

    The influence of glucose on the diffuse reflection of near-IR femtosecond laser radiation from single- and three-layer media simulating biological tissues is studied experimentally. Based on a 800-nm femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser emitting 40-fs pulses and a VUV Agat streak camera, a setup is built for time and spatially resolved detection of radiation diffusely reflected from the volume of a strongly scattering medium. A multichannel fibreoptic system is developed for detecting pulses simultaneously at several fixed distances between a radiation source and detector. It is shown that the peak intensity and total energy of detected pulses are sensitive to variations in the glucose concentration in the medium under study from 0 to 1000 mg dL{sup -1}. The relative sensitivity in our experiments achieved 0.030% mg dL{sup -1}. (biophotonics)

  11. Ultrashort-pulse lasers machining

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D, Stuart, B C

    1999-01-22

    A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 psec) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms which eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.

  12. Ultrashort-pulse laser machining

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Sefcik, J A; Stuart, B C

    1998-09-01

    A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 ps) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms that eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High-precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.

  13. Characterization of femtosecond-laser pulse induced cell membrane nanosurgical attachment.

    PubMed

    Katchinskiy, Nir; Godbout, Roseline; Elezzabi, Abdulhakem Y

    2016-07-01

    This article provides insight into the mechanism of femtosecond laser nanosurgical attachment of cells. We have demonstrated that during the attachment of two retinoblastoma cells using sub-10 femtosecond laser pulses, with 800 nm central wavelength, the phospholipid molecules of both cells hemifuse and form one shared phospholipid bilayer, at the attachment location. In order to verify the hypothesis that hemifusion takes place, transmission electron microscope images of the cell membranes of retinoblastoma cells were taken. It is shown that at the attachment interface, the two cell membranes coalesce and form one single membrane shared by both cells. Thus, further evidence is provided to support the hypothesis that laser-induced ionization process led to an ultrafast reversible destabilization of the phospholipid layer of the cellular membrane, which resulted in cross-linking of the phospholipid molecules in each membrane. This process of hemifusion occurs throughout the entire penetration depth of the femtosecond laser pulse train. Thus, the attachment between the cells takes place across a large surface area, which affirms our findings of strong physical attachment between the cells. The femtosecond laser pulse hemifusion technique can potentially provide a platform for precise molecular manipulation of cellular membranes. Manipulation of the cellular membrane is an important procedure that could aid in studying diseases such as cancer; where the expression level of plasma proteins on the cell membrane is altered. PMID:27446703

  14. Characterization of femtosecond-laser pulse induced cell membrane nanosurgical attachment

    PubMed Central

    Katchinskiy, Nir; Godbout, Roseline; Elezzabi, Abdulhakem Y.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides insight into the mechanism of femtosecond laser nanosurgical attachment of cells. We have demonstrated that during the attachment of two retinoblastoma cells using sub-10 femtosecond laser pulses, with 800 nm central wavelength, the phospholipid molecules of both cells hemifuse and form one shared phospholipid bilayer, at the attachment location. In order to verify the hypothesis that hemifusion takes place, transmission electron microscope images of the cell membranes of retinoblastoma cells were taken. It is shown that at the attachment interface, the two cell membranes coalesce and form one single membrane shared by both cells. Thus, further evidence is provided to support the hypothesis that laser-induced ionization process led to an ultrafast reversible destabilization of the phospholipid layer of the cellular membrane, which resulted in cross-linking of the phospholipid molecules in each membrane. This process of hemifusion occurs throughout the entire penetration depth of the femtosecond laser pulse train. Thus, the attachment between the cells takes place across a large surface area, which affirms our findings of strong physical attachment between the cells. The femtosecond laser pulse hemifusion technique can potentially provide a platform for precise molecular manipulation of cellular membranes. Manipulation of the cellular membrane is an important procedure that could aid in studying diseases such as cancer; where the expression level of plasma proteins on the cell membrane is altered. PMID:27446703

  15. Supercontinuum generation and filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in hybrid silicate nanocomposite materials on the basis of polysaccharides and hyperbranched polyglycidols

    SciTech Connect

    Kul'chin, Yurii N; Golik, S S; Proshenko, D Yu; Chekhlenok, A A; Postnova, I V; Maior, A Yu; Shchipunov, Yurii A

    2013-04-30

    The possibility of using hybrid silicate nanocomposite materials on the basis of polysaccharides and hyperbranched polyglycidols for efficient conversion of pulsed radiation of a femtosecond Ti : sapphire laser at the wavelength 800 nm into supercontinuum in the range from 400 to 1000 nm is experimentally demonstrated. It is established that the addition of a small concentration of Au and CdS nanoparticles to the studied materials essentially affects the efficiency of conversion of the laser radiation energy into the supercontinuum spectrum. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  16. Rippled area formed by surface plasmon polaritons upon femtosecond laser double-pulse irradiation of silicon.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Thibault J-Y; Krüger, Jörg; Itina, Tatiana E; Höhm, Sandra; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Bonse, Jörn

    2013-12-01

    The formation of near-wavelength laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on silicon upon irradiation with sequences of Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser pulse pairs (pulse duration 150 fs, central wavelength 800 nm) is studied theoretically. For this purpose, the nonlinear generation of conduction band electrons in silicon and their relaxation is numerically calculated using a two-temperature model approach including intrapulse changes of optical properties, transport, diffusion and recombination effects. Following the idea that surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) can be excited when the material turns from semiconducting to metallic state, the "SPP active area" is calculated as function of fluence and double-pulse delay up to several picoseconds and compared to the experimentally observed rippled surface areas. Evidence is presented that multi-photon absorption explains the large increase of the rippled area for temporally overlapping pulses. For longer double-pulse delays, relevant relaxation processes are identified. The results demonstrate that femtosecond LIPSS on silicon are caused by the excitation of SPP and can be controlled by temporal pulse shaping. PMID:24514516

  17. Rippled area formed by surface plasmon polaritons upon femtosecond laser double-pulse irradiation of silicon.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Thibault J-Y; Krüger, Jörg; Itina, Tatiana E; Höhm, Sandra; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Bonse, Jörn

    2013-12-01

    The formation of near-wavelength laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on silicon upon irradiation with sequences of Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser pulse pairs (pulse duration 150 fs, central wavelength 800 nm) is studied theoretically. For this purpose, the nonlinear generation of conduction band electrons in silicon and their relaxation is numerically calculated using a two-temperature model approach including intrapulse changes of optical properties, transport, diffusion and recombination effects. Following the idea that surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) can be excited when the material turns from semiconducting to metallic state, the "SPP active area" is calculated as function of fluence and double-pulse delay up to several picoseconds and compared to the experimentally observed rippled surface areas. Evidence is presented that multi-photon absorption explains the large increase of the rippled area for temporally overlapping pulses. For longer double-pulse delays, relevant relaxation processes are identified. The results demonstrate that femtosecond LIPSS on silicon are caused by the excitation of SPP and can be controlled by temporal pulse shaping.

  18. Femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of amorphous, ultrahard boride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Michael; Molian, Pal

    2004-05-01

    Amorphous thin films (300-500 nm) of ultrahard AlMgB10 with oxygen and carbon impurities were grown on Si (100) substrates at 300 K using a solid target of AlMgB14 containing a spinel phase (MgAl2O4) and using a 120 fs pulsed, 800 nm wavelength Ti:sapphire laser. The films were subsequently annealed in argon gas up to 1373 K for 2 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the particulate formation, atomic force microscopy was employed to characterize the film surface topography, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the microstructure, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to examine the film composition, and nanoindentation was employed to study the hardness of thin films. The as-deposited and postannealed films (up to 1273 K) had a stochiometry of AlMgB10 with a significant amount of oxygen and carbon impurities and exhibited amorphous structures for a maximum hardness of 40+/-3 GPa. However, postannealing at higher temperatures led to crystallization and transformation of the film to SiB6 with a substantial loss in hardness. Results are also compared with our previous study on 23 ns, 248 nm wavelength (KrF excimer) pulsed laser deposition of AlMgB14 reported in this journal [Y. Tian, A. Constant, C. C. H. Lo, J. W. Anderegg, A. M. Russell, J. E. Snyder, and P. A. Molian, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1055 (2003)]. .

  19. Intravital autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy of murine intestinal mucosa with ultra-broadband femtosecond laser pulse excitation: image quality, photodamage, and inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Antje; Krapf, Lisa; Orzekowsky-Schroeder, Regina; Koop, Norbert; Vogel, Alfred; Hüttmann, Gereon

    2015-11-01

    Ultra-broadband excitation with ultrashort pulses may enable simultaneous excitation of multiple endogenous fluorophores in vital tissue. Imaging living gut mucosa by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy with more than 150 nm broad excitation at an 800-nm central wavelength from a sub-10 fs titanium-sapphire (Ti:sapphire) laser with a dielectric mirror based prechirp was compared to the excitation with 220 fs pulses of a tunable Ti:sapphire laser at 730 and 800 nm wavelengths. Excitation efficiency, image quality, and photochemical damage were evaluated. At similar excitation fluxes, the same image brightness was achieved with both lasers. As expected, with ultra-broadband pulses, fluorescence from NAD(P)H, flavines, and lipoproteins was observed simultaneously. However, nonlinear photodamage apparent as hyperfluorescence with functional and structural alterations of the tissue occurred earlier when the laser power was adjusted to the same image brightness. After only a few minutes, the immigration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes into the epithelium and degranulation of these cells, a sign of inflammation, was observed. Photodamage is promoted by the higher peak irradiances and/or by nonoptimal excitation of autofluorescence at the longer wavelength. We conclude that excitation with a tunable narrow bandwidth laser is preferable to ultra-broadband excitation for autofluorescence-based 2-photon microscopy, unless the spectral phase can be controlled to optimize excitation conditions.

  20. Characterization of short pulse laser-produced plasmas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ultra short-pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, R.; Price, D.; White, W.; Osterheld, A.; Walling, R.; Goldstein, W.; Stewart, R.; Gordan, S.

    1993-07-14

    The K-shell emission from porous aluminum targets is used to infer the density and temperature of plasmas created with 800 nm and 400 nm, 140 fs laser light. The laser beam is focused to a minimum spot size of 5 {mu}m with 800 nm light and 3 {mu}m with 400 nm light, producing a normal incidence peak intensity of 10{sup 18} Watts/cm{sup 2}. A new 800 fs x-ray streak camera is used to study the broadband x-ray emission. The time resolved and time integrated x-ray emission implies substantial differences between the porous target and the flat target temperature.

  1. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  2. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

  3. Two-photon excited fluorescence enhancement with broadband versus tunable femtosecond laser pulse excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yeh, Alvin T.

    2012-02-01

    The inverse relationship between two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and laser pulse duration suggests that two-photon microscopy (TPM) performance may be improved by decreasing pulse duration. However, for ultrashort pulses of sub-10 femtosecond (fs) in duration, its spectrum contains the effective gain bandwidth of Ti:Sapphire and its central wavelength is no longer tunable. An experimental study was performed to explore this apparent tradeoff between untuned sub-10 fs transform-limited pulse (TLP) and tunable 140 fs pulse for TPEF. Enhancement factors of 1.6, 6.7, and 5.2 are measured for Indo-1, FITC, and TRITC excited by sub-10 fs TLP compared with 140 fs pulse tuned to the two-photon excitation (TPE) maxima at 730 nm, 800 nm, and 840 nm, respectively. Both degenerate (v1=v2) and nondegenerate (v1≠v2) mixing of sub-10 fs TLP spectral components result in its broad second-harmonic (SH) power spectrum and high spectral density, which can effectively compensate for the lack of central wavelength tuning and lead to large overlap with dye TPE spectra for TPEF enhancements. These pulse properties were also exploited for demonstrating its potential applications in multicolor imaging with TPM.

  4. Simultaneous visible and near-infrared emission from a pulse-stretched alexandrite laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boczar, Bruce; Thevar, Thanga; Rousseva, Ivelina; Kramer, Norman; Pryor, Brian; Frost, Rick

    2004-07-01

    An efficient method to make multi-spectral laser light having any selected pulsed duration in the range of 100 ns to 1 μs has been demonstrated in the laboratory. This laser system, based on the alexandrite tunable solid-state gain medium, which is tunable in its fundamental between 720 and 800 nm, was constructed near the gain maximum of 755 nm. A novel intracavity pulse-stretcher provides control of the pulse duration up to about 5 μs using the Pockels effect. In the demonstration prototype, however, the pulse duration was restricted to 500 ns to maintain the peak power needed for efficient nonlinear conversion. Following an amplification stage, Raman shifting in hydrogen gas was used to achieve efficient wavelength conversion to 1100 nm. The Raman shifted beam was frequency doubled to 550 nm using two BBO crystals arranged for walk-off compensation. The result was a convenient source of light whose spectral content, pulse duration, as well as other parameters, could be critically controlled.

  5. 1.319 μm excited intense 800 nm frequency upconversion emission in Tm3+-doped fluorogermanate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, A. S.; Vermelho, M. V. D.; Gouveia, E. A.; Bueno, L. A.; Jacinto, C.

    2015-11-01

    Generation of near-infrared light within the first biological optical window via frequency upconversion in Tm3+-doped PbGeO3-PbF2-CdF2 glass excited within the second biological window at 1.319 μm is reported. The upconversion emission at 800 nm is the sole light signal observed in the entire ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectral region making it possible obtaining high contrast imaging. The dependence of the 800 nm signal upon the sample temperature was investigated and results showed an increase by a factor of ×2.5 in the 30-280 °C range. Generation of detectable 690 nm for temperatures above 100 °C in addition to the intense 800 nm main signal was also observed. The proposed excitation mechanism for the 800 nm thulium emitting level is assigned to a multiphonon-assisted excitation from the ground-state 3H6 to the 3H5 excited-state level, a rapid relaxation to the 3F4 level and followed by an excited-state absorption of the pump photons mediated by multiphonons connecting the 3F4 level to the 3H4 emitting level.

  6. Efficient 800nm upconversion luminescence emission in 1.319μm excited thulium-doped fluorogermanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, A. S.; Vermelho, M. V. D.; Jacinto, C.; Gouveia, E. A.; Bueno, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Generation of near-infrared light within the first biological optical window via frequency upconversion in Tm3+-doped PbGeO3-PbF2-CdF2 glass excited within the second biological window at 1.319 μm is reported. The upconversion emission at 800 nm is the sole light signal observed in the entire UV-VIS-NIR spectral region making possible obtaining high contrast imaging. The dependence of the 800 nm signal upon the sample temperature was investigated and results showed an increase by a factor of x2.5 in the 30°C - 280°C range. Generation of detectable 690 nm for temperatures above 100°C in addition to the intense 800 nm main signal was also observed. The proposed excitation mechanism for the 800 nm thulium emitting level is assigned to a multiphonon-assisted excitation from the ground-state 3H6 to the 3H5 excited-state level, a rapid relaxation to the 3F4 level and followed by an excited-state absorption of the pump photons mediated by multiphonons connecting the 3F4 level to the 3H4 emitting level.

  7. Comparison of macular versus paramacular retinal sensitivity to femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Clarence P.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Thomas, Robert J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Carothers, Val; Stolarski, David J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2000-07-01

    Single 130 fs laser pulses in the near-IR (800 nm) were used to create ophthalmoscopically viewed minimum visible lesions (MVLs) within the macular and paramacular regions in rhesus monkey eyes. MVL thresholds at 1 and 24 h are reported as the 50% probability for damage (ED50) together with their fiducial limits at the 95% confidence level. These measured thresholds are compared with previously reported thresholds for near-IR and visible wavelengths for both macular and paramacular areas. Threshold doses were lower at the 24 h reading than at the 1 h reading for both retinal regions and the ED50s for the macular were slightly lower than for the paramacula. We measured the 24 h MVL ED50 thresholds to be 0.35 and 0.55 (mu) J for the macular and paramacular areas, respectively. The combined data for both areas yielded a threshold of 0.45 (mu) J.

  8. Laser-induced molybdenum oxide formation by low energy (nJ)-high repetition rate (MHz) femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano-Lara, M.; Camacho-López, S.; Esparza-García, A.; Camacho-López, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Experimental results on femtosecond (fs) laser-induced oxidation of molybdenum (Mo) thin films are presented. The Mo thin films were deposited on fused silica substrates by the magnetron DC-sputtering technique. The as-deposited thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, which indicates that bbc-molybdenum was grown. The films were irradiated in ambient air, using a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser (800 nm, 60 fs pulse duration, 70 MHz and 6.5 nJ per pulse). The molybdenum thin films were laser scanned in the form of several millimeters long straight line traces, by using a per pulse laser fluence well below the (previously reported) ablation threshold. Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to study the laser-induced optical and morphology changes on the exposed zone. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (MRS) were used to determine the degree of oxidation and the phase change across the laser irradiated paths on the Mo thin film. Under the above described experimental conditions our results show that it is possible to laser-induce a specific oxide phase from the molybdenum starting material. Our micro-Raman results clearly demonstrate that the fs-laser irradiation induces the m-MoO 2 and o-Mo 4O 11 crystalline phases at the directly laser irradiated trace and its close proximity.

  9. Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weijia; Kazansky, Peter G.; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki

    2008-10-01

    Control of structural modifications inside silica glass by changing the front tilt of an ultrashort pulse is demonstrated, achieving a calligraphic style of laser writing. The phenomena of anisotropic bubble formation at the boundary of an irradiated region and modification transition from microscopic bubbles formation to self-assembled form birefringence are observed, and the physical mechanisms are discussed. The results provide the comprehensive evidence that the light beam with centrosymmetric intensity distribution can produce noncentrosymmetric material modifications.

  10. Generation of Widely Tunable Fourier-Transform Pulsed Terahertz Radiation Using Narrowband Near-Infrared Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinjun; Haase, Christa; Merkt, Frédéric

    2009-06-01

    Widely tunable, Fourier-transform-limited pulses of terahertz (THz) radiation have been generated by optical frequency deference using (i) crystals of the highly nonlinear organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4^'-N^'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate (DAST), (ii) zinc telluride (ZnTe) crystals, and (iii) gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals. Outputs from two narrowband (Δν<1 MHz, λ˜800 nm) cw titanium-doped sapphire (Ti:Sa) ring lasers with a well-controlled frequency difference were shaped into pulses using acousto-optic modulators, coupled into an optical fiber, pulse amplified in Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sa crystals and used as optical sources to pump the THz nonlinear crystals. The THz radiation was detected over a broad frequency range and its bandwidth was determined to be ˜10 MHz. Absorption spectra of gas phase molecules including HF and OCS using the THz source will be presented.

  11. Wakefield generation via two color laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Pallavi; Saroch, Akanksha; Kumar Verma, Nirmal

    2013-05-15

    The analytical study for the evolution of longitudinal as well as transverse electric wakefields, generated via passage of two color laser pulses through uniform plasma, has been presented in the mildly relativistic regime. The frequency difference between the two laser pulses is assumed to be equal to the plasma frequency, in the present analysis. The relative angle between the directions of polarization of the two laser pulses is varied and the wakefield amplitudes are compared. Further, the amplitude of the excited wakes by two color pulses are compared with those generated by a single laser pulse.

  12. Progress in time transfer by laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Yang, Fu-Min

    2004-03-01

    Time transfer by laser pulses is based on the propagation of light pulses between satellite and ground clocks or between remote clocks on earth. It will realize the synchronization of these clocks with high accuracy and stability. Several experiments of the time transfer by laser pulses had been successfully carried out in some countries. These experiments validate the feasibility of the synchronization of clocks by laser pulses. The paper describes the results of these experiments. The time comparison by laser pulses between atomic clocks on aircraft and ground ones in the United States, and the LASSO and T2L2 projects in France are introduced in detail.

  13. Compact KGd(WO4)2 picosecond pulse-train synchronously pumped broadband Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao Qiang; Long, Ming Liang; Meng, Chen

    2016-08-20

    We demonstrate an efficient approach to realizing an extra-cavity, synchronously pumped, stimulated Raman cascaded process under low repetition frequency (1 kHz) pump conditions. We also construct a compact KGd(WO4)2 (KGW) crystal picosecond Raman laser that has been configured as the developed method. A pulse-train green laser pumped the corresponding 70 mm long KGW crystal Raman cavity. The pulse train contains six pulses, about 800 ps separated, for every millisecond; thus, it can realize synchronous pumping between pump pulse and the pumped Raman cavity. The investigated system produced a collinear Raman laser output that includes six laser lines covering the 532 to 800 nm spectra. This is the first report on an all-solid-state, high-average-power picosecond collinear multi-wavelength (more than three laser components) laser to our knowledge. This method has never been reported on before in the synchronously pumped stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) realm. PMID:27556971

  14. Experimental demonstration of joule-level non-collinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification in yttrium calcium oxyborate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lianghong; Liang, Xiaoyan; Li, Jinfeng; Wu, Anhua; Zheng, Yanqing; Lu, Xiaoming; Wang, Cheng; Leng, Yuxin; Xu, Jun; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2012-05-15

    In this Letter, we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB) for joule-level and broadband non-collinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification centered at 800 nm. Based on a Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification front end, an amplified signal energy of 3.36 J was generated with a pump of 35 J in the crystal. Compressed pulse duration of 44.3 fs, with a bandwidth of 49 nm, was achieved. The results confirm that YCOB crystal is another potential alternative as a final amplifier besides Ti:sapphire in a petawatt laser at 800 nm.

  15. Two-color two-photon excitation using femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Quentmeier, Stefan; Denicke, Stefan; Ehlers, Jan-Eric; Niesner, Raluca A; Gericke, Karl-Heinz

    2008-05-01

    The use of two-color two-photon (2c2p) excitation easily extends the wavelength range of Ti:sapphire lasers to the UV, widening the scope of its applications especially in biological sciences. We report observation of 2c2p excitation fluorescence of p-terphenyl (PTP), 2-methyl-5-t-butyl-p-quaterphenyl (DMQ) and tryptophan upon excitation with 400 and 800 nm wavelengths using the second harmonic and fundamental wavelength of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. This excitation is energetically equivalent to a one-photon excitation wavelength at 266 nm. The fluorescence signal is observed only when both wavelengths are spatially and temporally overlapping. Adjustment of the relative delay of the two laser pulses renders a cross correlation curve which is in good agreement with the pulse width of our laser. The fluorescence signal is linearly dependent on the intensity of each of the two colors but quadratically on the total incident illumination power of both colors. In fluorescence microscopy, the use of a combination of intense IR and low-intensity blue light as a substitute for UV light for excitation can have numerous advantages. Additionally, the effect of differently polarized excitation photons relative to each other is demonstrated. This offers information about different transition symmetries and yields deeper insight into the two-photon excitation process. PMID:18407711

  16. Pulse shaping on the Nova laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J.K.; Speck, D.R.; Bibeau, C.; Weiland, T.L.

    1989-02-06

    Inertial confinement fusion requires temporally shaped pulses to achieve high gain efficiency. Recently, we demonstrated the ability to produce complex temporal pulse shapes at high power at 0.35 microns on the Nova laser system. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Internal Energy Deposition for Low Energy, Femtosecond Laser Vaporization and Nanospray Post-ionization Mass Spectrometry using Thermometer Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanigan, Paul M.; Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    The internal energy of p-substituted benzylpyridinium ions after laser vaporization using low energy, femtosecond duration laser pulses of wavelengths 800 and 1042 nm was determined using the survival yield method. Laser vaporization of dried benzylpyridinium ions from metal slides into a buffered nanospray with 75 μJ, 800 nm laser pulses resulted in a higher extent of fragmentation than conventional nanospray due to the presence of a two-photon resonance fragmentation pathway. Using higher energy 800 nm laser pulses (280 and 505 μJ) led to decreased survival yields for the four different dried benzylpyridinium ions. Analyzing dried thermometer ions with 46.5 μJ, 1042 nm pulse-bursts resulted in little fragmentation and mean internal energy distributions equivalent to nanospray, which is attributable to the absence of a two-photon resonance that occurs with higher energy, 800 nm laser pulses. Vaporization of thermometer ions from solution with either 800 nm or 1042 nm laser pulses resulted in comparable internal energy distributions to nanospray ionization.

  18. On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bonse, Joern; Krueger, Joerg; Rosenfeld, Arkadi

    2009-11-15

    The formation of nearly wavelength-sized laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) on single-crystalline silicon upon irradiation with single or multiple femtosecond-laser pulses (pulse duration tau=130 fs and central wavelength lambda=800 nm) in air is studied experimentally and theoretically. In our theoretical approach, we model the LIPSS formation by combining the generally accepted first-principles theory of Sipe and co-workers with a Drude model in order to account for transient intrapulse changes in the optical properties of the material due to the excitation of a dense electron-hole plasma. Our results are capable to explain quantitatively the spatial periods of the LIPSSs being somewhat smaller than the laser wavelength, their orientation perpendicular to the laser beam polarization, and their characteristic fluence dependence. Moreover, evidence is presented that surface plasmon polaritons play a dominant role during the initial stage of near-wavelength-sized periodic surface structures in femtosecond-laser irradiated silicon, and it is demonstrated that these LIPSSs can be formed in silicon upon irradiation by single femtosecond-laser pulses.

  19. Analysis of Picosecond Pulsed Laser Melted Graphite

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Malvezzi, A. M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-12-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm{sup -1} and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm{sup -1}, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nanosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  20. Temperature dependence of nanosecond laser pulse thresholds of melanosome and microsphere microcavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Noojin, Gary D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Melanosome microcavitation is the threshold-level retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage mechanism for nanosecond (ns) pulse exposures in the visible and near-infrared (NIR). Thresholds for microcavitation of isolated bovine RPE melanosomes were determined as a function of temperature (20 to 85°C) using single ns laser pulses at 532 and 1064 nm. Melanosomes were irradiated using a 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG (doubled for 532-nm irradiation). For comparison to melanosome data, a similar temperature (20 to 65°C) dependence study was also performed for 532 nm, ns pulse exposures of black polystyrene microbeads. Results indicated a decrease in the microcavitation average radiant exposure threshold with increasing sample temperature for both 532- and 1064-nm single pulse exposures of melanosomes and microbeads. Threshold data and extrapolated nucleation temperatures were used to estimate melanosome absorption coefficients in the visible and NIR, and microbead absorption coefficients in the visible, indicating that melanin is a better absorber of visible light than black polystyrene. The NIR melanosome absorption coefficients ranged from 3713 cm-1 at 800 nm to 222 cm-1 at 1319 nm. These data represent the first temperature-dependent melanosome microcavitation study in the NIR and provide additional information for understanding melanosome microcavitation threshold dependence on wavelength and ambient temperature.

  1. Relativistic laser pulse compression in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yun; Sang, Hai-Bo Wan, Feng; Lv, Chong; Xie, Bai-Song

    2015-07-15

    The self-compression of a weak relativistic Gaussian laser pulse propagating in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which describes the laser pulse amplitude evolution, is deduced and solved numerically. The pulse compression is observed in the cases of both left- and right-hand circular polarized lasers. It is found that the compressed velocity is increased for the left-hand circular polarized laser fields, while decreased for the right-hand ones, which is reinforced as the enhancement of the external magnetic field. We find a 100 fs left-hand circular polarized laser pulse is compressed in a magnetized (1757 T) plasma medium by more than ten times. The results in this paper indicate the possibility of generating particularly intense and short pulses.

  2. Generation of an isolated sub-40-as pulse using two-color laser pulses: Combined chirp effects

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Liqiang; Chu, Tianshu

    2011-11-15

    In this paper, we theoretically discuss the combined chirp effects on the isolated attosecond generation when a model Ar is exposed to an intense 5-fs, 800-nm fundamental chirped pulse combined with a weak 10-fs, 1200-nm controlling chirped pulse. It shows that for the case of the chirp parameters {beta}{sub 1} = 6.1 (corresponding to the 800-nm field) and {beta}{sub 2} = 4.0 (corresponding to the 1200-nm field), both the harmonic cutoff energy and the supercontinuum can be remarkably extended resulting in a 663-eV bandwidth. Moreover, due to the introduction of the chirps, the short quantum path is selected to contribute to the harmonic spectrum. Finally, by superposing a properly selected harmonic spectrum in the supercontinuum region, an isolated pulse as short as 31 as (5 as) is generated without (with) phase compensation.

  3. Optical Kerr effect of tRNA solution induced by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucia, Weronika E.; Sharma, Gargi; Joseph, Cecil S.; Sarbak, Szymon; Oliver, Cameron; Dobek, Andrzej; Giles, Robert H.

    2016-10-01

    The optical Kerr effect (OKE) in a transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) solution induced by femtosecond pulses of linearly polarized pump light (λi = 800 nm) and sounded by probe light (λp = 800 nm) was studied. The measurements were performed to find nonlinear optical parameters describing a single molecule (molecular Kerr constant K, mean nonlinear third order optical polarizability cpi) and to compare them with our previous OKE results obtained in ns and ps time range. The OKE experiment has proven to be an efficient method to obtain the nonlinear parameters of single molecules in solution, which reflects dynamic structure changes.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of additive pulse modelocked lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sucha, G.; Bolton, S.R.; Chemla, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    Nonlinear dynamics have been studied in a number of modelocked laser systems, primarily in actively modelocked systems. However, less attention has been paid to the dynamics of passively modelocked laser systems. With the recent revolutionary advances in femtosecond modelocked laser technology, the understanding of instabilities and dynamics in passively modelocked lasers is an important issue. Here, the authors present experimental and numerical studies of the dynamics of an additive-pulse modelocked (APM) color-center laser.

  5. Super-achromatic microprobe for ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic OCT imaging at 800 nm (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wu; Alemohammad, Milad; Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Shaoyong; Li, Xingde

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report a super-achromatic microprobe made with fiber-optic ball lens to enable ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic OCT imaging. An axial resolution of ~2.4 µm (in air) can be achieved with a 7-fs Ti:Sapphire laser. The microprobe has minimal astigmatism which affords a high transverse resolution of ~5.6 µm. The miniaturized microprobe has an outer diameter of ~520 µm including the encasing metal guard and can be used to image small luminal organs. The performance of the ultrahigh-resolution OCT microprobe was demonstrated by imaging rat esophagus, guinea pig esophagus, and mouse rectum in vivo.

  6. Pulse circuit apparatus for gas discharge laser

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, Laird P.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method using a unique pulse circuit for a known gas discharge laser apparatus to provide an electric field for preconditioning the gas below gas breakdown and thereafter to place a maximum voltage across the gas which maximum voltage is higher than that previously available before the breakdown voltage of that gas laser medium thereby providing greatly increased pumping of the laser.

  7. High Power Picosecond Laser Pulse Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering based light sources. We demonstrate up to 36x average power enhancement of frequency doubled sub-millijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

  8. High-power picosecond laser pulse recirculation.

    PubMed

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P J

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high-power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering-based light sources. We demonstrate up to 40x average power enhancement of frequency-doubled submillijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

  9. High-power picosecond laser pulse recirculation.

    PubMed

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P J

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high-power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering-based light sources. We demonstrate up to 40x average power enhancement of frequency-doubled submillijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses. PMID:20596201

  10. Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation from relativistic laser plasmas using few-cycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Guangjin; Dallari, William; Borot, Antonin; Tsakiris, George D.; Veisz, Laszlo; Krausz, Ferenc; Yu, Wei

    2015-03-15

    We have performed a systematic study through particle-in-cell simulations to investigate the generation of attosecond pulse from relativistic laser plasmas when laser pulse duration approaches the few-cycle regime. A significant enhancement of attosecond pulse energy has been found to depend on laser pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and plasma scale length. Based on the results obtained in this work, the potential of attaining isolated attosecond pulses with ∼100 μJ energy for photons >16 eV using state-of-the-art laser technology appears to be within reach.

  11. Generation of laser pulse trains for tests of multi-pulse laser wakefield acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalloo, R. J.; Corner, L.; Arran, C.; Cowley, J.; Cheung, G.; Thornton, C.; Walczak, R.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    In multi-pulse laser wakefield acceleration (MP-LWFA) a plasma wave is driven by a train of low-energy laser pulses separated by the plasma period, an approach which offers a route to driving plasma accelerators with high efficiency and at high pulse repetition rates using emerging technologies such as fibre and thin-disk lasers. Whilst these laser technologies are in development, proof-of-principle tests of MP-LWFA require a pulse train to be generated from a single, high-energy ultrafast pulse. Here we demonstrate the generation of trains of up to 7 pulses with pulse separations in the range 150-170 fs from single 40 fs pulses produced by a Ti:sapphire laser.

  12. MOPA pulsed fiber laser for silicon scribing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Limei; Huang, Wei; Deng, Mengmeng; Li, Feng

    2016-06-01

    A 1064 nm master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) pulsed fiber laser is developed with flexible control over the pulse width, repetition frequency and peak power, and it is used to investigate the dependence of mono-crystalline silicon scribe depth on the laser pulse width, scanning speed and repeat times. Experimental results indicate that long pulses with low peak powers lead to deep ablation depths. We also demonstrate that the ablation depth grows fast with the scanning repeat times at first and progressively tends to be saturated when the repeat times reach a certain level. A thermal model considering the laser pulse overlapping effect that predicts the silicon temperature variation and scribe depth is employed to verify the experimental conclusions with reasonably close agreement. These conclusions are of great benefits to the optimization of the laser material processing with high efficiency.

  13. Ultrashort pulse laser microsurgery on cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He Z.; Huang, Xu G.; Zheng, Xiguang; Yu, Zhenxin; Gao, Zhaolan

    1995-05-01

    A laser microbeam system has been set up for microsurgery on cell. The relations of laser wavelength, pulse duration and pulse energy to punching effects and self-healing are studied. The experimental results demonstrate that picosecond pulse laser microbeam offers many advantages in cell microsurgery. The mechanism of punching by picosecond microbeam is high field puncture instead of heat effect, and is irrelevant to cell kinds and colors. The diameter and depth of microsurgery can therefore be easily controlled by adjusting the laser pulse energy. The diameter of the minimum aperture is about 0.1 micrometers , much smaller than the theoretical limit ((lambda) /2) for optical microscope due to self- focusing effect. With ultrashort pulse laser microbeam, we can easily cut off any part of a cell. An example is that eight nuclei in the center of unicellular parasite Pneumocystis Carinii can be destroyed one by one by ultrashort pulse laser microbeam without cell wall injury. The holes can also be punched by ultrashort pulse laser microbeam from cell wall to cell nucleus. In a fraction of a second to several seconds after punching, the hole on cell wall or cell membrane can self-heal. Exogenous DNA can be introduced into the cell before its self- healing.

  14. Multiterawatt 30-fs Ti:sapphire laser system.

    PubMed

    Barty, C P; Gordon Iii, C L; Lemoff, B E

    1994-09-15

    A near-diffraction-limited transform-limited multiterawatt laser system that produces approximately 30-fs 125-mJ 800-nm pulses at a repetition rate of 10 Hz has been constructed. Methods for the control of femtosecond time-scale phase and amplitude distortions have been developed and implemented.

  15. Picosecond pulsed diode ring laser gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Rosker, M.J.; Christian, W.R.; McMichael, I.C.

    1994-12-31

    An external ring cavity containing as its active medium a pair of InGaAsP diodes is modelocked to produce picosecond pulses. In such a laser, a small frequency difference proportional to the nonreciprocal phase shift (resulting from, e.g., the Sagnac effect) can be observed by beating together the counter propagating laser arms; the device therefore acts as a rotating sensor. In contrast to a conventional (cw) ring laser gyroscope, the pulsed gyroscope can avoid gain competition, thereby enabling the use of homogeneously broadened gain media like semiconductor diodes. Temporal separation of the pulses within the cavity also discriminates against frequency locking of the lasers. The picosecond pulsed diode ring laser gyroscope is reviewed. Both active and passive modelocking are discussed.

  16. Micromachining with femtosecond 250-nm laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Argument, Michael A.; Tsui, Ying Y.; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2000-12-01

    Laser micromachining is a flexible technique for precision patterning of surfaces in microelectronics, microelectromechanical devices and integrated optical devices. Typical applications include drilling of holes, cutting of conducting lines or shaping of micro component surfaces. The resolution, edge finish and residual damage to the surrounding and underlying structures depend on a variety of parameters including laser energy, intensity, pulse width and wavelength. Femtosecond pulses are of particular interest because the limited time of interaction limits the lateral expansion of the plasma and the inward propagation of the heat front. Thus, very small spot size can be achieved and minimal heating and damage of underlying layers can be obtained. An additional advantage of femtosecond pulses is that multiphoton absorption leads to efficient coupling of energy to many materials independent of the linear reflectivity of the surface. Thus metals and transmitting dielectrics, which are difficult to micromachine, may be machined with such pulses. The coupling is improved further by employing ultraviolet wavelength laser pulses where the linear absorption typically is much higher than for visible and infrared laser pulses. To explore these advantages, we have initiated a study of the interaction of 250nm femtosecond laser pulses with metals. The laser pulses are obtained by generating the third harmonic from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser operating at 750nm. The pulses are focused to various intensities in the range of 1010Wcm2 to 1015 Wcm2 using reflective and refractive microscope objectives and ablation thresholds and ablation rates have been determined for a few metals. In addition the ability to control feature size and produce submicron holes and lines have been investigated. The results are presented and compared to results obtained using infrared and visible femtosecond laser pulses.

  17. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1988-01-01

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  18. Compositional dependent response of silica-based glasses to femtosecond laser pulse irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuthe, Thomas; Grehn, Moritz; Mermillod-Blondin, Alexandre; Bonse, Jörn; Eberstein, Markus

    2013-11-01

    Femtosecond laser pulse irradiation of inorganic glasses allows a selective modification of the optical properties with very high precision. This results in the possibility for the production of three-dimensional functional optical elements in the interior of glass materials, such as optical data storage, waveguide writing, etc. The influence of the chemical glass composition to the response upon ultrashort laser irradiation has not been studied systematically. For that, simple silicabased model glasses composed of systematically varying alkaline- and earth-alkaline components were prepared, irradiated on the surface and in the volume with single fs-laser pulses (~130 fs, 800 nm), and were subsequently analyzed by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy and quantitative phase contrast microscopy in order to account for changes in the glass structure and for alterations of the optical refractive index, respectively. The Raman spectroscopic studies of the laser-irradiated spots revealed no change in the average binding configuration (the so called Q-structure), but local changes of bond-angles and bond-lengths within the glass structure structure. Those changes are explained by structural relaxation of the glass network due to densification caused by a transient laser-induced plasma generation and the following shock wave and other thermal phenomena. Glasses with a low amount of network modifiers show changes in the Si-O network while glasses with a high amount of network modifiers react primarily via variation of the nonbridging oxygen ions. The results are discussed in terms of possible structural response mechanisms and conclusions are outlined regarding glass compositions with technical suitability for fs-laser modifications.

  19. Pulse front tilt measurement of femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay; Stoyanov, Lyubomir; Stefanov, Ivan; Dreischuh, Alexander; Hansinger, Peter; Paulus, Gerhard G.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report experimental investigations of an intentionally introduced pulse front tilt on femtosecond laser pulses by using an inverted field correlator/interferometer. A reliable criterion for the precision in aligning (in principle) dispersionless systems for manipulating ultrashort pulses is developed, specifically including cases when the pulse front tilt is a result of a desired spatio-temporal coupling. The results obtained using two low-dispersion diffraction gratings are in good qualitative agreement with the data from a previously developed analytical model and from an independent interferometric measurement.

  20. Simulation of Double-Pulse Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E.; Khishchenko, Konstantin V.; Levashov, Pavel R.; Itina, Tatian E.

    2010-10-08

    We investigate the physical reasons of a strange decrease in the ablation depth observed in femtosecond double-pulse experiments with increasing delay between the pulses. Two ultrashort pulses of the same energy produce the crater which is less than that created by a single pulse. Hydrodynamic simulation shows that the ablation mechanism is suppressed when the delay between the pulses exceeds the electron-ion relaxation time. In this case, the interaction of the second laser pulse with the expanding target material leads to the formation of the second shock wave suppressing the rarefaction wave created by the first pulse. The modeling of the double-pulse ablation for different delays between pulses confirms this explanation.

