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Sample records for 803g south taxi

  1. Taxi 'sugar daddies' and taxi queens: male taxi driver attitudes regarding transactional relationships in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, Cheryl; Strebel, Anna; Shefer, Tamara; Wagner, Claire

    2012-11-01

    Media reports are emerging on the phenomenon of young girls who travel with older mini-bus taxi drivers, and who are thought to have sex with the drivers in exchange for gifts and money. The extent to which such relationships might facilitate unsafe sexual practices and increased risks for both the men and the young women, often referred to as taxi queens, remains an important question in the light of the current challenges of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. However, very little research has been undertaken on this issue, especially regarding the perceptions and experiences of taxi drivers. Thus this paper aims to provide some preliminary findings on taxi drivers' attitudes and beliefs about taxi queens and their relationships with taxi drivers. A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 223 male taxi drivers in two regions in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Taxi drivers in this study largely saw the relationship between taxi drivers and the young girls who ride with them as providing status for both the girls and drivers, and there seemed to be recognition of the transactional nature of the relationship between taxi drivers and taxi queens. The stigmatisation of young girls who ride with taxi drivers was evident. Drivers had knowledge and awareness of the risks of unsafe sex and supported condom use, although there appeared to be some uncertainty and confusion about the likelihood of HIV infection between drivers and girls. While taxi drivers recognised the role of alcohol in relationships with young girls, they seemed to deny that the abuse of drugs was common. The study highlights a number of key areas that need to be explored with men in the taxi industry, in order to address risk behaviours for both taxi drivers and the girls who ride with them. PMID:23234347

  2. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) to decrease cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Gill, Pavan; Baser, Raymond; Leng, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating the positive impact of pedometers and walking programs for increasing physical activity and reducing risk for cardiovascular disease among diverse populations. However, no interventions have been targeted towards South Asian taxi drivers, a population that may be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) was a 12-week pilot study among South Asian taxi drivers to increase their daily step counts. SSTEP assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of an exercise intervention employing pedometers, a step diary, written materials, and telephone follow-up to initiate or increase physical activity in this at-risk occupational group. Seventy-four drivers were recruited to participate at sites frequented by South Asian taxi drivers. Participant inclusion criteria were: (1) age 18 or over; (2) birthplace in India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh; (3) fluent in English, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, or Bengali; and (4) intention to remain in New York City for the 3-month study period. Comprehensive intake and exit questionnaires were administered to participants in their preferred languages. Intake and exit health screenings, including blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose were completed. Daily step counts were obtained 4 days after recruitment, and at the 4-, 8-, and 12-week mark via phone calls. To measure the impact of the intervention, step counts, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body mass index were compared at intake and exit. Participants in SSTEP were sedentary at baseline. The SSTEP intervention resulted in a small increase in step counts among participants overall, and in a significant increase (>2,000 steps) among a subset ("Bigsteppers"). Drivers with higher baseline glucose values had significantly greater improvements in their step counts. Focused lifestyle interventions for drivers at high risk for cardiovascular disease may

  3. Superstition, risk-taking and risk perception of accidents among South African taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Renner, Walter

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate taxi drivers' superstition and risk perception of accidents as well as risk-taking in an urban area in South Africa. One hundred and thirty drivers of minibuses, so-called "taxis" were interviewed on the basis of: (1) a superstition scale; (2) a risk-taking scale; (3) a list of perceived causes of road traffic accidents. Drivers showed largely superstitious attitudes and expressed a high degree of risk-taking behavior. Superstition was positively correlated with the number of self-reported accidents the drivers had been involved in and the number of accidents they had witnessed. Path analysis revealed a direct path from superstition to accident involvement while the influence of formal education was negligible. Risk-taking was inversely correlated with driving experience and the number of accidents witnessed but not so with the number of accidents involved in. There was no clear pattern of associations between superstition and risk-taking and perceived causes of accidents. Superstition and risk-taking were slightly and inversely correlated with each other. It is concluded that superstition represents an attitude that is associated with a driver's accident risk, and further research on superstitious attitudes among South African drivers is advocated. PMID:12729825

  4. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  5. Perseus Taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle is seen here as it taxis on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The

  6. Jobs, food, taxis and journals: complexities of implementing Stepping Stones and Creating Futures in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Mbatha, Nompumelelo; Washington, Laura; Willan, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to refocus debates on structural interventions away from 'assessing' their effectiveness towards understanding processes around how such interventions are implemented. Implementation Science is focused on understanding potential challenges of translating interventions from highly controlled conditions into 'real life' settings. Using the case study of Stepping Stones and Creating Futures a structural and behavioural intervention to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviours amongst young women and men in urban informal settlements, we explore the challenges of implementing such an approach. We move beyond simply describing challenges of implementing, to understand how these challenges had an impact on the safe social space the intervention seeks to create as its underlying theory of change. We identify four major challenges of implementation: taxi fares, food provided during the intervention, young people's ongoing need to work and journals provided during the intervention. We suggest that, in different ways, these factors all impinged on the emergence of a safe social space. Understanding the challenges of implementing the intervention is critical for reflecting on scaling up interventions. Central to this is the need to work with participants to help them negotiate the challenges of participating in interventions. PMID:25174633

  7. Taxi, Jitneys and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Sandi

    1970-01-01

    Version of the paper given at The Transportation and Poverty Conference of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Argues for revival of jitneys (12-14 capacity motor vehicles, operating on fixed routes, fares zone-rated) to serve ghetto residents and provide employment, too. Taxi company competition also discussed. (KG)

  8. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  9. Triticum aestivum L. endoxylanase inhibitor (TAXI) consists of two inhibitors, TAXI I and TAXI II, with different specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Gebruers, K; Debyser, W; Goesaert, H; Proost, P; Van Damme J; Delcour, J A

    2001-01-01

    The Triticum aestivum L. endoxylanase inhibitor (TAXI) discovered by Debyser and Delcour [(1997) Eur. Pat. filed April 1997, published as WO 98/49278] and Debyser, Derdelinckx and Delcour [(1997) J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 55, 153-156] seems to be a mixture of two different endoxylanase inhibitors, called TAXI I and TAXI II. By using Aspergillus niger as well as Bacillus subtilis endoxylanases for assaying inhibition activity, both inhibitors could be purified to homogeneity from wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Soissons). TAXI I and TAXI II have similar molecular structures. They both have a molecular mass of approx. 40.0 kDa, are not glycosylated and occur in two molecular forms, i.e. a non-proteolytically processed one and a proteolytically processed one. However, the pI of TAXI II (at least 9.3) is higher than that of TAXI I (8.8). TAXI I and TAXI II clearly show different inhibition activities towards different endoxylanases. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of both inhibitors show a high degree of identity, which might indicate that there is an evolutionary relationship between them. PMID:11139386

  10. Moon Taxi - A European view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, J. H.; Grimard, M.; Fazi, C.; Theillier, F.

    1992-08-01

    A review is conducted of transportation concepts for relatively small transfer vehicles for earth-to-lunar orbits, lunar shuttles, and earth-return vehicles. Attention is given to the use of Ariane-5 derivatives to accomplish these tasks specifically in the areas of propellant supply, and vehicle maintenance/logistics. Launcher optimization is considered for these tasks with orbital and payload considerations taken into account. A 'lunar vicinity shuttle' is proposed that can accomplish both lunar landings and returns to lunar orbit. The combination of the vehicles is named the Moon Taxi transportation system, and a preliminary feasibility study indicates the suitability of Ariane-5 products for the mass and Isp targets. Specific technological areas critical for the Moon Taxi concept are: cryogenic propellant control, restartable 10-t-thrust engines, and capsule reentry technologies.

  11. TAXI Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahiport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'TAXI Direct-to-Disk' interface is a special purpose interface unit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). The acronym 'TAXI' signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface. The TAXI interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket testing facility. The installation of the TAXI interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test.

  12. Taxi-Aware Map: Identifying and Predicting Vacant Taxis in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phithakkitnukoon, Santi; Veloso, Marco; Bento, Carlos; Biderman, Assaf; Ratti, Carlo

    Knowing where vacant taxis are and will be at a given time and location helps the users in daily planning and scheduling, as well as the taxi service providers in dispatching. In this paper, we present a predictive model for the number of vacant taxis in a given area based on time of the day, day of the week, and weather condition. The history is used to build the prior probability distributions for our inference engine, which is based on the naïve Bayesian classifier with developed error-based learning algorithm and method for detecting adequacy of historical data using mutual information. Based on 150 taxis in Lisbon, Portugal, we are able to predict for each hour with the overall error rate of 0.8 taxis per 1x1 km2 area.

  13. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities...

