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Sample records for 800nm mi-frog measures

  1. Femtosecond Coherent Spectroscopy at 800nm: MI-FROG Measures High-Field Ionization Rates in Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Taylor, A.J.

    1999-05-24

    The authors report the first quantitative phase-sensitive measurement of ultrafast ionization rates in gases using Multi-phase Interferometric Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating. Ultrafast probe depletion via frequency mixing in the ionization front is observed.

  2. Optical measurement of temperature in biological cells under infrared laser light exposure (λ=800 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, David; Lefort, Claire; Leveque, Philippe; O'Connor, Rod P.

    2015-07-01

    Interest in the interaction between laser light and biological samples has gained momentum in recent years, particularly in neurobiology, where there is significant potential to stimulate neurons with infrared laser light. Despite recent reports showing the application of infrared light for neurostimulation, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. The two main hypotheses are based on thermal or electrostatic mechanisms. Here, a novel optical method is presented to make temperature measurements in human neural cells under infrared laser excitation (λ=800nm) using the dye Rhodamine B (RhB). The measurement of temperature is based on the property of RhB, a fluorescent dye whose fluorescence intensity decreases linearly with increases in temperature. We present and detail the setup and measurement procedure that has temporal resolution of few milliseconds, based around a fluorescent live-cell imaging microscope used for cellular microfluorimetry experiments.

  3. High-brightness 800nm fiber-coupled laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Yuri; Levy, Moshe; Rappaport, Noam; Tessler, Renana; Peleg, Ophir; Shamay, Moshe; Yanson, Dan; Klumel, Genadi; Dahan, Nir; Baskin, Ilya; Shkedi, Lior

    2014-03-01

    Fiber-coupled laser diodes have become essential sources for fiber laser pumping and direct energy applications. Single emitters offer reliable multi-watt output power from a 100 m lateral emission aperture. By their combination and fiber coupling, pump powers up to 100 W can be achieved from a low-NA fiber pigtail. Whilst in the 9xx nm spectral range the single emitter technology is very mature with <10W output per chip, at 800nm the reliable output power from a single emitter is limited to 4 W - 5 W. Consequently, commercially available fiber coupled modules only deliver 5W - 15W at around 800nm, almost an order of magnitude down from the 9xx range pumps. To bridge this gap, we report our advancement in the brightness and reliability of 800nm single emitters. By optimizing the wafer structure, laser cavity and facet passivation process we have demonstrated QCW device operation up to 19W limited by catastrophic optical damage to the 100 μm aperture. In CW operation, the devices reach 14 W output followed by a reversible thermal rollover and a complete device shutdown at high currents, with the performance fully rebounded after cooling. We also report the beam properties of our 800nm single emitters and provide a comparative analysis with the 9xx nm single emitter family. Pump modules integrating several of these emitters with a 105 μm / 0.15 NA delivery fiber reach 35W in CW at 808 nm. We discuss the key opto-mechanical parameters that will enable further brightness scaling of multi-emitter pump modules.

  4. Correlating Pulses from Two Spitfire, 800nm Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, Eric R.; Mcguinness, C.; Zacherl, W.D.; Plettner, T.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-01-28

    The E163 laser acceleration experiments conducted at SLAC have stringent requirements on the temporal properties of two regeneratively amplified, 800nm, Spitfire laser systems. To determine the magnitude and cause of timing instabilities between the two Ti:Sapphire amplifiers, we pass the two beams through a cross-correlator and focus the combined beam onto a Hamamatsu G1117 photodiode. The photodiode has a bandgap such that single photon processes are suppressed and only the second order, two-photon process produces an observable response. The response is proportional to the square of the intensity. The diode is also useful as a diagnostic to determine the optimal configuration of the compression cavity.

  5. Nonlinear refraction properties of nickel oxide thin films at 800 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, Ronaldo P. Jr. de; Silva, Blenio J. P. da; Santos, Francisco Eroni P. dos; Azevedo, A.; Araujo, Cid B. de

    2009-11-01

    Measurements of the nonlinear refractive index, n{sub 2}, of nickel oxide films prepared by controlled oxidation of nickel films deposited on substrates of soda-lime glass are reported. The structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffractometry. Samples of excellent optical quality were prepared. The nonlinear measurements were performed using the thermally managed eclipse Z-scan technique at 800 nm. A large value of n{sub 2}approx =10{sup -12} cm{sup 2}/W and negligible nonlinear absorption were obtained.

  6. Photoionization and photofragmentation of gaseous toluene using 80-fs, 800-nm laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, A. M.; Uiterwaal, C. J. G. J.; Witzel, B.; Wanner, J.; Kompa, K.-L.

    2000-06-01

    This paper presents ion yields resulting from multiphoton ionization and fragmentation of gaseous toluene (C7H8) in the focus of an 80 fs Ti:sapphire laser beam (λ=800 nm) with a sufficiently small B-integral [Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986)]. The peak intensity was varied between 1.9×1013 and 2.8×1014W cm-2, and both linear and circular polarization were used. Over the whole range of intensities studied, only the singly charged parent ion and its fragment, C7H7+, are found. Although the Keldysh adiabaticity parameter equals 0.86 for the saturation intensity of ˜1×1014W cm-2, there is no indication of tunneling. The parent ion yield is found to be effectively proportional to the sixth power of the peak intensity. This is shown to be in good agreement with a multiple lowest-order perturbation multiphoton ionization model which takes into account successive channel closing for increasing peak intensities and orders up to 11 inclusive. On the assumption that the excess energy acquired by the toluene cation as a result of the interaction with the electromagnetic field is of the order of the ponderomotive energy for the intensity prevailing at the moment of the ionization, the internal energy distribution of the toluene cations created that is brought about by this multiple-order multiphoton ionization model is calculated. This internal energy distribution is in perfect agreement with the measured C7H7+ yield, if the rate-energy curve for the fragmentation of excited toluene cations as given by Golovin et al. [Sov. J. Chem. Phys. 2, 632 (1985)] is moderately reduced by a factor of 4.5.

  7. Fiber Bragg grating inscriptions in multimode fiber using 800 nm femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Qiangzhou; Qiao, Xueguang

    2015-09-01

    A short fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was successfully written in a multimode fiber (MMF) tube with core and cladding diameters of 105 μm and 125 μm using 800 nm femtosecond laser. A side-illumination technique was utilized to ensure the grating inscriptions regain over the core of MMF. Both fundamental mode and high-order modes of MMF are coupled at the core-mismatch junction and appear as two well-defined resonances in transmission. Femtosecond laserwritten three FBG-types present good thermostability up to 900 °C.

  8. Switching of 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses using a compact PMN-PT modulator.

    PubMed

    Adany, Peter; Price, E Shane; Johnson, Carey K; Zhang, Run; Hui, Rongqing

    2009-03-01

    A voltage-controlled birefringent cell based on ceramic PMN-PT material is used to enable fast intensity modulation of femtosecond laser pulses in the 800 nm wavelength window. The birefringent cell based on a PMN-PT compound has comparatively high electro-optic response, allowing for a short interaction length of 3 mm and thus very small size, low attenuation of 0.16 dB, and negligible broadening for 100 fs optical pulses. As an application example, agile wavelength tuning of optical pulses is demonstrated using the soliton self-frequency shift in a photonic crystal fiber. By dynamically controlling the optical power into the fiber, this system switches the wavelength of 100 fs pulses from 900 nm to beyond 1120 nm with less than 5 micros time. In addition, a feedback system stabilizes the wavelength drift against external conditions resulting in high wavelength stability.

  9. Optical limiting property of a liquid malononitrile derivative on 800 nm laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan; Wang, Liuheng; Xie, Na; Sun, Li; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yuxia; Wu, Feipeng

    2016-08-01

    A new liquid malononitrile derivative (LBDBP) has been synthesized by incorporating four tetraethylene glycol groups into the prototype scaffold of 2-[Bis-(4‧-diethylamino-biphenyl-4-yl)-methylene]-malononitrile (BDBP). The linear photophysical properties, optical/thermal stabilities and optical limiting behaviors of LBDBP and BDBP have been investigated. The results show that LBDBP has equivalent optical/thermal stability but much better solubility compared with BDBP. Its saturation concentration in DMF is increased to 0.075 M, while the corresponding datum for BDBP is only 0.01 M. The improved solubility of LBDBP insures a very significant optical limiting behavior. The saturated DMF solution of LBDBP can significantly reduce the intensity fluctuation of laser pulses in an 800 nm laser setup.

  10. TCSPC FLIM in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1700 nm (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Shcheslavsky, Vladislav

    2016-03-01

    Excitation and detection in the wavelength range above 800nm is a convenient and relatively inexpensive way to increase the penetration depth in optical microscopy. Moreover, detection at long wavelength avoids the problem that tissue autofluorescence contaminates the signals from endogenous fluorescence probes. FLIM at NIR wavelength may therefore be complementary to multiphoton microscopy, especially if the lifetimes of NIR fluorophores report biological parameters of the tissue structures they are bound to. Unfortunately, neither the excitation sources nor the detectors of standard confocal and multiphoton laser scanning systems are directly suitable for excitation and detection of NIR fluorescence. Most of these problems can be solved, however, by using ps diode lasers or Ti:Sapphire lasers at their fundamental wavelength, and NIR-sensitive detectors. With NIR-sensitive PMTs the detection wavelength range can be extended up to 900 nm, with InGaAs SPAD detectors up to 1700 nm. Here, we demonstrate the use of a combination of laser scanning, multi-dimensional TCSPC, and advanced excitation sources and detectors for FLIM at up to 1700 nm. The performance was tested at tissue samples incubated with NIR dyes. The fluorescence lifetimes generally get shorter with increasing absorption and emission wavelengths of the dyes. For the cyanine dye IR1061, absorbing around 1060 nm, the lifetime was found to be as short as 70 ps. Nevertheless the fluorescence decay could still be clearly detected. Almost all dyes showed clear lifetime changes depending on the binding to different tissue constituents.

  11. Experimental study on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of fused silica in air and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shi-zhen; Yao, Cai-zhen; Liao, Wei; Yuan, Xiao-dong; Wang, Tao; Zu, Xiao-tao

    2016-10-01

    Ablation rates of fused silica were studied as a function of femtosecond laser pulse fluences (0.7-41 J/cm2) in air and vacuum. The experiment was conducted by using a Ti:sapphire laser that emits radiation at 800 nm with a pulse width of 35 fs and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The morphology and ablation depth of laser-induced damage crater were evaluated by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ablation rates were calculated from the depth of craters induced by multiple laser pulses. Results showed that two ablation regimes, i.e. non-thermal and thermal ablation co-existed in air and vacuum at low and moderate fluences. A drop of ablation rate was observed at high fluence (higher than 9.5 J/cm2) in air. While in vacuum, the ablation rate increased continuously with the increasing of laser fluence and much higher than that in air. The drop of ablation rate observed at high fluence in air was due to the strong defocusing effects associated with the non-equilibrium ionization of air. Furthermore, the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), which was determined from the relationship between crater area and the logarithm of laser energy, was found to depend on the number of incident pulses on the same spot, and similar phenomenon was observed in air and vacuum.

  12. Fabrication of nanostructures on silicon carbide surface and microgroove sidewall using 800-nm femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuat, Vanthanh; Chen, Tao; Dao, Vanluu

    2015-07-01

    Nanoripples and nanoparticles have been fabricated on the surface of a silicon carbide sample with the irradiation of an 800-nm femtosecond laser in an underwater environment. When a linearly polarized laser was used, the nanoripples were perpendicular to the polarization direction of the incident laser, and the period of the nanoripples was dependent on the number of pulses. When a circularly polarized laser was used, nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 80 nm were formed. In addition, we observed two kinds of nanoripples on the sidewall of the silicon carbide microgroove fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation followed by chemical wet etching. When the polarization direction was aligned perpendicular to the writing direction, ripples parallel to the surface of the sample were formed. We attribute the formation of this kind of ripple to interference of the incident laser and the reflected wave. When the polarization direction was aligned parallel to the writing direction, the ripples are perpendicular to the surface of the sample. We attribute the formation of this kind of ripple to interference of incident laser and bulk electron plasma wave. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope was employed to characterize the morphology of the structures.

  13. Spectrally-broad coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering hyper-microscopy utilizing a Stokes supercontinuum pumped at 800 nm.

    PubMed

    Porquez, Jeremy G; Cole, Ryan A; Tabarangao, Joel T; Slepkov, Aaron D

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate spectral-focusing based coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SF-CARS) hyper-microscopy capable of probing vibrational frequencies from 630 cm(-1) to 3250 cm(-1) using a single Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser operating at 800 nm, and a commercially-available supercontinuum-generating fibre module. A broad Stokes supercontinuum with significant spectral power at wavelengths between 800 nm and 940 nm is generated by power tuning the fibre module using atypically long and/or chirped ~200 fs pump pulses, allowing convenient access to lower vibrational frequencies in the fingerprint spectral region. This work significantly reduces the instrumental and technical requirements for multimodal CARS microscopy, while expanding the spectral capabilities of an established approach to SF-CARS.

  14. Spectrally-broad coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering hyper-microscopy utilizing a Stokes supercontinuum pumped at 800 nm

    PubMed Central

    Porquez, Jeremy G.; Cole, Ryan A.; Tabarangao, Joel T.; Slepkov, Aaron D.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate spectral-focusing based coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SF-CARS) hyper-microscopy capable of probing vibrational frequencies from 630 cm−1 to 3250 cm−1 using a single Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser operating at 800 nm, and a commercially-available supercontinuum-generating fibre module. A broad Stokes supercontinuum with significant spectral power at wavelengths between 800 nm and 940 nm is generated by power tuning the fibre module using atypically long and/or chirped ~200 fs pump pulses, allowing convenient access to lower vibrational frequencies in the fingerprint spectral region. This work significantly reduces the instrumental and technical requirements for multimodal CARS microscopy, while expanding the spectral capabilities of an established approach to SF-CARS. PMID:27867735

  15. Transcranial Near-Infrared Laser Transmission (NILT) Profiles (800 nm): Systematic Comparison in Four Common Research Species

    PubMed Central

    Lapchak, Paul A.; Boitano, Paul D.; Butte, Pramod V.; Fisher, David J.; Hölscher, Thilo; Ley, Eric J.; Nuño, Miriam; Voie, Arne H.; Rajput, Padmesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Transcranial near-infrared laser therapy (TLT) is a promising and novel method to promote neuroprotection and clinical improvement in both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as acute ischemic stroke (AIS), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients based upon efficacy in translational animal models. However, there is limited information in the peer-reviewed literature pertaining to transcranial near-infrared laser transmission (NILT) profiles in various species. Thus, in the present study we systematically evaluated NILT characteristics through the skull of 4 different species: mouse, rat, rabbit and human. Results Using dehydrated skulls from 3 animal species, using a wavelength of 800nm and a surface power density of 700 mW/cm2, NILT decreased from 40.10% (mouse) to 21.24% (rat) to 11.36% (rabbit) as skull thickness measured at bregma increased from 0.44 mm in mouse to 0.83 mm in rat and then 2.11 mm in rabbit. NILT also significantly increased (p<0.05) when animal skulls were hydrated (i.e. compared to dehydrated); but there was no measurable change in thickness due to hydration. In human calvaria, where mean thickness ranged from 7.19 mm at bregma to 5.91 mm in the parietal skull, only 4.18% and 4.24% of applied near-infrared light was transmitted through the skull. There was a slight (9.2-13.4%), but insignificant effect of hydration state on NILT transmission of human skulls, but there was a significant positive correlation between NILT and thickness at bregma and parietal skull, in both hydrated and dehydrated states. Conclusion This is the first systematic study to demonstrate differential NILT through the skulls of 4 different species; with an inverse relationship between NILT and skull thickness. With animal skulls, transmission profiles are dependent upon the hydration state of the skull, with significantly greater penetration through hydrated skulls compared to dehydrated skulls. Using

  16. Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenko, A.; Ergler, Th.; Zrost, K.; Feuerstein, B.; Schroeter, C. D.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.; Jesus, V. L. B. de

    2007-12-31

    We report on a kinematically complete experiment on nonsequential double ionization of He by 25 fs 800 nm laser pulses at 1.5 PW/cm{sup 2}. The suppression of the recollision-induced excitation at this high intensity allows us to address in a clean way direct (e,2e) ionization by the recolliding electron. In contrast with earlier experimental results, but in agreement with various theoretical predictions, the two-electron momentum distributions along the laser polarization axis exhibit a pronounced V-shaped structure, which can be explained by the role of Coulomb repulsion and typical (e,2e) kinematics.

  17. Efficient 1 kHz femtosecond optical parametric amplification in BiB(3)O(6) pumped at 800 nm.

    PubMed

    Ghotbi, Masood; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Majid; Petrov, Valentin; Tzankov, Pancho; Noack, Frank

    2006-10-30

    We demonstrate efficient operation of a tunable femtosecond optical parametric amplifier based on BiB(3)O(6) pumped at 800 nm by a 1 kHz Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier. The idler wavelength coverage extends to beyond 3 mum and the pulse duration at this wavelength is of the order of 110 fs. This new nonlinear borate crystal offers exceptionally high nonlinearity, making it a very promising candidate for power scaling of such frequency converters in the near-IR.

  18. Fiber Bragg gratings inscribed using 800nm femtosecond laser and a phase mask in single- and multi-core mid-IR glass fibers.

    PubMed

    Suo, Rui; Lousteau, Joris; Li, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Zhou, Kaiming; Zhang, Lin; MacPherson, William N; Bookey, Henry T; Barton, James S; Kar, Ajoy K; Jha, Animesh; Bennion, Ian

    2009-04-27

    For the first time, Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) structures have been inscribed in single-core passive germanate and three-core passive and active tellurite glass fibers using 800 nm femtosecond (fs) laser and phase mask technique. With fs peak power intensity in the order of 10(11)W/cm(2), the FBG spectra with 2nd and 3rd order resonances at 1540 and 1033 nm in the germanate glass fiber and 2nd order resonances at approximately 1694 and approximately 1677 nm with strengths up to 14 dB in all three cores in the tellurite fiber were observed. Thermal responsivities of the FBGs made in these mid-IR glass fibers were characterized, showing average temperature responsivity approximately 20 pm/ degrees C. Strain responsivities of the FBGs in germanate glass fiber were measured to be 1.219 pm/microepsilon.

  19. Ruby Emission in the Range 400-800 nm with Excitation by Continuous-Wave CO2 Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, V. M.; Kiselev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal emission spectra of ruby single crystals in the range 400-800 nm were studied experimentally as functions of the intensity at 10.6 μm of exciting pulses ( 0.5 s) from a continuous-wave electrical-discharge CO2 laser. Spectra at excitation intensity 1-20 kW/cm2 were superpositions of the thermal emission continuum of the sapphire crystal lattice in the range 600-800 nm and selective emission spectra of Cr3+ that were observed for the first time for ruby and consisted of R-lines at 695 nm; N-lines at 715 nm; 2 T 1, 4 T 2 → 4 A 2 transition bands at 672 and 643 nm; and 4 T 1, 2 T 2 → 4 A 2 transition bands at 530 and 490 nm that were not observed in the luminescence spectrum. Time dependences of the shapes of selective emission spectra, quenching and shifts of the R 1 line, and the temperature dependence of ruby luminescence spectra were investigated.

  20. Approximately 800-nm-Thick Pinhole-Free Perovskite Films via Facile Solvent Retarding Process for Efficient Planar Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhongcheng; Yang, Yingguo; Wu, Zhongwei; Bai, Sai; Xu, Weidong; Song, Tao; Gao, Xingyu; Gao, Feng; Sun, Baoquan

    2016-12-21

    Device performance of organometal halide perovskite solar cells significantly depends on the quality and thickness of perovskite absorber films. However, conventional deposition methods often generate pinholes within ∼300 nm-thick perovskite films, which are detrimental to the large area device manufacture. Here we demonstrated a simple solvent retarding process to deposit uniform pinhole free perovskite films with thicknesses up to ∼800 nm. Solvent evaporation during the retarding process facilitated the components separation in the mixed halide perovskite precursors, and hence the final films exhibited pinhole free morphology and large grain sizes. In addition, the increased precursor concentration after solvent-retarding process led to thick perovskite films. Based on the uniform and thick perovskite films prepared by this convenient process, a champion device efficiency up to 16.8% was achieved. We believe that this simple deposition procedure for high quality perovskite films around micrometer thickness has a great potential in the application of large area perovskite solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.

  1. Nd3+ sensitized up/down converting dual-mode nanomaterials for efficient in-vitro and in-vivo bioimaging excited at 800 nm.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Lei; Shen, Dengke; Yao, Chi; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2013-12-18

    Core/shell1/shell2/shell3 structured NaGdF4:Nd/NaYF4/NaGdF4:Nd,Yb,Er/NaYF4 nanocrystals were well designed and synthesized, each of the parts assume respective role and work together to achieve dual-mode upconverting (UC) and downconverting (DC) luminescence upon the low heat effect 800-nm excitation. Nd(3+), Yb(3+), Er(3+) tri-doped NaGdF4:Nd,Yb,Er UC layer [NIR (800 nm)-to-Visible (540 nm)] with a constitutional efficient 800 nm excitable property were achieved for the in-vitro bioimaging with low auto-fluorescence and photo-damage effects. Moreover, typical NIR (800 nm)-to-NIR (860-895 nm) DC luminescence of Nd(3+) has also been realized with this designed nanostructure. Due to the low heat effect, high penetration depth of the excitation and the high efficiency of the DC luminescence, the in-vivo high contrast DC imaging of a whole body nude mouse was achieved. We believe that such dual-mode luminescence NCs will open the door to engineering the excitation and emission wavelengths of NCs and will provide a new tool for a wide variety of applications in the fields of bioanalysis and biomedical.

  2. S100a8/NF-κB signal pathway is involved in the 800-nm diode laser-induced skin collagen remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaolin; Ge, Minggai; Qin, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Zhu, Pingya; Dang, Yongyan; Gu, Jun; Ye, Xiyun

    2016-05-01

    The 800-nm diode laser is widely used for hair removal and also promotes collagen synthesis, but the molecular mechanism by which dermis responses to the thermal damage induced by the 800-nm diode laser is still unclear. Ten 2-month-old mice were irradiated with the 800-nm diode laser at 20, 40, and 60 J/cm(2), respectively. Skin samples were taken for PCR, Western blot analysis, and histological study at day 3 or 30 after laser irradiation. The expression of S100a8 and its two receptors (advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor, RAGE and toll-like receptor 4, TRL4) was upregulated at day 3 after laser treatments. P-p65 levels were also elevated, causing the increase of cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6) and MMPs (MMP1a, MMP9). At day 30, PCR and Western blot analysis showed significant increase of type I and III procollagen in the dermis treated with laser. Importantly, skin structure was markedly improved in the laser-irradiated skin compared with the control. Thus, it seemed that S100a8 upregulation triggered NF-κB signal pathway through RAGE and TLR4, responding to laser-induced dermis wound healing. The involvement of the NF-κB pathway in MMP gene transcription promoted the turnover of collagen in the skin, accelerating new collagen synthesis.

  3. Direct writing of 150 nm gratings and squares on ZnO crystal in water by using 800 nm femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jukun; Jia, Tianqing; Zhou, Kan; Feng, Donghai; Zhang, Shian; Zhang, Hongxin; Jia, Xin; Sun, Zhenrong; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-12-29

    We present a controllable fabrication of nanogratings and nanosquares on the surface of ZnO crystal in water based on femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). The formation of nanogrooves depends on both laser fluence and writing speed. A single groove with width less than 40 nm and double grooves with distance of 150 nm have been produced by manipulating 800 nm femtosecond laser fluence. Nanogratings with period of 150 nm, 300 nm and 1000 nm, and nanosquares with dimensions of 150 × 150 nm2 were fabricated by using this direct femtosecond laser writing technique.

  4. Mechanisms of the blue emission of NaYF4:Tm(3+) nanoparticles excited by an 800 nm continuous wave laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxin; Jia, Tianqing; Shang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-10-07

    A thorough understanding of energy transfer and upconversion (UC) processes between trivalent lanthanide (Ln(3+)) ions is essential and important for improving UC performance. However, because of the abundant energy states of Ln(3+) ions, UC mechanisms are very complicated, which makes it a challenge to exclusively verify and quantitatively evaluate the dominant process. In this study, the fundamental excitation processes of Tm(3+)-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals under 800 nm continuous wave (CW) laser excitation were experimentally investigated on the basis of the quantum transition principle. An 800 nm CW laser combined with other wavelength CW lasers, including 471 nm, 657 nm, 980 nm, and 1550 nm lasers, were designed to study in-depth the excitation processes of UC luminescence via simultaneous two-wavelength laser excitation. The results indicate that the excited state absorption of (3)H6→(3)H4∼∼(3)H5→(1)G4 is the dominant pathway of the 481 nm and 651 nm emission bands, and two kinds of energy transfer UC pathways, uniformly expressed as (1)G4 + (3)H4→(1)D2 + (3)F4, play the primary roles in the 456 nm emission band.

  5. High-power Femtosecond Optical Parametric Amplification at 1 kHz in BiB(3)O(6) pumped at 800 nm.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Valentin; Noack, Frank; Tzankov, Pancho; Ghotbi, Masood; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Majid; Nikolov, Ivailo; Buchvarov, Ivan

    2007-01-22

    Substantial power scaling of a travelling-wave femtosecond optical parametric amplifier, pumped near 800 nm by a 1 kHz Ti:sapphire laser amplifier, is demonstrated using monoclinic BiB(3)O(6) in a two stage scheme with continuum seeding. Total energy output (signal plus idler) exceeding 1 mJ is achieved, corresponding to an intrinsic conversion efficiency of approximately 32% for the second stage. The tunability extends from 1.1 to 2.9 microm. The high parametric gain and broad amplification bandwidth of this crystal allowed the maintenance of the pump pulse duration, leading to pulse lengths less than 140 fs, both for the signal and idler pulses, even at such high output levels.

  6. Enhancement of 800 nm upconversion emission in a thulium doped tellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhixu; Yao, Chuanfei; Wang, Shunbin; Zheng, Kezhi; Xiong, Liangming; Luo, Jie; Lv, Dajuan; Qin, Guanshi; Ohishi, Yasutake; Qin, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    We report enhanced upconversion (UC) fluorescence in Tm3+ doped tellurite microstructured fibers (TDTMFs) fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. Under the pumping of a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser, ultrabroadband supercontinuum light expanding from ˜1050 to ˜2700 nm was generated in a 4 cm long TDTMF. Simultaneously, intense 800 nm UC emission from the 3H4 → 3H6 transition of Tm3+ was observed in the same TDTMF. Compared to that pumped by a 1560 nm continuous wave fiber laser, the UC emission intensity was enhanced by ˜4.1 times. The enhancement was due to the spectral broadening in the TDTMF under the pumping of the 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser.

  7. Optimisation de l'émission du continuum femtoseconde de lumière blanche entre 600 nm et 800 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstein, S.; Mottin, S.

    2005-06-01

    Un dispositif de spectroscopie avec résolution du temps de vol des photons en milieu diffus a été développé. Celui-ci repose sur l'utilisation d'un continuum de lumière blanche généré par focalisation d'un laser amplifié (830 nm, 1 kHz, 0.5 W, 170 fs) dans de l'eau déminéralisée. Afin d'optimiser spectralement et en puissance la source blanche sur la fenêtre spectrale 600 800 nm, une étude de la mise en forme spatio-temporelle avant autofocalisation de l'impulsion laser par le milieu a été menée. Cette mise en forme est effectuée de manière spatiale en changeant la focale de la lentille de focalisation et de manière temporelle en changeant le taux de compression de l'impulsion. L'étude montre que le cône de lumière émise possède plus de puissance dans la fenêtre spectrale d'intérêt pour des focales longues. Sur la fenêtre 600-800 nm, le rendement énergétique intégré varie de 5%, avec une focalef=6cm, à 15%, avec une focale f = 30 cm. La mise en forme temporelle montre des effets similaires avec les mêmes ordres de grandeur.

  8. Genotoxicity of visible light (400-800 nm) and photoprotection assessment of ectoin, L-ergothioneine and mannitol and four sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Botta, Céline; Di Giorgio, Carole; Sabatier, Anne-Sophie; De Méo, Michel

    2008-04-25

    This study was designed to determine the genotoxic effects of visible (400-800nm) and ultraviolet A (UVA)/visible (315-800nm) lights on human keratinocytes and CHO cells. The alkaline comet assay was used to quantify DNA-damage. In addition, photo-dependent cytogenetic lesions were assessed in CHO cells by the micronucleus test. Three protective compounds [ectoin, l-ergothioneine (ERT) and mannitol] were tested with the comet assay for their effectiveness to reduce DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). Finally, the genomic photoprotections of two broad-band sunscreens and their tinted analogues were assessed by the comet assay. The WST-1 cytotoxicity assay revealed a decrease of the keratinocyte viability of 30% and 13% for the highest UVA/visible and visible irradiations (15 and 13.8J/cm(2), respectively). Visible as well as UVA/visible lights induced DNA SSB and micronuclei, in a dose-dependent manner. The level of DNA breakage induced by visible light was 50% of the one generated by UVA/visible irradiation. However, UVA radiations were 10 times more effective than visible radiations to produce SSB. The DNA lesions induced by visible and UVA/visible lights were reduced after a 1-h preincubation period with the three tested compounds. The maximal protective effects were 92.7%, 97.9% and 52.0% for ectoin (0.1mM), ERT (0.5mM) and mannitol (1.5mM), respectively, against visible light and 68.9%, 59.8% and 62.7% for ectoin (0.1mM), ERT (0.5mM) and mannitol (1.5mM), respectively, against UVA/visible light. Thus, visible light was genotoxic on human keratinocytes and CHO cells through oxidative stress mechanisms similar to the ones induced by UVA radiations. The four tested sunscreens efficiently prevented DNA lesions that were induced by both visible and UVA/visible irradiations. The tinted sunscreens were slightly more effective that their colorless analogues. There is a need to complement sunscreen formulations with additional molecules to obtain a complete internal and

  9. Synthesis and characterization of cell-permeable caged phosphates that can be photolyzed by visible light or 800 nm two-photon photolysis.

    PubMed

    Herbivo, Cyril; Omran, Ziad; Revol, Julia; Javot, Hélène; Specht, Alexandre

    2013-11-25

    We report the synthesis and photolytic properties of caged inorganic phosphates (Pi compounds) based on the 2-(4'-{bis[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl]amino}-4-nitro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)propan-1-ol (EANBP) and 7-(diethylamino)coumarin-4-yl]methyl (DEACM) protecting groups. The EANBP-Pi showed unprecedented photolysis efficiency at 405 nm, with 95 % release of free phosphate and a quantum yield of 0.28. Thanks to the high two-photon sensitivity of the EANBP chromophore, Pi release through two-photon photolysis is also possible, with an action cross section of 20.5 GM at 800 nm. Two bioactivatable acetoxymethyl protection groups were added to the "caged-Pi" compounds. The resulting triesters of phosphoric acid were able to diffuse through the cellular membranes of plant cells. Once inside a cell, the cleavage of these biocleavable motifs by intracellular esterases allows intracellular accumulation of EANBP-Pi. Bis(AM)-EANBP-Pi therefore represents a very attractive tool for study of the Pi signal transduction cascade in living cells.

  10. 2 μm emission performance in Tm3+/Er3+ codoped silicate glasses under 800 nm and 980 nm excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ruijie; Lu, Yu; Tian, Ying; Huang, Feifei; Guo, Yanyan; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Junjie

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, mid-infrared 2 μm emission properties and energy transfer mechanism were investigated in Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped silicate glasses with optimized extra-low hydroxyl content ∂OH- (0.73 cm-1). The intensity parameters Ωt (t = 2, 4, 6) were calculated from the measured absorption spectra based on the Judd-Ofelt theory. The energy transfer efficiency from the Er3+:4I13/2 level to the Tm3+:3F4 level was calculated and reached up to 91.2% under 980 nm LD pumps and quantum efficiency is 63%. Meanwhile, the 1.85 μm band stimulated absorption and emission cross-sections of Tm3+:3F4 → 3H6 transitions were also obtained and analyzed. In addition, the measured ΔT (evaluate the glass forming ability) is as high as 297 °C, which shows that the silicate glass (SBET) possess good thermal stability. Hence, all of the present investigations indicate that the Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped silicate glasses have potential applications in 2 μm laser materials and may provide beneficial guide for investigation of population behaviors of Tm3+ ions at 2 μm emissions.

  11. Xe2 gerade Rydberg states observed in the afterglow of a microplasma by laser spectroscopy of a^3 {Σ }_u^ + ( {1_u,O_u^ - }) absorption in the green (545-555 nm) and near-infrared (675-800 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, C. J.; Galvin, T. C.; Eden, J. G.

    2014-06-01

    Bound←bound transitions of the Xe dimer at small internuclear separation (R < 4.0 Å) have been observed in the 545-555 nm and 675-800 nm spectral regions by laser spectroscopy in the afterglow of a pulsed Xe microplasma with a volume of ˜160 nl. Transient suppression of Xe2 A^1 {Σ }_u^ + ( {O_u^ + }) to X^1 {Σ }_g^ + ( {O_g^ + }) emission in the vacuum ultraviolet (˜172 nm), induced by laser excitation of {Ω }_g leftarrow a^3 {Σ }_u^ + ( {1_u,O_u^ - }) [Rydberg←Rydberg] transitions of the molecule, has confirmed the existence of structure between 720 and 770 nm (reported by Killeen and Eden [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 6048 (1986)]) but also reveals red-degraded vibrational bands extending to wavelengths beyond 800 nm. Spectral simulations based on calculations of Franck-Condon factors for assumed {Ω }_g leftarrow a^3 {Σ }_u^ + transitions involving Ω = 0±,1 gerade Rydberg states suggest that the upper level primarily responsible for the observed spectrum is an Ω = 1 state correlated, in the separated atom limit, with Xe(5p6 1S0) + Xe(5p5 6p) and built on a predominantly A2Π3/2g molecular ion core. Specifically, the spectroscopic constants for the upper state of the 1_g leftarrow 1_u,O_u^ ± absorptive transitions are determined to be Te = 13 000 ± 150 cm-1, ω _e^' = 120 ± 10 cm^{ - 1}, ω _e^' x_e^' = 1.1 ± 0.4 cm^{ - 1}, De = 3300 ± 300 cm-1, and {Δ }R_e = R_e^' - R_e^' ' } = 0.3 ± 0.1 {Å} which are in general agreement with the theoretical predictions of the pseudopotential hole-particle formalism, developed by Jonin and Spiegelmann [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 3059 (2002)], for both the (5)1g and ( 3)O_g^ + states of Xe2. These spectra exhibit the most extensive vibrational development, and provide evidence for the first molecular core-switching transition, observed to date for any of the rare gas dimers at small R (<4 Ǻ). Experiments in the green (545-555 nm) also provide improved absorption spectra, relative to data reported in 1986 and 1999

  12. Determination of Optical-Field Ionization Dynamics in Plasmas through the Direct Measurement of the Optical Phase Change

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Omenetto, G.; Rodriguez, G.; Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Downer, C.

    1999-07-16

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detailed dynamics of an atom in a strong laser field is rich in both interesting physics and potential applications. The goal of this project was to develop a technique for characterizing high-field laser-plasma interactions with femtosecond resolution based on the direct measurement of the phase change of an optical pulse. The authors developed the technique of Multi-pulse Interferometric Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (MI-FROG), which recovers (to all orders) the phase difference between pumped and unpumped probe pulses, enabling the determination of sub-pulsewidth time-resolved phase and frequency shifts impressed by a pump pulse on a weak probe pulse. Using MI-FROG, the authors obtained the first quantitative measurements of high-field ionization rates in noble gases and diatomic molecules. They obtained agreement between the measured ionization rates an d those calculated for the noble gases and diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen using a one-dimensional fluid model and rates derived from tunneling theory. However, much higher rates are measured for diatomic oxygen than predicted by tunneling theory calculations.

  13. Ternary bulk heterojunction solar cells: addition of soluble NIR dyes for photocurrent generation beyond 800 nm.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bogyu; Bloking, Jason T; Ponec, Andrew; McGehee, Michael D; Sellinger, Alan

    2014-05-14

    The incorporation of a tert-butyl-functionalized silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis(trihexylsilyloxide) dye molecule as a third component in a ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cell containing P3HT (donor) and PC60BM (acceptor) results in increased NIR absorption. This absorption yields an increase of up to 40% in the short-circuit current and up to 19% in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in photovoltaic devices. Two-dimensional grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (2-D GIWAXS) experiments show that compared to the unfunctionalized dye the tert-butyl functionalization enables an increase in the volume fraction of the dye molecule that can be incorporated before the device performance decreases. Quantum efficiency and absorption spectra also indicate that, at dye concentrations above about 8 wt %, there is an approximately 30 nm red shift in the main silicon naphthalocyanine absorption peak, allowing further dye addition to contribute to added photocurrent. This peak shift is not observed in blends with unfunctionalized dye molecules, however. This simple approach of using ternary blends may be generally applicable for use in other unoptimized BHJ systems towards increasing PCEs beyond current levels. Furthermore, this may offer a new approach towards OPVs that absorb NIR photons without having to design, synthesize, and purify complicated donor-acceptor polymers.

  14. Super-achromatic microprobe for ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic OCT imaging at 800 nm (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wu; Alemohammad, Milad; Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Shaoyong; Li, Xingde

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report a super-achromatic microprobe made with fiber-optic ball lens to enable ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic OCT imaging. An axial resolution of ~2.4 µm (in air) can be achieved with a 7-fs Ti:Sapphire laser. The microprobe has minimal astigmatism which affords a high transverse resolution of ~5.6 µm. The miniaturized microprobe has an outer diameter of ~520 µm including the encasing metal guard and can be used to image small luminal organs. The performance of the ultrahigh-resolution OCT microprobe was demonstrated by imaging rat esophagus, guinea pig esophagus, and mouse rectum in vivo.