  1. Limiting of microjoule femtosecond pulses in air-guided modes of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Konorov, S.O.; Serebryannikov, E.E.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D.A.; Bugar, I.; Chorvat, D. Jr.; Chorvat, D.; Bloemer, M.J.; Scalora, M.; Miles, R.B.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2004-08-01

    Self-phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening of laser pulses in air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) is shown to allow the creation of fiber-optic limiters for high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses. The performance of PCF limiters is analyzed in terms of elementary theory of self-phase modulation. Experiments performed with 100 fs microjoule pulses of 800 nm Ti:sapphire laser radiation demonstrate the potential of hollow PCFs as limiters for 10 MW ultrashort laser pulses and show the possibility to switch the limiting level of output radiation energy by guiding femtosecond pulses in different PCF modes.

  2. Fiber Laser Front Ends for High Energy, Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Messerly, M; Phan, H; Siders, C; Beach, R; Barty, C

    2007-06-21

    We are developing a fiber laser system for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal for these systems as they are highly reliable and enable long term stable operation.

  3. Pulsed laser irradiation of metal multilayers.

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, David Price; McDonald, Joel Patrick

    2010-11-01

    Vapor-deposited, exothermic metal-metal multilayer foils are an ideal class of materials for detailed investigations of pulsed laser-ignited chemical reactions. Created in a pristine vacuum environment by sputter deposition, these high purity materials have well-defined reactant layer thicknesses between 1 and 1000 nm, minimal void density and intimate contact between layers. Provided that layer thicknesses are made small, some reactive metal-metal multilayer foils can be ignited at a point by laser irradiation and exhibit subsequent high-temperature, self-propagating synthesis. With this presentation, we describe the pulsed laser-induced ignition characteristics of a single multilayer system (equiatomic Al/Pt) that exhibits self-propagating synthesis. We show that the thresholds for ignition are dependent on (i) multilayer design and (ii) laser pulse duration. With regard to multilayer design effects on ignition, there is a large range of multilayer periodicity over which ignition threshold decreases as layer thicknesses are made small. We attribute this trend of decreased ignition threshold to reduced mass transport diffusion lengths required for rapid exothermic mixing. With regard to pulse duration effects, we have determined how ignition threshold of a single Al/Pt multilayer varies with pulse duration from 10{sup -2} to {approx} 10{sup -13} sec (wavelength and spot size are held constant). A higher laser fluence is required for ignition when using a single laser pulse {approx} 100 fs or 1 ps compared with nanosecond or microsecond exposure, and we attribute this, in part, to the effects of reactive material being ablated when using the shorter pulse durations. To further understand these trends and other pulsed laser-based processes, our discussion concludes with an analysis of the heat-affected depths in multilayers as a function of pulse duration.

  4. Multiple laser pulse ignition method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Two or more laser light pulses with certain differing temporal lengths and peak pulse powers can be employed sequentially to regulate the rate and duration of laser energy delivery to fuel mixtures, thereby improving fuel ignition performance over a wide range of fuel parameters such as fuel/oxidizer ratios, fuel droplet size, number density and velocity within a fuel aerosol, and initial fuel temperatures.

  5. Pulsed lasers in dentistry: sense or nonsense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koort, Hans J.; Frentzen, Matthias

    1991-05-01

    The great interest in the field of laser applications in dentistry provokes the question, if all these new techniques may really fulfill advantages, which are expected after initial in-vitro studies. Whereas laser surgery of soft oral tissues has been developed to a standard method, laser treatment of dental hard tissues and the bone are attended with many unsolved problems. Different laser types, especially pulsed lasers in a wide spectrum of wavelengths have been proofed for dental use. Today neither the excimer lasers, emitting in the far uv-range from 193 to 351 nm, nor the mid-infrared lasers like Nd:YAG (1,064 μm), Ho:YAG (2,1 μm) and Er:YAG (2,96 μm) or the C02-laser (10,6 μm) show mechanism of interaction more carefully and faster than a preparation of teeth with diamond drillers. The laser type with the most precise and considerate treatment effects in the moment is the short pulsed (15 ns) ArF-excimer laser with a wavelength of 193 nm. However this laser type has not yet the effectivity of mechanical instruments and it needs a mirror system to deliver the radiation. Histological results point out, that this laser shows no significant pathological alterations in the adjacent tissues. Another interesting excimer laser, filled with XeCI and emitting at a wavelength of 308 nm has the advantage to be good to deliver through quartz fibers. A little more thermal influence is to be seen according to the longer wavelength. Yet the energy density, necessary to cut dental hard tissues will not be reached with the laser systems available now. Both the pulsed Er:YAG- (2,94 μm, pulse duration 250 s) and the Ho:YAG -laser (2,1 μm, pulse duration 250 μs) have an effective coupling of the laser energy to hydrogeneous tissues, but they do not work sufficient on healthy enamel and dentine. The influence to adjacent healthy tissue is not tolerable, especially in regard of the thermal damage dentine and pulp tissues. Moreover, like the 193 nm ArF-excimer laser

  6. Pulsed Laser Illumination of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland; Jenkins, Philip; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic array receivers to provide remote power. The induction FEL and the radio-frequency (RF) FEL both produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work, we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format, producing 50 ps pulses at a frequency of 78 MHz. A variety of Si, GaAs, CaSb and CdInSe2 (CIS) solar cells are tested at average incident powers between 4 mW/sq cm and 425 mW/sq cm. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced by using a pulsed laser source compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. Because the pulse separation is less than or approximately equal to the minority carrier lifetime, the illumination conditions are effectively those of a continuous wave laser. The time dependence of the voltage and current response of the cells are also measured using a sampling oscilloscope equipped with a high frequency voltage probe and current transformer. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments shows that the RF FEL pulse format yields much more efficient photovoltaic conversion of light than does an induction FEL pulse format.

  7. Pulse-shaping circuit for laser excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Narrower, impedence-matched pulses initiate stabler electric discharges for gas lasers. Discharges are more efficient, more compact, capable of high repetition rate, and less expensive than conventional electron-beam apparatus, but gas tends to break down and form localized arcs. Pulse-shaping circuit compresses width of high-voltage pulses from relatively-slow rise-time voltage generator and gradually grades circuit impedance from inherent high impedance of generator to low impedence of gas.

  8. Spatially coherent high-order harmonics generated at optimal high gas pressure with high-intensity one- or two-color laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Cheng; Lin, C. D.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the gas-pressure dependence of macroscopic harmonic spectra generated in a high-ionization medium using intense 800-nm laser pulses. The harmonics obtained at the optimal pressure show good spatial coherence with small divergence (less than 2 mrad) in the far field. By analyzing the evolution of the laser's electric field as it propagates, we find that dynamic phase matching conditions are fulfilled in the second half of the gas cell and that harmonic yields do not depend on the position of the gas cell with respect to the focusing position. We also demonstrate that harmonic yields at the optimal pressure can be further enhanced by increasing input laser energy or by adding a few percent of second or third harmonic to the fundamental.

  9. Photoimaging of the multiple filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-anthracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborine

    SciTech Connect

    Kulchin, Yu N; Vitrik, O B; Chekhlenok, A A; Zhizhchenko, A Yu; Proschenko, D Yu; Mirochnik, A G; Lyu Guohui

    2013-12-31

    We have studied the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses (λ = 800 nm, ∼42 fs pulse duration) in poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-anthracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2- dioxaborine and the associated photomodification of the material. The results demonstrate that multiple filamentation occurs at pulse energies above 5 μJ. At a pulse energy of 1.5 mJ, it is accompanied by supercontinuum generation. The average filament length in PMMA is 9 mm and the filament diameter is ∼10 μm. An incident power density of ∼10{sup 12} W cm{sup -2} ensures inscription of the filament pattern owing to two-photon photochemical processes. Preliminary exposure to continuous light at λ = 400 nm enables an ordered filament pattern to be written. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  10. Laser pulse shaping for high gradient accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, F.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bisesto, F.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Galletti, M.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Gatti, G.; Moreno, M.; Petrarca, M.; Pompili, R.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2016-09-01

    In many high gradient accelerator schemes, i.e. with plasma or dielectric wakefield induced by particles, many electron pulses are required to drive the acceleration of one of them. Those electron bunches, that generally should have very short duration and low emittance, can be generated in photoinjectors driven by a train of laser pulses coming inside the same RF bucket. We present the system used to shape and characterize the laser pulses used in multibunch operations at Sparc_lab. Our system gives us control over the main parameter useful to produce a train of up to five high brightness bunches with tailored intensity and time distribution.

  11. Pulsed solid state lasers for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertesz, Ivan; Danileiko, A. Y.; Denker, Boris I.; Kroo, Norbert; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.

    1994-02-01

    The effect on living tissues of different pulsed solid state lasers: Nd:YAG ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometers ) Er:glass (1.54 micrometers ), Ho:YAG (2.1 micrometers ) and Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ) is compared with the continuous wave Nd:YAG- and CO2-lasers used in operating theaters. Portable Er:glass- and Er:YAG-lasers are developed for surgery/cosmetics and HIV-safe blood testing.

  12. Classical dynamics of free electromagnetic laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, S.; Tucker, R. W.; Walton, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a class of exact finite energy solutions to the vacuum source-free Maxwell field equations as models for multi- and single cycle laser pulses in classical interaction with relativistic charged test particles. These solutions are classified in terms of their chiral content based on their influence on particular charge configurations in space. Such solutions offer a computationally efficient parameterization of compact laser pulses used in laser-matter simulations and provide a potential means for experimentally bounding the fundamental length scale in the generalized electrodynamics of Bopp, Landé and Podolsky.

  13. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived.

  14. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic array receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL provide FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL pulse format.

  15. Longitudinally Excited CO2 Laser with Short Laser Pulse like TEA CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Kenshi; Goto, Tatsumi; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2009-11-01

    We have developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser with a short laser pulse similar to that of TEA and Q-switched CO2 lasers. A capacitor transfer circuit with a low shunt resistance provided rapid discharge and a sharp spike pulse with a short pulse tail. Specifically, a circuit with a resistance of 10 M Ω provided a spike pulse width of 103.3 ns and a pulse tail length of 61.9 μs, whereas a circuit with a shunt resistance of 100 Ω provided a laser pulse with a spike pulse width of 96.3 ns and a pulse tail length of 17.2 μs. The laser pulses from this longitudinally excited CO2 laser were used for processing a human tooth without carbonization and for glass marking without cracks.

  16. The effect of ultrafast laser wavelength on ablation properties and implications on sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    LaHaye, N. L.; Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.; Kulkarni, P.

    2013-07-14

    We investigated the role of femtosecond (fs) laser wavelength on laser ablation (LA) and its relation to laser generated aerosol counts and particle distribution, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) signal intensity, detection limits, and elemental fractionation. Four different NIST standard reference materials (610, 613, 615, and 616) were ablated using 400 nm and 800 nm fs laser pulses to study the effect of wavelength on laser ablation rate, accuracy, precision, and fractionation. Our results show that the detection limits are lower for 400 nm laser excitation than 800 nm laser excitation at lower laser energies but approximately equal at higher energies. Ablation threshold was also found to be lower for 400 nm than 800 nm laser excitation. Particle size distributions are very similar for 400 nm and 800 nm wavelengths; however, they differ significantly in counts at similar laser fluence levels. This study concludes that 400 nm LA is more beneficial for sample introduction in ICP-MS, particularly when lower laser energies are to be used for ablation.

  17. Stimulated crystallization of melt-quenched Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films employing femtosecond laser double pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, Rebecca L.; Siegel, Jan

    2012-12-15

    The phase transformation of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films from the melt-quenched amorphous phase into the crystalline phase induced by 800 nm, 100 fs laser pulses has been studied. For partly amorphized films, progressive crystallization could be induced by single pulses, which can be explained by growth of already existing crystalline embryos. For completely amorphized films, it was not possible to induce crystallization with one or two consecutive pulses; three pulses being the threshold for the onset of crystallization. By employing a fs laser double pulse with an adjustable inter-pulse delay, partial crystallization could be triggered for a delay range of 200 fs-100 ps, while for longer delays no crystallization was possible. The time window for stimulated crystallization can be related to the relaxation dynamics of free electrons excited by the first pulse, which are further excited by the second pulse still remaining in the excited state. Our results indicate that the lifetime of excited electrons in melt-quenched amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} is Almost-Equal-To 100 ps.

  18. Alexandrite-pumped alexandrite regenerative amplifier for femtosecond pulse amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, A.; Fermann, M.E.; Stock, M.L.; Harter, D.J.; Squier, J.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate a regenerative amplifier incorporating alexandrite as the gain medium that is pumped by an alexandrite laser. Temperature-altered gain permitted the 728-nm alexandrite pump laser, operating at room temperature, to pump a 780{endash}800-nm alexandrite laser that was maintained at elevated temperatures. 200-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire oscillator were amplified to the millijoule level. This system also amplified femtosecond pulses from a frequency-doubled Er-doped fiber laser. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  19. Ophthalmic applications of ultrashort pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Tibor; Spooner, Greg; Sacks, Zachary S.; Suarez, Carlos G.; Raksi, Ferenc; Zadoyan, Ruben; Sarayba, Melvin; Kurtz, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses can be used to create high precision incision in transparent and translucent tissue with minimal damage to adjacent tissue. These performance characteristics meet important surgical requirements in ophthalmology, where femtosecond laser flap creation is becoming a widely used refractive surgery procedure. We summarize clinical findings with femtosecond laser flaps as well as early experiments with other corneal surgical procedures such as corneal transplants. We also review laser-tissue interaction studies in the human sclera and their consequences for the treatment of glaucoma.

  20. Nonequilibrium Interlayer Transport in Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Eres, Gyula; Larson, Ben C; Rouleau, Christopher M; Zschack, P.; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2006-01-01

    We use time-resolved surface x-ray diffraction measurements with microsecond range resolution to study the growth kinetics of pulsed laser deposited SrTiO3. Time-dependent surface coverages corresponding to single laser shots were determined directly from crystal truncation rod intensity transients. Analysis of surface coverage evolution shows that extremely fast nonequilibrium interlayer transport, which occurs concurrently with the arrival of the laser plume, dominates the deposition process. A much smaller fraction of material, which is governed by the dwell time between successive laser shots, is transferred by slow, thermally driven interlayer transport processes.

  1. Inductive gas line for pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Alger, Terry W.

    1985-01-01

    A gas laser having a metal inlet gas feed line assembly shaped as a coil, to function as an electrical inductance and therefore high impedance to pulses of electric current applied to electrodes at opposite ends of a discharge tube of a laser, for example. This eliminates a discharge path for the laser through the inlet gas feed line. A ferrite core extends through the coil to increase the inductance of the coil and provide better electric isolation. By elimination of any discharge breakdown through the gas supply, efficiency is increased and a significantly longer operating lifetime of the laser is provided.

  2. Inductive gas line for pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Benett, W.J.; Alger, T.W.

    1982-09-29

    A gas laser having a metal inlet gas feed line assembly shaped as a coil, to function as an electrical inductance and therefore high impedance to pulses of electric current applied to electrodes at opposite ends of a discharge tube of a laser, for example. This eliminates a discharge path for the laser through the inlet gas feed line. A ferrite core extends through the coil to increase the inductance of the coil and provide better electric isolation. By elimination of any discharge breakdown through the gas supply, efficiency is increased and a significantly longer operating lifetime of the laser is provided.

  3. Histopathology of ultrashort-laser-pulse retinal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Cynthia A.; Narayan, Drew G.; Osborne, Catherine; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Stein, Cindy D.; Amnotte, Rodney E.; DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Roach, William P.; Noojin, Gary D.; Cain, Clarence P.

    1996-05-01

    Recent studies of retinal damage due to ultrashort laser pulses have shown interesting behavior. Laser induced retinal damage for ultrashort (i.e. less than 1 ns) laser pulses is produced at lower energies than in the nanosecond to microsecond laser pulse regime and the energy required for hemorrhagic lesions is much greater times greater for the nanosecond regime. We investigated the tissue effects exhibited in histopathology of retinal tissues exposed to ultrashort laser pulses.

  4. 3-D laser pulse shaping for photoinjector drive lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Chang, X.; Accelerator Systems Division; BNL

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a three-dimensional (3-D) laser pulse shaping scheme that can be applied for generating ellipsoidal electron bunches from a photoinjector. The 3-D shaping is realized through laser phase tailoring in combination with chromatic aberration in a focusing optics. Performance of an electron beam generated from such shaped laser pulses is compared with that of a uniforma ellipsoidal, a uniform cylindrical, and a Gaussian electron beam. PARMELA simulation shows the advantage of this shaped beam in both transverse and longitudinal performances.

  5. Toward nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Juergen; Tanabe, Takasumi; Korte, Frank; Fallnich, Carsten; Ostendorf, Andreas; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2004-10-01

    Micro- and nanostructuring are very important for the fabrication of new materials and multifunctional devices. Existing photo-lithographic technologies can only be applied to a limited number of materials and used on plane surfaces. Whereas, microstructuring with femtosecond laser pulses has established itself as an excellent and universal tool for micro-processing, it is still unclear what are the limits of this technology. It is of great interest to use this technique also for nanostructuring. With tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses one can produce sub-micrometer holes and structures whose quality depends on the material. We present new results on nanostructuring of different materials with femtosecond laser pulses in an attempt to make this an universal technology, and discuss its reproducibility, and further prospects for quality control.

  6. Toward nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korte, Frank; Koch, Juergen; Fallnich, Carsten; Ostendorf, Andreas; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2003-04-01

    The development of a simple laser-based technology for the fabrication of two-dimensional nanostructures with a structure size down to one hundred nanometers is reported. The ability to micro- and nano-structure is very important for the fabrication of new materials and multifunctional microdevices. Photolithographic technologies can be applied only for plane surfaces. Using femtosecond laser pulses one can fabricate 100 nm structures on arbitrary 3D-surfaces of metals and dielectrics. In principle, the minimum achievable structure size is determined by the diffraction limit of the optical system and is of the order of the radiation wavelength. However, this is different for material processing with ultrashort laser pulses. Due to a well-defined threshold character of material processing with femtosecond lasers one can beat the diffraction limit by using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses and by adjusting laser parameters slightly above the processing threshold. In this case only the central part of the beam can modify the material and it becomes possible to produce sub-wavelength structures. In this presentation, sub-wavelength microstructuring of metals and fabrication of periodic nanostructures in transparent materials are demonstrated as promising femtosecond laser-based nanofabrication technologies.

  7. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL format.

  8. Ultrashort pulsed laser technology development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manke, Gerald C.

    2014-10-01

    The Department of Navy has been pursuing a technology development program for advanced, all-fiber, Ultra Short Pulsed Laser (USPL) systems via Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs. Multiple topics have been published to promote and fund research that encompasses every critical component of a standard USPL system and enable the demonstration of mJ/pulse class systems with an all fiber architecture. This presentation will summarize published topics and funded programs.

  9. Modeling Pulsed Laser Melting of Embedded Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Carolyn Anne

    A model of pulsed laser melting of embedded nanoparticles is introduced. Pulsed laser melting (PLM) is commonly used to achieve a fast quench rate in nanoparticles; this model enables a better understanding of the influence of PLM on the size distribution of nanoparticles, which is crucial for studying or using their size-dependent properties. The model includes laser absorption according to the Mie theory, a full heat transport model, and rate equations for nucleation, growth, coarsening, and melting and freezing of nanoparticles embedded in a transparent matrix. The effects of varying the laser parameters and sample properties are studied, as well as combining PLM and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processing steps on the same sample. A general theory for achieving narrow size distributions of nanoparticles is presented, and widths as narrow as 12% are achieved using PLM and RTA.

  10. Underwater modulated pulse laser imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Shawn; Mullen, Linda J.; Cochenour, Brandon

    2014-05-01

    The detection and identification of underwater threats in coastal areas are of interest to the Navy. When identifying a potential target, both two-dimensional (amplitude versus position) and three-dimensional (amplitude and range versus position) information are important. Laser imaging in turbid coastal waters makes this task challenging due to absorption and scattering in both the forward and backward directions. Conventional imaging approaches to suppress scatter rely on a pulsed laser and a range-gated receiver or an intensity-modulated continuous wave laser and a coherent RF receiver. The modulated pulsed laser imaging system is a hybrid of these two approaches and uses RF intensity modulation on a short optical pulse. The result is an imaging system capable of simultaneously acquiring high-contrast images along with high-precision unambiguous ranges. A working modulated pulsed laser line scanner was constructed and tested with a custom-built transmitter, a large-bandwidth optical receiver, and a high-speed digitizing oscilloscope. The effectiveness of the modulation to suppress both backscatter and forward scatter, as applied to both magnitude and range images, is discussed.

  11. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Compact pulsed laser having improved heat conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A highly efficient, compact pulsed laser having high energy to weight and volume ratios is provided. The laser utilizes a cavity reflector that operates as a heat sink and is essentially characterized by having a high heat conductivity, by being a good electrical insulator and by being substantially immune to the deleterious effects of ultra-violet radiation. Manual portability is accomplished by eliminating entirely any need for a conventional circulating fluid cooling system.

  13. Trident Pair Production in Strong Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ilderton, Anton

    2011-01-14

    We calculate the trident pair production amplitude in a strong laser background. We allow for finite pulse durations, while still treating the laser fields nonperturbatively in strong-field QED. Our approach reveals explicitly the individual contributions of the one-step and two-step processes. We also expose the role gauge invariance plays in the amplitudes and discuss the relation between our results and the optical theorem.

  14. Tunable pulsed carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G. J.; Menzies, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transverse electrically-excited-atmosphere (TEA) laser is continuously tunable over several hundred megahertz about centers of spectral lines of carbon dioxide. It is operated in single longitudinal mode (SLM) by injection of beam from continuous-wave, tunable-waveguide carbon dioxide laser, which serves as master frequency-control oscillator. Device measures absorption line of ozone; with adjustments, it is applicable to monitoring of atmospheric trace species.

  15. Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses through water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianchao; Alexander, Dennis R; Zhang, Haifeng; Parali, Ufuk; Doerr, David W; Bruce, John C; Wang, Hao

    2007-02-19

    In this paper, propagation of ultrashort pulses through a long 3.5 meter water channel was studied. Of particular interest was the attenuation of the beam at various lengths along the variable path length and to find an explanation of why the attenuation deviates from typical Beer Lambert law around 3 meters for ultrashort laser pulse transmission. Laser pulses of 10 fs at 75 MHz, 100 fs at 80 MHz and 300 fs at 1 KHz were employed to investigate the effects of pulse duration, spectrum and repetition rate on the attenuation after propagating through water up to 3 meters. Stretched pulse attenuation measurements produced from 10 fs at a frequency of 75 MHz were compared with the 10 fs attenuation measurements. Results indicate that the broad spectrum of the ultrashort pulse is the dominant reason for the observed decrease in attenuation after 3 meters of travel in a long water channel. The repetition rate is found not to play a significant role at least for the long pulse scenario in this reported attenuation studies. PMID:19532433

  16. Ultrafast pulsed laser utilizing broad bandwidth laser glass

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Hayden, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    An ultrafast laser uses a Nd-doped phosphate laser glass characterized by a particularly broad emission bandwidth to generate the shortest possible output pulses. The laser glass is composed primarily of P.sub.2 O.sub.5, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO, and possesses physical and thermal properties that are compatible with standard melting and manufacturing methods. The broad bandwidth laser glass can be used in modelocked oscillators as well as in amplifier modules.

  17. Ultrafast pulsed laser utilizing broad bandwidth laser glass

    DOEpatents

    Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.

    1997-09-02

    An ultrafast laser uses a Nd-doped phosphate laser glass characterized by a particularly broad emission bandwidth to generate the shortest possible output pulses. The laser glass is composed primarily of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO, and possesses physical and thermal properties that are compatible with standard melting and manufacturing methods. The broad bandwidth laser glass can be used in modelocked oscillators as well as in amplifier modules. 7 figs.

  18. Electromagnetic Pulses at Short-Pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Throop, A; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2007-08-28

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) is a known issue for short-pulse laser facilities, and will also be an issue for experiments using the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The ARC diagnostic uses four NIF beams that are compressed to picosecond durations for backlighting ignition capsules and other applications. Consequently, we are working to understand the EMP due to high-energy (MeV) electrons escaping from targets heated by short-pulse lasers. Our approach is to measure EMP in the Titan short-pulse laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and to employ that data to establish analysis and simulation capabilities. We have installed a wide variety of probes inside and outside the Titan laser chamber. We have high-frequency B-dots and D-dots, a photodiode, and fast current-viewing and integrating current transformers. The probe outputs are digitized by 10 and 20 Gsample/s oscilloscopes. The cables and oscilloscopes are well shielded to reduce noise. Our initial measurement campaign has yielded data useful mainly from hundreds of MHz to several GHz. We currently are supplementing our high-frequency probes with lower-frequency ones to obtain better low-frequency data. In order to establish analysis and simulation capabilities we are modeling the Titan facility using various commercial and LLNL numerical electromagnetic codes. We have simulated EMP generation by having a specified number of electrons leave the target and strike the chamber wall and other components in the chamber. This short impulse of electrons has a corresponding broad spectrum, exciting high-frequency structure in the resulting EMP. In this paper, we present results of our initial measurement campaign and comparisons between the measurements and simulations.

  19. Electromagnetic Pulses at Short-Pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C G; Throop, A; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2008-02-04

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) is a known issue for short-pulse laser facilities, and will also be an issue for experiments using the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The ARC diagnostic uses four NIF beams that are compressed to picosecond durations for backlighting ignition capsules and other applications. Consequently, we are working to understand the EMP due to high-energy (MeV) electrons escaping from targets heated by short-pulse lasers. Our approach is to measure EMP in the Titan short-pulse laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and to employ that data to establish analysis and simulation capabilities. We have installed a wide variety of probes inside and outside the Titan laser chamber. We have high-frequency B-dot and D-dot probes, a photodiode, and fast current-viewing and integrating current transformers. The probe outputs are digitized by 10 and 20 Gsample/s oscilloscopes. The cables and oscilloscopes are well shielded to reduce noise. Our initial measurement campaign has yielded data useful mainly from several hundreds of MHz to several GHz. We currently are supplementing our high-frequency probes with lower-frequency ones to obtain better low-frequency data. In order to establish analysis and simulation capabilities we are modeling the Titan facility using various commercial and LLNL numerical electromagnetics codes. We have simulated EMP generation by having a specified number of electrons leave the target and strike the chamber wall and other components in the chamber. This short impulse of electrons has a correspondingly broad spectrum, exciting high-frequency structure in the resulting EMP. In this paper, we present results of our initial measurement campaign and comparisons between the measurements and simulations.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition: the road to hybrid nanocomposites coatings and novel pulsed laser adaptive technique.

    PubMed

    Serbezov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    The applications of Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for producing nanoparticles, nanostructures and nanocomposites coatings based on recently developed laser ablating techniques and their convergence are being reviewed. The problems of in situ synthesis of hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposites coatings by these techniques are being discussed. The novel modification of PLD called Pulsed Laser Adaptive Deposition (PLAD) technique is presented. The in situ synthesized inorganic/organic nanocomposites coatings from Magnesium (Mg) alloy/Rhodamine B and Mg alloy/ Desoximetasone by PLAD are described. The trends, applications and future development of discussed patented methods based on the laser ablating technologies for producing hybrid nanocomposite coatings have also been discussed in this review.

  1. Selective breaking of bonds in water with intense, 2-cycle, infrared laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Mathur, D; Dota, K; Dey, D; Tiwari, A K; Dharmadhikari, J A; Dharmadhikari, A K; De, S; Vasa, P

    2015-12-28

    One of the holy grails of contemporary science has been to establish the possibility of preferentially breaking one of several bonds in a molecule. For instance, the two O-H bonds in water are equivalent: given sufficient energy, either one of them is equally likely to break. We report bond-selective molecular fragmentation upon application of intense, 2-cycle pulses of 800 nm laser light: we demonstrate up to three-fold enhancement for preferential bond breaking in isotopically substituted water (HOD). Our experimental observations are rationalized by means of ab initio computations of the potential energy surfaces of HOD, HOD(+), and HOD(2+) and explorations of the dissociation limits resulting from either O-H or O-D bond rupture. The observations we report present a formidable theoretical challenge that need to be taken up in order to gain insights into molecular dynamics, strong field physics, chemical physics, non-adiabatic processes, mass spectrometry, and time-dependent quantum chemistry.

  2. Selective breaking of bonds in water with intense, 2-cycle, infrared laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, D. Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dota, K.; Dey, D.; Tiwari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; De, S.; Vasa, P.

    2015-12-28

    One of the holy grails of contemporary science has been to establish the possibility of preferentially breaking one of several bonds in a molecule. For instance, the two O–H bonds in water are equivalent: given sufficient energy, either one of them is equally likely to break. We report bond-selective molecular fragmentation upon application of intense, 2-cycle pulses of 800 nm laser light: we demonstrate up to three-fold enhancement for preferential bond breaking in isotopically substituted water (HOD). Our experimental observations are rationalized by means of ab initio computations of the potential energy surfaces of HOD, HOD{sup +}, and HOD{sup 2+} and explorations of the dissociation limits resulting from either O–H or O–D bond rupture. The observations we report present a formidable theoretical challenge that need to be taken up in order to gain insights into molecular dynamics, strong field physics, chemical physics, non-adiabatic processes, mass spectrometry, and time-dependent quantum chemistry.

  3. Selective breaking of bonds in water with intense, 2-cycle, infrared laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, D.; Dota, K.; Dey, D.; Tiwari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; De, S.; Vasa, P.

    2015-12-01

    One of the holy grails of contemporary science has been to establish the possibility of preferentially breaking one of several bonds in a molecule. For instance, the two O-H bonds in water are equivalent: given sufficient energy, either one of them is equally likely to break. We report bond-selective molecular fragmentation upon application of intense, 2-cycle pulses of 800 nm laser light: we demonstrate up to three-fold enhancement for preferential bond breaking in isotopically substituted water (HOD). Our experimental observations are rationalized by means of ab initio computations of the potential energy surfaces of HOD, HOD+, and HOD2+ and explorations of the dissociation limits resulting from either O-H or O-D bond rupture. The observations we report present a formidable theoretical challenge that need to be taken up in order to gain insights into molecular dynamics, strong field physics, chemical physics, non-adiabatic processes, mass spectrometry, and time-dependent quantum chemistry.

  4. Direct spectroscopic observation of multiple-charged-ion acceleration by an intense femtosecond-pulse laser.

    PubMed

    Zhidkov, A G; Sasaki, A; Tajima, T; Auguste, T; D'Olivera, P; Hulin, S; Monot, P; Faenov, A Y; Pikuz, T A; Skobelev, I Y

    1999-09-01

    We have observed evidence of the emission of energetic He-and H-like ions of fluorine more than 1 MeV produced via the optical field ionization (OFI) from a solid target irradiated by an intense I=(2-4)x10(18) W/cm(2) (60 fs, lambda=800 nm), obliquely incident p-polarized pulse laser. The measured blue wing of He(alpha), He(beta), and Ly(alpha) lines of fluorine shows a feature of the Doppler-shifted spectrum due to the self-similar ion expansion dominated by superthermal electrons with the temperature T(h) approximately 100 keV. Using a collisional particle-in-cell simulation, which incorporates the nonlocal-thermodynamic-equilibrium ionization including OFI, we have obtained the plasma temperature, line shape, and maximal energy of accelerated ions, which agree well with those determined from the experimental spectra. The red wing of ion spectra gives the temperature of bulk plasma electrons.

  5. Selective breaking of bonds in water with intense, 2-cycle, infrared laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Mathur, D; Dota, K; Dey, D; Tiwari, A K; Dharmadhikari, J A; Dharmadhikari, A K; De, S; Vasa, P

    2015-12-28

    One of the holy grails of contemporary science has been to establish the possibility of preferentially breaking one of several bonds in a molecule. For instance, the two O-H bonds in water are equivalent: given sufficient energy, either one of them is equally likely to break. We report bond-selective molecular fragmentation upon application of intense, 2-cycle pulses of 800 nm laser light: we demonstrate up to three-fold enhancement for preferential bond breaking in isotopically substituted water (HOD). Our experimental observations are rationalized by means of ab initio computations of the potential energy surfaces of HOD, HOD(+), and HOD(2+) and explorations of the dissociation limits resulting from either O-H or O-D bond rupture. The observations we report present a formidable theoretical challenge that need to be taken up in order to gain insights into molecular dynamics, strong field physics, chemical physics, non-adiabatic processes, mass spectrometry, and time-dependent quantum chemistry. PMID:26723674

  6. Chemically-Assisted Pulsed Laser-Ramjet

    SciTech Connect

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Kaneko, Tomoki; Tamada, Kazunobu

    2010-10-13

    A preliminary study of a chemically-assisted pulsed laser-ramjet was conducted, in which chemical propellant such as a gaseous hydrogen/air mixture was utilized and detonated with a focused laser beam in order to obtain a higher impulse compared to the case only using lasers. CFD analysis of internal conical-nozzle flows and experimental measurements including impulse measurement were conducted to evaluate effects of chemical reaction on thrust performance improvement. From the results, a significant improvement in the thrust performances was confirmed with addition of a small amount of hydrogen to propellant air, or in chemically-augmented operation.

  7. Lasers and Intense Pulsed Light Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Saunte, Ditte M; Lapins, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Lasers and intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment are useful for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Carbon dioxide lasers are used for cutting or vaporization of the affected area. It is a effective therapy for the management of severe and recalcitrant HS with persistent sinus tract and scarring, and can be performed under local anesthesia. HS has a follicular pathogenesis. Lasers and IPL targeting the hair have been found useful in treating HS by reducing the numbers of hairs in areas with HS. The methods have few side effects, but the studies are preliminary and need to be repeated. PMID:26617364

  8. Lasers and Intense Pulsed Light Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Saunte, Ditte M; Lapins, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Lasers and intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment are useful for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Carbon dioxide lasers are used for cutting or vaporization of the affected area. It is a effective therapy for the management of severe and recalcitrant HS with persistent sinus tract and scarring, and can be performed under local anesthesia. HS has a follicular pathogenesis. Lasers and IPL targeting the hair have been found useful in treating HS by reducing the numbers of hairs in areas with HS. The methods have few side effects, but the studies are preliminary and need to be repeated.

  9. Chemically-Assisted Pulsed Laser-Ramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Kaneko, Tomoki; Tamada, Kazunobu

    2010-10-01

    A preliminary study of a chemically-assisted pulsed laser-ramjet was conducted, in which chemical propellant such as a gaseous hydrogen/air mixture was utilized and detonated with a focused laser beam in order to obtain a higher impulse compared to the case only using lasers. CFD analysis of internal conical-nozzle flows and experimental measurements including impulse measurement were conducted to evaluate effects of chemical reaction on thrust performance improvement. From the results, a significant improvement in the thrust performances was confirmed with addition of a small amount of hydrogen to propellant air, or in chemically-augmented operation.

  10. Femtosecond pulsed laser processing of electronic materials: Fundamentals and micro/nano-scale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Tae-Youl

    ultrashort laser pulse accompanied by the pre-pulse induces air breakdown that can be detrimental to materials processing. A time-resolved pump-and-probe experiment provides distinct evidence for the occurrence of an air plasma and air breakdown. This highly nonlinear phenomenon takes place before the commencement of the ablation process, which is traced beyond elapsed time of the order of 10 ps with respect to the ablating pulse. The nonlinear refractive index of the generated air plasma is calculated as a function of electron density. The self-focusing of the main pulse is identified by the third order nonlinear susceptibility. A crystalline silicon sample is subjected to two optically separated ultra-fast laser pulses of full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) duration of about 80 femtoseconds. These pulses are delivered at wavelength, lambda = 800 nm. Femtosecond-resolved imaging pump-and-probe experiments in reflective and Schlieren configurations have been performed to investigate plasma dynamics and shock wave propagation during the sample ablation process. By using a diffractive optical element (DOE) for beam shaping, microchannels were fabricated. A super-long working distance objective lens was used to machine silicon materials in the sub-micrometer scale. As an extension of micro-machining, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to assess the feasibility of using near-field distribution of laser light. Gold coated films were machined with nano-scale dimensions and characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  11. Femtosecond-pulsed laser micromachining of a 4H SiC wafer for MEMS pressure sensor diaphragms and via holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Nair, Rajeev; Molian, Raathai; Molian, Pal

    2008-03-01

    The challenging issues in conventional microfabrication of SiC pressure sensor diaphragms from bulk wafers are low etch rates, thicker (>40 µm) diaphragms, low spatial resolutions, rough surfaces and substantial contamination. In via hole drilling of SiC, the critical concern is the low drilling speed (nm per minute). In this work, femtosecond (fs)-pulsed laser ablation was conducted to overcome some of these deficiencies. Circular diaphragms (0.5 to 1 mm) by trepanning mode and via holes (30-50 µm) by percussion drilling mode were micromachined in 250 µm thick 4H-SiC single crystals using an 800 nm wavelength, 120 fs, 1 mJ Ti:sapphire laser. Pulse energy, number of pulses and scan rate were varied to obtain a high etch rate and high quality features. Results showed that the etch rates are 2-10 µm per pulse, diaphragm thicknesses are 20-200 µm, surface roughness is 1-2 µm Ra and via hole drilling speeds are up to 25 µm per second. The etch depth control was well within ± 1%. High aspect ratio features with excellent spatial resolutions were obtained due to the absence of thermal damages such as a recast layer and contamination. Thus, femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation by virtue of its unique characteristics such as multiphoton ionization and the absence of lattice heating offers high speed, precision and accuracy in micromachining 4H-SiC wafers.

  12. Pulsed laser deposition: Prospects for commercial deposition of epitaxial films

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique for the deposition of thin films. The vapor source is induced by the flash evaporation that occurs when a laser pulse of sufficient intensity (about 100 MW/cm{sup 2}) is absorbed by a target. In this paper the author briefly defines pulsed laser deposition, current applications, research directed at gaining a better understanding of the pulsed laser deposition process, and suggests some future directions to enable commercial applications.

  13. Spatially modulated laser pulses for printing electronics.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Raymond C Y; Kim, Heungsoo; Mathews, Scott; Piqué, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The use of a digital micromirror device (DMD) in laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is reviewed. Combining this technique with high-viscosity donor ink (silver nanopaste) results in laser-printed features that are highly congruent in shape and size to the incident laser beam spatial profile. The DMD empowers LIFT to become a highly parallel, rapidly reconfigurable direct-write technology. By adapting half-toning techniques to the DMD bitmap image, the laser transfer threshold fluence for 10 μm features can be reduced using an edge-enhanced beam profile. The integration of LIFT with this beam-shaping technique allows the printing of complex large-area patterns with a single laser pulse. PMID:26560624

  14. Dynamics of laser-induced electroconvection pulses.

    PubMed

    Giebink, N C; Johnson, E R; Saucedo, S R; Miles, E W; Vardanyan, K K; Spiegel, D R; Allen, C C

    2004-06-01

    We first report that, for planar nematic 4-methoxy-benzilidene-4-butylaniline (MBBA), the electroconvection threshold voltage has a nonmonotonic temperature dependence, with a well-defined minimum, and a slope of about -0.12 V/degrees C near room temperature at 70 Hz. Motivated by this observation, we have designed an experiment in which a weak continuous-wave absorbed laser beam with a diameter comparable to the pattern wavelength generates a locally supercritical region, or pulse, in dye-doped MBBA. Working 10-20 % below the laser-free threshold voltage, we observe a steady-state pulse shaped as an ellipse with the semimajor axis oriented parallel to the nematic director, with a typical size of several wavelengths. The pulse is robust, persisting even when spatially extended rolls develop in the surrounding region, and displays rolls that counterpropagate along the director at frequencies of tenths of Hz, with the rolls on the left (right) side of the ellipse moving to the right (left). Systematic measurements of the sample-voltage dependence of the pulse amplitude, spatial extent, and frequency show a saturation or decrease when the control parameter (evaluated at the center of the pulse) approaches approximately 0.3. We propose that the model for these pulses should be based on the theory of control-parameter ramps, supplemented with new terms to account for the advection of heat away from the pulse when the surrounding state becomes linearly unstable. The advection creates a negative feedback between the pulse size and the efficiency of heat transport, which we argue is responsible for the attenuation of the pulse at larger control-parameter values.

  15. Dynamics of laser-induced electroconvection pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebink, N. C.; Johnson, E. R.; Saucedo, S. R.; Miles, E. W.; Vardanyan, K. K.; Spiegel, D. R.; Allen, C. C.