  14. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accessible vehicles in its fleet. (c) Private entities providing taxi service shall not discriminate against... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  15. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accessible vehicles in its fleet. (c) Private entities providing taxi service shall not discriminate against... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  16. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accessible vehicles in its fleet. (c) Private entities providing taxi service shall not discriminate against... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  17. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  3. The Effects of Taxi on Traffic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Yan; Huang, Hai-Jun

    Taxi will come to one complete halt during the boarding/alighting period and might produce stop-and-go without passengers, so it often produces traffic interruption on the single-lane system. Tang et al. pointed out that the traffic flow model [Chin. Phys. 18, 975 (2009)] can be used to directly describe various micro phenomena resulted by traffic interruption on the single-lane system, if we properly define the traffic interruption probability, so in this paper we adopt this model to study the micro phenomena resulted by taxi on the single-lane system. The numerical results show that this model can describe the effects that taxi has on the trails of each vehicle's motion and the evolutions of the flow and the density on the single-lane system, but that these effects are relevant to the initial conditions of the whole system.

  4. Math on the Job. Taxi Driver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of taxi drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to the…

  5. Monopoly Profits: The Market for Taxi Licenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Presents a case study dealing with open versus closed markets for use in college economics classes. Using the example of the taxi license monopoly in Dublin, Ireland, students examine how theories of supply and demand explain the characteristics of open and closed markets. (AM)

  6. 14 CFR 27.235 - Taxiing condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxiing condition. 27.235 Section 27.235 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.235...

  7. 14 CFR 25.235 - Taxiing condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxiing condition. 25.235 Section 25.235 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 25.235...

  8. Differences in cognitive process-related skills between taxi and non-taxi drivers between 50 and 70 years old.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Hsu, Chun-Chia; Doong, Ji-Liang; Lin, Chih-Yung; Lai, Ching-Huei

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated differences between 50- to 70-yr.-old taxi and non-taxi drivers with respect to cognitive process-related skills. Psychological indicators associated with perceptuomotor, attentional, and spatial memory recall abilities were collected for 173 taxi drivers (7 women, 166 men; M age = 57.5 yr.) and 175 non-taxi drivers (85 women, 90 men; M age = 58.2 yr.). The taxi drivers had shorter reaction times and motor times in response to stimuli in simple stimulus-response tasks. There was an age-related decline in monocular vision detection on both sides, processing speed for fovea stimuli, and higher-level cognition for drivers. Accordingly, the frontal visual information processing speed of the taxi drivers was superior to the non-taxi drivers, but a distinct age-related decline was observed for all drivers. PMID:25153742

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  10. Taxi-cabs as Subjects for a Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, J. A.; Bradley, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the use of capture-recapture techniques to estimate the population of taxis in Liverpool and demonstrates the points of similarity to animal population estimation. Considers advantages of studying taxis rather than organisms in introductory studies of the techniques. (AL)

  11. 14 CFR 294.3 - General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... air taxi operators. 294.3 Section 294.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General § 294.3 General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators. A Canadian charter air taxi operator...

  12. 17. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at Fairchild Air Force Museum, Spokane, WA) Photographer unknown, date unknown BOMBER ALERT FACILITY, INTERIOR, UTILITY ROOM - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  13. 14. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at Fairchild Air Force Museum, Spokane, WA) Photographer unknown, date unknown BOMBER ALERT FACILITY, INTERIOR, SLEEPING QUARTERS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  14. 15. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at Fairchild Air Force Museum, Spokane, WA) Photographer unknown, date unknown BOMBER ALERT FACILITY, INTERIOR, LATRINE - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  15. 16. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at Fairchild Air Force Museum, Spokane, WA) Photographer unknown, date unknown BOMBER ALERT FACILITY, INTERIOR, BRIEFING ROOM - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  16. 19. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at Fairchild Air Force Museum, Spokane, WA) Photographer unknown, date unknown BOMBER ALERT FACILITY, SOUTHWEST ELEVATION - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  17. 18. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of historic photograph (original photograph on file at Fairchild Air Force Museum, Spokane, WA) Photographer unknown, date unknown BOMBER ALERT FACILITY, INTERIOR, LOUNGE - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  18. 26. Photocopy of engineering drawing, March 3, 1988 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of engineering drawing, March 3, 1988 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS (southwest and northwest) - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  19. 23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, UPPER FLOOR PLANS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  20. 25. Photocopy of engineering drawing, January, 1988 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of engineering drawing, January, 1988 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS (northeast and southeast) - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  1. 21. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, RAMP DETAILS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  2. 20. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, ELEVATIONS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  3. 22. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, LOWER FLOOR PLANS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  4. 24. Photocopy of engineering drawing, August 17, 1965 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of engineering drawing, August 17, 1965 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). 2080 READINESS CREW, COVERED WALKWAYS, PLAN AND DETAILS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  5. Measurement error analysis of taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Hang; Zhang, Da-Jian; Hou, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Shi-pu

    2011-12-01

    The error test of the taximeter is divided into two aspects: (1) the test about time error of the taximeter (2) distance test about the usage error of the machine. The paper first gives the working principle of the meter and the principle of error verification device. Based on JJG517 - 2009 "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", the paper focuses on analyzing the machine error and test error of taxi meter. And the detect methods of time error and distance error are discussed as well. In the same conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class A) are evaluated, while in different conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class B) are also evaluated and measured repeatedly. By the comparison and analysis of the results, the meter accords with JJG517-2009, "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", thereby it improves the accuracy and efficiency largely. In actual situation, the meter not only makes up the lack of accuracy, but also makes sure the deal between drivers and passengers fair. Absolutely it enriches the value of the taxi as a way of transportation.

  6. Ground Taxi Navigation Problems and Training Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Cheryl; Walter, Kim E.; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions can put considerable strain on the National Airspace System. Even small decreases in visibility on the airport surface can create delays, hinder safe movement and lead to errors. Studies of Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) surface movement incidents support the need for technologies and procedures to improve ground operations in low-visibility conditions. This study examined 139 ASRS reports of low-visibility surface movement incidents at 10 major U.S. airports. Errors were characterized in terms of incident type, contributing factors and consequences. The incidents in the present sample were comprised of runway transgressions, taxiway excursions and ground conflicts. The primary contributing factors were Airport Layout and Markings, Communication and Distraction. In half the incidents the controller issued a new clearance or the flight crew took an evasive action and in the remaining half, no recovery attempt was made because the error was detected after the fact. By gaining a better understanding the factors that affect crew navigation in low visibility and the types of errors that are likely to occur, it will be possible to develop more robust technologies to aid pilots in the ground taxi task. Implications for crew training and procedure development for low-visibility ground taxi are also discussed.

  7. Standardization of databases for AMDB taxi routing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pschierer, C.; Sindlinger, A.; Schiefele, J.

    2010-04-01

    Input, management, and display of taxi routes on airport moving map displays (AMM) have been covered in various studies in the past. The demonstrated applications are typically based on Aerodrome Mapping Databases (AMDB). Taxi routing functions require specific enhancements, typically in the form of a graph network with nodes and edges modeling all connectivities within an airport, which are not supported by the current AMDB standards. Therefore, the data schemas and data content have been defined specifically for the purpose and test scenarios of these studies. A standardization of the data format for taxi routing information is a prerequisite for turning taxi routing functions into production. The joint RTCA/EUROCAE special committee SC-217, responsible for updating and enhancing the AMDB standards DO-272 [1] and DO-291 [2], is currently in the process of studying different alternatives and defining reasonable formats. Requirements for taxi routing data are primarily driven by depiction concepts for assigned and cleared taxi routes, but also by database size and the economic feasibility. Studied concepts are similar to the ones described in the GDF (geographic data files) specification [3], which is used in most car navigation systems today. They include - A highly aggregated graph network of complex features - A modestly aggregated graph network of simple features - A non-explicit topology of plain AMDB taxi guidance line elements This paper introduces the different concepts and their advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Optical tweezers for studying taxis in parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Stahl, C. V.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Ayres, D. C.; Almeida, D. B.; Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Santos-Mallet, J.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Giorgio, S.; Feder, D.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-04-01

    In this work we present a methodology to measure force strengths and directions of living parasites with an optical tweezers setup. These measurements were used to study the parasites chemotaxis in real time. We observed behavior and measured the force of: (i) Leishmania amazonensis in the presence of two glucose gradients; (ii) Trypanosoma cruzi in the vicinity of the digestive system walls, and (iii) Trypanosoma rangeli in the vicinity of salivary glands as a function of distance. Our results clearly show a chemotactic behavior in every case. This methodology can be used to study any type of taxis, such as chemotaxis, osmotaxis, thermotaxis, phototaxis, of any kind of living microorganisms. These studies can help us to understand the microorganism sensory systems and their response function to these gradients.