  15. Note: Fiber optic transport probe for Hall measurements under light and magnetic field at low temperatures: Case study of a two dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, P. P. S.; Gupta, Anurag; Kumar, Pramod; Dogra, Anjana; Budhani, R. C.

    2015-05-15

    A fiber optic based probe is designed and developed for electrical transport measurements in presence of quasi-monochromatic (360–800 nm) light, varying temperature (T = 1.8–300 K), and magnetic field (B = 0–7 T). The probe is tested for the resistivity and Hall measurements performed on a LaAlO{sub 3}–SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface system with a conducting two dimensional electron gas.

  16. Contactless thickness measurement of micromachined silicon sensors with transmitted infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Norbert E.

    Relative transmission of infrared light has been used to measure thickness of micromachined silicon diaphragm sensors. The transmission was measured on an infrared microscope equipped with a water cooled illuminator and with 800 nm and 900 nm narrow band pass filters. Calibration tests were made by plotting the output of a photodetector on a 0 to 100 scale against the thickness of the sensors measured with an electronic dial gage. The results are compared against theoretical relative transmission curves. Factors affecting accuracy and the measuring error band are discussed.

  17. Planned Efficiency Measurements of STIRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Vladislav; McKenna, Casey; Yuan, Deqian; Gasparik, Jessica; Metcalf, Harold

    2015-05-01

    Our measurements of the absolute efficiency of using STIRAP to populate Rydberg states of He have been limited by the Doppler detuning associated with the divergence of the atomic beam that crosses perpendicular to our laser beams. The limitation is exacerbated when both laser beams co-propagate, compounding these Doppler shifts. We plan to have them counter-propagate and thereby ameliorate this effect. He 23S atoms in a LN2 temperature thermal beam are coupled to the 33P state by λ = 389 nm light (blue), and that state is coupled to Rydberg states by ~ 800 nm (red) light. The anti-parallel laser beams are arranged so that the atoms encounter the red light first (counter-intuitive order for STIRAP) partially overlapping with the blue. We have observed interference among the atomic transitions by varying the light polarization, and are planning further studies concerning these internal atomic interferometry phenomena. Supported by ONR and Dept. of Education GAANN.

  18. Measuring the temporal coherence of a high harmonic generation setup employing a Fourier transform spectrometer for the VUV/XUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terschlüsen, J. A.; Agåker, M.; Svanqvist, M.; Plogmaker, S.; Nordgren, J.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Siegbahn, H.; Söderström, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this experiment we used an 800 nm laser to generate high-order harmonics in a gas cell filled with Argon. Of those photons, a harmonic with 42 eV was selected by using a time-preserving grating monochromator. Employing a modified Mach-Zehnder type Fourier transform spectrometer for the VUV/XUV it was possible to measure the temporal coherence of the selected photons to about 6 fs. We demonstrated that not only could this kind of measurement be performed with a Fourier transform spectrometer, but also with some spatial resolution without modifying the XUV source or the spectrometer.

  19. Wavelength selection in measuring red blood cell aggregation based on light transmittance.

    PubMed

    Uyuklu, Mehmet; Canpolat, Murat; Meiselman, Herbert J; Baskurt, Oguz K

    2011-11-01

    The reversible aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is of current basic science and clinical interest. Using a flow channel and light transmittance (LT) through RBC suspensions, we have examined the effects of wavelength (500 to 900 nm) on the static and dynamic aspects of RBC aggregation for normal blood and suspensions with reduced or enhanced aggregation; the effects of oxygenation were also explored. Salient observations include: 1. significant effects of wavelength on aggregation parameters reflecting the extent of aggregation (i.e., number of RBC per aggregate); 2. no significant effects of wavelength on parameters reflecting the time course of RBC aggregation; 3. a prominent influence of hemoglobin oxygen saturation on both extent and time-course related aggregation parameters measured at wavelengths less than 700 nm, but only on the time-course at 800 nm; and 4. the power of parameters in detecting a given alteration of RBC aggregation is affected by wavelength, in general being greater at higher wavelengths. It is recommended that light sources with wavelengths around 800 nm be used in instruments for measuring RBC aggregation via LT.

  20. Wavelength selection in measuring red blood cell aggregation based on light transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyuklu, Mehmet; Canpolat, Murat; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Baskurt, Oguz K.

    2011-11-01

    The reversible aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is of current basic science and clinical interest. Using a flow channel and light transmittance (LT) through RBC suspensions, we have examined the effects of wavelength (500 to 900 nm) on the static and dynamic aspects of RBC aggregation for normal blood and suspensions with reduced or enhanced aggregation; the effects of oxygenation were also explored. Salient observations include: 1. significant effects of wavelength on aggregation parameters reflecting the extent of aggregation (i.e., number of RBC per aggregate); 2. no significant effects of wavelength on parameters reflecting the time course of RBC aggregation; 3. a prominent influence of hemoglobin oxygen saturation on both extent and time-course related aggregation parameters measured at wavelengths less than 700 nm, but only on the time-course at 800 nm; and 4. the power of parameters in detecting a given alteration of RBC aggregation is affected by wavelength, in general being greater at higher wavelengths. It is recommended that light sources with wavelengths around 800 nm be used in instruments for measuring RBC aggregation via LT.

  1. Receiver performance of laser ranging measurements between the Lunar Observer and a subsatellite for lunar gravity studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1992-01-01

    The optimal receiver for a direct detection laser ranging system for slow Doppler frequency shift measurement is shown to consist of a phase tracking loop which can be implemented approximately as a phase lock loop with a 2nd or 3rd order loop filter. The laser transmitter consists of an AlGaAs laser diode at a wavelength of about 800 nm and is intensity modulated by a sinewave. The receiver performance is shown to be limited mainly by the preamplifier thermal noise when a silicon avalanche photodiode is used. A high speed microchannel plate photomultiplier tube is shown to outperform a silicon APD despite its relatively low quantum efficiency at wavelengths near 800 nm. The maximum range between the Lunar Observer and the subsatellite for lunar gravity studies is shown to be about 620 km when using a state-of-the-art silicon APD and about 1000 km when using a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube in order to achieve a relative velocity measurement accuracy of 1 millimeter per second. Other parameters such as the receiver time base jitter and drift also limit performance and have to be considered in the design of an actual system.

  2. Chiral cavity ring down polarimetry: Chirality and magnetometry measurements using signal reversals

    SciTech Connect

    Bougas, Lykourgos; Sofikitis, Dimitris; Katsoprinakis, Georgios E.; Spiliotis, Alexandros K.; Rakitzis, T. Peter; Tzallas, Paraskevas; Loppinet, Benoit

    2015-09-14

    We present the theory and experimental details for chiral-cavity-ring-down polarimetry and magnetometry, based on ring cavities supporting counterpropagating laser beams. The optical-rotation symmetry is broken by the presence of both chiral and Faraday birefringence, giving rise to signal reversals which allow rapid background subtractions. We present the measurement of the specific rotation at 800 nm of vapors of α-pinene, 2-butanol, and α-phellandrene, the measurement of optical rotation of sucrose solutions in a flow cell, the measurement of the Verdet constant of fused silica, and measurements and theoretical treatment of evanescent-wave optical rotation at a prism surface. Therefore, these signal-enhancing and signal-reversing methods open the way for ultrasensitive polarimetry measurements in gases, liquids and solids, and at surfaces.

  3. Measurements of scattering and absorption in mammalian cell suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Mourant, J.R.; Johnson, T.M.; Freyer, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    During the past several years a range of spectroscopies, including fluorescence and elastic-scatter spectroscopy, have been investigated for optically based detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. Both elastic-scatter and fluorescence signals depend, in part, on scattering and absorption properties of the cells in the tissue. Therefore an understanding of the scattering and absorption properties of cells is a necessary prerequisite for understanding and developing these techniques. Cell suspensions provide a simple model with which to begin studying the absorption and scattering properties of cells. In this study we have made preliminary measurements of the scattering and absorption properties of suspensions of mouse mammary carcinoma cells (EMT6) over a broad wavelength range (380 nm to 800 nm).

  4. Generation of Terahertz Radiation from Fe-doped InGaAsP Using 800 nm to 1550 nm Pulsed Laser Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatem, O.; Freeman, J. R.; Cunningham, J. E.; Cannard, P. J.; Robertson, M. J.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Moodie, D. G.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate efficient generation of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation by pulsed excitation, at wavelengths between 800 and 1550 nm, of photoconductive (PC) switches fabricated using Fe-doped InGaAsP wafers, grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Compared to our previous studies of Fe-doped InGaAs wafers, Fe:InGaAsP wafers exhibited five times greater dark resistivity to give a value of 10 kΩ cm, and Fe:InGaAsP PC switches produced five times higher THz power emission. The effect of Fe-doping concentration (between 1E16 and 1.5E17 cm-3) on optical light absorption (between 800 and 1600 nm), on resistivity, and on THz emission is also discussed.

  5. A Remote Sensing Technique For Combustion Gas Temperature Measurement In Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charagundla, S. R.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    A remote sensing technique, based on the principles of emission spectroscopy, is being developed for temperature measurements in black liquor recovery boilers. Several tests have been carried out, both in the laboratory and at a number of recovery boilers, to characterize the emission spectra in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 800 nm. These tests have pointed out the potential for temperature measurements using the line intensity ratio technique based on a pair of emission lines at 404.4 nm and 766.5 nm observed in the recovery boiler combustion zone; these emission lines are due to potassium, a common constituent found in all the black liquors. Accordingly, a fiber optics based four-color system has been developed. This in-situ, nonintrusive temperature measurement technique, together with some of the more recent results, is described in this paper.

  6. Measuring of urban ultrafine aerosol as a part of regular air pollution monitoring activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejkrlík, Libor; Plachá, Helena

    2015-04-01

    Number size distribution of UFP has been measured since June 2012 to present time (end of 2014) at a background urban site in Northern Bohemia in the frame of UltraSchwarz Project. The project sustainability guarantees at least five years further measuring thus this highly specific activity already becomes part of existing air pollution monitoring system of Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. Number concentrations of UFP were measured by SMPS in a diameter range of 10 to 800 nm in 7 channels with time resolution of 10 minutes. For the purposes of this study the data were re-arranged into series of one-hour means in three size categories: nucleation mode (10-30 nm), Aitken mode (30-100 nm) and accumulation mode (100-800 nm). At the same measuring site 7 other air pollutants (PM1-BC, NO, NOX, NO2, O3, PM10 and SO2) were measured with identical time resolution. The successive daily courses of submicron particles in three size modes as well as of seven other ambient air pollutants were drawn in the form of 3D surface diagrams expressing different behavior of specific substances in the course of 26 months of continuous measuring campaign, allowing for analysis of both diurnal and seasonal changes. The three modes of UFP manifest diverse pictures, the nucleation mode is apparent mainly during warm seasons, the particles in Aitken mode behave rather indifferently to the period of the year and the accumulation mode has close relationship to coarse particles. Month by month correlation analysis indicate that nucleation mode nanoparticles are positively correlated especially with increasing O3 and SO2 concentration and that there exists connection between Aitken and accumulation modes and nitrogen oxides. In order to better understand fine time patterns we plan to calculate moving correlation indices over shorter time periods. Good idea would also be to make use of large database of data from nearby stations of CHMI to analyze the role of meteorological conditions.

  7. In-vivo reflection spectroscopy measurements in pig brain during stereotactic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonsson, Johan; Eriksson, Ola; Wardell, Karin

    2003-07-01

    Radio frequency (RF) lesioning in the human brain is a common surgical therapy for relieving severe pain as well as for movement disorders such as Parkinsonia. During the procedure a small electrode is introduced by stereotactic means towards a target area localized by CT or MRI. An RF-current is applied through the electrode tip when positioned in the target area. The tissue in the proximity of the tip is heated by the current and finally coagulated. The overall aim of this study was to improve the RF-technique and its ability to estimate lesion size by means of optical methods. Therefore, the optical differences between white and gray matter, as well as lesioned and unlesioned tissue were investigated. Reflection spectroscopy measurements in the range of 450-800 nm were conducted on fully anesthetized pigs during stereotactic RF-lesioning (n=6). Light from a tungsten lamp was guided to the electrode tip through optical fibers, inserted along a 2 mm in diameter monopolar RF-electrode. Measurements were performed in steps of 0-10 mm from the target in each hemisphere towards the entry point of the skull. In the central gray of the porcine brain measurements were performed both before and after the creation of a lesion. A total of 55 spectra were collected during this study. Correlation to tissue type was done using post-operative MR-images. The spectral signature for white and gray matter differs significantly for the entire spectral range of 450-800 nm. Pre- and post-lesioning reflection spectroscopy showed the largest differences below 600 and above 620 nm, which implies that lasers within this wavelength range may be useful for in-vivo measurements of tissue optical changes during RF-lesioning.

  8. Optoelectronic measurement of x-ray synchrotron pulses: A proof of concept demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Stephen M.; Mahmood, Aamer; Caffee, Marc; Savikhin, Sergei; Dufresne, Eric M.; Wen, Haidan; Li, Yuelin

    2013-02-01

    Optoelectronic detection using photoconductive coplanar stripline devices has been applied to measuring the time profile of x-ray synchrotron pulses, a proof of concept demonstration that may lead to improved time-resolved x-ray studies. Laser sampling of current vs time delay between 12 keV x-ray and 800 nm laser pulses reveal the ˜50 ps x-ray pulse width convoluted with the ˜200 ps lifetime of the conduction band carriers. For GaAs implanted with 8 MeV protons, a time profile closer to the x-ray pulse width is observed. The protons create defects over the entire depth sampled by the x-rays, trapping the x-ray excited conduction electrons and minimizing lifetime broadening of the electrical excitation.

  9. Measuring $\

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  10. 10 GHz surface impedance measurements of (Y sub 9 Er)BaCuO films produced by MOCVD, laser ablation, and sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Luine, J.; Daly, K.; Hu, R.; Kain, A.; Lee, A.; Manasevit, H.; Pettiette-Hall, C.; Simon, R.; St. John, D.; Wagner, M. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a parallel-plate resonator technique previously used to measure microwave surface resistance R{sub s}(T) extended to also measure absolute penetration depth {lambda}(T). Measurements of both quantities near 10 GHz from 4.2 K to Tc are reported for ErBaCuO thin films produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and YBaCuO think films produced by laser ablation and single-target off-axis sputtering. All the films were made at TRW. Each production method gives rise to films whose surface resistance is below 1 milliohm at temperatures below 40K. The low temperature penetration depths range from 250 nm for the laser ablation and sputtered films to 800 nm for the MOCVD films. The penetration depths in all cases increase with temperature according to the Gorter-Casimir temperature dependence.

  11. Photocurrent spectrum measurements of doped black silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. K.; Ahmar, H.; Chen, B.; Wang, W.; Alfano, R.

    2011-03-01

    Photocurrent spectra of doped black silicon (BSi) samples were investigated using metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure. The BSi samples were fabricated through femtosecond-laser doping method. Two pieces of samples were annealed in nitrogen ambient for 30 minutes at different temperatures 350°C and 700°C. One control sample remains without annealing. It was found that the doped black silicon samples have an electron mobility as low as 40~50 cm2/V s but a conductivity as high as 4 ~ 5 Scm-1. The high conductivity allows making electrodes by directly contacting metal stripes onto the black silicon surfaces. For the sample without annealing, its photocurrent spectrum covers a wavelength range from 400 nm to 1200 nm. For the sample annealed at 350°C, no significant improvement was found except disappearance of a defect induced photocurrent peak at 660 nm. Further annealing at 700°C, as observed for the third sample, was found to greatly help enhance photoresponse in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The photocurrent spectra under different biases were also measured. With the increasing of bias from 0 to 0.6 V, the peak photoresponse was enhanced by about 5 times while large dark current brought in substantial noise level as well.

  12. The measured temperature and pressure of EDC37 detonation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. W.; Richley, J. C.; Sutton, B. D.; Price, E.; Ota, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the experimentally determined temperature and pressure of the detonation products of EDC37; a HMX based conventional high explosive. These measurements were performed on a series of cylinder tests. The temperature measurements were undertaken at the end of the cylinder with optical fibres observing the bare explosive through a LiF window. The temperature of the products was measured for approximately 2 µs using single colour pyrometry, multicolour pyrometry and also using time integrated optical emission spectroscopy with the results from all three methods being broadly consistent. The peak temperature was found to be ≈ 3600 K dropping to ≈ 2400 K at the end of the measurement window. The spectroscopy was time integrated and showed that the emission spectra can be approximated using a grey body curve between 520 - 800 nm with no emission or absorption lines being observed. The pressure was obtained using an analytical method which requires the velocity of the expanding cylinder wall and the velocity of detonation. The pressure drops from an initial CJ value of ≈ 38 GPa to ≈ 4 GPa after 2 µs.

  13. Assessment of Vegetation Stress Using Reflectance or Fluorescence Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, P. K. E.; Middleton, E. M.; McMurtrey, J. E.; Corp, L. A.; Chappelle, E. W.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods for large-scale vegetation monitoring rely on multispectral remote sensing, which has serious limitation for the detection of vegetation stress. To contribute to the establishment of a generalized spectral approach for vegetation stress detection, this study compares the ability of high-spectral resolution reflectance (R) and fluorescence (F) foliar measurements to detect vegetation changes associated with common environmental factors affecting plant growth and productivity. To obtain a spectral dataset from a broad range of species and stress conditions, plant material from three experiments was examined, including (i) corn, nitrogen (N) deficiency/excess; (ii) soybean, elevated carbon dioxide, and ozone levels; and (iii) red maple, augmented ultraviolet irradiation. Fluorescence and R spectra (400-800 nm) were measured on the same foliar samples in conjunction with photosynthetic pigments, carbon, and N content For separation of a wide range of treatment levels, hyperspectral (5-10 nm) R indices were superior compared with F or broadband R indices, with the derivative parameters optimal results. For the detection of changes in vegetation physiology, hyperspectral indices can provide a significant improvement over broadband indices. The relationship of treatment levels to R was linear, whereas that to F was curvilinear. Using reflectance measurements, it was not possible to identify the unstressed vegetation condition, which was accomplished in all three experiments using F indices. Large-scale monitoring of vegetation condition and the detection of vegetation stress could be improved by using hyperspectral R and F information, a possible strategy for future remote sensing missions.

  14. Measurements of the optical properties of tissue in conjunction with photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Annika M. K.; Berg, Roger; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    1995-07-01

    A simple optical dosimeter was used to measure the light intensity in rat liver and muscle in vivo with fibers positioned at different depths to investigate whether the light penetration changed during photodynamic therapy (PDT). The results were then correlated with measurements of the three optical-interaction coefficients mu s, mu a, and g for wavelengths in the range 500-800 nm for PDT-treated and nontreated rat liver and muscle tissue in vitro. A distinct increase in the absorption coefficient was seen immediately after treatment, in agreement with the decreasing light intensity observed during the treatment, as measured with the optical dosimeter. The collimated transmittance was measured with a narrow-beam setup, and an optical integrating sphere was used to measure the diffuse reflectance and total transmittance of the samples. The corresponding optical properties were obtained by spline interpolation of Monte Carlo-simulated data. To ensure that the measured values were correct, we performed calibration measurements with suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and ink.

  15. Absolute fluorescence measurements > 1000 nm: setup design, calibration and standards (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resch-Genger, Ute; Würth, Christian; Pauli, Jutta; Hatami, Soheil; Kaiser, Martin

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in optical reporters like semiconductor quantum dots and upconversion nanophosphors with emission < 1000 nm for bioanalysis, medical diagnostics, and safety barcodes and hence, in reliable fluorescence measurements in this wavelength region, e.g., for the comparison of material performance and the rational design of new nanomaterials with improved properties [1-4]. The performance of fluorescence measurements < 800 nm and especially < 1000 nm is currently hampered by the lack of suitable methods and standards for the simple determination of the wavelength-dependent spectral responsivity of fluorescence measuring systems and the control of measured emission spectra and intensities [3-5]. This is of special relevance for nanocrystalline emitters like quantum dots and rods as well as for upconversion nanocrystals, where surface states and the accessibility of emissive states by quenchers largely control accomplishable quantum yields and hence, signal sizes and detection sensitivities from the reporter side. Here, we present the design of an integrating sphere setup for the absolute measurement of emission spectra and quantum yields in the wavelength region of 650 to 1600 nm and its calibration as well as examples for potential fluorescence standards from different reporter classes for the control of the reliability of such measurements [5]. This includes new spectral fluorescence standards for the wavelength region of 650 nm to 1000 nm as well as a set of quantum yield standards covering the wavelength region from 400 nm to 1000 nm.

  16. In situ measurements and analysis of apparent optical properties in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Jones, Burton

    2015-04-01

    Much of the Red Sea is considered as a typical oligotrophic sea. Its optical properties are investigated utilizing the data collected several cruises during 2014. Apparent Optical Property (AOP) profiles were obtained with a Satlantic HyperPro instrument is deployed in free-fall profiler mode to measure upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance in the spectral range of 350 to 800 nm with simultaneous measurements of conductivity, temperature, depth, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and optical backscattering coefficient in red band. These measurements will be used to describe apparent optical properties in the Red Sea, which is not yet studied. Spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) is derived from our measurements. The Rrs determines how the light is backscattered of the water that can be detected by satellite ocean color sensor and Kd determines an intensity of light penetration into the water column. Thus, the results obtained from these analyses will be exploited to develop specific light models for the Red Sea.

  17. ULTRAFAST MEASUREMENT OF THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SHOCKED NICKEL AND LASER HEATED GOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D. J.; Reho, J. H.; Moore, David S.; Gahagan, K. A.; Rabie, R. L.; McGrane, S.

    2001-01-01

    We have used high-resolution Frequency Domain Interferometry (FDI) to make the first ultrafast measurement of shock-induced changes in the optical properties of thin nickel ({approx}500 nm) targets. Data taken at several angles of incidence allowed the separation of optical effects from material motion, yielding an effective complex index for the shocked material. In contrast to our previous studies of aluminum, measurements with an 800 nm probe wavelength found a phase shift attributable to optical property changes with the same sign as that due to surface motion, during an 11.5 GPa shock breakout. A similar experiment was attempted with thin gold films ({approx}180 nm) using Ultrafast Spatial Interferometry (USI). However, since the electron-phonon coupling in gold is extremely weak, a shock is observed as it 'forms'. Ballistic electrons and electron-electron equilibrium cause fast heating of the electrons in the entire thickness of the thin film, followed by lattice excitation through electron-phonon coupling, eventually leading to melt and frustrated thermal expansion yielding the observed surface motion. We suggest that these experiments offer a new path for observation of phase changes or for temperature measurements, by allowing a determination of the complex index under dynamic loading conditions and comparing the measured values to those obtained under static conditions.

  18. Removal of surface-reflected light for the measurement of remote-sensing reflectance from an above-surface platform.

    PubMed

    Lee, Zhongping; Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Mobley, Curtis; Arnone, Robert

    2010-12-06

    Using hyperspectral measurements made in the field, we show that the effective sea-surface reflectance ρ (defined as the ratio of the surface-reflected radiance at the specular direction corresponding to the downwelling sky radiance from one direction) varies not only for different measurement scans, but also can differ by a factor of 8 between 400 nm and 800 nm for the same scan. This means that the derived water-leaving radiance (or remote-sensing reflectance) can be highly inaccurate if a spectrally constant ρ value is applied (although errors can be reduced by carefully filtering measured raw data). To remove surface-reflected light in field measurements of remote sensing reflectance, a spectral optimization approach was applied, with results compared with those from remote-sensing models and from direct measurements. The agreement from different determinations suggests that reasonable results for remote sensing reflectance of clear blue water to turbid brown water are obtainable from above-surface measurements, even under conditions of high waves.

  19. Study on the water content measurement of tomatoes by near infrared technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Huanyu; Ying, Yibin; Bao, Yingshi

    2005-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a promising technique for nondestructive measurement of farm products quality measurement and information acquisition. The objective of this research was to study the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for nondestructive measurement of the water content of tomato leaves. A total of 120 leaves were collected as experimental materials, 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. In order to set up a calibration model, NIR spectral data were collected in the spectral region between 800 nm and 2500 nm by NIR spectrometer of Nicolet Corporation, and water content of tomato leaves by a drying chest, four different mathematical treatments were used in spectrums processing: different wavelength range, baseline correction, smoothing, first and second derivative. Depending on data preprocessing and PLS analysis, we can get best prediction model when we select original spectra by baseline correction at full wavelength range (800-2500nm), the best model of water content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.91, a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.731 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R) value of 0.96265. It is conclude that the FTNIR method with Smart Near-IR UpDRIFT accessory can accurate estimate the water content in tomato leaves.

  20. Platinum plasmonic nanostructure arrays for massively parallel single-molecule detection based on enhanced fluorescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Obara, Takayuki; Itabashi, Naoshi; Imai, Kazumichi

    2011-11-04

    We fabricated platinum bowtie nanostructure arrays producing fluorescence enhancement and evaluated their performance using two-photon photoluminescence and single-molecule fluorescence measurements. A comprehensive selection of suitable materials was explored by electromagnetic simulation and Pt was chosen as the plasmonic material for visible light excitation near 500 nm, which is preferable for multicolor dye-labeling applications like DNA sequencing. The observation of bright photoluminescence (λ = 500-600 nm) from each Pt nanostructure, induced by irradiation at 800 nm with a femtosecond laser pulse, clearly indicates that a highly enhanced local field is created near the Pt nanostructure. The attachment of a single dye molecule was attempted between the Pt triangles of each nanostructure by using selective immobilization chemistry. The fluorescence intensities of the single dye molecule localized on the nanostructures were measured. A highly enhanced fluorescence, which was increased by a factor of 30, was observed. The two-photon photoluminescence intensity and fluorescence intensity showed qualitatively consistent gap size dependence. However, the average fluorescence enhancement factor was rather repressed even in the nanostructure with the smallest gap size compared to the large growth of photoluminescence. The variation of the position of the dye molecule attached to the nanostructure may influence the wide distribution of the fluorescence enhancement factor and cause the rather small average value of the fluorescence enhancement factor.

  1. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool to measure the absorption coefficient in skin: system calibration.

    PubMed

    Karsten, A E; Singh, A; Karsten, P A; Braun, M W H

    2013-02-01

    An individualised laser skin treatment may enhance the treatment and reduces risks and side-effects. The optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients) are important parameters in the propagation of laser light in skin tissue. The differences in the melanin content of different skin phototypes influence the absorption of the light. The absorption coefficient at the treatment wavelength for an individual can be determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, using a probe containing seven fibres. Six of the fibres deliver the light to the measurement site and the central fibre collects the diffused reflected light. This is an in vivo technique, offering benefits for near-real-time results. Such a probe, with an effective wavelength band from 450 to 800 nm, was used to calibrate skin-simulating phantoms consisting of intralipid and ink. The calibration constants were used to calculate the absorption coefficients from the diffuse reflectance measurements of three volunteers (skin phototypes, II, IV and V) for sun-exposed and non-exposed areas on the arm.

  2. An automated research facility for measuring thermoluminescence emission spectra using an optical multichannel analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piters, T. M.; Meulemans, W. H.; Bos, A. J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A facility for research into the mechanism of thermoluminescence (TL) is described. The facility comprises three units: an annealing oven, an irradiator, and a TL-emission spectrometer. Crystals or hot-pressed chips can be moved from and to the mentioned units by an automated sample changer. All units operate automatically and are controlled by a personal computer program. The spectrometer is based on a dispersive grating and an intensified diode array (512 active elements) and covers the 200-800-nm wavelength range. The wavelength resolution of the spectrometer is 6 nm when a 25-μm-wide entrance slit is used and 29 nm when a 1-mm-wide entrance slit is used. The sensitive spectrometer could measure emission spectra of CaSO4:Dy (TLD-200) irradiated at an absorbed dose as low as 3 mGy at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1 for LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) this ratio was obtained at 75 mGy. A detailed description is given how measured data can be related to spectra predicted by a model, taking into account all system aberrations. Spectra of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) irradiated to an absorbed dose of 5 Gy are analyzed according to the Franck-Condon model for light emission. Two emission bands with peak energies of 3.01 and 2.60 eV at 463 K have been found.

  3. Noninvasive method for measuring local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue using wide gap second derivative near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Myers, Dean E; Anderson, LeAnn D; Seifert, Roxanne P; Ortner, Joseph P; Cooper, Chris E; Beilman, Greg J; Mowlem, John D

    2005-01-01

    A simple continuous wave near-infrared algorithm for estimating local hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue (%StO2) is described using single depth attenuation measurements at 680, 720, 760, and 800 nm. Second derivative spectroscopy was used to reduce light scattering effects, chromophores with constant absorption, baseline/instrumentation drift, and movement artifacts. Unlike previous second derivative methods which focused primarily on measuring deoxyhemoglobin concentration; a wide 40 nm wavelength gap used for calculating second derivative attenuation significantly improved sensitivity to oxyhemoglobin absorption. Scaled second derivative attenuation at 720 nm was correlated to in vitro hemoglobin oxygen saturation to generate a %StO2 calibration curve. The calibration curve was insensitive to total hemoglobin, optical path length, and optical scattering. Measurement error due to normal levels of carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and water absorption were less than 10 %StO2 units. Severe methemoglobinemia or edema combined with low blood volume could cause StO2 errors to exceed 10 StO2 units. Both a broadband and commercial four-wavelength spectrometer (InSpectra) measured %StO2. The InSpectra tissue spectrometer readily detected limb ischemia on 26 human volunteers for hand, forearm, and leg muscles. A strong linear correlation, r2>0.93, between StO2 and microvascular %SO2 was observed for isolated animal hind limb, kidney, and heart.

  4. Ultrafast optical measurements of surface waves on a patterned layered nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Brian; Bjornsson, Matteo; Connolly, Aine; Mahat, Sushant; Rachmilowitz, Bryan; Antonelli, George; Myers, Alan; Yoo, Hui-Jae; Singh, Kanwal; King, Sean

    2015-03-01

    We report ultrafast optical pump-probe measurements of 12 - 54 GHz surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on patterned layered nanostructures. These very high frequency SAWs were generated and detected on the following patterned film stack: 25 nm physically vapor deposited TiN / 180 nm porous PECVD-grown a-SiOC:H dielectric / 12 nm non-porous PECVD-grown a-SiOC:H etch-stop / 100 nm CVD-grown a-SiO2 / Si (100) substrate. The TiN layer was dry plasma etched to form lines of rectangular cross section with pitches of 420 nm, 250 nm, 180 nm, and 168 nm and the lines were oriented parallel to the [110] direction on the wafer surface. The absorption of ultrafast pulses from a Ti:sapphire oscillator operating at 800 nm generated SAWs that were detected by time-delayed probe pulses from the same oscillator via a reflectivity change (ΔR) . In each of the four cases the SAW frequency increased with decreasing pitch, but not in a linear way as had been seen in previous experiments of this sort. By comparing the results with mechanical simulations, we present evidence for the detection of different types of SAWs in each case, including Rayleigh-like waves, Sezawa waves, and leaky or radiative waves. This work was supported by NSF Award DMR1206681.

  5. Instrumentation and calibration methods for the multichannel measurement of phase and amplitude in optical tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nissilae, Ilkka; Noponen, Tommi; Kotilahti, Kalle; Katila, Toivo; Lipiaeinen, Lauri; Tarvainen, Tanja; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon

    2005-04-01

    In this article, we describe the multichannel implementation of an intensity modulated optical tomography system developed at Helsinki University of Technology. The system has two time-multiplexed wavelengths, 16 time-multiplexed source fibers and 16 parallel detection channels. The gain of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) is individually adjusted during the measurement sequence to increase the dynamic range of the system by 10{sup 4}. The PMT used has a high quantum efficiency in the near infrared (8% at 800 nm), a fast settling time, and low hysteresis. The gain of the PMT is set so that the dc anode current is below 80 nA, which allows the measurement of phase independently of the intensity. The system allows measurements of amplitude at detected intensities down to 1 fW, which is sufficient for transmittance measurements of the female breast, the forearm, and the brain of early pre-term infants. The mean repeatability of phase and the logarithm of amplitude (ln A) at 100 MHz were found to be 0.08 deg. and 0.004, respectively, in a measurement of a 7 cm phantom with an imaging time of 5 s per source and source optical power of 8 mW. We describe a three-step method of calibrating the phase and amplitude measurements so that the absolute absorption and scatter in tissue may be measured. A phantom with two small cylindrical targets and a second phantom with three rods are measured and reconstructions made from the calibrated data are shown and compared with reconstructions from simulated data.

  6. Comparison of spatially and temporally resolved diffuse-reflectance measurement systems for determination of biomedical optical properties.

    PubMed

    Swartling, Johannes; Dam, Jan S; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2003-08-01

    Time-resolved and spatially resolved measurements of the diffuse reflectance from biological tissue are two well-established techniques for extracting the reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. We have performed a comparison study of the performance of a spatially resolved and a time-resolved instrument at wavelengths 660 and 786 nm and also of an integrating-sphere setup at 550-800 nm. The first system records the diffuse reflectance from a diode laser by means of a fiber bundle probe in contact with the sample. The time-resolved system utilizes picosecond laser pulses and a single-photon-counting detection scheme. We extracted the optical properties by calibration using known standards for the spatially resolved system, by fitting to the diffusion equation for the time-resolved system, and by using an inverse Monte Carlo model for the integrating sphere. The measurements were performed on a set of solid epoxy tissue phantoms. The results showed less than 10% difference in the evaluation of the reduced scattering coefficient among the systems for the phantoms in the range 9-20 cm(-1), and absolute differences of less than 0.05 cm(-1) for the absorption coefficient in the interval 0.05-0.30 cm(-1).

  7. Absolute quantum yield measurement of powder samples.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A

    2012-05-12

    quantum yield calculation. 5. Corrected quantum yield calculation. 6. Chromaticity coordinates calculation using Report Generator program. The Hitachi F-7000 Quantum Yield Measurement System offer advantages for this application, as follows: High sensitivity (S/N ratio 800 or better RMS). Signal is the Raman band of water measured under the following conditions: Ex wavelength 350 nm, band pass Ex and Em 5 nm, response 2 sec), noise is measured at the maximum of the Raman peak. High sensitivity allows measurement of samples even with low quantum yield. Using this system we have measured quantum yields as low as 0.1 for a sample of salicylic acid and as high as 0.8 for a sample of magnesium tungstate. Highly accurate measurement with a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude allows for measurements of both sharp scattering peaks with high intensity, as well as broad fluorescence peaks of low intensity under the same conditions. High measuring throughput and reduced light exposure to the sample, due to a high scanning speed of up to 60,000 nm/minute and automatic shutter function. Measurement of quantum yield over a wide wavelength range from 240 to 800 nm. Accurate quantum yield measurements are the result of collecting instrument spectral response and integrating sphere correction factors before measuring the sample. Large selection of calculated parameters provided by dedicated and easy to use software. During this video we will measure sodium salicylate in powder form which is known to have a quantum yield value of 0.4 to 0.5.

  8. Validity Assessment of Pixel Linear Spectral Mixing Through Laboratory Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasheri, M. R.; Dehnavi, S.; Maghsoudi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of the data collected by hyperspectral imaging systems, it is important to discuss the physics behind the scene radiance field incident on the imaging system. A dominant effect in hyperspectral remote sensing is the mixing of radiant energies contributed from different materials present in a given pixel. The basic assumption of mixture modelling is that within a given scene, the surface is covered by a small number of distinct materials that have relatively constant spectral properties. It is most common to assume that the radiance reflected by different materials in a pixel can spectrally combine in a linear additive manner to produce the pixel radiance/reflectance, even when that might not be the case e.g. where the mixing process leads to nonlinear combinations of the radiance and where the linear assumption fails to hold. This can occur where there is significant relative three-dimensional structure within a given pixel. Without detailed knowledge of the dimensional structure, it can be very difficult to correctly ``un-mix'' the contributions of the various materials. This work aims to evaluate the correctness of the linear assumption in the mixture modelling using some laboratory measurements. Study was conducted using some sheets made of cellulose materials of different colours in 400-800 nm spectral range. Experimental results have shown that a correction term must be applied to the gains and offsets in the linear model. The obtained results can be extended to satellite sensors that acquire images in the above mentioned spectral range.

  9. Light transmission of the ocular media in birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Naoki; Tani, Yuri; Kikuchi, Hideyuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2014-01-01

    Differences in the ultraviolet (UV) cutoff of ocular media between birds and mammals have been revealed by spectrophotometric measurements of the transmission of light wavelengths by the cornea, lens and vitreous body in chickens, crows, quails, rats, rabbits and pigs. The light transmission values of the cornea were shown to be above 50% for wavelengths of 330-800 nm in birds, 300-800 nm in rat and 310-800 nm in mammals except for rat. For the lens, the light transmission values were shown to be above 50% for wavelengths of 320-800 nm in birds and rat and 390-800 nm in mammals except for rat. Thus, among the ocular media, the cornea in birds and the lens in mammals except for rat may play a role as a major UV cutoff filter.