    2004-06-01

    We first report that, for planar nematic 4-methoxy-benzilidene-4-butylaniline (MBBA), the electroconvection threshold voltage has a nonmonotonic temperature dependence, with a well-defined minimum, and a slope of about -0.12 V/° C near room temperature at 70 Hz. Motivated by this observation, we have designed an experiment in which a weak continuous-wave absorbed laser beam with a diameter comparable to the pattern wavelength generates a locally supercritical region, or pulse, in dye-doped MBBA. Working 10 20 % below the laser-free threshold voltage, we observe a steady-state pulse shaped as an ellipse with the semimajor axis oriented parallel to the nematic director, with a typical size of several wavelengths. The pulse is robust, persisting even when spatially extended rolls develop in the surrounding region, and displays rolls that counterpropagate along the director at frequencies of tenths of Hz, with the rolls on the left () side of the ellipse moving to the right (left). Systematic measurements of the sample-voltage dependence of the pulse amplitude, spatial extent, and frequency show a saturation or decrease when the control parameter (evaluated at the center of the pulse) approaches ˜0.3 . We propose that the model for these pulses should be based on the theory of control-parameter ramps, supplemented with new terms to account for the advection of heat away from the pulse when the surrounding state becomes linearly unstable. The advection creates a negative feedback between the pulse size and the efficiency of heat transport, which we argue is responsible for the attenuation of the pulse at larger control-parameter values.

  16. Coiled Fiber Pulsed Laser Simulator

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes simulates the transient output pulse from an optically-pumped coiled fiber amplifier. The input pulse is assumed to have a Gaussian time dependence and a spatial dependence that may be Gaussian or an eigenmode of the straight of bent fiber computed using bend10 or bend20. Only one field component is used (semivectorial approximation). The fully-spatially-dependent fiber gain profile is specified is subroutines "inversion" and "interp_inversion" and is presently read from a datamore » file, although other means of specifying fiber gain could be reallized through modification of these subroutines. The input pulse is propagated through the fiber, including the following physical effects: spatial and temporal gain saturation, self-focusing, bend losses, and confinement from a user-defined fiber index profile. The user can follow the propagation progress with 3D graphics that show an intensity profile via user-modifiable cutting planes through the time space axes. A restart capability is also included. Approximate solutions in the frequency domain may be obtained much faster using the auxilliary codes bendbpm10 (full vector), bendbpm20 (semivectoral), and bendbpm21 (semivectoral with gain sheet spproximation for gain and self-focusing). These codes all include bend loss and spatial (but not temporal) gain saturation.« less

  17. Group velocity and pulse lengthening of mismatched laser pulses in plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Tilborg, J. van; Leemans, W. P.

    2011-08-15

    Analytic solutions are presented to the non-paraxial wave equation describing an ultra-short, low-power, laser pulse propagating in a plasma channel. Expressions for the laser pulse centroid motion and laser group velocity are derived, valid for matched and mismatched propagation in a parabolic plasma channel, as well as in vacuum, for an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. The group velocity of a mismatched laser pulse, for which the laser spot size is strongly oscillating, is found to be independent of propagation distance and significantly less than that of a matched pulse. Laser pulse lengthening of a mismatched pulse owing to laser mode slippage is examined and found to dominate over that due to dispersive pulse spreading for sufficiently long pulses. Analytic results are shown to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions of the full Maxwell equations coupled to the plasma response. Implications for plasma channel diagnostics are discussed.

  18. Group velocity and pulse lengthening of mismatched laser pulses in plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-07

    Analytic solutions are presented to the non-paraxial wave equation describing an ultra-short, low-power, laser pulse propagating in aplasma channel. Expressions for the laser pulse centroid motion and laser group velocity are derived, valid for matched and mismatchedpropagation in a parabolic plasma channel, as well as in vacuum, for an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. The group velocity of amismatched laser pulse, for which the laser spot size is strongly oscillating, is found to be independent of propagation distance andsignificantly less than that of a matched pulse. Laser pulse lengthening of a mismatched pulse owing to laser mode slippage isexamined and found to dominate over that due to dispersive pulse spreading for sufficiently long pulses. Analytic results are shown tobe in excellent agreement with numerical solutions of the full Maxwell equations coupled to the plasma response. Implications for plasmachannel diagnostics are discussed.

  19. Nanosecond square pulse generation in fiber lasers with normal dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. M.; Tang, D. Y.; Cheng, T. H.; Lu, C.

    2007-04-01

    We report on the generation of nanosecond square pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser made of purely normal dispersive fibers. Different to the noise-like pulse operation of the laser, the generated square pulses are stable and have no internal structures. We show that the formation of the square pulse is due to the combined action of the pulse peak clamping effect caused by the cavity and the almost linear pulse propagation in the normal dispersive fibers.

  20. Double nanosecond pulses generation in ytterbium fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Veiko, V P; Lednev, V N; Pershin, S M; Samokhvalov, A A; Yakovlev, E B; Zhitenev, I Yu; Kliushin, A N

    2016-06-01

    Double pulse generation mode for nanosecond ytterbium fiber laser was developed. Two sequential 60-200 ns laser pulses with variable delay between them were generated by acousto-optic modulator opening with continuous diode pumping. A custom radio frequency generator was developed to produce two sequential "opening" radio pulses with a delay of 0.2-1 μs. It was demonstrated that double pulse generation did not decrease the average laser power while providing the control over the laser pulse power profile. Surprisingly, a greater peak power in the double pulse mode was observed for the second laser pulse. Laser crater studies and plasma emission measurements revealed an improved efficiency of laser ablation in the double pulse mode. PMID:27370433

  1. Double nanosecond pulses generation in ytterbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.; Samokhvalov, A. A.; Yakovlev, E. B.; Zhitenev, I. Yu.; Kliushin, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    Double pulse generation mode for nanosecond ytterbium fiber laser was developed. Two sequential 60-200 ns laser pulses with variable delay between them were generated by acousto-optic modulator opening with continuous diode pumping. A custom radio frequency generator was developed to produce two sequential "opening" radio pulses with a delay of 0.2-1 μs. It was demonstrated that double pulse generation did not decrease the average laser power while providing the control over the laser pulse power profile. Surprisingly, a greater peak power in the double pulse mode was observed for the second laser pulse. Laser crater studies and plasma emission measurements revealed an improved efficiency of laser ablation in the double pulse mode.

  2. Fragmentation dynamics of fullerenes in intense femtosecond-laser fields: Loss of small neutral fragments on a picosecond time scale

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, M.; Laarmann, T.; Shchatsinin, I.; Schulz, C.P.; Hertel, I.V.

    2005-05-08

    The fragmentation dynamics of C{sub 60} irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses is studied with one-color pump-probe spectroscopy. Small neutral fragments (C, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}) are formed by an 800-nm pump pulse which are then postionized by a delayed probe pulse. The respective ion signals detected by the time-of-flight mass spectrometry dramatically increase on a time scale of 10-20 ps.

  3. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  4. Laser-supported detonation waves and pulsed laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A laser thermal rocket uses the energy of a large remote laser, possibly ground-based, to heat an inert propellant and generate thrust. Use of a pulsed laser allows the design of extremely simple thrusters with very high performance compared to chemical rockets. The temperatures, pressures, and fluxes involved in such thrusters (10{sup 4} K, 10{sup 2} atmospheres, 10{sup 7} w/cm{sup 2}) typically result in the creation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. The thrust cycle thus involves a complex set of transient shock phenomena, including laser-surface interactions in the ignition if the LSD wave, laser-plasma interactions in the LSD wave itself, and high-temperature nonequilibrium chemistry behind the LSD wave. The SDIO Laser Propulsion Program is investigating these phenomena as part of an overall effort to develop the technology for a low-cost Earth-to-orbit laser launch system. We will summarize the program's approach to developing a high performance thruster, the double-pulse planar thruster, and present an overview of some results obtained to date, along with a discussion of the many research questions still outstanding in this area. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Laser-supported detonation waves and pulsed laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J. )

    1990-07-30

    A laser thermal rocket uses the energy of a large remote laser, possibly ground-based, to heat an inert propellant and generate thrust. Use of a pulsed laser allows the design of extremely simple thrusters with very high performance compared to chemical rockets. The temperatures, pressures, and fluxes involved in such thrusters (10{sup 4} K, 10{sup 2} atmospheres, 10{sup 7} w/cm{sup 2}) typically result in the creation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. The thrust cycle thus involves a complex set of transient shock phenomena, including laser-surface interactions in the ignition of the LSD wave, laser-plasma interactions in the LSD wave itself, and high-temperature nonequilibrium chemistry behind the LSD wave. The SDIO Laser Propulsion Program is investigating these phenomena as part of an overall effort to develop the technology for a low-cost Earth-to-orbit laser launch system. We will summarize the Program's approach to developing a high performance thruster, the double-pulse planar thruster, and present an overview of some results obtained to date, along with a discussion of the many research question still outstanding in this area.

  6. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, L.P.; Carder, B.M.; Gagnon, W.L.

    1981-03-17

    Disclosed are an apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse. 13 figs.

  7. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, Laird P. [Livermore, CA; Carder, Bruce M. [Antioch, CA; Gagnon, William L. [Berkeley, CA

    1981-03-17

    Apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse.

  8. Multiple pulse resonantly enhanced laser plasma wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Corner, L.; Walczak, R.; Nevay, L. J.; Dann, S.; Hooker, S. M.; Bourgeois, N.; Cowley, J.

    2012-12-21

    We present an outline of experiments being conducted at Oxford University on multiple-pulse, resonantly-enhanced laser plasma wakefield acceleration. This method of laser plasma acceleration uses trains of optimally spaced low energy short pulses to drive plasma oscillations and may enable laser plasma accelerators to be driven by compact and efficient fibre laser sources operating at high repetition rates.

  9. Graphene in Ultrafast and Ultrastrong Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koochakikelardeh, Hamed; Apalkov, Vadym; Stockman, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We have shown that graphene subjected to an ultrafast (near-single-oscillation pulse) and strong (F ~ 1-3 V/Å) pulse exhibits fundamental behavior dramatically different from both insulators and metals. In such an ultrafast and ultrastrong field, the electron dynamics is coherent, in contrast to relatively long pulses (τ>100 fs) where the electron's dephasing becomes important leading to incoherent dynamics. Electron transfer from the valence band (VB) to the conduction band (CB) is deeply irreversible i.e., non-adiabatic, in which the residual CB population (after pulse ends) is close to the maximum one. The residual CB population as a function of wave vector is nonuniform with a few strongly localized spots near the Dirac points, at which the CB population is almost 100%. Furthermore, it is shown the direction of charge transfer depends on the pulse amplitude. Namely, at small pulse amplitude, <=1V/Å, the charge is transferred in the direction of the pulse maximum (positive transferred charge), while at large amplitude, >=1 V/Å, it is in opposite direction of the pulse maximum (negative transferred charge). Consequently, in terms of charge transport, graphene at small pulse intensities behaves as a dielectric while at large intensities acts as a metal. These femtosecond currents and charge transfer in graphene may provide fundamental basis for detection and calibration of ultrashort intense laser pulses and are promising for petahertz information processing. This work was supported by U.S. Office of Naval Research No. N00014-13-1-0649 and NSF Grant No. ECCS-1308473.

  10. Comparison of amplified spontaneous emission pulse cleaners for use in chirped pulse amplification front end lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Siders, C; Phan, H; Kanz, V; Barty, C

    2007-07-02

    We compare various schemes for removing amplified spontaneous emission from seed laser pulses. We focus on compact schemes that are compatible with fiber laser front end systems with pulse energies in the 10nJ-1{micro}J range and pulse widths in the 100fs-10ps range. Pre-pulse contrast ratios greater than 10{sup 9} have been measured.

  11. Laser-Material Interaction of Powerful Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Komashko, A

    2003-01-06

    Laser-material interaction of powerful (up to a terawatt) ultrashort (several picoseconds or shorter) laser pulses and laser-induced effects were investigated theoretically in this dissertation. Since the ultrashort laser pulse (USLP) duration time is much smaller than the characteristic time of the hydrodynamic expansion and thermal diffusion, the interaction occurs at a solid-like material density with most of the light energy absorbed in a thin surface layer. Powerful USLP creates hot, high-pressure plasma, which is quickly ejected without significant energy diffusion into the bulk of the material, Thus collateral damage is reduced. These and other features make USLPs attractive for a variety of applications. The purpose of this dissertation was development of the physical models and numerical tools for improvement of our understanding of the process and as an aid in optimization of the USLP applications. The study is concentrated on two types of materials - simple metals (materials like aluminum or copper) and wide-bandgap dielectrics (fused silica, water). First, key physical phenomena of the ultrashort light interaction with metals and the models needed to describe it are presented. Then, employing one-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics code enhanced with models for laser energy deposition and material properties at low and moderate temperatures, light absorption was self-consistently simulated as a function of laser wavelength, pulse energy and length, angle of incidence and polarization. Next, material response on time scales much longer than the pulse duration was studied using the hydrocode and analytical models. These studies include examination of evolution of the pressure pulses, effects of the shock waves, material ablation and removal and three-dimensional dynamics of the ablation plume. Investigation of the interaction with wide-bandgap dielectrics was stimulated by the experimental studies of the USLP surface ablation of water (water is a model of

  12. Compensation of pulse-distortion in saturated laser amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Damian N; Ruchert, Clemens; Nodop, Dirk; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas; Salin, Francois

    2008-10-27

    We derive an expression describing pre-compensation of pulse-distortion due to saturation effects in short pulse laser-amplifiers. The analytical solution determines the optimum input pulse-shape required to obtain any arbitrary target pulse-shape at the output of the saturated laser-amplifier. The relation is experimentally verified using an all-fiber amplifier chain that is seeded by a directly modulated laser-diode. The method will prove useful in applications of high power, high energy laser-amplifier systems that need particular pulse-shapes to be efficient, e.g. micromachining and scientific laser-matter-interactions. PMID:18958044

  13. Pulse Compression Techniques for Laser Generated Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, R. F.; Madaras, E. I.

    1999-01-01

    Laser generated ultrasound for nondestructive evaluation has an optical power density limit due to rapid high heating that causes material damage. This damage threshold limits the generated ultrasound amplitude, which impacts nondestructive evaluation inspection capability. To increase ultrasound signal levels and improve the ultrasound signal-to-noise ratio without exceeding laser power limitations, it is possible to use pulse compression techniques. The approach illustrated here uses a 150mW laser-diode modulated with a pseudo-random sequence and signal correlation. Results demonstrate the successful generation of ultrasonic bulk waves in aluminum and graphite-epoxy composite materials using a modulated low-power laser diode and illustrate ultrasound bandwidth control.

  14. Black anneal marking with pulsed fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T.; Harrison, P.; Norman, S.

    2015-07-01

    High contrast marking of metals is used in a wide range of industries. Fiber laser marking of these metals provides non-contact marking with no consumables, offering many advantages over traditional methods of metal marking. The laser creates a permanent mark on the material surface combining heat and oxygen with no noticeable ablation. The focussed beam of the fiber laser in combination with precision control of the heat input is able to treat small areas of the material surface evenly and consistently, which is critical for producing black anneal marks. The marks are highly legible which is ideal for marking serial numbers or small data matrices where traceability is required. This paper reports the experimental study for producing black anneal marks on various grades of stainless steel using fiber lasers. The influence of metal surface finish, beam quality, spot size diameter and pulse duration are investigated for producing both smooth and decorative anneal marks.

  15. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  16. GEOS-1 laser pulse return shape analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felsentreger, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt has been made to predict the shape of the laser return pulse from the corner cube retroreflectors on the GEOS-1 spacecraft. The study is geometrical only, and neglects factors such as optical interference, atmospheric perturbations, etc. A function giving the intensity of the return signal at any given time has been derived. In addition, figures are given which show the predicted return pulse shape as a function of time, the angle between the beam and the spin axis, and an in-plane angle (designating the orientation of the intersection of the planar waves with the plane of the corner cubes).

  17. Nanosecond laser ablation for pulsed laser deposition of yttria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sucharita

    2013-09-01

    A thermal model to describe high-power nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of yttria (Y2O3) has been developed. This model simulates ablation of material occurring primarily through vaporization and also accounts for attenuation of the incident laser beam in the evolving vapor plume. Theoretical estimates of process features such as time evolution of target temperature distribution, melt depth and ablation rate and their dependence on laser parameters particularly for laser fluences in the range of 6 to 30 J/cm2 are investigated. Calculated maximum surface temperatures when compared with the estimated critical temperature for yttria indicate absence of explosive boiling at typical laser fluxes of 10 to 30 J/cm2. Material ejection in large fragments associated with explosive boiling of the target needs to be avoided when depositing thin films via the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique as it leads to coatings with high residual porosity and poor compaction restricting the protective quality of such corrosion-resistant yttria coatings. Our model calculations facilitate proper selection of laser parameters to be employed for deposition of PLD yttria corrosion-resistive coatings. Such coatings have been found to be highly effective in handling and containment of liquid uranium.

  18. A Simulation of Laser Ablation During the Laser Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Motoyuki; Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Sakai, Y.; Date, H.; Tagashira, H.; Kitamori, K.

    1996-10-01

    Charge damage considerations in plasma assisted etching are prompting the development of neutral beam sources. Already, anisotropic etching of has been demonstrated by neutral beams generated by exhausting heated ecthing gases into vacuum via a nozzle. Laser ablation of condensed etching gases may also be an attractive alternative means of generating neutral beams. Laser ablation coupled with electrical breakdown of the ablation plume may afford some degree of control over a neutral beam's dissociation fraction and ion content. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation of the laser ablation plume as it expands into vacuum at time-scales during the laser pulse will be presented. The model includes both heavy particle interactions and photochemistry. In particular, the influence of the initial particle angular distribution on the beam spread will be demonstrated as will the relationship between laser beam energy and initial ionization and dissociation fraction.

  19. Analysis of laser return pulse from multilayered objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollinger, Jim; Vessey, Alyssa; Close, Ryan; Middleton, Seth; Williams, Kathryn; Rupp, Ronald; Nguyen, Son

    2016-05-01

    Commercial Lidar often focus on reporting the range associated with the strongest laser return pulse, first return pulse, or last return pulse. This technique works well when observing discrete objects separated by a distance greater than the laser pulse length. However, multiple reflections due to more closely layered objects produce overlapping laser return pulses. Resolving the multi-layered object ranges in the resulting complex waveforms is the subject of this paper. A laboratory setup designed to investigate the laser return pulse produced by multi-layered objects is described along with a comparison of a simulated laser return pulse and the corresponding digitized laser return pulse. Variations in the laboratory setup are used to assess different strategies for resolving multi-layered object ranges and how this additional information can be applied to detecting objects partially obscured in vegetation.

  20. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Gao, Lanyu; Chen, Yue; Wei, Kenneth; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2008-10-01

    We report a high-speed microfluidic switch capable of achieving a switching time of 10 μs. The switching mechanism is realized by exciting dynamic vapor bubbles with focused laser pulses in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. The bubble expansion deforms the elastic PDMS channel wall and squeezes the adjacent sample channel to control its fluid and particle flows as captured by the time-resolved imaging system. A switching of polystyrene microspheres in a Y-shaped channel has also been demonstrated. This ultrafast laser triggered switching mechanism has the potential to advance the sorting speed of state-of-the-art microscale fluorescence activated cell sorting devices.

  1. Single attosecond pulse generation via continuum wave packet interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengpeng; Yang, Yujun; Ding, Dajun

    2016-07-01

    A single attosecond pulse generation via continuum-continuum interference is investigated theoretically by exposing a single-electron atom in a femtosecond laser field with the intensity in over-the-barrier ionization regime. We show that the ground state of the atom is depleted in such intense laser field and the high-order harmonics (HHG) via continuum to continuum coherence are generated. In a few-cycle monochromatic laser field (5 fs/800 nm, 1.2×1016 W cm-2), a single attosecond pulse with duration of 49 as is obtained from the HHG. With a two-color laser field combined by 1200 nm (8 fs/7.5×1015 W cm-2) and 800 nm (5 fs/1.0×1016 W cm-2), a shorter single pulse with duration of 29 as can further be produced by changing the relative carrier envelope phase of two laser pulses as a result of controlling the electronic quantum path in the intense electric field. Our results also show that a short single attosecond pulse can be generated in a wide range of the relative carrier envelope phase of the two laser pulses.

  2. Size- and intensity-dependent photoelectron spectra from gas-phase gold nanoparticles irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Robatjazi, S. J.; Makhija, V.; Vajdi, A.; Li, X.; Malakar, Y.; Pearson, W. L.; Rudenko, A.; Sorensen, C.; Stierle, J.; Kling, M. F.

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticles bridge the gap between atomic/molecular and bulk matter offering unique opportunities to study light interactions with complex systems, in particular, near-field enhancements and excitation of plasmons. Here we report on a systematic study of photoelectron emission from isolated gold nanoparticles irradiated by 800 nm, 25 fs laser pulses at 10-50 TW/ cm2 peak intensities. A combination of an aerodynamic lens nanoparticle injector, high-energy velocity-map imaging spectrometer and a high-speed, single-shot camera is employed to record shot by shot photoelectron emission patterns from individual particles. By sorting the recorded images according to the number of emitted electrons, we select the events from the regions of particular laser intensities within the laser focus, thus, essentially avoiding focal volume averaging. Using this approach, we study the intensity- and size-dependence of photoelectron energy and angular distributions for particle sizes ranging from 5 nm to 400 nm. This work is supported by NSF Award No. IIA-143049. JRML operations and personal are supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of BES, Office of Science, U. S. DOE.

  3. Short-pulse Laser Capability on the Mercury Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C; Armstrong, P; Bayramian, A; Barty, C J; Bibeau, C; Britten, J; Caird, J; Campbell, R; Chai, B; Crane, J; Cross, R; Erlandson, A; Fei, Y; Freitas, B; Jovanovic, I; Liao, Z; Molander, B; Schaffers, K; Stuart, B; Sutton, S; Ladran, T; Telford, S; Thelin, P; Utterback, E

    2006-06-22

    Applications using high energy ''petawatt-class'' laser drivers operating at repetition rates beyond 0.01 Hz are only now being envisioned. The Mercury laser system is designed to operate at 100 J/pulse at 10 Hz. We investigate the potential of configuring the Mercury laser to produce a rep-rated, ''petawatt-class'' source. The Mercury laser is a prototype of a high energy, high repetition rate source (100 J, 10 Hz). The design of the Mercury laser is based on the ability to scale in energy through scaling in aperture. Mercury is one of several 100 J, high repetition rate (10 Hz) lasers sources currently under development (HALNA, LUCIA, POLARIS). We examine the possibility of using Mercury as a pump source for a high irradiance ''petawatt-class'' source: either as a pump laser for an average power Ti:Sapphire laser, or as a pump laser for OPCPA based on YCa{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (YCOB), ideally producing a source approaching 30 J /30 fs /10 Hz--a high repetition rate petawatt. A comparison of the two systems with nominal configurations and efficiencies is shown in Table 1.

  4. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Mostako, A. T. T.; Khare, Alika; Rao, C. V. S.

    2011-01-15

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10{sup -5} Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness {approx}782 nm.

  5. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film.

    PubMed

    Mostako, A T T; Rao, C V S; Khare, Alika

    2011-01-01

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10(-5) Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness ∼782 nm. PMID:21280810

  6. Optical reprogramming with ultrashort femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans G.; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    The use of sub-15 femtosecond laser pulses in stem cell research is explored with particular emphasis on the optical reprogramming of somatic cells. The reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be evoked through the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. Conventional approaches utilize retro/lenti-viruses to deliver genes/transcription factors as well as to facilitate the integration of transcription factors into that of the host genome. However, the use of viruses may result in insertional mutations caused by the random integration of genes and as a result, this may limit the use within clinical applications due to the risk of the formation of cancer. In this study, a new approach is demonstrated in realizing non-viral reprogramming through the use of ultrashort laser pulses, to introduce transcription factors into the cell so as to generate iPS cells.

  7. CARS imaging with a single laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Christoph; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2005-09-01

    We report coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy with ns-pulses. The chosen wide-field geometry allows imaging of the whole field of view at once, without scanning of the sample. Tuning the difference of the two incident laser frequencies overlapping at the sample to a specific vibrational level, one can map the spatial distribution of selected Raman active molecules. Both the CARS signal of the surrounding solvent can be excited (negative contrast) as well as the signal of the structure embedded by the solvent (positive contrast). As a biological sample we used slices of a sunflower seed and tuned to the vibrational transition of its ingredient - linoleic acid - at 2870 cm-1 which corresponds to the strongest C-H stretching vibration. Even with a single pair of laser pulses of 3 ns duration it was possible to acquire a rough, but still meaningful image.

  8. Pulse switching for high energy lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A saturable inductor switch for compressing the width and sharpening the rise time of high voltage pulses from a relatively slow rise time, high voltage generator to an electric discharge gas laser (EDGL) also provides a capability for efficient energy transfer from a high impedance primary source to an intermediate low impedance laser discharge network. The switch is positioned with respect to a capacitive storage device, such as a coaxial cable, so that when a charge build-up in the storage device reaches a predetermined level, saturation of the switch inductor releases or switches energy stored in the capactive storage device to the EDGL. Cascaded saturable inductor switches for providing output pulses having rise times of less than ten nanoseconds and a technique for magnetically biasing the saturable inductor switch are disclosed.

  9. Short-pulse laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Myers, B.R.; Banks, P.S.; Honea, E.C.

    1997-06-18

    While there is much that we have learned about materials processing in the ultrashort-pulse regime, there is an enormous amount that we don`t know. How short does the pulse have to be to achieve a particular cut (depth, material, quality)? How deep can you cut? What is the surface roughness? These questions are clearly dependent upon the properties of the material of interest along with the short-pulse interaction physics. From a technology standpoint, we are asked: Can you build a 100 W average power system ? A 1000 W average power system? This proposal seeks to address these questions with a combined experimental and theoretical program of study. Specifically, To develop an empirical database for both metals and dielectrics which can be used to determine the pulse duration and wavelength necessary to achieve a specific machining requirement. To investigate Yb:YAG as a potential laser material for high average power short-pulse systems both directly and in combination with titanium doped sapphire. To develop a conceptual design for a lOOW and eventually 5OOW average power short-pulse system.

  10. Spectral superbroadening of femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, M.; Penzkofer, A.

    1996-02-01

    The spectral superbroadening of femtosecond pulses in water, heavy water, ethanol, and fused silica is studied under strong focusing conditions. Efficient transient stimulated Raman scattering, impulsive stimulated Raman scattering, longitudinally phase-matched parametric four-photon interaction, and cascading light up-conversion and down-conversion are responsible for the spectral superbroadening. Self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation broaden the laser and stimulated Raman lines.

  11. Laser pulse stretcher method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hawkins, Jon K.; Williams, William A.

    1990-01-01

    The output of an oscillator stage of a laser system is monitored by a photocell which is coupled to a feedback section to control a Pockels Cell and change the light output of the oscillator stage. A synchronizing pulse is generated in timed relation to the initiation of operation of the oscillator stage and is applied to a forward feed section which cooperates with the feedback section to maintain the light output constant for an extended time interval.

  12. Rectangular Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kishida, Yoshiaki; Katayama, Masahiro; Horisawa, Hideyuki

    2010-10-13

    Experimental investigation of impulse-bit and propellant consumption rate, or mass shot, per single pulse discharge was conducted to characterize the thrust performance of the rectangular laser-electromagnetic hybrid acceleration thruster with various propellant materials. From the result, alumina propellant showed significantly superior performance. The largest values of the measured impulse-bit, specific impulse and thrust efficiency were 49 {mu}Nsec, 6,200 sec and 22%, respectively.

  13. Direct-write subwavelength structuring with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jürgen; Korte, Frank; Fallnich, Carsten; Ostendorf, Andreas; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2005-05-01

    Direct-write micro- and nanostructuring laser technologies are very important for the fabrication of new materials and multifunctional devices. Using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses one can produce submicrometer holes and periodic structures in metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. The achievable structure size is not restricted by the diffraction limit. It is determined by material properties and the laser pulse stability. We report investigations of possibilities to use femtosecond laser pulses for nanostructuring of different materials.

  14. Photon number resolving in picosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazej, Josef; Hamal, Karel

    2005-04-01

    We are reporting on research and development in the field of thin-layer planar silicon avalanche photodiodes operated as photon counters in a Geiger mode. We have developed and tested a technique, which permits an estimation of the photon number initiated a detection process. It can be applied in a time correlated photon counting experiment simultaneously with originally required time interval estimation. The principal limitation is a using of laser pulse with width below 30 ps to achieve detection concurrent in compare with carrier multiplication speed. The number of photons which triggered the avalanche is estimated on the basis of the effective rise-time difference of the avalanche current. The active quenching and gating circuit provides two uniform electrical pulses, and the time interval between them is related to the number of photons detected. The strong temporal correlation between avalanche start and one of pulses is preserved. Employing the picosecond event timing device, the photon number can be estimated within the dynamical range from 1 up to 1000 photons with the resolution better than a factor of three. The avalanche structure is operated on temperature achievable by thermo-electrical cooling. The applications of presented technique are in any time correlated photon counting (TCPC) measurement where the additional information about signal strength, i.e. statistical number of photons in laser pulse, is interesting. Other applications in the testing of quantum-well-based single photon light sources or squeezed light sources are expected.

  15. A ns-Pulse Laser Microthruster

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, Claude R.; Luke, James R.

    2006-05-02

    We have developed a prototype device which demonstrates the feasibility of using ns-duration laser pulses in a laser microthruster. Relative to the ms-duration thrusters which we have demonstrated in the past, this change offers the use of any target material, the use of reflection-mode target illumination, and adjustable specific impulse. Specific impulse is adjusted by varying laser intensity on target. In this way, we were able to vary specific impulse from 200s to 3,200s on gold. We used a Concepts Research, Inc. microchip laser with 170mW average optical power, 8kHz repetition rate and 20{mu}J pulse energy for many of the measurements. Thrust was in the 100nN - 1{mu}N range for all the work, requiring development of an extremely sensitive, low-noise thrust stand. We will discuss the design of metallic fuel delivery systems. Ablation efficiency near 100% was observed. Results obtained on metallic fuel systems agreed with simulations. We also report time-of-flight measurements on ejected metal ions, which gave velocities up to 80km/s.

  16. Ultrafast laser pulses for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Serbin, Jesper; Bauer, Thorsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Welling, Herbert; Mueller, Wiebke; Schwab, Burkard; Singh, Ajoy I.; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2002-04-01

    Ultrafast lasers have become a promising tool for micromachining and extremely precise ablation of all kinds of materials. Due to the low energy threshold, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the bu micrometers range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: in ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of cornael flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs- laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosklerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  17. Pulsed-discharge carbon dioxide lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willetts, David V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to attempt a general introduction to pulsed carbon dioxide lasers of the kind used or proposed for laser radar applications. Laser physics is an excellent example of a cross-disciplinary topic, and the molecular spectroscopy, energy transfer, and plasma kinetics of the devices are explored. The concept of stimulated emission and population inversions is introduced, leading on to the molecular spectroscopy of the CO2 molecule. This is followed by a consideration of electron-impact pumping, and the pertinent energy transfer and relaxation processes which go on. Since the devices are plasma pumped, it is necessary to introduce a complex subject, but this is restricted to appropriate physics of glow discharges. Examples of representative devices are shown. The implications of the foregoing to plasma chemistry and gas life are discussed.

  18. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragot-Roy, Brigitte; Severin, Claude; Maquin, Michel

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an operative method in endodontics. The effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on root canal dentin has been examined with a scanning electron microscope. Our first experimentation was to observe the impacts carried out perpendicularly to root canal surface with a 200 micrometers fiber optic in the presence of dye. Secondarily, the optical fiber was used as an endodontic instrument with black dye. The irradiation was performed after root canal preparation (15/100 file or 40/100 file) or directly into the canal. Adverse effects are observed. The results show that laser irradiation on root canal dentin surfaces induces a nonhomogeneous modified dentin layer, melted and resolidified dentin closed partially dentinal tubules. The removal of debris is not efficient enough. The laser treatment seems to be indicated only for endodontic and periapical spaces sterilization after conventional root canal preparation.

  19. [Effect of pulsed CO2-laser irradiation on bone tissue].

    PubMed

    Kholodnov, S E

    1985-01-01

    Different dynamic effects on biological tissue caused by pulsed laser radiation are described. It is shown that the parameters of these effects which take place on the bone tissue affected by pulsed CO2-laser radiation are directly dependent on the parameters of these pulses and may be predicted for any concrete application. PMID:3931698

  20. Electron beam switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Pleasance, Lyn D.; Murray, John R.; Goldhar, Julius; Bradley, Laird P.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  1. Ultrashort-pulse laser generated nanoparticles of energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Welle, Eric J.; Tappan, Alexander S.; Palmer, Jeremy A.

    2010-08-03

    A process for generating nanoscale particles of energetic materials, such as explosive materials, using ultrashort-pulse laser irradiation. The use of ultrashort laser pulses in embodiments of this invention enables one to generate particles by laser ablation that retain the chemical identity of the starting material while avoiding ignition, deflagration, and detonation of the explosive material.

  2. Nonlinear optical studies on 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, Andreea; Marinescu, Maria; Constantinescu, Catalin; Ion, Valentin; Mitu, Bogdana; Ionita, Iulian; Dinescu, Maria; Emandi, Ana

    2016-06-01

    We present results on a new, laboratory synthesized ferrocene-derivative, i.e. 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid. Thin films with controlled thickness are deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), on quartz and silicon substrates, with the aim of evaluating the nonlinear optical properties for potential optoelectronic applications. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as matrix, with 1% wt. concentration of the guest compound. The frozen target is irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser (4ω/266 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate), at low fluences ranging from 0.1 to 1 J/cm2. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to probe the surface morphology of the films. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy reveal similar structure of the thin film material when compared to the starting material. The optical properties of the thin films are investigated by spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE), and the refractive index dependence with respect to temperature is studied. The second harmonic generation (SHG) potential is assessed by using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 60-100 fs pulse duration, 80 MHz repetition rate), at 200 mW maximum output power, revealing that the SHG signal intensity is strongly influenced by the films' thickness.

  3. GaSe damage threshold under IR pulse pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin; Xie, Ji-Jiang; Zhang, Laiming; Chen, Fei; Jiang, Ke; Alexeev, Sergei V.; Andreev, Yury M.; Kokh, Konstantin A.; Lanskii, Gregory V.; Losev, Valery F.; Lubenko, Dmitry M.; Shaiduko, Anna V.; Svetlichnyi, Valeriy A.

    2012-01-01

    Damage threshold of non-linear GaSe crystals under IR fs (Ti:Sapphiere 800 nm laser and 1.1-2.9μm OPG) and ns (2. 79 Er3+:YSGG and 10.6μm CO2 laser) pulse pumping is studded in details. Local micro defects and field induced effects (GaSe dissociation, multiphoton absorptions and transient transparency origin effects) are identified as responsible for damage threshold in this case. Local (including nano scaled) defects and thermal effects are identified as reason of damage threshold under ns pulse pumping.

  4. Generation of intense 25-fsec pulses by a pulsed laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, G.; Gagel, R.; Laubereau, A. )

    1989-09-15

    A pulsed femtosecond dye laser is demonstrated with relaxed stability requirements, improved output reproducibility, and significant pulse shortening. Starting with a sequence of {approx}350 pump pulses of a Nd:glass laser (repetition rate 6 Hz, duration 1.3 psec), pulses of 25 fsec and 10 nJ are generated at 566 nm. A non-colliding-pulse, mode-locked ring laser is used with dispersion compensation and the dyes Rhodamine 6G, DQOCI, and DTCI. The evolution of the pulse parameters as a function of cavity round trips is investigated.

  5. K-shell emission from 140 femtosecond laser-produced plasmas created from porous aluminum targets

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, R.; Price, D.; White, B.; Osterheld, A.; Walling, R.; Slaughter, D.; Stewart, R.; Gordan, S.

    1992-06-05

    The K-shell emission from flat and porous aluminum targets is used to infer the efficiency of creating a high temperature (>100eV), thermal plasma with 800 nm, 140 fs laser light. The K-shell emission from flat aluminum targets is fond to be significantly less than that of the porous targets, implying a lower temperature and less efficient coupling between the target and ultra-short pulse laser light.

  6. Investigation of Fe:ZnSe laser in pulsed and repetitively pulsed regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Velikanov, S D; Zaretskiy, N A; Zotov, E A; Maneshkin, A A; Chuvatkin, R S; Yutkin, I M; Kozlovsky, V I; Korostelin, Yu V; Krokhin, O N; Podmar'kov, Yu P; Savinova, S A; Skasyrsky, Ya K; Frolov, M P

    2015-01-31

    The characteristics of a Fe:ZnSe laser pumped by a single-pulse free-running Er : YAG laser and a repetitively pulsed HF laser are presented. An output energy of 4.9 J is achieved in the case of liquid-nitrogen cooling of the Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe active laser element longitudinally pumped by an Er:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 1 ms and an energy up to 15 J. The laser efficiency with respect to the absorbed energy is 47%. The output pulse energy at room temperature is 53 mJ. The decrease in the output energy is explained by a strong temperature dependence of the upper laser level lifetime and by pulsed heating of the active element. The temperature dependence of the upper laser level lifetime is used to determine the pump parameters needed to achieve high pulse energies at room temperature. Stable repetitively-pulsed operation of the Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe laser at room temperature with an average power of 2.4 W and a maximum pulse energy of 14 mJ is achieved upon pumping by a 1-s train of 100-ns HF laser pulses with a repetition rate of 200 Hz. (lasers)

  7. Incoherent pulse compression in laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodensky, Daniel; Kravitz, Daniel; Arbel, Nadav; Levanon, Nadav; Zadok, Avinoam

    2014-06-01

    Laser ranging measurements using incoherent pulse compression of complementary code pairs is reported. The two bipolar codes are converted to unipolar representations using a pulse position modulation algorithm, and used in succession in intensity modulation of a laser ranging source. Reflected echoes from a wall target are directly and incoherently detected. The cross-correlation between each of the two collected echoes and its respective, reference bipolar sequence, that is digitally stored at the receiver, is calculated. The two correlation functions are then added together. The off-peak aperiodic correlation functions of two codes sum up to zero, hence they are particularly suitable for low-sidelobe radar and laser ranging and detection systems. The scheme does not require the preservation of phase information in transmission or reception and provides superior sidelobe suppression compared with that of longer single codes. The code pairs are scalable to arbitrary lengths through simple procedures. Simulated and experimental ranging measurements in the presence of additive noise are discussed. The distance to the target could be recovered based on weak collected echoes, with an average optical power as low as 2 nW, without averaging over repeating measurements.

  8. Pulsed laser fluorometry for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, G. C.; Martin, J. C.; Jett, J. H.; Wilder, M. E.; Martinez, A.; Bentley, B. F.; Lopez, J.; Hutson, L.