  9. Taxis Toward Hydrogen Gas by Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Brileya, Kristen A.; Connolly, James M.; Downey, Carey; Gerlach, Robin; Fields, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of taxis (directed swimming) in the Archaea is currently expanding through identification of novel receptors, effectors, and proteins involved in signal transduction to the flagellar motor. Although the ability for biological cells to sense and swim toward hydrogen gas has been hypothesized for many years, this capacity has yet to be observed and demonstrated. Here we show that the average swimming velocity increases in the direction of a source of hydrogen gas for the methanogen, Methanococcus maripaludis using a capillary assay with anoxic gas-phase control and time-lapse microscopy. The results indicate that a methanogen couples motility to hydrogen concentration sensing and is the first direct observation of hydrogenotaxis in any domain of life. Hydrogenotaxis represents a strategy that would impart a competitive advantage to motile microorganisms that compete for hydrogen gas and would impact the C, S and N cycles. PMID:24189441

  10. Even in Taxis, Kids Belong in Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... car safety seats when traveling in a motor vehicle. But, many municipalities exempt taxis from this safety ... the risk of death or injury from motor vehicle collisions, there should be no exemptions in car ...

  11. Measurement of whole-body vibration in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Mitsuhiko; Taoda, Kazushi; Tsujimura, Hiroji; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2004-03-01

    In a previous epidemiological study we reported that the prevalence (45.8%) of low-back pain (LBP) and the two-year incidence (25.9%) of LBP in 284 male taxi drivers in Japan was comparable with rates reported for other occupational drivers in which LBP frequently occurs. LBP was significantly related with the level of uncomfortable road vibrations, and, importantly, increased with total mileage. The aim of this study was to measure whole-body vibration (WBV) on the driver's seat pan of 12 taxis operating under actual working conditions. The results were evaluated according to the health guidelines in International Standard ISO 2631-1:1997. Finally, the relation between total mileage and WBV was investigated. The majority of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of the taxis fell into the "potential health risks" zone, under ISO 2631-1:1997. It was clear that the taxi drivers were exposed to serious WBV magnitudes. Therefore, occupational health and safety management should be carried out to help prevent adverse health effects in taxi drivers. In particular, reduction of WBV in taxis and shortening of driving time to reduce duration of WBV exposure should be considered. Moreover, because many taxi drivers work 18 h every other day, the shortening of working hours and taking of rest breaks while working should be considered. Frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of taxis had a tendency to decrease as total mileage increased. The relation between total mileage and WBV should be investigated by taking measurements on the floor and the back rest in addition to the seat pan. PMID:15090686

  12. The Development of an Electronic Aircraft Taxi Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display as part of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. The impetus for the development of this specific display, and the TAP program as a whole, is the current bottleneck in surface operations experienced during low-visibility operations. Simply stated, while modern aircraft are equipped to fly and land in low-visibility conditions, they lack the related technology required to allow them to efficiently and safely navigation from the runway to the gate. Pilots under such conditions consequently taxi slower, sometimes get lost and have to stop, and occasionally collide with other aircraft. Based on a review of available display and navigation sensor technologies, and a one-year information requirements study conducted aboard several commercial aircraft flights, it was determined that an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display was the most viable option for improving the efficiency of low-visibility taxi operations. Based on flight deck observations and pilot interviews, previous map display research, other taxi map display efforts, and part-task taxi map research, an advanced taxi navigation display has been developed and is currently being tested. The taxi navigation display is presented as a head-down cockpit display and includes a track-up perspective airport surface view, taxiway, gate and runway labels, ownship position, traffic icons and collision annunciation, graphical route guidance, heading indicator, rotating compass, RVR wedge, stop bars, zoom control, and datalink message window. The development and support for each of the features will be discussed in detail. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Taxi Cab Syndrome: A Review of the Extensive Genitourinary Pathology Experienced by Taxi Cab Drivers and What We Can Do to Help

    PubMed Central

    Mass, Alon Y; Goldfarb, David S; Shah, Ojas

    2014-01-01

    This review consolidates knowledge regarding the extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi cab drivers. Taxi cab, livery, truck, and other drivers all objectively and subjectively may have more voiding dysfunction, infertility, urolithiasis, bladder cancer, and urinary infections as compared with nonprofessional drivers; this is called taxi cab syndrome. Together with governmental and medical assistance, simple interventions—such as education, the addition of taxi relief stations, and possibly the use of sanitary urinary collection devices—to curb the progression of genitourinary disease in taxi drivers should be prospectively studied. It is postulated that many of these interventions may also benefit other groups of occupationally related infrequent voiders. PMID:25337038

  14. TAXI Direct-to-Disk Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahlport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface is a special-purpose interface circuit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). (The name TAXI as used here is derived from the acronym TAXI, which signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface.) The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket-testing facility. The control, data-recording, and data-postprocessing equipment of the facility are located in a control room at a safe distance from the test stand. Heretofore, the transfer of data from the instrumentation to the postprocessing equipment has entailed post-test downloading via software, requiring many hours to days of post-test reduction before the data could be viewed in a channelized format. The installation of the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test. The instrumentation is connected to the input terminals of the signal-processing unit of multichannel recorder by standard coaxial cables. The coaxial output of the signal processing unit is converted to fiber-optic output by means of a commercial coaxial-cable/fiber-optic converter (that is, a fiber-optic transceiver) designed specifically for this application. The fiber-optic link carries the data signals to an identical fiber-optic transceiver in the control room. On the way to the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface that is the focus of this article, the data signals are processed through a companion special purpose circuit denoted by the similar name parallel TAXI interface.

  15. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery. PMID:26073316

  16. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  17. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-06-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

  18. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  19. Drosophila photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gepner, Ruben; Bernat, Natalie; Kaplow, Margarita; Gershow, Marc

    In natural environments, the Drosophila larva makes navigational decisions based on variable and conflicting sensory inputs. How larvae respond to multi-modal stimuli and how their neural circuits integrate and prioritize multi-sensory information remains unknown. To identify larval navigational computations we developed a high-throughput reverse-correlation assay. We provided larvae with visual and optogenetically induced fictive olfactory stimuli and measured the correlation between the presented stimulus and evoked turn decisions. We used this technique to fit parameters of a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson model describing computations underlying turn decisions. For uni-modal inputs, the parameterized model allowed us to predict the behavior of populations of larvae responding to novel stimulus presentations. For multi-modal inputs, our assay showed that larvae linearly combine olfactory and visual signals upstream of the decision to turn. We verified this prediction using controlled combinations of stimuli. We studied other navigational decisions that determine the size and directions of turns and found that larvae integrated odor and light according to the same rule in all cases. These results suggest that photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway.

  20. Computations underlying Drosophila photo-taxis, odor-taxis, and multi-sensory integration

    PubMed Central

    Gepner, Ruben; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Bernat, Natalie M; Kaplow, Margarita; Gershow, Marc

    2015-01-01

    To better understand how organisms make decisions on the basis of temporally varying multi-sensory input, we identified computations made by Drosophila larvae responding to visual and optogenetically induced fictive olfactory stimuli. We modeled the larva's navigational decision to initiate turns as the output of a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson cascade. We used reverse-correlation to fit parameters to this model; the parameterized model predicted larvae's responses to novel stimulus patterns. For multi-modal inputs, we found that larvae linearly combine olfactory and visual signals upstream of the decision to turn. We verified this prediction by measuring larvae's responses to coordinated changes in odor and light. We studied other navigational decisions and found that larvae integrated odor and light according to the same rule in all cases. These results suggest that photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06229.001 PMID:25945916

  1. Mining spatiotemporal patterns of urban dwellers from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Feng; Ji, Minhe; Liu, Ting

    2016-06-01

    With the widespread adoption of locationaware technology, obtaining long-sequence, massive and high-accuracy spatiotemporal trajectory data of individuals has become increasingly popular in various geographic studies. Trajectory data of taxis, one of the most widely used inner-city travel modes, contain rich information about both road network traffic and travel behavior of passengers. Such data can be used to study the microscopic activity patterns of individuals as well as the macro system of urban spatial structures. This paper focuses on trajectories obtained from GPS-enabled taxis and their applications for mining urban commuting patterns. A novel approach is proposed to discover spatiotemporal patterns of household travel from the taxi trajectory dataset with a large number of point locations. The approach involves three critical steps: spatial clustering of taxi origin-destination (OD) based on urban traffic grids to discover potentially meaningful places, identifying threshold values from statistics of the OD clusters to extract urban jobs-housing structures, and visualization of analytic results to understand the spatial distribution and temporal trends of the revealed urban structures and implied household commuting behavior. A case study with a taxi trajectory dataset in Shanghai, China is presented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed method.

  2. Uncovering urban human mobility from large scale taxi GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jinjun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Taxi GPS trajectories data contain massive spatial and temporal information of urban human activity and mobility. Taking taxi as mobile sensors, the information derived from taxi trips benefits the city and transportation planning. The original data used in study are collected from more than 1100 taxi drivers in Harbin city. We firstly divide the city area into 400 different transportation districts and analyze the origin and destination distribution in urban area on weekday and weekend. The Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm is used to cluster pick-up and drop-off locations. Furthermore, four spatial interaction models are calibrated and compared based on trajectories in shopping center of Harbin city to study the pick-up location searching behavior. By extracting taxi trips from GPS data, travel distance, time and average speed in occupied and non-occupied status are then used to investigate human mobility. Finally, we use observed OD matrix of center area in Harbin city to model the traffic distribution patterns based on entropy-maximizing method, and the estimation performance verify its effectiveness in case study.