  10. Optical pH measurements with water dispersion of polyaniline nanoparticles and their redox sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Tom; Harju, Leo; Ivaska, Ari

    2006-05-01

    A new method for optical pH and redox measurements with a commercially available water dispersion of polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles (mean particle size, 46 nm) is presented. The pH measurements are based on the acid-base equilibrium of PANI and were carried out either by combining both the automated sequential injection analysis (SIA) and UV-visible spectrophotometric techniques or with a fiber-optic light guide. In the former case, the detection was done in continuous mode at lambda = 800 nm by using the SIA technique for transporting the sample to a flow-through cell, which was placed in the light path of the photometer. With the fiber-optic light guide, the detection was done in batch mode at lambda = 400 and 580 nm. In both methods, fresh pH reagent (PANI) solution was used in each measurement, thus overcoming the problem with hysteresis (memory effect), which is usually observed with PANI films. The PANI nanoparticles were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy in pH buffer solutions between pH 2-12 and a protonation constant of logK(0.5H,L)(H(0.5)L) = 4.4 was calculated from these data. Fast pH measurements can be done between pH 6 and 10.5 depending on the measuring technique. It is possible to determine pH with an accuracy of 0.1 pH unit between pH 8 and 10.5 (RSD, 0.5-2%). Redox transitions typical for PANI films were also observed for water solutions of PANI nanoparticles in the presence of the hexacyanoferrate(II/III) and the iron(II/III) oxalate redox couples. The absorbance at lambda = 875 nm is linearly dependent on the logarithm of the concentration ratio (0.1-10) of the iron oxalate redox couple.

  11. Dual-wavelength photothermal optical coherence tomography for blood oxygen saturation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Biwei; Kuranov, Roman V.; McElroy, Austin B.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2013-03-01

    We report design and demonstration of a dual wavelength photothermal (DWP) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for imaging of a phantom microvessel and measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) level. The DWP-OCT system contains a swept-source (SS) two-beam phase-sensitive (PhS) OCT system (1060 nm) and two intensity modulated photothermal excitation lasers (770 nm and 800 nm). The PhS-OCT probe beam (1060 nm) and photothermal excitation beams are combined into one single-mode optical fiber. A galvanometer based two-dimensional achromatic scanning system is designed to provide 14 μm lateral resolution for the PhS-OCT probe beam (1060 nm) and 13 μm lateral resolution for photothermal excitation beams. DWP-OCT system's sensitivity is 102 dB, axial resolution is 13 μm in tissue and uses a real-time digital dispersion compensation algorithm. Noise floor for optical pathlength measurements is 300 pm in the signal frequency range (380-400 Hz) of photothermal modulation frequencies. Blood SO2 level is calculated from measured optical pathlength (op) signal in a 300 μm diameter microvessel phantom introduced by the two photothermal excitation beams. En-face and B-scan images of a phantom microvessel are recorded, and six blood samples' SO2 levels are measured using DWP-OCT and compared with values provided by a commercial blood oximeter. A mathematical model indicates thermal diffusion introduces a systematic artifact that over-estimates SO2 values and is consistent with measured data.

  12. Development of a 3D-AFM for true 3D measurements of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Häßler-Grohne, Wolfgang; Hüser, Dorothee; Wolff, Helmut; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Koenders, Ludger; Bosse, Harald

    2011-09-01

    The development of advanced lithography requires highly accurate 3D metrology methods for small line structures of both wafers and photomasks. Development of a new 3D atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM) with vertical and torsional oscillation modes is introduced in this paper. In its configuration, the AFM probe is oscillated using two piezo actuators driven at vertical and torsional resonance frequencies of the cantilever. In such a way, the AFM tip can probe the surface with a vertical and a lateral oscillation, offering high 3D probing sensitivity. In addition, a so-called vector approach probing (VAP) method has been applied. The sample is measured point-by-point using this method. At each probing point, the tip is approached towards the surface until the desired tip-sample interaction is detected and then immediately withdrawn from the surface. Compared to conventional AFMs, where the tip is kept continuously in interaction with the surface, the tip-sample interaction time using the VAP method is greatly reduced and consequently the tip wear is reduced. Preliminary experimental results show promising performance of the developed system. A measurement of a line structure of 800 nm height employing a super sharp AFM tip could be performed with a repeatability of its 3D profiles of better than 1 nm (p-v). A line structure of a Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt photomask with a nominal width of 300 nm has been measured using a flared tip AFM probe. The repeatability of the middle CD values reaches 0.28 nm (1σ). A long-term stability investigation shows that the 3D-AFM has a high stability of better than 1 nm within 197 measurements taken over 30 h, which also confirms the very low tip wear.

  13. Measuring the coral reef distribution of Kuroshima Island by satellite remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Tadakuni; Harashima, Akira; Nakatani, Yukihiro

    1995-12-31

    Coral reefs are the major sites for photo-synthesis and calcification in the present ocean. Estimating the production rate of calcification by the coral reefs or investigating the sink/source mechanism of CO{sub 2} by the coral reefs in the ocean, the distribution of the coral reefs in the world wide must be identified. Measuring the spectral signatures of underwater coral reefs and mapping of coral reefs by satellite remote sensing are described. The spectral signatures of different species of the coral reefs were measured using a spectroradiometer at off Kuroshima Island, Okinawa, Japan and investigated spectral difference between different species of the coral reefs. As well as the field experiments, laboratory experiments for measuring the spectral signatures of 9 different species of coral reefs were carried out with the same spectroradiometer. The spectral reflectance of each coral reef showed a significant result that a narrow absorption band exists in the spectral region between 660 and 680 nm, and very strong spectral reflectance from about 700 nm towards the longer wavelength range. On the other hand, absorption and the high reflectance region were not observed from the bottom sands or bare rocks underwater. These experiments suggested that there is a significant spectral difference between coral reefs and bottom sands or bare rocks and so the best spectral range for separating the coral reefs from other underwater objects in the ocean would be between 700 and 800 nm. As well as the basic spectral measurement either in the field or at the laboratory, SPOT satellite imageries were used to classify the underwater coral reefs. Classification methods used here were the principal component analysis, and the maximum likelihood. Finally, the evaluation of classification method for extracting the coral reefs was introduced.

  14. Excitation-emission matrices measurements of human cutaneous lesions: tool for fluorescence origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelyazkova, A.; Borisova, E.; Angelova, L.; Pavlova, E.; Keremedchiev, M.

    2013-11-01

    The light induced fluorescence (LIF) technique has the potential of providing real-time diagnosis of malignant and premalignant skin tissue; however, human skin is a multilayered and inhomogeneous organ with different optical properties that complicate the analysis of cutaneous fluorescence spectra. In spite of the difficulties related to the detection and analysis of fluorescent data from skin lesions, this technique is among the most widely applied techniques in laboratorial and pre-clinical investigations for early skin neoplasia diagnosis. The important point is to evaluate all sources of intrinsic fluorescence and find any significant alterations distinguishing the normal skin from a cancerous state of the tissue; this would make the autofluorescence signal obtained useful for the development of a non-invasive diagnostic tool for the dermatological practice. Our investigations presented here were based on ex vivo point-by-point measurements of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) from excised tumor lesions and the surrounding skin taken during the daily clinical practice of Queen Jiovanna- ISUL University Hospital, Sofia, the local Ethical Committee's approval having already been obtained. The fluorescence emission was measured between 300 nm and 800 nm using excitation in the 280-440 nm spectral range. In the process of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) measurements we could establish the origin of the autofluorescence and the compounds related by assigning the excitation and emission maxima obtained during the experiments. The EEM were compared for normal human skin, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, benign nevi and malignant melanoma lesions to obtain information for the most common skin malignancies and their precursors. The main spectral features and the applicability of the technique of autofluorescent spectroscopy of human skin in general as an initial diagnostic tool are discussed as well.

  15. PM2.5 soluble brown-carbon measured in contrasting urban and rural environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R.; Zhang, X.

    2011-12-01

    An instrument was developed to continuously measure the light absorption spectra and carbon mass of soluble PM2.5 components by coupling a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS), UV-VIS (200-800nm) spectrophotometer with long-path absorption cell and total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. The analytical system has also been used to measure brown carbon in aqueous extracts from integrated filters. Measurements have been conducted at a number of locations, including urban sites in Los Angeles, Atlanta and smaller urban and rural locations in the southeastern US. At all locations a characteristic brown carbon absorption spectra was observed, where soluble chromophores produce an increasing absorption with decreasing wavelength, starting from mid-visible and extending into the near UV. Incomplete combustion from biomass and fossil fuel burning and secondary processes have been identified as sources of soluble brown carbon. During summer when biomass burning impacts were minimal, mass absorption efficiencies calculated relative to ambient particle water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were highest in Los Angeles and correlated with the daily production of secondary organic aerosol. Nitro-aromatics were identified as a component of the brown carbon. In contrast, the Atlanta secondary aerosol was significantly less light-absorbing, and unlike Los Angeles the diurnal trend in brown carbon largely tracked primary sources. Absorption Angstrom exponents varied between 3 and 7 with fresh Los Angeles secondary organic aerosol associated with smaller exponents, indicting greater absorption into the visible spectrum. The southeastern US regional/rural brown carbon was the least absorbing per WSOC mass in the UV and with largest Angstrom exponents (7) the least absorbing at higher wavelengths. A correlation between the regional brown carbon and fine particle oxalate suggested an aqueous phase heterogeneous source for these chromophores. Compared to pure black carbon, brown carbon was

  16. Laser Remote Measurements of atmospheric pollutants (Las-R-Map): UV-Visible Laser system description and data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, V.; Wyk, H. V.

    Laser radar more popularly known as LIDAR LIght Detection And Ranging is becoming one of the most powerful techniques for active remote sensing of the earth s atmosphere Around the globe several new lidar systems have been developed based on the scientific interest Particularly the DIfferential Absorption Lidar DIAL technique is only one which can provide the better accuracy of measuring atmospheric pollutants Using modern advanced techniques and instrumentation a mobile DIAL system called laser remote measurements of atmospheric pollutants hear after referred as Las-R-Map is designed at National Laser Centre NLC --Pretoria 25 r 45 prime S 28 r 17 prime E Las-R-Map is basically used for measuring atmospheric pollutants applying the principle of absorption by constituents The system designed primarily to focus on the following pollutant measurements such as SO 2 CH 4 CO 2 NO 2 and O 3 In future the system could be used to measure few particulate matter between 2 5 mu m and 10 mu m Benzene Hg 1 3-butadiene H 2 S HF and Volatile Organic Compounds VOC Las-R-map comprises of two different laser sources Alexandrite and CO 2 optical receiver data acquisition and signal processor It uses alexandrite laser in the UV-Visible region from 200 nm to 800 nm and CO 2 laser in the Far-IR region from 9 2 mu m to 10 8 mu m Such two different laser sources make feasibility for studying the wide range of atmospheric pollutants The present paper is focused on technical details

  17. Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy for measuring carrier dynamics in nanoscale photovoltaic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esenturk, Okan; Lane, Paul A.; Melinger, Joseph S.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2010-02-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe methods are useful tools for investigating transient electronic and vibrational states of conducting materials and molecular photochemistry. Ultraviolet and visible excitation pulses (<150 fs, <20 μJ, 400-800 nm) with time-delayed broadband terahertz (~500 GHz to 3 THz) probing pulses (Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy; TRTS) are used to measure linear spectroscopic transmission changes resulting from exciton and free carrier population in organic semiconducting thin films. Picosecond timescale exciton geminate recombination and longer-time free-carrier conduction in semiconductor polymers and nanolayered donor-acceptor films are discussed. Systems investigated with terahertz probe pulses include thiophene-based polymers (P3HT, PBTTT) studied as drop and spin-cast films on transparent quartz substrates. The relative conductivity of these films increases with increasing P3HT polymer molecular weight, structural regularity, and the fused rings in PBTTT further increases conduction. Recent studies of composite and nanolayered films (by vapor deposition) containing alternating Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and buckminsterfullerene (C60) also yield high conduction that scales linearly with the number of interfaces and total film thickness. We find evidence for a short-lived charge transfer state of C60 that decays within several picoseconds of excitation. In contrast, both composite and multilayered films exhibit long-lived THz dynamics that depends on the composition and structure of the films. The optimum composition for charge transfer within composite films is observed for a ~1:1 blend of ZnPc with C60 and a 4:1 blend of P3HT with Phenyl C61 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM) while an increase in charge photo-generation with decreasing layer thickness (2 nm) exhibits the strongest THz signal. These findings parallel results for FET polymer transistor devices pointing to the advantage of optically measuring material properties before device test.

  18. High repetition rate laser produced soft x-ray source for ultrafast x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements.

    PubMed

    Fourmaux, S; Lecherbourg, L; Harmand, M; Servol, M; Kieffer, J C

    2007-11-01

    Recent progress in high intensity ultrafast laser systems provides the opportunity to produce laser plasma x-ray sources exhibiting broad spectrum and high average x-ray flux that are well adapted to x-ray absorption measurements. In this paper, the development of a laser based x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) beamline exhibiting high repetition rate by using the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS) facility 100 Hz laser system (100 mJ, 35 fs at 800 nm) is presented. This system is based on a broadband tantalum solid target soft x-ray source and a grazing incidence grating spectrometer in the 1-5 nm wavelength range. To demonstrate the high potential of this laser based XANES technique in condensed matter physics, material science, or biology, measurements realized with several samples are presented: VO2 vanadium L edge, Si3N4 nitrogen K edge, and BPDA/PPD polyimide carbon K edge. The characteristics of this laser based beamline are discussed in terms of brightness, signal to noise ratio, and compared to conventional synchrotron broadband x-ray sources which allow achieving similar measurements. Apart from the very compact size and the relative low cost, the main advantages of such a laser based soft x-ray source are the picosecond pulse duration and the perfect synchronization between this x-ray probe and a laser pulse excitation which open the way to the realization of time resolved x-ray absorption measurements with picosecond range time resolution to study the dynamics of ultrafast processes and phase transition.

  19. Light absorption coefficient measurement of SOA using a UV-Visible spectrometer connected with an integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Min; Jang, Myoseon

    2011-08-01

    A method for measuring an aerosol light absorption coefficient ( B a) has been developed using a conventional UV-visible spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere covering a wide range of wavelengths (280-800 nm). The feasibility of the proposed method was evaluated in both the transmittance mode (TUV-IS) and the reflective mode (RUV-IS) using the reference aerosol known for the cross-sectional area. The aerosol was collected on a conventional filter and measured for B a values. The resulting RUV-IS method was applied to measure light absorption of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). SOA was produced through photooxidation of different precursor hydrocarbons such as toluene, d-limonene and α-pinene in the presence of NO x (60-70 ppb) and inorganic seed aerosol using a 2-m 3 indoor Teflon film chamber. Of the three precursor hydrocarbons, the B a value of toluene SOA (0.574 m 2 g -1 at 350 nm) was the highest compared with B a values for α-pinene SOA (0.029 m 2 g -1) and d-limonene SOA (0.038 m 2 g -1). When d-limonene SOA or toluene SOA was internally mixed with neutral [(NH 4) 2SO 4] or acidic inorganic seed (NH 4HSO 4:H 2SO 4 = 1:1 by mole), the SOA showed 2-3 times greater B a values at 350 nm than the SOA with no seed. Aerosol aging with a light source for this study reduced B a values of SOA (e.g., on average 10% for toluene SOA and 30% for d-limonene SOA within 4 h). Overall, weak absorption appeared for chamber-generated SOA over wavelengths ranging from 280 to 550 nm, which fall into the sunlight spectrum.

  20. Differential absorption lidar measurements of H2O and O2 using a coherent white light continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somekawa, T.; Manago, N.; Kuze, H.; Fujita, M.

    2016-10-01

    We applied a broadband and coherent white light continuum to differential absorption lidar (DIAL) detection of H2O and O2 profiles in the troposphere. The white light continuum can be generated by focusing high intensity femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm into a Kr gas cell covering a broad spectral range from UV to mid-IR. Thus, the use of white light continuum potentially enables the DIAL measurement of several greenhouse and/or pollutant gases simultaneously while minimizing the lead time for developing a tunable light source. In order to demonstrate such capability, here we report the lidar measurements of H2O and O2. These molecular species exhibit absorption lines in the near IR region where relatively high intensity of the white light continuum is available. The white light continuum was transmitted through the atmosphere collinearly to the axis of a receiver telescope. Backscattered light was passed through bandpass filters (H2O On: 725 and 730 nm, H2O Off: 750 nm, O2 On: 760 nm, O2 Off: 780 nm), and was detected by a photomultiplier tube. The detection wavelengths were selected consecutively by rotating the filter wheels that contain five bandpass filters with an interval of 1 minute. In addition, we propose a method for retrieving vertical profiles of H2O by considering wavelength dependence of the aerosol extinction coefficient α and backscatter coefficient β. These results show that for achieving precise retrieval of H2O distribution, one needs to reduce the effect of aerosol temporal variations by means of long-time accumulation or simultaneous detection of the On- and Off-wavelength signals.

  1. A conjunct near-surface spectroscopy system for fix-angle and multi-angle continuous measurements of canopy reflectance and sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Fan, Yifeng; Zhang, Yongguang; Chou, Shuren; Ju, Weimin; Chen, Jing M.

    2016-09-01

    An automated spectroscopy system, which is divided into fix-angle and multi-angle subsystems, for collecting simultaneous, continuous and long-term measurements of canopy hyper-spectra in a crop ecosystem is developed. The fix-angle subsystem equips two spectrometers: one is HR2000+ (OceanOptics) covering the spectral range 200-1100 nm with 1.0 nm spectral resolution, and another one is QE65PRO (OceanOptics) providing 0.1 nm spectral resolution within the 730-780 nm spectral range. Both spectrometers connect a cosine-corrected fiber-optic fixed up-looking to collect the down-welling irradiance and a bare fiber-optic to measure the up-welling radiance from the vegetation. An inline fiber-optic shutter FOS-2x2-TTL (OceanOptics) is used to switch between input fibers to collect the signal from either the canopy or sky at one time. QE65PRO is used to permit estimation of vegetation Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) in the O2-A band. The data collection scheme includes optimization of spectrometer integration time to maximize the signal to noise ratio and measurement of instrument dark currency. The multi-angle subsystem, which can help understanding bidirectional reflectance effects, alternatively use HR4000 (OceanOptics) providing 0.1 nm spectral resolution within the 680-800 nm spectral range to measure multi-angle SIF. This subsystem additionally includes a spectrometer Unispec-DC (PPSystems) featuring both up-welling and down-welling channels with 3 nm spectral resolution covering the 300-1100 nm spectral range. Two down-looking fiber-optics are mounted on a rotating device PTU-D46 (FLIR Systems), which can rotate horizontally and vertically at 10° angular step widths. Observations can be used to calculate canopy reflectance, vegetation indices and SIF for monitoring plant physiological processes.

  2. Particle number emissions of motor traffic derived from street canyon measurements in a Central European city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, S.; Birmili, W.; Voigtländer, J.; Tuch, T.; Wehner, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Ketzel, M.

    2009-02-01

    A biennial dataset of ambient particle number size distributions (diameter range 4-800 nm) collected in urban air in Leipzig, Germany, was analysed with respect to the influence of traffic emissions. Size distributions were sampled continuously in 2005 and 2006 inside a street canyon trafficked by ca. 10 000 motor vehicles per day, and at a background reference site distant at 1.5 km. Auto-correlation analysis showed that the impact of fresh traffic emissions could be seen most intensely below particle sizes of 60 nm. The traffic-induced concentration increment at roadside was estimated by subtracting the urban background values from the street canyon measurement. To describe the variable dispersion conditions inside the street canyon, micro-meteorological dilution factors were calculated using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), driven by above-roof wind speed and wind direction observations. The roadside increment concentrations, dilution factor, and real-time traffic counts were used to calculate vehicle emission factors (aerosol source rates) that are representative of the prevailing driving conditions, i.e. stop-and-go traffic including episodes of fluent traffic flow at speeds up to 40 km h-1. The size spectrum of traffic-derived particles was essentially bimodal - with mode diameters around 12 and 100 nm, while statistical analysis suggested that the emitted number concentration varied with time of day, wind direction, particle size and fleet properties. Significantly, the particle number emissions depended on ambient temperature, ranging between 4.8 (±1.8) and 7.8 (±2.9).1014 p. veh-1 km-1 in summer and winter, respectively. A separation of vehicle types according to vehicle length suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit about 80 times more particle number than passenger car-like vehicles. Using nitrogen oxide (NOx) measurements, specific total particle number emissions of 338 p. (pg NOx)-1 were inferred. The calculated traffic emission factors

  3. Measure for measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The present system of measures for length, weight and capacity (volume) originates from scientific ideas expressed during the French Revolution in 1789. The history of a compatible unit of length, however, turns out to be less of a scientific but rather of a political character. Here reports to the Philosophical Magazine made in the first quarter of the nineteenth century are used to trace the cultural split between meters and inches, and between kilograms and pounds, that can be experienced in many parts of the world.

  4. Ideas: Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sovchik, Robert; Meconi, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents measurement activities for K-3, 4-6, 5-6, and 7-8 grade levels. Activities include a measurement scavenger hunt, using a clinometer to measure angles of elevation, estimating the age of trees, measuring the height of a tree, and measuring objects at a distance. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  5. Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    New and improved materials, equipment, and techniques in measurement technology, developed by the aerospace industry, are presented for economic development in other industries. The developments are grouped as follows: (1) surface measurement, (2) alignment and orientation of bodies, (3) fluid measurement, (4) linear and angular measurements, and (5) force measurements.

  6. Neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of neutron detection and measurement are discussed. Topics include sources of neutrons, neutrons in medicine, interactions of neutrons with matter, neutron shielding, neutron measurement units, measurement methods, and neutron spectroscopy. (ACR)

  7. Body Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, K. Allen

    1989-01-01

    Described are activities for measuring the human body. The activities include measurements and calculations, calculating volume and density, problems related to body measurement, and using a nomogram. Several charts, illustrations, and a nomogram are provided. (YP)

  8. Measuring Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Marcia R.

    Locating and selecting an instrument that measures resilience is no simple task. This document provides information about several measures of resilience or hardiness that have been used in recent years. The discussion of each measure includes information about its origins, a description of the measure and its uses, and a discussion of the…

  9. Measurement Error. For Good Measure....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen; Dulaney, Chuck; Banks, Karen

    No test, however well designed, can measure a student's true achievement because numerous factors interfere with the ability to measure achievement. These factors are sources of measurement error, and the goal in creating tests is to have as little measurement error as possible. Error can result from the test design, factors related to individual…

  10. Aerosol size distribution and new particle formation in western Yangtze River Delta of China: two-year measurement at the SORPES station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, X. M.; Ding, A. J.; Nie, W.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Herrmann, E.; Xie, Y. N.; Zheng, L. F.; Manninen, H.; Aalto, P.; Sun, J. N.; Xu, Z. N.; Chi, X. G.; Huang, X.; Boy, M.; Virkkula, A.; Yang, X.-Q.; Fu, C. B.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol particles play important roles in regional air quality and global climate change. In this study, we analyzed two-year (2011-2013) of measurements of submicron particles (6-800 nm) at a suburban site in western Yangtze River delta (YRD) of East China. The number concentrations (NCs) of particles in the nucleation, Aitken and accumulation modes were 5300 ± 5500, 8000 ± 4400, 5800 ± 3200 cm-3, respectively. Number concentrations and size distributions of submicron particles were also influenced by long-range and regional transport of air masses. The highest and lowest accumulation mode particle number concentrations were observed in air masses from YRD and coastal region, respectively. Continental air masses from inland had the highest concentrations of nucleation mode particles. New particle formation (NPF) events, apparent in 44% of the effective measurement days, occurred frequently in all the seasons except winter. Radiation and pre-existing particles were found to be the main factors influencing the occurrence of NPF events. The particle formation rate was the highest in spring (3.6 ± 2.4 cm-3 s-1), whereas the particle growth rate had the highest values in summer (12.8 ± 4.4 nm h-1). The formation rate was typically high in relatively clean air masses, whereas the growth rate tended to be high in the polluted YRD air masses. The frequency of NPF events and the growth rate showed a strong year-to-year difference. In the summer of 2013, associated with a multi-week heat wave and photochemical pollution, NPF events occurred more frequently and the growth rate was much higher than in the same period of 2012. The difference in the location and strength of sub-tropical High, which influences the air mass transport pathways and solar radiation, seems to be the driving cause for year-to-year differences. This study reported the longest continuous measurement records of submicron particles in the East China and gained a comprehensive understanding of the

  11. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003400.htm Temperature measurement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor ...

  12. Construction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    This text/reference on construction measurements contains material concerning electronic surveying and remote sensing. New to this edition is coverage of the GPS satellite positioning system, electronic distance measurement (EDM), laser sweep, calculator techniques, radial surveying and tracking, Loran-C, inertial navigation surveying, 3-point resection, computer software, and electronic fieldbooks. It covers the difference of elevation, angle measurements and directions, coordinate surveying and layout, offshore measurements, and random field and office techniques.

  13. Measuring circuit

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Shan C.; Chaprnka, Anthony G.

    1977-01-11

    An automatic gain control circuit functions to adjust the magnitude of an input signal supplied to a measuring circuit to a level within the dynamic range of the measuring circuit while a log-ratio circuit adjusts the magnitude of the output signal from the measuring circuit to the level of the input signal and optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio performance of the measuring circuit.

  14. Transient absorption studies of vibrational relaxation and photophysics of Prussian blue and ruthenium purple nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidinger, D.; Brown, D. J.; Owrutsky, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    Transient infrared and visible absorption studies have been used to characterize vibrational and electronic dynamics of Prussian blue (PB) and ruthenium purple (RP) nanoparticles produced and characterized in AOT reverse micelles. Studies include excitation and probing with both infrared (near 2000 cm-1) and visible (800 nm) pulses. From IR pump-IR probe measurements of the CN stretching bands, vibrational population lifetimes are determined to be 32 ± 4 ps for PB and 44 ± 14 ps for RP. These times are longer than those for ferrocyanide (4 ps) and ruthenocyanide (4 ps) in normal water and are closer to the times for these species in heavy water (25-30 ps) and for ferrocyanide in formamide (43 ps). The PB and RP lifetimes are also longer than those (<15 ps) previously measured for CN stretching bands following intervalence excitation and back-electron transfer (BET) for dinuclear mixed-valence compounds containing Fe, Ru, and Os in heavy water and formamide [A. V. Tivansky, C. F. Wang, and G. C. Walker, J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 9051 (2003)]. In 800 nm pump-IR probe experiments on RP and PB, transient IR spectra and decay curves are similar to those with IR excitation; a ground state bleach and a red shifted (by ˜40 cm-1) excited state decay are observed. These results for the visible pumping are consistent with rapid (<1 ps) BET resulting in population in the ground electronic state with vibrational excitation in the CN mode. In addition, transient absorption studies were performed for PB and RP probing with visible light using both visible and IR excitation. The early time response for the 800 nm pump-800 nm probe of PB exhibits an instrument-limited, subpicosecond bleach followed by an absorption, which is consistent with the previously reported results [D. C. Arnett, P. Vohringer, and N. F. Scherer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 12262 (1995)]. The absorption exhibits a biexponential decay with decay times of 9 and 185 ps, which could have been attributed to the CN band

  15. Precision Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radius, Marcie; And Others

    The manual provides information for precision measurement (counting of movements per minute of a chosen activity) of achievement in special education students. Initial sections give guidelines for the teacher, parent, and student to follow for various methods of charting behavior. It is explained that precision measurement is a way to measure the…

  16. An Automated System for Measuring Microphysical and Radiative Cloud Characteristics from a Tethered Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul Lawson

    2004-03-15

    OAK-B135 The rate of climate change in polar regions is now felt to be a harbinger of possible global warming. Long-lived, relatively thin stratus clouds play a predominant role in transmitting solar radiation and trapping long wave radiation emitted from open water and melt ponds. In situ measurements of microphysical and radiative properties of Arctic and Antarctic stratus clouds are needed to validate retrievals from remote measurements and simulations using numerical models. While research aircraft can collect comprehensive microphysical and radiative data in clouds, the duration of these aircraft is relatively short (up to about 12 hours). During the course of the Phase II research, a tethered balloon system was developed that supports miniaturized meteorological, microphysical and radiation sensors that can collect data in stratus clouds for days at a time. The tethered balloon system uses a 43 cubic meter balloon to loft a 17 kg sensor package to altitudes u p to 2 km. Power is supplied to the instrument package via two copper conductors in the custom tether. Meteorological, microphysical and radiation data are recorded by the sensor package. Meteorological measurements include pressure, temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction. Radiation measurements are made using a 4-pi radiometer that measures actinic flux at 500 and 800 nm. Position is recorded using a GPS receiver. Microphysical data are obtained using a miniaturized version of an airborne cloud particle imager (CPI). The miniaturized CPI measures the size distribution of water drops and ice crystals from 9 microns to 1.4 mm. Data are recorded onboard the sensor package and also telemetered via a 802.11b wireless communications link. Command signals can also be sent to the computer in the sensor package via the wireless link. In the event of a broken tether, a GMRS radio link to the balloon package is used to heat a wire that burns 15 cm opening in the top of the balloon. The balloon and

  17. Measurement fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the Department of Revenue, and the motoring public. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, underground storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation. While there are several methods and different types of equipment used to perform petroleum measurement, the basic process stays the same. The basic measurement process is the act of comparing an unknown quantity, to a known quantity, in order to establish its magnitude. The process can be seen in a variety of forms; such as measuring for a first-down in a football game, weighing meat and produce at the grocery, or the use of an automobile odometer.

  18. Effects of inelastic radiative processes on the determination of water-leaving spectral radiance from extrapolation of underwater near-surface measurements.

    PubMed

    Li, Linhai; Stramski, Dariusz; Reynolds, Rick A

    2016-09-01

    Extrapolation of near-surface underwater measurements is the most common method to estimate the water-leaving spectral radiance, Lw(λ) (where λ is the light wavelength in vacuum), and remote-sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ), for validation and vicarious calibration of satellite sensors, as well as for ocean color algorithm development. However, uncertainties in Lw(λ) arising from the extrapolation process have not been investigated in detail with regards to the potential influence of inelastic radiative processes, such as Raman scattering by water molecules and fluorescence by colored dissolved organic matter and chlorophyll-a. Using radiative transfer simulations, we examine high-depth resolution vertical profiles of the upwelling radiance, Lu(λ), and its diffuse attenuation coefficient, KLu (λ), within the top 10 m of the ocean surface layer and assess the uncertainties in extrapolated values of Lw(λ). The inelastic processes generally increase Lu and decrease KLu in the red and near-infrared (NIR) portion of the spectrum. Unlike KLu in the blue and green spectral bands, KLu in the red and NIR is strongly variable within the near-surface layer even in a perfectly homogeneous water column. The assumption of a constant KLu with depth that is typically employed in the extrapolation method can lead to significant errors in the estimate of Lw. These errors approach ∼100% at 900 nm, and the desired threshold of 5% accuracy or less cannot be achieved at wavelengths greater than 650 nm for underwater radiometric systems that typically take measurements at depths below 1 m. These errors can be reduced by measuring Lu within a much shallower surface layer of tens of centimeters thick or even less at near-infrared wavelengths longer than 800 nm, which suggests a

  19. Multilevel Interventions: Measurement and Measures

    PubMed Central

    Charns, Martin P.; Alligood, Elaine C.; Benzer, Justin K.; Burgess, James F.; Mcintosh, Nathalie M.; Burness, Allison; Partin, Melissa R.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Multilevel intervention research holds the promise of more accurately representing real-life situations and, thus, with proper research design and measurement approaches, facilitating effective and efficient resolution of health-care system challenges. However, taking a multilevel approach to cancer care interventions creates both measurement challenges and opportunities. Methods One-thousand seventy two cancer care articles from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed to examine the state of measurement in the multilevel intervention cancer care literature. Ultimately, 234 multilevel articles, 40 involving cancer care interventions, were identified. Additionally, literature from health services, social psychology, and organizational behavior was reviewed to identify measures that might be useful in multilevel intervention research. Results The vast majority of measures used in multilevel cancer intervention studies were individual level measures. Group-, organization-, and community-level measures were rarely used. Discussion of the independence, validity, and reliability of measures was scant. Discussion Measurement issues may be especially complex when conducting multilevel intervention research. Measurement considerations that are associated with multilevel intervention research include those related to independence, reliability, validity, sample size, and power. Furthermore, multilevel intervention research requires identification of key constructs and measures by level and consideration of interactions within and across levels. Thus, multilevel intervention research benefits from thoughtful theory-driven planning and design, an interdisciplinary approach, and mixed methods measurement and analysis. PMID:22623598

  20. Measurement Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Michael

    Measurement uncertainty is one of the key issues in quality assurance. It became increasingly important for analytical chemistry laboratories with the accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of a measurement is the most important criterion for the decision whether a measurement result is fit for purpose. It also delivers help for the decision whether a specification limit is exceeded or not. Estimation of measurement uncertainty often is not trivial. Several strategies have been developed for this purpose that will shortly be described in this chapter. In addition the different possibilities to take into account the uncertainty in compliance assessment are explained.

  1. Asbestos Measurement

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental engineers are generally concerned with two types of air pollutants, gases and particulate matter (PM). Generally, the mass of PM falling in two size categories is measured, i.e. ≤2.5 µm diameter, and between 2.5 µm and 10 µm diameter. These measurements are taken by...

  2. Quality measurement

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Amy E.; Cohen, Adam B.; Bever, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is shifting from volume-based to value-based reimbursement of health care services. Measuring the value of health care requires measurement of quality and cost. We provide an overview of quality measurement and review a well-known and widely used conceptual model for assessing quality: structure, process, and outcome. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using these types of metrics. We then use this conceptual model to describe prominent CMS programs such as the Physician Quality Reporting System, Physician Compare Web site, and the Medicare Shared Savings Plan. We highlight 2 recent trends: the increasing use of outcome measures to supplement process measures and the public reporting of quality. PMID:25317378

  3. Comparison of measured and calculated collision efficiencies at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagare, B.; Marcolli, C.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions of atmospheric aerosols with clouds influence cloud properties and modify the aerosol life cycle. Aerosol particles act as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles or become incorporated into cloud droplets by scavenging. For an accurate description of aerosol scavenging and ice nucleation in contact mode, collision efficiency between droplets and aerosol particles needs to be known. This study derives the collision rate from experimental contact freezing data obtained with the ETH CoLlision Ice Nucleation CHamber (CLINCH). Freely falling 80 μm diameter water droplets are exposed to an aerosol consisting of 200 and 400 nm diameter silver iodide particles of concentrations from 500 to 5000 and 500 to 2000 cm-3, respectively, which act as ice nucleating particles in contact mode. The experimental data used to derive collision efficiency are in a temperature range of 238-245 K, where each collision of silver iodide particles with droplets can be assumed to result in the freezing of the droplet. An upper and lower limit of collision efficiency is also estimated for 800 nm diameter kaolinite particles. The chamber is kept at ice saturation at a temperature range of 236 to 261 K, leading to the slow evaporation of water droplets giving rise to thermophoresis and diffusiophoresis. Droplets and particles bear charges inducing electrophoresis. The experimentally derived collision efficiency values of 0.13, 0.07 and 0.047-0.11 for 200, 400 and 800 nm particles are around 1 order of magnitude higher than theoretical formulations which include Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and electric forces. This discrepancy is most probably due to uncertainties and inaccuracies in the description of thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic processes acting together. This is, to the authors' knowledge, the first data set of collision efficiencies acquired below 273 K. More such experiments with different droplet and

  4. Odor Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshiharu

    It has been said that the measurement of odor is very difficult. Because almost odor samples have a large number of chemicals, and these olfactory thresholds are very low levels. For these reasons, the instrumental measurement method is not good, and the olfactory sensory methods are adopted in the world. Odor concentration scale had been widely used in the world. But, the measurement methods of odor concentration scale differ depend on the country. For example, in Japan, Triangle Odor Bag Method has been used from 30 years ago. Dynamic olfactometer is used in European countries. Triangle Odor Bag Method is introduced at the end of this paper.

  5. MEASURING PROJECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Franck, J.V.; Broadhead, P.S.; Skiff, E.W.

    1959-07-14

    A semiautomatic measuring projector particularly adapted for measurement of the coordinates of photographic images of particle tracks as prcduced in a bubble or cloud chamber is presented. A viewing screen aids the operator in selecting a particle track for measurement. After approximate manual alignment, an image scanning system coupled to a servo control provides automatic exact alignment of a track image with a reference point. The apparatus can follow along a track with a continuous motion while recording coordinate data at various selected points along the track. The coordinate data is recorded on punched cards for subsequent computer calculation of particle trajectory, momentum, etc.

  6. The study on the light absorption and transmission laws of the blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zulin; Lai, Yan; Ge, Haiyan; Xu, Zhangrui

    2003-12-01

    Aim: This experiment studied the light absorption laws of the blood components between 240-800nm. Methods: The absorbance and transmittance of the blood components were measured by applying a model UV-365 double beam scanning spectrophotometer with an integral sphere, between 240-800nm. Results: The results show: 1) The absorbance and transmittance laws resemble each other in blood of the Groups A,B,AB and O. 2) Between 600-800nm, the absorbances of the whole blood, erythrocyte, leukocyte, plasma and serum are less than 5%, while the transmittances of them are more than 95%. 3) To erythrocyte and lymphocyte, typical absorption peaks appear at 416.57+/-1.90, 542.71+/-1.80, 578.57+/-1.81nm. Conclusion: These results provide some useful parameters for the optical properties of blood and the clinical applications.

  7. Environmental Measurement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  8. An Optical Streaking Method for Measuring Femtosecond Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Bane, Karl L.F.; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    are the right direction to achieve a better resolution. For example, by choosing an X-band transverse deflecting cavity, the expected resolution for LCLS beam with 4.3 GeV is about 1 fs rms. Typically the rf breakdown threshold and the power source availability prevent going to even higher voltage and frequency. With the highly-developed laser techniques, we can choose to streak the beam at optical frequencies. By jumping from rf to optical frequency, the wavelength is shortening by 4 to 5 orders. With an electron bunch length shorter than half period of the laser, we can apply the similar rf deflecting or zero-phasing method for e-beam bunch length measurements using a high-power laser. A short wiggler is required to provide interaction between the electron and the laser. For example, to measure the e-beam at the order of 1 m rms length, a laser with its wavelength of 10 {mu}m may be considered. For a typical few GeV e-beam, the wiggler period has to be large to satisfy the resonance condition. Also, if the e-beam is longer than one laser period, the different modulation periods will overlap and we cannot distinguish them. So this method is so far limited by the achievable long-wavelength laser power. To get an effective modulation on an e-beam of 4.3 GeV, the required laser power is about a few tens GW. In this paper we propose to adopt a high-power Ti:Sapphire laser (wavelength of 800 nm), and use the slope in the intensity envelope to distinguish the different modulation periods. First an ultrashort electron beam interacts with the Ti:Sapphire laser in a wiggler, where the electron energy is modulated at the same periods of the laser. If the laser pulse is long and the short electron bunch is overlapped (in time) with the middle part of the laser, such as the setup at LCLS laser heater, the different energy modulation periods on the electron beam will be overlapped on the energy profile. In this conditionwe typically have a double-horn distribution of the energy

  9. Optical Kerr effect of tRNA solution induced by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucia, Weronika E.; Sharma, Gargi; Joseph, Cecil S.; Sarbak, Szymon; Oliver, Cameron; Dobek, Andrzej; Giles, Robert H.