    1990-01-01

    A compact pulsed laser fluorometer has been incorporated into a continuous flow system developed to detect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and/or primary amine compounds in air and water. A pulsed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser excites fluorescent reactants which flow continuously through a quartz flow cell. Data are collected, analyzed, and displayed using a Macintosh II personal computer. For detection of cholinesterase inhibitors the fluorogenic substrate N methylindoxyl acetate is used to monitor the activity of immobilized enzyme. Presence of inhibitors results in a decrease of steady state fluorescence. Detection of compounds containing primary amines is based on their reaction with fluorescamine to rapidly produce intensely fluorescent products. Compounds of interest to our research were amino acids, peptides, and proteins. An increase in steady state fluorescence could be cause to evaluate the reasons for the change. The detection limit of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water is 10 ppT. Nebulized BSA concentrated by the LANL air sampler can be detected at sub ppT original air concentration. 16 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Propagation of λ3 Laser Pulses in Underdense Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkov, Alexei; Nemoto, Koshichi; Nayuki, Takuya; Oishi, Yuji; Fujii, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    We study the interaction of λ3 laser pulses with underdense plasma by means of real geometry particle-in-cell simulation. Underdense plasma irradiated by even low energy λ3 laser pulses can be an efficient source of multi-MeV electrons, ˜50 nC/J. The electron acceleration driven by low energy λ3 and λ2 laser pulses is monitored by means of fully relativistic 3D particle-in- cell simulation. Strong transverse wave-breaking in the vicinity of the laser focus is found to give rise to an immense electron charge injected to the acceleration phase of laser wake field. While the acceleration by λ2 pulses runs in usual way, strong blowout regime is found for λ3 pulses. Details of laser pulse self-guiding are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of pulsed laser ablation in liquids generated gold nanoparticles as novel transfection tools: efficiency and cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willenbrock, Saskia; Durán, María. Carolina; Barchanski, Annette; Barcikowski, Stephan; Feige, Karsten; Nolte, Ingo; Murua Escobar, Hugo

    2014-03-01

    Varying transfection efficiencies and cytotoxicity are crucial aspects in cell manipulation. The utilization of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) has lately attracted special interest to enhance transfection efficiency. Conventional AuNP are usually generated by chemical reactions or gas pyrolysis requiring often cell-toxic stabilizers or coatings to conserve their characteristics. Alternatively, stabilizer- and coating-free, highly pure, colloidal AuNP can be generated by pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL). Mammalian cells were transfected efficiently by addition of PLAL-AuNP, but data systematically evaluating the cell-toxic potential are lacking. Herein, the transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of PLAL AuNP was evaluated by transfection of a mammalian cell line with a recombinant HMGB1/GFP DNA expression vector. Different methods were compared using two sizes of PLAL-AuNP, commercialized AuNP, two magnetic NP-based protocols and a conventional transfection reagent (FuGENE HD; FHD). PLAL-AuNP were generated using a Spitfire Pro femtosecond laser system delivering 120 fs laser pulses at a wavelength of 800 nm focusing the fs-laser beam on a 99.99% pure gold target placed in ddH2O. Transfection efficiencies were analyzed after 24h using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Toxicity was assessed measuring cell proliferation and percentage of necrotic, propidium iodide positive cells (PI %). The addition of PLAL-AuNP significantly enhanced transfection efficiencies (FHD: 31 %; PLAL-AuNP size-1: 46 %; size-2: 50 %) with increased PI% but no reduced cell proliferation. Commercial AuNP-transfection showed significantly lower efficiency (23 %), slightly increased PI % and reduced cell proliferation. Magnetic NP based methods were less effective but showing also lowest cytotoxicity. In conclusion, addition of PLAL-AuNP provides a novel tool for transfection efficiency enhancement with acceptable cytotoxic side-effects.

  11. Optimizing chirped laser pulse parameters for electron acceleration in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Akhyani, Mina; Jahangiri, Fazel; Niknam, Ali Reza; Massudi, Reza

    2015-11-14

    Electron dynamics in the field of a chirped linearly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Variations of electron energy gain versus chirp parameter, time duration, and initial phase of laser pulse are studied. Based on maximizing laser pulse asymmetry, a numerical optimization procedure is presented, which leads to the elimination of rapid fluctuations of gain versus the chirp parameter. Instead, a smooth variation is observed that considerably reduces the accuracy required for experimentally adjusting the chirp parameter.

  12. Development of short pulse laser pumped x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Hunter, J R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2000-02-22

    X-ray lasers have been extensively studied around the world since the first laboratory demonstration on the Novette laser at LLNL in 1984. The characteristic properties of short wavelength, high monochromaticity, collimation and coherence make x-ray lasers useful for various applications. These include demonstrations of biological imaging within the water window, interferometry of laser plasmas and radiography of laser-heated surfaces. One of the critical issues has been the high power pump required to produce the inversion. The power scaling as a function of x-ray laser wavelength follows a {approx} {lambda}{sup -4} to {approx} {lambda}{sup -6} law. The shortest x-ray laser wavelength of {approx}35 {angstrom} demonstrated for Ni-like Au was at the limit of Nova laser capabilities. By requiring large, high power lasers such as Nova, the shot rate and total number of shots available have limited the rapid development of x-ray lasers and applications. In fact over the last fifteen years the main thrust has been to develop more efficient, higher repetition rate x-ray lasers that can be readily scaled to shorter wavelengths. The recent state of progress in the field can be found in references. The objective of the project was to develop a soft x-ray laser (XRL) pumped by a short pulse laser of a few joules. In effect to demonstrate a robust, worlung tabletop x-ray laser at LLNL for the first time. The transient collisional scheme as proposed by Shlyaptsev et al. was the candidate x-ray laser for study. The successful endeavor of any scientific investigation is often based upon prudent early decisions and the choice of this scheme was both sound and fruitful. It had been demonstrated very recently for Ne-like Ti at 326 {angstrom} using a small tabletop laser but had not yet reached its full potential. We chose this scheme for several reasons: (a) it was a collisional-type x-ray laser which has been historically the most robust; (b) it had the promise of high efficiency

  13. Multifunctional surfaces produced by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we create a multifunctional metal surface by producing a hierarchical nano/microstructure with femtosecond laser pulses. The multifunctional surface exhibits combined effects of dramatically enhanced broadband absorption, superhydrophobicity, and self-cleaning. The superhydrophobic effect is demonstrated by a falling water droplet repelled away from a structured surface with 30% of the droplet kinetic energy conserved, while the self-cleaning effect is shown by each water droplet taking away a significant amount of dust particles on the altered surface. The multifunctional surface is useful for light collection and water/dust repelling.

  14. Optical penetration sensor for pulsed laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Essien, Marcelino; Keicher, David M.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Jellison, James L.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the penetration of the weld pool created from pulsed laser welding and more particularly to an apparatus and method of utilizing an optical technique to monitor the weld vaporization plume velocity to determine the depth of penetration. A light source directs a beam through a vaporization plume above a weld pool, wherein the plume changes the intensity of the beam, allowing determination of the velocity of the plume. From the velocity of the plume, the depth of the weld is determined.

  15. Pulsed laser light sheet flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreide, D. C.; Douglas, G. D.; Brandt, W. P.

    A pulsed ruby laser was used as light source for a set of flow visualization tests involving two test situations. In both cases, the conducted investigation was concerned with the location of the tip vortex of the rotor-blade of a helicopter, giving particular attention to the position relative to the following blade. The optical system employed is considered along with the electronics system, the setup equipment, and the helicopter test. Vortex field maps are provided for the case in which the helicopter rotor vortex field phase angle equals 0 degrees and for the case in which this angle equals 90 degrees.

  16. Precise micromachining of materials using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasz, K.; Tański, M.; Barbucha, R.; Kocik, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of the experimental parametric study on efficiency, accuracy and quality of femtosecond laser micromachining of different materials. The laser micromachining process was performed with a solid-state Yb:KYW laser. The laser generates 500 fs pulses of three different wavelengths, repetition rate from 100 to 900 kHz and output power up to 50 W. This allows to perform a complex research for a wide range of parameters and materials. Laser micromachining is a process based on a laser ablation phenomenon, i.e. total evaporation of material from the target surface during laser irradiation. It is the most precise method of material removal. Applying a femtosecond laser in the process, allows the use of ultra short pulses, with a duration of 10-15 seconds, while maintaining a high laser power. The concentration of energy within a single pulse is sufficiently high to cause the detachment of particles from the irradiated target without any thermal interactions with the surrounding material. Therefore, the removal of the material occurs only in the laser focus. This allows to avoid most of the unwanted effects of the heat affected zone (HAZ). It has been established, that the quality of laser ablation process using femtosecond pulses is much higher than while using the long pulsed lasers (i.e. nanosecond). The use of femtosecond laser pulses creates therefore an attractive opportunity for high quality micromachining of many groups of materials.

  17. Channeling and stability of laser pulses in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Krall, J.; Esarey, E.

    1995-06-01

    A laser pulse propagating in a plasma is found to undergo a combination of hose and modulation instabilities. The coupled equations for the laser beam envelope and centroid are derived and solved for a laser pulse of finite length propagating through either a uniform plasma or preformed plasma density channel. The laser envelope equation describes the pulse self-focusing and optical guiding in plasmas and is used to analyze the self-modulation instability. The laser centroid equation describes the transverse motion of the laser pulse (hosing) in plasmas. Significant coupling between the centroid and envelope motion as well as harmonic generation in the envelope can occur. In addition, the transverse profile of the generated wake field is strongly affected by the laser hose instability. Methods to reduce the laser hose instability are demonstrated. {copyright} 1995 {ital American Institute of Physics}.

  18. Long pulse chemical laser. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bardon, R.L.; Breidenthal, R.E.; Buonadonna, V.R.

    1989-02-01

    This report covers the technical effort through February, 1989. This effort was directed towards the technology associated with the development of a large scale, long pulse DF-CO{sub 2} chemical laser. Optics damage studies performed under Task 1 assessed damage thresholds for diamond-turned salt windows. Task 2 is a multi-faceted task involving the use of PHOCL-50 for laser gain measurements, LTI experiments, and detector testing by LANL personnel. To support these latter tests, PHOCL-50 was upgraded with Boeing funding to incorporate a full aperture outcoupler that increased its energy output by over a factor of 3, to a full kilojoule. The PHOCL-50 carbon block calorimeter was also recalibrated and compared with the LANL Scientech meter. Cloud clearing studies under Task 3 initially concentrated on delivering a Boeing built Cloud Simulation Facility to LANL, and currently involves design of a Cold Cloud Simulation Facility. A Boeing IRAD funded theoretical study on cold cloud clearing revealed that ice clouds may be easier to clear then warm clouds. Task 4 involves the theoretical and experimental study of flow system design as related to laser beam quality. Present efforts on this task are concentrating on temperature gradients induced by the gas filling process. General support for the LPCL field effort is listed under Task 5, with heavy emphasis on assuring reliable operation of the Boeing built Large Slide Valve and other device related tests. The modification of the PHOCL-50 system for testing long pulse DF (4{mu}m only) chemical laser operation is being done under Task 6.

  19. Pulsed laser surface hardening of ferrous alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Reed, C. B.; Leong, K. H.; Hunter, B. V.

    1999-09-30

    A high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser and special optics were used to produce surface hardening on 1045 steel and gray cast iron by varying the process parameters. Unlike CO{sub 2} lasers, where absorptive coatings are required, the higher absorptivity of ferrous alloys at the Nd:YAG laser wavelength eliminates the necessity of applying a coating before processing. Metallurgical analysis of the treated tracks showed that very fine and hard martensitic microstructure (1045 steel) or inhomogeneous martensite (gray cast iron) were obtained without surface melting, giving maximum hardness of HRC 61 and HRC 40 for 1045 steel and gray cast iron respectively. The corresponding maximum case depths for both alloys at the above hardness are 0.6 mm. Gray cast iron was more difficult to harden without surface melting because of its lower melting temperature and a significantly longer time-at-temperature required to diffuse carbon atoms from the graphite flakes into the austenite matrix during laser heating. The thermal distortion was characterized in term of flatness changes after surface hardening.

  20. Pulsed HF laser ablation of dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiakoumou, Eirini I.; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan G.; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2005-03-01

    The interaction of a TEA (Transversally Excited Atmospheric pressure) corona preionized oscillator double amplifier HF (hydrogen fluoride) laser beam with dentin tissue is reported. Pulses of 39 ns in the wavelength range of 2.65-3.35 μm and output energies in the range of 10-45 mJ, in a predominantly TEM00 beam were used to interact with dentin tissue. Ablation experiments were conducted with the laser beam directly focused on the tissue. Several samples of freshly extracted human teeth were used, cut longitudinally in facets of about 1mm thick and stored in phosphate buffered saline after being cleaned from the soft tissue remains. The experimental data (ablation thresholds, ablation rates) are discussed with respect to the ablation mechanism(s). Adequate tissue removal was observed and the ablation behavior was, in the greates part of the available fluences, almost linear. From the microscopic examination of teh samples, in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the irradiated surfaces displayed oval craters (reflecting the laser beam shape) with absence of any melting or carbonization zone. It is suggested that the specific laser removes hard tissue by a combined photothermal and plasma mediated ablation mechanism, leaving a surface free from thermal damage and with a well-shaped crater.

  1. Removing orbital debris with pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.; Baker, Kevin L.; Libby, Stephen B.; Liedahl, Duane A.; Olivier, Scot S.; Pleasance, Lyn D.; Rubenchik, Alexander; Trebes, James E.; George, E. Victor; Marcovici, Bogdan; Reilly, James P.; Valley, Michael T.

    2012-07-01

    Orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) are now sufficiently dense that the use of LEO space is threatened by runaway collisional cascading. A problem predicted more than thirty years ago, the threat from debris larger than about 1cm demands serious attention. A promising proposed solution uses a high power pulsed laser system on the Earth to make plasma jets on the objects, slowing them slightly, and causing them to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere. In this paper, we reassess this approach in light of recent advances in low-cost, light-weight segmented design for large mirrors, calculations of laser-induced orbit changes and in design of repetitive, multi-kilojoule lasers, that build on inertial fusion research. These advances now suggest that laser orbital debris removal (LODR) is the most costeffective way to mitigate the debris problem. No other solutions have been proposed that address the whole problem of large and small debris. A LODR system will have multiple uses beyond debris removal. International cooperation will be essential for building and operating such a system.

  2. 25 years of pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    It is our pleasure to introduce this special issue appearing on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), which is today one of the most versatile growth techniques for oxide thin films and nanostructures. Ever since its invention, PLD has revolutionized the research on advanced functional oxides due to its ability to yield high-quality thin films, multilayers and heterostructures of a variety of multi-element material systems with rather simple technical means. We appreciate that the use of lasers to deposit films via ablation (now termed PLD) has been known since the 1960s after the invention of the first ruby laser. However, in the first two decades, PLD was something of a 'sleeping beauty' with only a few publications per year, as shown below. This state of hibernation ended abruptly with the advent of high T c superconductor research when scientists needed to grow high-quality thin films of multi-component high T c oxide systems. When most of the conventional growth techniques failed, the invention of PLD by T (Venky) Venkatesan clearly demonstrated that the newly discovered high-T c superconductor, YBa2Cu3O7-δ , could be stoichiometrically deposited as a high-quality nm-thin film with PLD [1]. As a remarkable highlight of this special issue, Venkatesan gives us his very personal reminiscence on these particularly innovative years of PLD beginning in 1986 [2]. After Venky's first paper [1], the importance of this invention was realized worldwide and the number of publications on PLD increased exponentially, as shown in figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Published items per year with title or topic PLD. Data from Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge in September 2013. After publication of Venky's famous paper in 1987 [1], the story of PLD's success began with a sudden jump in the number of publications, about 25 years ago. A first PLD textbook covering its basic understanding was soon published, in 1994, by Chrisey and Hubler [3]. Within a

  3. Threshold for permanent refractive index change in crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, D.; Chen, Z.; Fedosejevs, R.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Van, V.

    2016-08-01

    An optical damage threshold for crystalline silicon from single femtosecond laser pulses was determined by detecting a permanent change in the refractive index of the material. This index change could be detected with unprecedented sensitivity by measuring the resonant wavelength shift of silicon integrated optics microring resonators irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelengths. The threshold for permanent index change at 400 nm wavelength was determined to be 0.053 ± 0.007 J/cm2, which agrees with previously reported threshold values for femtosecond laser modification of crystalline silicon. However, the threshold for index change at 800 nm wavelength was found to be 0.044 ± 0.005 J/cm2, which is five times lower than the previously reported threshold values for visual change on the silicon surface. The discrepancy is attributed to possible modification of the crystallinity of silicon below the melting temperature that has not been detected before.

  4. Reshaping of intense laser pulse with a capillary

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Lihua; Yu Wei; Yu, M. Y.; Wang Xin; Gu Yuqiu; He, X. T.

    2009-09-15

    The reshaping of intense laser pulse by vacuum capillary is studied by particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that as an intense laser pulse propagates from free space into a capillary, its profile is reshaped due to laser-plasma interaction near the entrance of capillary. As a result, the free-space mode is self-consistently converted into a capillary mode. Only the relatively low-intensity periphery of the reshaped pulse interacts with the capillary-wall plasma, so that the high-intensity center of the pulse can propagate in the narrow vacuum channel over a distance much larger than the Rayleigh length. The mechanism is then applied to reshape a radially imperfect laser pulse having two wings around the center spot. Most of the output light energy is concentrated in the center spot, and the wings are almost completely removed. That is, the quality of the laser pulse can be greatly improved by a capillary.

  5. Stabilization of CO2 laser short-pulse oscillation by tickle pulse for dot processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokita, Daisaku; Sakurada, Noriyo; Ishii, Yoshio; Kubota, Yuzuru; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2005-03-01

    Image drawing using a laser system has been attempted by Segmented Pixel Drawing (SPD) method and Laser Plastic Coloring (LPC) method in our laboratory. Laser dot processing by a short pulse oscillation of a CO2 laser is used for these laser methods. Stable short pulse oscillation is required for an accurate image drawing. That oscillation has a tendency to be unstable because of its long oscillation interval. A tickle pulse is known as one of a technique which is conventionally used for a continuous pulse oscillation of a CO2 laser in order to make rising rate of laser oscillation quick. In this study, this tickle pulse has been improved and applied to the short pulse oscillation in order to stable short pulse oscillation and high accurate laser dot processing. In the result, processed dots are appeared bigger with less variation in their sizes with the improved tickle pulse case compared with the conventional case. Short pulse oscillation is stabilized by these improved tickle pulse. Reproducibility and accuracy ofthe SPD method and LPC method might be realized by this stabilized dot processing.

  6. Production of Picosecond, Kilojoule, and Petawatt Laser Pulses via Raman Amplification of Nanosecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Trines, R. M. G. M.; Bingham, R.; Norreys, P. A.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2011-09-02

    Raman amplification in plasma has been promoted as a means of compressing picosecond optical laser pulses to femtosecond duration to explore the intensity frontier. Here we show for the first time that it can be used, with equal success, to compress laser pulses from nanosecond to picosecond duration. Simulations show up to 60% energy transfer from pump pulse to probe pulse, implying that multikilojoule ultraviolet petawatt laser pulses can be produced using this scheme. This has important consequences for the demonstration of fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion.

  7. Stimulated brillouin backscatter of a short-pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.; Berger, R.L.

    1994-11-03

    Stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) from a short-pulse laser, where the pulse length is short compared to the plasma length, is found to be qualitatively different than in the long pulse regime, where the pulse length is long compared to the plasma length. We find that after an initial transient of order the laser pulse length transit time, the instability reaches a steady state in the variables x{prime} = x {minus} V{sub g}t, t{prime} = t, where V{sub g} is the pulse group velocity. In contrast, SBBS in a long pulse can be absolutely unstable and grows indefinitely, or until nonlinearities intervene. We find that the motion of the laser pulse induces Doppler related effects that substantially modify the backscattered spectrum at higher intensities, where the instability is strongly coupled (i.e. , has a growth rate large compared to the ion acoustic frequency).

  8. Development of pulsed gas discharge lasers for shock hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Gerd; Tkotz, R.; Keusch, C.; Negendanck, Matthias; Christiansen, Jens; Hoffmann, D. H. H.

    1996-08-01

    Shock hardening of metals (e.g. Ti, stainless steel) by pulsed lasers offers the possibility of large hardening depth (several millimeters) without serious damage to the surface of the workpiece. Previous investigations for shock hardening have mainly been performed with high power solid state lasers. The adaptation of commercial, high power gas discharge lasers to the shock hardening process could make this process relevant for industrial applications, as high repetition rates may be used. Two different laser systems have been investigated: a TEA carbon-dioxide laser and a XeCl laser. Both systems have pulse energies of some joule, a pulse length of several ten nanoseconds, and pulse repetition rates of up to 10 Hertz. The divergence of the beam was minimized to improve focusing properties. Systematic measurements of the laser induced pressure by means of piezo probes have been performed. An enhancement of the hardness of illuminated Ti(RT15) targets has been found and is reported.

  9. New methods of generation of ultrashort laser pulses for ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel; Kubecek, V.; Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    To reach the millimeter satellite laser ranging accuracy, the goal for nineties, new laser ranging techniques have to be applied. To increase the laser ranging precision, the application of the ultrashort laser pulses in connection with the new signal detection and processing techniques, is inevitable. The two wavelength laser ranging is one of the ways to measure the atmospheric dispersion to improve the existing atmospheric correction models and hence, to increase the overall system ranging accuracy to the desired value. We are presenting a review of several nonstandard techniques of ultrashort laser pulses generation, which may be utilized for laser ranging: compression of the nanosecond pulses using stimulated Brillouin and Raman backscattering; compression of the mode-locked pulses using Raman backscattering; passive mode-locking technique with nonlinear mirror; and passive mode-locking technique with the negative feedback.

  10. Analysis on the characteristics of pulsed laser proximity fuze's echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Chen, Huimin

    2011-06-01

    With the rapid development of semiconductor technology and laser technology, a kind of proximity fuze named pulsed laser proximity fuze has been applied. Compared with other fuzes, pulsed laser proximity fuze has high ranging precision and strong resistance to artificial active interference. It is an important development tendency of proximity fuze. The paper analyze the characteristic of target echo of laser signal, and then make theoretical analysis and calculation on the laser signal transmission in the smog. Firstly, use the pulse width of 10ns semiconductor laser fuze to do typical targets experiment, to get the echo information of target distance is 5m; then to do smog interference experiment, by comparing the pulse width amplitude and backscattering signal amplitude of laser fuze in simulation and experiment, analyzing the effect of anti-clutter, providing the evidence for the subsequent of circuit of signal amplification and processing.

  11. Glass drilling by longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Takuya; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2015-03-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser that produces a short laser pulse. The laser was very simple and consisted of a 45-cm-long alumina ceramic pipe with an inner diameter of 9 mm, a pulse power supply, a step-up transformer, a storage capacitance, and a spark-gap switch. The laser pulse had a spike pulse and a pulse tail. The energy of the pulse tail was controlled by adjusting medium gas. Using three types of CO2 laser pulse with the same spike-pulse energy and the different pulse-tail energy, the characteristics of the hole drilling of synthetic silica glass was investigated. Higher pulse-tail energy gave deeper ablation depth. In the short laser pulse with the spike-pulse energy of 1.2 mJ, the spike pulse width of 162 ns, the pulse-tail energy of 24.6 mJ, and the pulse-tail length of 29.6 μs, 1000 shots irradiation produced the ablation depth of 988 μm. In the hole drilling of synthetic silica glass by the CO2 laser, a crack-free process was realized.

  12. Solitary Nanostructures Produced by Ultrashort Laser Pulse.

    PubMed

    Inogamov, Nail A; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Khokhlov, Viktor A; Petrov, Yury V; Migdal, Kirill P

    2016-12-01

    Laser-produced surface nanostructures show considerable promise for many applications while fundamental questions concerning the corresponding mechanisms of structuring are still debated. Here, we present a simple physical model describing those mechanisms happened in a thin metal film on dielectric substrate irradiated by a tightly focused ultrashort laser pulse. The main ingredients included into the model are (i) the film-substrate hydrodynamic interaction, melting and separation of the film from substrate with velocity increasing with increase of absorbed fluence; (ii) the capillary forces decelerating expansion of the expanding flying film; and (iii) rapid freezing into a solid state if the rate of solidification is comparable or larger than hydrodynamic velocities. The developed model and performed simulations explain appearance of microbump inside the focal spot on the film surface. The model follows experimental findings about gradual transformation of the bump from small parabolic to a conical shape and to the bump with a jet on its tip with increasing fluence. Disruption of the bump as a result of thinning down the liquid film to a few interatomic distances or due to mechanical break-off of solid film is described together with the jetting and formation of one or many droplets. Developed theory opens door for optimizing laser parameters for intended nanostructuring in applications.

  13. Solitary Nanostructures Produced by Ultrashort Laser Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inogamov, Nail A.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.; Khokhlov, Viktor A.; Petrov, Yury V.; Migdal, Kirill P.

    2016-04-01

    Laser-produced surface nanostructures show considerable promise for many applications while fundamental questions concerning the corresponding mechanisms of structuring are still debated. Here, we present a simple physical model describing those mechanisms happened in a thin metal film on dielectric substrate irradiated by a tightly focused ultrashort laser pulse. The main ingredients included into the model are (i) the film-substrate hydrodynamic interaction, melting and separation of the film from substrate with velocity increasing with increase of absorbed fluence; (ii) the capillary forces decelerating expansion of the expanding flying film; and (iii) rapid freezing into a solid state if the rate of solidification is comparable or larger than hydrodynamic velocities. The developed model and performed simulations explain appearance of microbump inside the focal spot on the film surface. The model follows experimental findings about gradual transformation of the bump from small parabolic to a conical shape and to the bump with a jet on its tip with increasing fluence. Disruption of the bump as a result of thinning down the liquid film to a few interatomic distances or due to mechanical break-off of solid film is described together with the jetting and formation of one or many droplets. Developed theory opens door for optimizing laser parameters for intended nanostructuring in applications.

  14. Optical gene transfer by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konig, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Tirlapur, Uday K.

    2003-07-01

    Targeted transfection of cells is an important technique for gene therapy and related biomedical applications. We delineate how high-intensity (1012 W/cm2) near-infrared (NIR) 80 MHz nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses can create highly localised membrane perforations within a minute focal volume, enabling non-invasive direct transfection of mammalian cells with DNA. We suspended Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO), rat kangaroo kidney epithelial (PtK2) and rat fibroblast cells in 0.5 ml culture medium in a sterile miniaturized cell chamber (JenLab GmbH, Jena, Germany) containing 0.2 μg plasmid DNA vector pEGFP-N1 (4.7 kb), which codes for green fluorescent protein (GFP). The NIR laser beam was introduced into a femtosecond laser scanning microscope (JenLab GmbH, Jena, Germany; focussed on the edge of the cell membrane of a target cell for 16 ms. The integration and expression efficiency of EGFP were assessed in situ by two-photon fluorescence-lifetime imaging using time-correlated single photon counting. The unique capability to transfer foreign DNA safely and efficiently into specific cell types (including stem cells), circumventing mechanical, electrical or chemical means, will have many applications, such as targeted gene therapy and DNA vaccination.

  15. Relativistic Single-Cycled Short-Wavelength Laser Pulse Compressed from a Chirped Pulse Induced by Laser-Foil Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, L. L.; Shen, B. F.; Li, D. X.; Wang, D.; Leng, Y. X.; Zhang, X. M.; Wen, M.; Wang, W. P.; Xu, J. C.; Yu, Y. H.

    2010-07-09

    By particle-in-cell simulation and analysis, we propose a plasma approach to generate a relativistic chirped pulse based on a laser-foil interaction. When two counterpropagating circularly polarized pulses interact with an overdense foil, the driving pulse (with a larger laser field amplitude) will accelerate the whole foil to form a double-layer structure, and the scattered pulse (with a smaller laser field amplitude) is reflected by this flying layer. Because of the Doppler effect and the varying velocity of the layer, the reflected pulse is up-shifted for frequency and chirped; thus, it could be compressed to a nearly single-cycled relativistic laser pulse with a short wavelength. Simulations show that a nearly single-cycled subfemtosecond relativistic pulse can be generated with a wavelength of 0.2 {mu}m after dispersion compensation.

  16. Clutter discrimination algorithm simulation in pulse laser radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-mei; Li, Huan; Guo, Hai-chao; Su, Xuan; Zhu, Fule

    2015-10-01

    Pulse laser radar imaging performance is greatly influenced by different kinds of clutter. Various algorithms are developed to mitigate clutter. However, estimating performance of a new algorithm is difficult. Here, a simulation model for estimating clutter discrimination algorithms is presented. This model consists of laser pulse emission, clutter jamming, laser pulse reception and target image producing. Additionally, a hardware platform is set up gathering clutter data reflected by ground and trees. The data logging is as clutter jamming input in the simulation model. The hardware platform includes a laser diode, a laser detector and a high sample rate data logging circuit. The laser diode transmits short laser pulses (40ns FWHM) at 12.5 kilohertz pulse rate and at 905nm wavelength. An analog-to-digital converter chip integrated in the sample circuit works at 250 mega samples per second. The simulation model and the hardware platform contribute to a clutter discrimination algorithm simulation system. Using this system, after analyzing clutter data logging, a new compound pulse detection algorithm is developed. This new algorithm combines matched filter algorithm and constant fraction discrimination (CFD) algorithm. Firstly, laser echo pulse signal is processed by matched filter algorithm. After the first step, CFD algorithm comes next. Finally, clutter jamming from ground and trees is discriminated and target image is produced. Laser radar images are simulated using CFD algorithm, matched filter algorithm and the new algorithm respectively. Simulation result demonstrates that the new algorithm achieves the best target imaging effect of mitigating clutter reflected by ground and trees.

  17. Controlling plasma channels through ultrashort laser pulse filamentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, Andrey A.; Seleznev, Leonid V.; Sunchugasheva, Elena S.

    2013-10-01

    A review of studies fulfilled at the Lebedev Institute in collaboration with the Moscow State University and Institute of Atmospheric Optics in Tomsk (Siberia) on influence of various characteristics of ultrashort laser pulse on plasma channels formed under its filamentation is presented. Filamentation of high-power laser pulses with wavefront controlled by a deformable mirror, with cross-sections spatially formed by various diaphragms and with different wavelengths was experimentally and numerically studied. An application of plasma channels formed due to filamentation of ultrashort laser pulse including a train of such pulses for triggering and guiding electric discharge is discussed.

  18. Evolution of chirped laser pulses in a magnetized plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Pallavi; Hemlata,; Mishra, Rohit Kumar

    2014-12-15

    The propagation of intense, short, sinusoidal laser pulses in a magnetized plasma channel has been studied. The wave equation governing the evolution of the radiation field is set up and a variational technique is used to obtain the equations describing the evolution of the laser spot size, pulse length and chirp parameter. Numerical methods are used to analyze the simultaneous evolution of these parameters. The effect of the external magnetic field on initially chirped as well as unchirped laser pulses on the spot size, pulse length and chirping has been analyzed.

  19. Laser Pulse-Stretching Using Multiple Optical Ring-Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe a simple and passive nanosecond-long (ns-long) laser 'pulse-stretcher' using multiple optical ring-cavities. We present a model of the pulse-stretching process for an arbitrary number of optical ring-cavities. Using the model, we optimize the design of a pulse-stretcher for use in a spontaneous Raman scattering excitation system that avoids laser-induced plasma spark problems. From the optimized design, we then experimentally demonstrate and verify the model with a 3-cavity pulse-stretcher system that converts a 1000 mJ, 8.4 ns-long input laser pulse into an approximately 75 ns-long (FWHM) output laser pulse with a peak power reduction of 0.10X, and an 83% efficiency.

  20. Ultrafast pulse lasers jump to macro applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebel, Martin; Lutze, Walter; Scheller, Torsten

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast Lasers have been proven for several micro applications, e.g. stent cutting, for many years. Within its development of applications Jenoptik has started to use ultrafast lasers in macro applications in the automotive industry. The JenLas D2.fs-lasers with power output control via AOM is an ideal tool for closed loop controlled material processing. Jenoptik enhanced his well established sensor controlled laser weakening process for airbag covers to a new level. The patented process enables new materials using this kind of technology. One of the most sensitive cover materials is genuine leather. As a natural product it is extremely inhomogeneous and sensitive for any type of thermal load. The combination of femtosecond pulse ablation and closed loop control by multiple sensor array opens the door to a new quality level of defined weakening. Due to the fact, that the beam is directed by scanning equipment the process can be split in multiple cycles additionally reducing the local energy input. The development used the 5W model as well as the latest 10W release of JenLas D2.fs and achieved amazing processing speeds which directly fulfilled the requirements of the automotive industry. Having in mind that the average cycle time of automotive processes is about 60s, trials had been done of processing weakening lines in genuine leather of 1.2mm thickness. Parameters had been about 15 cycles with 300mm/s respectively resulting in an average speed of 20mm/s and a cycle time even below 60s. First samples had already given into functional and aging tests and passed successfully.

  1. Dark pulse generation in fiber lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Chow, K K

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the generation of dark pulses from carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporated erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with net anomalous dispersion. A side-polished fiber coated with CNT layer by optically-driven deposition method is embedded into the laser in order to enhance the birefringence and nonlinearity of the laser cavity. The dual-wavelength domain-wall dark pulses are obtained from the developed CNT-incorporated fiber laser at a relatively low pump threshold of 50.6 mW. Dark pulses repeated at the fifth-order harmonic of the fundamental cavity frequency are observed by adjusting the intra-cavity polarization state.

  2. Hose-Modulation Instability of Laser Pulses in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Krall, J.; Esarey, E. )

    1994-12-26

    A laser pulse propagating in a uniform plasma or a preformed plasma density channel is found to undergo a combination of hose and modulation instabilities, provided the pulse centroid has an initial tilt. Coupled equations for the laser centroid and envelope are derived and solved for a finite-length laser pulse. Significant coupling between the centroid and the envelope, harmonic generation in the envelope, and strong modification of the wake field can occur. Methods to reduce the growth rate of the laser hose instability are demonstrated.

  3. Laser cooling of atoms and molecules with ultrafast pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kielpinski, D.

    2006-06-15

    We propose a laser cooling method for atomic species whose level structure makes traditional laser cooling difficult. For instance, laser cooling of hydrogen requires single-frequency vacuum-ultraviolet light, while multielectron atoms need single-frequency light at many widely separated frequencies. These restrictions can be eased by laser cooling on two-photon transitions with ultrafast pulse trains. Laser cooling of hydrogen, antihydrogen, and many other species appears feasible, and extension of the technique to molecules may be possible.

  4. Third-generation megahertz-rate pulse burst laser system.

    PubMed

    Thurow, Brian S; Satija, Aman; Lynch, Kyle

    2009-04-10

    The design and performance of a third-generation megahertz-rate pulse burst laser system is described. The third-generation system incorporates two distinct design changes that distinguish it from earlier-generation systems. The first is that pulse slicing is now achieved by using an economical acousto-optic modulator (AOM), and the second is the use of a variable pulse duration flashlamp driver that provides relatively uniform gain over a ~700 mus window. The use of an AOM for pulse slicing permits flexible operation such as pulse-on-demand operation with variable pulse durations ranging from 10 ns to DC. The laser described here is capable of producing a burst of laser pulses at repetition rates as high as 50 MHz and peak powers of 10 kW. Second-harmonic conversion efficiency using a type II KTP crystal is also demonstrated.

  5. High energy protons generation by two sequential laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Shen, Baifei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaomei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin

    2015-04-15

    The sequential proton acceleration by two laser pulses of relativistic intensity is proposed to produce high energy protons. In the scheme, a relativistic super-Gaussian (SG) laser pulse followed by a Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) pulse irradiates dense plasma attached by underdense plasma. A proton beam is produced from the target and accelerated in the radiation pressure regime by the short SG pulse and then trapped and re-accelerated in a special bubble driven by the LG pulse in the underdense plasma. The advantages of radiation pressure acceleration and LG transverse structure are combined to achieve the effective trapping and acceleration of protons. In a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, protons of 6.7 GeV are obtained from a 2 × 10{sup 22 }W/cm{sup 2} SG laser pulse and a LG pulse at a lower peak intensity.

  6. Nonlinear laser pulse response in a crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R P; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Kishor; Strickland, D

    2016-04-01

    The propagation characteristics of a spatial Gaussian laser pulse have been studied inside a gradient-index structured crystalline lens with constant-density plasma generated by the laser-tissue interaction. The propagation of the laser pulse is affected by the nonlinearities introduced by the generated plasma inside the crystalline lens. Owing to the movement of plasma species from a higher- to a lower-temperature region, an increase in the refractive index occurs that causes the focusing of the laser pulse. In this study, extended paraxial approximation has been applied to take into account the evolution of the radial profile of the Gaussian laser pulse. To examine the propagation characteristics, variation of the beam width parameter has been observed as a function of the laser power and initial beam radius. The cavitation bubble formation, which plays an important role in the restoration of the elasticity of the crystalline lens, has been investigated. PMID:27192252

  7. Optodynamic aspect of a pulsed laser ablation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrovatin, Rok; Možina, Janez

    1995-02-01

    A study of a pulsed laser ablation process is presented from a novel, optodynamic aspect. By quantitative analysis of laser-induced bulk ultrasonic and blast waves in the air the ablation dynamics is characterized. In this way the influence of the laser pulse parameters and of the interacting material on the ablation process was assessed. By the analysis of the laser drilling process of thin layered samples the material influence was demonstrated. Besides the ultrasonic evaluation of the laser pulse power density the plasma shielding for 10 ns laser pulses was analyzed by the same method. All measurements were noncontact. Bulk waves in the solid and blast waves in the air were measured simultaneously, an interferometric and a probe beam deflection method were used, respectively.

  8. Nonlinear laser pulse response in a crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R P; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Kishor; Strickland, D

    2016-04-01

    The propagation characteristics of a spatial Gaussian laser pulse have been studied inside a gradient-index structured crystalline lens with constant-density plasma generated by the laser-tissue interaction. The propagation of the laser pulse is affected by the nonlinearities introduced by the generated plasma inside the crystalline lens. Owing to the movement of plasma species from a higher- to a lower-temperature region, an increase in the refractive index occurs that causes the focusing of the laser pulse. In this study, extended paraxial approximation has been applied to take into account the evolution of the radial profile of the Gaussian laser pulse. To examine the propagation characteristics, variation of the beam width parameter has been observed as a function of the laser power and initial beam radius. The cavitation bubble formation, which plays an important role in the restoration of the elasticity of the crystalline lens, has been investigated.

  9. Response of Biomolecules to Ultrafast Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Roland; Dou, Yusheug; Dumitrica, Traian; Xie, John R. H.

    2005-03-01

    Using two complementary techniques -- semiclassical electron-radiation-ion dynamics (SERID) and time- dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) -- we are studying the response of various biologically relevant molecules to femtosecond-scale laser pulses. Our simulations provide microscopic information on mechanisms for photoisomerization [1] and other molecular transformations [2] and on spectroscopic identification of pathogens with schemes like FAST CARS [3]. The coupled dynamics of electrons and nuclei is determined by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and using Ehrenfest's theorem, with a 30 attosecond time step. Results will be shown for molecules including stilbene, benzene, and dipicloninc acid. [1] Y. Dou and R. E. Allen, Chemical Physics Letters 378, 323 (2003).2] B. Torralva and R. E. Allen, Journal of Modern Optics 49, 593 - 625 (2002).3] M. O. Scully et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994 (2002).

  10. Studies of Photosynthesis Using a Pulsed Laser

    PubMed Central

    De Vault, Don; Chance, Britton

    1966-01-01

    The rate of oxidation of cytochrome following absorption of a short pulse of light from a ruby laser in the photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium has been measured spectrophotometrically. The half-time is about 2 μsec at room temperature increasing to 2.3 msec at about 100°K and constant at the latter value to 35°K or below. The temperature dependence above 120°K corresponds to an activation energy of 3.3 kcal/mole; that below 100°K to less than 80 cal/mol: essentially a temperature-independent electron transport reaction. Since the slowness below 100°K indicates the presence of a barrier, the lack of activation energy is taken to mean penetration by quantum-mechanical “tunneling.” PMID:5972381

  11. Approaches to solar cell design for pulsed laser power receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Using a laser to beam power from Earth to a photovoltaic receiver in space could be a technology with applications to many space missions. Extremely high average-power lasers would be required in a wavelength range of 700-1000 nm. However, high-power lasers inherently operate in a pulsed format. Existing solar cells are not well designed to respond to pulsed incident power. To better understand cell response to pulsed illumination at high intensity, the PC-1D finite-element computer model was used to analyze the response of solar cells to continuous and pulsed laser illumination. Over 50 percent efficiency was calculated for both InP and GaAs cells under steady-state illumination near the optimum wavelength. The time-dependent response of a high-efficiency GaAs concentrator cell to a laser pulse was modeled, and the effect of laser intensity, wavelength, and bias point was studied. Three main effects decrease the efficiency of a solar cell under pulsed laser illumination: series resistance, L-C 'ringing' with the output circuit, and current limiting due to the output inductance. The problems can be solved either by changing the pulse shape or designing a solar cell to accept the pulsed input. Cell design possibilities discussed are a high-efficiency, light-trapping silicon cell, and a monolithic, low-inductance GaAs cell.

  12. Electron beam-switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Pleasance, L.D.; Murray, J.R.; Goldhar, J.; Bradley, L.P.