  3. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  4. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  5. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  6. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  7. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  8. Pilot Age and Error in Air-Taxi Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The associations of pilot error with the type of flight operations and basic weather conditions are well documented. The correlation between pilot characteristics and error is less clear. This study aims to examine whether pilot age is associated with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Methods Investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board for crashes involving non-scheduled Part 135 operations (i.e., air taxis) in the United States between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed to identify pilot error and other contributing factors. Crash circumstances and the presence and type of pilot error were analyzed in relation to pilot age using Chi-square tests. Results Of the 1751 air-taxi crashes studied, 28% resulted from mechanical failure, 25% from loss of control at landing or takeoff, 7% from visual flight rule conditions into instrument meteorological conditions, 7% from fuel starvation, 5% from taxiing, and 28% from other causes. Crashes among older pilots were more likely to occur during the daytime rather than at night and off airport than on airport. The patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes were similar across age groups. Of the errors identified, 27% were flawed decisions, 26% were inattentiveness, 23% mishandled aircraft kinetics, 15% mishandled wind and/or runway conditions, and 11% were others. Conclusions Pilot age is associated with crash circumstances but not with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Lack of age-related differences in pilot error may be attributable to the “safe worker effect.” PMID:19601508

  9. Health and safety strategies of urban taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara Jean; Gillen, Marion; White, Mary Castle

    2012-08-01

    This study describes health and safety concerns and self-care strategies of San Francisco taxi drivers. Focus groups and a written cross-sectional survey were done in a convenience sample of taxi drivers working in San Francisco. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed in English, and independently coded to identify major health and safety themes, using thematic content analysis. Strategies to manage health and safety issues are the focus of this analysis. Five focus groups were held in 2009 with 36 participants. Major health and safety themes included stress, body pain, danger, vulnerable employment status, and concerns related to unhealthy working conditions. Self-care strategies included diffusion/decompression to manage stress, maintaining a positive attitude, maintaining power and control, and practicing proactive self-care. Creative self-care strategies were described by taxi drivers to keep healthy and safe at work. These data will inform future self-care interventions to reduce health and safety risks of taxi driving. PMID:22669644

  10. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll....

  11. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll....

  12. Even in Taxis, Kids Belong in Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... vehicle. But, many municipalities exempt taxis from this safety rule, the researchers said. Study senior investigator Dr. Ruth Milanaik is with Cohen Children's Medical Center in New Hyde Park, N.Y. "Given that car safety seats have been shown to significantly decrease the ...

  13. 77 FR 20789 - Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis AGENCY: National... Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to develop proposals to revise the...

  14. Comparing taxi clearance input layouts for advancements in flight deck automation for surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lara W. S.

    Airport moving maps (AMMs) have been shown to decrease navigation errors, increase taxiing speed, and reduce workload when they depict airport layout, current aircraft position, and the cleared taxi route. However, current technologies are limited in their ability to depict the cleared taxi route due to the unavailability of datacomm or other means of electronically transmitting clearances from ATC to the flight deck. This study examined methods by which pilots can input ATC-issued taxi clearances to support taxi route depictions on the AMM. Sixteen general aviation (GA) pilots used a touchscreen monitor to input taxi clearances using two input layouts, softkeys and QWERTY, each with and without feedforward (graying out invalid inputs). QWERTY yielded more taxi route input errors than the softkeys layout. The presence of feedforward did not produce fewer taxi route input errors than in the non-feedforward condition. The QWERTY layout did reduce taxi clearance input times relative to the softkeys layout, but when feedforward was present this effect was observed only for the longer, 6-segment taxi clearances. It was observed that with the softkeys layout, feedforward reduced input times compared to non-feedforward but only for the 4-segment clearances. Feedforward did not support faster taxi clearance input times for the QWERTY layout. Based on the results and analyses of the present study, it is concluded that for taxi clearance inputs, (1) QWERTY remain the standard for alphanumeric inputs, and (2) feedforward be investigated further, with a focus on participant preference and performance of black-gray contrast of keys.

  15. The scaling of human mobility by taxis is exponential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Xudong; Lv, Weifeng; Zhu, Tongyu; Xu, Ke

    2012-03-01

    As a significant factor in urban planning, traffic forecasting and prediction of epidemics, modeling patterns of human mobility draws intensive attention from researchers for decades. Power-law distribution and its variations are observed from quite a few real-world human mobility datasets such as the movements of banking notes, trackings of cell phone users' locations and trajectories of vehicles. In this paper, we build models for 20 million trajectories with fine granularity collected from more than 10 thousand taxis in Beijing. In contrast to most models observed in human mobility data, the taxis' traveling displacements in urban areas tend to follow an exponential distribution instead of a power-law. Similarly, the elapsed time can also be well approximated by an exponential distribution. Worth mentioning, analysis of the interevent time indicates the bursty nature of human mobility, similar to many other human activities.

  16. SR-71 - Taxi on Ramp with Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft taxiing on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, heat waves from its engines blurring the hangars in the background. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena

  17. Fuel Consumption and Emissions from Airport Taxi Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Developed a method to calculate fuel consumption and emissions of phases of taxi operations. Results at DFW showed that up to 18% of fuel can be saved by eliminating stop-and-go situations. Developed an energy efficient and environmentally friendly surface concept: Spot and Runway Departure Advisory (SARDA) tool. The SARDA tool has been identified as a potential candidate for a technology transfer to the FAA.

  18. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise

    PubMed Central

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2009-01-01

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25 000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature. PMID:19528024

  19. A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Justin Vincent; Wood, Zachary Paul; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Malik, Waqar Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, which include routing decisions for taxiing aircraft. The model extends an existing single route formulation to include routing decisions. An efficient comparison framework compares the multi-route formulation and the single route formulation. The multi-route model is exercised for east side airport surface traffic at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to determine if any arrival taxi time savings can be achieved by allowing arrivals to have two taxi routes: a route that crosses an active departure runway and a perimeter route that avoids the crossing. Results indicate that the multi-route formulation yields reduced arrival taxi times over the single route formulation only when a perimeter taxiway is used. In conditions where the departure aircraft are given an optimal and fixed takeoff sequence, accumulative arrival taxi time savings in the multi-route formulation can be as high as 3.6 hours more than the single route formulation. If the departure sequence is not optimal, the multi-route formulation results in less taxi time savings made over the single route formulation, but the average arrival taxi time is significantly decreased.

  20. Media Controller For Receiving Data From A TAXI(TM) Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, David R.; Mcmahon, Rebecca Stempski

    1995-01-01

    TAXI(TM) media controller (TMC) is interface circuit that supports operation of test equipment in diagnosis of telemetry system in which data communicated via TAXI(TM) links. TMC designed specifically for use with TAXI(TM) test adapter for monitoring and testing telemetry data signals generated by payloads and other subsystems of Space Station Freedom. Overall, TMC characterized as providing interface between output part of a TAXI(TM) receiving chip and input port of memory system in test adapter. TMC detects some abnormalities in received data stream and resynchronizes stream to locally generated clock signal.

  1. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  2. Understanding intra-urban trip patterns from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Kang, Chaogui; Gao, Song; Xiao, Yu; Tian, Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Intra-urban human mobility is investigated by means of taxi trajectory data that are collected in Shanghai, China, where taxis play an important role in urban transportation. From the taxi trajectories, approximately 1.5 million trips of anonymous customers are extracted on seven consecutive days. The globally spatio-temporal patterns of trips exhibit a significant daily regularity. Since each trip can be viewed as a displacement in the random walk model, the distributions of the distance and direction of the extracted trips are investigated in this research. The direction distribution shows an NEE-SWW-dominant direction, and the distance distribution can be well fitted by an exponentially truncated power law, with the scaling exponent β = 1.2 ± 0.15. The observed patterns are attributed to the geographical heterogeneity of the study area, which makes the spatial distribution of trajectory stops to be non-uniform. We thus construct a model that integrates both the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect, to interpret the observed patterns. Our Monte Carlo simulation results closely match to the observed patterns and thus validate the proposed model. According to the proposed model, in a single-core urban area, the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect improve each other when influencing human mobility patterns. Geographical heterogeneity leads to a faster observed decay, and the distance decay effect makes the spatial distribution of trips more concentrated.

  3. Factors associated with crashes involving taxi owners and non-owners: A case of moral hazard and adverse selection?

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard; Choi, Jaisung

    2016-02-01

    Taxis experience a higher risk of a motor vehicle crash partly because of their much higher levels of exposure on the roads. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with the frequency and severity of taxi collisions, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors associated with owner taxis and non-owner taxis. This study finds that collisions involving non-owners are more likely to be associated with poor or risky driving behaviors than collisions involving taxi vehicle owners. This result is consistent with the economic principles of moral hazard and adverse selection. Hence, policy makers responsible for traffic safety, taxi regulation or taxi operations should consider measures to reduce these market inefficiencies and improve the safety of not only taxi drivers but all road users. PMID:26655521

  4. 77 FR 12103 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations AGENCY... the following collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations, responsibility for which has been... air carriers known as air taxi operators and their filing of a one-page form that enables them...