    2016-10-01

    The optical Kerr effect (OKE) in a transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) solution induced by femtosecond pulses of linearly polarized pump light (λi = 800 nm) and sounded by probe light (λp = 800 nm) was studied. The measurements were performed to find nonlinear optical parameters describing a single molecule (molecular Kerr constant K, mean nonlinear third order optical polarizability cpi) and to compare them with our previous OKE results obtained in ns and ps time range. The OKE experiment has proven to be an efficient method to obtain the nonlinear parameters of single molecules in solution, which reflects dynamic structure changes.

  10. Measuring Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Holly; Healey, Kaleen; Sporte, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Moving teacher evaluation systems from measuring teachers' performance to improving their practice requires much greater attention to communication and support. In the fall of 2012, Chicago Public Schools (CPS) instituted a sweeping reform of its teacher evaluation system with the introduction of REACH Students (Recognizing Educators Advancing…

  11. Measured Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Many students think custodians are hired to pick up after them. And sometimes adult workers voice similarly negative impressions. What can education institutions do about this negative and improper thinking? Because of heightened concerns about invisible pathogens such as MRSA and swine flu, improved technologies are available to measure bacteria…

  12. Measuring Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Teachers assess children's learning to understand how to make their instruction more effective. Early childhood assessment must take into account the typically uneven development of children and their cultural contexts. The author assessed what a group of four-year-olds knew about measurement as she talked about how much water had filled a rain…

  13. Measuring Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Principals have two reasons to wonder about the whole concept of leadership. First, they are responsible for identifying leadership in others; and second, they must be analytical and reflective about their own capabilities. Consequently, there is always demand for valid and reliable measurement of leadership qualities. This issue reviews recent…

  14. Property Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Van is used by Land Inventory Systems to measure and map property for tax assessment purposes. It is adapted from navigation system of the Lunar Rover wheeled vehicle in which moon-exploring astronauts traveled as much as 20 miles from their Lunar Module base. Astronauts had to know their precise position so that in case of emergency they could take the shortest route back. Computerized navigational system kept a highly accurate record of the directional path providing continuous position report. Distance measuring subsystem was a more accurate counterpart of automobile odometer system counts revolutions of wheels and encoders generate electrical pulses for each fractional revolution and the computer analyzed the pulses to determine the distance traveled in a given direction.

  15. When Measurement Benefits the Measured

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-23

    feedback that drives athletes to achieve world-class excellence. Stellar athletes understand that they must set specific goals to reach their...University The Evolution of the Management Approach Knowledge Management People as individuals. Body Management People as oxen. Task Management...Mellon University Evolution of the Worker Hunter-Gatherer Farmer & Artisan Industrial Revolution Worker Technology Professional 22 When Measurement

  16. Measuring fractality.

    PubMed

    Stadnitski, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    WHEN INVESTIGATING FRACTAL PHENOMENA, THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE FUNDAMENTAL FOR THE APPLIED RESEARCHER: (1) What are essential statistical properties of 1/f noise? (2) Which estimators are available for measuring fractality? (3) Which measurement instruments are appropriate and how are they applied? The purpose of this article is to give clear and comprehensible answers to these questions. First, theoretical characteristics of a fractal pattern (self-similarity, long memory, power law) and the related fractal parameters (the Hurst coefficient, the scaling exponent α, the fractional differencing parameter d of the autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average methodology, the power exponent β of the spectral analysis) are discussed. Then, estimators of fractal parameters from different software packages commonly used by applied researchers (R, SAS, SPSS) are introduced and evaluated. Advantages, disadvantages, and constrains of the popular estimators ([Formula: see text] power spectral density, detrended fluctuation analysis, signal summation conversion) are illustrated by elaborate examples. Finally, crucial steps of fractal analysis (plotting time series data, autocorrelation, and spectral functions; performing stationarity tests; choosing an adequate estimator; estimating fractal parameters; distinguishing fractal processes from short-memory patterns) are demonstrated with empirical time series.

  17. Measuring Fractality

    PubMed Central

    Stadnitski, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    When investigating fractal phenomena, the following questions are fundamental for the applied researcher: (1) What are essential statistical properties of 1/f noise? (2) Which estimators are available for measuring fractality? (3) Which measurement instruments are appropriate and how are they applied? The purpose of this article is to give clear and comprehensible answers to these questions. First, theoretical characteristics of a fractal pattern (self-similarity, long memory, power law) and the related fractal parameters (the Hurst coefficient, the scaling exponent α, the fractional differencing parameter d of the autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average methodology, the power exponent β of the spectral analysis) are discussed. Then, estimators of fractal parameters from different software packages commonly used by applied researchers (R, SAS, SPSS) are introduced and evaluated. Advantages, disadvantages, and constrains of the popular estimators (d^ML, power spectral density, detrended fluctuation analysis, signal summation conversion) are illustrated by elaborate examples. Finally, crucial steps of fractal analysis (plotting time series data, autocorrelation, and spectral functions; performing stationarity tests; choosing an adequate estimator; estimating fractal parameters; distinguishing fractal processes from short-memory patterns) are demonstrated with empirical time series. PMID:22586408

  18. Beta measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schotland, R. M.; Warren, A. J.; Funariu, O. M.

    1991-01-01

    The second year's results of the BETA project research are presented. The program is divided into two areas, aerosol modification and climatology in the trade wind region and the climatology of BETA (CO2) on remote mountain top locations. Limited data is available on the aerosol climatology of the marine free troposphere (MFT) in the trade wind region. In order to study the effects of cumulus convection on the MFT values of BETA, a cloud model was developed to simulate the evolution of a typical Pacific trade wind cumulus cloud. The stages involved in this development are outlined. The assembly of the major optical components of the lidar was made. Tests were run of the spectral bandwidth of the Synrad laser when a portion of the beam is mixed with a component which has traveled 450 meters corresponding to a delay of 1.5 microsecs. The bandwidth of the beat signal was measured to be 3 KHz. The data processing system based on a parallel processing filter bank analyzer using true time squaring detectors at each filter was completed.

  19. Optical properties and tunable laser action of Verneuil-grown single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncorge, R.; Boulon, G.; Vivien, D.; Lejus, A. M.; Collongues, R.

    1988-06-01

    Using the Verneuil technique, the authors have grown large single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+ having concentrations up to 0.15 percent. Laser action was observed in this material, tunable over the range 700-810 nm. Losses in the 800-nm region are less than 0.03/cm (below the detection limit in the measurements).

  20. Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating

    SciTech Connect

    Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Omenetto, F.G.; Taylor, A.J.

    1999-04-01

    The authors review multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating (MI-FROG) as a technique, uniquely suited for pump-probe coherent spectroscopy using amplified visible and near-infrared short-pulse systems and/or emissive targets, for time-resolving ultrafast phase shifts and intensity changes. Application of polarization-gate MI-FROG to the study of ultrafast ionization in gases is presented.

  1. System of measurement of the transmission spectrum of in-vitro corneas for eye banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Meneses Bispo, Josemilson; Ventura, Liliane; de Carvalho, Carlos R., Jr.; de Sousa, Sidney J. F.; Chiaradia, Caio

    1998-05-01

    The donated cornea transparency is one of the features to be analyzed previously to its indication for the transplant. Hence we have developed a system to evaluate the transmission spectrum of 'In Vitro' corneas in its preservative medium, in the range of 400 - 700 nm, to be implemented in an Eye Bank. The cornea in its preservative medium is illuminated by collimated white light beams which strike a diffraction grid, passes through an optical system and a selecting filter (400 - 800 nm) and then is detected by a linear CCD detector (2048 photodiodes). The data is displayed in a PC monitor via a commercial interface device. A dedicated software has been developed to plot the transmission spectrum profile and provide an objective and standard information about the transparency of the donated cornea.

  2. Intervalley separation in the conduction band of InGaAs measured by terahertz excitation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Molis, G.; Krotkus, A.; Vaicaitis, V.

    2009-03-02

    Spectral dependencies of terahertz radiation from the femtosecond laser-illuminated surfaces of Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}As (x=1, 0.8, and 0.47) have been investigated experimentally at high optical fluencies and laser wavelengths ranging from 600 to 800 nm. The terahertz pulse amplitude increased with the increasing laser photon energy due to larger excess energies of photoexcited electrons and more efficient spatial separation of electrons and holes at the illuminated surface. This increase was stopped with the onset of electron transitions to subsidiary conduction band valleys. Analysis of these experiments was used for evaluating the energy positions of the X and L conduction band valleys in Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}As alloys as a function of their composition.

  3. Man Is the Measure...the Measurer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    The science of metrology has moved from man as the measure to man as the measurer. This transformation is documented with examples from the history of metrology. Outcome measures, which rest on the same history of measurement, are units constructed and maintained for their utility, constancy, and generality. (Author/SLD)

  4. Work measurement as a generalized quantum measurement.

    PubMed

    Roncaglia, Augusto J; Cerisola, Federico; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2014-12-19

    We present a new method to measure the work w performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P(w). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a positive operator valued measure reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P(w). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.

  5. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... reading; Measuring blood pressure; Hypertension - blood pressure measurement; High blood pressure - blood pressure measurement ... High blood pressure has no symptoms so you may not know if you have this problem. High blood pressure ...

  6. Measuring Test Measurement Error: A General Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Donald; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Test-based accountability as well as value-added asessments and much experimental and quasi-experimental research in education rely on achievement tests to measure student skills and knowledge. Yet, we know little regarding fundamental properties of these tests, an important example being the extent of measurement error and its implications for…

  7. Measuring Small Leak Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D. E.; Stephenson, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Hole sizes deduced from pressure measurements. Measuring apparatus consists of pitot tube attached to water-filled manometer. Compartment tested is pressurized with air. Pitot probe placed at known distance from leak. Dynamic pressure of jet measured at that point and static pressure measured in compartment. Useful in situations in which small leaks are tolerable but large leaks are not.

  8. Measuring the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneux, Robert E.; Williams, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the literature that measures characteristics of the Internet. Discusses: conclusions about the Internet measurement literature; definition of the Internet from a technical standpoint; history of Internet measurement; nature of the Internet data environment; Internet technical characteristics; information measurement and the Internet;…

  9. Software measurement guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassman, Mitchell J.; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose

    1994-01-01

    This software Measurement Guidebook presents information on the purpose and importance of measurement. It discusses the specific procedures and activities of a measurement program and the roles of the people involved. The guidebook also clarifies the roles that measurement can and must play in the goal of continual, sustained improvement for all software production and maintenance efforts.

  10. Can Virtue Be Measured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall; Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some general considerations bearing on the question of whether virtue can be measured. What is moral virtue? What are measurement and evaluation, and what do they presuppose about the nature of what is measured or evaluated? What are the prospective contexts of, and purposes for, measuring or evaluating virtue, and how would…

  11. Measurement of Evidence and Evidence of Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Vieland, Veronica J; Hodge, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    One important use of statistical methods in application to biological data is measurement of evidence, or assessment of the degree to which data support one or another hypothesis. While there is a small literature on this topic, it seems safe to say that consensus has not yet been reached regarding how best, or most accurately, to measure statistical evidence. Here, we propose considering the problem as a measurement problem, rather than as a statistical problem per se, and we explore the consequences of this shift in perspective. Our arguments here are part of an ongoing research program focused on exploiting deep parallelisms between foundations of thermodynamics and foundations of “evidentialism,” in order to derive an absolute scale for the measurement of evidence, a general framework in the context of which that scale is validated, and the many ancillary benefits that come from having such a framework in place.

  12. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  13. Metrology measurement capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shroyer, K.

    1997-02-01

    Since 1958, the AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) mechanical; (2) environmental, gas, liquid; (3) electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (4) optical and radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of the suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the report.

  14. Surface-plasmon enhanced ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities in ellipsoidal gold nanoparticles embedded bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feifei; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Tiefeng; Shen, Xiang; Lin, Changgui; Nie, Qiuhua; Liu, Chao; Heo, Jong

    2011-09-01

    Ellipsoidal gold nanoparticles embedded bismuthate glasses have been prepared via a facile melt-annealing approach. Femtosecond Z-scan measurement shows that the nanocomposites exhibit a maximum third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of 4.88 × 10-10 esu at 800 nm, which is two orders higher than that of the host glass. Optical Kerr shutter measurement demonstrates ultrafast response time (in scale of sub-picosecond) of the intraband transition enhanced third-order nonlinearities.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of oxygen saturation of blood independent of the presence of indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Mook, G A; Buursma, A; Gerding, A; Kwant, G; Zijlstra, W G

    1979-04-01

    The strong absorbance of indocyanine green in a broad band around lambda = 800 nm invalidates the usual spectrophotometric two-wavelength methods for measuring oxygen saturation operating in the red and near infrared region. By proper wavelength selection, however, the effect of the dye can be eliminated. With the two-wavelength method utilising lambda = 660 and 860 nm oxygen saturation is measured virtually independent of the presence of indocyanine green.

  16. Metrology measurement capability

    SciTech Connect

    Shroyer, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 36 years, the Kansas City Division`s (KCD) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; Electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (3) Optical and Radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. KCD Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 19 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the following pages.

  17. Metrology measurement capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroyer, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 36 years, the Kansas City Division's (KCD) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; Electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (3) Optical and Radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. KCD Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 19 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the following pages.

  18. Metrology measurement capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1958, the AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: mechanical; environmental, gas, liquid; electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/microwave); and optical and radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. FM and T Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Department of energy`s Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 16 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of the suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in this report.

  19. Implementing Safety Measures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Required risk mitigation measures for soil fumigants protect handlers, applicators, and bystanders from pesticide exposure. Measures include buffer zones, sign posting, good agricultural practices, restricted use pesticide classification, and FMPs.

  20. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Muir, James F.; Wayland, Jr., J. Robert

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  1. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  2. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  3. Ozone Correlative Measurements Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the necessary parameters for the correlation of data on Earth ozone. Topics considered were: (1) measurement accuracy; (2) equipment considerations (SBUV); and (3) ground based measurements to support satellite data.

  4. Electrolyte measurement device and measurement procedure

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Kevin R.; Scribner, Louie L.

    2010-01-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring the through-thickness resistance or conductance of a thin electrolyte is provided. The method and apparatus includes positioning a first source electrode on a first side of an electrolyte to be tested, positioning a second source electrode on a second side of the electrolyte, positioning a first sense electrode on the second side of the electrolyte, and positioning a second sense electrode on the first side of the electrolyte. current is then passed between the first and second source electrodes and the voltage between the first and second sense electrodes is measured.

  5. Impedance Measurement Box

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, William

    2014-11-20

    The IMB 50V software provides functionality for design of impedance measurement tests or sequences of tests, execution of these tests or sequences, processing measured responses and displaying and saving of the results. The software consists of a Graphical User Interface that allows configuration of measurement parameters and test sequencing, a core engine that controls test sequencing, execution of measurements, processing and storage of results and a hardware/software data acquisition interface with the IMB hardware system.

  6. Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Radar 54 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of Chirp Radar 56 18. Range and Cross Range Image of Target Dror.’ŕ Vehicle 57 19. Incoherent rms...the measured range resolution, 4.9 in, closely agrees with the theoretical performance for this weighting. The measured range sidelobe performance...Interval 4.89in. 2% kHz 300 kHz 310 kHz (b) Expanded Scale + 5 ft from Target Figure 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of

  7. Force-Measuring Clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A precision clamp that accurately measures force over a wide range of conditions is described. Using a full bridge or other strain gage configuration. the elastic deformation of the clamp is measured or detected by the strain gages. Thc strain gages transmit a signal that corresponds to the degree of stress upon the clamp. Thc strain gage signal is converted to a numeric display. Calibration is achieved by ero and span potentiometers which enable accurate measurements by the force-measuring clamp.

  8. Measurement Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and Career Readiness and Success Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This discussion guide is part of a larger practice guide designed to help state education agencies (SEAs) define measurement goals, select college and career readiness measures and indicators designed to support those goals, and use the data gathered with those measures and indicators to make informed decisions about college and career readiness…

  9. Standards for holdup measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal.

  10. Measurement and Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on measurement and research tools for human resource development (HRD). "The 'Best Fit' Training: Measure Employee Learning Style Strengths" (Daniel L. Parry) discusses a study of the physiological aspect of sensory intake known as modality, more specifically, modality as measured by…

  11. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  12. A Magnetoresistance Measuring Probe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The in line four point probe, commonly used for measuring the sheet resistance in a conductor, cannot measure the anisotropic ferromagnetic magnetoresistance. However, the addition of two contact points that are not collinear with the current contacts give the probe the ability to non-destructively measure the anistropic magnetoresistance. Keywords: Magnetoresistance; Anisotropic; Thin-Film; Permalloy; Four Point Probe; Anisotropic Resistance.

  13. Teaching Measurement with Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, William P.; Moore, Sara D.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement is a difficult concept for many children. Trend data from the National Association of Educational Progress (NAEP) indicate that student achievement with measurement is disappointing, given the amount of instructional time it receives in K-grade 5. In an attempt to address the problem of student achievement with measurement, the authors…

  14. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  15. Measuring Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Jarrod; Most, Sam P

    2016-08-01

    The nose and the nasal airway is highly complex with intricate 3-dimensional anatomy, with multiple functions in respiration and filtration of the respired air. Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a complex problem with no clearly defined "gold-standard" in measurement. There are 3 tools for the measurement of NAO: patient-derived measurements, physician-observed measurements, and objective measurements. We continue to work towards finding a link between subjective and objective nasal obstruction. The field of evaluation and surgical treatment for NAO has grown tremendously in the past 4-5 decades and will continue to grow as we learn more about the pathophysiology and treatment of nasal obstruction.

  16. Current measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  17. Precision electroweak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup -} and {ital p{anti p}} colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct {ital m{sub t}} measurements. Using the world`s electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs` mass are discussed.

  18. Consistent quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  19. Geodetic distance measuring apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.

    1980-12-01

    A geodetic distance measuring apparatus which compensates for the refractive index of the atmosphere is discussed. A mode locked laser system with a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized to derive two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. The optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal issued to provide wet or water vapor density of the air. The distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry air and water vapor densities in the measurement path is computed from these measurements. A time interval unit is included for measuring transit time of individual optical pulses for resolving the phase ambiguity needed with the phase measurements to give the true target distance.

  20. Spectral characteristics of Shuttle glow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viereck, R. A.; Mende, S. B.; Murad, E.; Swenson, G. R.; Pike, C. P.; Culbertson, F. L.; Springer, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The glowing cloud near the ram surfaces of the Space Shuttle was observed with a hand-held, intensified spectrograph operated by the astronauts from the aft-flight-deck of the Space Shuttle. The spectral measurements were made between 400 and 800 nm with a resolution of 3 nm. Analysis of the spectral response of the instrument and the transmission of the Shuttle window was performed on orbit using earth-airglow OH Meinel bands. This analysis resulted in a correction of the Shuttle glow intensity in the spectral region between 700 and 800 nm. The data presented in this report is in better agreement with laboratory measurements of the NO2 continuum.

  1. Process measurement assurance program

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for determining, improving, and controlling the measurement process errors (or measurement uncertainty) of a measurement system used to monitor product as it is manufactured. The method is called the Process Measurement Assurance Program (PMAP). It integrates metrology early into the product realization process and is a step beyond statistical process control (SPC), which monitors only the product. In this method, a control standard is used to continuously monitor the status of the measurement system. Analysis of the control standard data allow the determination of the measurement error inherent in the product data and allow one to separate the variability in the manufacturing process from variability in the measurement process. These errors can be then associated with either the measurement equipment, variability of the measurement process, operator bias, or local environmental effects. Another goal of PMAP is to determine appropriate re-calibration intervals for the measurement system, which may be significantly longer or shorter than the interval typically assigned by the calibration organization.

  2. Software Measurement Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This Software Measurement Guidebook is based on the extensive experience of several organizations that have each developed and applied significant measurement programs over a period of at least 10 years. The lessons derived from those experiences reflect not only successes but also failures. By applying those lessons, an organization can minimize, or at least reduce, the time, effort, and frustration of introducing a software measurement program. The Software Measurement Guidebook is aimed at helping organizations to begin or improve a measurement program. It does not provide guidance for the extensive application of specific measures (such as how to estimate software cost or analyze software complexity) other than by providing examples to clarify points. It does contain advice for establishing and using an effective software measurement program and for understanding some of the key lessons that other organizations have learned. Some of that advice will appear counterintuitive, but it is all based on actual experience. Although all of the information presented in this guidebook is derived from specific experiences of mature measurement programs, the reader must keep in mind that the characteristics of every organization are unique. Some degree of measurement is critical for all software development and maintenance organizations, and most of the key rules captured in this report will be generally applicable. Nevertheless, each organization must strive to understand its own environment so that the measurement program can be tailored to suit its characteristics and needs.

  3. Locke on measurement.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2016-12-01

    Like many virtuosi in his day, the English philosopher John Locke maintained an active interest in metrology. Yet for Locke, this was no mere hobby: questions concerning measurement were also implicated in his ongoing philosophical project to develop an account of human understanding. This paper follows Locke's treatment of four problems of measurement from the early Drafts A and B of the Essay concerning Human Understanding to the publication of this famous book and its aftermath. It traces Locke's attempt to develop a natural or universal standard for the measure of length, his attempts to grapple with the measurement of duration, as well as the problems of determining comparative measures for secondary qualities, and the problem of discriminating small differences in the conventional measures of his day. It is argued that the salient context for Locke's treatment of these problems is the new experimental philosophy and its method of experimental natural history.

  4. Geodetic distance measuring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A mode locked laser system including a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized for deriving two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. Preferably the optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide a measure of the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal is used to provide a measure of the wet or water vapor density of the air. From these measurements is computed in means of the distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry and water vapor densities in the measurement path.

  5. PIV Measurements in Pumps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Pump Impeller Fig. 37 shows the top view of pump test rig for radial impeller pumps . The goal of this experiment is cavitation observation and their...PIV Measurements in Pumps 5 - 28 RTO-EN-AVT-143 Figure 37: Test Rig for Combined PIV Measurements and Cavitation Observation. Figure 38...RTO-EN-AVT-143 5 - 1 PIV Measurements in Pumps Dr. Detlev L. Wulff TU Braunschweig Institut für Strömungsmaschinen Langer Kamp 6 D-38106

  6. Vega balloon meteorological measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Preston, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Vega balloons obtained in situ measurements of pressure, temperature, vertical winds, cloud density, ambient illumination, and the frequency of lightning during their flights in the Venus middle cloud layer. The Vega measurements were used to develop a comprehensive description of the meteorology of the Venus middle cloud layer. The Vega measurements provide the following picture: large horizontal temperature gradients near the equator, vigorous convection, and weather conditions that can change dramatically on time scales as short as one hour.

  7. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.

    1997-01-01

    A current measuring system comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device.

  8. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, D.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Olson, J.E.

    1997-09-09

    A current measuring system is disclosed comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device. 4 figs.

  9. Measuring Customer Satisfaction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    HSC/DR-TM-94-0001 Measuring Customer Satisfaction MAN MSTENE August 1994 DTIC DEC 23 1994 Capt Eileen G. Ancman Approved for Public Release...REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Aug 1994 Final June 1994 - Aug 1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Measuring Customer Satisfaction IN...8217,’ Codes Avail anod or MEASURING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION BY CAPT EILEEN ANCMAN HSCIXRS BROOKS AFB TX AUGUST 1994 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION

  10. Platinum nanostructures formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in water

    SciTech Connect

    Huo Haibin; Shen Mengyan

    2012-11-15

    Platinum nanostructures with various morphologies, such as spike-like, ripple-like and array-like structures, have been fabricated by 400 nm and 800 nm femtosecond laser irradiation in water. Different structures can be formed on the surfaces as a function of the laser wavelength, the fluence and scan methods. The reflectance measurements of these structures show much larger absorption on the irradiated surfaces than untreated platinum surfaces.

  11. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, Bernard P.; Becse, Imre

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices.

  12. The attribute measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  13. Systemic risk measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Solange Maria; Silva, Thiago Christiano; Tabak, Benjamin Miranda; de Souza Penaloza, Rodrigo Andrés; de Castro Miranda, Rodrigo César

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present systemic risk measures based on contingent claims approach and banking sector multivariate density. We also apply network measures to analyze bank common risk exposure. The proposed measures aim to capture credit risk stress and its potential to become systemic. These indicators capture not only individual bank vulnerability, but also the stress dependency structure between them. Furthermore, these measures can be quite useful for identifying systemically important banks. The empirical results show that these indicators capture with considerable fidelity the moments of increasing systemic risk in the Brazilian banking sector in recent years.

  14. Global Precipitation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Kummerow, Christian D.; Shepherd, James Marshall

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a brief history and background of microwave precipitation sensors, with a discussion of the sensitivity of both passive and active instruments, to trace the evolution of satellite-based rainfall techniques from an era of inference to an era of physical measurement. Next, the highly successful Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission will be described, followed by the goals and plans for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission and the status of precipitation retrieval algorithm development. The chapter concludes with a summary of the need for space-based precipitation measurement, current technological capabilities, near-term algorithm advancements and anticipated new sciences and societal benefits in the GPM era.

  15. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  16. Why Measure Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Kuhn, John E

    2016-01-01

    The concept of measuring the outcomes of treatment in health care was promoted by Ernest Amory Codman in the early 1900s, but, until recently, his ideas were generally ignored. The forces that have advanced outcome measurement to the forefront of health care include the shift in payers for health care from the patient to large insurance companies or government agencies, the movement toward assessing the care of populations not individuals, and the effort to find value (or cost-effective treatments) amid rising healthcare costs. No ideal method exists to measure outcomes, and the information gathered depends on the reason the outcome information is required. Outcome measures used in research are best able to answer research questions. The methods for assessing physician and hospital performance include process measures, patient-experience measures, structure measures, and measures used to assess the outcomes of treatment. The methods used to assess performance should be validated, be reliable, and reflect a patient's perception of the treatment results. The healthcare industry must measure outcomes to identify which treatments are most effective and provide the most benefit to patients.

  17. Measuring School Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Chandra L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes issues in measuring school contexts with an eye toward understanding students’ experiences and outcomes. I begin with an overview of the conceptual underpinnings related to measuring contexts, briefly describe the initiatives at the National Center for Education Statistics to measure school contexts, and identify possible gaps in those initiatives that if filled could provide valuable new data for researchers. Next, I discuss new approaches and opportunities for measurement, and special considerations related to diverse populations and youth development. I conclude with recommendations for future priorities. PMID:27158640

  18. Photothermal measurements of superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kino, G.S.; Studenmund, W.R.; Fishman, I.M.

    1996-12-31

    A photothermal technique has been used to measure diffusion and critical temperature in high temperature superconductors. The technique is particularly suitable for determining material quality and inhomogeneity.

  19. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, B.P.; Becse, I.

    1988-11-08

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices. 1 fig.

  20. Qualitative interviewing as measurement.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2010-04-01

    The attribution of beliefs and other propositional attitudes is best understood as a form of measurement, however counter-intuitive this may seem. Measurement theory does not require that the thing measured should be a magnitude, or that the calibration of the measuring instrument should be numerical. It only requires a homomorphism between the represented domain and the representing domain. On this basis, maps measure parts of the world, usually geographical locations, and 'belief' statements measure other parts of the world, namely people's aptitudes. Having outlined an argument for this view, I deal with an obvious objection to it: that self-attribution of belief cannot be an exercise in measurement, because we are all aware, from introspection, that our beliefs have an intrinsically semantic form. Subsequently, I turn to the philosophical and methodological ramifications of the measurement theoretic view. I argue, first, that it undermines at least one version of constructivism and, second, that it provides an effective alternative to the residually Cartesian philosophy that underpins much qualitative research. Like other anti-Cartesian strategies, belief-attribution-as-measurement implies that the objective world is far more knowable than the subjective one, and that reality is ontologically prior to meaning. I regard this result as both plausible and welcome.

  1. Force-Measuring Clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Force-measuring clamps have been invented to facilitate and simplify the task of measuring the forces or pressures applied to clamped parts. There is a critical need to measure clamping forces or pressures in some applications for example, while bonding sensors to substrates or while clamping any sensitive or delicate parts. Many manufacturers of adhesives and sensors recommend clamping at specific pressures while bonding sensors or during adhesive bonding between parts in general. In the absence of a force-measuring clamp, measurement of clamping force can be cumbersome at best because of the need for additional load sensors and load-indicating equipment. One prior method of measuring clamping force involved the use of load washers or miniature load cells in combination with external power sources and load-indicating equipment. Calibrated spring clamps have also been used. Load washers and miniature load cells constitute additional clamped parts in load paths and can add to the destabilizing effects of loading mechanisms. Spring clamps can lose calibration quickly through weakening of the springs and are limited to the maximum forces that the springs can apply. The basic principle of a force-measuring clamp can be implemented on a clamp of almost any size and can enable measurement of a force of almost any magnitude. No external equipment is needed because the component(s) for transducing the clamping force and the circuitry for supplying power, conditioning the output of the transducers, and displaying the measurement value are all housed on the clamp. In other words, a force-measuring clamp is a complete force-application and force-measurement system all in one package. The advantage of unitary packaging of such a system is that it becomes possible to apply the desired clamping force or pressure with precision and ease.

  2. Gummy Worm Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Priscilla L.; Anshutz, Ramona J.; Wright, Emmett L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science activity using gummy worms to help primary students develop the mathematical skills of measurement concepts, units of measure, estimation, and graphing needed for science learning. Groups of two begin by estimating the number of gummy worms in their package and identifying the colors they expect to find. Individual worms are…

  3. Measuring News Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  4. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  5. Measuring Authoritative Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.

    2011-01-01

    High quality measurements are important to evaluate interventions. The study reports on the development of a measurement to investigate authoritative teaching understood as a two-dimensional construct of warmth and control. Through the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) the factor structure…

  6. Systems Engineering Measurement Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Systems Engineering Measurement Primer A Basic Introduction to Systems Engineering Measurement Concepts and Use Version 1.0 March 1998 This document...Federal Systems Garry Roedler Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Cathy Tilton The National Registry, Inc. E. Richard Widmann Raytheon Systems...IV 1. INTRODUCTION

  7. NBS: Materials measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of materials properties and thermophysical properties is described. The topics discussed are: surface tensions and their variations with temperature and impurities; convection during unidirectional solidification: measurement of high temperature thermophysical properties of tungsten liquid and solid; thermodynamic properties of refractory materials at high temperatures; and experimental and theoretical studies in wetting and multilayer adsorption.

  8. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  9. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  10. Metabolic rate measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

    1980-01-01

    The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

  11. Electron measurement in PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Akiba, Y.

    1995-07-15

    Electron Measurement in PHENIX detector at RHIC is discussed. The yield and S/N ratio at vector meson peaks ({phi}, {omega}, {rho}{sup o}, and J/{psi}) are evaluated. The electrons from open charm decay, and its consequence to the di-electron measurements is discussed.

  12. Basic Measures of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This document provides a compilation of measures of progress toward school readiness and three contributing conditions as used in several local, state, and national surveys. The report begins with a legend listing the surveys examined, their acronyms, and contact information. The remainder of the report, in tabular format, lists measures of…

  13. Measuring cosmological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Wendy L.

    1998-01-01

    In this review, the status of measurements of the matter density (Ωm), the vacuum energy density or cosmological constant (ΩΛ), the Hubble constant (H0), and the ages of the oldest measured objects (t0) are summarized. Three independent types of methods for measuring the Hubble constant are considered: the measurement of time delays in multiply imaged quasars, the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect in clusters, and Cepheid-based extragalactic distances. Many recent independent dynamical measurements are yielding a low value for the matter density (Ωm ≈ 0.2–0.3). A wide range of Hubble constant measurements appear to be converging in the range of 60–80 km/sec per megaparsec. Areas where future improvements are likely to be made soon are highlighted—in particular, measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. Particular attention is paid to sources of systematic error and the assumptions that underlie many of the measurement methods. PMID:9419315

  14. Balloon film strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, James L.

    In order to understand the state of stress in scientific balloons, a need exists for the measurement of film deformation in flight. The results of a flight test program are reported where material strain was measured for the first time during the inflation, launch, ascent and float of a typical natural shape, zero pressure scientific balloon.

  15. The Measurement of Nonviolence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; Palmer, B. James

    This paper reviews the assessment measures developed to recognize nonviolent dispositions. Based on computer searches of the Psychological Abstracts (PsychLit) database, the document identifies the best measures for assessing nonviolence such as: (1) The Nonviolence Test developed by Kool and Sen (1984); (2) the Gandhian Personality Scale…

  16. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  17. Undulator Field Integral Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-07

    The LCLS undulator field integrals must be very small so that the beam trajectory slope and offset stay within tolerance. In order to make accurate measurements of the small field integrals, a long coil will be used. This note describes the design of the coil measurement system.

  18. Measuring software design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An extensive series of studies of software design measures conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory is described. Included are the objectives and results of the studies, the method used to perform the studies, and the problems encountered. The document should be useful to researchers planning similar studies as well as to managers and designers concerned with applying quantitative design measures.

  19. Viscosity measuring using microcantilevers

    DOEpatents

    Oden, Patrick Ian

    2001-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the viscosity of a fluid uses a micromachined cantilever mounted on a moveable base. As the base is rastered while in contact with the fluid, the deflection of the cantilever is measured and the viscosity determined by comparison with standards.

  20. Measuring Clerical Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronan, William W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes research which attempts to provide a solution to the performance criterion problem, concluding that is seems possible to measure many aspects of clerical work using psychometric measures that are highly job related; recommends that such devices be used to supplement ratings in the performance evaluation process.

  1. Performance Measurement Redux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Irwin

    2002-01-01

    Continues the exploration of the effective use and misuse of performance indicators that has been conducted by various authors in this journal. Identifies some further limitations on the use of performance measurement and notes that many performance measurement undertakings make no provision for evaluating the impact of the undertakings…

  2. Heat Flow Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Heat gauges are used to measure heat flow in industrial activities. They must periodically be certified by instruments designed to provide a heat flux measurement standard. CSTAR, a NASA CCDS, and REMTECH have developed a portable heat flux checker/calibrator. The Q-CHEC can be carried to the heat gauge for certification, reducing out of service time for the gauge and eliminating the need for a replacement gauge during certification. It can provide an "end-to-end" check of the instrumentation measurement system or be used as a standalone calibrator. Because Q-CHEC offers on-site capability to detect and eliminate measurement errors, measurements do not have to be repeated, and money is saved.

  3. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire.

  4. Symmetry operation measures.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Mark; Casanova, David; Alemany, Pere; Alvarez, Santiago; Avnir, David; Dryzun, Chaim; Kizner, Ziv; Sterkin, Alexander

    2008-01-30

    We introduce a new mathematical tool for quantifying the symmetry contents of molecular structures: the Symmetry Operation Measures. In this approach, we measure the minimal distance between a given structure and the structure which is obtained after applying a selected symmetry operation on it. If the given operation is a true symmetry operation for the structure, this distance is zero; otherwise it gives an indication of how different the transformed structure is from the original one. Specifically, we provide analytical solutions for measures of all the improper rotations, S n p, including mirror symmetry and inversion, as well as for all pure rotations, C n p. These measures provide information complementary to the Continuous Symmetry Measures (CSM) that evaluate the distance between a given structure and the nearest structure which belongs to a selected symmetry point-group.

  5. Turbulent Inflow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.

    1996-01-01

    In the present research, tilt rotor aeroacoustics have been studied experimentally and computationally. Experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. To date, these flow measurements are the only ones in existence for a hovering tilt rotor. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3) basic configuration changes (increasing the rotor/rotor spacing, reducing the rotor plane/wing clearance, operating the rotors out of phase). Also, an approximation to Sikorsky's Variable Diameter Tilt Rotor (VDTR) configuration was tested, and some flow measurements were made on a semi-span configuration of the model. Acoustic predictions were made using LOWSON.M, a Mathematica code. This hover prediction code, from HOVER.FOR, used blade element theory for the aerodynamics, and Prandtl's Vortex theory to model the wake, along with empirical formulas for the effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, and stall. Aerodynamic models were developed from 7-hole pressure probe measurements of the mean velocity into the model rotors. LOWSON.M modeled a rotor blade as a single force and source/sink combination separated in the chordwise direction, at an

  6. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  7. Threshold for permanent refractive index change in crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, D.; Chen, Z.; Fedosejevs, R.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Van, V.

    2016-08-01

    An optical damage threshold for crystalline silicon from single femtosecond laser pulses was determined by detecting a permanent change in the refractive index of the material. This index change could be detected with unprecedented sensitivity by measuring the resonant wavelength shift of silicon integrated optics microring resonators irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelengths. The threshold for permanent index change at 400 nm wavelength was determined to be 0.053 ± 0.007 J/cm2, which agrees with previously reported threshold values for femtosecond laser modification of crystalline silicon. However, the threshold for index change at 800 nm wavelength was found to be 0.044 ± 0.005 J/cm2, which is five times lower than the previously reported threshold values for visual change on the silicon surface. The discrepancy is attributed to possible modification of the crystallinity of silicon below the melting temperature that has not been detected before.