    1979-12-11

    A method and apparatus are designed for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  13. CO{sub 2} laser pulse shortening by laser ablation of a metal target

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, T.; Mazoyer, M.; Lynch, A.; O'Sullivan, G.; O'Reilly, F.; Dunne, P.; Cummins, T.

    2012-03-15

    A repeatable and flexible technique for pulse shortening of laser pulses has been applied to transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO{sub 2} laser pulses. The technique involves focusing the laser output onto a highly reflective metal target so that plasma is formed, which then operates as a shutter due to strong laser absorption and scattering. Precise control of the focused laser intensity allows for timing of the shutter so that different temporal portions of the pulse can be reflected from the target surface before plasma formation occurs. This type of shutter enables one to reduce the pulse duration down to {approx}2 ns and to remove the low power, long duration tails that are present in TEA CO{sub 2} pulses. The transmitted energy is reduced as the pulse duration is decreased but the reflected power is {approx}10 MW for all pulse durations. A simple laser heating model verifies that the pulse shortening depends directly on the plasma formation time, which in turn is dependent on the applied laser intensity. It is envisaged that this plasma shutter will be used as a tool for pulse shaping in the search for laser pulse conditions to optimize conversion efficiency from laser energy to useable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for EUV source development.

  14. Dielectric breakdown induced by picosecond laser pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.; Bechtel, J. H.; Bloembergen, N.

    1976-01-01

    The damage thresholds of transparent optical materials were investigated. Single picosecond pulses at 1.06 microns, 0.53 microns and 0.35 microns were obtained from a mode locked Nd-YAG oscillator-amplifier-frequency multiplier system. The pulses were Gaussian in space and time and permitted the determination of breakdown thresholds with a reproducibility of 15%. It was shown that the breakdown thresholds are characteristic of the bulk material, which included nine alkali halides, five different laser host materials, KDP, quartz, sapphire and calcium fluoride. The extension of the damage data to the ultraviolet is significant, because some indication was obtained that two- and three-photon absorption processes begin to play a role in determining the threshold. Throughout the visible region of the spectrum the threshold is still an increasing function of frequency, indicating that avalanche ionization is the dominant factor in determining the breakdown threshold. This was confirmed by a detailed study of the damage morphology with a high resolution microscope just above the threshold. The influence of self focusing is discussed, and evidence for beam distortion below the power threshold for complete self focusing is presented, confirming the theory of Marburger.

  15. New laser system for highly sensitive clinical pulse oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the theory and design of a new pulse oximeter in which laser diodes and other compact laser sources are used for the measurement of oxygen saturation in patients who are at risk of developing hypoxemia. The technique depends upon illuminating special sites of the skin of the patient with radiation from modulated laser sources at selected wavelengths. The specific laser wavelengths are chosen based on the absorption characteristics of oxyhemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin and other interfering sources for obtaining more accurate measurements. The laser radiation transmitted through the tissue is detected and signal processing based on differential absorption laser spectroscopy is done in such a way to overcome the primary performance limitations of the conventionally used pulse oximetry. The new laser pulse oximeter can detect weak signals and is not affected by other light sources such as surgical lamps, phototherapy units, etc. The detailed description and operating characteristics of this system are presented.

  16. Enhancement of pulsed laser ablation in environmentally friendly liquid.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fangfang; Guan, Yingchun; Ong, Weili; Du, Zheren; Ho, Ghimwei; Li, Fengping; Sun, Shufeng; Lim, Gniancher; Hong, Minghui

    2014-10-01

    Enhancement of pulsed laser ablation can be achieved in acetic acid as an environmentally friendly liquid. This paper evaluates microholes and textured features induced by a nanosecond pulsed laser under different processing circumstances. The microholes are fabricated by laser drilling in acetic acid and found to be 100% deeper than in air. The textured features achieved in the liquid demonstrate a higher content of Copper and a lower content of Oxygen. The improvement of laser ablation efficiency in the liquid is attributed to the strong confinement of plasma plume accompanying with shockwave and cavitation bubbles. Meanwhile, the laser enhanced chemical etching by the weak acid plays a critical role.

  17. Repetitively pulsed Nd-glass slab lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, B. I.; Kir'ianov, A. V.; Maliutin, A. A.; Kertesz, I.; Kroo, N.

    1989-09-01

    The possibility of obtaining high laser output energies at 1.32 micron using thin LiNdLa phosphate glass slabs with a high Nd(3+) concentration is discussed. Comparison data for 1.054 micron are also given. In the experiments, 3 x 14 x 125-mm slabs were prepared from LiNdLa phosphate glass with Nd concentration 1.2 x 10 to the 21st/cu cm. The uncoated slab facets were tested in a silver-coated quartz tube reflector pumped by 450-microsec flash-lamp pulses. The light passing through the slab returns to it after reflection from the tube surface. Most of the radiation falls on the wider side of the slab at large angles of incidence, thus maximizing its path inside the slab. The 150-mm laser resonator was formed by two flat mirrors. At 1.32 microns an output mirror of reflectivity r = 95 percent was used (with r less than 10 percent at 1.054 micron), while at 1.054 micron, r(output) = 50 percent was chosen. The pump-energy dependence of the output energy was measured.

  18. [INVITED] Control of femtosecond pulsed laser ablation and deposition by temporal pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrelie, Florence; Bourquard, Florent; Loir, Anne--Sophie; Donnet, Christophe; Colombier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the effects of temporal laser pulse shaping on femtosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The potential of laser pulses temporally tailored on ultrafast time scales is used to control the expansion and the excitation degree of ablation products including atomic species and nanoparticles. The ablation plume generated by temporally shaped femtosecond pulsed laser ablation of aluminum and graphite targets is studied by in situ optical diagnostic methods. Taking advantage of automated pulse shaping techniques, an adaptive procedure based on spectroscopic feedback regulates the irradiance for the enhancement of typical plasma features. Thin films elaborated by unshaped femtosecond laser pulses and by optimized sequence indicate that the nanoparticles generation efficiency is strongly influenced by the temporal shaping of the laser irradiation. The ablation processes leading either to the generation of the nanoparticles either to the formation of plasma can be favored by using a temporal shaping of the laser pulse. Insights are given on the possibility to control the quantity of the nanoparticles. The temporal laser pulse shaping is shown also to strongly modify the laser-induced plasma contents and kinetics for graphite ablation. Temporal pulse shaping proves its capability to reduce the number of slow radicals while increasing the proportion of monomers, with the addition of ionized species in front of the plume. This modification of the composition and kinetics of plumes in graphite ablation using temporal laser pulse shaping is discussed in terms of modification of the structural properties of deposited Diamond-Like Carbon films (DLC). This gives rise to a better understanding of the growth processes involved in femtosecond-PLD and picosecond-PLD of DLC suggesting the importance of neutral C atoms, which are responsible for the subplantation process.

  19. Dynamics of plasma formation, relaxation, and topography modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Puerto, D.; Siegel, J.; Gawelda, W.; Galvan-Sosa, M.; Solis, J.; Ehrentraut, L.; Bonse, J.

    2010-05-15

    We have studied plasma formation and relaxation dynamics along with the corresponding topography modifications in fused silica and sapphire induced by single femtosecond laser pulses (800 nm and 120 fs). These materials, representative of high bandgap amorphous and crystalline dielectrics, respectively, require nonlinear mechanisms to absorb the laser light. The study employed a femtosecond time-resolved microscopy technique that allows obtaining reflectivity and transmission images of the material surface at well-defined temporal delays after the arrival of the pump pulse which excites the dielectric material. The transient evolution of the free-electron plasma formed can be followed by combining the time-resolved optical data with a Drude model to estimate transient electron densities and skin depths. The temporal evolution of the optical properties is very similar in both materials within the first few hundred picoseconds, including the formation of a high reflectivity ring at about 7 ps. In contrast, at longer delays (100 ps-20 ns) the behavior of both materials differs significantly, revealing a longer lasting ablation process in sapphire. Moreover, transient images of sapphire show a concentric ring pattern surrounding the ablation crater, which is not observed in fused silica. We attribute this phenomenon to optical diffraction at a transient elevation of the ejected molten material at the crater border. On the other hand, the final topography of the ablation crater is radically different for each material. While in fused silica a relatively smooth crater with two distinct regimes is observed, sapphire shows much steeper crater walls, surrounded by a weak depression along with cracks in the material surface. These differences are explained in terms of the most relevant thermal and mechanical properties of the material. Despite these differences the maximum crater depth is comparable in both material at the highest fluences used (16 J/cm{sup 2}). The

  20. A laser spectrometer and wavemeter for pulsed lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, J. A.; Laufer, P. M.; Cotnoir, L. J.

    1989-01-01

    The design, construction, calibration, and evaluation of a pulsed laser wavemeter and spectral analyzer are described. This instrument, called the Laserscope for its oscilloscope-like display of laser spectral structure, was delivered to NASA Langley Research Center as a prototype of a laboratory instrument. The key component is a multibeam Fizeau wedge interferometer, providing high (0.2 pm) spectral resolution and a linear dispersion of spectral information, ideally suited to linear array photodiode detectors. Even operating alone, with the classic order-number ambiguity of interferometers unresolved, this optical element will provide a fast, real-time display of the spectral structure of a laser output. If precise wavelength information is also desired then additional stages must be provided to obtain a wavelength measurement within the order-number uncertainty, i.e., within the free spectral range of the Fizeau wedge interferometer. A Snyder (single-beam Fizeau) wedge is included to provide this initial wavelength measurement. Difficulties in achieving the required wide-spectrum calibration limit the usefulness of this function.

  1. Application of Yb:YAG short pulse laser system

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Biswal, Subrat; Bartolick, Joseph M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Crane, John K.; Telford, Steve; Perry, Michael D.

    2004-07-06

    A diode pumped, high power (at least 20W), short pulse (up to 2 ps), chirped pulse amplified laser using Yb:YAG as the gain material is employed for material processing. Yb:YAG is used as the gain medium for both a regenerative amplifier and a high power 4-pass amplifier. A single common reflective grating optical device is used to both stretch pulses for amplification purposes and to recompress amplified pulses before being directed to a workpiece.

  2. Generation of high-power nanosecond pulses from laser diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kinpui

    1988-01-01

    Simulation results are used to compare the pulse energy levels and pulse energy widths that can be achieved with LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers for both the pulse-transmission mode (PTM) and pulse-reflection mode (PRM) Q-switching methods for pulse energy levels up to hundreds of microjoules and pulse widths as short as 1 ns. It is shown that high-power pulses with pulse widths as short as 1 ns can be generated with PTM Q-switched in LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. With the PRM Q-switching method, pulse widths as short as 2 ns and pulse energy at the level of a few hundred microjoules can also be achieved but require pumping with 8-10-mJ AlGaAs laser diode arrays.

  3. 25 years of pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    It is our pleasure to introduce this special issue appearing on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), which is today one of the most versatile growth techniques for oxide thin films and nanostructures. Ever since its invention, PLD has revolutionized the research on advanced functional oxides due to its ability to yield high-quality thin films, multilayers and heterostructures of a variety of multi-element material systems with rather simple technical means. We appreciate that the use of lasers to deposit films via ablation (now termed PLD) has been known since the 1960s after the invention of the first ruby laser. However, in the first two decades, PLD was something of a 'sleeping beauty' with only a few publications per year, as shown below. This state of hibernation ended abruptly with the advent of high T c superconductor research when scientists needed to grow high-quality thin films of multi-component high T c oxide systems. When most of the conventional growth techniques failed, the invention of PLD by T (Venky) Venkatesan clearly demonstrated that the newly discovered high-T c superconductor, YBa2Cu3O7-δ , could be stoichiometrically deposited as a high-quality nm-thin film with PLD [1]. As a remarkable highlight of this special issue, Venkatesan gives us his very personal reminiscence on these particularly innovative years of PLD beginning in 1986 [2]. After Venky's first paper [1], the importance of this invention was realized worldwide and the number of publications on PLD increased exponentially, as shown in figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Published items per year with title or topic PLD. Data from Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge in September 2013. After publication of Venky's famous paper in 1987 [1], the story of PLD's success began with a sudden jump in the number of publications, about 25 years ago. A first PLD textbook covering its basic understanding was soon published, in 1994, by Chrisey and Hubler [3]. Within a

  4. Pulse generation and preamplification for long pulse beamlines of Orion laser facility.

    PubMed

    Hillier, David I; Winter, David N; Hopps, Nicholas W

    2010-06-01

    We describe the pulse generation, shaping, and preamplification system for the nanosecond beamlines of the Orion laser facility. The system generates shaped laser pulses of up to approximately 1 J of 100 ps-5 ns duration with a programmable temporal profile. The laser has a 30th-power supergaussian spatial profile and is diffraction limited. The system is capable of imposing 2D smoothing by spectral dispersion upon the beam, which will produce a nonuniformity of 10% rms at the target.

  5. Modifying molecule-surface scattering by ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Khodorkovsky, Yuri; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.; Manson, J. R.

    2011-11-15

    In recent years it has become possible to align molecules in free space using ultrashort laser pulses. Here we explore two schemes for controlling molecule-surface scattering processes and which are based on laser-induced molecular alignment. In the first scheme, a single ultrashort nonresonant laser pulse is applied to a molecular beam hitting the surface. This pulse modifies the angular distribution of the incident molecules and causes the scattered molecules to rotate with a preferred sense of rotation (clockwise or counterclockwise). In the second scheme, two properly delayed laser pulses are applied to a molecular beam composed of two chemically close molecular species (isotopes, or nuclear-spin isomers). As the result of the double-pulse excitation, these species are selectively scattered to different angles after the collision with the surface. These effects may provide new means for the analysis and separation of molecular mixtures.

  6. Extended Propagation of Powerful Laser Pulses in Focusing Kerr Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, V. M.; Fisch, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    Powerful incoherent laser pulses can propagate in focusing Kerr media much longer distances than can coherent pulses, due to the fast phase mixing that prevents transverse filamentation. This distance is limited by 4-wave scattering, which accumulates waves at small transverse wave numbers, where phase mixing is too slow to retain the incoherence and thus prevent the filamentation. However, we identify how this theoretical limit can be overcome by countering this accumulation through transverse heating of the pulse by random fluctuations of the refractive index. Thus, the laser pulse propagation distances are significantly extended, making feasible, in particular, the generation of unprecedentedly intense and powerful short laser pulses in a plasma by means of backward Raman amplification in new random laser regimes.

  7. Modeling of near infrared pulsed laser sintering of metallic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Pascal; Romano, Valerio; Weber, Heinz P.; Karapatis, N. P.; André, C.; Glardon, R.

    2003-11-01

    Using pulsed near infrared laser radiation for selective laser sintering bears several advantages compared to cw sintering such as low requried average power, less residual heat and improved lateral precision. By adapting the pulse length (and thus the heat diffusion length during the pulse) to the grain size of the used metal powder, the laser pulse energy can mainly by deposited in the skin of the powder particles where heating and melting is obtained, whereas the centers of the grains remain at much lower temperature and act as heat sinks after consolidation. The model described here was numerically implemented and experimentally tested with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on titanium powder. The results of the model predictions and the performed experiments are in good agreement.

  8. Short-pulse laser interactions with disordered materials and liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Phinney, L.M.; Goldman, C.H.; Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    High-power, short-pulse lasers in the picosecond and subpicosecond range are utilized in an increasing number of technologies, including materials processing and diagnostics, micro-electronics and devices, and medicine. In these applications, the short-pulse radiation interacts with a wide range of media encompassing disordered materials and liquids. Examples of disordered materials include porous media, polymers, organic tissues, and amorphous forms of silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide. In order to accurately model, efficiently control, and optimize short-pulse, laser-material interactions, a thorough understanding of the energy transport mechanisms is necessary. Thus, fractals and percolation theory are used to analyze the anomalous diffusion regime in random media. In liquids, the thermal aspects of saturable and multiphoton absorption are examined. Finally, a novel application of short-pulse laser radiation to reduce surface adhesion forces in microstructures through short-pulse laser-induced water desorption is presented.

  9. Numerical simulation of air-breathing mode laser propulsion by nanosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Zhao, Shanghong; Chu, Xingchun; Yu, Kanmin; Ma, Lihua; Zhan, Shengbao; Li, Yunxia

    2009-07-01

    Based on Navier-Stokes equations, numerical simulations of air-breathing mode laser propulsion by nanosecond laser pulse are carried out. An analytical model of the thruster's inner flow involving the simple processing of the ignition zone is established. The evolvement of the laser sustained plasma shockwaves is systemic analyzed; also the effects of pulse energy and thruster's structure such as focal length, scale and open angle on propulsion performance are researched. The simulated results show that the focal length dominates among the structural factors of thruster in the propulsion by nanosecond laser pulse. The larger focal length leads to better propulsion performance. It is also evident that for single pulse propulsion, nanosecond laser pulse is better than microsecond laser pulse, the momentum coupling efficient achieved by the former is 2~5 times of the latter's, which is highly agree with the existing experimental results.

  10. Measuring spatiotemporal intensity-and-phase complexity of multimode fiber output pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang, Zhe; Rhodes, Michelle; Trebino, Rick

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate ultrashort pulse spatiotemporal field measurement for multimode optical fibers, using a singleframe characterization technique, called Spatially and Temporally Resolved Intensity and Phase Evaluation Device: Full Information from a Single Hologram (STRIPED FISH). We measure STRIPED FISH traces and retrieve the pulse field E(x,y,t) or equivalently E(x,y,ω), to generate movies revealing the field structure induced by propagating modes, due to their differences in field spatial distribution, modal propagation velocity and modal dispersion inside the fiber. We launch femtosecond pulses near 800nm from Ti: Sapphire laser to investigate linearly polarized modes LP01, LP11, LP02 and LP21 in multimode fibers.

  11. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, Dustin Theodore

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 1016 protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 1012 protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH3 coatings on 5 μm gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH1.7. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 ± 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 1019W/cm2. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 1010. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 1020 W/cm2. In this experiment 1012 protons were seen from both erbium hydride and

  12. Laser detection of remote targets applying chaotic pulse position modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Pengfei; Geng, Dongxian; Wang, Wei; Gong, Mali

    2015-11-01

    Chaotic pulse position modulation (CPPM) has been successfully used in robust digital communication for years. We propose to adapt CPPM for laser detection of remote targets to address the issue of noise. Specified in a time-of-flight (TOF) consecutive laser ranging application scenario, the feasibility of laser detection applying CPPM for laser detection is experimentally investigated. The scheme including the adaptive design for laser detection and parameter settings with validation is introduced. Lab-based electrical experiment and a proof-of-concept outdoor TOF experiment are further conducted to verify the feasibility of laser ranging and detection using CPPM through comparison with traditional Lidar detection and other pulse interval patterns. According to experiments and the following analysis, laser ranging using CPPM is feasible and more robust than traditional laser ranging.

  13. Single femtosecond pulse holography using polymethyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Ishizuka, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Wataru; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2002-10-21

    Holographic gratings have been written on the surface and inside transparent polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with individual 130 fs laser pulses at 800 nm. A surface-relief grating is fabricated by ablation and the diffraction efficiency is measured to be about 20%. A volume grating inside PMMA is formed by the change in the refractive index induced by the two-beam interference fringes. Holographic data storage on the surface is realized when one beam carries information. The stored information can be nondestructively reconstructed when the fluence of the read beam is reduced below the threshold.

  14. Airborne bathymetric charting using pulsed blue-green lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory and airborne experiments have proven the feasibility and demonstrated the techniques of an airborne pulsed laser system for rapidly mapping coastal water bathymetry. Water depths of 10 plus or minus 0.25 m were recorded in waters having an effective attenuation coefficient of 0.175 m. A 2-MW peak power Nd:YAG pulsed laser was flown at an altitude of 600 m. An advanced system, incorporating a mirror scanner, a high pulsed rate laser, and a good signal processor, could survey coastal zones at the rate of several square miles per hour.

  15. Photon kinetic modeling of laser pulse propagation in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, A. J. W.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Bingham, R.; Cairns, R. A.; Mendonca, J. T.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2006-11-15

    This paper discusses photon kinetic theory, which is a description of the electromagnetic field in terms of classical particles in coordinate and wave number phase space. Photon kinetic theory is applied to the interaction of laser pulses with underdense plasma and the transfer of energy and momentum between the laser pulse and the plasma is described in photon kinetic terms. A comparison is made between a one-dimensional full wave and a photon kinetic code for the same laser and plasma parameters. This shows that the photon kinetic simulations accurately reproduce the pulse envelope evolution for photon frequencies down to the plasma frequency.

  16. The recording and processing of pulsed laser diode spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhr, Peter L.; Maufer, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    A system capable of measuring and statistically analyzing wavelength and intensity fluctuations in pulsed laser diode output beams has been developed. The snapshot wavelength-intensity performance of laser diodes emitting discrete short-duration optical pulse is determined by isolating and recording individual pulses. Statistical processing of the resultant data generates information about the magnitude and/or frequency of occurrence of power variations or wavelength fluctuations in narrow optical bands. The system configuration along with plots depicting results based on measurements taken for various laser diodes are presented.

  17. All-fiber ring Raman laser generating parabolic pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglov, V. I.; Mechin, D.; Harvey, J. D.

    2010-02-15

    We present theoretical and numerical results for an all-fiber laser using self-similar parabolic pulses ('similaritons') designed to operate using self-similar propagation regimes. The similariton laser features a frequency filter and a Sagnac loop which operate together to generate an integrated all-fiber mode-locked laser. Numerical studies show that this laser generates parabolic pulses with linear chirp in good agreement with analytical predictions. The period for propagating similariton pulses in stable regimes can vary from one to two round trips for different laser parameters. Two-round-trip-period operation in the mode-locked laser appears at bifurcation points for certain cavity parameters. The stability of the similariton regimes has been confirmed by numerical simulations for large numbers of round trips.

  18. Pulse Splitting in Short Wavelength Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Labat, M.; Couprie, M. E.; Joly, N.; Bruni, C.

    2009-12-31

    We investigate a fundamental limitation occurring in vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet seeded free electron lasers (FELs). For a given electron beam and undulator configuration, an increase of the FEL output energy at saturation can be obtained via an increase of the seed pulse duration. We put in evidence a complex spatiotemporal deformation of the amplified pulse, leading ultimately to a pulse splitting effect. Numerical studies of the Colson-Bonifacio FEL equations reveal that slippage length and seed laser pulse wings are core ingredients of the dynamics.

  19. Intense two-cycle laser pulses induce time-dependent bond hardening in a polyatomic molecule.

    PubMed

    Dota, K; Garg, M; Tiwari, A K; Dharmadhikari, J A; Dharmadhikari, A K; Mathur, D

    2012-02-17

    A time-dependent bond-hardening process is discovered in a polyatomic molecule (tetramethyl silane, TMS) using few-cycle pulses of intense 800 nm light. In conventional mass spectrometry, symmetrical molecules such as TMS do not exhibit a prominent molecular ion (TMS(+)) as unimolecular dissociation into [Si(CH(3))(3)](+) proceeds very fast. Under a strong field and few-cycle conditions, this dissociation channel is defeated by time-dependent bond hardening: a field-induced potential well is created in the TMS(+) potential energy curve that effectively traps a wave packet. The time dependence of this bond-hardening process is verified using longer-duration (≥100 fs) pulses; the relatively slower falloff of optical field in such pulses allows the initially trapped wave packet to leak out, thereby rendering TMS(+) unstable once again.

  20. Light pressure acceleration with frequency-tripled laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Shen, Baifei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaomei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Ji, Liangliang; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xueyan; Xu, Jiancai; Yu, Yahong; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin; Xu, Tongjun; Zhang, Lingang

    2014-08-15

    Light pressure acceleration of ions in the interaction of the frequency-tripled (3ω) laser pulse and foil target is studied, and a promising method to increase accelerated ion energy is shown. Results show that at a constant laser energy, much higher ion energy peak value is obtained for 3ω laser compared with that using the fundamental frequency laser. The effect of energy loss during frequency conversion on ion acceleration is considered, which may slightly decrease the acceleration effect.

  1. The multiple-pulse driver line on the OMEGA laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosc, T. Z.; Kelly, J. H.; Hill, E. M.; Dorrer, C.; Waxer, L. J.; Donaldson, W. R.

    2015-02-01

    The multiple-pulse driver line (MPD) provides on-shot co-propagation of two separate pulse shapes in all 60 OMEGA beams at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The two co-propagating pulse shapes would typically be (1) a series of 100-ps "picket" pulses followed by (2) a longer square or shaped "drive" pulse. Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), which increases the laser bandwidth, can be applied to either one of the two pulse shapes. Therefore, MPD allows for dynamic bandwidth reduction, where the bandwidth is applied only to the picket portion of a pulse shape. Since the use of SSD decreases the efficiency of frequency conversion from the IR to the UV, dynamic bandwidth reduction provides an increase in the drive-pulse energy. The design of the MPD required careful consideration of beam combination as well as the minimum pulse separation for two pulses generated by two separate sources. A new combined-pulse-shape diagnostic needed to be designed and installed after the last grating used for SSD. This new driver-line flexibility is built into the OMEGA front end as one component of the initiative to mitigate cross-beam energy transfer on target and to demonstrate hydro-equivalent ignition on the OMEGA laser at LLE.

  2. Generation of elliptically polarized nitrogen ion laser fields using two-color femtosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ziting; Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Xie, Hongqiang; Yao, Jinping; Li, Guihua; Qiao, Lingling; Wang, Zhanshan; Cheng, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate generation of nitrogen molecular ion () lasers with two femtosecond laser pulses at different wavelengths. The first pulse serves as the pump which ionizes the nitrogen molecules and excites the molecular ions to excited electronic states. The second pulse serves as the probe which leads to stimulated emission from the excited molecular ions. We observe that changing the angle between the polarization directions of the two pulses gives rise to elliptically polarized laser fields, which is interpreted as a result of strong birefringence of the gain medium near the wavelengths of the laser. PMID:26888182

  3. Generation of elliptically polarized nitrogen ion laser fields using two-color femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziting; Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Xie, Hongqiang; Yao, Jinping; Li, Guihua; Qiao, Lingling; Wang, Zhanshan; Cheng, Ya

    2016-02-18

    We experimentally investigate generation of nitrogen molecular ion (N2+) lasers with two femtosecond laser pulses at different wavelengths. The first pulse serves as the pump which ionizes the nitrogen molecules and excites the molecular ions to excited electronic states. The second pulse serves as the probe which leads to stimulated emission from the excited molecular ions. We observe that changing the angle between the polarization directions of the two pulses gives rise to elliptically polarized N2+ laser fields, which is interpreted as a result of strong birefringence of the gain medium near the wavelengths of the N2+ laser.

  4. Generation of elliptically polarized nitrogen ion laser fields using two-color femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ziting; Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Xie, Hongqiang; Yao, Jinping; Li, Guihua; Qiao, Lingling; Wang, Zhanshan; Cheng, Ya

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally investigate generation of nitrogen molecular ion () lasers with two femtosecond laser pulses at different wavelengths. The first pulse serves as the pump which ionizes the nitrogen molecules and excites the molecular ions to excited electronic states. The second pulse serves as the probe which leads to stimulated emission from the excited molecular ions. We observe that changing the angle between the polarization directions of the two pulses gives rise to elliptically polarized laser fields, which is interpreted as a result of strong birefringence of the gain medium near the wavelengths of the laser.

  5. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  6. Over 0.5 MW green laser from sub-nanosecond giant pulsed microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lihe; Taira, Takunori

    2016-03-01

    A sub-nanosecond green laser with laser head sized 35 × 35 × 35 mm3 was developed from a giant pulsed microchip laser for laser processing on organic superconducting transistor with a flexible substrate. A composite monolithic Y3Al5O12 (YAG) /Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG/YAG crystal was designed for generating giant pulsed 1064 nm laser. A fibercoupled 30 W laser diode centered at 808 nm was used with pump pulse duration of 245 μs. The 532 nm green laser was obtained from a LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with output energy of 150 μJ and pulse duration of 268 ps. The sub-nanosecond green laser is interesting for 2-D ablation patterns.

  7. Ablation characteristics of quantum square pulse mode dental erbium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukač, Nejc; Suhovršnik, Tomaž; Lukač, Matjaž; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-01-01

    Erbium lasers are by now an accepted tool for performing ablative medical procedures, especially when minimal invasiveness is desired. Ideally, a minimally invasive laser cutting procedure should be fast and precise, and with minimal pain and thermal side effects. All these characteristics are significantly influenced by laser pulse duration, albeit not in the same manner. For example, high cutting efficacy and low heat deposition are characteristics of short pulses, while vibrations and ejected debris screening are less pronounced at longer pulse durations. We report on a study of ablation characteristics on dental enamel and cementum, of a chopped-pulse Er:YAG [quantum square pulse (QSP)] mode, which was designed to reduce debris screening during an ablation process. It is shown that in comparison to other studied standard Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser pulse duration modes, the QSP mode exhibits the highest ablation drilling efficacy with lowest heat deposition and reduced vibrations, demonstrating that debris screening has a considerable influence on the ablation process. By measuring single-pulse ablation depths, we also show that tissue desiccation during the consecutive delivery of laser pulses leads to a significant reduction of the intrinsic ablation efficacy that cannot be fully restored under clinical settings by rehydrating the tooth using an external water spray.

  8. Acceleration Mechanism Of Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Mashima, Yuki; Yamada, Osamu

    2011-11-01

    A fundamental study of a newly developed rectangular pulsed laser-electromagnetic hybrid thruster was conducted. Laser-ablation plasma in the thruster was induced through laser beam irradiation onto a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration only by using a laser beam. The performance of the thrusters was evaluated by measuring the ablated mass per pulse and impulse bit. As results, significantly high specific impulses up to 7,200 s were obtained at charge energies of 8.6 J. Moreover, from the Faraday cup measurement, it was confirmed that the speed of ions was accelerated with addition of electric energy.

  9. Synchronization of sub-picosecond electron and laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Le Sage, G.P.

    1999-07-01

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is sub-picosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next generation experiments. The design of a microwave timing modulator system is now being investigated in more detail. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Synchronization of sub-picosecond electron and laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Le Sage, G. P.

    1999-07-12

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is sub-picosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next generation experiments. The design of a microwave timing modulator system is now being investigated in more detail.

  11. Parabolic similariton Yb-fiber laser with triangular pulse evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sijia; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel mode-locked fiber laser design which features a passive nonlinear triangular pulse formation and self-similar parabolic pulse amplification intra cavity. Attribute to the nonlinear reshaping progress in the passive fiber, a triangular-profiled pulse with negative-chirp is generated and paved the way for rapid and efficient self-similar parabolic evolution in a following short-length high-gain fiber. In the meanwhile, the accompanied significantly compressed narrow spectrum from this passive nonlinear reshaping also gives the promise of pulse stabilization and gain-shaping robustness without strong filtering. The resulting short average intra-cavity pulse duration, low amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and low intra-cavity power loss are essential for the low-noise operation. Simulations predict this modelocked fiber laser allows for high-energy ultra-short transform-limited pulse generation exceeding the gain bandwidth. The output pulse has a de-chirped duration (full-width at half maximum, FWHM) of 27 fs. In addition to the ultrafast laser applications, the proposed fiber laser scheme can support low-noise parabolic and triangular pulse trains at the same time, which are also attractive in optical pulse shaping, all-optical signal processing and high-speed communication applications.

  12. Optical pulse compression of ultrashort laser pulses in an argon-filled planar waveguide.

    PubMed

    Nurhuda, Muhammad; Suda, Akira; Bohman, Samuel; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2006-10-13

    We investigate the possibility of optical pulse compression of high energy ultrashort laser pulses in an argon-filled planar waveguide, based on two level coupled mode theory and the full 3D nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We derive general expressions for controlling the spatial beam profile and the extent of the spectral broadening. The analysis and simulations suggest that the proposed method should be appropriate for optical pulse compression of ultrashort laser pulses with energies as high as 600 mJ.

  13. Power Enhancement Cavity for Burst-Mode Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel optical cavity scheme and locking method that can realize the power enhancement of picosecond UV laser pulses operating at a burst mode with arbitrary burst (macropulse) lengths and repetition rates.

  14. Optimizing ultrashort laser pulse compression by two photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, G.; Frisch, J.; Smith, S.; Glownia, J. M.; Fry, A.

    2016-02-01

    Demonstrated is an approach for relative optimization of ultrashort pulses using two-photon generated photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode. Two-photon absorption is a nonlinear process, allowing for highly sensitive tuning of ultrashort laser systems.

  15. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2002-01-01

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  16. Femtosecond laser pulse induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, Gregory Allen; Luk, Ting Shan; Guo, Junpeng; Yang, Pin; Burns, George Robert

    2003-07-01

    We used a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser to create optical birefringence in an isotropic glass medium. Between two crossed polarizers, regions modified by the femtosecond laser show bright transmission with respect to the dark background of the isotropic glass. This observation immediately suggests that these regions possess optical birefringence. The angular dependence of transmission through the laser-modified region is consistent with that of an optically birefringent material. Laser-induced birefringence is demonstrated in different glasses, including fused silica and borosilicate glass. Experimental results indicate that the optical axes of laser-induced birefringence can be controlled by the polarization direction of the femtosecond laser. The amount of laser-induced birefringence depends on the pulse energy level and number of accumulated pulses.

  17. Laser shaping of a relativistic circularly polarized pulse by laser foil interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, D. B.; Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P.; Yang, X. H.; Shao, F. Q.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yin, Y.; Ouyang, J. M.; Ge, Z. Y.; Zhang, G. B.; Wang, P.

    2013-07-15

    Laser shaping of a relativistic circularly polarized laser pulse in ultra-intense laser thin-foil interaction is investigated by theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that the plasma foil as a nonlinear optical shutter has an obvious cut-out effect on the laser temporal and spatial profiles. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the high intensity part of a Gaussian laser pulse can be well extracted from the whole pulse. The transmitted pulse with longitudinal steep rise front and transverse super-Gaussian profile is thus obtained which would be beneficial for the radiation pressure acceleration regime. The Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability is observed in the simulations, which destroys the foil and results in the cut-out effect of the pulse in the rise front of a circularly polarized laser.

  18. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse for hard tissue drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2014-02-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser that produces a short laser pulse with a circular beam and a low divergence angle. The laser was very simple and consisted of a 45-cm-long alumina ceramic pipe with an inner diameter of 9 mm, a pulse power supply, a step-up transformer, a storage capacitance, and a spark-gap switch. The laser pulse had a spike pulse width of 103 ns and a pulse tail length of 32.6 μs. The beam cross-section was circular and the full-angle beam divergence was 1.7 mrad. The laser was used to drill ivory samples without carbonization at fluences of 2.3-7.1 J/cm2. The drilling depth of the dry ivory increased with the fluence. The drilling mechanism of the dry ivory was attributed to absorption of the laser light by the ivory.

  19. Optical delay control of large-spectral-bandwidth laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ignesti, E.; Tognetti, M. V.; Buffa, R.; Cavalieri, S.; Fini, L.; Sali, E.; Eramo, R.

    2009-07-15

    In this Rapid Communication we report an experimental observation of temporal delay control of large-spectral-bandwidth multimode laser pulses by means of electromagnetically induced transparency. We achieved optically controllable retardation of laser pulses with an input spectral bandwidth of 3.3 GHz with limited temporal distortion and excellent values of the delay-bandwidth product. The experimental results compare favorably with a theoretical analysis.

  20. Repetitively pulsed Cr:LiSAF laser for lidar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1994-03-01

    A Cr:LiSAF laser has been successfully operated at time averaged powers up to 11 W and at pulse repetition rates to 12 Hz. During Q-switch operation, output energy as high as 450 mJ (32 ns FWHM) was obtained. Finally, line narrowed Q-switched pulses (< 0.1 nm) from the Cr:LiSAF laser were successfully used as a tunable light source for lidar to measure atmospheric water content.

  1. Optimizing laser pulses to control photoinduced states of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Bin; Duxbury, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a computational approach to optimal laser pulse shaping directed at accessing novel photoinduced states of matter. Results are illustrated for a simple charge-density wave (CDW) model where the targeted effect is CDW melting and negative temperature states. Optimal control is implemented using the Krotov method applied to nonequilibrium tight-binding Hamiltonians where the laser pulse is introduced using the Peierls substitution, and we demonstrate monotonic convergence for this class of problem.

  2. Effect of Pulse Length on Engraving Efficiency in Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Engraving of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, Matti; Hirvimäki, Marika; Poutiainen, Ilkka; Salminen, Antti

    2015-10-01

    Dependency of laser pulse length on the effectiveness of laser engraving 304 stainless steel with nanosecond pulses was investigated. Ytterbium fiber laser with pulse lengths from 4 to 200 ns was used at a constant average power of 20 W. Measured criteria for effective laser engraving were high material removal rate (MRR), good visual quality of the engraved surface, and low processing temperature. MRR was measured by weighing the samples prior and after the engraving process. Visual quality was evaluated from magnified images. Surface temperature of the samples was measured by two laser spot-welded K-type thermocouples near the laser-processed area. It was noticed that MRR increases significantly with longer pulse lengths, while the quality decreases and processing temperature increases. Some peculiar process behavior was noticed. With short pulses (<20 ns), the process temperature steadily increased as the engraving process continued, whereas with longer pulses the process temperature started to decrease after initially jumping to a specific level. From visually analyzing the samples, it was noticed that the melted and resolidified bottom structure had cracks and pores on the surface when 50 ns or longer pulse lengths were used.

  3. High precision pulsed selective laser sintering of metallic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Pascal; Romano, Valerio; Blatter, Andreas; Weber, Heinz P.

    2005-06-01

    The generative process of selective laser sintering of powders such as Titanium, Platinum alloys and steel can in comparison to cw radiation significantly be improved by using pulsed radiation. With an appropriate energy deposition in the metallic powder layer, the material properties of the selective laser sintered parts can locally be tailored to the requirements of the finished work piece. By adapting the laser parameters of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, notably pulse duration and local intensity, the degree of porosity, density and even the crystalline microstructure can be controlled. Pulsed interaction allows minimizing the average power needed for consolidation of the metallic powder, and leads to less residual thermal stresses. With laser post processing, the surface can achieve bulk-like density. Furthermore, we present the possibility of forming metallic glass components by sintering amorphous metallic powders.

  4. Supression of laser breakdown by pulsed nonequilibrium ns discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikovskiy, A. Y.; Semenov, I. E.; Shneider, M. N.

    2016-10-01

    The avalanche ionization induced by infrared laser pulses was investigated in a pre-ionized argon gas. Pre-ionization was created by a high-voltage pulsed nanosecond discharge developed in the form of a fast ionization wave. Then, behind the front of ionization wave additional avalanche ionization was initiated by the focused Nd-YAG laser pulse. It was shown that the gas pre-ionization inhibits the laser spark generation. It was demonstrated that the suppression of laser spark development in the case of strong gas pre-ionization is because of fast electron energy transfer from the laser beam focal region. The main mechanism of this energy transfer is free electrons diffusion.

  5. Ultralong optical-pulse corona preionized XeCl laser

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.S.; Leopold, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    A simple corona preionization scheme together with magnetic spiker and pulse forming line technology has resulted in the production of 100-mJ, 1-..mu..s duration as well as 500-mJ, 0.5-..mu..s duration XeCl laser pulses.

  6. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  7. The effect of the laser wavelength on collinear double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Lin, Yanqing; Liu, Jing; Fan, Shuang; Xu, Zhuopin; Huang, Qing; Wu, Yuejin

    2016-05-01

    The pulsed lasers at wavelengths of 532 nm and 1064 nm were used as two beams of light for collinear double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS). By changing the time sequence of two beams of different lasers, we studied the effect of the interval of two pulses of DP-LIBS on spectral signals compared with single pulsed (SP) LIBS.

  8. Generation of ultrabroadband energetic laser pulses by noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, Gonçalo; Imran, Tayyab; João, Celso P.; Pires, Hugo; Cardoso, Luís.

    2013-11-01

    Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) is currently one of the leading techniques for the generation of ultra-powerful laser pulses, from the multi-terawatt to the petawatt range, with extremely high peak intensities. A properly designed OPCPA setup is able to provide gain over bandwidths extending hundreds of nanometers in the visible and near-infrared, allowing the generation of high-quality, energetic, few-cycle pulses. In this paper we describe the design and performance of a compact laser amplifier that makes use of noncollinear, ultrabroadband amplification in the nonlinear crystal yttrium-calcium oxyborate (YCOB). The pump and the supercontinuum seed pulses are generated from a common diode-pumped amplifier, ensuring their optical synchronization. This laser will be used as a source of ultrashort (~20 fs), energetic (~20 mJ), tunable pulses in the near infrared.