  5. 14 CFR 330.29 - What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must air taxi operators... COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.29 What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C? As an air taxi operator, you must complete Form 330 (Final)...

  6. 76 FR 33639 - Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary... to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of New York Water Taxi. The fireworks will commence at 9 p.m. on... CFR Part 165 Harbors, Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and recordkeeping...

  7. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  8. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing for registration by air taxi operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Registration for Exemption by Air...

  9. Driving to Better Health: Cancer and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment among Taxi Cab Operators in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Apantaku-Onayemi, Funmi; Baldyga, William; Amuwo, Shaffdeen; Adefuye, Adedeji; Mason, Terry; Mitchell, Robin; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    While a number of investigations of the health of taxi cab drivers have been conducted in Europe, Asia, and Africa, virtually none have been conducted in the United States. We undertook a survey of taxi cab operators in the Chicago area to understand better their health status and health promotion practices. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 751 Chicago taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had low rates of insurance coverage, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity compared with the general Chicago population. Participation in cancer screening tests was also lower for this group. A high proportion of taxi drivers are immigrants. They tend to be highly educated and report a readiness to engage in more health-promoting behaviors. Further research is needed to develop a targeted intervention for this population. PMID:22643623

  10. Fine particle concentrations in buses and taxis in Florence, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fondelli, M. Cristina; Chellini, Elisabetta; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Cenni, Isabella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Nava, Silvia; Garcia-Orellana, Isabel; Lupi, Andrea; Grechi, Daniele; Mallone, Sandra; Jantunen, Matti

    On October 2004, a sampling survey was carried out in Florence to estimate urban fine particle exposure concentrations inside commuting vehicles during workdays characterized by heavy traffic. Portable samplers were positioned inside four regularly scheduled diesel-powered buses and four taxis during eight weekdays. Each sampler consisted of a 2.5 μm size pre-separator cyclone, a direct-reading data logging photometer (pDR-1200), and a 4 L min -1 filter sampler for the determination of PM 2.5 mass concentration. Based on reflectance analysis measurements, a PM 2.5 Black Smoke Index was determined for each filter, and the elemental composition of the PM 2.5 was analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). PM 2.5 mass concentrations inside the vehicles correlated well with the urban ambient air PM 2.5 concentrations measured at the fixed-site monitoring stations. The PM 2.5 excess above the urban ambient level was on average 32 μg m -3 (range: 22-52 μg m -3) and 20 μg m -3 (range: 11-29 μg m -3) in buses and taxis, respectively. The PM 2.5-bound sulfur concentration was also higher in the buses than in the taxis. Based on daily Time-Microenvironment-Activity-Diary (TMAD) data, the Florentines spend on average 9.7% of their day in traffic, and the corresponding average exposure is approximately 12% of their daily PM 2.5 personal exposure. The obtained data could be used to plan interventions to minimize the PM 2.5 citizen exposures in commuting.

  11. XB-70A during startup and ramp taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The XB-70 was the world's largest experimental aircraft. Capable of flight at speeds of three times the speed of sound (2,000 miles per hour) at altitudes of 70,000 feet, the XB-70 was used to collect in-flight information for use in the design of future supersonic aircraft, military and civilian. This 35-second video shows the startup of the XB-70A airplane engines, the beginning of its taxi to the runway, and a turn on the ramp that shows the unique configuration of this aircraft.

  12. Evaluation of aero commander propeller acoustic data: Taxi operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piersol, A. G.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The acoustic data from ground tests performed on an Aero Commander propeller driven aircraft are analyzed. An array of microphones flush mounted on the side of the fuselage were used to record data. The propeller blade passage noise during operations at several different taxi speeds is considered and calculations of the magnitude and phase of the blade passage tones, the amplitude stability of the tones, and the spatial phase and coherence of the tones are included. The measured results are compared to theoretical predictions for propeller noise and various evaluations which reveal important details of propeller noise characteristics are presented.

  13. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  14. Motor vehicle accidents, fatigue and optimism bias in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, J R; Job, R F

    1997-07-01

    Fatigue-related variables and their relationship with accident involvement were examined in a group of 42 Sydney metropolitan taxi drivers across a 2-year period. Advantages associated with the study of this group of road users include their important role in public transport, long hours spent on the road, job-related controls of exposure through shift patterns and the ability to verify accidents with company insurance records. Number and length of breaks, employment type, falling asleep at the wheel and a variety of other job-related and attitudinal variables were surveyed. Results provide basic data on fatigue-related aspects of the job of taxi driving. Driver time-on-the-road is often considerable: 67% of those surveyed drove at least 50 hours per week, yet time off in long shifts (up to 12 hours) was often short (as low as 3 minutes, with an average of 37 minutes). Self report of accidents proved reliable against insurance company records. A significant negative correlation between total average break time and accident rate was observed. Optimism bias was present for a variety of driving-related questions, including the ability to drive safely while fatigued. PMID:9248507

  15. A safety monitoring system for taxi based on CMOS imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi

    2005-01-01

    CMOS image sensors now become increasingly competitive with respect to their CCD counterparts, while adding advantages such as no blooming, simpler driving requirements and the potential of on-chip integration of sensor, analogue circuitry, and digital processing functions. A safety monitoring system for taxi based on cmos imager that can record field situation when unusual circumstance happened is described in this paper. The monitoring system is based on a CMOS imager (OV7120), which can output digital image data through parallel pixel data port. The system consists of a CMOS image sensor, a large capacity NAND FLASH ROM, a USB interface chip and a micro controller (AT90S8515). The structure of whole system and the test data is discussed and analyzed in detail.

  16. Detecting Hotspots from Taxi Trajectory Data Using Spatial Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P. X.; Qin, K.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, C. K.; Chen, Y. X.

    2015-07-01

    A method of trajectory clustering based on decision graph and data field is proposed in this paper. The method utilizes data field to describe spatial distribution of trajectory points, and uses decision graph to discover cluster centres. It can automatically determine cluster parameters and is suitable to trajectory clustering. The method is applied to trajectory clustering on taxi trajectory data, which are on the holiday (May 1st, 2014), weekday (Wednesday, May 7th, 2014) and weekend (Saturday, May 10th, 2014) respectively, in Wuhan City, China. The hotspots in four hours (8:00-9:00, 12:00-13:00, 18:00-19:00 and 23:00-24:00) for three days are discovered and visualized in heat maps. In the future, we will further research the spatiotemporal distribution and laws of these hotspots, and use more data to carry out the experiments.

  17. Human Mars Mission Performance Crew Taxi Profile. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duaro, Vince A.

    1999-01-01

    This timeline was generated on the Integrated Mission Program (IMP). All burn events over 2 seconds are finite with IMP solving a two point boundary value setup for begin burn time, burn time and control angles. Perigee and apogee shown above are mean orbital values. Significant events are listed. Each finite thrust event has two lines. The first is the beginning time showing the initial conditions, thrust and ISP used. The second has the end burn conditions and the delta v and time of burn. This case is an abort from the 750 x 750 phasing abort, using the taxi's main engines. An abort using the Reaction Control System (RCS) was also investigated but required a large increase in RCS propellant and was abandoned.

  18. Pili-taxis: Clustering of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taktikos, Johannes; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Biais, Nicolas; Stark, Holger; Weitz, David A.

    2012-02-01

    The first step of colonization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria, the etiological agent of gonorrhea, is the attachment to human epithelial cells. The attachment of N. gonorrhoeae bacteria to surfaces or other cells is primarily mediated by filamentous appendages, called type IV pili (Tfp). Cycles of elongation and retraction of Tfp are responsible for a common bacterial motility called twitching motility which allows the bacteria to crawl over surfaces. Experimentally, N. gonorrhoeae cells initially dispersed over a surface agglomerate into round microcolonies within hours. It is so far not known whether this clustering is driven entirely by the Tfp dynamics or if chemotactic interactions are needed. Thus, we investigate whether the agglomeration may stem solely from the pili-mediated attraction between cells. By developing a statistical model for pili-taxis, we try to explain the experimental measurements of the time evolution of the mean cluster size, number of clusters, and area fraction covered by the cells.