  8. Ultrafast optical nonlinearity and photoacoustic studies on chitosan-boron nitride nanotube composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Philip, Reji; Mohan, Athira; Jenks, Cassidy; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Ultrafast optical nonlinearity in chitosan (CS) films doped with multi-walled boron nitride nanotubes (MWBN) has been investigated using 800 nm, 100 fs laser pulses, employing the open aperture Z-scan technique. Two-photon absorption coefficients (β) of CS-MWBN films have been measured at 800 nm by Z-scan. While chitosan with 0.01% MWBN doping gives a β value of 0.28×10-13 m/W, 1% doping results in a higher β value of 1.43×10-13 m/W, showing nonlinearity enhancement by a factor of 5. These nonlinearity coefficients are comparable to those reported for silver nanoclusters in glass matrix and Pt-PVA nanocomposites, indicating potential photonic applications for MWBN doped chitosan films. Characterization of the synthesized films using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) reveals significant interactions between the NH and CO groups of chitosan with boron nitride.

  9. Momentum spectra of electrons rescattered from rare-gas targets following their extraction by one- and two-color femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, D.; Chen Zhangjin; De, S.; Cao, W.; Le, A. T.; Lin, C. D.; Cocke, C. L.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Kling, M. F.

    2011-01-15

    We have used velocity-map imaging to measure the three-dimensional momenta of electrons rescattered from Xe and Ar following the liberation of the electrons from these atoms by 45 fs, 800 nm intense laser pulses. Strong structure in the rescattering region is observed in both angle and energy, and is interpreted in terms of quantitative rescattering (QRS) theory. Momentum images have also been taken with two-color (800 nm + 400 nm) pulses on Xe targets. A strong dependence of the spectra on the relative phase of the two colors is observed in the rescattering region. Interpretation of the phase dependence using both QRS theory and a full solution to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation shows that the rescattered electrons provide a much more robust method for determining the relative phase of the two colors than do the direct electrons.

  10. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Microstructure and Magnetic Domains of Iron Films on Liquid Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jian-Ping; Xia, A.-Gen; Zhang, Chu-Hang; Yang, Bo; Fang, Zheng-Nong; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2009-11-01

    Iron (Fe) films with a thickness ranging from 1.0 nm to 80.0 nm are deposited on silicone oil surfaces by a vapor phase deposition method. The films with a thickness of d < 2.0 nm do not exhibit planar morphology but ramified aggregates instead. Magnetic force microscopy studies for the Fe films (10.0 nm <= d <= 80.0 nm) show that the domain wall structure is widespread and irregularly shaped and the oscillation phase shift Δθ, which records as the magnetic force image, changes from 0.29° to 0.81°. Correspondingly, the magnetic force gradient varies from 1.4 × 10-3 to 4.0 × 10-3 N/m, respectively. In our measurement, the characteristic domain walls, such as Bloch walls, Néel walls and cross-tie walls, are not observed in the film system clearly.

  11. Sensorimotor System Measurement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Riemann, Bryan L.; Myers, Joseph B.; Lephart, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of currently available sensorimotor assessment techniques. Data Sources: We drew information from an extensive review of the scientific literature conducted in the areas of proprioception, neuromuscular control, and motor control measurement. Literature searches were conducted using MEDLINE for the years 1965 to 1999 with the key words proprioception, somatosensory evoked potentials, nerve conduction testing, electromyography, muscle dynamometry, isometric, isokinetic, kinetic, kinematic, posture, equilibrium, balance, stiffness, neuromuscular, sensorimotor, and measurement. Additional sources were collected using the reference lists of identified articles. Data Synthesis: Sensorimotor measurement techniques are discussed with reference to the underlying physiologic mechanisms, influential factors and locations of the variable within the system, clinical research questions, limitations of the measurement technique, and directions for future research. Conclusions/Recommendations: The complex interactions and relationships among the individual components of the sensorimotor system make measuring and analyzing specific characteristics and functions difficult. Additionally, the specific assessment techniques used to measure a variable can influence attained results. Optimizing the application of sensorimotor research to clinical settings can, therefore, be best accomplished through the use of common nomenclature to describe underlying physiologic mechanisms and specific measurement techniques. PMID:16558672

  12. Measuring Temperature Reading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    There are two requirements for taking a measurement of something. The first is a tool for taking a measurement. The second is scale for making sense of the numbers of the measurement. For example, a ruler is often used to measure short lengths. It is the tool for measurement. On the ruler are one or more number scales with equally spaced numbers. These numbers can be compared with numbers from any other ruler that is accurately set to the same scale. Measuring length is far simpler than measuring temperature. While there is evidence of tools for measuring length at various times in human history, tools and scales for measuring temperature do not appear until more recent human history. Early thermometers, called thermoscopes, first appear in the 1500's. They were crude instruments that were not at all accurate. Most did not even have a number scale associated with them. This made them useless for most practical purposes. Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first accurate thermometer in 1714, and the Fahrenheit temperature scale followed it in 1724. The thermometer s accuracy was based on its use of mercury, a silver colored substance that remains liquid over a wide range of temperatures but expands or contracts in a standard, predictable way with changes in temperature. To set the scale, Fahrenheit created the coldest temperature that he could. He mixed equal parts of ice, water, and salt, and then used this as the zero point, 0 degrees, of his scale. He intended to make 30 degrees the freezing point of water and 90 degrees the temperature of the human body, but he had to later revise these temperatures to be 32 degrees and 96 degrees. In the final version of the scale, the temperature of the human body became 98.6 degrees. 19th century thermoscope

  13. Mining volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph Saul (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In a shaft with a curved or straight primary segment and smaller off-shooting segments, at least one standing wave is generated in the primary segment. The shaft has either an open end or a closed end and approximates a cylindrical waveguide. A frequency of a standing wave that represents the fundamental mode characteristic of the primary segment can be measured. Alternatively, a frequency differential between two successive harmonic modes that are characteristic of the primary segment can be measured. In either event, the measured frequency or frequency differential is characteristic of the length and thus the volume of the shaft based on length times the bore area.

  14. Offset Waveguide Transmission Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin

    1997-01-01

    This report describes measurements to determine transmission losses in S-band (2.60-3.95 GHz) waveguide sections due to misalignment of the sections relative to each other. The experiments were performed in support of the Hydrostar program to determine the feasibility of using deployable waveguide sections in a large space radiometer. The waveguide sections would possibly be hinged and folded for launch, then deployed in space to form long sections of waveguide. Since very low losses are required for radiometer applications, the effects of potential misalignment after deployment of the waveguide sections may be significant. These measurements were performed in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory in the Electromagnetics Research Branch.

  15. Mirror Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract led to a commercially available instrument used to measure the shape profile of mirror surfaces in scientific instruments. Bauer Associates, Inc.'s Bauer Model 200 Profilometer is based upon a different measurement concept. The local curvature of the mirror's surface is measured at many points, and the collection of data is computer processed to yield the desired shape profile. (Earlier profilometers are based on the principle of interferometry.) The system is accurate and immune to problems like vibration and turbulence. Two profilometers are currently marketed, and a third will soon be commercialized.

  16. Ultrasonic linear measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Scot H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An ultrasonic linear measurement system uses the travel time of surface waves along the perimeter of a three-dimensional curvilinear body to determine the perimeter of the curvilinear body. The system can also be used piece-wise to measure distances along plane surfaces. The system can be used to measure perimeters where use of laser light, optical means or steel tape would be extremely difficult, time consuming or impossible. It can also be used to determine discontinuities in surfaces of known perimeter or dimension.

  17. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  18. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  19. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed.

  20. Measurement of androgens.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Testosterone is the major androgen measured in clinical and research investigations of both men and women. Nevertheless, many other androgens have an important role in the investigation of andrenal and gonadal physiology and pathology. Commercial assays are generally used in clinical laboratories but these have poor precision at low concentrations and poor sensitivity. Extraction assays, described in this chapter, can be much more sensitive and precise. There is interest in measuring free steriods and a steady-state gel filtration method used in the author's laboratory is described. Methods are also provided for the measurement of steroids in saliva and hair.

  1. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  2. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  3. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that

  4. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server

  5. CIRCUITS FOR CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Cox, R.J.

    1958-11-01

    Circuits are presented for measurement of a logarithmic scale of current flowing in a high impedance. In one form of the invention the disclosed circuit is in combination with an ionization chamber to measure lonization current. The particular circuit arrangement lncludes a vacuum tube having at least one grid, an ionization chamber connected in series with a high voltage source and the grid of the vacuum tube, and a d-c amplifier feedback circuit. As the ionization chamber current passes between the grid and cathode of the tube, the feedback circuit acts to stabilize the anode current, and the feedback voltage is a measure of the logaritbm of the ionization current.

  6. Mathematics and Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Ronald F.; Donahue, Michael J.; Lozier, Daniel W.; McMichael, Robert; Rust, Bert W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe the role that mathematics plays in measurement science at NIST. We first survey the history behind NIST’s current work in this area, starting with the NBS Math Tables project of the 1930s. We then provide examples of more recent efforts in the application of mathematics to measurement science, including the solution of ill-posed inverse problems, characterization of the accuracy of software for micromagnetic modeling, and in the development and dissemination of mathematical reference data. Finally, we comment on emerging issues in measurement science to which mathematicians will devote their energies in coming years. PMID:27500024

  7. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  8. The Measurement of Wettability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirie, Brian J. S.; Gregory, David W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of a simple apparatus to measure contact angles between a liquid drop and a solid surface which are determining factors of wettability. Included are examples of applying this technique to various experimental situations. (CC)

  9. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  10. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  11. Fission Measurements with Dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Macri, R. A.; Parker, W. E.; Wilk, P. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Angell, C. T.; Tonchev, A. P.; Baker, J. D.

    2008-08-01

    Neutron capture cross section measurements on actinides are complicated by the presence of neutron-induced fission. An efficient fission tagging detector used in coincidence with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) provides a powerful tool in undertaking simultaneous measurements of (n,γ) and (n,f) cross sections. Preliminary results on 235U(n,γ) and (n,f) and 242mAm(n,f) cross sections measured with DANCE and a custom fission-tagging parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) are presented. Additional measurements of γ-ray cluster multiplicity distributions for neutron-induced fission of 235U and 242mAm and spontaneous fission of 252Cf are shown, as well as γ-ray energy and average γ-ray energy distributions.

  12. Quality measures for neurologists

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Amy E.; Swain-Eng, Rebecca J.; Gjorvad, Gina; Tonn, Sarah T.; Bever, Christopher T.; Cheng, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Measuring and reporting health care quality is increasingly becoming part of clinical practice and reimbursement for specialists, including neurologists. The goal is to improve the value of care. Current major programs tie quality measurements to reimbursement, including programs from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: the Physician Quality Reporting System, the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program (and Meaningful Use), and Accountable Care Organizations. Many specialty boards, including the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, now require clinical practice quality measurements for maintenance of certification. Practitioners may find these programs confusing, overlapping, burdensome, and not clearly relevant to promoting better patient care. Yet, integrating quality metrics into practice has entered the mainstream and is increasingly tied to reimbursement. Further, over the next few years, most programs will switch from bonus incentives for participation to penalties for nonparticipation. This article aims to clarify current and rising quality measurement programs relevant to neurologists. PMID:23634383

  13. Terrestrial photovoltaic measurements, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The following major topics are discussed; (1) Terrestrial solar irradiance; (2) Solar simulation and reference cell calibration; and (3) Cell and array measurement procedures. Numerous related subtopics are also discussed within each major topic area.

  14. Future GPD Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Ralf

    2009-08-04

    Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs) have grown into one of the main topics in hadron physics. They are playing a central role in the physics of the JLab 12 GeV upgrade as well as in the future physics programme of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. This paper explores the future of GPD measurements in the short, medium and long term. The short term includes the analysis of already existing data from HERMES and JLab and planned measurements at JLab before the 12 GeV upgrade. In the medium term this concerns the JLab programme after the upgrade, measurements at COMPASS and at PANDA/FAIR. The EIC project or possible alternatives form the long term perspective. The main focus of the considerations lies on DVCS measurements and related experiments.

  15. In situ measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  16. Advance Control Measures & Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As areas develop their path forward or action plan, they should consider a variety of voluntary and mandatory measures and programs. The resources on this page can help, and participants are also encouraged to talk with their EPA Advance contact

  17. Measuring coal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.

  18. CHAPTER ONE: EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining human exposure to suspended particualte concentrations requires measurements that quantify different particle properties in microenvironments where people live, work, and play. Particle mass, size, and chemical composition are important exposure variables, and these ...

  19. Measuring Job Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Thomas; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues in measuring job security and presents a comparison of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Current Population Survey on job tenure and contingent employment. (SK)

  20. Measurement of endolymphatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Mom, T; Pavier, Y; Giraudet, F; Gilain, L; Avan, P

    2015-04-01

    Endolymphatic pressure measurement is of interest both to researchers in the physiology and pathophysiology of hearing and ENT physicians dealing with Menière's disease or similar conditions. It is generally agreed that endolymphatic hydrops is associated with Menière's disease and is accompanied by increased hydrostatic pressure. Endolymphatic pressure, however, cannot be measured precisely without endangering hearing, making the association between hydrops and increased endolymphatic pressure difficult to demonstrate. Several integrated in vivo models have been developed since the 1960s, but only a few allow measurement of endolymphatic hydrostatic pressure. Models associating measurement of hydrostatic pressure and endolymphatic potential and assessment of cochlear function are of value to elucidate the pathophysiology of endolymphatic hydrops. The present article presents the main types of models and discusses their respective interest.

  1. Measuring Strong Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Andy Minor

    2008-10-16

    Andy Minor of Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy explains measuring stress and strain on nanostructures with the In Situ Microscope. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-relea...

  2. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  3. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Ready to start a fitness program? Measure your fitness level with a few simple tests. ... 14, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20046433 . Mayo Clinic ...

  4. Measuring Strong Nanostructures

    ScienceCinema

    Andy Minor

    2016-07-12

    Andy Minor of Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy explains measuring stress and strain on nanostructures with the In Situ Microscope. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-relea...

  5. Topography measurements and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Junfeng; Vorburger, Theodore

    2006-11-01

    Based on auto- and cross-correlation functions (ACF and CCF), a new surface parameter called profile (or topography) difference, D s, has been developed for quantifying differences between 2D profiles or between 3D topographies with a single number. When D s = 0, the two compared 2D profiles or 3D topographies must be exactly the same (point by point). A 2D and 3D topography measurement system was established at NIST. This system includes data acquisition stations using a stylus instrument and a confocal microscope, and a correlation program using the proposed parameters D s and the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max. Applications in forensic science and surface metrology are described; those include profile signature measurements for 40 NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 standard bullets, and comparisons of profile measurements with four different techniques. An approach to optimizing the Gaussian filter long wavelength cutoff, λc, is proposed for topography measurements.

  6. Realizations of Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Benjamin D.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the analogy of squeezing two glasses of orange juice from 4 pounds of oranges, no matter how many oranges constitute 4 pounds, to illustrate the distinction between art and science, as between counting right answers and constructing measures. (SLD)

  7. Neutron Lifetime Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nico, J. S.

    2006-11-01

    Precision measurements of neutron beta decay address basic questions in nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. As the simplest semileptonic decay system, the free neutron plays an important role in understanding the physics of the weak interaction, and improving the precision of the neutron lifetime is fundamental to testing the validity of the theory. The neutron lifetime also directly affects the relative abundance of primordial helium in big bang nucleosynthesis. There are two distinct strategies for measuring the lifetime. Experiments using cold neutrons measure the absolute specific activity of a beam of neutrons by counting decay protons; experiments using confined, ultracold neutrons determine the lifetime by counting neutrons that remain after some elapsed time. The status of the recent lifetime measurements using both of these techniques is discussed.

  8. Neutron Lifetime Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J. S.

    2006-11-17

    Precision measurements of neutron beta decay address basic questions in nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. As the simplest semileptonic decay system, the free neutron plays an important role in understanding the physics of the weak interaction, and improving the precision of the neutron lifetime is fundamental to testing the validity of the theory. The neutron lifetime also directly affects the relative abundance of primordial helium in big bang nucleosynthesis. There are two distinct strategies for measuring the lifetime. Experiments using cold neutrons measure the absolute specific activity of a beam of neutrons by counting decay protons; experiments using confined, ultracold neutrons determine the lifetime by counting neutrons that remain after some elapsed time. The status of the recent lifetime measurements using both of these techniques is discussed.

  9. Capacitance measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    A capacitance measuring circuit is provided in which an unknown capacitance is measured by comparing the charge stored in the unknown capacitor with that stored in a known capacitance. Equal and opposite voltages are repetitively simultaneously switched onto the capacitors through an electronic switch driven by a pulse generator to charge the capacitors during the ''on'' portion of the cycle. The stored charge is compared by summing discharge currents flowing through matched resistors at the input of a current sensor during the ''off'' portion of the switching cycle. The net current measured is thus proportional to the difference in value of the two capacitances. The circuit is capable of providing much needed accuracy and stability to a great variety of capacitance-based measurement devices at a relatively low cost.

  10. Photoreceiver efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehr, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency and other related parameters of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's four laser receivers were measured at the observing stations by oscilloscope photography. If the efficiency is defined as the number of photoelectrons generated by the photomultiplier tube divided by the number of photons entering the aperture of the receiver, its measured value is about 1% for the laser wavelength of 694 nm. This value is consistent with the efficiency computed from the specified characteristics of the photoreceiver's optical components.

  11. Geometric measures of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Uyanik, K.; Turgut, S.

    2010-03-15

    The geometric measure of entanglement, which expresses the minimum distance to product states, has been generalized to distances to sets that remain invariant under the stochastic reducibility relation. For each such set, an associated entanglement monotone can be defined. The explicit analytical forms of these measures are obtained for bipartite entangled states. Moreover, the three-qubit case is discussed and it is argued that the distance to the W states is a new monotone.

  12. Tevatron admittance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.L.; Shiltsev, V.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    We measured the Tevatron beam admittance by the means of exciting the beam with noise and causing emittance growth. The noise power was about 3W with a bandwidth of 100Hz and centered either in the horizontal betatron frequency or vertical betatron frequency. We were able to controllably blow the beam emittance up quickly. From the point where the beam emittance stopped growing, we measured the beam acceptance of the Tevatron.

  13. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoveĭ, V. G.; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A.

    2008-12-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P\\subseteq \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack , then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  14. Pulse flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Riggan, William C.

    1985-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  15. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    according to a rule ( Stevens , 1959:25). However, not all assignment techniques are useful and some techniques have constraints on how the results can...3. Scale Hierarchy of Commonly Used Measures (Ford, 1993:9) Despite the generalized notation, only a few scale types exist ( Stevens , 1946:677...systems, a high order polynomial may yield an aggregated measure more closely capturing the system’s underlying nature ( Pinker , 1995:10): M=∑wimi+∑wimi2

  16. Device for calorimetric measurement

    DOEpatents

    King, William P; Lee, Jungchul

    2015-01-13

    In one aspect, provided herein is a single crystal silicon microcalorimeter, for example useful for high temperature operation and long-term stability of calorimetric measurements. Microcalorimeters described herein include microcalorimeter embodiments having a suspended structure and comprising single crystal silicon. Also provided herein are methods for making calorimetric measurements, for example, on small quantities of materials or for determining the energy content of combustible material having an unknown composition.

  17. Measurement of (124)I.

    PubMed

    Sahagia, M; Ioan, M-R; Antohe, A; Luca, A; Ivan, C

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the measurements performed at IFIN-HH regarding the creation of a Romanian (124)I standard, consisting of: absolute standardization of the solution by the application of the 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence method; Calibration of the CENTRONIC IG12/20A ionization chamber with a standardised solution and comparison with a calculated efficiency; γ-ray spectrometry activity measurement and determination of the impurity levels; Comparison of the results of the three methods.

  18. Thermal coupling measurement method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.

  19. Oceanic wave measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, J. F.; Miles, R. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An oceanic wave measured system is disclosed wherein wave height is sensed by a barometer mounted on a buoy. The distance between the trough and crest of a wave is monitored by sequentially detecting positive and negative peaks of the output of the barometer and by combining (adding) each set of two successive half cycle peaks. The timing of this measurement is achieved by detecting the period of a half cycle of wave motion.

  20. Noncontact Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Noncontact temperature measurement has been identified as one of the eight advanced technology development (ATD) areas to support the effort of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division in developing six Space Station flight experiment facilities. This two-day workshop was an opportunity for all six disciplines to present their requirements on noncontact temperature measurement and to discuss state-of-the-art developments. Multi-color pyrometry, laser pyrometry and radiometric imaging techniques are addressed.

  1. Measurement of dimensional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, S. F.; Berthold, J. W., III; Norton, M.

    1975-01-01

    A technique was developed for measuring, with a precision of one part 10 to the 9th power, changes in physical dimensions delta L/L. Measurements have commenced on five materials: Heraeus-Schott Homosil (vitreous silica), Corning 7940 (vitreous silica), Corning ULE 7971 (titanium silicate), Schott Zero-Dur, and Owens-Illinois Cer-Vit C-101. The study was extended to include Universal Cyclops Invar LR-35 and Simonds-Saw Superinvar.

  2. GPS Measurement Of Attitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinardo, S. J.; Hushbeck, E. L.; Meehan, T. K.; Munson, T. N.; Purcell, G. H.; Srinivasan, J. M.; Young, L. E.; Yunck, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    Signals transmitted by satellites of Global Positioning System (GPS) measure orientation of baseline on ship, aircraft, or other vehicle with accuracy. Two GPS antennas and receivers placed at well separated points on platform. Receivers measure positions of ends of baseline as functions of time. Output processor computes vector difference between two positions and determines orientation of baseline. Combined with conventional GPS data, orientation data allows more precise navigation and mapping and enhances calculations related to performance and control of vehicle.

  3. Advanced Antenna Measurement Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-18

    9.3 GHz slot array shown in Figure 1 and having a nominal directivity of 23 dB. This antenna was measured on an NSI Planar Near-field Scanner using... sidelobe level ; in essence, the antenna radiation pattern. Antenna pattern measurements have historically been conducted by placing a probe in the far...correction. It was noted in the earlier work that the best calibration antenna is one with a low gain so an open ended waveguide was used. This

  4. Ultrasonic differential measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ultrasonic resonance testing of an object is shown and described. Acoustic vibrations are applied to an object at a plurality of frequencies. Measurements of the object's vibrational response are made simultaneously at different locations on said object. The input frequency is stepped by using small frequency changes over a predetermined range. There is a pause interval or ring delay which permits the object to reach a steady state resonance before a measurement is taken.

  5. Lamb Shift Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipkin, Francis M.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * SUMMARY OF THEORY * CALCULATION OF SIGNALS * SLOW BEAM MEASUREMENTS * BOTTLE EXPERIMENTS * FAST BEAM EXPERIMENTS * Stark Quenching * Anisotropy of Quench Radiation * Quantum Beat Experiments * Atomic Interferometer * Fast Beam Radiofrequency Experiments * Single Field * Separated Oscillatory Fields * Fast Beam Laser Resonance * LASER SPECTROSCOPY * DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF LYMAN-a RADIATION * EXOTIC ATOMS * TWO ELECTRON ATOMS * COMPARISON OF THEORY AND EXPERIMENT * Hydrogne * Helium * High Z Atoms * PROSPECTS * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * References

  6. Critique of protective measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hari Dass, N.D.; Qureshi, T.

    1999-04-01

    The recently proposed idea of {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Lead Thickness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-02-16

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  8. ''When Cost Measures Contradict''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

    2003-05-09

    When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

  9. How to measure metacognition.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Stephen M; Lau, Hakwan C

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize one's own successful cognitive processing, in e.g., perceptual or memory tasks, is often referred to as metacognition. How should we quantitatively measure such ability? Here we focus on a class of measures that assess the correspondence between trial-by-trial accuracy and one's own confidence. In general, for healthy subjects endowed with metacognitive sensitivity, when one is confident, one is more likely to be correct. Thus, the degree of association between accuracy and confidence can be taken as a quantitative measure of metacognition. However, many studies use a statistical correlation coefficient (e.g., Pearson's r) or its variant to assess this degree of association, and such measures are susceptible to undesirable influences from factors such as response biases. Here we review other measures based on signal detection theory and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis that are "bias free," and relate these quantities to the calibration and discrimination measures developed in the probability estimation literature. We go on to distinguish between the related concepts of metacognitive bias (a difference in subjective confidence despite basic task performance remaining constant), metacognitive sensitivity (how good one is at distinguishing between one's own correct and incorrect judgments) and metacognitive efficiency (a subject's level of metacognitive sensitivity given a certain level of task performance). Finally, we discuss how these three concepts pose interesting questions for the study of metacognition and conscious awareness.

  10. Measures of rowing performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, T Brett; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-04-01

    Accurate measures of performance are important for assessing competitive athletes in practi~al and research settings. We present here a review of rowing performance measures, focusing on the errors in these measures and the implications for testing rowers. The yardstick for assessing error in a performance measure is the random variation (typical or standard error of measurement) in an elite athlete's competitive performance from race to race: ∼1.0% for time in 2000 m rowing events. There has been little research interest in on-water time trials for assessing rowing performance, owing to logistic difficulties and environmental perturbations in performance time with such tests. Mobile ergometry via instrumented oars or rowlocks should reduce these problems, but the associated errors have not yet been reported. Measurement of boat speed to monitor on-water training performance is common; one device based on global positioning system (GPS) technology contributes negligible extra random error (0.2%) in speed measured over 2000 m, but extra error is substantial (1-10%) with other GPS devices or with an impeller, especially over shorter distances. The problems with on-water testing have led to widespread use of the Concept II rowing ergometer. The standard error of the estimate of on-water 2000 m time predicted by 2000 m ergometer performance was 2.6% and 7.2% in two studies, reflecting different effects of skill, body mass and environment in on-water versus ergometer performance. However, well trained rowers have a typical error in performance time of only ∼0.5% between repeated 2000 m time trials on this ergometer, so such trials are suitable for tracking changes in physiological performance and factors affecting it. Many researchers have used the 2000 m ergometer performance time as a criterion to identify other predictors of rowing performance. Standard errors of the estimate vary widely between studies even for the same predictor, but the lowest

  11. Tunable acousto-optic spectral imager for atmospheric composition measurements in the visible spectral domain.

    PubMed

    Dekemper, Emmanuel; Loodts, Nicolas; Van Opstal, Bert; Maes, Jeroen; Vanhellemont, Filip; Mateshvili, Nina; Franssens, Ghislain; Pieroux, Didier; Bingen, Christine; Robert, Charles; De Vos, Lieve; Aballea, Ludovic; Fussen, Didier

    2012-09-01

    We describe a new spectral imaging instrument using a TeO(2) acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) operating in the visible domain (450-900 nm). It allows for fast (~1 second), monochromatic (FWHM ranges from 0.6 nm at 450 nm to 3.5 nm at 800 nm) picture acquisition with good spatial resolution. This instrument was designed as a breadboard of the visible channel of a new satellite-borne atmospheric limb spectral imager, named the Atmospheric Limb Tracker for the Investigation of the Upcoming Stratosphere (ALTIUS), that is currently being developed. We tested its remote sensing capabilities by observing the dense, turbulent plume exhausted by a waste incinerator stack at two wavelengths sensitive to NO(2). An average value of 6.0±0.4×10(17) molecules cm(-2) has been obtained for the NO(2) slant column density within the plume, close to the stack outlet. Although this result was obtained with a rather low accuracy, it demonstrates the potential of spectral imaging by using AOTFs in remote sensing.

  12. Engine Test and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chown Chou

    1999-01-01

    Although the importance of aerosols and their precursors are now well recognized, the characterization of current subsonic engines for these emissions is far from complete. Furthermore, since the relationship of engine operating parameters to aerosol emissions is not known, extrapolation to untested and unbuilt engines necessarily remains highly uncertain. 1997 NASA LaRC engine test, as well as the parallel 1997 NASA LaRC flight measurement, attempts to address both issues by expanding measurements of aerosols and aerosol precursors with fuels containing different levels of fuel sulfur content. The specific objective of the 1997 engine test is to obtain a database of sulfur oxides emissions as well as the non-volatile particulate emission properties as a function of fuel sulfur and engine operating conditions. Four diagnostic systems, extractive and non-intrusive (optical), will be assembled for the gaseous and particulate emissions characterization measurements study. NASA is responsible for the extractive gaseous emissions measurement system which contains an array of analyzers dedicated to examining the concentrations of specific gases (NO, NO(x), CO, CO2, O2, THC, SO2) and the smoke number. University of Missouri-Rolla uses the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System to measure aerosol/particulate total concentration, size distribution, volatility and hydration property. Air Force Research Laboratory uses the Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer to measure SO2, SO3/H2SO4, and HN03 Aerodyne Research, Inc. uses Infrared Tunable Diode Laser system to measure SO2, SO3, NO, H2O, and CO2.

  13. Uncertainties in successive measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distler, Jacques; Paban, Sonia

    2013-06-01

    When you measure an observable, A, in quantum mechanics, the state of the system changes. This, in turn, affects the quantum-mechanical uncertainty in some noncommuting observable, B. The standard uncertainty relation puts a lower bound on the uncertainty of B in the initial state. What is relevant for a subsequent measurement of B, however, is the uncertainty of B in the postmeasurement state. We re-examine this problem, both in the case where A has a pure point spectrum and in the case where A has a continuous spectrum. In the latter case, the need to include a finite detector resolution, as part of what it means to measure such an observable, has dramatic implications for the result of successive measurements. Ozawa, [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.67.042105 67, 042105 (2003)] proposed an inequality satisfied in the case of successive measurements. Among our results, we show that his inequality is ineffective (can never come close to being saturated). For the cases of interest, we compute a sharper lower bound.

  14. The performance measurement manifesto.

    PubMed

    Eccles, R G

    1991-01-01

    The leading indicators of business performance cannot be found in financial data alone. Quality, customer satisfaction, innovation, market share--metrics like these often reflect a company's economic condition and growth prospects better than its reported earnings do. Depending on an accounting department to reveal a company's future will leave it hopelessly mired in the past. More and more managers are changing their company's performance measurement systems to track nonfinancial measures and reinforce new competitive strategies. Five activities are essential: developing an information architecture; putting the technology in place to support this architecture; aligning bonuses and other incentives with the new system; drawing on outside resources; and designing an internal process to ensure the other four activities occur. New technologies and more sophisticated databases have made the change to nonfinancial performance measurement systems possible and economically feasible. Industry and trade associations, consulting firms, and public accounting firms that already have well-developed methods for assessing market share and other performance metrics can add to the revolution's momentum--as well as profit from the business opportunities it presents. Every company will have its own key measures and distinctive process for implementing the change. But making it happen will always require careful preparation, perseverance, and the conviction of the CEO that it must be carried through. When one leading company can demonstrate the long-term advantage of its superior performance on quality or innovation or any other nonfinancial measure, it will change the rules for all its rivals forever.

  15. Statistics and Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Croarkin, M. Carroll

    2001-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the Statistical Engineering Division (SED) has been instrumental in the success of a broad spectrum of metrology projects at NBS/NIST. This paper highlights fundamental contributions of NBS/NIST statisticians to statistics and to measurement science and technology. Published methods developed by SED staff, especially during the early years, endure as cornerstones of statistics not only in metrology and standards applications, but as data-analytic resources used across all disciplines. The history of statistics at NBS/NIST began with the formation of what is now the SED. Examples from the first five decades of the SED illustrate the critical role of the division in the successful resolution of a few of the highly visible, and sometimes controversial, statistical studies of national importance. A review of the history of major early publications of the division on statistical methods, design of experiments, and error analysis and uncertainty is followed by a survey of several thematic areas. The accompanying examples illustrate the importance of SED in the history of statistics, measurements and standards: calibration and measurement assurance, interlaboratory tests, development of measurement methods, Standard Reference Materials, statistical computing, and dissemination of measurement technology. A brief look forward sketches the expanding opportunity and demand for SED statisticians created by current trends in research and development at NIST. PMID:27500023

  16. Measurement validity in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Tariq M; Patton, Niall

    2005-04-01

    Measurements in ophthalmic research may be of parameters such as visual functions, quality of life or physical measures and can involve different types of instruments such as questionnaires and mechanical, chemical or electronic devices. Whatever the mode of measurement, however, all these devices require sufficient evidence for validity before inferences can be made on the basis of their findings. This article explores the nature and often overlooked importance of validity and explains some of the terminology involved. It discusses the main forms that ophthalmologists should be aware of before they can assess whether the instruments, old and new, are providing results upon which inferences can be made with any level of confidence. The literature search involved use of Medline, PubMed and Ovid as well as referenced papers in journals and books. Searches were comprehensive and international. Foreign texts were translated.

  17. Measurement of costs.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn

    2008-06-01

    Costing plays an important role in health economics, particularly economic evaluation. However, there are some controversial issues: concepts, methods and reference values. Hence, it is pivotal to standardize can be con costing methods and use these as national guidelines to produce comparable studies. This report is divided perspectives. into 3 parts: theoretical issues, international guidelines comparison, and recommendations for the Thai technology assessment guidelines. Each section is composed of three general costing steps: identification, appropriate, measuring and valuation. It is recommended to measure economic or opportunity cost mainly in societal perspective. Cost category is composed of direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect costs. The level of reliability of each kind of costing source data is provided. Valuation of resource use based on national government, standard cost menu is recommended for national policy making. The recommendations on cost measurement are appropriate for the Thai context and in the current situation.

  18. Enhanced Microfluidic Electromagnetic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovangrandi, Laurent (Inventor); Ricco, Antonio J. (Inventor); Kovacs, Gregory (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for enhanced microfluidic impedance spectroscopy include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. Flow in the channel is laminar. A dielectric constant of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than a dielectric constant of the core fluid. Electrical impedance is measured in the channel between at least a first pair of electrodes. In some embodiments, enhanced optical measurements include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. An optical index of refraction of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than an optical index of refraction of the core fluid. An optical property is measured in the channel.

  19. Novel Diffusivity Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser

    2001-01-01

    A common-path interferometer (CPI) system was developed to measure the diffusivity of liquid pairs. The CPI is an optical technique that can be used to measure changes in the gradient of the refraction index of transparent materials. This system uses a shearing interferometer that shares the same optical path from a laser light source to the final imaging plane. Hence, the molecular diffusion coefficient of liquids can be determined using the physical relations between changes in the optical path length and the liquid phase properties. The data obtained with this interferometer were compared with similar results from other techniques and demonstrated that the instrument is superior in measuring the diffusivity of miscible liquids while keeping the system very compact and robust. CPI can also be used for studies in interface dynamics and other diffusion-dominated-process applications.

  20. Blade pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivers, J. W. H.

    Three measurement techniques which enable rotating pressures to be measured during the normal operation of a gas turbine or a component test rig are described. The first technique was developed specifically to provide steady and transient blade surface pressure data to aid both fan flutter research and general fan performance development. This technique involves the insertion of miniature high frequency response pressure transducers into the fan blades of a large civil gas turbine. The other two techniques were developed to measure steady rotating pressures inside and on the surface of engine or rig turbine blades and also rotating pressures in cooling feed systems. These two low frequency response systems are known as the "pressure pineapple' (a name which resulted from the shape of the original prototype) and the rotating scanivalve.

  1. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  2. Colour Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    The most common property to measure quality of any material is its appearance. Appearance includes colour, shape, size and surface conditions. The analysis of colour is especially an important consideration when determining the efficacy of variety of postharvest treatments. Consumers can easily be influenced by preconceived ideas of how a particular fruit or vegetable or a processed food should appear, and marketers often attempt to improve upon what nature has painted. Recently colour measurements have also been used as quality parameters and indicator of some inner constituents of the material. In spite of the significance of colour in food industries, many continue to analyze it inadequately. This chapter deals with theory of colour, colour scales and its measurement, sampling techniques, and modeling of colour values for correlating them with some internal quality parameters of selected fruits.

  3. Measurement uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Paul; Lahti, Pekka; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2014-04-15

    Measurement uncertainty relations are quantitative bounds on the errors in an approximate joint measurement of two observables. They can be seen as a generalization of the error/disturbance tradeoff first discussed heuristically by Heisenberg. Here we prove such relations for the case of two canonically conjugate observables like position and momentum, and establish a close connection with the more familiar preparation uncertainty relations constraining the sharpness of the distributions of the two observables in the same state. Both sets of relations are generalized to means of order α rather than the usual quadratic means, and we show that the optimal constants are the same for preparation and for measurement uncertainty. The constants are determined numerically and compared with some bounds in the literature. In both cases, the near-saturation of the inequalities entails that the state (resp. observable) is uniformly close to a minimizing one.

  4. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    2003-11-12

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2000, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/210/214/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized in the table at the bottom of this introduction.

  5. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    2000-03-23

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties in laboratories that conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM and T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. These parameters are summarized.

  6. CHALLENGE MEASUREMENTS FOR AUTHENTICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, W. Karl

    2009-10-07

    Authentication of systems with an information barrier that protects sensitive information is difficult; in particular, the information barrier can allow a hidden switch to be implemented by the system fabricator and operator. The hidden switch is the operator’s ability to subvert the measurement system and force it to produce a desired and false result. It is usually discussed in the context of an attribute measurement in which a faked item is presented in place of a real item regulated by an agreement, with the driving motivation being the ability to preserve a stock of valuable items. In simple terms, the hidden switch enables a shell game with assets, and the information barrier protects the switch. This presentation outlines challenge measurements that could be used to detect the implementation of a hidden switch and assist the authentication process.