  9. Subpicosecond and picosecond laser ablation of dental enamel: comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Andrei V.; Madsen, Nathan R.; Kolev, Vesselin Z.; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Luther-Davies, Barry; Dawes, Judith M.; Chan, A.

    2004-06-01

    We report the use of sub-picosecond near-IR and ps UV pulsed lasers for precision ablation of freshly extracted human teeth. The sub-picosecond laser wavelength was ~800nm, with pulsewidth 150 fs and pulse repetition rate of 1kHz; the UV laser produced 10 ps pulses at 266 nm with pulse rate of ~1.2x105 pulses/s; both lasers produced ~1 W of output energy, and the laser fluence was kept at the same level of 10-25 J/cm2. Laser radiation from both laser were effectively absorbed in the teeth enamel, but the mechanisms of absorption were radically different: the near-IR laser energy was absorbed in a plasma layer formed through the optical breakdown mechanism initiated by multiphoton absorption, while the UV-radiation was absorbed due to molecular photodissociation of the enamel and conventional thermal deposition. The rise in the intrapulpal temperature was monitored by embedded thermocouples, and was shown to remain low with subpicosecond laser pulses, but risen up to 30°C, well above the 5°C pain level with the UV-laser. This study demonstrates the potential for ultra-short-pulsed lasers to precision and painless ablation of dental enamel, and indicated the optimal combination of laser parameters in terms of pulse energy, duration, intensity, and repetition rate, required for the laser ablation rates comparable to that of mechanical drill.

  10. Synchronization of Sub-Picosecond Electron and Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Le Sage G.P.

    2000-08-15

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is subpicosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next-generation experiments. Typically, an RF electron accelerator is synchronized to a short pulse laser system by detecting the repetition signal of a laser oscillator, adjusted to an exact subharmonic of the linac RF frequency, and multiplying or phase locking this signal to produce the master RF clock. Pulse-to-pulse jitter characteristic of self-mode-locked laser oscillators represents a direct contribution to the ultimate timing jitter between a high intensity laser focus and electron beam at the interaction point, or a photocathode drive laser in an RF photoinjector. This timing jitter problem has been addressed most seriously in the context of the RF photoinjector, where the electron beam properties are sensitive functions of relative timing jitter. The timing jitter achieved in synchronized photocathode drive laser systems is near, or slightly below one picosecond. The ultimate time of arrival jitter of the beam at the photoinjector exit is typically a bit smaller than the photocathode drive-laser jitter due to velocity compression effects in the first RF cell of the gun. This tendency of the timing of the electron beam arrival at a given spatial point to lock to the RF lock is strongly reinforced by use of magnetic compression.

  11. Pulsed laser processing of electronic materials in micro/nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, David Jen

    2005-08-01

    Time-resolved pump-and-probe side-view imaging has been performed to investigate the energy coupling to the target specimen over a wide range of fluences. Plasmas generated during the laser ablation process are visualized and the decrease of the ablation efficiency in the high fluence regime (>10 J/cm2) is attributed to the strong interaction of the laser pulse with the laser-induced plasmas. The high intensity ultra-short laser pulses also trigger volumetric multi-photon absorption (MPA) processes that can be beneficial in applications such as three-dimensional bulk modification of transparent materials. Femtosecond laser pulses were used to fabricate straight and bent through-channels in the optical glass. Drilling was initiated from the rear surface to preserve consistent absorbing conditions of the laser pulse. Machining in the presence of a liquid solution assisted the debris ejection. Drilling process was further enhanced by introducing ultrasonic waves, thereby increasing the aspect ratio of drilled holes and improving the quality of the holes. In conventional lens focusing schemes, the minimum feature size is determined by the diffraction limit. Finer resolution is accomplished by combining pulsed laser radiation with Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) probes. Short laser pulses are coupled to a fiber-based NSOM probes in order to ablate thin metal films. A detailed parametric study on the effects of probe aperture size, laser pulse energy, temporal width and environment gas is performed. The significance of lateral thermal diffusion is highlighted and the dependence of the ablation process on the imparted near-field distribution is revealed. As a promising application of laser ablation in nanoscale, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system has been built up based on NSOM ablation configuration. NSOM-LIBS is demonstrated with nanosecond pulsed laser excitation on Cr sample. Far-field collecting scheme by top objective lens was chosen as

  12. Integrated spectrum analyzer/wavemeter for pulsed, tunable lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotnoir, Leo J.; Mckay, Jack A.; Laufer, Pinchus M.

    1988-01-01

    A compact instrument for single shot spectrum analysis and real time wavelength measurement of pulsed, tunable lasers has been built. Its accuracy and limitations are discussed, along with its potential applications. Results of tests with a narrow-line Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser are also presented.

  13. Investigation of a pulsed dye laser under various pumping conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Nechaev, S.Y.

    1983-08-01

    An investigation was made of the influence of bilateral laser pumping in an almost longitudinal arrangement on the spectral and energy characteristics of a short-pulse laser utilizing rhodamine 6G. A considerable increase in efficiency over that for unilateral pumping was observed, together with a narrowing of the spectrum, in a dispersive resonator having a prism telescope and a grating.

  14. Characterization of a Nd:YAG doubled pulsed laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Lockard, George; Little, Alan; Banziger, Curtis; Marsh, Waverly; Nichols, Charles

    1992-01-01

    A description of a frequency doubled, double pulsed Nd:YAG laser that is to be used to pump an injection locked Ti:Sapphire power oscillator is presented. These two lasers make up the transmitter portion of the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LAWSE) instrument. LASE is a Lidar/DIAL experiment that is to measure water vapor in the troposphere. By utilizing the twin concept, both pulses can be produced with a single laser system, thereby minimizing cost, size, and weight. Alignment problems associated with having two separate lasers each produce one of the twin pulses are also alleviated. The LASE transmitter consists of a doubled pulsed Nd:YAG laser that will pump a Ti:Sapphire power oscillator that will be injection-locked by a diode laser. The wavelength of the Ti:Sapphire output will be tunable from 813 to 818 nm. A performance summary of the pump laser is given. The data verify that the pump laser can meet the performance requirements to pump the Ti:Sapphire power oscillator.

  15. Pulsed UV and ultrafast laser micromachining of surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apte, Paul; Sykes, Neil

    2015-07-01

    We describe and compare the cutting and patterning of various "difficult" materials using pulsed UV Excimer, picosecond and femtosecond laser sources. Beam delivery using both fast galvanometer scanners and scanning mask imaging are described. Each laser source has its own particular strengths and weaknesses, and the optimum choice for an application is also decided by financial constraints. With some materials notable improvements in process quality have been observed using femtosecond lasers compared to picosecond lasers, which makes for an interesting choice now that cost effective reliable femtosecond systems are increasingly available. By contrast Pulsed UV Excimer lasers offer different imaging characteristics similar to mask based Lithographic systems and are particularly suited to the processing of polymers. We discuss optimized beam delivery techniques for these lasers.

  16. Pulsed CO laser for isotope separation of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, Igor Y.; Koptev, Andrey V.

    2012-07-30

    This article proposes a technical solution for using a CO laser facility for the industrial separation of uranium used in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants, employing a method of laser isotope separation of uranium with condensation repression in a free jet. The laser operation with nanosecond pulse irradiation can provide an acceptable efficiency in the separating unit and a high efficiency of the laser with the wavelength of 5.3 {mu}m. In the present work we also introduce a calculation model and define the parameters of a mode-locked CO laser with a RF discharge in the supersonic stream. The average pulsed CO laser power of 3 kW is sufficient for efficient industrial isotope separation of uranium in one stage.

  17. Precision machining of pig intestine using ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer J.; Góra, Wojciech S.; Carter, Richard M.; Gunadi, Sonny; Jayne, David; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-01

    Endoluminal surgery for the treatment of early stage colorectal cancer is typically based on electrocautery tools which imply restrictions on precision and the risk of harm through collateral thermal damage to the healthy tissue. As a potential alternative to mitigate these drawbacks we present laser machining of pig intestine by means of picosecond laser pulses. The high intensities of an ultrafast laser enable nonlinear absorption processes and a predominantly nonthermal ablation regime. Laser ablation results of square cavities with comparable thickness to early stage colorectal cancers are presented for a wavelength of 1030 nm using an industrial picosecond laser. The corresponding histology sections exhibit only minimal collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. The depth of the ablation can be controlled precisely by means of the pulse energy. Overall, the application of ultrafast lasers to ablate pig intestine enables significantly improved precision and reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue compared to conventional techniques.

  18. Pulsed CO laser for isotope separation of uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Igor Y.; Koptev, Andrey V.

    2012-07-01

    This article proposes a technical solution for using a CO laser facility for the industrial separation of uranium used in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants, employing a method of laser isotope separation of uranium with condensation repression in a free jet. The laser operation with nanosecond pulse irradiation can provide an acceptable efficiency in the separating unit and a high efficiency of the laser with the wavelength of 5.3 μm. In the present work we also introduce a calculation model and define the parameters of a mode-locked CO laser with a RF discharge in the supersonic stream. The average pulsed CO laser power of 3 kW is sufficient for efficient industrial isotope separation of uranium in one stage.

  19. O2^+ dissociation caused by an ultrashort intense laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayler, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Laser-induced dissociation of O2^+ has been experimentally studied with ultrashort (˜50 fs) intense (10^14 to 10^15 W/cm^2) laser pulses at 790 nm using kinematically complete coincidence 3D momentum imaging. The resulting kinetic energy release (KER) distribution has several distinct peaks, each of which has a unique angular distribution. The lower KER features are peaked around the laser polarization, while at higher KER, dissociation perpendicular to the laser polarization is significant. For comparison, a theoretical study of O2^+ dissociation using the Electron-Nuclear Dynamics (END) approach with a laser pulse included in the time-dependent dynamics is underway. Preliminary results also indicate that ionization, which occurs predominantly at the high end of the intensity range, is strongly peaked along the laser polarization.

  20. Feedback stabilization system for pulsed single longitudinal mode tunable lasers

    DOEpatents

    Esherick, Peter; Raymond, Thomas D.

    1991-10-01

    A feedback stabilization system for pulse single longitudinal mode tunable lasers having an excited laser medium contained within an adjustable length cavity and producing a laser beam through the use of an internal dispersive element, including detection of angular deviation in the output laser beam resulting from detuning between the cavity mode frequency and the passband of the internal dispersive element, and generating an error signal based thereon. The error signal can be integrated and amplified and then applied as a correcting signal to a piezoelectric transducer mounted on a mirror of the laser cavity for controlling the cavity length.

  1. Application of NIR laser diodes to pulse oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Silva, Sonnia M.; Giannetti, Romano; Dotor, Maria L.; Sendra, Jose R.; Silveira, Juan P.; Briones, Fernando

    1999-01-01

    A transmittance pulse oximeter based on near-infrared laser diodes for monitoring arterial blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation has been developed and tested. The measurement system consists of the optical sensor, sensor electronics, acquisition board and personal computer. The system has been tested in a two-part experimental study involving human volunteers. A calibration curve was derived and healthy volunteers were monitored under normal and apnea conditions, both with the proposed system and with a commercial pulse oximeter. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of using a sensor with laser diodes emitting at specific near-infrared wavelengths for pulse oximetry.

  2. Processing HIP-zirconia with ultra-short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werelius, Kristian; Weigl, Paul; Lubatschowski, Holger

    2003-11-01

    Creating individual complex three dimensional structures in HIP-zirconia by conventional mechanical machining, e.g. milling, is time consuming and subject to significant loss in bending strength due to microcracking during the milling process. Utilizing ultra-short laser pulses, individual complex three dimensional microstructures can be created very precisely without significant damage to the structure. This advantage is used to process HIP-zirconia in order to create dental restorations. To evaluate efficiency and quality, different laser parameters such as pulse duration, pulse energy and ablation strategies were studied. The maximum ablation rate was found at 400 fs.

  3. Ultrashort laser-driven stable-buckling of blisters in chirped mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Chen, Shun; An Zhao, Yuan; Da Shao, Jian; Zhi Wang, Yan; Fang, Zhou; Feng Liu, Xiao; Hang Hu, Guo; Xin Leng, Yu; Xu, Yi

    2013-02-01

    Multilayer dielectric mirrors (niobium pentoxide/silica) were irradiated by single 800 nm-38fs laser pulses. A circular blister feature appeared in the chirped mirrors at a wide range of laser fluence, while only existed above a few percent of the damage threshold for the high-reflector. Absorptive source of laser energy can be determined by combining theoretical simulation with focused ion beam technology. Mechanical analysis with a linear-elastic buckling model reveals the blister evolution belonging to a stable-buckling process until the blister radius confined by limited laser spot size.

  4. Short pulse generation by laser slicing at NSLSII

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Blednykh, A.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Tchoubar, O.; Wang, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.

    2011-03-28

    We discuss an upgrade R&D project for NSLSII to generate sub-pico-second short x-ray pulses using laser slicing. We discuss its basic parameters and present a specific example for a viable design and its performance. Since the installation of the laser slicing system into the storage ring will break the symmetry of the lattice, we demonstrate it is possible to recover the dynamical aperture to the original design goal of the ring. There is a rapid growth of ultrafast user community interested in science using sub-pico-second x-ray pulses. In BNL's Short Pulse Workshop, the discussion from users shows clearly the need for a sub-pico-second pulse source using laser slicing method. In the proposal submitted following this workshop, NSLS team proposed both hard x-ray and soft x-ray beamlines using laser slicing pulses. Hence there is clearly a need to consider the R&D efforts of laser slicing short pulse generation at NSLSII to meet these goals.

  5. Three-dimensional polymer nanostructures for applications in cell biology generated by high-repetition rate sub-15 fs near-infrared laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, Martin; Straub, Martin; König, Karsten; Afshar, Maziar; Feili, Dara; Seidel, Helmut

    2011-03-01

    In recent years two-photon photopolymerization has emerged as a novel and extremely powerful technique of three-dimensional nanostructure formation. Complex-shaped structures can be generated using appropriate beam steering or nanopositioning systems. Here, we report on the fabrication of three-dimensional arrangements made of biocompatible polymer material, which can be used as templates for cell growth. Using three-dimensional cell cages as cell culture substrates is advantageous, as cells may develop in a more natural environment as compared to conventional planar growth methods. The two-photon fabrication experiments were carried out on a commercial microscope setup. Sub-15 fs pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser light (centre wavelength 800 nm, bandwidth 120 nm, repetition rate 85 MHz) was focused into the polymer material by a high-numerical aperture oil immersion objective. Due to the high peak intensities picojoule pulse energies in the focal spot are sufficient to polymerize the material at sub-100 nm structural element dimensions. Therefore, cell cages of sophisticated architecture can be constructed involving very fine features which take into account the specific needs of various types of cells. Ultimately, our research aims at three-dimensional assemblies of photopolymerized structural elements involving sub-100 nm features, which provide cell culture substrates far superior to those currently existing.

  6. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi

    2012-07-01

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  7. Mechanism study of skin tissue ablation by nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qiyin

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms in laser tissue ablation is essential to improve clinical laser applications by reducing collateral damage and laser pulse energy requirement. The motive of this dissertation is to study skin tissue ablation by nanosecond laser pulses in a wide spectral region from near-infrared to ultraviolet for a clear understanding of the mechanism that can be used to improve future design of the pulsed lasers for dermatology and plastic surgery. Multiple laser and optical configurations have been constructed to generate 9 to 12ns laser pulses with similar profiles at 1064. 532, 266 and 213nm for this study of skin tissue ablation. Through measurements of ablation depth as a function cf laser pulse energy, the 589nm spectral line in the secondary radiation from ablated skin tissue samples was identified as the signature of the occurrence of ablation. Subsequently, this spectral signature has been used to investigate the probabilistic process of the ablation near the threshold at the four wavelengths. Measurements of the ablation probability were conducted as a function of the electrical field strength of the laser pulse and the ablation thresholds in a wide spectral range from 1064nm to 213nm were determined. Histology analysis and an optical transmission method were applied in assessing of the ablation depth per pulse to study the ablation process at irradiance levels higher than threshold. Because more than 70% of the wet weight of the skin tissue is water, optical breakdown and backscattering in water was also investigated along with a nonlinear refraction index measurement using a z-scan technique. Preliminary studies on ablation of a gelatin based tissue phantom are also reported. The current theoretical models describing ablation of soft tissue ablation by short laser pulses were critically reviewed. Since none of the existing models was found capable of explaining the experimental results, a new plasma-mediated model was developed

  8. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi

    2012-07-11

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  9. Propagation of intense laser pulses in strongly magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X. H. Ge, Z. Y.; Xu, B. B.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Shao, F. Q.; Yu, W.; Xu, H.; Yu, M. Y.; Borghesi, M.

    2015-06-01

    Propagation of intense circularly polarized laser pulses in strongly magnetized inhomogeneous plasmas is investigated. It is shown that a left-hand circularly polarized laser pulse propagating up the density gradient of the plasma along the magnetic field is reflected at the left-cutoff density. However, a right-hand circularly polarized laser can penetrate up the density gradient deep into the plasma without cutoff or resonance and turbulently heat the electrons trapped in its wake. Results from particle-in-cell simulations are in good agreement with that from the theory.

  10. Controlling Plasma Channels through Ultrashort Laser Pulse Filamentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, Andrey; Seleznev, Leonid; Sunchugasheva, Elena

    2013-09-01

    A review of studies fulfilled at the Lebedev Institute in collaboration with the Moscow State University and Institute of Atmospheric Optics in Tomsk on influence of various characteristics of ultrashort laser pulse on plasma channels formed under its filamentation is presented. Filamentation of high-power laser pulses with wavefront controlled by a deformable mirror, with cross-sections spatially formed by various diaphragms and with different wavelengths was experimentally and numerically studied. An application of plasma channels formed due to filamentation of ultrashort laser pulse including a train of such pulses for triggering and guiding long electric discharges is discussed. The research was supported by RFBR Grants 11-02-12061-ofi-m and 11-02-01100, and EOARD Grant 097007 through ISTC Project 4073 P

  11. Sudden perturbation of hydrogen atoms by intense ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Lugovskoy, A. V.; Bray, I.

    2005-12-15

    We study theoretically how hydrogen atoms respond to intense ultrashort laser pulses of duration {tau} shorter than the inverse of the initial-state energy {epsilon}{sub i}{sup -1}. An analytical expression for the evolution operator S is derived up to the first order of the sudden perturbation approximation. This approximation treats the laser-atom interaction beyond the dipole approximation and yields S as a series in the small parameter {epsilon}{sub i}{tau}. It is shown that the effect of realistic laser pulses on atoms begins at the first order of {epsilon}{sub i}{tau}. Transitions between atomic (nlm) states of different m become possible due to the action of the pulse's magnetic field. Transitions between states of same m and arbitrary l become possible if the static Coulomb potential is taken into account during the pulse.

  12. Xenon plasma sustained by pulse-periodic laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rudoy, I. G.; Solovyov, N. G.; Soroka, A. M.; Shilov, A. O.; Yakimov, M. Yu.

    2015-10-15

    The possibility of sustaining a quasi-stationary pulse-periodic optical discharge (POD) in xenon at a pressure of p = 10–20 bar in a focused 1.07-μm Yb{sup 3+} laser beam with a pulse repetition rate of f{sub rep} ⩾ 2 kHz, pulse duration of τ ⩾ 200 μs, and power of P = 200–300 W has been demonstrated. In the plasma development phase, the POD pulse brightness is generally several times higher than the stationary brightness of a continuous optical discharge at the same laser power, which indicates a higher plasma temperature in the POD regime. Upon termination of the laser pulse, plasma recombines and is then reinitiated in the next pulse. The initial absorption of laser radiation in successive POD pulses is provided by 5p{sup 5}6s excited states of xenon atoms. This kind of discharge can be applied in plasma-based high-brightness broadband light sources.

  13. The efficiency of photovoltaic cells exposed to pulsed laser light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, R. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P.

    1993-01-01

    Future space missions may use laser power beaming systems with a free electron laser (FEL) to transmit light to a photovoltaic array receiver. To investigate the efficiency of solar cells with pulsed laser light, several types of GaAs, Si, CuInSe2, and GaSb cells were tested with the simulated pulse format of the induction and radio frequency (RF) FEL. The induction pulse format was simulated with an 800-watt average power copper vapor laser and the RF format with a frequency-doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. Averaged current vs bias voltage measurements for each cell were taken at various optical power levels and the efficiency measured at the maximum power point. Experimental results show that the conversion efficiency for the cells tested is highly dependent on cell minority carrier lifetime, the width and frequency of the pulses, load impedance, and the average incident power. Three main effects were found to decrease the efficiency of solar cells exposed to simulated FEL illumination: cell series resistance, LC 'ringing', and output inductance. Improvements in efficiency were achieved by modifying the frequency response of the cell to match the spectral energy content of the laser pulse with external passive components.

  14. Ablation of silicon with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiuso, Caterina; Kämmer, Helena; Dreisow, Felix; Ancona, Antonio; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    We report on an experimental investigation of ultrafast laser ablation of silicon with bursts of pulses. The pristine 1030nm-wavelength 200-fs pulses were split into bursts of up to 16 sub-pulses with time separation ranging from 0.5ps to 4080ps. The total ablation threshold fluence was measured depending on the burst features, finding that it strongly increases with the number of sub-pulses for longer sub-pulse delays, while a slowly increasing trend is observed for shorter separation time. The ablation depth per burst follows two different trends according to the time separation between the sub-pulses, as well as the total threshold fluence. For delays shorter than 4ps it decreases with the number of pulses, while for time separations longer than 510ps, deeper craters were achieved by increasing the number of subpulses in the burst, probably due to a change of the effective penetration depth.

  15. Laser wavelength effects in ultrafast near-field laser nanostructuring of Si

    SciTech Connect

    Zormpa, Vasileia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-03-18

    We study the effect of laser wavelength (400 nm and 800 nm) on the near-field processing of crystalline silicon (Si) in the femtosecond (fs) pulse duration regime through sub-wavelength apertures. Distinct differences in the obtained nanostructures are found in each case both in terms of their physical sizes as well as their structure which can be tuned between craters and protrusions. A single or a few fs pulses can deliver enough energy on the substrate to induce sub-diffraction limited surface modification, which is among the smallest ever reported in sub-wavelength apertured Near-field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM) schemes.

  16. Simulated nonresonant pulsed laser manipulation of a nitrogen flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, T. C.

    2011-09-01

    The continuing advance of laser technology enables a range of broadly applicable, laser-based flow manipulation techniques relevant to a number of aerospace, basic physics, and microtechnology applications. Theories for laser-molecule interactions have been under development since the advent of laser technology. Yet, the theories have not been adequately integrated into kinetic flow solvers. Realizing this integration would greatly enhance the scaling of laser-species interactions beyond the realm of ultra-cold atomic physics. This goal was realized in the present study. A representative numerical investigation of laser-based neutral nonpolar molecular flow manipulations was conducted using non-resonant pulsed laser fields. The numerical tool employed for this study was a specifically modified version of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo statistical kinetic solver known as SMILE. Flow steering and collimation was simulated for a nitrogen effluence with a stagnation condition of 1 Pa and 300 K emptying into vacuum. The laser pulses were 250 mJ, 5 ns pulses at a wavelength of 532 nm. Flow modification mapped out contours which followed the intensity gradient of the laser field, consistent with the use of the induced dipole gradient force along the field's radial direction and previously published experiments.

  17. The interaction of intense subpicosecond laser pulses with underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdale, C.A.

    1995-05-11

    Laser-plasma interactions have been of interest for many years not only from a basic physics standpoint, but also for their relevance to numerous applications. Advances in laser technology in recent years have resulted in compact laser systems capable of generating (psec), 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} laser pulses. These lasers have provided a new regime in which to study laser-plasma interactions, a regime characterized by L{sub plasma} {ge} 2L{sub Rayleigh} > c{tau}. The goal of this dissertation is to experimentally characterize the interaction of a short pulse, high intensity laser with an underdense plasma (n{sub o} {le} 0.05n{sub cr}). Specifically, the parametric instability known as stimulated Raman scatter (SRS) is investigated to determine its behavior when driven by a short, intense laser pulse. Both the forward Raman scatter instability and backscattered Raman instability are studied. The coupled partial differential equations which describe the growth of SRS are reviewed and solved for typical experimental laser and plasma parameters. This solution shows the growth of the waves (electron plasma and scattered light) generated via stimulated Raman scatter. The dispersion relation is also derived and solved for experimentally accessible parameters. The solution of the dispersion relation is used to predict where (in k-space) and at what frequency (in {omega}-space) the instability will grow. Both the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes of the instability are considered.

  18. Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Wataru; Onda, Satoshi; Tamaki, Takayuki; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Nishii, Junji

    2006-07-10

    We report on the joining of dissimilar transparent materials based on localized melting and resolidification of the materials only around the focal volume due to nonlinear absorption of focused femtosecond laser pulses. We demonstrate the joining of borosilicate glass and fused silica, whose coefficients of thermal expansion are different. The joint strength and the transmittance through joint volume were investigated by varying the translation velocity of the sample and the pulse energy of the irradiated laser pulses.

  19. Medical applications of ultra-short pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B M; Marion, J E

    1999-06-08

    The medical applications for ultra short pulse lasers (USPLs) and their associated commercial potential are reviewed. Short pulse lasers offer the surgeon the possibility of precision cutting or disruption of tissue with virtually no thermal or mechanical damage to the surrounding areas. Therefore the USPL offers potential improvement to numerous existing medical procedures. Secondly, when USPLs are combined with advanced tissue diagnostics, there are possibilities for tissue-selective precision ablation that may allow for new surgeries that cannot at present be performed. Here we briefly review the advantages of short pulse lasers, examine the potential markets both from an investment community perspective, and from the view. of the technology provider. Finally nominal performance and cost requirements for the lasers, delivery systems and diagnostics and the present state of development will be addressed.

  20. Envelope evolution of a laser pulse in an active medium

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.; Tajima, T.; Downer, M.C.; Siders, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The authors show that the envelope velocity, v{sub env}, of a short laser pulse can, via propagation in an active medium, be made less than, equal to, or even greater than c, the vacuum phase velocity of light. Simulation results, based on moving frame propagation equations coupling the laser pulse, active medium and plasma, are presented, as well as equations that determines the design value of super- and sub-luminous v{sub env}. In this simulation the laser pulse evolves in time in a moving frame as opposed to their earlier work where the profile was fixed. The elimination of phase slippage and pump depletion effects in the laser wakefield accelerator is discussed as a particular application. Finally they discuss media properties necessary for an experimental realization of this technique.

  1. Short-pulse, high-intensity lasers at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Roberts, J.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Fulton, R.D.; Kyrala, G.A.; Schappert, G.T.

    1994-03-01

    Advances in ultrafast lasers and optical amplifiers have spurred the development of terawatt-class laser systems capable of delivering focal spot intensities approaching 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. At these extremely high intensities, the optical field strength is more than twenty times larger than the Bohr electric field, permitting investigations of the optical properties of matter in a previously unexplored regime. The authors describe two laser systems for high intensity laser interaction experiments: The first is a terawatt system based on amplification of femtosecond pulses in XeCl which yields 250 mJ in 275 fs and routinely produces intensifies on target in excess of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. The second system is based on chirped pulse amplification of 100-fs pulses in Ti:sapphire.

  2. Automatic Rejection Of Multimode Laser Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.; Esproles, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic modulation detected, enabling rejection of multimode signals. Monitoring circuit senses multiple longitudinal mode oscillation of transversely excited, atmospheric-pressure (TEA) CO2 laser. Facility developed for inclusion into coherent detection laser radar (LIDAR) system. However, circuit described of use in any experiment where desireable to record data only when laser operates in single longitudinal mode.

  3. Device For Trapping Laser Pulses In An Optical Delay Line

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U. L.; Bullock, Donald L.

    1997-12-23

    A device for maintaining a high-energy laser pulse within a recirculating optical delay line for a period time to optimize the interaction of the pulse with an electron beam pulse train comprising closely spaced electron micropulses. The delay line allows a single optical pulse to interact with many of the electron micropulses in a single electron beam macropulse in sequence and for the introduction of additional optical pulses to interact with the micropulses of additional electron beam macropulses. The device comprises a polarization-sensitive beam splitter for admitting an optical pulse to and ejecting it from the delay line according to its polarization state, a Pockels cell to control the polarization of the pulse within the delay line for the purpose of maintaining it within the delay line or ejecting it from the delay line, a pair of focusing mirrors positioned so that a collimated incoming optical pulse is focused by one of them to a focal point where the pulse interacts with the electron beam and then afterwards the pulse is recollimated by the second focusing mirror, and a timing device which synchronizes the introduction of the laser pulse into the optical delay line with the arrival of the electron macropulse at the delay line to ensure the interaction of the laser pulse with a prescribed number of electron micropulses in sequence. In a first embodiment of the invention, the principal optical elements are mounted with their axes collinear. In a second embodiment, all principal optical elements are mounted in the configuration of a ring.

  4. Intracavity frequency doubling of {mu}s alexandrite laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkmann, R.; Schoof, K.

    1994-12-31

    Intracavity second harmonic generation (SHG) with a three mirror folded cavity configuration was investigated with a flashlamp pumped, Q-switched Alexandrite laser. The authors therefore used different nonlinear optical crystals to convert the fundamental 750 nm radiation into the near UV spectral ,range (3 75 nm). The laser pulses were stretched into the {mu}s time domain by an electronic feedback system regulating the losses of the resonator. They investigated the conversion efficiency for different pulse lengths as well as the effect of pulse-lengthening due to the nonlinearity of the intracavity losses introduced by the optical crystal used. Working with BBO-crystals, they were able to achieve a second harmonic output of 25 mJ per pulse at 375 mn with a temporal rectangular pulse of 1 {mu}s in length and a stable nearly gaussian shaped beam profile.

  5. Non-linear Compton Scattering in Short Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Kamiński, Jerzy

    2012-06-01

    The generation of short X-ray laser pulses attracts a great deal of attention. One of mechanisms to achieve this goal is the non-linear Compton scattering at very high laser powers. The majority of previous works on the non-linear Compton scattering have been devoted to the case when the incident laser field is treated as a monochromatic plane wave. There is, however, recent interest in analyzing the effect of a pulsed laser field on the non-linear Compton scattering [1-4]. We study the process for different durations of the incident laser pulse and compare it with the results for both a plane wave laser field and a laser pulse train. [4pt] [1] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053403 (2009).[0pt] [2] M. Boca and V. Florescu, Eur. Phys. J. D 61, 446 (2011).[0pt] [3] D. Seipt and B. Kämpfer, Phys. Rev. A 83, 022101 (2011).[0pt] [4] F. Mackenroth and A. Di Piazza, Phys. Rev. A 83, 032106 (2011).

  6. Fiber Laser Front Ends for High-Energy Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Liao, Z M; Mitchell, S; Messerly, M; Beach, R; Jovanovic, I; Brown, C; Payne, S A; Barty, C J

    2005-01-18

    We are developing an all fiber laser system optimized for providing input pulses for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal solutions for these systems as they are highly reliable and once constructed they can be operated with ease. Furthermore, they offer an additional benefit of significantly reduced footprint. In most labs containing equivalent bulk laser systems, the system occupies two 4'x8' tables and would consist of 10's if not a 100 of optics which would need to be individually aligned and maintained. The design requirements for this application are very different those commonly seen in fiber lasers. High energy lasers often have low repetition rates (as low as one pulse every few hours) and thus high average power and efficiency are of little practical value. What is of high value is pulse energy, high signal to noise ratio (expressed as pre-pulse contrast), good beam quality, consistent output parameters and timing. Our system focuses on maximizing these parameters sometimes at the expense of efficient operation or average power. Our prototype system consists of a mode-locked fiber laser, a compressed pulse fiber amplifier, a ''pulse cleaner'', a chirped fiber Bragg grating, pulse selectors, a transport fiber system and a large flattened mode fiber amplifier. In our talk we will review the system in detail and present theoretical and experimental studies of critical components. We will also present experimental results from the integrated system.

  7. Laser photoionization of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Christopher; Huestis, David; Coggiola, Michael; Oser, Harald

    2006-05-01

    Laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been applied to the study of triacetone triperoxide (TATP), an improvised explosive. Wavelength dependent mass spectra in two time regimes were acquired using nanosecond (5 ns) and femtosecond (130 fs) laser pulses. We find the major difference between the two time regimes to be the detection of the parent molecular ion when femtosecond laser pulses are employed.

  8. Active lamp pulse driver circuit. [optical pumping of laser media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, K. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A flashlamp drive circuit is described which uses an unsaturated transistor as a current mode switch to periodically subject a partially ionized gaseous laser excitation flashlamp to a stable, rectangular pulse of current from an incomplete discharge of an energy storage capacitor. A monostable multivibrator sets the pulse interval, initiating the pulse in response to a flash command by providing a reference voltage to a non-inverting terminal of a base drive amplifier; a tap on an emitter resistor provides a feedback signal sensitive to the current amplitude to an inverting terminal of amplifier, thereby controlling the pulse amplitude. The circuit drives the flashlamp to provide a squarewave current flashlamp discharge.

  9. Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Balogh, Emeric; Kovacs, Katalin; Dombi, Peter; Farkas, Gyozo; Fulop, Jozsef A.; Hebling, Janos; Tosa, Valer; Varju, Katalin

    2011-08-15

    High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.

  10. Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Chad M.; Perricone, Matthew J.; Faraone, Kevin M.; Norris, Jerome T.

    2007-10-01

    Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

  11. Pulse generation and preamplification for long pulse beamlines of Orion laser facility.

    PubMed

    Hillier, David I; Winter, David N; Hopps, Nicholas W

    2010-06-01

    We describe the pulse generation, shaping, and preamplification system for the nanosecond beamlines of the Orion laser facility. The system generates shaped laser pulses of up to approximately 1 J of 100 ps-5 ns duration with a programmable temporal profile. The laser has a 30th-power supergaussian spatial profile and is diffraction limited. The system is capable of imposing 2D smoothing by spectral dispersion upon the beam, which will produce a nonuniformity of 10% rms at the target. PMID:20517369

  12. Timing control of an intense picosecond pulse laser to the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihito; Hara, Toru; Kitamura, Hideo; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2000-03-01

    We have developed a control system to synchronize intense picosecond laser pulses to the hard x-ray synchrotron radiation (SR) pulses of SPring-8. A regeneratively amplified mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser is synchronized to 40 ps SR pulses by locking the laser to the radio frequency of the ring. The synchronization of the pulses is monitored by detecting both beams simultaneously on a gold photocathode of a streak camera. This method enabled us to make a precise measurement of the time interval between the beams, even if the trigger of the streak camera drifts. Synchronization between the laser and the SR pulses has been achieved with a precision of ±2 ps for some hours. The stable timing control ensures the possibility of making two-photon excitation and pump-probe experiments with time resolution of a few tens of ps (limited by the pulse duration of the SR). We have used this system to show that closing undulator gaps in the storage ring shifts the arrival time of the SR pulses, in accord with expectations for the increased power loss.

  13. Genotoxicity of visible light (400-800 nm) and photoprotection assessment of ectoin, L-ergothioneine and mannitol and four sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Botta, Céline; Di Giorgio, Carole; Sabatier, Anne-Sophie; De Méo, Michel

    2008-04-25

    This study was designed to determine the genotoxic effects of visible (400-800nm) and ultraviolet A (UVA)/visible (315-800nm) lights on human keratinocytes and CHO cells. The alkaline comet assay was used to quantify DNA-damage. In addition, photo-dependent cytogenetic lesions were assessed in CHO cells by the micronucleus test. Three protective compounds [ectoin, l-ergothioneine (ERT) and mannitol] were tested with the comet assay for their effectiveness to reduce DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). Finally, the genomic photoprotections of two broad-band sunscreens and their tinted analogues were assessed by the comet assay. The WST-1 cytotoxicity assay revealed a decrease of the keratinocyte viability of 30% and 13% for the highest UVA/visible and visible irradiations (15 and 13.8J/cm(2), respectively). Visible as well as UVA/visible lights induced DNA SSB and micronuclei, in a dose-dependent manner. The level of DNA breakage induced by visible light was 50% of the one generated by UVA/visible irradiation. However, UVA radiations were 10 times more effective than visible radiations to produce SSB. The DNA lesions induced by visible and UVA/visible lights were reduced after a 1-h preincubation period with the three tested compounds. The maximal protective effects were 92.7%, 97.9% and 52.0% for ectoin (0.1mM), ERT (0.5mM) and mannitol (1.5mM), respectively, against visible light and 68.9%, 59.8% and 62.7% for ectoin (0.1mM), ERT (0.5mM) and mannitol (1.5mM), respectively, against UVA/visible light. Thus, visible light was genotoxic on human keratinocytes and CHO cells through oxidative stress mechanisms similar to the ones induced by UVA radiations. The four tested sunscreens efficiently prevented DNA lesions that were induced by both visible and UVA/visible irradiations. The tinted sunscreens were slightly more effective that their colorless analogues. There is a need to complement sunscreen formulations with additional molecules to obtain a complete internal and

  14. Absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in interaction with solid targets.

    PubMed

    Dong, Q L; Zhang, J; Teng, H

    2001-08-01

    We have studied the effects of the plasma density scale length on the absorption mechanism of the femtosecond (fs) laser pulses interacting with solid targets. Experiments and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate that the vacuum heating is the main absorption in the plasma in the interaction of fs laser pulses with solid targets when no prepulses are applied. The energy spectrum of hot electrons ejected out of or injected into the plasma show a bitemperature distribution. While the first temperature of the two groups of hot electrons can be attributed to the "pull-and-push" exertion of the laser field, the second temperature refers to the electrons accelerated by the static part (in front of the target) and the oscillating part (in the plasma layer) of the laser-induced electric field, respectively. PIC simulations also show that with an appropriate density scale length, the femtosecond laser energy can be absorbed locally through different mechanisms.

  15. Precisely tunable, narrow-band pulsed dye laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, P.S.; Keto, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    A narrow-band, precisely tunable dye laser pumped by an injection-seeded YAG laser is described. The laser achieves an output of 100 mJ/pulse and 40{percent} efficiency when one uses Rhodamine 6G dyes. The output pulse is Gaussian both in time and spatial profile. The laser oscillator employs an intracavity {acute e}talon that is repetitively pressure scanned over one free spectral range while the grating successively steps to consecutive {acute e}talon modes. We pressure scanned the {acute e}talon under computer control using a bellows. Methods are described for calibrating the tuning elements for absolute precision. We demonstrated that the laser has an absolute precision of {plus_minus}0.4 pm over a 1.0-nm scan. This accuracy is achievable over the wavelength range of a dye. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  16. Nanosecond pulsed laser generation of holographic structures on metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L.; Ardron, Marcus; Weston, Nick J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    2016-03-01

    A laser-based process for the generation of phase holographic structures directly onto the surface of metals is presented. This process uses 35ns long laser pulses of wavelength 355nm to generate optically-smooth surface deformations on a metal. The laser-induced surface deformations (LISDs) are produced by either localized laser melting or the combination of melting and evaporation. The geometry (shape and dimension) of the LISDs depends on the laser processing parameters, in particular the pulse energy, as well as on the chemical composition of a metal. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the LISDs formation on various metals, such as stainless steel, pure nickel and nickel-chromium Inconel® alloys. In addition, we provide information about the design and fabrication process of the phase holographic structures and demonstrate their use as robust markings for the identification and traceability of high value metal goods.

  17. Experimental investigation of a unique airbreathing pulsed laser propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Manka, C.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were conducted into unique methods of converting pulsed laser energy into propulsive thrust across a flat impulse surface under atmospheric conditions. The propulsion experiments were performed with a 1-micron neodymium-glass laser at the Space Plasma Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory. Laser-induced impulse was measured dynamically by ballistic pendulums and statically using piezoelectric pressure transducers on a stationary impulse surface. The principal goal was to explore methods for increasing the impulse coupling performance of airbreathing laser-propulsion engines. A magnetohydrodynamic thrust augmentation effect was discovered when a tesla-level magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the impulse surface. The impulse coupling coefficient performance doubled and continued to improve with increasing laser-pulse energies. The resultant performance of 180 to 200 N-s/MJ was found to be comparable to that of the earliest afterburning turbojets.