  19. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  20. Increasing influenza vaccination in New York City taxi drivers: A community driven approach.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Mujawar, Imran

    2015-05-21

    The Healthy People 2020 influenza immunization goal is 80% for non-institutionalized adults 18-64. However, vaccination rates remain stubbornly low. Culturally tailored approaches to communities with poor vaccine uptake are necessary. Taxi drivers are at risk for influenza and its complications, could serve as vectors for influenza infection, and could be an effective vaccination target to enhance herd immunity of the urban population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study related to influenza vaccination among taxi drivers. The NYC Taxi Network surveyed a convenience sample of 53 taxi drivers to understand vaccination barriers. Only 17% had been vaccinated. Results informed a pilot tailored workplace intervention, which resulted in vaccinations for 44% of unvaccinated drivers. The study revealed that older drivers were more likely to be vaccinated than younger drivers, while the most common barrier to immunization was that drivers thought vaccination was 'not necessary'. PMID:25850021

  1. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  2. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Liyong; Zhang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly. PMID:26236770

  3. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liyong; Zhang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly. PMID:26236770

  4. Testing and analysis of dual-mode adaptive landing gear, taxi mode test system for YF-12A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of a dual mode adaptive landing gear system in reducing the dynamic response of an airplane during ground taxiing was studied. The dynamic taxi tests of the YF-12A research airplane are presented. A digital computer program which simulated the test conditions is discussed. The dual mode system as tested provides dynamic taxi response reductions of 25 percent at the cg and 30 to 45 percent at the cockpit.

  5. [Risk factors for low back pain among taxi drivers in Japan].

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Mitsuhiko; Tamura, Akihiko; Taoda, Kazushi; Tsujimura, Hiroji; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2003-11-01

    We conducted a questionnaire study on low back pain (LBP) and working conditions among male taxi drivers employed in the company in Fukuoka city in order to investigate the occurrence of LBP and occupational factors related to LBP among taxi drivers. The study was undertaken through two questionnaires, the first conducted in 1999 (n = 280, first cross-sectional study), the second conducted in 2001 (n = 284, second cross-sectional study). The questionnaire results were used to conduct two analyses: 1) the one-year prevalence of LBP and the relationship between LBP and occupational factors in the second cross-sectional study, and 2) the incidence of LBP and the relationship between LBP and occupational factors from the first to the second cross-sectional study in the longitudinal study. The incidence cases were defined as subjects who met the following conditions: those who had never experienced LBP at the time of the first study but had experienced LBP during the previous year at the time of the 2nd study. The one-year prevalence (45.8%) of LBP among taxi drivers was comparable to rates reported for other occupational drivers in which LBP occurs frequently. This result indicates that LBP is an important health problem for taxi drivers, and an urgent occupational safety and health management issue. The two-year incidence of LBP among the taxi drivers was estimated at 25.9%. LBP was significantly related with the suitability of the driver's seat pan, total mileage on the taxi (total mileage), the level of uncomfortable vibrations on the road, job stress and time employed as a taxi driver. Importantly, the prevalence of LBP increased with increasing total mileage, a finding which had not previously been reported. The findings of this study also suggest that ergonomic problems with the driver's seat pan, whole-body vibration (WBV) and job stress may contribute to LBP among taxi drivers. Further study is needed to confirm how total mileage contributes to LBP. Furthermore

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. PMID:22683278

  7. 76 FR 65769 - Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter... Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi and deny its application to resume commuter operations, pursuant to...

  8. Step On It! Workplace Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of New York City Yellow Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Gill, Pavan; Ramirez, Julia; Ayash, Claudia; Loeb, Rebecca; Aragones, Abraham; Leng, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Multiple factors associated with taxi driving can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in taxi drivers. This paper describes the results of Step On It!, which assessed CVD risk factors among New York City taxi drivers at John F. Kennedy International Airport. Drivers completed an intake questionnaire and free screenings for blood pressure, glucose and body mass index (BMI). 466 drivers participated. 9 % had random plasma glucose values >200 mg/dl. 77 % had elevated BMIs. Immigrants who lived in the US for >10 years had 2.5 times the odds (CI 1.1-5.9) of having high blood pressure compared to newer immigrants. Abnormalities documented in this study were significant, especially for immigrants with greater duration of residence in the US, and underscore the potential for elevated CVD risk in this vulnerable population, and the need to address this risk through frameworks that utilize multiple levels of intervention. PMID:25680879

  9. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control 1: Automatic rollout, turnoff, and taxis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1981-01-01

    A study developed for the TCV B-737, designed to apply existing navigation aids plus magnetic leader cable signals and develop breaking and reverse thrust guidance laws to provide for rapid automated rollout, turnoff, and taxi to reduce runway occupation time for a wide variety of landing conditions for conventional commercial-type aircraft, is described. Closed loop guidance laws for braking and reverse thrust are derived for rollout, turnoff, and taxi, as functions of the landing speed, the desired taxi speed and the distance to go. Brake limitations for wet runway conditions and reverse thrust limitations are taken into account to provide decision rules to avoid tire skid and to choose an alternate turnoff point, farther down the runway, to accommodate extreme landing conditions.

  10. Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

  11. X-Wing RSRA - 80 Knot Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft/X-Wing, a vehicle that was used to demonstrate an advanced rotor/fixed wing concept called X-Wing, is shown here during high-speed taxi tests at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, on 4 November 1987. During these tests, the vehicle made three taxi tests at speeds of up to 138 knots. On the third run, the RSRA/X-Wing lifted off the runway to a 25-foot height for about 16 seconds. This liftoff maneuver was pre-planned as an aid to evaluations for first flight. At the controls were NASA pilot G. Warren Hall and Sikorsky pilot W. Faull. The unusual aircraft that resulted from the Ames Research Center/Army X-Wing Project was flown at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, beginning in the spring of 1984, with a follow-on program beginning in 1986. The program, was conceived to provide an efficient combination of the vertical lift characteristic of conventional helicopters and the high cruise speed of fixed-wing aircraft. It consisted of a hybrid vehicle called the NASA/Army Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA), which was equipped with advanced X-wing rotor systems. The program began in the early 1970s to investigate ways to increase the speed of rotor aircraft, as well as their performance, reliability, and safety . It also sought to reduce the noise, vibration, and maintenance costs of helicopters. Sikorsky Aircraft Division of United Technologies Laboratories built two RSRA aircraft. NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, did some initial testing and transferred the program to Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, for an extensive flight research program conducted by Ames and the Army. The purpose of the 1984 tests was to demonstrate the fixed-wing capability of the helicopter/airplane hybrid research vehicle and explore its flight envelope and flying qualities. These

  12. Conserved residues in the HAMP domain define a new family of proposed bipartite energy taxis receptors.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Zhulin, Igor B; Stuckey, Jeanne A; DiRita, Victor J

    2009-01-01

    HAMP domains, found in many bacterial signal transduction proteins, generally transmit an intramolecular signal between an extracellular sensory domain and an intracellular signaling domain. Studies of HAMP domains in proteins where both the input and output signals occur intracellularly are limited to those of the Aer energy taxis receptor of Escherichia coli, which has both a HAMP domain and a sensory PAS domain. Campylobacter jejuni has an energy taxis system consisting of the domains of Aer divided between two proteins, CetA (HAMP domain containing) and CetB (PAS domain containing). In this study, we found that the CetA HAMP domain differs significantly from that of Aer in the predicted secondary structure. Using similarity searches, we identified 55 pairs of HAMP/PAS proteins encoded by adjacent genes in a diverse group of microorganisms. We propose that these HAMP/PAS pairs form a new family of bipartite energy taxis receptors. Within these proteins, we identified nine residues in the HAMP domain and proximal signaling domain that are highly conserved, at least three of which are required for CetA function. Additionally, we demonstrated that CetA contributes to the invasion of human epithelial cells by C. jejuni, while CetB does not. This finding supports the hypothesis that members of HAMP/PAS pairs possess the capacity to act independently of each other in cellular traits other than energy taxis. PMID:18952801

  13. Portraits of the Postmodern Person in "Taxi Driver,""Raging Bull," and "The King of Comedy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Argues that a postmodern theory of identity (i.e., the subject as coherent, integrated, discoverable self is a fiction of modernity) links Martin Scorsese's major films. Examines "Taxi Driver,""Raging Bull," and "King of Comedy." Concludes that these films articulate a major cultural shift and chronicle a distinctively masculine identity crisis,…

  14. NASA RB57F aircraft taxis to runway at Ellington field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A NASA RB57F aircraft taxis to runway at Ellington field. This type of aircraft is used by the Earth Observations Division of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) to furnish Earth resources photographic coverage from altitudes as high as 60,000 feet.

  15. A comparative analysis of intra-city human mobility by taxi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjun; Pan, Lin; Yuan, Ning; Zhang, Sen; Liu, Dong

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative understanding of human movement behaviors would provide helpful insights into the mechanisms of many socioeconomic phenomena. In this paper, we investigate human mobility patterns through analyzing taxi-trace datasets collected from five metropolitan cities in two countries. We focus on three statistics for each dataset: the displacement of each occupied trip, the duration of each occupied trip, and the time interval between successive occupied trips by the same taxi (interevent time). The results indicate that the displacement distributions of human travel by taxi tend to follow exponential laws in two displacement ranges rather than power laws; the trip duration distributions can be approximated by log-normal distributions; the interevent time distributions can be well characterized by log-normal bodies followed by power law tails. For each considered measure, the rescaled distributions of all cities collapsed into a master curve. These results provide empirical evidence supporting the common regularity of intra-city human mobility. Moreover, we show that airport locations could play a role in explaining the spikes of displacement distributions of taxi trips in certain cities.