  7. Video integrated measurement system.

    PubMed

    Spector, B; Eilbert, L; Finando, S; Fukuda, F

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  8. Contour measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.; Kissel, R. R.; Deaton, E. T., Jr.; Campbell, R. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A measurement system for measuring the departures from a straight line of discrete track sections of a track along a coal face in a mine employing a vehicle having a pair of spaced wheel assemblies which align with the track is presented. A reference arm pivotally connects between the wheel assemblies, and there is indicating means for measuring the angle of pivot between the arm and each of the wheel assemblies. The length of the device is less than the length of a track section, and thus when one of the wheel assemblies is on one track section and one is on an adjoining track section, the sum of the indicated angles will be indicative of the angle between track sections. Thus, from the length of a track section and angle, the departure of each track section from the line may be calculated.

  9. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  10. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  11. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  12. Measuring ambivalence to science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, P. L.

    Ambivalence is a psychological state in which a person holds mixed feelings (positive and negative) towards some psychological object. Standard methods of attitude measurement, such as Likert and semantic differential scales, ignore the possibility of ambivalence; ambivalent responses cannot be distinguished from neutral ones. This neglect arises out of an assumption that positive and negative affects towards a particular psychological object are bipolar, i.e., unidimensional in opposite directions. This assumption is frequently untenable. Conventional item statistics and measures of test internal consistency are ineffective as checks on this assumption; it is possible for a scale to be multidimensional and still display apparent internal consistency. Factor analysis is a more effective procedure. Methods of measuring ambivalence are suggested, and implications for research are discussed.

  13. Measuring Education and Skill

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in measuring education and skill that need to be taken into account in any new initiative to monitor social mobility. Over the past half-century, patterns of educational participation and attainment have become more heterogeneous, a trend that has been accompanied by increases in assessment and testing practices, and the availability of electronic data sources and other administrative records, including official school transcripts that are generally held indefinitely. This article describes the most promising approaches to measuring education and discusses some of the possible challenges for using the information to study social mobility. Measures of educational concepts fall along at least one of several dimensions: credentials earned, qualities of the schools attended, the amount and nature of curricular exposure, and the development and acquisition of skills. Selected data sources, with an emphasis on school transcripts and administrative records, and their possible uses are described. PMID:25983334

  14. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Reynier, Yvan; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  15. Cometary Isotopic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Calmonte, Ursina; Charnley, Steven; Duprat, Jean; Engrand, Cécile; Gicquel, Adeline; Hässig, Myrtha; Jehin, Emmanuël; Kawakita, Hideyo; Marty, Bernard; Milam, Stefanie; Morse, Andrew; Rousselot, Philippe; Sheridan, Simon; Wirström, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Isotopic ratios in comets provide keys for the understanding of the origin of cometary material, and the physical and chemical conditions in the early Solar Nebula. We review here measurements acquired on the D/H, 14N/15N, 16O/18O, 12C/13C, and 32S/34S ratios in cometary grains and gases, and discuss their cosmogonic implications. The review includes analyses of potential cometary material available in collections on Earth, recent measurements achieved with the Herschel Space Observatory, large optical telescopes, and Rosetta, as well as recent results obtained from models of chemical-dynamical deuterium fractionation in the early solar nebula. Prospects for future measurements are presented.

  16. Magnet measurement workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1986-12-01

    This report covers the deliberations of the participants the workshop and some subsequent contributions. Section III, the report of the rotating coil group, includes a summary table of the major measuring systems in use today, with separate sections on each. Section IV is the summary report of the group that addressed other measuring techniques. Because one of the limits of all the techniques being considered is electronic data acquisition, Section V addresses this topic. A set of issues relevant to magnetic field measurements of SSC dipoles was raised and addressed during the workshop. These are included as Section VI. Section VII includes a complete list of attendees with their addresses and a separate list of the members of the two working groups.

  17. Precision Measurement in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  18. Measuring Education and Skill.

    PubMed

    Muller, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in measuring education and skill that need to be taken into account in any new initiative to monitor social mobility. Over the past half-century, patterns of educational participation and attainment have become more heterogeneous, a trend that has been accompanied by increases in assessment and testing practices, and the availability of electronic data sources and other administrative records, including official school transcripts that are generally held indefinitely. This article describes the most promising approaches to measuring education and discusses some of the possible challenges for using the information to study social mobility. Measures of educational concepts fall along at least one of several dimensions: credentials earned, qualities of the schools attended, the amount and nature of curricular exposure, and the development and acquisition of skills. Selected data sources, with an emphasis on school transcripts and administrative records, and their possible uses are described.

  19. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  20. [Measuring blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Estrada Reventos, Dolors; Pujol Navarro, Ester

    2008-09-01

    High blood pressure is one of the main factors which lead to cardiovascular cerebral-vascular and kidney diseases; therefore, nursing professionals should have enough basic knowledge to enable them to carry out a precocious diagnosis and correct follow-up procedures. Although students in nursing schools are taught how to correctly measure blood pressure, often this teaching does not meet the recommendations provided by different national and international guidelines. Thus it is important to know how to use the correct methodology to measure blood pressure.

  1. Creep Measurement Video Extensometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaster, Mark; Vickerman, Mary; Padula, Santo, II; Juhas, John

    2011-01-01

    Understanding material behavior under load is critical to the efficient and accurate design of advanced aircraft and spacecraft. Technologies such as the one disclosed here allow accurate creep measurements to be taken automatically, reducing error. The goal was to develop a non-contact, automated system capable of capturing images that could subsequently be processed to obtain the strain characteristics of these materials during deformation, while maintaining adequate resolution to capture the true deformation response of the material. The measurement system comprises a high-resolution digital camera, computer, and software that work collectively to interpret the image.

  2. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with new results which show that for test lights with slow temporal modulations, and thus little effect on the luminance system, the vector-difference hypothesis represents an adequate characterization of discrimination data. It is pointed out that for certain experimental conditions color measurements can be successfully extended to include a difference measure which predicts the discriminability of pairs of lights. When discrimination depends principally on opponent-channel responses, discrimination thresholds can be predicted from the detection contour alone. Attention is given to discriminations with a 6-Hz Gabor function, the categorization of stimulus regions, and the nature of the visual mechanisms.

  3. Measurement of visual motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hildreth, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the measurement of visual motion and the use of relative movement to locate the boundaries of physical objects in the environment. It investigates the nature of the computations that are necessary to perform this analysis by any vision system, biological or artificial. Contents: Introduction. Background. Computation of the Velocity Field. An Algorithm to Compute the Velocity Field. The Computation of Motion Discontinuities. Perceptual Studies of Motion Measurement. The Psychophysics of Discontinuity Detection. Neurophysiological Studies of Motion. Summary and Conclusions. References. Author and Subject Indexes.

  4. Measuring Thermoforming Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaeli, W.; Hopmann, C.; Ederleh, L.; Begemann, M.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoforming is the process of choice for manufacturing thin-gauge or large-area parts for packaging or technical applications. The process allows low-weight parts to be produced rapidly and economically from thermoplastic semi-finished products. A technical and consequently economical problem is the choice of the right material in combination with the thermoformability of the product. The prediction of thermoformability includes the aspired product features and geometry and defined wall thickness distributions, depending on the specific stretchability of the semifinished product. In practice, thermoformability is estimated by empirical tests with the particular semi-finished product using e.g. staged pyramidal moulds or model cars. With this method, it still cannot be ensured that the product can be thermoformed with the intended properties. A promising alternative is the forming simulation using finite element analysis (FEA). For the simulation, it is necessary to describe the material behaviour using defined material models and the appropriate parameters. Therefore, the stress-/strain-behaviour of the semi-finished product under defined conditions is required. There are several, entirely different measurement techniques used in industry and at research facilities. This paper compares a choice of different measurement techniques to provide an objective basis for future work and research. The semi-finished products are examined with the Membrane-Inflation-Rheometer (MIR), an equibiaxial strain rheometer. A flat sample is heated to the desired temperature in silicone oil. During the measurement, a servohydraulic linear drive advances a piston, thus displacing the hot silicone oil and inflating the specimen to form a sphere. Further measurements are carried out with the Karo IV Laboratory Stretching Machine at Brückner Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. KG, Siegsdorf, Germany. The samples are heated using hot air. During the biaxial stretching, the resulting forces at the

  5. Polarizability Measurements at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornidge, David; A2 Collaboration at MAMI Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    A central problem of modern physics research is the solution to QCD in the non-perturbative regime. One method of testing QCD in this low-energy region is by measuring certain structure constants of hadrons-called polarizabilities-that show particular promise of allowing a direct connection to the underlying quark/gluon dynamics through comparison to modern QCD-inspired model calculations, and to solutions of QCD done computationally on the lattice. This talk will give an overview of recent and upcoming measurements at the Mainz Microtron to obtain the polarizabilities of both the proton and neutron.

  6. Precise Measurement for Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A metrology instrument known as PhaseCam supports a wide range of applications, from testing large optics to controlling factory production processes. This dynamic interferometer system enables precise measurement of three-dimensional surfaces in the manufacturing industry, delivering speed and high-resolution accuracy in even the most challenging environments.Compact and reliable, PhaseCam enables users to make interferometric measurements right on the factory floor. The system can be configured for many different applications, including mirror phasing, vacuum/cryogenic testing, motion/modal analysis, and flow visualization.

  7. SBC Dark Current Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2013-10-01

    This takes a series of SBC dark measurements over a continuous period of about 6 hours {4 orbits}. The aim is to collect dark images during an extended SBC on-time. Earlier measurements indicate that the dark current increases with SBC on-time and may also be increasing with overall SBC use. The 6-hour time matches the longest time used by any observer. As with all SBC observations this needs continuous SAA free time.This program is executed once per cycle. The last exposures were taken in Mar 2013 under Program 13161.

  8. Solar radiation measurement project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ioup, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Xavier solar radiation measurement project and station are described. Measurements of the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface from an Eppley pyranometer were collected into computer data files. Total radiation in watt hours was converted from ten minute intervals to hourly intervals. Graphs of this total radiation data are included. A computer program in Fortran was written to calculate the total extraterrestrial radiation on a horizontal surface for each day of the month. Educational and social benefits of the project are cited.

  9. Heat flux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    A new automated, computer controlled heat flux measurement facility is described. Continuous transient and steady-state surface heat flux values varying from about 0.3 to 6 MW/sq m over a temperature range of 100 to 1200 K can be obtained in the facility. An application of this facility is the development of heat flux gauges for continuous fast transient surface heat flux measurement on turbine blades operating in space shuttle main engine turbopumps. The facility is useful for durability testing at fast temperature transients.

  10. Remote measurement of pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A summary of the major conclusions and recommendations developed by the panels on gaseous air pollution, water pollution, and particulate air pollution is presented. It becomes evident that many of the trace gases are amenable to remote sensing; that certain water pollutants can be measured by remote techniques, but their number is limited; and that a similar approach to the remote measurement of specific particulate pollutants will follow only after understanding of their physical, chemical, and radiative properties is improved. It is also clear that remote sensing can provide essential information in all three categories that can not be obtained by any other means.

  11. Airdata Measurement and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This memorandum provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The memorandum informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This memorandum is not intended to be all inclusive; this paper contains extensive reference and bibliography sections.

  12. Measuring tissue oxygenation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  13. Magnetotelluric measurements in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, N. B.; Padilha, A. L.; Barbosa, M. J. F.

    1986-11-01

    In the period of 2/14/86 to 3/7/86, during the 4th Brazilian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica, organized through the CIRM (Comissao Interministerial para Recursos do Mar), Station Commander Ferraz, (62 deg 5 min S, 58 deg 23.5 min W), magnetotelluric measurements were accomplished in 120 second intervals for DC. This measurement complemented the former, accomplished in the preceeding year between 20 and 400 seconds and although it presented excellent agreement in the overlapping intervals, it was a difficult interpretation. A Hilbert transformation technique was utilized for solving this problem, which brought to mind similar obtained resistivity values. The preliminary results encountered were presented and discussed.

  14. Polarizability Measurements at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornidge, David; A2 Collaboration at MAMI Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A central problem of modern physics research is the solution to QCD in the non-perturbative regime. One method of testing QCD in this low-energy region is by measuring certain structure constants of hadrons-called polarizabilities-that show particular promise of allowing a direct connection to the underlying quark/gluon dynamics through comparison to modern QCD-inspired model calculations, and to solutions of QCD done computationally on the lattice. This talk will give an overview of recent and upcoming measurements to obtain the polarizabilities of both the proton and neutron.

  15. Disability Experience and Measurement.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Lois M

    2016-10-01

    Top themes of international research on disability in the past three decades are discussed: disability dynamics, buffers and barriers for disability, disability trends, and disability among very old persons. Each theme is highlighted by research examples. Turning to measurement, I discuss traditional measures of disability, new longer and shorter ones, and composites like disability-free life expectancy, noting their merits. Contemporary models of disability are presented, ranging from visual images to formal theories. The article ends on how scientists can facilitate movement of disability science into health care practice and policy.

  16. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  17. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  18. Underwater measuring gage

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, J.L.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a device for remotely measuring the diameter of wire rope. The device includes a linear variable differential transducer, a mechanism to guide and clamp the rope in relation to the anvil of the transducer, an elongated handle for manually manipulating the transducer and the guide and clamp mechanism.

  19. Underwater measuring gage

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, James L.

    1989-01-01

    A device for remotely measuring the diameter of wire rope. The device includes a linear variable differential tansducer, a mechanism to guide and clamp the rope in relation to the anvil of the transducer, an elongated handle for manually manipulating the transducer and the guide and clamp mechanism.

  20. Idiographic Measurement Invariance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Sideris, John

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Nesselroade, Gerstorf, Hardy, and Ram's efforts (this issue) to grapple with the challenge of accommodating idiographic assessment as it pertains to measurement invariance (MI). Although the authors are in complete agreement with the motivation for Nesselroade et al.'s work, the authors have concerns about…

  1. Retrocausality and Quantum Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, David T.

    2008-07-01

    A retrocausal interpretation of quantum mechanics is examined and is applied to the problem of measuring an optical qubit before the qubit is actually created. Although the predictions of the retrocausal interpretation are the same as for the conventional causal picture, it provides a new perspective which should give a useful way of understanding some quantum mechanical processes.

  2. Measuring Androgyny in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Martha Sturm

    1979-01-01

    A critique is presented of trends in sex differences studies over the past few years. Such studies have failed to study possible integration of sex role identity as a developmental process, and have often neglected self-definitions in favor of stereotypes. A new approach for measuring androgynous competencies is suggested. (Author)

  3. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  4. Measuring Children's Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann L.; Sullivan, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Measures of preference are useful predictors of children's food consumption patterns. The paper discusses children's affective response to food and describes the preference assessment procedure which obtains information on children's likes and dislikes. The methodology helps investigate factors influencing development of preferences and food…

  5. Measuring Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Christopher; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Kleiman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Student success is at the heart of both institutional effectiveness and the community college mission, yet measuring such success at community colleges is problematic. This article highlights three efforts to grapple with this problem--a multistate work group of system- and state-level policymakers to create an improved set of student success…

  6. Plant Light Measurement & Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The differences between measuring light intensity for the human eye and for plant photosynthesis are discussed. Conversion factors needed to convert various units of light are provided. Photosynthetic efficiency and the electricity costs for plants to undergo photosynthesis using interior lighting are described. (KR)

  7. Electrets and Electrostatic Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varney, R. N.; Hahn, H. T.

    1975-01-01

    Electrets, the electrical counterparts of magnets, are polarized dielectrics that are permanent on a scale of months. Describes procedures for making electrets out of plastic sheets like Mylar, for testing them and measuring their pole strengths, and for establishing necessary and sufficient demonstrations that they are not simply surface charged.…

  8. DEMONSTRATION PLAN FIELD MEASUREMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The demonstration of innovative field measurement devices for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County site in Port Hueneme, California. The primary purpose of the demonstration is to evaluate innovative field measurement devices for TPH in soil based on their performance and cost as compared to a conventional, off-site laboratory analytical method. The seven field measurement devices listed below will be demonstrated. CHEMetrics, Inc.'s, RemediAidTm Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Starter Kit Wilks Enterprise, Inc.'s, Infracal' TOG/TPH Analyzer, Models CVH and HATR-T Horiba Instruments, Incorporated's, OCMA-350 Oil Content Analyzer Dexsil' Corporation's PetroFLAGTm Hydrocarbon Test Kit for Soil Environmental Systems Corporation's Synchronous Scanning Luminoscope siteLAB@ Corporation's Analytical Test Kit UVF-3 I OOA Strategic Diagnostics, Inc.'s, EnSys Petro Test System This demonstration plan describes the procedures that will be used to verify the performance and cost of each field measurement device. The plan incorporates the quality assurance and quality control elements needed to generate data of sufficient quality to document each device's performance and cost. A separate innovative technology verification report (ITVR) will be prepared for each device. The ITVRs will present the demonstratio

  9. Performance Measurement Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axford, H. William

    1973-01-01

    Performance measurement, through unit-cost study programs, can be a step toward evaluating the value of systems. This article reports the application of unit-cost studies in technical service functions at a large state university, and presents three tables for labor costs in terms of minutes and dollars per volume. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  10. Performance Measurement at OIT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    after receiving the training). 5. Post -course survey results of veterans that took the training. 27 Performance Measurement at OIT Mark Kasunic...EAC) Budget at Completion ( BAC ) Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP) Schedule Variance (SV) at time t1 Cost Variance (CV) at time t1 (a.k.a. EV

  11. Measuring Library Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlynarczyk, Frank, Jr.

    Based on the premise that cost measurement for a library can be performed in the same manner as for an industrial organization, this paper presents a hypothetical cost determination problem of a small company which produces bricks. A summary of the five steps taken to develop the various cost figures are: (1) Assign all cost items to the…

  12. Robust Weak Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff; Aharonov, Yakir

    2006-03-01

    We introduce a new type of weak measurement which yields a quantum average of weak values that is robust, outside the range of eigenvalues, extends the valid regime for weak measurements, and for which the probability of obtaining the pre- and post-selected ensemble is not exponentially rare. This result extends the applicability of weak values, shifts the statistical interpretation previously attributed to weak values and suggests that the weak value is a property of every pre- and post-selected ensemble. We then apply this new weak measurement to Hardy's paradox. Usually the paradox is dismissed on grounds of counterfactuality, i.e., because the paradoxical effects appear only when one considers results of experiments which do not actually take place. We suggest a new set of measurements in connection with Hardy's scheme, and show that when they are actually performed, they yield strange and surprising outcomes. More generally, we claim that counterfactual paradoxes point to a deeper structure inherent to quantum mechanics characterized by weak values (Aharonov Y, Botero A, Popescu S, Reznik B, Tollaksen J, Physics Letters A, 301 (3-4): 130-138, 2002).

  13. Measurement Issues in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks; Yin, Alexander C.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter summarizes ten selected issues and common problems that arise in most assessment research projects. These include: (1) the uses of grades in assessment; (2) institutional review boards; (3) research design as a compromise; (4) standardized testing; (5) self-reported measures; (6) missing data; (7) weighting data; (8) conditional…

  14. Measuring Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobo, Amber Leann

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown that there is a correlation between teacher characteristics (e.g., pedagogical knowledge, teacher preparation/certification) and student achievement. Current political contexts call for the utilization of student achievement data to measure the effectiveness of our education systems. A solid research base of how teacher…

  15. Precise measurement of planeness.

    PubMed

    Schulz, G; Schwider, J

    1967-06-01

    Interference methods are reviewed-particularly those developed at the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin-with which the deviations of an optically flat surface from the ideal plane can be measured with a high degree of exactness. One aid to achieve this is the relative methods which measure the differences in planeness between two surfaces. These are then used in the absolute methods which determine the absolute planeness of a surface. This absolute determination can be effected in connection with a liquid surface, or (as done by the authors) only by suitable evaluation of relative measurements between unknown plates in various positional combinations. Experimentally, one uses two- or multiple-beam interference fringes of equal thickness(1) or of equal inclination. The fringes are observed visually, scanned, or photographed, and in part several wavelengths or curves of equal density (Aquidensiten) are employed. The survey also brings the following new methods: a relative method, where, with the aid of fringes of superposition, the fringe separation is subdivided equidistantly thus achieving an increase of measuring precision, and an absolute method which determines the deviations of a surface from ideal planeness along arbitrary central sections, without a liquid surface, from four relative interference photographs.

  16. Measuring mandibular motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Rositano, S.; Taylor, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mandibular motion along three axes is measured by three motion transducers on floating yoke that rests against mandible. System includes electronics to provide variety of outputs for data display and processing. Head frame is strapped to test subject's skull to provide fixed point of reference for transducers.

  17. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  18. Measurement Decision Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    This paper describes and evaluates the use of decision theory as a tool for classifying examinees based on their item response patterns. Decision theory, developed by A. Wald (1947) and now widely used in engineering, agriculture, and computing, provides a simple model for the analysis of categorical data. Measurement decision theory requires only…

  19. Measuring Course Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavarz, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    Accreditation criteria of programs require effective learning outcomes, assessment with documented procedures, tools, results, and actions to close the assessment loop with broad faculty involvement. This article describes a methodology for providing quantitative measurement of a course's learning outcomes. The methodology uses a linkage matrix…

  20. First Measurement of $\

    SciTech Connect

    Palomino Gallo, Jose Luis

    2012-12-01

    Understanding of the $\\pi^0$ production via anti-neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of 1-10 GeV is essential for neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a measurement of charged current $\\pi^0$ production from anti-muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene scintillator (CH) target in the MINER$\

  1. Measuring Up with GLOBE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is an international hands-on environmental science and education program that began on Earth Day in 1995. Students measure environmental parameters for scientists studying weather patterns and environmental change, and discover their connection to Earth's ever-changing systems…

  2. Measuring Educational Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvanathan, Rani G.

    2013-01-01

    There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…

  3. Human perspiration measurement.

    PubMed

    Ohhashi, T; Sakaguchi, M; Tsuda, T

    1998-11-01

    We review various methods developed for human perspiration measurement and their physiological applications, with special reference to the performance and application of a new home-made ratemeter and instrumentation with a microscope. Many kinds of humidity sensor based on humidity-sensitive electrical properties have been investigated and placed on the market. Recently a capacitive thin-film humidity sensor was constructed and confirmed to be one of the best humidity sensors for accurately and quickly detecting changes in the relative humidity of gas-flow perfused through a ventilated chamber for human perspiration measurement. In this paper we also introduce a new home-made ratemeter with a capacitive humidity sensor, the electrical output of which is not disturbed by changes in ambient temperature, and new instrumentation for directly observing drops of sweat secreted from eccrine glands in human skin and simultaneously measuring the change in amount of perspiration at the same area of skin. Finally, we review physiological applications of the methods for measuring human palmar perspiration including emotional sweating.

  4. Measuring Model Rocket Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Randy A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an experiment that measures the acceleration and velocity of a model rocket. Lift-off information is transmitted to a computer that creates a graph of the velocity. Discusses the analysis of the computer-generated data and differences between calculated and experimental velocity and acceleration of several rocket types. (MDH)

  5. PRIME Lab Radiocarbon Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillegonds, D. J.; Mueller, K. A.; Ma, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1996-03-01

    The Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab) is one of three NSF national facilities for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and is the only one capable of determining six cosmogenic radionuclides: 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I. This abstract describes the current status of the radiocarbon analysis program at PRIME Lab.

  6. The measurement of photodamage.

    PubMed

    Marks, R; Edwards, C

    1992-09-01

    The use of non-invasive and invasive techniques for the assessment of human photodamaged skin is reviewed. Physical changes during photodamage and its treatment are best scored using a visual analogue scale rather than a short, non-equal interval scale. Epidermal thickness can be measured by histometric methods but dermal thickness can be measured non-invasively using pulsed A-scan and B-scan ultrasound techniques. These approaches are not effective in detecting any changes due to photodamage. Mechanical properties of the dermis can be determined using either a static or a dynamic test mode. The authors have used extensometry to provide a measure of the laxity of skin. Replicas of the crow's foot areas have been taken before and after tretinoin treatment, and the replicas have been inspected by optical profilometry. Reductions of blood flow in photodamaged skin have been established using laser Doppler measurements, the effect being reversed by topical tretinoin. Invasive biochemical techniques have the disadvantage that they generally require large amounts of tissue. Cytochemical techniques, however, have shown increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the granular cell layer of patients with non-melanoma skin cancer, premalignant epidermal lesions, sun-damaged epidermis and artificially irradiated skin. This technique may provide an important model for the study of photodamage. It is concluded that there is no single method available to quantify the degenerative changes associated with photodamage and the effects of tretinoin.

  7. Optimal Appropriateness Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael V.; Drasgow, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    Some examinees' test-taking behavior may be so idiosyncratic that their test scores are not comparable to those of more typical examinees. A new theoretical approach to appropriateness measurement is proposed that specifies a likelihood ratio test and an efficient computer algorithm for computing the test statistic. (TJH)

  8. Digital capacitance measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The hardware phase of a digital capacitance measuring system is presented with the major emphasis placed on the electrical design and operation. Test results are included of the three units fabricated. The system's interface is applicable to existing requirements for the space shuttle vehicle.

  9. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. Cerrito

    2004-07-16

    Preliminary results on the measurement of the top quark mass at the Tevatron Collider are presented. In the dilepton decay channel, the CDF Collaboration measures m{sub t} = 175.0{sub -16.9}{sup +17.4}(stat.){+-}8.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 126 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV (Run II). In the lepton plus jets channel, the CDF Collaboration measures 177.5{sub -9.4}{sup +12.7}(stat.) {+-} 7.1(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 102 pb{sup -1} at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The D0 Collaboration has newly applied a likelihood technique to improve the analysis of {approx} 125 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV (Run I), with the result: m{sub t} = 180.1 {+-} 3.6(stat.) {+-}3.9(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. The latter is combined with all the measurements based on the data collected in Run I to yield the most recent and comprehensive experimental determination of the top quark mass: m{sub t} = 178.0 {+-} 2.7(stat.) {+-} 3.3(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  10. Correlative Measurements Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    The GSFC Correlative Measurements Program at the Wallops Flight Facility was represented on the Satellite/Satellite Intercomparisons Working Group. The Correlative Measurements Program uses the Rocket Ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A) and the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) balloon borne ozonesonde to measure the vertical profile of ozone amount in the atmosphere. The balloon work is described in a separate report. The ROCOZ-A instrument was used for many years to provide in situ truth data for various satellite ozone measuring systems, such as SBUV on Nimbus-7, SAGE-II, SBUV-II on the NOAA series of polar orbiting satellites, SME, LIMS, etc. The particular data sets of interest to the Ozone Trends Panel Working Group were collected at Natal, Brazil. The major results produced for and used by the Ozone Trends Panel are shown. The ROCOZ-A average ozone density profile is plotted versus altitude on the left. ECC ozonesondes were used for the portion of the profile below 20 km, the lower limit for ROCOZ-A. The difference between SAGE-II and ROCOZ-A average density profiles is shown.

  11. Inquiry Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Miles A.; Abraham, Eugene C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the development and testing of an instrument for use at the eighth grade level to measure four science processes: observation, inference, verification, and classification. Indicates that the two forms of the instrument are average in reliability and high in factor validity. (CC)

  12. Measuring Intergenerational Obligations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have defined intergenerational obligations in diverse ways, and they have used many labels and ways of measuring intergenerational obligations. Using vignettes, we compared responses to questions about what family members should do when another family member needed assistance ("normative obligations") with responses to questions about…

  13. Profiles in Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Wright, Benjamin Drake; Linacre, John Michael; Webster, Linda; Andrich, David

    1998-01-01

    Four of the articles in this section profile major figures in measurement: (1) Sir Francis Galton (Larry Ludlow); (2) Georg Rasch (Benjamin Wright); (3) Benjamin Wright (John Michael Linacre); and (4) David Andrich (Linda Webster). The fifth article, by David Andrich, presents insights gained into the Rasch model. (SLD)

  14. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  15. Dilepton Measurements at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geurts, Frank; STAR Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    In the study of hot and dense nuclear matter, created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, dilepton measurements play an essential role. Leptons, when compared to hadrons, have only little interaction with the strongly interacting system. Thus, dileptons provide ideal penetrating probes that allow the study of such a system throughout its space-time evolution. In the low mass range (Mll < 1.1 GeV/c2), the dominant source of dileptons originates from the decay of vector mesons which may see effects from chiral symmetry restoration. In the intermediate mass range (1.1 < Mll < 3.0 GeV/c2), the main contributions to the mass spectrum are expected to originate from the thermal radiation of a quark-gluon plasma as well as the decays of charm mesons. In the high mass range (Mll > 3.0 GeV/c2), dilepton measurements are expected to see contributions from primordial processes involving heavy quarks, and Drell-Yan production. With the introduction of the Time-of-Flight detector, the STAR detector has been able to perform large acceptance, high purity electron identification. In this contribution, we will present STAR's recent dielectron measurements in the low and intermediate mass range for RHIC beam energies ranging between 19.6 and 200 GeV. Compared to electrons, muon measurements have the advantage of reduced bremsstrahlung radiation in the surrounding detector materials. With the upcoming detector upgrades, specifically the muon detector (MTD), STAR will be able to include such measurements in its (di-)lepton studies. We will discuss the future dilepton program at STAR and the physics cases for these upgrades.

  16. Measurement of Global Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaming, Gilbert Mark

    2004-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Program is an international cooperative effort whose objectives are to (a) obtain increased understanding of rainfall processes, and (b) make frequent rainfall measurements on a global basis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the Japanese Aviation and Exploration Agency (JAXA) have entered into a cooperative agreement for the formulation and development of GPM. This agreement is a continuation of the partnership that developed the highly successful Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) that was launched in November 1997; this mission continues to provide valuable scientific and meteorological information on rainfall and the associated processes. International collaboration on GPM from other space agencies has been solicited, and discussions regarding their participation are currently in progress. NASA has taken lead responsibility for the planning and formulation of GPM, Key elements of the Program to be provided by NASA include a Core satellite bus instrumented with a multi-channel microwave radiometer, a Ground Validation System and a ground-based Precipitation Processing System (PPS). JAXA will provide a Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar for installation on the Core satellite and launch services. Other United States agencies and international partners may participate in a number of ways, such as providing rainfall measurements obtained from their own national space-borne platforms, providing local rainfall measurements to support the ground validation activities, or providing hardware or launch services for GPM constellation spacecraft. This paper will present an overview of the current planning for the GPM Program, and discuss in more detail the status of the lead author's primary responsibility, development and acquisition of the GPM Microwave Imager.

  17. Suboceanic geodetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, F. N.

    1985-07-01

    This paper reviews the needs for geodetic ties among sea-floor points and between such points and others on land, as well as the environmental constraints on potential systems for making such measurements. Underwater acoustic techniques provide the best opportunities, and an essential element on which to build acoustic systems - a precision-transponder system capable of making travel-time measurements over ranges of several kilometers with an accuracy of a few microseconds - is described. Finally, three particular systems are discussed. One uses direct transmission between transponders to achieve an accuracy of 1 part in 100,000 over ranges from a few meters to about a kilometer. The second, using a larger transponder network and an intermediate vehicle, can achieve similar accuracy over ranges up to about 10 km. The third is a composite acoustic global positioning system (GPS) which should be able to achieve subdecimeter accuracy over ranges of a few hundred kilometers.

  18. Measuring the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew-Fenn, R.S.; Das, R.; Harbury, P.A.B.

    2009-05-26

    DNA is thought to behave as a stiff elastic rod with respect to the ubiquitous mechanical deformations inherent to its biology. To test this model at short DNA lengths, we measured the mean and variance of end-to-end length for a series of DNA double helices in solution, using small-angle x-ray scattering interference between gold nanocrystal labels. In the absence of applied tension, DNA is at least one order of magnitude softer than measured by single-molecule stretching experiments. Further, the data rule out the conventional elastic rod model. The variance in end-to-end length follows a quadratic dependence on the number of base pairs rather than the expected linear dependence, indicating that DNA stretching is cooperative over more than two turns of the DNA double helix. Our observations support the idea of long-range allosteric communication through DNA structure.

  19. Update on Procalcitonin Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. At the same time, PCT has also been used to guide antibiotic therapy. This review outlines the main indications for PCT measurement and points out possible pitfalls. The classic indications for PCT measurement are: (i) confirmation or exclusion of diagnosis of sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock, (ii) severity assessment and follow up of systemic inflammation mainly induced by microbial infection, and (iii) individual, patient adapted guide of antibiotic therapy and focus treatment. Using serially monitored PCT levels, the duration and need of antibiotic therapy can be better adapted to the individual requirements of the patient. This individualized approach has been evaluated in various studies, and it is recommended to be a part of an antibiotic stewardship program. PMID:24982830

  20. Measurement of psychosexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J

    2005-08-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a surge in interest in the study of infants, children, adolescents, and adults with physical intersex conditions or other congenital conditions that affect, among other things, the configuration of the external genitalia. Regarding psychologic evaluation, an important aspect of both short-term and long-term outcome concerns gender differentiation. This article provides an overview of various measures pertaining to gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation that have been used in assessment studies of samples of either children and adults with gender identity disorder and/or children and adults with various physical intersex conditions. All of the measures have good psychometric quality although some have been studied more systematically than others. It is hoped that this overview will provide a template for the new generation of studies that are looking at both gender development and sexual orientation in people born with physical intersex conditions.

  1. Suspension Geometry Measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, M. J.; Yu, C. C.; Chang, H.; Tsung, T. T.; Lin, H. M.

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the instrumentation and analysis of the Vehicle suspension's electrical signals. It will measure the Vehicle suspensions' Vertical Displacement, Track Change, Camber Angle, Caster Angle Steer Angle and convert physical quantity into electrical signals in a various vehicle load change. With using electrical signals for computer control, the electrical controlled vehicle has brought great convenience, great safety and thoughtful kindness vehicle system in our daily life. It will measure the Vehicle suspensions' Vertical Displacement, Track Change, Camber Angle, Caster Angle Steer Angle and convert physical quantity into electrical signals in a various vehicle load change. The function of a suspension system in an automobile is to improve ride comfort and stability. Advances in electronic control technology, applied to the automobile, can improve those functions. The results show that the photocell can convert the electrical signals of suspension for peripheral communications link between the vehicle driving and the electronic control unit (ECU) employed for processing.

  2. Measurement of surface microtopography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. D.; Farr, T. G.; Muller, J.-P.; Lewis, P.; Leberl, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    Acquisition of ground truth data for use in microwave interaction modeling requires measurement of surface roughness sampled at intervals comparable to a fraction of the microwave wavelength and extensive enough to adequately represent the statistics of a surface unit. Sub-centimetric measurement accuracy is thus required over large areas, and existing techniques are usually inadequate. A technique is discussed for acquiring the necessary photogrammetric data using twin film cameras mounted on a helicopter. In an attempt to eliminate tedious data reduction, an automated technique was applied to the helicopter photographs, and results were compared to those produced by conventional stereogrammetry. Derived root-mean-square (RMS) roughness for the same stereo-pair was 7.5 cm for the automated technique versus 6.5 cm for the manual method. The principal source of error is probably due to vegetation in the scene, which affects the automated technique but is ignored by a human operator.

  3. Wind measurements by parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordstroem, S.

    1982-01-01

    Tests used the 8 cm Lotta grenade as well as 12 cm M/70 and 10.5 m/62 grenades, released at altitudes between 2000 and 6400 meters. The parachutes were tracked by AP and RFK. In later experiments wind data were also obtained for comparison by tracking hydrogen filled balloons in part with the CORA system, in part with radar. Generally radar picked up the objects without visual assistance. Wind measurements from parachutes correlated well with those obtained by balloon. Even when the radar locked on to a part of a grenade, descending faster than the parachute, some of the measurements obtained were good. Bodies with a greater rate of descent than parachutes, with less or no tendency toward drift and with sufficient, surface for radar tracking, ought to provide reliable results. The existence of vertically well defined winds of jet stream type at low altitudes was established.

  4. High temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  5. Wear Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis Research Center developed a tribometer for in-house wear tests. Implant Sciences Corporation (ISC), working on a NASA contract to develop coatings to enhance the wear capabilities of materials, adapted the tribometer for its own use and developed a commercial line of user-friendly systems. The ISC-200 is a pin-on-disk type of tribometer, functioning like a record player and creating a wear groove on the disk, with variables of speed and load. The system can measure the coefficient of friction, the wear behavior between materials, and the integrity of thin films or coatings. Applications include measuring wear on contact lenses and engine parts and testing disk drives.

  6. Measurement by phase severance

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors.

  7. Why measure patient satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Riskind, Patty; Fossey, Leslie; Brill, Kari

    2011-01-01

    A practice that consistently and continuously measures patient perceptions will be more efficient and effective in its daily operations. With pay-for-performance requirements on the horizon and consumer rating sites already publicizing impressions from physician encounters, a practice needs to know how it is performing through the eyes of the patients. Azalea Orthopedics has used patient feedback to coach its physicians on better patient communication. The Orthopaedic Institute has used patient satisfaction results to reduce wait times and measure the return on investment from its marketing efforts. Patient survey results that are put to work can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of practice operations as well as position the practice for increased profitability.

  8. 757 Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Huffman, Mitch; Eppic, Brian; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Path Loss Measurements were obtained on three (3) GPS equipped 757 aircraft. Systems measured were Marker Beacon, LOC, VOR, VHF (3), Glide Slope, ATC (2), DME (2), TCAS, and GPS. This data will provide the basis for assessing the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) safety margins of comm/nav (communication and navigation) systems to portable electronic device emissions. These Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) include all devices operated in or around the aircraft by crews, passengers, servicing personnel, as well as the general public in the airport terminals. EMI assessment capability is an important step in determining if one system-wide PED EMI policy is appropriate. This data may also be used comparatively with theoretical analysis and computer modeling data sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and others.

  9. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  10. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

  11. Impedance Measurement Box

    ScienceCinema

    Christophersen, Jon

    2016-07-12

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  12. Wound Volume Measurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    III and IV decubitus ulcers ). Wounds can also be classified by etiology as (a) surgical, (b) traumatic (such as mechanical or thermal injuries), and...had either decubitus ulcers or venous stasis ulcers . Each patient’s wound was measured with each of the three methods. First, the wound was...standardized and clinically available method to estimate wound volume is needed to determine rate of pressure ulcer healing. This quasi-experimental

  13. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  14. Planetary heat flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Hagermann, Axel

    2005-12-15

    The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments.