  18. Pathogen reduction in human plasma using an ultrashort pulsed laser.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Kingsley, David H; Kibler, Karen; Jacobs, Bert; Sizemore, Sara; Vaiana, Sara M; Anderson, Jeanne; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as hepatitis A virus, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent their widespread use. In this report, we demonstrate the inactivation of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in human plasma using a novel chemical-free method, a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. We found that laser treatment resulted in 2-log, 1-log, and 3-log reductions in human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A virus, and murine cytomegalovirus in human plasma, respectively. Laser-treated plasma showed ≥70% retention for most coagulation factors tested. Furthermore, laser treatment did not alter the structure of a model coagulation factor, fibrinogen. Ultrashort pulsed lasers are a promising new method for chemical-free, broad-spectrum pathogen reduction in human plasma.

  19. Components for monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, Michael Craig

    The first portion of this work develops techniques for generating femtosecond-pulses from conventional fabry-perot laser diodes using nonlinear-spectral-broadening techniques in Yb-doped positive dispersion fiber ampliers. The approach employed an injection-locked fabry-perot laser diode followed by two stages of nonlinear-spectral-broadening to generate sub-200fs pulses. This thesis demonstrated that a 60ps gain-switched fabry-perot laser-diode can be injection-locked to generate a single-longitudinal-mode pulse and compressed by nonlinear spectral broadening to 4ps. Two problems have been identified that must be resolved before moving forward with this approach. First, gain-switched pulses from a standard diode-laser have a number of characteristics not well suited for producing clean self-phase-modulation-broadened pulses, such as an asymmetric temporal shape, which has a long pulse tail. Second, though parabolic pulse formation occurs for any arbitrary temporal input pulse profile, deviation from the optimum parabolic input results in extensively spectrally modulated self-phase-modulation-broadened pulses. In conclusion, the approach of generating self-phase-modulation-broadened pulses from pulsed laser diodes has to be modified from the initial approach explored in this thesis. The first Yb-doped chirally-coupled-core ber based systems are demonstrated and characterized in the second portion of this work. Robust single-mode performance independent of excitation or any other external mode management techniques have been demonstrated in Yb-doped chirally-coupled-core fibers. Gain and power efficiency characteristics are not compromised in any way in this novel fiber structure up to the 87W maximum power achieved. Both the small signal gain at 1064nm of 30.3dB, and the wavelength dependence of the small signal gain were comparable to currently deployed large-mode-area-fiber technology. The efficiencies of the laser and amplifier were measured to be 75% and 54

  20. Temporal pulse cleaning by a self-diffraction process for ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Na; Zhou, Kainan; Sun, Li; Wang, Xiaodong; Guo, Yi; Li, Qing; Su, Jingqin

    2014-11-01

    Applying the self-diffraction process to clean ultrashort laser pulses temporally is a recently developed effective way to temporal contrast enhancement. In this paper, we attempt to clean ultrashort laser pulses temporally by the self-diffraction process. Experiments were carried out to study the temporal contrast improvement in the front-end system of an ultraintense and ultrashort laser facility, i.e. the super intense laser for experiment on the extremes (SILEX-I). The results show that the maximum conversion efficiency of the first-order self-diffraction (SD1) pulse is 11%. The temporal contrast of the SD1 signal is improved by two orders of magnitude, i.e. to 103, for a 2.4-ns prepulse with initial contrast of ~10. For a 5.5 -ns prepulse with initial contrast of 2×103, the temporal contrast of the SD1 signal is improved by more than three orders of magnitude.

  1. Femtosecond diffraction dynamics of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hoehm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krueger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2013-02-04

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration, 800 nm center wavelength) is studied experimentally using a transillumination femtosecond time-resolved (0.1 ps-1 ns) pump-probe diffraction approach. This allows to reveal the generation dynamics of near-wavelength-sized LIPSS showing a transient diffraction at specific spatial frequencies even before a corresponding permanent surface relief was observed. The results confirm that the ultrafast energy deposition to the materials surface plays a key role and triggers subsequent physical mechanisms such as carrier scattering into self-trapped excitons.

  2. NOTE: Modelling multiple laser pulses for port wine stain treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkruysse, Wim; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Smithies, Derek J.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2000-12-01

    Many port wine stains (PWS) are still resistant to pulsed dye laser treatment. However, anecdotal information suggests that multiple-pulse laser irradiation improves patient outcome. Our aims in this note are to explain the underlying mechanism and estimate the possible thermal effects of multiple pulses in vascular structures typical of PWS. Based on linear response theory, the linear combination of two thermal contributions is responsible for the total increase in temperature in laser irradiated blood vessels: direct light absorption by blood and direct bilateral thermal heat conduction from adjacent blood vessels. The latter contribution to the increase in temperature in the targeted vessel can be significant, particularly if some adjacent vessels are in close proximity, such as in cases of optical shielding of the targeted vessel, or if the vessels are relatively distant but many in number. We present evidence that multiple-pulse laser irradiation targets blood vessels that are optically shielded by other vessels. Therefore, it may be a means of enhancing PWS therapy for lesions that fail to respond to single-pulse dye laser treatment.

  3. Dipole pulse theory: Maximizing the field amplitude from 4π focused laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonoskov, Ivan; Aiello, Andrea; Heugel, Simon; Leuchs, Gerd

    2012-11-01

    We present a class of exact nonstationary solutions of Maxwell equations in vacuum from dipole pulse theory: electric and magnetic dipole pulses. These solutions can provide for a very efficient focusing of electromagnetic field and can be generated by 4π focusing systems, such as parabolic mirrors, by using radially polarized laser pulses with a suitable amplitude profile. The particular cases of a monochromatic dipole wave and a short dipole pulse with either quasi-Gaussian or Gaussian envelopes in the far-field region are analyzed and compared in detail. As a result, we propose how to increase the maximum field amplitude in the focus by properly shaping the temporal profile of the input laser pulses with given main wavelength and peak power.

  4. A pulsed-laser calibration system for the laser backscatter diagnostics at the Omega laser

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, P; Sorce, C; Froula, D H; Rekow, V; Loughman, K; Knight, R; Glenzer, S H; Bahr, R; Seka, W

    2009-10-09

    A calibration system has been developed that allows a direct determination of the sensitivity of the laser backscatter diagnostics at the Omega laser. A motorized mirror at the target location redirects individual pulses of a mJ-class laser onto the diagnostic to allow the in-situ measurement of the local point response of the backscatter diagnostics. Featuring dual wavelength capability at the 2nd and 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser, both spectral channels of the backscatter diagnostics can be directly calibrated. In addition, channel cross-talk and polarization sensitivity can be determined. The calibration system has been employed repeatedly over the last two years and has enabled precise backscatter measurements of both stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled hohlraum targets that emulate conditions relevant to those in inertial confinement fusion targets.

  5. Computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1993-01-01

    The object of this effort is to develop code to enable the accurate prediction of the performance of pulsed transversely excited (TE) CO2 lasers prior to their construction. This is of particular benefit to the NASA Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) project. A benefit of the completed code is that although developed specifically for the pulsed CO2 laser much of the code can be modified to model other laser systems of interest to the lidar community. A Boltzmann equation solver has been developed which enables the electron excitation rates for the vibrational levels of CO2 and N2, together with the electron ionization and attachment coefficients to be determined for any CO2 laser gas mixture consisting of a combination of CO2, N2, CO, He and CO. The validity of the model has been verified by comparison with published material. The results from the Boltzmann equation solver have been used as input to the laser kinetics code which is currently under development. A numerical code to model the laser induced medium perturbation (LIMP) arising from the relaxation of the lower laser level has been developed and used to determine the effect of LIMP on the frequency spectrum of the LAWS laser output pulse. The enclosed figures show representative results for a laser operating at 0.5 atm. with a discharge cross-section of 4.5 cm to produce a 20 J pulse with aFWHM of 3.1 microns. The first four plots show the temporal evolution of the laser pulse power, energy evolution, LIMP frequency chirp and electric field magnitude. The electric field magnitude is taken by beating the calculated complex electric field and beating it with a local oscillator signal. The remaining two figures show the power spectrum and energy distribution in the pulse as a function of the varying pulse frequency. The LIMP theory has been compared with experimental data from the NOAA Windvan Lidar and has been found to be in good agreement.

  6. Electron yield enhancement in a laser wakefield accelerator driven by asymmetric laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W.P.; Catravas, P.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, C.; Trines, R.; Schroeder, C.B.; Shadwick, B.A.; van Tilborg, J.; Faure, J.

    2002-08-01

    The effect of asymmetric laser pulses on electron yield from a laser wakefield accelerator has been experimentally studied using > 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} plasmas and a 10 TW, > 45 fs, Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laser. Laser pulse shape was controlled through non-linear chirp with a grating pair compressor. Pulses (76 fs FWHM) with a steep rise and positive chirp were found to significantly enhance the electron yield compared to pulses with a gentle rise and negative chirp. Theory and simulation show that fast rising pulses can generate larger amplitude wakes that seed the growth of the self-modulation instability and that frequency chirp is of minimal importance for the experimental parameters.

  7. Laser Thomson scattering in a pulsed atmospheric arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommers, Bradley; Adams, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Laser scattering measurements, including Rayleigh, Raman, and Thomson scattering have been performed on an atmospheric pulsed arc discharge. Such laser scattering techniques offer a non-invasive diagnostic to measure gas temperature, electron temperature, and electron density in atmospheric plasma sources, particularly those with feature sizes approaching 1 mm. The pulsed discharge is ignited in a pin to pin electrode geometry using a 6 kV pulse with 10 ns duration. The electrodes are housed in a glass vacuum chamber filled with argon gas. The laser signal is produced by a Nd:Yag laser supply, repetitively pulsed at 10 Hz and frequency quadrupled to operate at 266 nm. The scattered laser signal is imaged onto a triple grating spectrometer, which is used to suppress the Rayleigh scatter signal in order to measure the low amplitude Thomson and Raman signals. Preliminary results include measurements of electron temperature and electron density in the plasma column taken during the evolution of the discharge. The laser system is also used to measure the Rayleigh scattering signal, which provides space and time resolved measurements of gas temperature in the arc discharge.

  8. Modelling of noise-like pulses generated in fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The present paper for the first time proposes and studies a relatively simple model of noise-like pulses that matches the experimental data well and suggests that there is a correlation between phases of adjacent spectral components of noiselike pulses. Comparison of a relatively basic model of `random' pulses with the results of noise-like pulse modelling in mode-locked fibre lasers based on coupled non-linear Schrödinger equations demonstrates that it adequately reproduces temporal and spectral properties of noise-like pulses as well as correlation between adjacent modes so that it's possible to use the proposed model for highly efficient simulations of promising applications of noise-like pulses, such as material processing, non-linear frequency conversion, microscopy, and others.

  9. Laser beam deflection monitoring of Nd: YAG laser ablation: pulse shape and repetition rate effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaci, Janez; Možina, Janez

    1993-05-01

    The laser beam deflection probe has been employed to study blast waves generated during ablation of metallic surfaces by sequences of 1.06 μm Nd:YAG laser pulses separated by less than 1μs. A fluence threshold has been found, below which the effects of individual pulses can be resolved by the laser probe. Above that, the deflection signal has a similar form as if the surface were irradiated with a single pulse. Analysis of the signals in terms of the spherical blast wave theory shows that a pulse sequence generates a weaker blast wave than a single pulse of equal total energy. On the other hand, the sequence yields a higher etch depth than the single pulse.

  10. Picosecond laser-induced water condensation in a cloud chamber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Tian, Ye; Bai, Yafeng; Liu, Yaoxiang; Du, Shengzhe; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Tiejun; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-09-01

    We investigated water condensation in a laboratory cloud chamber induced by picosecond (ps) laser pulses at ~350 ps (800 nm/1-1000 Hz) with a maximum peak power of ~25 MW. The peak power was much lower than the critical power for self-focusing in air (~3-10 GW depending on the pulse duration). Sparks, airflow and snow formation were observed under different laser energies or repetition rates. It was found that weaker ps laser pulses can also induce water condensation by exploding and breaking down ice crystals and/or water droplets into tiny particles although there was no formation of laser filament. These tiny particles would grow until precipitation in a super-saturation zone due to laser-induced airflow in a cold region with a large temperature gradient.

  11. Picosecond laser-induced water condensation in a cloud chamber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Tian, Ye; Bai, Yafeng; Liu, Yaoxiang; Du, Shengzhe; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Tiejun; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-09-01

    We investigated water condensation in a laboratory cloud chamber induced by picosecond (ps) laser pulses at ~350 ps (800 nm/1-1000 Hz) with a maximum peak power of ~25 MW. The peak power was much lower than the critical power for self-focusing in air (~3-10 GW depending on the pulse duration). Sparks, airflow and snow formation were observed under different laser energies or repetition rates. It was found that weaker ps laser pulses can also induce water condensation by exploding and breaking down ice crystals and/or water droplets into tiny particles although there was no formation of laser filament. These tiny particles would grow until precipitation in a super-saturation zone due to laser-induced airflow in a cold region with a large temperature gradient. PMID:27607654

  12. Amplifications in the S-, C- and L-bands using RE-ion doped short tellurite fibres with 980 nm and 800 nm excitation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Animesh; Shen, Shaoxiong; Joshi, P.

    2006-02-01

    We report the results of emission and amplification in Tm 3+- and Er 3+-fibres for signal gain in the 1420 nm to 1600 nm wavelength range, which covers S-, C- and L-bands of silica fibre optical communication networks. The paper explains the mechanism for alleviating the pump excited state absorption (ESA) in Er-doped tellurite fibres for maximizing the pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm using the Ce-ions as a co-dopant and via the structural modification of TeO II glass using B IIO 3. The spectroscopic data and gain bandwidth of Er-doped fibres are reported in the C- and L-bands. Methods for enhancing gain in the S-band using the co-dopants (Tb 3+, Yb 3+) with 800 nm and 980 nm pumping schemes are also explained. The measured maximum relative gain in short fibres of 5 to 10 cm in length in C- and L-bands are: 30 dB and 15 dB, respectively. By comparison the internal gain in a 20 cm long Tm/Yb ion co-doped fibre pumped with a 980 nm source was 7 dB.

  13. Pulse compression techniques to improve modulated pulsed laser line scan systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert W.; Nash, Justin K.; Cochenour, Brandon M.; Mullen, Linda J.

    2015-05-01

    A modulated pulse laser imaging system has been developed which utilizes coded/chirped RF modulation to mitigate the adverse effects of optical scattering in degraded visual underwater environments. Current laser imaging techniques employ either short pulses or single frequency modulated pulses to obtain both intensity and range images. Systems using short pulses have high range resolution but are susceptible to scattering due to the wide bandwidth nature of the pulse. Range gating can be used to limit the effects of backscatter, but this can lead to blind spots in the range image. Modulated pulse systems can help suppress the contribution from scattered light in generated imagery without gating the receiver. However, the use of narrowband, single tone modulation results in limited range resolution where small targets are camouflaged within the background. This drives the need for systems which have high range resolution while still suppressing the effects of scattering caused by the environment. Coded/chirped modulated pulses enable the use of radar pulse compression techniques to substantially increase range resolution while also providing a way to discriminate the object of interest from the light scattered from the environment. Linearly frequency chirped waveforms and phase shift keyed barker codes were experimentally investigated to determine the effects that pulse compression would have on intensity/range data. The effect of modulation frequency on the data produced with both wideband and narrowband modulation was also investigated. The results from laboratory experiments will be presented and compared to model predictions.

  14. Theoretical and Experimental studies on CH3OH THz Laser Pumped by Pulse Carbon Dioxide Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Fei; Jing, Wang; Zhaoshuo, Tian; Yanchao, Zhang; Shiyou, Fu; Qi, Wang

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, according to the molecular structure and vibration mode of micro-asymmetric gyroscope CH3OH molecule, dynamic process of optically pumped Terahertz laser is analyzed theoretically. The rate equation models based on three level systems are given according to the theory of typical laser rate equation. The output THz pulsed laser waveform is obtained by solving the rate equation model. An all-metal Terahertz laser pumped by RF waveguide carbon dioxide laser is designed with CH3OH as its working gas. The pulsed Terahertz laser output is obtained. The waveform and repetition frequency of the optically pumped laser are measured in the experiments. The Terahertz laser designed does not need water cooling system. It also has the advantages of simple structure and small size.

  15. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10/sup 12/ watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10/sup 9/ watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    DOE PAGES

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled bymore » the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.« less

  17. Deterministic processing of alumina with ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanski, J; Rubenchik, A M; Shirk, M D; Stuart, B C

    2007-06-27

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers can accurately ablate materials which are refractory, transparent, or are otherwise difficult to machine by other methods. The typical method of machining surfaces with ultrashort laser pulses is by raster scanning, or the machining of sequentially overlapping linear trenches. Experiments in which linear trenches were machined in alumina at various pulse overlaps and incident fluences are presented, and the dependence of groove depth on these parameters established. A model for the machining of trenches based on experimental data in alumina is presented, which predicts and matches observed trench geometry. This model is then used to predict optimal process parameters for the machining of trenches for maximal material removal rate for a given laser.

  18. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  19. Microbunching and coherent acceleration of electrons by subcycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, B.; Tajima, T.; Hojo, H.

    1997-05-01

    The pick up and acceleration of all plasma electrons irradiated by an intense, subcyclic laser pulse is demonstrated via analytical and numerical calculations. It is shown that the initial low emittance of the plasma electrons is conserved during the process of acceleration, leading to an extremely cold, bunched electron beam. Compression of the electron bunch along the longitudinal coordinate is naturally achieved due to the interaction of electrons and laser pulse. In this paper, the authors find the localized solutions to Maxwell`s equations of a subcyclic laser pulse and use these to determine the acceleration of charged particles and they suggest future application for this acceleration mechanism as low energy particle injector and as electron source for coherent x-ray generation.

  20. Exact transient photon correlation with arbitrary laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2011-11-15

    We present a full quantum theory to study the transient evolution of photon pairs. We introduce a method which gives exact time-dependent solutions of the coupled quantum Langevin equations for a multilevel quantum particle driven by arbitrary time-dependent laser fields. The analytical solutions are used to develop a numerical code for computing exact time evolution of the two-photon correlation function. We analyze the effects of laser pulses sequence, pulse duration, chirping, and initial internal quantum states on the nonclassicality of the photon correlation through the violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. The results provide a promising possibility of controlling the generation of highly correlated photon pairs using tailored short laser pulses.

  1. Optically pumped pulsed Li/sub 2/ laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kaslin, V.; Yakushev, O.

    1982-02-01

    Pulsed lasing was obtained for the first time from Li/sub 2/ molecules by optical pumping with radiation from a pulsed copper vapor laser (578.2 nm, pulse repetition frequency 5 kHz). The laser transitions, with wavelengths in the range 867--907 nm, belong to the electronic A/sup 1/..sigma../sup +//sub u/--X/sup 1/..sigma../sup +//sub g/ system. With a pump power of 190 mW, an average output power of 8 mW was achieved with an efficiency for the conversion of the optical pumping energy of 7%. A number of Li/sub 2/ laser emission lines were observed in the superradiant regime.

  2. Programmable femtosecond laser pulses in the ultraviolet

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, M.; Feurer, T.; Sauerbrey, R.; Lucza, T.; Szabo, G.

    2001-06-01

    Using a combination of a zero-dispersion compressor and spectrally compensated sum-frequency generation, we have produced amplitude-modulated femtosecond pulses in the UV at 200 nm. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  3. Power limitations and pulse distortions in an Yb : KGW chirped-pulse amplification laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G H; Yang, J; Kulik, A V; Sall, E G; Chizhov, S A; Kang, U; Yashin, V E

    2013-08-31

    We have studied self-action effects (self-focusing and self-phase modulation) and stimulated Raman scattering in an Yb : KGW chirped-pulse amplification laser system. The results demonstrate that self-focusing in combination with thermal lensing may significantly limit the chirped pulse energy in this system (down to 200 μJ) even at a relatively long pulse duration (50 ps). Nonlinear lenses in the laser crystals in combination with thermal lenses bring the regenerative amplifier cavity in the laser system to the instability zone and limit the average output power at pulse repetition rates under 50 kHz. Self-phase modulation, a manifestation of self-action, may significantly distort a recompressed femtosecond pulse at energies near the self-focusing threshold. Stimulated Raman scattering in such a laser has a weaker effect on output parameters than do self-focusing and thermal lensing, and Raman spectra are only observed in the case of pulse energy instability. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  4. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1997-11-18

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications. 5 figs.

  5. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications.

  6. Hydrodynamic simulation of ultrashort pulse laser ablation of gold film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dong; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Feng; Shi, Xuesong; Qu, Liangti; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-06-01

    The electron collision frequency in a hydrodynamic model was improved to match the laser energy absorbed with experimental data. The model calculation was used to investigate the ablation depth and the dependence of the threshold fluence of gold film on pulse width and wavelength. Two methods for estimating the ablation depth are introduced here with their respective scope of application. The dependence of the threshold fluence of gold film on the pulse width of the laser with a 1053 nm center wavelength agreed well with the experimental data. It was also observed that for pulses shorter than ~200 ps, the threshold fluence showed linear dependence on the logarithm of pulse width and increased with the wavelength, which was different from previous results.

  7. PCF based high power narrow line width pulsed fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Yan, P.; Xiao, Q.; Wang, Y.; Gong, M.

    2012-09-01

    Based on semiconductor diode seeded multi-stage cascaded fiber amplifiers, we have obtained 88-W average power of a 1063-nm laser with high repetition rate of up to 1.5 MHz and a constant 2-ns pulse duration. No stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse or optical damage occurred although the maximum pulse peak power has exceeded 112 kW. The output laser exhibits excellent beam quality (M2x = 1.24 and M2y = 1.18), associated with a spectral line width as narrow as 0.065 nm (FWHM). Additionally, we demonstrate high polarization extinction ratio of 18.4 dB and good pulse stabilities superior to 1.6 % (RMS).

  8. Transient thermal blooming of single and multiple short laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Buser, R G; Rohde, R S; Berger, P J; Gebhardt, F G; Smith, D C

    1975-11-01

    Energy transfer through absorbing media with pulses short compared to the acoustic transit time has been investigated experimentally and theoretically for collimated beams in a homogeneous wind field. Two experimental approaches were used: a low intensity cw CO(2) laser probe beam technique giving a continuous record of the lensing of the medium following the transmission of a coaxial high power TEA laser pulse and a direct determination of high power pulse train blooming using a thermofax covered drum. The experimental results support the predictions of a geometric optics perturbation solution as well as those of existing propagation codes. An interesting case, namely, enhancement resulting in a 20-30% increase of the original nonbloomed peak intensity is observed when the pulse separation time is approximately 1-2 times the wind flow time across the beam.

  9. The effect of laser pulse tailored welding of Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. Dwayne; Mccay, Mary Helen; Sharp, C. Michael; Womack, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    Pulse tailored laser welding has been applied to wrought, wrought grain grown, and cast Inconel 718 using a CO2 laser. Prior to welding, the material was characterized metallographically and the solid state transformation regions were identified using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. Bead on plate welds (restrained and unrestrained) were then produced using a matrix of pulse duty cycles and pulsed average power. Subsequent characterization included heat affected zone width, penetration and underbead width, the presence of cracks, microfissures and porosity, fusion zone curvature, and precipitation and liquated region width. Pedigree welding on three selected processing conditions was shown by microstructural and dye penetrant analysis to produce no microfissures, a result which strongly indicates the viability of pulse tailored welding for microfissure free IN 718.

  10. Recycle Rate in a Pulsed, Optically Pumped Rubidium Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Wooddy S.; Sulham, Clifford V.; Holtgrave, Jeremy C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-10-08

    A pulsed, optically pumped rubidium laser operating in analogy to the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) system at pump intensities as high as 750 kW/cm{sup 2} has been demonstrated with output energies of up to 13 {mu}J/pulse. Output energy is dramatically limited by spin-orbit relaxation rates under these high intensity pump conditions. More than 250 photons are available for every rubidium atom in the pumped volume, requiring a high number of cycles per atom during the 2-8 ns duration of the pump pulse. At 550 Torr of ethane, the spin-orbit relaxation rate is too slow to effectively utilize all the incident pump photons. Indeed, a linear dependence of output energy on pump pulse duration for fixed pump energy is demonstrated.

  11. Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Damien; Kosterev, Anatoliy A; Roller, Chad; Curl, Robert F; Fraser, Matthew P; Tittel, Frank K

    2004-06-01

    We report on the development and performance of a gas sensor based on a quantum cascade laser operating at a wavelength of approximately 10 microns to measure ethylene (C2H4) concentrations by use of a rotational component of the fundamental nu 7 band. The laser is thermoelectrically cooled and operates in a pulsed mode. The influence of pulse-to-pulse fluctuations is minimized by use of a reference beam and a single detector with time discriminating electronics. Gas absorption is recorded in a 100-m optical path-length astigmatic Herriott cell. With a 10-kHz pulse repetition rate and an 80-s total acquisition time, a noise equivalent sensitivity of 30 parts per billion has been demonstrated. The sensor has been applied to monitor C2H4 in vehicle exhaust as well as in air collected in a high-traffic urban tunnel.

  12. Laser bandwidth interlock capable of single pulse detection and rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, James P; Telford, Steven James; Lanning, Rodney Kay; Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-10-09

    A pulse of laser light is switched out of a pulse train and spatially dispersed into its constituent wavelengths. The pulse is collimated to a suitable size and then diffracted by high groove density multilayer dielectric gratings. This imparts a different angle to each individual wavelength so that, when brought to the far field with a lens, the colors have spread out in a linear arrangement. The distance between wavelengths (resolution) can be tailored for the specific laser and application by altering the number of times the beam strikes the diffraction gratings, the groove density of the gratings and the focal length of the lens. End portions of the linear arrangement are each directed to a respective detector, which converts the signal to a 1 if the level meets a set-point, and a 0 if the level does not. If both detectors produces a 1, then the pulse train is allowed to propagate into an optical system.

  13. Numerical analysis of laser ablation and damage in glass with multiple picosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Russ, Simone; Hartmann, Claudia; Siebert, Christof; Zhu, Jianqiang; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a novel numerical model for laser ablation and laser damage in glass including beam propagation and nonlinear absorption of multiple incident ultrashort laser pulses. The laser ablation and damage in the glass cutting process with a picosecond pulsed laser was studied. The numerical results were in good agreement with our experimental observations, thereby revealing the damage mechanism induced by laser ablation. Beam propagation effects such as interference, diffraction and refraction, play a major role in the evolution of the crater structure and the damage region. There are three different damage regions, a thin layer and two different kinds of spikes. Moreover, the electronic damage mechanism was verified and distinguished from heat modification using the experimental results with different pulse spatial overlaps.

  14. Plasmas and Short-Pulse, High-Intensity Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Thomas

    1999-11-01

    Many of the applications of short-pulse, high-intensity laser systems, including coherent UV and X-ray generation, compact particle accelerators, and non-perturbative nonlinear optics as well as the study of laser-matter interaction physics, require large intensity-interaction length products. In recent years, plasma structures resulting from the hydrodynamic evolution of laser-produced plasma filaments have proven to be attractive media for guiding pulses with peak powers approaching the terawatt level over lengths many times the vacuum Rayleigh range. The hydrodynamics of plasma waveguides have been characterized using time- and space-resolved interferometry measurements of electron density profiles. The laser-driven ionization and heating phase of the plasma filament creation is followed by hot electron driven plasma expansion. Density profiles suitable for optical guiding develop within the first few hundred picoseconds after plasma creation, during which rapid cooling occurs. At longer times the plasma expansion closely follows that of a cylindrical blast wave, with further cooling due to expansion work. The observed guided intensity profiles of end-coupled and tunnel-coupled pulses compare favorably with calculations of the quasi-bound waveguide modes based on the measured electron density profiles. Time- and space-resolved electron density measurements of a laser-driven concentric implosion were also performed. The implosion is the result of the interaction of a second laser pulse with an existing plasma waveguide. The two-pulse absorption and ionization significantly exceed that due to a single pulse of the same total energy. The author would like to acknowledge the significant contributions of Prof. Howard M. Milchberg to the work being presented.

  15. Supercontinuum Emission from Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, S.; Rao, S. Venugopal; Bagchi, Suman; Sreedhar, S.; Prashant, T. Shuvan; Radhakrishnan, P.; Tewari, Surya P.; Kiran, P. Prem

    2011-10-01

    We present our experimental results from the measurements of Supercontinuum emission (SCE) from air resulting from propagation of tightly focused femtosecond (40 fs) laser pulses. The effect of linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) light pulses on the SCE in two different external focal geometries (f/6, f/15) is presented. A considerable shift in the minimum wavelength of SCE is observed with external tighter focusing.

  16. Pulsed laser ablation and deposition of niobium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansone, M.; De Bonis, A.; Santagata, A.; Rau, J. V.; Galasso, A.; Teghil, R.

    2016-06-01

    NbC crystalline films have been deposited in vacuum by ultra-short pulsed laser deposition technique. The films have been characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopies and by X-ray diffraction. To clarify the ablation-deposition mechanism, the plasma produced by the ablation process has been characterized by optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging. A comparison of the results with those obtained by ns pulsed deposition of the same target has been carried out.

  17. Control of molecular handedness using pump-dump laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoki, Kunihito; González, Leticia; Fujimura, Yuichi

    2002-02-01

    A theoretical method for controlling handedness of preoriented enantiomers starting from an equal mixture of right(R)-handed and left(L)-handed molecules using linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses is presented. The essence of the method lies in the fact that the molecular handedness of oriented enantiomers is reflected in the direction of the electronic transition moment vector. A pump-dump control scheme via an electronic excited state is considered for controlling molecular handedness in a femtosecond time scale. The direction of the polarization vector of the pump pulse and that of the dump pulse are determined in such a way that there is the largest interaction between the laser and the L-(R-) handed molecules, while the interaction with R-(L-) handed ones vanishes. In the case in which both the pump and dump pulses are independent of each other with no overlap between them, an analytical expression for the yield of molecular handedness is derived by solving the equation of motion of the density matrix. This expression shows that both the pump and dump lasers with π-pulse area produce the maximum transfer yield of molecular handedness. The effectiveness of the laser control method is demonstrated by numerical simulation of dynamic chirality of pre-oriented H2POSH in a racemic mixture via the first electronic singlet excited state.

  18. Interaction of nanosecond ultraviolet laser pulses with reactive dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Gibert, T.; Mikikian, M.; Rabat, H.; Kovačević, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-05-01

    Even though UV laser pulses that irradiate a gas discharge are small compared to the plasma volume (≲3%) and plasma-on time (≲6 × 10-6%), they are found to dramatically change the discharge characteristics on a global scale. The reactive argon-acetylene plasma allows the growth of nanoparticles with diameters up to 1 μm, which are formed inside the discharge volume due to spontaneous polymerization reactions. It is found that the laser pulses predominantly accelerate and enhance the coagulation phase and are able to suppress the formation of a dust void.

  19. Tissue Heating With A Pulsed Nd-YAG Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossweiner, Leonard I.; Al-Karmi, Anan M.

    1988-06-01

    Neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) lasers are finding increasing appli-cations in laser surgery of vascular tissues because of their good hemostatic properties. Heat penetration is deeper than the carbon dioxide laser, because the 1064 nm Nd-YAG emission is located in a "window" between the strong absorptions of oxyhemoglobin and tissue water. The basic physics of laser-tissue interactions suggests that damage to peripheral tissues can be confined by using sufficiently short pulses. In continuous mode (CW) operation, heat flow driven by temperature gradients leads to tissue heating external to the optical absorption profile. When the energy is delivered in pulses, however, conductive heat flow is minimized if the pulse duration (tn) is shorter than the thermal relaxation time constant (t ). Pulsed operation should be especially useful for the Nd-YAG laser, where the 1/e optical penetration depth (5) at 1064 nm is the order of 0.3 to 0.5 cm. Taking t" =2/2a, where a is the thermal diffusivity (the order of 0.001 cm2/s for tissues), typical values of t* for heat conduction are the order of 1-2 min. Heat removal by blood flow augments thermal conduction in vascularized tissues. The rate of this process is characterized by 1/Q, where Q is the volume blood perfusion rate. Values 1/Q range from the order of 15 s for human kidney and thyroid to more than 15 min for muscle.1 Accordingly, heat removal by conduction and blood flow during the pulse duration can be neglected for many tissues exposed to Nd-YAG laser pulses. This paper describes an analytical solution to the two dimensional laser bioheat equation applicable to pulsed operation. The theory was applied to measur-ements on potato tuber heated by low-power pulses from a clinical Nd-YAG laser. The initial temperature elevations are in satisfactory agreement with the analysis, but thermal relaxation was faster than predicted. The suggested explanation for the discrepancy involves evaporative heat transfer to

  20. Pulse laser machining and particulate separation from high impact polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Saira; Kautek, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Opaque high impact polystyrene (HIPS) contaminated with graphite particles and poly(styrene-co-divinyl benzene) spheres can only be removed efficiently with nanosecond-pulsed laser radiation of 532 nm while the substrate is preserved. The destruction thresholds are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than that of other common technical polymers. The inhomogeneously distributed polybutadiene composite component led to enhanced light scattering in the polystyrene matrix so that increased light absorption and energy density causes a comparatively low ablation threshold. Due to this fact there is advantageous potential for pulse laser machining at comparatively low fluences.

  1. Patterning of silica microsphere monolayers with focused femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Wenjian; Piestun, Rafael

    2006-03-13

    We demonstrate the patterning of monolayer silica microsphere lattices with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses. We selectively removed microspheres from a lattice and characterized the effect on the lattice and the substrate. The proposed physical mechanism for the patterning process is laser-induced breakdown followed by ablation of material. We show that a microsphere focuses radiation in its interior and in the near field. This effect plays an important role in the patterning process by enhancing resolution and accuracy and by reducing the pulse energy threshold for damage. Microsphere patterning could create controlled defects within self-assembled opal photonic crystals.

  2. Tailored terahertz pulses from a laser-modulated electronbeam

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Michael C.; Byrd, John; Hao, Zhao; Robin, David; Sannibale,Fernando; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Zholents, Alexander; Zolotorev, Max

    2005-07-19

    Interaction of an electron beam with a femtosecond laserpulseco-propagating through a wiggler modulates the electronenergieswithin a short slice of the electron bunch comparable with the durationof the laser pulse (Figure 1). Propagating around an electron storagering, this bunch develops a longitudinal density perturbation due to thedispersion of electron trajectories. Figure 1 shows how this createsfemtosecond electron bunch wings which are used for femtosecond x-raylight. In addition, this density perturbation emits temporally andspatially coherent tera-hertz pulses whichare inherently synchronized tothe modulating laser. This gives us a new way to study coherentsynchrotron radaition, and creates an opportunity for tuning the THzemmission specifically for the needs of a given experiment.

  3. Local immunity in treating skin melanoma by neodymium pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalik, Konstantin G.

    1997-06-01

    The number and correlation of skin stroma cells was studied on mice C57B1 with the subcutaneously transplanted melanoma B16 which was exposed to neodymium pulsed laser radiation. Within 1-5 days after the exposure the total number of the free skin stroma cells was found to increase in the periphery from the radiation epicenter and the number of lymphocytes, macrophages and leucocytes tended to grow. Lymphoid infiltration was also revealed in the preparations of the epithelized wound and cicatrix on the skin melanoma sites in the patients who had undergone pulsed laser radiation therapy.

  4. High time resolution laser induced fluorescence in pulsed argon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Biloiu, Ioana A.; Sun Xuan; Scime, Earl E.

    2006-10-15

    A submillisecond time resolution laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method for obtaining the temporal evolution of the ion velocity distribution function in pulsed argon plasma is presented. A basic LIF system that employs a continuous laser wave pumping and lock-in aided detection of the subsequent fluorescence radiation is modified by addition of a high frequency acousto-optic modulator to provide measurements of the ion flow velocity and ion temperature in a helicon generated pulsed argon plasma with temporal resolutions as high as 30 {mu}s.

  5. Two-photon Compton process in pulsed intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipt, Daniel; Kämpfer, Burkhard

    2012-05-01

    Based on strong-field QED in the Furry picture we use the Dirac-Volkov propagator to derive a compact expression for the differential emission probability of the two-photon Compton process in a pulsed intense laser field. The relation of real and virtual intermediate states is discussed, and the natural regularization of the on-shell contributions due to the finite laser pulse is highlighted. The inclusive two-photon spectrum is 2 orders of magnitude stronger than expected from a perturbative estimate.

  6. Plasma and Cavitation Dynamics during Pulsed Laser Microsurgery in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, M. Shane; Ma Xiaoyan

    2007-10-12

    We compare the plasma and cavitation dynamics underlying pulsed laser microsurgery in water and in fruit fly embryos (in vivo)--specifically for nanosecond pulses at 355 and 532 nm. We find two key differences. First, the plasma-formation thresholds are lower in vivo --especially at 355 nm--due to the presence of endogenous chromophores that serve as additional sources for plasma seed electrons. Second, the biological matrix constrains the growth of laser-induced cavitation bubbles. Both effects reduce the disrupted region in vivo when compared to extrapolations from measurements in water.

  7. Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xinxing Thelander, Erik; Lorenz, Pierre; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-10-07

    Phase transformations between amorphous and crystalline states induced by irradiation of pulsed laser deposition grown GeTe thin films with nanosecond laser pulses at 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns are studied. Structural and optical properties of the Ge-Te phase-change films were studied by X-ray diffraction and optical reflectivity measurements as a function of the number of laser pulses between 0 and 30 pulses and of the laser fluence up to 195 mJ/cm². A reversible phase transition by using pulse numbers ≥ 5 at a fluence above the threshold fluence between 11 and 14 mJ/cm² for crystallization and single pulses at a fluence between 162 and 182 mJ/cm² for amorphization could be proved. For laser fluences from 36 up to 130 mJ/cm², a high optical contrast of 14.7% between the amorphous and crystalline state is measured. A simple model is used that allows the discussion on the distribution of temperature in dependency on the laser fluence.

  8. Ultrafast pulses from a mid-infrared fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tomonori; Jackson, Stuart D; Hudson, Darren D

    2015-09-15

    Ultrafast laser pulses at mid-infrared wavelengths (2-20 μm) interact strongly with molecules due to the resonance with their vibration modes. This enables their application in frequency comb-based sensing and laser tissue surgery. Fiber lasers are ideal to achieve these pulses, as they are compact, stable, and efficient. We extend the performance of these lasers with the production of 6.4 kW at a wavelength of 2.8 μm with complete electric field retrieval using frequency-resolved optical gating techniques. Contrary to the problems associated with achieving a high average power, fluoride fibers have now shown the capability of operating in the ultrafast, high-peak-power regime. PMID:26371902

  9. Fabrication of alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel', V M; Bukin, V V; Garnov, Sergei V; Bagdasarov, V Kh; Denisov, N N; Garanin, Sergey G; Terekhin, V A; Trutnev, Yurii A

    2012-12-31

    A technique has been proposed for the fabrication of atmospheric corrosion resistant alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition. We produced photocathodes with a highly homogeneous photoemissive layer well-adherent to the substrate. The photocathodes were mounted in a vacuum photodiode, and a tungsten grid was used as an anode. Using pulsed UV lasers, we carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the quantum efficiency of the photocathodes. With a dc voltage applied between the photocathode and anode grid, we measured a shunt signal proportional to the total charge emitted by the cathode exposed to UV laser light. The proposed deposition technique enables one to produce photocathodes with photoemissive layers highly uniform in quantum efficiency, which is its main advantage over thin film growth by resistive evaporation. (laser technologies)

  10. Micro-ablation with high power pulsed copper vapor lasers.

    PubMed

    Knowles, M

    2000-07-17

    Visible and UV lasers with nanosecond pulse durations, diffraction-limited beam quality and high pulse repetition rates have demonstrated micro-ablation in a wide variety of materials with sub-micron precision and sub-micron-sized heat-affected zones. The copper vapour laser (CVL) is one of the important industrial lasers for micro-ablation applications. Manufacturing applications for the CVL include orifice drilling in fuel injection components and inkjet printers, micro-milling of micromoulds, via hole drilling in printed circuit boards and silicon machining. Recent advances in higher power (100W visible, 5W UV), diffraction-limited, compact CVLs are opening new possibilities for manufacturing with this class of nanosecond laser.