  16. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers. PMID:25715295

  17. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 330 - Forms for Air Taxi Operators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms for Air Taxi Operators C Appendix C to Part 330 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Pt. 330, App. C Appendix C...

  18. Effect of Surface Traffic Count on Taxi Time at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gupta, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of air traffic increases over the years, most airports simply do not have the means of expanding to handle the intensified traffic on the surface that will ensue. Precise surveillance equipment and automation concepts, as well as advanced surface traffic algorithms are being developed to improve airport efficiency. These surface algorithms require inputs unique to each airport to ensure maximum efficiency, and minimal taxi delay. This study analyzes surface traffic at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) to determine the effect of the number of aircraft on the surface and the amount of stop and go situations they experience to the amount of additional taxi time encountered. If the surface capacity of an airport is known, minimal delay can be accomplished by limiting the number of taxiing aircraft to that capacity. This concept is related to highways, where traffic flow drastically decreases as more cars occupy the road. An attempt to minimize this effect on highways is seen with the use of metering lights at freeway on-ramps. Since the surface traffic at airports is highly regulated, and aircraft are less mobile on the ground, limiting the surface count to a certain number can greatly reduce the amount of additional taxi time encountered, as well as reduce hazardous emissions. This study will also find the regions of an airport that encounter the most additional taxi time when the number of aircraft in that area is increased. This could help surface traffic algorithms avoid congesting that area, or re-route aircraft to different runways when that area reaches its capacity. The relationship between the amount of stop and go situations an aircraft encounters and their effect on the taxi time of that aircraft will also be investigated. This will help to determine the effect of holding an aircraft on the taxiway as opposed to re-routing it. The lesser of the two should be used when developing surface traffic algorithms to further minimize the

  19. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Cao, Xinyue; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xintong; He, Kebin

    2014-09-01

    To alleviate air pollution and lessen the petroleum demand from the motor vehicle sector in China, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been rapidly developed over the last several years. However, the understanding of the real-world emissions of NGVs is very limited. In this study, the emissions from 20 compressed-natural-gas-fueled bi-fuel taxis were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual driving conditions in Yichang, China. The emission characteristics of the tested vehicles were analyzed, revealing that the average CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the tested compressed-natural-gas (CNG) taxis under urban driving conditions were 1.6, 4.0, 2.0 and 0.98 times those under highway road conditions, respectively. The CO, HC and NOx emissions from Euro 3 CNG vehicles were approximately 40%, 55% and 44% lower than those from Euro 2 vehicles, respectively. Compared with the values for light-duty gasoline vehicles reported in the literature, the CO2 and CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were clearly lower; however, significant increases in the HC and NOx emissions were observed. Finally, we normalized the emissions under the actual driving cycles of the entire test route to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)-based emissions using a VSP modes method developed by North Carolina State University. The simulated NEDC-based CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were better than the corresponding emissions standards, whereas the simulated NEDC-based HC and NOx emissions greatly exceeded the standards. Thus, more attention should be paid to the emissions from CNG vehicles. As for the CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis currently in use, the department of environmental protection should strengthen their inspection and supervision to reduce the emissions from these vehicles. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding and controlling emissions from CNG-fueled bi-fuel vehicles in China.

  20. The prevalence of fatigue and associated health and safety risk factors among taxi drivers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lim, See Ming; Chia, Sin Eng

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Driver fatigue is one of the biggest health and safety concerns within the road transport sector. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fatigue among taxi drivers in Singapore, to better understand the general working and health conditions of this group of people, and to determine the risk factors associated with fatigued driving. METHODS A total of 340 taxi drivers were randomly selected for participation in a self-administered questionnaire survey, which included height and weight measurements. The response rate was 68.2%. The survey consisted of four main categories: personal particulars; social habits; work patterns; and sleep profile. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to estimate the level of daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with risk factors related to fatigue among taxi drivers. RESULTS A high proportion of taxi drivers were obese and had self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol. Driver fatigue was associated with very poor/poor self-rating of quality of sleep, having an additional part-time job, drinking three or more caffeinated drinks daily, and driving more than 10 hours a day. CONCLUSION We hope that the findings of the present study will improve awareness of the work and health conditions of taxi drivers, and contribute toward efforts to achieve a healthier workforce. A lower prevalence of fatigued driving may lead to lower risks of road traffic accidents, decreased economic loss, increased productivity, and safer roads for all. PMID:25532512

  1. An investigation of behavioural adaptation to airbags and antilock brakes among taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F; Fosser, S; Saetermo, I A

    1997-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that safety measures may lead to behavioural adaptation (also termed risk compensation) among road users, partly or completely offsetting the intended safety effects. There is, however, limited knowledge about characteristics of safety measures possibly determining the occurrence of behavioural adaptation. The present study addresses the relationship of driving behaviour to two different kinds of in-car safety equipment, airbags and antilock braking systems (ABS). It is hypothesized that accident-reducing measures like ABS are compensated for to a larger extent than injury-reducing measures like an airbag. On-road unobtrusive measurements of speed, headway, lane occupancy, lane changes, and variability of lateral position were performed on 213 taxis, on the basis of video recordings of traffic travelling to Oslo airport. The behavioural data were matched to questionnaire information collected when the taxis arrived at the airport. In addition to information regarding ABS and airbags, the drivers reported personal background information and answered questions about driving behaviour. Taxis with ABS had significantly shorter time headways than taxis without ABS. There were no relationships with speed, possibly because dense traffic during the observation period may have prevented the drivers from driving at their preferred speed. Simple comparisons also showed fewer lane changes and a lower rate of seat-belt use among drivers of taxis with ABS. However, multiple regression analyses indicated that the latter effects might be explained by driver background factors or by car characteristics other than ABS or airbag. The headway results support the hypothesis of larger compensation for accident-reducing than for injury-reducing measures. PMID:9183467

  2. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As crewmen jog and cycle alongside, a battery-powered, quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing rolls across the El Mirage Dry Lake during pre-flight taxi tests. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  3. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Prepared for Taxi Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As sunlight breaks over Southern California's El Mirage Dry Lake, Crew members prepare a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing for a taxi test. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  4. Implementation of fuel-cost reduction measures in Costa Rican private bus and taxi fleets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-11

    The project focused on demonstrations of fuel-conservation measures in private bus and taxi fleets and a public information and awareness campaign. In Costa Rica, buses and taxis tend to be grouped into cooperatives and umbrella associations that provide convenient host organizations for such a project. The demonstrations were of a practical nature, and featured proven measures that would produce significant savings under actual operating conditions.

  5. Global existence of solutions and uniform persistence of a diffusive predator-prey model with prey-taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sainan; Shi, Junping; Wu, Boying

    2016-04-01

    This paper proves the global existence and boundedness of solutions to a general reaction-diffusion predator-prey system with prey-taxis defined on a smooth bounded domain with no-flux boundary condition. The result holds for domains in arbitrary spatial dimension and small prey-taxis sensitivity coefficient. This paper also proves the existence of a global attractor and the uniform persistence of the system under some additional conditions. Applications to models from ecology and chemotaxis are discussed.

  6. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p < 0.007); dyspneoa (p < 0.001); and sinusitis (p < 0.03). A higher prevalence of all acute symptoms was recorded in garage workers than in taxi drivers, although the differences were significant only for throat (p < 0.02), hearing problems (p < 0.002); nose (dryness, bleeding and secretion) (p < 0.008); and low back pain (p < 0.05). Almost all forced spirometric tests in the exposed garage workers were lower than in taxi drivers. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only phlegm, sinusitis, hearing problems, nasal catarrh, throat, low back pain, smoking and FEF25-75, variables were statistically significant predictors as risk factors. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated with exposure to motor vehicle exhaust emission in garage working places. Long-term working as garage workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and have effects on their daily life and health. PMID:10076696

  7. Artificial neural network model for identifying taxi gross emitter from remote sensing data of vehicle emission.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Guo, Hua-fang; Hu, Yue-ming

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle emission has been the major source of air pollution in urban areas in the past two decades. This article proposes an artificial neural network model for identifying the taxi gross emitters based on the remote sensing data. After carrying out the field test in Guangzhou and analyzing various factors from the emission data, the artificial neural network modeling was proved to be an advisable method of identifying the gross emitters. On the basis of the principal component analysis and the selection of algorithm and architecture, the Back-Propagation neural network model with 8-17-1 architecture was established as the optimal approach for this purpose. It gave a percentage of hits of 93%. Our previous research result and the result from aggression analysis were compared, and they provided respectively the percentage of hits of 81.63% and 75%. This comparison demonstrates the potentiality and validity of the proposed method in the identification of taxi gross emitters. PMID:17915705

  8. Path-finding through flexible hierarchical road networks: An experiential approach using taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingquan; Zeng, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Li, Jonathan; Wu, Zhongheng

    2011-02-01

    Optimal paths computed by conventional path-planning algorithms are usually not "optimal" since realistic traffic information and local road network characteristics are not considered. We present a new experiential approach that computes optimal paths based on the experience of taxi drivers by mining a huge number of floating car trajectories. The approach consists of three steps. First, routes are recovered from original taxi trajectories. Second, an experiential road hierarchy is constructed using travel frequency and speed information for road segments. Third, experiential optimal paths are planned based on the experiential road hierarchy. Compared with conventional path-planning methods, the proposed method provides better experiential optimal path identification. Experiments demonstrate that the travel time is less for these experiential paths than for paths planned by conventional methods. Results obtained for a case study in the city of Wuhan, China, demonstrate that experiential optimal paths can be flexibly obtained in different time intervals, particularly during peak hours.