  15. Command Wire Sensor Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    MEASUREMENTS by Chin Liong Yeo September 2012 Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn Second Reader : Tri T.Ha THIS PAGE...Second Reader R. Clark Robertson Chair, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT...who is my second reader for this thesis. I would also like to express my appreciation to Mr. Robert Broadston for his assistance in helping me set up

  16. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  17. Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement DISSERTATION June 2015 Christos E. Chalyvidis, Major, Hellenic Air ...Force AFIT-ENS-DS-15-J-001 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force...are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United

  18. Measuring autophagy in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Harris, James; Hanrahan, Orla; De Haro, Sergio A

    2009-11-01

    Macroautophagy is a conserved intracellular homeostatic mechanism for the degradation of cytosolic constituents. Autophagy can promote cell survival by providing essential amino acids from the breakdown of macromolecules during periods of nutrient deprivation, and can remove damaged or excess organelles, such as mitochondria and peroxisomes. More recently, autophagy has been shown to play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic bacteria in macrophages and dendritic cells. This unit presents protocols for the measurement of autophagy in macrophages.

  19. Temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Sohns, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  20. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  1. Spaceport Performance Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, G. Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Spaceports have traditionally been characterized by performance measures associated with their site characteristics. Measures such as "Latitude" (proximity to the equator), "Azimuth" (range of available launch azimuths) and "Weather" (days of favorable weather) are commonly used to characterize a particular spaceport. However, other spaceport performance measures may now be of greater value. These measures can provide insight into areas of operational differences between competing spaceports and identify areas for improving the performance of spaceports. This paper suggests Figures of Merit (FOMs) for spaceport "Capacity" (number of potential launch opportunities per year and / or potential mass' to low earth orbit (LEO) per year); "Throughput" (actual mass to orbit per year compared to capacity); "Productivity" (labor effort hours per unit mass to orbit); "Energy Efficiency" (joules expended at spaceport per unit mass to orbit); "Carbon Footprint" tons CO2 per unit mass to orbit). Additional FOMS are investigated with regards to those areas of special interest to commercial launch operators, such as "Assignment Schedule" (days required for a binding assignment of a launch site from the spaceport); "Approval Schedule" (days to complete a range safety assessment leading to an approval or disapproval of a launch vehicle); "Affordability" (cost for a spaceport to assess a new launch vehicle); "Launch Affordability" (fixed range costs per launch); "Reconfigure Time" (hours to reconfigure the range from one vehicle's launch ready configuration to another vehicle's configuration); "Turn,Around Time" (minimum range hours required between launches of an identical type launch vehicle). Available or notional data is analyzed for the KSC/CCAFS area and other spaceports. Observations regarding progress over the past few decades are made. Areas where improvement are needed or indicated are suggested.

  2. Measurement of Surface Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-16

    hydration forces were observed in solutions containing chloride salts of Li+ , K+ , Na 4 , and Cs+ , resulting from electrostatic binding of the cation...concentrated solutions of a series of tetraalkylammonium bromide salts [46] [Fig. 13]. In these measurements, the distance of closest approach of the two...solid metal electrodes separated by an electrolytic solution . Electrostatic forces, which are intimately related to electrode kinetics and adsorption

  3. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  4. Measuring Collaborative Cognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Our Approach to Communication Analysis Communication Flow Analysis Content Analysis Using Latent Semantic Analysis January 2003 CKM workshop 35...Clustering model-based patterns January 2003 CKM workshop 39 Content Analysis with Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA)  A tool for measuring cognitive...40 Content Analysis with Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) (continued)  Large constraint satisfaction problem of estimating the meaning of many

  5. Nondisturbing quantum measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Wolf, Michael M.

    2010-09-15

    We consider pairs of discrete quantum observables (POVMs) and analyze the relation between the notions of nondisturbance, joint measurability, and commutativity. We specify conditions under which these properties coincide or differ - depending, for instance, on the interplay between the number of outcomes and the Hilbert space dimension or on algebraic properties of the effect operators. We also show that (non-)disturbance is, in general, not a symmetric relation and that it can be decided and quantified by means of a semidefinite program.

  6. Temperature measuring device

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Sohns, C.W.

    1999-10-19

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  7. AMOS Seeing Quality Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Measurement Atmosphere Turbulence Propagation Observatory Acoustic Sounder Maui Optical Station Astronomy Microthermal Probe TEAL BLUE Degradation...presence of the site structures. Instruments used were an acoustic sounder (to probe the altitudes of 100 to 1000 ft), fine- wire microthermal probes...responsibility during the experiment for the microthermal probes. The report itself, while compiled and edited at RADC, may be considered as coming from

  8. CCN Spectral Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, James G.

    2009-02-27

    Detailed aircraft measurements were made of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra associated with extensive cloud systems off the central California coast in the July 2005 MASE project. These measurements include the wide supersaturation (S) range (2-0.01%) that is important for these polluted stratus clouds. Concentrations were usually characteristic of continental/anthropogenic air masses. The most notable feature was the consistently higher concentrations above the clouds than below. CCN measurements are so important because they provide a link between atmospheric chemistry and cloud-climate effects, which are the largest climate uncertainty. Extensive comparisons throughout the eleven flights between two CCN spectrometers operated at different but overlapping S ranges displayed the precision and accuracy of these difficult spectral determinations. There are enough channels of resolution in these instruments to provide differential spectra, which produce more rigorous and precise comparisons than traditional cumulative presentations of CCN concentrations. Differential spectra are also more revealing than cumulative spectra. Only one of the eleven flights exhibited typical maritime concentrations. Average below cloud concentrations over the two hours furthest from the coast for the 8 flights with low polluted stratus was 614?233 at 1% S, 149?60 at 0.1% S and 57?33 at 0.04% S cm-3. Immediately above cloud average concentrations were respectively 74%, 55%, and 18% higher. Concentration variability among those 8 flights was a factor of two. Variability within each flight excluding distances close to the coast ranged from 15-56% at 1% S. However, CN and probably CCN concentrations sometimes varied by less than 1% over distances of more than a km. Volatility and size-critical S measurements indicated that the air masses were very polluted throughout MASE. The aerosol above the clouds was more polluted than the below cloud aerosol. These high CCN concentrations from

  9. Remote Attitude Measurement Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Engineering , New Jersey Institute of Technology. Published by University Microfilms International- Plibi R92,3 19. KCEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side...of the sensor is expressed in terms of a probabilistic matrix. The engineering considerations for liplementing a Remote Attitude Measure- ment...doctoral research. While in residence at Ft. Monmouth, the author served as the project engineer on an exploratory development model of a state of the art

  10. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  11. Molecular similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  12. Molecular similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2004-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of a chemistry space. Although all three concepts molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemistry space are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations, that is, representations of the same mathematical form, into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another.

  13. Measurement of lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Martina; Eichmann, Thomas O; Taschler, Ulrike; Zimmermann, Robert; Zechner, Rudolf; Lass, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Lipolysis is defined as the hydrolytic cleavage of ester bonds in triglycerides (TGs), resulting in the generation of fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol. The two major TG pools in the body of vertebrates comprise intracellular TGs and plasma/nutritional TGs. Accordingly, this leads to the discrimination between intracellular and intravascular/gastrointestinal lipolysis, respectively. This chapter focuses exclusively on intracellular lipolysis, referred to as lipolysis herein. The lipolytic cleavage of TGs occurs in essentially all cells and tissues of the body. In all of them, the resulting FAs are utilized endogenously for energy production or biosynthetic pathways with one exception, white adipose tissue (WAT). WAT releases FAs and glycerol to supply nonadipose tissues at times of nutrient deprivation. The fundamental role of lipolysis in lipid and energy homeostasis requires the accurate measurement of lipase activities and lipolytic rates. The recent discovery of new enzymes and regulators that mediate the hydrolysis of TG has made these measurements more complex. Here, we describe detailed methodology for how to measure lipolysis and specific enzymes' activities in cells, organs, and their respective extracts.

  14. Scintillator Measurements for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptanoglu, Tanner; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    SNO+ is a neutrino detector located 2km underground in the SNOLAB facility with the primary goal of searching for neutrinoless double beta decay. The detector will be filled with a liquid scintillator target primarily composed of linear alkyl benzene (LAB). As charged particles travel through the detector the LAB produces scintillation light which is detected by almost ten thousand PMTs. The LAB is loaded with Te130, an isotope known to undergo double beta decay. Additionally, the LAB is mixed with an additional fluor and wavelength shifter to improve the light output and shift the light to a wavelength regime in which the PMTs are maximally efficient. The precise scintillator optics drastically affect the ultimate sensitivity of SNO+. I will present work being done to measure the optical properties of the SNO+ scintillator cocktail. The measured properties are used as input to a scintillation model that allows us to extrapolate to the SNO+ scale and ultimately predict the sensitivity of the experiment. Additionally, I will present measurements done to characterize the R5912 PMT, a candidate PMT for the second phase of SNO+ that provides better light collection, improved charge resolution, and a narrower spread in timing.

  15. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  16. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  17. Aircraft Wake RCS Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, William H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of multi-frequency radar measurements of aircraft wakes at altitudes of 5,000 to 25,00 ft. were performed at Kwajalein, R.M.I., in May and June of 1990. Two aircraft were tested, a Learjet 35 and a Lockheed C-5A. The cross-section of the wake of the Learjet was too small for detection at Kwajalein. The wake of the C-5A, although also very small, was detected and measured at VHF, UHF, L-, S-, and C-bands, at distances behind the aircraft ranging from about one hundred meters to tens of kilometers. The data suggest that the mechanism by which aircraft wakes have detectable radar signatures is, contrary to previous expectations, unrelated to engine exhaust but instead due to turbulent mixing by the wake vortices of pre-existing index of refraction gradients in the ambient atmosphere. These measurements were of necessity performed with extremely powerful and sensitive instrumentation radars, and the wake cross-section is too small for most practical applications.

  18. Atmospheric Ionization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Thomas; Mayes, Riley

    2015-04-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ionization is a largely unexplored science that potentially holds the key to better understanding many different geophysical phenomena through this new and valuable source of data. Through the LaACES program, which is funded by NASA through the Louisiana Space Consortium, students at Loyola University New Orleans have pursued the goal of measuring high altitude ionization for nearly three years, and were the first to successfully collect ionization data at altitudes over 30,000 feet using a scientific weather balloon flown from the NASA Columbia Scientific Ballooning Facility in Palestine, TX. In order to measure atmospheric ionization, the science team uses a lightweight and highly customized sensor known as a Gerdien condenser. Among other branches of science the data is already being used for, such as the study of aerosol pollution levels in the atmosphere, the data may also be useful in meteorology and seismology. Ionization data might provide another variable with which to predict weather or seismic activity more accurately and further in advance. Thomas Slack and Riley Mayes have served as project managers for the experiment, and have extensive knowledge of the experiment from the ground up. LaSPACE Louisiana Space Consortium.

  19. Measuring the reduced shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    Neglecting the second order corrections in weak lensing measurements can lead to a few percent uncertainties on cosmic shears, and becomes more important for cluster lensing mass reconstructions. Existing methods which claim to measure the reduced shears are not necessarily accurate to the second order when a point spread function (PSF) is present. We show that the method of Zhang (2008) exactly measures the reduced shears at the second order level in the presence of PSF. A simple theorem is provided for further confirming our calculation, and for judging the accuracy of any shear measurement method at the second order based on its properties at the first order. The method of Zhang (2008) is well defined mathematically. It does not require assumptions on the morphologies of galaxies and the PSF. To reach a sub-percent level accuracy, the CCD pixel size is required to be not larger than 1/3 of the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the PSF, regardless of whether the PSF has a power-law or exponential profile at large distances. Using a large ensemble (gtrsim107) of mock galaxies of unrestricted morphologies, we study the shear recovery accuracy under different noise conditions. We find that contaminations to the shear signals from the noise of background photons can be removed in a well defined way because they are not correlated with the source shapes. The residual shear measurement errors due to background noise are consistent with zero at the sub-percent level even when the amplitude of such noise reaches about 1/10 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source. This limit can in principle be extended further with a larger galaxy ensemble in our simulations. On the other hand, the source Poisson noise remains to be a cause of systematic errors. For a sub-percent level accuracy, our method requires the amplitude of the source Poisson noise to be less than 1/80 ~ 1/100 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source, corresponding to

  20. Measuring the reduced shear

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    Neglecting the second order corrections in weak lensing measurements can lead to a few percent uncertainties on cosmic shears, and becomes more important for cluster lensing mass reconstructions. Existing methods which claim to measure the reduced shears are not necessarily accurate to the second order when a point spread function (PSF) is present. We show that the method of Zhang (2008) exactly measures the reduced shears at the second order level in the presence of PSF. A simple theorem is provided for further confirming our calculation, and for judging the accuracy of any shear measurement method at the second order based on its properties at the first order. The method of Zhang (2008) is well defined mathematically. It does not require assumptions on the morphologies of galaxies and the PSF. To reach a sub-percent level accuracy, the CCD pixel size is required to be not larger than 1/3 of the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the PSF, regardless of whether the PSF has a power-law or exponential profile at large distances. Using a large ensemble (∼>10{sup 7}) of mock galaxies of unrestricted morphologies, we study the shear recovery accuracy under different noise conditions. We find that contaminations to the shear signals from the noise of background photons can be removed in a well defined way because they are not correlated with the source shapes. The residual shear measurement errors due to background noise are consistent with zero at the sub-percent level even when the amplitude of such noise reaches about 1/10 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source. This limit can in principle be extended further with a larger galaxy ensemble in our simulations. On the other hand, the source Poisson noise remains to be a cause of systematic errors. For a sub-percent level accuracy, our method requires the amplitude of the source Poisson noise to be less than 1/80 ∼ 1/100 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source

  1. Workload: Measurement and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian Francis; Casner, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Poster: The workload research project has as its task to survey the available literature on: (1) workload measurement techniques; and (2) the effects of workload on operator performance. The first set of findings provides practitioners with a collection of simple-to-use workload measurement techniques along with characterizations of the kinds of tasks each technique has been shown reliably address. This allows design practitioners to select and use the most appropriate techniques for the task(s) at hand. The second set of findings provides practitioners with the guidance they need to design for appropriate kinds and amounts of workload across all tasks for which the operator is responsible. This guidance helps practitioners design systems and procedures that ensure appropriate levels of engagement across all tasks, and avoid designs and procedures that result in operator boredom, complacency, loss of awareness, undue levels of stress, or skill atrophy that can result from workload that distracts operators from the tasks they perform and monitor, workload levels that are too low, too high, or too consistent or predictable. Only those articles that were peer reviewed, long standing and generally accepted in the field, and applicable to a relevant range of conditions in a select domain of interest, in analogous "extreme" environments to those in space were included. In addition, all articles were reviewed and evaluated on uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional considerations. Casner & Gore also examined the notion of thresholds and the conditions that may benefit mostly from the various methodological approaches. Other considerations included whether the tools would be suitable for guiding a requirement-related and design-related question. An initial review of over 225 articles was conducted and entered into an EndNote database. The reference list included a range of conditions in the domain of interest (subjective/objective measures), the seminal works in workload, as

  2. Using Technical Performance Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Christopher J.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2011-01-01

    All programs have requirements. For these requirements to be met, there must be a means of measurement. A Technical Performance Measure (TPM) is defined to produce a measured quantity that can be compared to the requirement. In practice, the TPM is often expressed as a maximum or minimum and a goal. Example TPMs for a rocket program are: vacuum or sea level specific impulse (lsp), weight, reliability (often expressed as a failure rate), schedule, operability (turn-around time), design and development cost, production cost, and operating cost. Program status is evaluated by comparing the TPMs against specified values of the requirements. During the program many design decisions are made and most of them affect some or all of the TPMs. Often, the same design decision changes some TPMs favorably while affecting other TPMs unfavorably. The problem then becomes how to compare the effects of a design decision on different TPMs. How much failure rate is one second of specific impulse worth? How many days of schedule is one pound of weight worth? In other words, how to compare dissimilar quantities in order to trade and manage the TPMs to meet all requirements. One method that has been used successfully and has a mathematical basis is Utility Analysis. Utility Analysis enables quantitative comparison among dissimilar attributes. It uses a mathematical model that maps decision maker preferences over the tradeable range of each attribute. It is capable of modeling both independent and dependent attributes. Utility Analysis is well supported in the literature on Decision Theory. It has been used at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for internal programs and for contracted work such as the J-2X rocket engine program. This paper describes the construction of TPMs and describes Utility Analysis. It then discusses the use of TPMs in design trades and to manage margin during a program using Utility Analysis.

  3. Vehicle Noise Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    TEST: ’? REC. FREQ. SPEC. INRL. BW ENGINE SPEED ANTENNI S TI)N 71 MHz 30 kH: 1500 RPM 0 dog. 3 N. MEASURED APD VALUES: PoiMt P b. PCo S . C&I . RMS Vb.,g...PROBiM8 IL ITY F8 S TEST CO’DE 11 .6881 sew6 .681 .01 .02 805 1 .2 .3 .4 Apo osuv v) ERs1 .s F~oeABIL1TY FR eW TEST CODE 2 5 4 40 .0001 am68 .681 .61 .62

  4. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert; Dixon, Raymond D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

  5. Laser angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.; Wilbert, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a laser angle measurement system is described. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the mode. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. Optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures are included, and the results of a demonstration test are given.

  6. Immigration measures, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Norway undertook the following immigration measures: 1) it merged the Office of Immigration, which deals with asylum matters, and the Government Refugee Agency, which handles reception and settlement, into a new Directorate for Immigration under the Ministry of Local Government and Labour; 2) it instituted visa requirements for Chileans; and 3) it established a new reception program, under which five regional reception centers are to be created accommodating 200 to 300 people each, where asylum seekers will be placed until they have completed their police interview and a municipality has agreed to accept them.

  7. SUMP MEASURING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Casandra Robinson, C; James Fiscus, J; Daniel Krementz, D; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    The process sumps in H-Canyon at the Savannah River Site (SRS) collect leaks from process tanks and jumpers. To prevent build-up of fissile material the sumps are frequently flushed which generates liquid waste and is prone to human error. The development of inserts filled with a neutron poison will allow a reduction in the frequency of flushing. Due to concrete deterioration and deformation of the sump liners the current dimensions of the sumps are unknown. Knowledge of these dimensions is necessary for development of the inserts. To solve this problem a remote Sump Measurement System was designed, fabricated, and tested to aid development of the sump inserts.

  8. Developing Human Performance Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen

    2006-05-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  9. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOEpatents

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  10. Sound Level Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    2.2.2.2 Transducer Applications. a. For measurements above 40 kPa (186 dB), pointed or disc -shaped piezoelectric or piezoresistive probes with...speed increments from slow to maximum. TOP 01-2-608A 1 August 2011 12 (3) Record dBA, and an octave-band analysis at each microphone...compartment and record the dBA and octave-band analysis for the condition-of-vessel operation that produces the most noise. (4) When cargo

  11. Measuring Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    1999-09-01

    WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.

  12. Spectroradiometric measurements on sunbeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Harry; Davidson, Marion; Ferguson, James

    1999-02-01

    A survey was carried out on sunbeds in the city of Perth, Scotland (56N) and the surrounding area. UV radiation measurements were carried out using a calibrated double- grating spectroradiometer in 38 of the total 41 tanning units in the area. Data were analyzed using the SCUP-h action spectrum which is an estimate of the sensitivity of human skin to cancer induction from UV radiation of different wavelengths. Results showed that high power stand-up tanning units carry approximately the same cancer risk, minute for minute, as sunbathing in Southern Europe in summer.

  13. [Measuring the instant].

    PubMed

    Cugini, P

    The instant is the infinitesimal fraction of time nearest to zero. Its computational measurement is not feasable in that it should be an infinitesimal commensurable portion of infinite time, which is incommensurabile by principle. The philosophical implication is that the instant has to be intended as an abstract entity belonging to metaphysical, transcendent, supranormal, suprasensitive, infinite time. In other words, the instant does not represent an experential deduction of our intellect, but an aprioristic innate idea letting us to be aware of physical, immanent, natural, sensible, finite temporality.

  14. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  15. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  16. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Tropical rainfall affects the lives and economics of a majority of the Earth's population. Tropical rain systems, such as hurricanes, typhoons, and monsoons, are crucial to sustaining the livelihoods of those living in the tropics. Excess rainfall can cause floods and great property and crop damage, whereas too little rainfall can cause drought and crop failure. The latent heat release during the process of precipitation is a major source of energy that drives the atmospheric circulation. This latent heat can intensify weather systems, affecting weather thousands of kilometers away, thus making tropical rainfall an important indicator of atmospheric circulation and short-term climate change. Tropical forests and the underlying soils are major sources of many of the atmosphere's trace constituents. Together, the forests and the atmosphere act as a water-energy regulating system. Most of the rainfall is returned to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration, and the atmospheric trace constituents take part in the recycling process. Hence, the hydrological cycle provides a direct link between tropical rainfall and the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, all important trace materials for the Earth's system. Because rainfall is such an important component in the interactions between the ocean, atmosphere, land, and the biosphere, accurate measurements of rainfall are crucial to understanding the workings of the Earth-atmosphere system. The large spatial and temporal variability of rainfall systems, however, poses a major challenge to estimating global rainfall. So far, there has been a lack of rain gauge networks, especially over the oceans, which points to satellite measurement as the only means by which global observation of rainfall can be made. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of

  17. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

    1996-03-05

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

  18. Measurements of stratospheric bromine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlacek, W. A.; Lazrus, A. L.; Gandrud, B. W.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977, molecules containing acidic bromine were sampled in the stratosphere by using tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide impregnated filters. Sampling was accomplished by WB-57F aircraft and high-altitude balloons, spanning latitudes from the equator to 75 deg N and altitudes up to 36.6 km. Analytical results are reported for 4 years of measurements and for laboratory simulations that determined the filter collection efficiencies for a number of brominated species. Mass mixing ratios for the collected bromine species in air average about 27 pptm in the stratosphere. Seasonal variability seems to be small.

  19. Optically measuring interior cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  20. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  1. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  2. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  3. Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, M.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Ligori, S.; Loreggia, D.; Vecchiato, A.

    GAME aims at the measurement of gravitational deflection of the light by the Sun, by an optimised telescope on board a small class satellite. The targeted precision on the gamma parameter of the Parametrised Post-Newtonian formulation of General Relativity is below 10-6, i.e. one to two orders of magnitude better than the best current results. Such precision is suitable to detect possible deviations from the unity value, associated to generalised Einstein models for gravitation, with potentially huge impacts on the cosmological distribution of dark matter and dark energy. The measurement principle is based on differential astrometry. The observations also allow additional scientific objectives related to tests of General Relativity and to the study of exo-planetary systems. The instrument concept is based on a dual field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, observing simultaneously two regions close to the Solar limb. The diluted optics achieves efficient rejection of the solar radiation, with good angular resolution on the science targets. We describe the science motivation, the proposed mission implementation and the expected performance.

  4. Recoil polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Polarization observables in photon-induced meson production off nucleons have long been recognized to hold the promise of a detailed understanding of the excited states in the excitation spectrum of the nucleon. Photon beam and proton target polarization are routinely used at the ELSA facility in the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment and have yielded a wealth of data on contributing partial waves and nucleon resonances. A detector study on how to complement these ongoing studies by recoil polarization measurements that offer an orthogonal approach with otherwise unmeasurable observables in the field of non-strange meson photoproduction has been performed. Building on experience with silicon detectors operated in the photon beamline environment, first possible layouts of Si detector telescopes for recoil protons were developed. Various geometries, e.g. Archimedean spiral design of annular sensors, sector shapes and rectangular sensors were studied and have been used during test measurements. A prototype for the recoil polarimeter was built and subjected to performance tests in protonproton scattering at the COSY-accelerator in Jülich.

  5. Measurement of radiofrequency fields

    SciTech Connect

    Leonowich, J.A.

    1992-05-01

    We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs.

  6. Top quark mass measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Tuula

    2008-03-18

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.

  7. Evaluating linguistic distance measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, Søren; Holman, Eric W.; Bakker, Dik; Brown, Cecil H.

    2010-09-01

    In Ref. [13], Petroni and Serva discuss the use of Levenshtein distances (LD) between words referring to the same concepts as a tool for establishing overall distances among languages which can then subsequently be used to derive phylogenies. The authors modify the raw LD by dividing the LD by the length of the longer of the two words compared, to produce what could be called LDN (normalized LD). Other scholars [7,8] have used a further modification, where they divide the LDN by the average LDN among words not referring to the same concept. This produces what could be called LDND. The authors of Ref. [13] question whether LDND is a more adequate measure of distance than LDN. Here we show empirically that LDND is the better measure in the situation where the languages compared have not already been shown, by other, more traditional methods of comparative linguistics, to be related. If automated language classification is to be used as a tool independent of traditional methods then the further modification is necessary.

  8. Measuring on Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2009-12-01

    Previous derivations of the sum and product rules of probability theory relied on the algebraic properties of Boolean logic. Here they are derived within a more general framework based on lattice theory. The result is a new foundation of probability theory that encompasses and generalizes both the Cox and Kolmogorov formulations. In this picture probability is a bi-valuation defined on a lattice of statements that quantifies the degree to which one statement implies another. The sum rule is a constraint equation that ensures that valuations are assigned so as to not violate associativity of the lattice join and meet. The product rule is much more interesting in that there are actually two product rules: one is a constraint equation arises from associativity of the direct products of lattices, and the other a constraint equation derived from associativity of changes of context. The generality of this formalism enables one to derive the traditionally assumed condition of additivity in measure theory, as well introduce a general notion of product. To illustrate the generic utility of this novel lattice-theoretic foundation of measure, the sum and product rules are applied to number theory. Further application of these concepts to understand the foundation of quantum mechanics is described in a joint paper in this proceedings.

  9. Automated Blood Pressure Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Vital-2 unit pictured is a semi-automatic device that permits highly accurate blood pressure measurement, even by untrained personnel. Developed by Meditron Instrument Corporation, Milford, New Hampshire, it is based in part on NASA technology found in a similar system designed for automatic monitoring of astronauts' blood pressure. Vital-2 is an advancement over the familiar arm cuff, dial and bulb apparatus customarily used for blood pressure checks. In that method, the physician squeezes the bulb to inflate the arm cuff, which restricts the flow of blood through the arteries. As he eases the pressure on the arm, he listens, through a stethoscope, to the sounds of resumed blood flow as the arteries expand and contract. Taking dial readings related to sound changes, he gets the systolic (contracting) and diastolic (expanding) blood pressure measurements. The accuracy of the method depends on the physician's skill in interpreting the sounds. Hospitals sometimes employ a more accurate procedure, but it is "invasive," involving insertion of a catheter in the artery.

  10. Measurement of appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Helen; Pointer, Michael

    2002-06-01

    The visual appearance can be one of the most critical parameters affecting customer choise and, therefore, it needs to be quantifiable to ensure uniformity and reproducibility. A starting point in assessing the appearance of a consumer product might be the measurement of its colour. The description of its total appearance, however, cannot be achieved by the definition of color alone; other attributes of the material from which it is fabricated contribute to the overall appearance. The texture of a surface, for example, will cause changes in colour depending on the lighting direction; the freshness of food is judged by its overall appearance, but in a way that is much more subtle than by just its color; and novel effects such as pearlescence are added to products to enhance their attractiveness. For some products, such as cosmetics, it is not only their own appearance characteristics that are important, but also the visual effect after they have been applied to the skin, nails, hair, etc. It is clear, therefore, that the interest of industry in the measurement of appearance goes beyond simply surface color.

  11. Optical distance measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

  12. Can We Measure Memes?

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Memes are the fundamental unit of cultural evolution and have been left upon the periphery of cognitive neuroscience due to their inexact definition and the consequent presumption that they are impossible to measure. Here it is argued that although a precise definition of memes is rather difficult it does not preclude highly controlled experiments studying the neural substrates of their initiation and replication. In this paper, memes are termed as either internally or externally represented (i-memes/e-memes) in relation to whether they are represented as a neural substrate within the central nervous system or in some other form within our environment. It is argued that neuroimaging technology is now sufficiently advanced to image the connectivity profiles of i-memes and critically, to measure changes to i-memes over time, i.e., as they evolve. It is argued that it is wrong to simply pass off memes as an alternative term for “stimulus” and “learnt associations” as it does not accurately account for the way in which natural stimuli may dynamically “evolve” as clearly observed in our cultural lives. PMID:21720531

  13. Beam efflux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, G. K.; Stellen, J. M., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the high energy thrust ions, (Group I), high angle/high energy ions (Group II), and high angle/low energy ions (Group IV) of a mercury electron bombardment thruster in the angular divergence range from 0 deg to greater than 90 deg. The measurements have been made as a function of thrust ion current, propellant utilization efficiency, bombardment discharge voltage, screen and accelerator grid potential (accel-decel ratio) and neutralizer keeper potential. The shape of the Group IV (charge exchange) ion plume has remained essentially fixed within the range of variation of the engine operation parameters. The magnitude of the charge exchange ion flux scales with thrust ion current, for good propellant utilization conditions. For fixed thrust ion current, charge exchange ion flux increases for diminishing propellant utilization efficiency. Facility effects influence experimental accuracies within the range of propellant utilization efficiency used in the experiments. The flux of high angle/high energy Group II ions is significantly diminished by the use of minimum decel voltages on the accelerator grid. A computer model of charge exchange ion production and motion has been developed. The program allows computation of charge exchange ion volume production rate, total production rate, and charge exchange ion trajectories for "genuine" and "facilities effects" particles. In the computed flux deposition patterns, the Group I and Group IV ion plumes exhibit a counter motion.

  14. Measurement System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); Byerly, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    System and methods are disclosed for fluid measurements which may be utilized to determine mass flow rates such as instantaneous mass flow of a fluid stream. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention may be utilized to compare an input mass flow to an output mass flow of a drilling fluid circulation stream. In one embodiment, a fluid flow rate is determined by utilizing a microwave detector in combination with an acoustic sensor. The acoustic signal is utilized to eliminate 2pi phase ambiguities in a reflected microwave signal. In another embodiment, a fluid flow rate may be determined by detecting a phase shift of an acoustic signal across two different predetermined transmission paths. A fluid density may be determined by detecting a calibrated phase shift of an acoustic signal through the fluid. In another embodiment, a second acoustic signal may be transmitted through the fluid to define a particular 2pi phase range which defines the phase shift. The present invention may comprise multiple transmitters/receivers operating at different frequencies to measure instantaneous fuel levels of cryogenic fuels within containers positioned in zero or near zero gravity environments. In one embodiment, a moveable flexible collar of transmitter/receivers may be utilized to determine inhomogenuities within solid rocket fuel tubes.

  15. Can we measure memes?

    PubMed

    McNamara, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Memes are the fundamental unit of cultural evolution and have been left upon the periphery of cognitive neuroscience due to their inexact definition and the consequent presumption that they are impossible to measure. Here it is argued that although a precise definition of memes is rather difficult it does not preclude highly controlled experiments studying the neural substrates of their initiation and replication. In this paper, memes are termed as either internally or externally represented (i-memes/e-memes) in relation to whether they are represented as a neural substrate within the central nervous system or in some other form within our environment. It is argued that neuroimaging technology is now sufficiently advanced to image the connectivity profiles of i-memes and critically, to measure changes to i-memes over time, i.e., as they evolve. It is argued that it is wrong to simply pass off memes as an alternative term for "stimulus" and "learnt associations" as it does not accurately account for the way in which natural stimuli may dynamically "evolve" as clearly observed in our cultural lives.

  16. Intensity Biased PSP Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Chelakara S.; Amer, Tahani R.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The current pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique assumes a linear relationship (Stern-Volmer Equation) between intensity ratio (I(sub o)/I) and pressure ratio (P/P(sub o)) over a wide range of pressures (vacuum to ambient or higher). Although this may be valid for some PSPs, in most PSPs the relationship is nonlinear, particularly at low pressures (less than 0.2 psia when the oxygen level is low). This non-linearity can be attributed to variations in the oxygen quenching (de-activation) rates (which otherwise is assumed constant) at these pressures. Other studies suggest that some paints also have non-linear calibrations at high pressures; because of heterogeneous (non-uniform) oxygen diffusion and quenching. Moreover, pressure sensitive paints require correction for the output intensity due to light intensity variation, paint coating variation, model dynamics, wind-off reference pressure variation, and temperature sensitivity. Therefore to minimize the measurement uncertainties due to these causes, an insitu intensity correction method was developed. A non-oxygen quenched paint (which provides a constant intensity at all pressures, called non-pressure sensitive paint, NPSP) was used for the reference intensity (I(sub NPSP) with respect to which all the PSP intensities (I) were measured. The results of this study show that in order to fully reap the benefits of this technique, a totally oxygen impermeable NPSP must be available.

  17. Intensity Biased PSP Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Chelakara S.; Amer, Tahani R.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The current pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique assumes a linear relationship (Stern-Volmer Equation) between intensity ratio (I(sub 0)/I) and pressure ratio (P/P(sub 0)) over a wide range of pressures (vacuum to ambient or higher). Although this may be valid for some PSPs, in most PSPs the relationship is nonlinear, particularly at low pressures (less than 0.2 psia when the oxygen level is low). This non-linearity can be attributed to variations in the oxygen quenching (de-activation) rates (which otherwise is assumed constant) at these pressures. Other studies suggest that some paints also have non-linear calibrations at high pressures; because of heterogeneous (non-uniform) oxygen diffusion and c quenching. Moreover, pressure sensitive paints require correction for the output intensity due to light intensity variation, paint coating variation, model dynamics, wind-off reference pressure variation, and temperature sensitivity. Therefore to minimize the measurement uncertainties due to these causes, an in- situ intensity correction method was developed. A non-oxygen quenched paint (which provides a constant intensity at all pressures, called non-pressure sensitive paint, NPSP) was used for the reference intensity (I(sub NPSP)) with respect to which all the PSP intensities (I) were measured. The results of this study show that in order to fully reap the benefits of this technique, a totally oxygen impermeable NPSP must be available.

  18. Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl

    Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.

  19. Can we measure connectivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Richard; Vericat, Damia; Cerda, Artemi; Brardinoni, Francesco; Batalla, Ramon; Masselink, Rens; Wittenberg, Lea; Nadal Romero, Estela; López-Tarazón, José; Estrany, Joan; Keesstra, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    Whilst the term 'connectivity' in hydrological and sediment-based research is becoming increasing well-known, it is neither used consistently in the existing literature, nor is it clear from that literature, that the connectivity of a landscape, or part of a landscape can be measured. However, it is argued that understanding how well critical source areas of water or sediment are connected to receiving surface waters, may be an essential step towards improvement of land management to mitigate flooding, soil erosion and water quality problems. The first part of this paper, therefore, explores what is currently meant by the term connectivity; addressing the differences between structural and functional, or process-based connectivity, specifically with reference to the movement of water and sediment through an ecosystem. We argue that most existing studies do not measure connectivity. Instead, they address only part of the story. Existing work may describe structural change in a landscape, which can perhaps elucidate the potential for connectivity to occur, or indeed the emergent spatial properties of an ecosystem, but it rarely quantifies the connectivity of an ecosystem in a process-based manner through time. Alternatively, a great deal of work describes fluxes of water and sediment at (sometimes multiple) points in a landscape and infers connectivity of the system via analysis of time series data; from rainfall peak to hydrograph peak or start of sediment flux until peak sediment flux within an event. Such data are doubtless useful to understand catchment function, but alone, they do not provide evidence that quantifies (for example) how well connected sediment sources are to the outlets of the catchments from which they flux. Finally, there are many examples of water and particularly sediment tracing studies, which attempt to link, either directly or indirectly water or sediment sources with their sinks (which might more usefully be termed temporary stores

  20. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  1. Monolithically compatible impedance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Ericson, Milton Nance; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic sensor includes a reference channel and at least one sensing channel. Each sensing channel has an oscillator and a counter driven by the oscillator. The reference channel and the at least one sensing channel being formed integrally with a substrate and intimately nested with one another on the substrate. Thus, the oscillator and the counter have matched component values and temperature coefficients. A frequency determining component of the sensing oscillator is formed integrally with the substrate and has an impedance parameter which varies with an environmental parameter to be measured by the sensor. A gating control is responsive to an output signal generated by the reference channel, for terminating counting in the at least one sensing channel at an output count, whereby the output count is indicative of the environmental parameter, and successive ones of the output counts are indicative of changes in the environmental parameter.

  2. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  3. Pressure Measurement Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    FFPI Industries Inc. is the manufacturer of fiber-optic sensors that furnish accurate pressure measurements in internal combustion chambers. Such an assessment can help reduce pollution emitted by these engines. A chief component in the sensor owes its seven year- long development to Lewis Research Center funding to embed optical fibers and sensors in metal parts. NASA support to Texas A&M University played a critical role in developing this fiber optic technology and led to the formation of FFPI Industries and the production of fiber sensor products. The simple, rugged design of the sensor offers the potential for mass production at low cost. Widespread application of the new technology is forseen, from natural gas transmission, oil refining and electrical power generation to rail transport and the petrochemical paper product industry.

  4. Liquid Metal Dynamo Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luh, W. J.; Choi, Y. H.; Hardy, B. S.; Brown, M. R.

    1997-11-01

    Detection of convected magnetic fields in a small-scale liquid metal dynamo is attempted. Initial experiments will focus on the conversion of toroidal to poloidal flux (a version of the ω effect). A precision vector magnetometer will be used to measure the effect of a rotating magnetofluid on a static magnetic field. Water will be used as a control medium and effects will be compared with a conducting medium (liquid sodium or NaK). A small spherical flask (0.16 m diameter) houses 2 liters of fluid, a teflon stirrer creates an asymmetrical flow pattern, and Helmholtz coils generate a constant magnetic field on the order of 10 gauss. The Reynold's number will be of order unity.