  11. Laser Ablation of Biological Tissue Using Pulsed CO{sub 2} Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hashishin, Yuichi; Sano, Shu; Nakayama, Takeyoshi

    2010-10-13

    Laser scalpels are currently used as a form of laser treatment. However, their ablation mechanism has not been clarified because laser excision of biological tissue occurs over a short time scale. Biological tissue ablation generates sound (laser-induced sound). This study seeks to clarify the ablation mechanism. The state of the gelatin ablation was determined using a high-speed video camera and the power reduction of a He-Ne laser beam. The aim of this study was to clarify the laser ablation mechanism by observing laser excision using the high-speed video camera and monitoring the power reduction of the He-Ne laser beam. We simulated laser excision of a biological tissue by irradiating gelatin (10 wt%) with radiation from a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser (wavelength: 10.6 {mu}m; pulse width: 80 ns). In addition, a microphone was used to measure the laser-induced sound. The first pulse caused ablation particles to be emitted in all directions; these particles were subsequently damped so that they formed a mushroom cloud. Furthermore, water was initially evaporated by laser irradiation and then tissue was ejected.

  12. Electron heating enhancement by frequency-chirped laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, E.; Afarideh, H.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Riazi, Z.; Hora, H.

    2014-09-14

    Propagation of a chirped laser pulse with a circular polarization through an uprising plasma density profile is studied by using 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulation. The laser penetration depth is increased in an overdense plasma compared to an unchirped pulse. The induced transparency due to the laser frequency chirp results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum longitudinal electrostatic field at the back side of the solid target, which is very essential in target normal sheath acceleration regime of proton acceleration. For an applied chirp parameter between 0.008 and 0.01, the maximum amount of the electrostatic field is improved by a factor of 2. Furthermore, it is noticed that for a chirped laser pulse with a₀=5, because of increasing the plasma transparency length, the laser pulse can penetrate up to about n{sub e}≈6n{sub c}, where n{sub c} is plasma critical density. It shows 63% increase in the effective critical density compared to the relativistic induced transparency regime for an unchirped condition.

  13. H2 double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saugout, S.; Charron, E.; Cornaggia, C.

    2008-02-01

    The temporal dynamics of double ionization of H2 has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically with few-cycle laser pulses. The main observables are the proton spectra associated with the H++H+ fragmentation channel. The model is based on the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and treats the electronic and nuclear coordinates on the same level. Therefore it allows the ultrafast nuclear dynamics to be followed as a function of the laser pulse duration, carrier-envelope phase offset, and peak intensity. We mainly report results in the sequential double-ionization regime above 2×1014Wcm-2 . The proton spectra are shifted to higher energies as the pulse duration is reduced from 40 down to 10 fs. The good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data at 10 fs permits a theoretical study with pulse durations down to a few femtoseconds. We demonstrate the very fast nuclear dynamics of the H2+ ion for a pulse duration as short as 1 fs between the two ionization events, giving H2+ from H2 and H++H+ from H2+ . The carrier-envelope phase offset plays a significant role only for pulse durations shorter than 4 fs. At 10 fs, the laser intensity dependence of the proton spectra is fairly well reproduced by the model.

  14. Laser surface and subsurface modification of sapphire using femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, G.; Schmidt, M.; Pude, F.; Wegener, K.

    2016-08-01

    Two methods to process sapphire using femtosecond laser pulses are demonstrated, namely ablation (surface), and in-volume laser modification followed by wet etching (subsurface). Firstly, the single and multipulse ablation threshold is determined and compared with previous literature results. A unique application of ablation is demonstrated by modifying the entrance aperture of water jet orifices. Laser ablation exhibits advantages in terms of geometric flexibility and resolution, however, defects in the form of edge outbreaks and poor surface quality are evident. Secondly, the role of material transformation, polarisation state and formation of multi-focus structures after in-volume laser modification is investigated in order to explain their influence during the wet etching process. Laser scanning and electron microscopy as well as electron backscatter diffraction measurements supported by ion beam polishing are used to better understand quality and laser-material interactions of the two demonstrated methods of processing.

  15. Towards gigawatt terahertz emission by few-cycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Weimin; Kawata, Shigeo; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Li Yutong

    2011-07-15

    It is shown by analysis and simulations that an extremely powerful terahertz (THz) radiation can be produced by a few-cycle laser pulse in a tenuous plasma. The THz amplitude scales linearly with the laser amplitude as well as with the sine of the laser carrier-envelope phase, and in particular, it increases exponentially with the decrease of the laser duration. For example, the THz amplitude increases by near 2 orders of magnitude as the laser duration decreases from one and a half cycles to one cycle; a single-cycle laser of 200 TW can drive the THz radiation of 1 GW with the energy conversion efficiency higher than 10{sup -4}.

  16. Extensive angiokeratoma circumscriptum - successful treatment with 595-nm variable-pulse pulsed dye laser and 755-nm long-pulse pulsed alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Ján; Šimaljaková, Mária; Babál, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Angiokeratomas are rare vascular mucocutaneous lesions characterized by small-vessel ectasias in the upper dermis with reactive epidermal changes. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum (AC) is the rarest among the five types in the current classification of angiokeratoma. We present a case of an extensive AC in 19-year-old women with Fitzpatrick skin type I of the left lower extremity, characterized by a significant morphological heterogeneity of the lesions, intermittent bleeding, and negative psychological impact. Histopathological examination after deep biopsy was consistent with that of angiokeratoma. The association with metabolic diseases (Fabry disease) was excluded by ophthalmological, biochemical, and genetic examinations. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has not detected deep vascular hyperplasia pathognomic for verrucous hemangioma. The combined treatment with 595-nm variable-pulse pulsed dye laser (VPPDL) and 755-nm long-pulse pulsed alexandrite laser (LPPAL) with dynamic cooling device led to significant removal of the pathological vascular tissue of AC. Only a slight degree of secondary reactions (dyspigmentations and texture changes) occurred. No recurrence was observed after postoperative interval of 9 months. We recommend VPPDL and LPPAL for the treatment of extensive AC.

  17. Extensive angiokeratoma circumscriptum - successful treatment with 595-nm variable-pulse pulsed dye laser and 755-nm long-pulse pulsed alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Ján; Šimaljaková, Mária; Babál, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Angiokeratomas are rare vascular mucocutaneous lesions characterized by small-vessel ectasias in the upper dermis with reactive epidermal changes. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum (AC) is the rarest among the five types in the current classification of angiokeratoma. We present a case of an extensive AC in 19-year-old women with Fitzpatrick skin type I of the left lower extremity, characterized by a significant morphological heterogeneity of the lesions, intermittent bleeding, and negative psychological impact. Histopathological examination after deep biopsy was consistent with that of angiokeratoma. The association with metabolic diseases (Fabry disease) was excluded by ophthalmological, biochemical, and genetic examinations. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has not detected deep vascular hyperplasia pathognomic for verrucous hemangioma. The combined treatment with 595-nm variable-pulse pulsed dye laser (VPPDL) and 755-nm long-pulse pulsed alexandrite laser (LPPAL) with dynamic cooling device led to significant removal of the pathological vascular tissue of AC. Only a slight degree of secondary reactions (dyspigmentations and texture changes) occurred. No recurrence was observed after postoperative interval of 9 months. We recommend VPPDL and LPPAL for the treatment of extensive AC. PMID:26736060

  18. Optical nonlinear dynamics in ZnS from femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-E; Ren, Mengxin Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Wenhua; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Xinzheng Xu, Jingjun; Yi, Sanming

    2014-05-15

    A wavelength swapping nondegenerate pump-probe technique to measure the magnitudes of the nonlinear optical dynamics as well as the relaxation time of electrons in high energy levels is presented using a ZnS single crystal wafer as an example. By pumping the sample with 800 nm femtosecond pulses and probing at 400 nm, nondegenerate two-photon absorption (N-2PA) happens exclusively, and the measured curves only show instantaneous features without relaxation tails. The N-2PA coefficient was derived explicitly as 7.52 cm/GW. Additionally, when the wavelengths of the pump and probe beams are swapped, extra information about the relaxation time of the hot electrons excited in the conduction band is obtained. The combined results above are helpful for evaluating the characteristics of an optical switches based on ZnS or other materials with respect to its nonlinear optical dynamic aspect.

  19. Efficient potassium diode pumped alkali laser operating in pulsed mode.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, Boris V; Rotondaro, Matthew D; Shaffer, Michael K; Knize, Randall J

    2014-07-14

    This paper presents the results of our experiments on the development of an efficient hydrocarbon free diode pumped alkali laser based on potassium vapor buffered by He gas at 600 Torr. A slope efficiency of more than 50% was demonstrated with a total optical conversion efficiency of 30%. This result was achieved by using a narrowband diode laser stack as the pump source. The stack was operated in pulsed mode to avoid limiting thermal effects and ionization.

  20. Holographic cinematography with the help of a pulse YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, P.; Fagot, H.; Albe, F.

    1984-07-01

    Employing the rules of classical cinematography, holographic movies were produced on 35 mm films with the aid of a YAG laser which send pulses of 20 nsec with an energy of 30 mJ at a rate of repetition of 24 Hz. The experimental arrangements are given. The volume of the recording scene is 1 cu m. The coherence length of the laser is 1 m. Images of moving objects are given.

  1. Development of selective laser treatment techniques using mid-infrared tunable nanosecond pulsed laser.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Katsunori; Saiki, Masayuki; Hazama, Hisanao; Awazu, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) laser with a specific wavelength can excite the corresponding biomolecular site to regulate chemical, thermal and mechanical interactions to biological molecules and tissues. In laser surgery and medicine, tunable MIR laser irradiation can realize the selective and less-invasive treatments and the special diagnosis by vibrational spectroscopic information. This paper showed a novel selective therapeutic technique for a laser angioplasty of atherosclerotic plaques and a laser dental surgery of a carious dentin using a MIR tunable nanosecond pulsed laser.

  2. Spatio-temporal mapping of ablated species in ultrafast laser-produced graphite plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shboul, K. F.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-05-28

    We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of ionic, neutral, and molecular species generated by femtosecond laser produced plasma under varying ambient nitrogen gas pressures. Plasmas were generated by irradiating planar graphite targets using 40 fs pulses of 800 nm radiation from a Ti:Sapphire laser. The results show that in the presence of an ambient gas, the molecular species spatial extension and lifetime are directly correlated to the evolution of excited ions. The present studies also provide valuable insights into the evolution history of various species and their excitation during ultrafast laser ablation.

  3. Steplike Intensity Threshold Behavior of Extreme Ionization in Laser-Driven Xenon Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Doeppner, T.; Mueller, J. P.; Przystawik, A.; Goede, S.; Tiggesbaeumker, J.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.; Varin, C.; Ramunno, L.; Brabec, T.; Fennel, T.

    2010-07-30

    The generation of highly charged Xe{sup q+} ions up to q=24 is observed in Xe clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets and exposed to intense femtosecond laser pulses ({lambda}=800 nm). Laser intensity resolved measurements show that the high-q ion generation starts at an unexpectedly low threshold intensity of about 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Above threshold, the Xe ion charge spectrum saturates quickly and changes only weakly for higher laser intensities. Good agreement between these observations and a molecular dynamics analysis allows us to identify the mechanisms responsible for the highly charged ion production and the surprising intensity threshold behavior of the ionization process.

  4. Guiding of relativistic laser pulses by preformed plasmachannels

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; van Tilborg, J.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Cary, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-12-10

    Guiding of relativistically intense (>1018 W/cm2) laser pulses over more than 10 diffraction lengths has been demonstrated using plasma channels formed by hydrodynamic shock. Pulses up to twice the self guiding threshold power were guided without aberration by tuning the guide profile. Transmitted spectra and mode images showed the pulse remained in the channel over the entire length. Experiments varying guided mode power and simulations show a large plasma wave was driven.Operating just below the trapping threshold produces a dark current free structure suitable for controlled injection.

  5. SPECTRAL AMPLITUDE AND PHASE EVOLUTION IN PETAWATT LASER PULSES

    SciTech Connect

    Filip, C V

    2010-11-22

    The influence of the active gain medium on the spectral amplitude and phase of amplified pulses in a CPA system is studied. Results from a 10-PW example based on Nd-doped mixed glasses are presented. In conclusion, this study shows that, by using spectral shaping and gain saturation in a mixed-glass amplifier, it is possible to produce 124 fs, 1.4 kJ laser pulses. One detrimental effect, the pulse distortion due to resonant amplification medium, has been investigated and its magnitude as well as its compensation calculated.

  6. Separation of enantiomers by ultraviolet laser pulses in H2POSH: π pulses versus adiabatic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Leticia; Kröner, Dominik; Solá, Ignacio R.

    2001-08-01

    Different strategies to separate enantiomers from a racemate using analytical laser pulses in the ultraviolet frequency domain are proposed for the prototype model system H2POSH. Wave-packet propagations on ab initio ground- and electronic-excited state potentials show that it is possible to produce 100% of enantiomeric excess in a sub-picosecond time scale using a sequence of π and half-π pulses. Alternatively, the previous transitions can be substituted by adiabatic counterparts, using chirped laser pulses and a half-STIRAP (stimulated Raman adiabatic passage) method which only transfers half of the population between appropriate levels. Such an overall adiabatic mechanism gains stability concerning the pulse areas and frequencies at the expense of introducing new control variables, like the chirp and time delay.

  7. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo Chunlei

    2008-09-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate the generation of periodic surface structures on a technologically important material, tungsten, at both 400 and 800 nm, despite that the table values of dielectric constants for tungsten at these two wavelengths suggest the absence of surface plasmons, a wave necessary for forming periodic structures on metals. Furthermore, we find that the structure periods formed on tungsten are significantly less than the laser wavelengths. We believe that the dielectric constants of tungsten change significantly due to intense laser pulse heating and surface structuring and roughening at nanometer scales, permitting surface plasmon excitation and periodic structure formation.

  8. Near-infrared transmittance pulse oximetry with laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Lopez Silva, Sonnia Maria; Dotor Castilla, Maria Luisa; Silveira Martin, Juan Pedro

    2003-07-01

    Pulse oximeters are widely used for noninvasive monitoring of oxygen saturation in arterial blood hemoglobin. We present a transmittance pulse oximetry system based on near-infrared (NIR) laser diodes (750 and 850 nm) for monitoring oxygen saturation of arterial blood hemoglobin. The pulse oximetry system is made up of the optical sensor, sensor electronics, and processing block. Also, we show experimental results obtained during the development of the whole NIR transmittance pulse oximetry system along with modifications in the sensor configuration, signal processing algorithm, and calibration procedure. Issues concerning wavelength selection and its implications for the improvement of the transmittance pulse oximetry technique are discussed. The results obtained demonstrate the proposed system's usefulness in monitoring a wide range of oxygen saturation levels.

  9. Multifunctional optical correlator for picosecond ultraviolet laser pulse measurement.

    PubMed

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Wang, Yang; Garcia, Frances; Long, Cary; Huang, Chunning; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Liu, Yun

    2014-11-01

    A compact multifunctional optical correlator system for pulse width measurement of ultrashort ultraviolet (UV) pulses has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. Both autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions are measured using a single nonlinear crystal, and the switching between two measurements requires no adjustment of phase matching and detector. The system can measure UV pulse widths from sub-picoseconds to 100 ps, and it involves no auxiliary pulse in the measurement. The measurement results on a burst-mode picosecond UV laser show a high-quality performance on speed, accuracy, resolution, and dynamic range. The proposed correlator can be applied to measure any ultrashort UV pulses produced through sum-frequency generation or second-harmonic generation. PMID:25402928

  10. Temporal laser pulse manipulation using multiple optical ring-cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Kojima, Jun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An optical pulse stretcher and a mathematical algorithm for the detailed calculation of its design and performance is disclosed. The optical pulse stretcher has a plurality of optical cavities, having multiple optical reflectors such that an optical path length in each of the optical cavities is different. The optical pulse stretcher also has a plurality of beam splitters, each of which intercepts a portion of an input optical beam and diverts the portion into one of the plurality of optical cavities. The input optical beam is stretched and a power of an output beam is reduced after passing through the optical pulse stretcher and the placement of the plurality of optical cavities and beam splitters is optimized through a model that takes into account optical beam divergence and alignment in the pluralities of the optical cavities. The optical pulse stretcher system can also function as a high-repetition-rate (MHz) laser pulse generator, making it suitable for use as a stroboscopic light source for high speed ballistic projectile imaging studies, or it can be used for high speed flow diagnostics using a laser light sheet with digital particle imaging velocimetry. The optical pulse stretcher system can also be implemented using fiber optic components to realize a rugged and compact optical system that is alignment free and easy to use.

  11. Laser induced damage in multilayer dielectric gratings due to ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.; Stuart, B.C.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    1995-05-26

    Chirped pulse amplification is increasingly used to produce intense ultrashort laser pulses. When high-efficiency gratings are the dispersive element, as in the LLNL Petawatt laser, their susceptibility to laser induced damage constitutes a limitation on the peak intensities that can be reached. To obtain robust gratings, it is necessary to understand the causes of short-pulse damage, and to recognize the range of design options for high efficiency gratings. Metal gratings owe their high efficiency to their high conductivity. To avoid the inevitable light absorption that accompanies conductivity, we have developed designs for high efficiency reflection gratings that use only transparent dielectric materials. These combine the reflectivity of a multilayer dielectric stack with a diffraction grating. We report here our present understanding of short-pulse laser induced damage, as it applies to dielectric gratings.

  12. A power ramped pulsed mode laser piercing technique for improved CO 2 laser profile cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirumala Rao, B.; Ittoop, M. O.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2009-11-01

    Laser piercing is one of the inevitable requirements of laser profile cutting process and it has a direct bearing on the quality of the laser cut profiles. We have developed a novel power ramped pulsed mode (PRPM) laser piercing technique to produce much finer pierced holes and to achieve a better control on the process parameters compared to the existing methodology based on normal pulsed mode (NPM). Experiments were carried out with both PRPM and NPM laser piercing on 1.5-mm-thick mild steel using an in-house developed high-power transverse flow continuous wave (CW)-CO 2 laser. Significant improvements in the spatter, circularity of the pierced hole and reproducibility were achieved through the PRPM technique. We studied, in detail, the dynamics of processes involved in PRPM laser piercing and compared that with those of the NPM piercing.

  13. Thrust Measurement of Laser Detonation Thruster with a Pulsed Glass Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Han, Taro; Michigami, Keisuke; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-11-01

    Experimental studies were carried out for measuring the laser propulsion thrust with using of a Q-switched Nd:Glass laser. In the tests, a laser beam with 33 ns FWHM pulse width was focused to generate breakdown in the cone-shaped nozzle of aluminum thrusters which were fixed at the end of a ballistic pendulum. The pulse energy used was 1.0 J and the focusing number is 6.27, which gave the highest energy conversion efficiency from laser energy to that of induced blast wave as found in previous research. The momentum coupling coefficient Cm dependency on nozzle apex angles, 30°, 45° and 60°, were investigated with carefully controlling of the laser ignition positions. Results show that, solid-state laser could be a candidate to suffice laser propulsion missions in term of Cm it can achieve.

  14. Free-electron laser-based pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Susumu; Sherwin, Mark S.; Ramian, Gerald; Brunel, Louis-Claude; van Tol, Johan

    2008-03-01

    High-power pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is extremely useful to study the ultrafast dynamics of spins. At present, most high-power pulsed EPR spectrometers operate near the X-band frequency of 9.5 GHz with kW-level power. A trend in the evolution of next generation pulsed EPR is for higher magnetic field and frequency, both for finer spectral and time resolution and because motional averaging becomes negligible. Since the linewidth of resonances studied by pulsed EPR tends to be extremely narrow, the source radiation also has to be stable and have narrow bandwidth. High-power pulsed EPR, using few-ns pulses to rapidly manipulate spins for spin-echo and related experiments, has been demonstrated at 95 GHz using kW- power Klystron-based sources. A bottleneck for higher frequency pulsed EPR spectroscopy is a lack of sources with high power and narrow bandwidth. The University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) free-electron lasers (FEL) are potential sources for high-power pulsed EPR because they generate kW of power tunable from 120 GHz to 4.7 THz. We present the current status of the UCSB FEL-based 240 GHz pulsed EPR spectrometer.

  15. Compact optical system for pulse-to-pulse laser beam quality measurement and applications in laser machining.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Robert W; Cortés-Martínez, Rodolpho; Waddle, Andrew J; Shephard, Jonathan D; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R; Greenaway, Alan H; Hand, Duncan P

    2004-09-10

    Fluctuations in beam quality (M2) have been observed on a pulse-to-pulse basis from an industrial Nd:YAG laser. This was achieved with a compact multiplane imaging method incorporating quadratically distorted diffraction gratings, which enabled simultaneous imaging of nine planes on a single CCD array. With this system, we measured across a range of beam qualities with an associated error (in M2 variation) of the order of 0.7%. Application of the system to fiber-optic beam delivery and laser drilling is demonstrated.

  16. Compact Optical System for Pulse-to-Pulse Laser Beam Quality Measurement and Applications in Laser Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Robert W.; Cortés-Martínez, Rodolpho; Waddie, Andrew J.; Shephard, Jonathan D.; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R.; Greenaway, Alan H.; Hand, Duncan P.

    2004-09-01

    Fluctuations in beam quality (M^2) have been observed on a pulse-to-pulse basis from an industrial Nd:YAG laser. This was achieved with a compact multiplane imaging method incorporating quadratically distorted diffraction gratings, which enabled simultaneous imaging of nine planes on a single CCD array. With this system, we measured across a range of beam qualities with an associated error (in M^2 variation) of the order of 0.7%. Application of the system to fiber-optic beam delivery and laser drilling is demonstrated.

  17. Polycrystalline ZnTe thin film on silicon synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and subsequent pulsed laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Menglei; Gao, Kun; Wu, Jiada; Cai, Hua; Yuan, Ye; Prucnal, S.; Hübner, R.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2016-03-01

    ZnTe thin films on Si substrates have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition and subsequent pulsed laser melting (PLM) treatment. The crystallization during PLM is confirmed by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The PL results show a broad peak at 574 nm (2.16 eV), which can be assigned to the transitions from the conduction band to the acceptor level located at 0.145 eV above the valence band induced by zinc-vacancy ionization. Our work provides an applicable approach to low temperature preparation of crystalline ZnTe thin films.

  18. Microwave interferometry of laser induced air plasmas formed by short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Jungwirth, P.W.

    1993-08-01

    Applications for the interaction of laser induced plasmas with electromagnetic probes requires time varying complex conductivity data for specific laser/electromagnetic probe geometries. Applications for this data include plasma switching (Q switching) and the study of ionization fronts. The plasmas were created in laboratory air by 100 ps laser pulses at a wavelength of 1 {mu}m. A long focal length lens focused the laser pulse into WR90 (X band) rectangular waveguide. Two different laser beam/electromagnetic probe geometries were investigated. For the longitudinal geometry, the laser pulse and the microwave counterpropagated inside the waveguide. For the transverse geometry, the laser created a plasma ``post`` inside the waveguide. The effects of the laser beam deliberately hitting the waveguide were also investigated. Each geometry exhibits its own characteristics. This research project focused on the longitudinal geometry. Since the laser beam intensity varies inside the waveguide, the charge distribution inside the waveguide also varies. A 10 GHz CW microwave probe traveled through the laser induced plasma. From the magnitude and phase of the microwave probe, a spatially integrated complex conductivity was calculated. No measurements of the temporal or spatial variation of the laser induced plasma were made. For the ``plasma post,`` the electron density is more uniform.

  19. Laser fusion neutron source employing compression with short pulse lasers

    DOEpatents

    Sefcik, Joseph A; Wilks, Scott C

    2013-11-05

    A method and system for achieving fusion is provided. The method includes providing laser source that generates a laser beam and a target that includes a capsule embedded in the target and filled with DT gas. The laser beam is directed at the target. The laser beam helps create an electron beam within the target. The electron beam heats the capsule, the DT gas, and the area surrounding the capsule. At a certain point equilibrium is reached. At the equilibrium point, the capsule implodes and generates enough pressure on the DT gas to ignite the DT gas and fuse the DT gas nuclei.

  20. Chirped-Pulse Inverse Free Electron Laser: A Tabletop, High-Gradient Vacuum Laser Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Troha, A L; Baldis, H A

    2001-03-05

    The inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) interaction is studied both theoretically and numerically in the case where the drive laser intensity approaches the relativistic regime, and the pulse duration is only a few optical cycles long. We show that by using an ultrashort, ultrahigh-intensity drive laser pulse, the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased considerably, thus yielding large energy gains. Using a chirped pulse and negative dispersion focusing optics allows one to take further advantage of the laser optical bandwidth and produce a chromatic line focus maximizing the gradient. The combination of these novel ideas results in a compact vacuum laser accelerator capable of accelerating picosecond electron bunches with a high gradient (GeV/m) and very low energy spread. A computer code which takes into account the three-dimensional nature of the interaction is currently in development and results are expected this Spring.

  1. Predicting gas decomposition in an industrialized pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Andrew; Botha, Lourens R.

    2005-03-01

    A model is developed for the breakdown and regeneration of component gases in an industrialised TEA CO2 laser, both with and without internal catalysts, and is found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data. The laser was found to be stable at 02 levels in excess of 2%, whereas previously reported values suggest stable operation at values of less than 1%. This is thought to be related to the unusually high starting CO2 concentration of the gas mix, and the short time pulse of the laser ouput. Long term catalytic behaviour however shows a decay in the catalyst activity, corresponding to higher energy variation and lower average power.

  2. Pulsed mid-infrared radiation from spectral broadening in laser wakefield simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, W.; Palastro, J. P.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2013-07-15

    Spectral red-shifting of high power laser pulses propagating through underdense plasma can be a source of ultrashort mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. During propagation, a high power laser pulse drives large amplitude plasma waves, depleting the pulse energy. At the same time, the large amplitude plasma wave provides a dynamic dielectric response that leads to spectral shifting. The loss of laser pulse energy and the approximate conservation of laser pulse action imply that spectral red-shifts accompany the depletion. In this paper, we investigate, through simulation, the parametric dependence of MIR generation on pulse energy, initial pulse duration, and plasma density.

  3. Intelligent attenuator for laser pulse energy and power stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. S.; Wyatt, R. W.; Brett, A. G.

    1983-06-01

    Encouraging preliminary results are presented from a feed-forward stabilized active optical filter. Its function is to greatly reduce the shot-to-shot and day-to-day pulse energy fluctuations commonly suffered by single shot Q switched lasers and their associated electro-optic gates and switchouts.

  4. Efficient laser amplifier using sequential pulses of different wavelengths

    DOEpatents

    Stark, Jr., Eugene E.; Kephart, John F.; Leland, Wallace T.; Reichelt, Walter H.

    1980-01-01

    A laser oscillator output pulse is separated into a plurality of separate beams which are temporally or spatially individually amplified by a power amplifier. The beams may then be recombined to provide a more powerful output than conventional single beam amplification.

  5. Ultrashort pulse laser microsurgery system with plasma luminescence feedback control

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Gold, D.M.; Darrow, C.B.; Da Silva, L.B.

    1997-11-10

    Plasma luminescence spectroscopy was used for precise ablation of bone tissue during ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) micro-spinal surgery. Strong contrast of the luminescence spectra between bone marrow and spinal cord provided the real time feedback control so that only bone tissue can be selectively ablated while preserving the spinal cord.

  6. Application of lasers and pulsed power to coating removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Chris M.; Moeny, William M.; Curry, Randy D.; McDonald, Ken; Bosma, John T.

    1995-03-01

    Lasers and other pulsed power systems are uniquely suited for removal of coatings from a wide variety of substrates. Coatings which can be removed by these systems include paint, adhesives, epoxies, dips, rust, scale, and bird droppings. Suitable substrates include wood, metal, cloth, stone, ceramic, plastics, and even skin. These systems have the advantage over chemical stripping or mechanical abrasion in that the substrate is left virtually unharmed and in many cases the residue is reduced to a form that is more easily disposed of without toxic byproducts or expensive refurbishment. Furthermore, laser and other pulsed power based systems can be operated using only local containment without the need for special operator protective gear or complete enclosure of the substrate structure. Additional advantages are gained in these systems because they typically combine multiple removal mechanisms for greater effectiveness. For example, pulsed lasers create rapid heating of the coating. This rapid heating can result in chemical breakdown of the coating, thermomechanical stress induced dislocation, shock wave agitation, and physical ablation. This paper presents some of the latest research findings on coating removal using these systems. A comparative survey of the system technology, effectiveness, cost, and application is presented. Also presented is a survey of the commercial potential for the systems. Systems which are presented include lasers (CW, pulsed, Infrared, UV, etc.), flashlamps, electro-cathodic debonders, electron beams, and glow discharges.

  7. Analysis of Ion Currents Generated with a Pulsed Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Krasa, J.; Jungwirth, K.; Krousky, E.; Laska, L.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Velyhan, A.; Ullschmied, J.

    2008-03-19

    A deconvolution analysis of ion currents, which is based on the use of shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution, is applied to determine the temperatures and the centre-of-mass velocities of ions emitted from polyethylene and Cu targets irradiated by pulsed laser beams. This analysis can render important details in establishing the mechanisms responsible for the ion emission.

  8. Model for nonequilibrium segregation during pulsed laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    Highly nonequilibrium thermodynamic processes occur during the ultrarapid recrystallization characteristic of pulsed laser annealing. Values of interface segregation coefficients are observed to differ from equilibrium values by as much as three orders of magnitude and equilibrium solubility limits may be exceeded by similar magnitudes. In this letter, a model is developed which accounts quantitatively for these effects.

  9. Vacuum electron acceleration by using two variable frequency laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Saberi, H.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-12-15

    A method is proposed for producing a relativistic electron bunch in vacuum via direct acceleration by using two frequency-chirped laser pulses. We consider the linearly polarized frequency-chiped Hermit-Gaussian 0, 0 mode lasers with linear chirp in which the local frequency varies linearly in time and space. Electron motion is investigated through a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional particle trajectory code in which the relativistic Newton's equations of motion with corresponding Lorentz force are solved. Two oblique laser pulses with proper chirp parameters and propagation angles are used for the electron acceleration along the z-axis. In this way, an electron initially at rest located at the origin could achieve high energy, γ=319 with the scattering angle of 1.02{sup ∘} with respect to the z-axis. Moreover, the acceleration of an electron in different initial positions on each coordinate axis is investigated. It was found that this mechanism has the capability of producing high energy electron microbunches with low scattering angles. The energy gain of an electron initially located at some regions on each axis could be greatly enhanced compared to the single pulse acceleration. Furthermore, the scattering angle will be lowered compared to the acceleration by using laser pulses propagating along the z-axis.

  10. X-ray production with sub-picosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Schappert, G.T.; Cobble, J.A.; Fulton, R.D.; Kyrala, G.A.

    1993-12-31

    The interaction of intense, sub-picosecond laser pulses with solid targets produces intense picosecond x-ray pulses. With focused laser pulses of several 10 {sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, He-like and H-like line radiation from targets such as aluminum and silicon has been produced. The energy conversion efficiency from the laser pulse energy to the 1--2 keV line x-rays is nearly one percent. The duration of the line x-ray radiation is of the order of ten picoseconds, although this may be an upper estimate because of the temporal resolution of the x-ray streak camera. The spatial extent of the x-ray source region is only slightly larger than the laser focal spot, or about 10 {mu}m in diameter. With these characteristics, such x-ray sources emit an intensity of nearly 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Experiments and modeling which led to the above conclusions will be discussed.

  11. Adiabatic quantum computing with phase modulated laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Debabrata

    2005-01-01

    Implementation of quantum logical gates for multilevel systems is demonstrated through decoherence control under the quantum adiabatic method using simple phase modulated laser pulses. We make use of selective population inversion and Hamiltonian evolution with time to achieve such goals robustly instead of the standard unitary transformation language. PMID:17195865

  12. Acoustical problems in high energy pulsed E-beams lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, T. E.; Wylie, K. F.

    1976-01-01

    During the pulsing of high energy, CO2, electron beam lasers, a significant fraction of input energy ultimately appears as acoustical disturbances. The magnitudes of these disturbances were quantified by computer analysis. Acoustical and shock impedance data are presented on materials (Rayleigh type) which show promise in controlling acoustical disturbance in E-beam systems.

  13. Injection of electrons by colliding laser pulses in a laser wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, M.; Aurand, B.; Ekerfelt, H.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.

    2016-09-01

    To improve the stability and reproducibility of laser wakefield accelerators and to allow for future applications, controlling the injection of electrons is of great importance. This allows us to control the amount of charge in the beams of accelerated electrons and final energy of the electrons. Results are presented from a recent experiment on controlled injection using the scheme of colliding pulses and performed using the Lund multi-terawatt laser. Each laser pulse is split into two parts close to the interaction point. The main pulse is focused on a 2 mm diameter gas jet to drive a nonlinear plasma wave below threshold for self-trapping. The second pulse, containing only a fraction of the total laser energy, is focused to collide with the main pulse in the gas jet under an angle of 150°. Beams of accelerated electrons with low divergence and small energy spread are produced using this set-up. Control over the amount of accelerated charge is achieved by rotating the plane of polarization of the second pulse in relation to the main pulse. Furthermore, the peak energy of the electrons in the beams is controlled by moving the collision point along the optical axis of the main pulse, and thereby changing the acceleration length in the plasma.

  14. Intense ion beams accelerated by ultra-intense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Markus; Cowan, T. E.; Gauthier, J. C.; Vehn, J. Meyer-Ter; Allen, M.; Audebert, P.; Blazevic, A.; Fuchs, J.; Geissel, M.; Hegelich, M.; Karsch, S.; Pukhov, A.; Schlegel, T.

    2002-04-01

    The discovery of intense ion beams off solid targets irradiated by ultra-intense laser pulses has become the subject of extensive international interest. These highly collimated, energetic beams of protons and heavy ions are strongly depending on the laser parameters as well as on the properties of the irradiated targets. Therefore we have studied the influence of the target conditions on laser-accelerated ion beams generated by multi-terawatt lasers. The experiments were performed using the 100 TW laser facility at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Laser Intense (LULI). The targets were irradiated by pulses up to 5×1019 W/cm2 (~300 fs,λ=1.05 μm) at normal incidence. A strong dependence on the surface conditions, conductivity, shape and purity was observed. The plasma density on the front and rear surface was determined by laser interferometry. We characterized the ion beam by means of magnetic spectrometers, radiochromic film, nuclear activation and Thompson parabolas. The strong dependence of the ion beam acceleration on the conditions on the target back surface was confirmed in agreement with predictions based on the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. Finally shaping of the ion beam has been demonstrated by the appropriate tailoring of the target. .

  15. Laser ionized preformed plasma at FACET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, S. Z.; Adli, E.; Clarke, C. I.; Corde, S.; Edstrom, S. A.; Fisher, A. S.; Frederico, J.; Frisch, J. C.; Gessner, S.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, P.; Hogan, M. J.; Jobe, R. K.; Litos, M.; May, J. E.; Walz, D. R.; Yakimenko, V.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Marsh, K. A.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Muggli, P.

    2014-08-01

    The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC installed a 10-TW Ti : sapphire laser system for pre-ionized plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. High energy (500 mJ), short (50 fs) pulses of 800 nm laser light at 1 Hz are used at the FACET experimental area to produce a plasma column. The laser pulses are stretched to 250 fs before injection into a vapor cell, where the laser is focused by an axicon lens to form a plasma column that can be sustained over the desired radius and length. A 20 GeV electron bunch interacts with this preformed plasma to generate a non-linear wakefield, thus accelerating a trailing witness bunch with gradients on the order of several GV m-1. The experimental setup and the methods for producing the pre-ionized plasma for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments performed at FACET are described.

  16. Multi-MeV Electron Acceleration by Subterawatt Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goers, A. J.; Hine, G. A.; Feder, L.; Miao, B.; Salehi, F.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate laser-plasma acceleration of high charge electron beams to the ˜10 MeV scale using ultrashort laser pulses with as little energy as 10 mJ. This result is made possible by an extremely dense and thin hydrogen gas jet. Total charge up to ˜0.5 nC is measured for energies >1 MeV . Acceleration is correlated to the presence of a relativistically self-focused laser filament accompanied by an intense coherent broadband light flash, associated with wave breaking, which can radiate more than ˜3 % of the laser energy in a ˜1 fs bandwidth consistent with half-cycle optical emission. Our results enable truly portable applications of laser-driven acceleration, such as low dose radiography, ultrafast probing of matter, and isotope production.

  17. Laser versus intense pulsed light: Competing technologies in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ross, E Victor

    2006-04-01

    Lasers have been competing with non-laser intense pulsed light (IPL) sources in the cosmetic arena over the past 10 years. Initially IPLs were somewhat cumbersome and accepted by a minority of "serious" practitioners. Recently, however, the popularity of full-face visible light skin rejuvenation, enhanced engineering of IPLs, and favorable cost versus many lasers, have lead to a proliferation of IPL devices. No longer a stepchild in the rejuvenation market, IPLs may overtake lasers as the devices of choice among most physicians. We review the pros and cons of lasers and IPLs within the context of design, cost, and other practical concerns for a typical office-based practice. PMID:16596659

  18. Formation of ultrasmooth thin silver films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, I. A.; Garaeva, M. Ya.; Mamichev, D. A. Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Zanaveskin, M. L.

    2013-09-15

    Ultrasmooth thin silver films have been formed on a quartz substrate with a buffer yttrium oxide layer by pulsed laser deposition. The dependence of the surface morphology of the film on the gas (N{sub 2}) pressure in the working chamber and laser pulse energy is investigated. It is found that the conditions of film growth are optimal at a gas pressure of 10{sup -2} Torr and lowest pulse energy. The silver films formed under these conditions on a quartz substrate with an initial surface roughness of 0.3 nm had a surface roughness of 0.36 nm. These films can be used as a basis for various optoelectronics and nanoplasmonics elements.

  19. Dissociative ionization of H2 in an attosecond pulse train and delayed laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng; Thumm, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    The ionization of H2 in a single attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse generates a nuclear wave packet in H2+, which is entangled with the emitted photoelectron wave packet. The nuclear wave-packet dynamics can be observed by dissociating H2+ in a delayed IR laser pulse. If H2 is ionized by a sequence of XUV pulses of an attosecond pulse train, whether or not the corresponding sequence of nuclear wave packets in H2+ is detected as a coherent or incoherent superposition depends on whether and how the photoelectrons are observed. We simulate the nuclear dynamics in this XUV-pump-IR-probe scenario and analyze our numerical results for both single attosecond pump pulses and pump-pulse trains of different lengths and temporal spacings between individual XUV pulses. By superimposing nuclear wave packets in H2+ generated by individual pulses in the pump-pulse train incoherently, we calculate proton kinetic energy release spectra that are in good qualitative agreement with the recent experiment of Kelkensberg [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.123005 103, 123005 (2009)].

  20. Er,Cr:YSGG Pulsed laser applied to medical dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrano, J. J.; Torrisi, L.; Campagna, E.; Rapisarda, E.; Finocchiaro, I.; Olivi, G.

    An erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) pulsed laser, operating at 2780 μ m wavelength, 300 mJ maximum pulse energy, 140 μ s pulse duration and 20 Hz repetition rate, was employed to irradiate human teeth. The photon energy is transmitted to the tooth through an optical fiber with a sapphire tip, which is dipped in an adjustable air/water atomizer spray. Extracted teeth were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath, stored in saline solution, and dried and weighed before each laser treatment. The laser irradiation was performed for 10 s using a 600 μ m focused beam. Each sample was irradiated varying the air/water ratio of the integrated nebulizer spray. After the treatment, the samples were again weighed and produced craters were analyzed with a profilometric system. The crater volume permitted to evaluate the laser ablation yield. Teeth treated with an air/water spray ratio of 95-80% resulted in greatest average quantity of tissue ablation. This investigation confirmed the high efficiency of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the ablation of dental hard tissues showing the fundamental role of the water spray, which plays a fundamental role in the quantitative and qualitative modifications of the hard tissue treated, as it will be discussed in detail.