  5. Viscosity measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinstein, S. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for enabling the measurement of the viscosity of substances, especially those containing volatiles at elevated temperatures, with greater accuracy and at less cost than before. The apparatus includes a cylinder with a narrow exit opening at one end and a piston which closely slides within the cylinder to apply force against a sample in the cylinder to force the sample through the exit opening. In order to more rapidly heat a sample the ends of the cylinder and piston are tapered and the sample is correspondingly tapered, to provide a large surface to volume ratio. A corresponding coal sample is formed by compressing particles of coal under high pressure in a mold of appropriate shape.

  6. NBS: Materials measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Measurements in an Auger spectrometer of surface impurity concentrations on liquid gallium showed that the principle impurities were oxygen and carbon. The impurities showed a tendency to collect into plates or clumps. In Pb rich Pb-Sn off eutectic alloys, macrosegration caused by solutal convection was not reduced by vertical or horizontal fields of 0.1 T, but downward solidification virtually eliminated macrosegration in small diameter samples. Phase assemblages of selected compositions on the joints K(Fe0.5 Si-0.5) O2 -SiO2 and KFeO2 - SiO2 were determined over a large range of oxygen partial pressures and the temperature range 800 C to 1400 C.

  7. [Ankle brachial index measurement].

    PubMed

    Rucigaj, Tanja Planinsek

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasound examinations are noninvasive diagnostic methods which, along with appropriate history and clinical examination, provide basic information on the etiology and spread of the disease, as well as on treatment options required in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and arterial flow impairment. Doppler flow meter offers useful data on venous blood return, primarily in great veins, while both deep and superficial veins as well as arteries can be visualized and data on venous and arterial hemodynamics obtained by duplex ultrasonography. In addition, Doppler flow meter provides data on the peripheral arterial system action through ankle brachial index measurement, which will guide the choice of compression therapy when deciding on the treatment of peripheral arterial disease and mixed arteriovenous leg ulcers. However, diagnosis of arterial insufficiency requires additional examinations.

  8. Interferometric phase velocity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, P. M.; Labelle, J.; Kelley, M. C.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Moore, T.; Arnoldy, R.

    1984-01-01

    Phase velocities of plasma waves near the lower hybrid frequency were measured with an interferometer composed of two spatially separated electron-density probes. The plasma waves were produced in the F-region ionosphere by an argon ion beam. By calculating the normalized cross spectrum of the plasma waves a coherency of .98 was estimated along with a maximum phase difference of pi/3 radians between the two probes. This implies that the wavelength was 6 meters compared to an O(+) gyroradius of 3.8 meters, and that the phase velocity was 45 km/sec compared to an ion-beam velocity of 12.4 km/sec. These numbers compare favorably with recent predictions of a nonresonant mode produced by a dense ion beam.

  9. Commentary on measuring disability.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Howard H

    2013-09-01

    This is a commentary on 5 articles in this issue of Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation that report on several related studies of new approaches to measuring disability. The project was grounded in theory, beginning with the development of a conceptual framework enhanced by a literature review and expert consultation within and outside of the Social Security Administration. The investigators then used item response theory to develop test items, which they organized into computer adaptive testing instruments and tested them for their psychometric properties. All in all, it is a groundbreaking set of studies and an enormously valuable contribution to the field. Hopefully it will also be tested as an alternative approach to assessing disability in the Social Security Administration disability benefits programs.

  10. Thermal microstructure measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermal microstructure measurement system (TMMS) operates autonomously h its own internal power supply and telemeters data to a platform. A thermal array is mounted on a cross-braced frame designed to orient itself normal to existing currents with fixed sensor positioning bars protruding from the cross bars. A plurality of matched thermistors, conductivity probes and inclinometers are mounted on the frame. A compass and pressure transducer are contained in an electronics package suspended below the array. The array is deployed on a taut mooring below a subsurface float. Data are digitized, transmitted via cable to a surface buoy and then telemetered to the platform where the data is processed via a computer, recorded and/or displayed. The platform computer also sends commands to the array via telemetry.

  11. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed.

  12. Measuring Resource Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Laura E.; Khadaroo, Rachel G.; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Hanson, Heather; Wagg, Adrian; Padwal, Raj; Clement, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A variety of methods may be used to obtain costing data. Although administrative data are most commonly used, the data available in these datasets are often limited. An alternative method of obtaining costing is through self-reported questionnaires. Currently, there are no systematic reviews that summarize self-reported resource utilization instruments from the published literature. The aim of the study was to identify validated self-report healthcare resource use instruments and to map their attributes. A systematic review was conducted. The search identified articles using terms like “healthcare utilization” and “questionnaire.” All abstracts and full texts were considered in duplicate. For inclusion, studies had to assess the validity of a self-reported resource use questionnaire, to report original data, include adult populations, and the questionnaire had to be publically available. Data such as type of resource utilization assessed by each questionnaire, and validation findings were extracted from each study. In all, 2343 unique citations were retrieved; 2297 were excluded during abstract review. Forty-six studies were reviewed in full text, and 15 studies were included in this systematic review. Six assessed resource utilization of patients with chronic conditions; 5 assessed mental health service utilization; 3 assessed resource utilization by a general population; and 1 assessed utilization in older populations. The most frequently measured resources included visits to general practitioners and inpatient stays; nonmedical resources were least frequently measured. Self-reported questionnaires on resource utilization had good agreement with administrative data, although, visits to general practitioners, outpatient days, and nurse visits had poorer agreement. Self-reported questionnaires are a valid method of collecting data on healthcare resource utilization. PMID:26962773

  13. Optical Measurement Center Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, H.; Abercromby, K.; Mulrooney, M.; Barker, E.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, an optical measurement center (OMC) was created to measure the photometric signatures of debris pieces. Initially, the OMC was equipped with a 300 W xenon arc lamp, a SBIG 512 x 512 ST8X MEI CCD camera with standard Johnson filters, and a Lynx 6 robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. As research progressed, modifications were made to the equipment. A customized rotary table was built to overcome the robot s limitation of 180 degree wrist rotation and provide complete 360 degree rotation with little human interaction. This change allowed an initial phase angle (source-object-camera angle) of roughly 5 degrees to be adjusted to 7, 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, or 28 degrees. Additionally, the Johnson R and I CCD filters were replaced with the standard astronomical filters suite (Bessell R,I). In an effort to reduce object saturation, the two generic aperture stops were replaced with neutral density filters. Initially data were taken with aluminum debris pieces from the European Space Operations Centre ESOC2 ground test and more recently with samples from a thermal multi-layered insulation (MLI) commonly used on rocket bodies and satellites. The ESOC2 data provided light curve analysis for one type of material but many different shapes, including flat, bent, curled, folded, and torn. The MLI samples are roughly the same size and shape, but have different surfaces that give rise to interesting photometric light curves. In addition, filter photometry was conducted on the MLI pieces, a process that also will be used on the ESOC2 samples. While obtaining light curve data an anomalous drop in intensity was observed when the table revolved through the second 180 degree rotation. Investigation revealed that the robot s wrist rotation is not reliable past 80 degrees, thus the object may be at slightly different angles at the 180 degree transition. To limit this effect, the initial rotation position begins with the object s minimal surface area facing the camera.

  14. Measuring integrated care.

    PubMed

    Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2011-02-01

    The positive outcomes of coordination of healthcare services are to an increasing extent becoming clear. However the complexity of the field is an inhibiting factor for vigorously designed trial studies. Conceptual clarity and a consistent theoretical frame-work are thus needed. While researchers respond to these needs, patients and providers face the multiple challenges of today's healthcare environment. Decision makers, planners and managers need evidence based policy options and information on the scope of the integrated care challenges they are facing. The US managed care organization Kaiser Permanente has been put forward as an example for European healthcare systems to follow, although the evidence base is far from conclusive. The thesis has five objectives: 1) To contribute to the understanding of the concept of integration in healthcare systems and to identify measurement methods to capture the multi-dimensional aspects of integrated healthcare delivery. 2) To assess the level of integration of the Danish healthcare system. 3) To assess the use of joint health plans as a tool for coordination between the regional and local level in the Danish healthcare system. 4) To compare the inputs and performance of the Danish healthcare system and the managed care organization Kaiser Permanente, California, US. 5) To compare primary care clinicians' perception of clinical integration in two healthcare systems: Kaiser Permanente, Northern California and the Danish healthcare system. Further to examine the associations between specific organizational factors and clinical integration within each system. The literature was systematically searched to identify methods for measurement of integrated healthcare delivery. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted among major professional stake-holders at five different levels of the Danish healthcare system. The survey data were used to allow for analysis of the level of integration achieved. Data from the survey were

  15. MINOS Detector Steel Magnetic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Trendler and Walter F. Jaskierny

    1999-03-03

    Magnetic measurements were made on one steel plate of the MINOS far detector. The conventionally used technique of measuring sense coil voltage induced by step changes in excitation current voltage was successful in providing stable, repeatable measurements. Measurements were made at several locations on the steel and the results are presented.

  16. Rating Scale Analysis. Rasch Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Masters, Geofferey N.

    This book discusses constructing variables and making measures. It begins by outlining the qualities a number must meet before it qualifies as a measure of something. The basis is the measurement philosophy of G. Rasch. The first requirement for making good measures is good raw material. To achieve the possibility of comparisons, the data must…

  17. Measures for Managing Operational Resilience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    contributes to REM team measurement work and is the co-author of Measuring Operational Resilience Using the CERT Resilience Management Model [Allen 2010...Members of the CERT® Resilient Enterprise Management ( REM ) team are conducting research to address these and other related questions. The team’s first...resilience measures, along with example measures. In this report, REM team members suggest a set of top ten strategic measures for managing opera- tional

  18. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Harvel, Charles; Clark, John

    2011-12-01

    An essential element in an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) program is the measurement of the nuclear material as it is received, moved, processed and shipped. Quality measurement systems and methodologies determine the accuracy of the accountability values. Implementation of a measurement control program is essential to ensure that the measurement systems and methodologies perform as expected. A measurement control program also allows for a determination of the level of confidence in the ac counting values.

  19. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Harvel, Charles; Clark, John

    2012-09-01

    An essential element in an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) program is the measurement of the nuclear material as it is received, moved, processed and shipped. Quality measurement systems and methodologies determine the accuracy of the accountability values. Implementation of a measurement control program is essential to ensure that the measurement systems and methodologies perform as expected. A measurement control program also allows for a determination of the level of confidence in the accounting values.

  20. [Vision measurement and psychophysical tests].

    PubMed

    Kronbauer, Airton Leite; Schor, Paulo; Carvalho, Luis Alberto Vieira de

    2008-01-01

    Vision measurement is the basis for the study and standardization of visual sciences. Measurement of visual acuity has great value for research and for clinical practice. This paper (1) reviews the fundamental concepts to understand visual sense and the measuring units; (2) presents the fundamental limits to visual performance and the principles of aberration measurement of the eye; and (3) discusses methods for measuring and classifying vision with new technologies.

  1. Instruments Measuring Integrated Care: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Mary Ann C; Nurjono, Milawaty; Lim, Yee Wei; Dessers, Ezra; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm

    2016-12-01

    Policy Points: Investigations on systematic methodologies for measuring integrated care should coincide with the growing interest in this field of research. A systematic review of instruments provides insights into integrated care measurement, including setting the research agenda for validating available instruments and informing the decision to develop new ones. This study is the first systematic review of instruments measuring integrated care with an evidence synthesis of the measurement properties. We found 209 index instruments measuring different constructs related to integrated care; the strength of evidence on the adequacy of the majority of their measurement properties remained largely unassessed.

  2. Geometric measure of quantum discord with weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Qing-Wen; Shen, Shu-Qian; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Super quantum discord based on weak measurements was introduced by Singh and Pati (Ann Phys 343:141-152, 2014). We propose a geometric way of quantifying quantum discord with weak measurements. It is shown that this geometric measure of quantum discord with weak measurements (GQDW) is linearly dependent on geometric measure of quantum discord (Dakic et al. in Phys Rev Lett 105:190502, 2010) and only captures partial quantumness of the states. It is found that the quantum correlation can be extracted by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. Finally, the level surfaces of GQDW for Bell-diagonal states are depicted and the results are demonstrated by explicit example.

  3. Thermal radiation measuring arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, H.L.; Sprout, J.C.

    1983-02-08

    In a thermal radiation measuring arrangement, a thermal radiation detector is located at the focal point of a collecting mirror, upon which incident thermal radiation from a surface, such as a building wall, is directed. The thermal radiation detector may be, for example, a thermopile, and provides an output signal having a magnitude proportional to the amount of thermal radiation which it receives. The temperature detection means detects the temperature of the thermal radiation detector and, for example, may detect the cold junction of the thermopile. In a first operating condition, a signal summing means receives the output signal from the thermal radiation detector and the temperature detection means and provides a third output signal proportional to the sum of these first and second output signals. In a second operating condition, a signal biasing means is connected into the signal summing means. The signal biasing means provides a signal to the signal summing means to cause the third output signal to become zero when radiation is received from a reference surface. When the arrangement is in the second operating condition and directed to receive thermal radiation from a second surface different from the reference surface, the signal biasing means maintains the same level of bias to the signal summing means as it did when detecting the radiation from the reference surface.

  4. Bilirubin measurements in neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Gregory J.

    2000-04-01

    Infant Jaundice is a physiologic condition of elevated bilirubin in the tissue that affects nearly 60 percent of all term newborns and virtually 100 percent of premature infants. The high production of bilirubin in the newborn circulatory system and the inability of the immature liver to process and eliminate it case the condition. When the bilirubin levels rise, it starts to deposit in the baby's skin and in the brain. The deposits in the brain can cause neurologic impairment and death. The BiliCheck is a handheld, battery-powered device that measures the level of jaundice non-invasively using BioPhotonics at the point of care. The result is displayed on an LCD screen immediately, so physicians can now make treatment decision without waiting for results to return from the lab. The BiliCheck System has been marketed worldwide since April of 1998 and has received FDA clearance for use in the USA on pre-photo therapy infants in March of 1999.

  5. Colonoscope flexural rigidity measurement.

    PubMed

    Wehrmeyer, J A; Barthel, J A; Roth, J P; Saifuddin, T

    1998-07-01

    A testing device is developed that determines the stiffness, or flexural rigidity, of an endoscope at specific locations down its length by subjecting it to a compressive axial force, a situation similar to the actual forces applied to the endoscope during a clinical procedure. The endoscope is made to deform in a similar fashion to a slender buckled column and the force causing this deformation is related to the flexural rigidity using column buckling theory. A direct relationship between the critical load needed to cause buckling and the square of column length L is demonstrated experimentally and is expected theoretically, giving confidence in the application of column buckling theory to endoscope testing. Additional confidence in the validity of the column buckling test results is obtained by their similarity to data obtained by subjecting the endoscope to a transverse load, determining deflection, and modelling the endoscope as a bent elastic beam. Several makes and models of endoscopes were tested, with flexural rigidity values typically ranging between 160 to 240 Ncm2. The effect of a metal stiffener inserted in an endoscope's accessory channel is quantified, as is the change in flexural rigidity down the insertion shaft of a graded-stiffness endoscope. Significant differences in flexural rigidity were obtained between identical endoscopes, each sharing similar usage histories, indicating the need for flexural rigidity measurements for each individual endoscope of a particular model line, though a more extensive study is required to reliably determine scope-to-scope stiffness variations for a particular model line.

  6. MACPEX Water Measurement Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, J. A.; Thornhill, A.; Alston, E. J.; Chen, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Jensen, E. J.; Mace, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) airborne field campaign was conducted in March and April 2011 to investigate cirrus cloud properties and the processes that affect their impact on radiation. In pursuit of this goal the NASA WB-57 was outfitted with dozens of in-situ instruments from government and university science teams including a wide range of water instruments. This provided an unprecedented situation to compare eight water instruments on one platform measuring water vapor (CIMS, DLH, HWV, JLH, and ULH), total water (ALIAS and FISH) and ice water content (CLH/IWC) for 14 flight days. Objective and data-driven approaches were applied to analyze the comparison data and to assess the consistency levels between the instruments and instrument uncertainties. The analysis is primarily focused on the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions, paying particular attention to water levels below 20 ppmv and between 20 - 120 ppmv depending on specific instrument data coverage. To be presented are comparison results suggesting the level of the agreement among the instrument as a function of atmospheric conditions, e.g., temperature and water vapor. Also discussed are some exploratory analyses of instrument precisions.

  7. Perinatal programming prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Larguía, A Miguel; González, María Aurelia; Dinerstein, Néstor Alejandro; Soto Conti, Constanza

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been outstanding scientific progress related to perinatal programming and its epigenetic effects in health, and we can anticipate this trend will continue in the near future. We need to make use and apply these achievements to human neurodevelopment via prevention interventions. Based on the concept of the interaction between genome and ambiome, this chapter proposes low-cost easy-implementation preventive strategies for maternal and infant health institutions.Breastfeeding and human milk administration are the first preventive measures, as has been reviewed in the policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Another strategy is the Safe and Family-Centered Maternity Hospitals initiative that promotes and empowers the inclusion of the families and the respect for their rights, especially during pregnancy and birth. (This change of paradigm was approved and is recommended by both United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, and Pan American Health Organization, PAHO.) Then, there is also an important emphasis given to the sacred hour-which highlights the impact of bonding, attachment, and breastfeeding during the first hour of life-the pain prevention and treatment in newborns, the control of the "new morbidity" represented by late preterm infants, and finally, the importance of avoiding intrauterine and extrauterine growth restriction. (However, there are not yet clear recommendations about nutritional interventions in order to diminish the potential metabolic syndrome consequence in the adult.).

  8. Jet measurements in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Peter; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    The reconstruction of jets generated in the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of TeV with the ATLAS detector is discussed. Beginning with a brief review of the calorimeter signal definitions relevant for jet finding, and the use of reconstructed charged particle tracks, the jet reconstruction strategy is described in some detail. Emphasis is put on the jet energy scale (JES) calibration strategy applied for first data, which is based on a short sequence of data driven and simulation based calibrations and corrections to restore the measured jet energy to particle level. The level of understanding of the signal patterns entering the JES corrections is shown for selected variables in comparisons to simulations. The present systematic uncertainties on the JES, which can be as low as 2% for central jets, are presented and analyzed with respect to the individual fractional contributions entering their determination. Some characteristic jet reconstruction performance and selected results from the first year of jet physics with ATLAS in a newly accessible kinematic domain are shown in conclusion.

  9. Angular displacement measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system for measuring the angular displacement of a point of interest on a structure, such as aircraft model within a wind tunnel, includes a source of polarized light located at the point of interest. A remote detector arrangement detects the orientation of the plane of the polarized light received from the source and compares this orientation with the initial orientation to determine the amount or rate of angular displacement of the point of interest. The detector arrangement comprises a rotating polarizing filter and a dual filter and light detector unit. The latter unit comprises an inner aligned filter and photodetector assembly which is disposed relative to the periphery of the polarizer so as to receive polarized light passing the polarizing filter and an outer aligned filter and photodetector assembly which receives the polarized light directly, i.e., without passing through the polarizing filter. The purpose of the unit is to compensate for the effects of dust, fog and the like. A polarization preserving optical fiber conducts polarized light from a remote laser source to the point of interest.

  10. Angular displacement measuring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seegmiller, H. Lee B.

    1992-08-01

    A system for measuring the angular displacement of a point of interest on a structure, such as aircraft model within a wind tunnel, includes a source of polarized light located at the point of interest. A remote detector arrangement detects the orientation of the plane of the polarized light received from the source and compares this orientation with the initial orientation to determine the amount or rate of angular displacement of the point of interest. The detector arrangement comprises a rotating polarizing filter and a dual filter and light detector unit. The latter unit comprises an inner aligned filter and photodetector assembly which is disposed relative to the periphery of the polarizer so as to receive polarized light passing the polarizing filter and an outer aligned filter and photodetector assembly which receives the polarized light directly, i.e., without passing through the polarizing filter. The purpose of the unit is to compensate for the effects of dust, fog and the like. A polarization preserving optical fiber conducts polarized light from a remote laser source to the point of interest.

  11. Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.

    2002-01-01

    Ohio State University developed a new spectrally filtered light-scattering apparatus based on a diode laser injected-locked titanium: sapphire laser and rubidium vapor filter at 780.2 nm. When the device was combined with a stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirror, the realizable peak attenuation of elastic scattering interferences exceeded 105. The potential of the system was demonstrated by performing Thomson scattering measurements. Under USAF-NASA funding, West Virginia University developed a Doppler global velocimetry system using inexpensive 8-bit charged coupled device cameras and digitizers and a CW argon ion laser. It has demonstrated a precision of +/- 2.5 m/sec in a swirling jet flow. Low-noise silicon-micromachined microphones developed and incorporated in a novel two-tier, hybrid packaging scheme at the University of Florida used printed circuit board technology to realize a MEMS-based directional acoustic array. The array demonstrated excellent performance relative to conventional sensor technologies and provides scaling technologies that can reduce cost and increase speed and mobility.

  12. Increasing demands for quality measurement.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Robert J; Gitomer, Richard S; Greene, William H; Webster, Patricia Reagan; Landry, Kevin R; Riccobono, Charles A

    2013-11-13

    Measurement of health care quality and patient safety is rapidly evolving, in response to long-term needs and more recent efforts to reform the US health system around "value." Development and choice of quality measures is now guided by a national quality strategy and priorities, with a public-private partnership, the National Quality Forum, helping determine the most worthwhile measures for evaluating and rewarding quality and safety of patient care. Yet there remain a number of challenges, including diverse purposes for quality measurement, limited availability of true clinical measures leading to frequent reliance on claims data with its flaws in determining quality, fragmentation of measurement systems with redundancy and conflicting conclusions, few high-quality comprehensive measurement systems and registries, and rapid expansion of required measures with hundreds of measures straining resources. The proliferation of quality measures at the clinician, hospital, and insurer level has created challenges and logistical problems. Recommendations include raising the bar for qualtiy measurements to achieve transformational rather than incremental change in the US quality measurement system, promoting a logical set of measures for the various levels of the health system, leaving room for internal organizational improvement, harmonizing the various national and local quality measurement systems, anchoring on National Quality Forum additions and subtractions of measures to be applied, reducing reliance on and retiring claims-based measures as quickly as possible, promoting comprehensive measurement such as through registries with deep understanding of patient risk factors and outcomes, reducing attention to proprietary report cards, prompt but careful transition to measures from electronic health records, and allocation of sufficient resources to accomplish the goals of an efficient, properly focused measurement system.

  13. Invariant Measures for Cherry Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghin, Radu; Vargas, Edson

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the invariant probability measures for Cherry flows, i.e. flows on the two-torus which have a saddle, a source, and no other fixed points, closed orbits or homoclinic orbits. In the case when the saddle is dissipative or conservative we show that the only invariant probability measures are the Dirac measures at the two fixed points, and the Dirac measure at the saddle is the physical measure. In the other case we prove that there exists also an invariant probability measure supported on the quasi-minimal set, we discuss some situations when this other invariant measure is the physical measure, and conjecture that this is always the case. The main techniques used are the study of the integrability of the return time with respect to the invariant measure of the return map to a closed transversal to the flow, and the study of the close returns near the saddle.

  14. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short

  15. THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

    2009-12-01

    The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large

  16. Automating spectral measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  17. The Measurement of Estrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Geoff; Makin, Hugh L. J.; Bradlow, H. Leon

    Biologists use the word ‘estrogen' when referring to molecules which have the ability to induce uterine growth or vaginal cornification in the immature or ovariectomized rodent. The word estrogen was derived from two Greek words - oistros meaning frenzy and gennein - to beget. Chemists and biochemists, however, often restrict their use of this term to molecules that contain a characteristic 18-carbon steroid nucleus with an aromatic (phenolic) A-ring, both those that are biologically active estrogens and those without biologic activity but which are of intrinsic interest, such as the estrogen conjugates. This chapter is concerned only with these steroid compounds. The structure and inter-relationship of some common estrogens are given in Fig. 8.1. In addition to the biological estrogens, there are a wide variety of both natural and synthetic compounds which have estrogenic activity when measured by one or another parameter. While many of the assay procedures described in this review are applicable to these compounds, their application to non C18-steroids will not be discussed here. Methodology for these non-steroidal compounds can be found in reviews by Wang et al. (2002), Wu et al. (2004), Muir (2006), and Delmonte and Rader (2006). While not wishing to downgrade the importance of previous work in the estrogen field, the authors have taken a deliberate decision to exclude most publications prior to 1975, not because these do not have value but simply because space is not unlimited and readers of the present chapter might be expected to be seeking information about methodology which is less than 30 years old. Readers seeking pre-1975 information in this area can find it in Oakey and Holder (1995).

  18. Measuring Extinction with ALE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Gimmestad, G. G.; Roberts, D.; Stewart, J.; Smith, J.; Fitch, J.

    2007-12-01

    ALE (Astronomical LIDAR for Extinction) is deployed at the University of New Mexico's (UNM) Campus Observatory in Albuquerque, NM. It has begun a year-long testing phase prior deployment at McDonald Observatory in support of the CCD/Transit Instrument II (CTI-II). ALE is designed to produce a high-precision measurement of atmospheric absorption and scattering above the observatory site every ten minutes of every moderately clear night. LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) is the VIS/UV/IR analog of radar, using a laser, telescope and time-gated photodetector instead of a radio transmitter, dish and receiver. In the case of ALE -- an elastic backscatter LIDAR -- 20ns-long, eye-safe laser pulses are launched 2500 times per second from a 0.32m transmitting telescope co-mounted with a 50mm short-range receiver on an alt-az mounted 0.67m long-range receiver. Photons from the laser pulse are scattered and absorbed as the pulse propagates through the atmosphere, a portion of which are scattered into the field of view of the short- and long-range receiver telescopes and detected by a photomultiplier. The properties of a given volume of atmosphere along the LIDAR path are inferred from both the altitude-resolved backscatter signal as well as the attenuation of backscatter signal from altitudes above it. We present ALE profiles from the commissioning phase and demonstrate some of the astronomically interesting atmospheric information that can be gleaned from these data, including, but not limited to, total line-of-sight extinction. This project is funded by NSF Grant 0421087.

  19. Flammabililty measurements of difluoromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Grosshandler, W.L.; Donnelly, M.K.; Womeldorf, C.

    2000-02-01

    Difluoromethane (CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}, or R-32) is a candidate to replace ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. Because CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} is flammable, it is necessary to assess the hazard posed by a leak in a refrigeration machine. The currently accepted method for determining flammability, ASTM E 681 has difficulty discerning the flammability boundary for weak fuels such as CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}. This article describes an alternative approach to identify the limits of flammability, using a twin, premixed counterflow flame. By using the extinction of an already established flame, the point dividing flammable from nonflammable becomes unambiguous. The limiting extinction mixture changes with stretch rate, so it is convenient to report the flammability limit as the value extrapolated to a zero stretch condition. In the burner, contoured nozzles with outlet diameters of 12 mm are aligned counter to each other and spaced 12 mm apart. The lean flammability limit of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} in dry air at room temperature was previously reported by the authors to be a mole fraction of 0.14, using the twin counterflow flame method. In the current study, relative humidity was not found to affect the lean limit. Increasing the temperature of the premixed fuel and air to 100 C is shown to extend the flammability limit in the lean direction to 0.13. The rich limit of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} found using the counterflow method is around 0.27. The uncertainties of the measurements are presented and the results compared to data in the literature.

  20. Measuring acoustic habitats.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Fristrup, Kurt M; Johnson, Mark P; Tyack, Peter L; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Parks, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    1. Many organisms depend on sound for communication, predator/prey detection and navigation. The acoustic environment can therefore play an important role in ecosystem dynamics and evolution. A growing number of studies are documenting acoustic habitats and their influences on animal development, behaviour, physiology and spatial ecology, which has led to increasing demand for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) expertise in the life sciences. However, as yet, there has been no synthesis of data processing methods for acoustic habitat monitoring, which presents an unnecessary obstacle to would-be PAM analysts. 2. Here, we review the signal processing techniques needed to produce calibrated measurements of terrestrial and aquatic acoustic habitats. We include a supplemental tutorial and template computer codes in matlab and r, which give detailed guidance on how to produce calibrated spectrograms and statistical analyses of sound levels. Key metrics and terminology for the characterisation of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sound are covered, and their application to relevant monitoring scenarios is illustrated through example data sets. To inform study design and hardware selection, we also include an up-to-date overview of terrestrial and aquatic PAM instruments. 3. Monitoring of acoustic habitats at large spatiotemporal scales is becoming possible through recent advances in PAM technology. This will enhance our understanding of the role of sound in the spatial ecology of acoustically sensitive species and inform spatial planning to mitigate the rising influence of anthropogenic noise in these ecosystems. As we demonstrate in this work, progress in these areas will depend upon the application of consistent and appropriate PAM methodologies.

  1. Measuring acoustic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D; Fristrup, Kurt M; Johnson, Mark P; Tyack, Peter L; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Parks, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    1. Many organisms depend on sound for communication, predator/prey detection and navigation. The acoustic environment can therefore play an important role in ecosystem dynamics and evolution. A growing number of studies are documenting acoustic habitats and their influences on animal development, behaviour, physiology and spatial ecology, which has led to increasing demand for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) expertise in the life sciences. However, as yet, there has been no synthesis of data processing methods for acoustic habitat monitoring, which presents an unnecessary obstacle to would-be PAM analysts. 2. Here, we review the signal processing techniques needed to produce calibrated measurements of terrestrial and aquatic acoustic habitats. We include a supplemental tutorial and template computer codes in matlab and r, which give detailed guidance on how to produce calibrated spectrograms and statistical analyses of sound levels. Key metrics and terminology for the characterisation of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sound are covered, and their application to relevant monitoring scenarios is illustrated through example data sets. To inform study design and hardware selection, we also include an up-to-date overview of terrestrial and aquatic PAM instruments. 3. Monitoring of acoustic habitats at large spatiotemporal scales is becoming possible through recent advances in PAM technology. This will enhance our understanding of the role of sound in the spatial ecology of acoustically sensitive species and inform spatial planning to mitigate the rising influence of anthropogenic noise in these ecosystems. As we demonstrate in this work, progress in these areas will depend upon the application of consistent and appropriate PAM methodologies. PMID:25954500

  2. Mass properties measurement system: Dynamics and statics measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents and interprets experimental data obtained from the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS). Statics measurements yield the center-of-gravity of an unknown mass and dynamics measurements yield its inertia matrix. Observations of the MPMS performance has lead us to specific design criteria and an understanding of MPMS limitations.

  3. Advanced (Measurement) Applications of Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Cummings, Kelli Dawn; Biancarosa, Gina; Fien, Hank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a commentary on the current state of several measurement issues pertaining to curriculum-based measures of reading (R-CBM). We begin by providing an overview of the utility of R-CBM, followed by a presentation of five specific measurements considerations: (a) the reliability of R-CBM oral reading fluency…

  4. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurements and measurement control. 74.45 Section 74.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Moderate Strategic Significance § 74.45 Measurements and...

  5. Genesis Noble Gas Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, Charles M.

    2005-01-01

    The original thrust of our Genesis funding was to extend and refine the noble gas analytical capabilities of this laboratory to improve the precision and accuracy of noble gas measurements in order to optimize the scientific return from the Genesis Mission. This process involved both instrumental improvement (supplemented by a SRLIDAP instrument grant) and refinement of technique. The Genesis landing mishap shifted our emphasis to the irregular aluminum heat shield material from the flat collector wafers. This has required redesign of our laser extraction cells to accommodate the longer focal lengths required for laser extraction from non-flat surfaces. Extraction of noble gases from solid aluminum surfaces, rather than thin coatings on transparent substrates has required refinement of controlled-depth laser ablation techniques. Both of these bring new problems, both with potentially higher blanks form larger laser cells and the larger quantities of evaporated aluminum which can coat the sapphire entrance ports. This is mainly a problem for the heavy noble gases where larger extraction areas are required, necessitating the new aluminum vapor containment techniques described below. With the Genesis Mission came three new multiple multiplier noble gas mass spectrometers to this laboratory, one built solely by us (Supergnome-M), one built in collaboration with Nu-Instruments (Noblesse), and one built in collaboration with GVI (Helix). All of these have multiple multiplier detection sections with the Nu-Instruments using a pair of electrostatic quad lenses for isotope spacing and the other two using mechanically adjustable positions for the electron multipliers. The Supergnome-M and Noblesse are installed and running. The GVI instrument was delivered a year late (in March 2005) and is yet to be installed by GVI. As with all new instruments there were some initial development issues, some of which are still outstanding. The most serious of these are performance issues

  6. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  7. Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan

    2015-01-01

    1. Protective measurements: an introduction Shan Gao; Part I. Fundamentals and Applications: 2. Protective measurements of the wave function of a single system Lev Vaidman; 3. Protective measurement, postselection and the Heisenberg representation Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; 4. Protective and state measurement: a review Gennaro Auletta; 5. Determination of the stationary basis from protective measurement on a single system Lajos Diósi; 6. Weak measurements, the energy-momentum tensor and the Bohm approach Robert Flack and Basil J. Hiley; Part II. Meanings and Implications: 7. Measurement and metaphysics Peter J. Lewis; 8. Protective measurements and the explanatory gambit Michael Dickson; 9. Realism and instrumentalism about the wave function: how should we choose? Mauro Dorato and Frederico Laudisa; 10. Protective measurements and the PBR theorem Guy Hetzroni and Daniel Rohrlich; 11. The roads not taken: empty waves, waveform collapse and protective measurement in quantum theory Peter Holland; 12. Implications of protective measurements on de Broglie-Bohm trajectories Aurelien Drezet; 13. Entanglement, scaling, and the meaning of the wave function in protective measurement Maximilian Schlosshauer and Tangereen V. B. Claringbold; 14. Protective measurements and the nature of the wave function within the primitive ontology approach Vincent Lam; 15. Reality and meaning of the wave function Shan Gao; Index.

  8. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  9. Single-shot phase-measuring deflectometry for cornea measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hanning; Olesch, Evelyn; Yang, Zheng; Häusler, Gerd

    2016-12-01

    Phase-measuring deflectometry (PMD) has become a standard tool to measure the topography of specular surfaces. We implemented PMD for the measurement of the human cornea topography, exploiting an earlier idea of Lingelbach et al. Two problems occur: a large angular dynamical range and a single-shot measurement are required. We solve these problems by an optimized geometry with minimal occlusion and by single sideband demodulation with a pre-distorted fringe pattern with optimal fringe period. An in vivo measurement of an astigmatic cornea displays a deviation from the medical diagnosis of only 0.15 D, which is within the medical quantization step of 0.25 D.

  10. Dielectric property measurements in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin L.; Tiemsin, Pacita I.; Bussell, Kerri; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to measure the dielectric properties of various materials has been developed in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory (EPML) of the Electromagnetics Research Branch (ERB). Two measurement techniques which have been implemented in the EPML to characterize materials are the dielectric probe and waveguide techniques. Several materials, including some for which the dielectric properties are well known, have been measured in an attempt to establish the capabilities of the EPML in determining dielectric properties. Brief descriptions of the two techniques are presented in this report, along with representative results obtained during these measurements.

  11. Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:Feb 15,2017 The ejection fraction (EF) is an important measurement in determining how well your heart is pumping ...

  12. High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadstone, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

  13. MEASUREMENT OF NANOPARTICLES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measuring nanoparticles in water differs from traditional dissolved solute measurement in several ways. The most salient difference is that nanoparticles are colloids rather than solutes and therefore are subject to the interparticle interactions (mainly electrostatic and Van de...

  14. Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.

  15. Light pipes for LED measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  16. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  17. Weak value measurement with an incoherent measuring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hyang-Tag; Ra, Young-Sik; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2010-02-01

    In the Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman (AAV) weak measurement, it is assumed that the measuring device or the pointer is in a quantum mechanical pure state. In reality, however, it is often not the case. In this paper, we generalize the AAV weak measurement scheme to include more generalized situations in which the measuring device is in a mixed state. We also report an optical implementation of the weak value measurement in which the incoherent pointer is realized with the pseudo-thermal light. The theoretical and experimental results show that the measuring device under the influence of partial decoherence could still be used for amplified detection of minute physical changes and is applicable for implementing the weak value measurement for massive particles.

  18. Mathematical Models for Doppler Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William M.

    1987-01-01

    Error analysis increases precision of navigation. Report presents improved mathematical models of analysis of Doppler measurements and measurement errors of spacecraft navigation. To take advantage of potential navigational accuracy of Doppler measurements, precise equations relate measured cycle count to position and velocity. Drifts and random variations in transmitter and receiver oscillator frequencies taken into account. Mathematical models also adapted to aircraft navigation, radar, sonar, lidar, and interferometry.

  19. Sequential measurements of conjugate observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2011-07-01

    We present a unified treatment of sequential measurements of two conjugate observables. Our approach is to derive a mathematical structure theorem for all the relevant covariant instruments. As a consequence of this result, we show that every Weyl-Heisenberg covariant observable can be implemented as a sequential measurement of two conjugate observables. This method is applicable both in finite- and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, therefore covering sequential spin component measurements as well as position-momentum sequential measurements.

  20. NOVA SCIENCE UNIT 1. MEASUREMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broward County Schools, Fort Lauderdale, FL.

    A SCIENCE UNIT ON MEASUREMENT IS PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE AN INTRODUCTION TO THE METRIC SYSTEM AND SOME TOOLS OF MEASUREMENT. STUDENTS ARE GIVEN A HOMEMADE SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT WHICH UTILIZES A GRAIN OF RICE AS ITS BASIC UNIT. THE STUDENTS ARE GIVEN EXPERIENCES WITH THE METRIC SYSTEM. THROUGH THESE EXPERIENCES, THE STUDENTS SEE THE NEED FOR…