  9. Taxi Arrival of Second SR-71 to Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of two initial U.S. Air Force SR-71A reconnaissance aircraft that was retired from operational service and loaned to NASA for high-speed research programs taxis in to the ramp on its arrival at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California in March 1990. Data from the SR-71 high speed research program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic/hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the

  10. Acceptability testing of radioluminescent lights for VFR-night air taxi operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tritium-powered radioluminescent (RL) lights have been under development for remote, austere, and tactical airfield lighting applications. The State of Alaska has requested FAA approval for use of the technology as a safe alternative lighting system to meet the airfield lighting needs of air taxi operations and general aviation in the state. The tests described in this report were performed by PNL for the DOE Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. These tests are a step toward gaining the required approvals.

  11. New York City Taxi Drivers' Knowledge and Perceptions of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Flores, Cristina; Winkel, Gary; Alam, Ishtiaq; Genoff, Margaux; Leng, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess New York City taxi drivers' knowledge and perceptions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). A cross-sectional street-intercept study design was used to assess drivers' knowledge about the ACA. A 146-item questionnaire was administered from September 12 to December 6, 2013 to 175 yellow taxi and for-hire vehicle drivers. 91 % of drivers were foreign-born; 50 % were uninsured. Mean knowledge about the ACA was quite low; 78 % of the sample either knew nothing or only a little bit about the ACA. 77 % wanted more information about the ACA. Greater English proficiency, more years driving a taxi, and knowledge of having or not having a pre-existing health condition (vs. not knowing) were related to higher ACA knowledge levels. Knowledge of a pre-existing condition (whether they had one or not) compared to those who lacked such knowledge was also an important predictor of the perception of whether the ACA would have a positive impact. To facilitate enrollment, efforts should focus on occupationally-focused initiatives that educate drivers at their places of work and leisure, to raise the overall knowledge levels and enrollment of the community. PMID:25976215

  12. Taxi Drivers: A Target Population for the Prevention of Transmissible Disease?

    PubMed

    Limper, Heather M; Burns, Jennifer L; Alexander, Kenneth A

    2016-04-01

    We set out to assess the feasibility and uptake of an on-site influenza vaccination campaign targeting taxi drivers in airport taxicab lots in Chicago, Illinois. Influenza vaccine was provided by the Chicago Department of Public Health as this event aligned with ongoing efforts to provide influenza vaccinations throughout the city. Clinicians and clinic support staff were volunteers recruited from the University of Chicago Medicine and incorporated nursing staff, physicians, physician residents, and administrative support. Together, this allowed for a cost-effective approach to provide free influenza vaccines to the primarily uninsured taxi driver population. During these events, 545 taxi drivers received influenza vaccine in 2012 while 354 drivers were immunized in 2013. Nearly all drivers reported uninsured or under-insured status. The ability to use volunteers and healthcare organization's desires to meet the needs of the community, in collaboration with often under-staffed but highly dedicated local health departments have the potential to offer valuable public health services to underserved members of the community. Educational initiatives targeting vaccine hesitancy and misinformation may be necessary to improve immunization coverage among this population. PMID:26472436

  13. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1996-06-03

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  14. Emission characteristics of nonmethane hydrocarbons from private cars and taxis at different driving speeds in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Zou, S. C.; Tsai, W. Y.; Chan, L. Y.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-05-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of a number of air pollutants including nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in urban area. The emission composition and emission factors of NMHCs from vehicles are currently lacking in Hong Kong. In this study, speciation and emission factors of NMHCs emitted from gasoline-fuelled private cars and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-fuelled taxis at different driving speeds were constructed using a chassis dynamometer. Large variations in the contributions of individual NMHC species to total emission were observed for different private cars at different driving speeds. The variations of individual NMHC emissions were relatively smaller for taxis due to their relatively homogeneous year of manufacture and mileages. Incomplete combustion products like ethane, ethene and propene were the major component of both types of vehicles, while unburned fuel component was also abundant in the exhausts of private cars and taxis (i.e. i-pentane and toluene for private car, and propane and butanes for taxi). Emission factors of major NMHCs emitted from private cars and taxis were estimated. High emission factors of ethane, n-butane, i/ n-pentanes, methylpentanes, trimethylpentanes, ethene, propene, i-butene, benzene, toluene and xylenes were found for private cars, whereas propane and i/ n-butanes had the highest values for taxis. By evaluating the effect of vehicular emissions on the ozone formation potential (OFP), it was found that the contributions of olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons to OFP were higher than that from paraffinic hydrocarbons for private car, whereas the contributions of propane and i/ n-butanes were the highest for taxis. The total OFP value was higher at lower speeds (≤50 km h -1) for private cars while a minimum value at driving speed of 100 km h -1 was found for taxis. At the steady driving speeds, the total contribution of NMHCs emitted from LPG-fuelled taxis to the OFP was much lower than that from gasoline

  15. Signal balancing by the CetABC and CetZ chemoreceptors controls energy taxis in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Mark; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of environmental sensing to flagella-mediated directed motility allows bacteria to move to optimum environments for growth and survival, either by sensing external stimuli (chemotaxis) or monitoring internal metabolic status (energy taxis). Sensing is mediated by transducer-like proteins (Tlp), either located in the membrane or in the cytoplasm, which commonly influence motility via the CheA-CheY chemotaxis pathway. In this study we have investigated the role of PAS-domain-containing intracellular Tlp-sensors in energy taxis of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, using plate- and tube-based assays utilising the conversion of the redox indicator dyes triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and resazurin. Inactivation of the genes encoding the Campylobacter Energy Taxis system (CetA (Tlp9) and CetB (Aer2)) in C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168 resulted in reduced taxis. Inactivation of the cj1191c gene, encoding the CetB homolog CetC (Aer1), did not affect taxis per se, but the cetC gene complemented a cetB mutant in trans, indicating that CetC can form a functional signal transduction complex with CetA in the absence of CetB. Inactivation of both CetB and CetC resulted in greatly reduced taxis confirming the role of CetC in energy taxis. Inactivation of the cj1110c gene, encoding Tlp8 (CetZ), a cytoplasmic sensor with two PAS-domains, resulted in increased taxis, a phenotype opposite to that of CetAB. Inactivation of the cheA gene resulted in the same overall phenotype as the cetAB mutant in both wild-type and cetZ backgrounds, suggesting that both systems use the CheA system for signal transduction. Absence of both CetAB and CetZ resulted in the cetAB taxis phenotype, suggesting that CetZ is subordinate to CetAB. In conclusion, we present evidence that C. jejuni balances the input from two counteracting PAS-domain-containing sensory systems to position itself for optimal usage of energy resources. PMID:23382896

  16. Signal Balancing by the CetABC and CetZ Chemoreceptors Controls Energy Taxis in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Mark; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of environmental sensing to flagella-mediated directed motility allows bacteria to move to optimum environments for growth and survival, either by sensing external stimuli (chemotaxis) or monitoring internal metabolic status (energy taxis). Sensing is mediated by transducer-like proteins (Tlp), either located in the membrane or in the cytoplasm, which commonly influence motility via the CheA-CheY chemotaxis pathway. In this study we have investigated the role of PAS-domain-containing intracellular Tlp-sensors in energy taxis of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, using plate- and tube-based assays utilising the conversion of the redox indicator dyes triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and resazurin. Inactivation of the genes encoding the Campylobacter Energy Taxis system (CetA (Tlp9) and CetB (Aer2)) in C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168 resulted in reduced taxis. Inactivation of the cj1191c gene, encoding the CetB homolog CetC (Aer1), did not affect taxis per se, but the cetC gene complemented a cetB mutant in trans, indicating that CetC can form a functional signal transduction complex with CetA in the absence of CetB. Inactivation of both CetB and CetC resulted in greatly reduced taxis confirming the role of CetC in energy taxis. Inactivation of the cj1110c gene, encoding Tlp8 (CetZ), a cytoplasmic sensor with two PAS-domains, resulted in increased taxis, a phenotype opposite to that of CetAB. Inactivation of the cheA gene resulted in the same overall phenotype as the cetAB mutant in both wild-type and cetZ backgrounds, suggesting that both systems use the CheA system for signal transduction. Absence of both CetAB and CetZ resulted in the cetAB taxis phenotype, suggesting that CetZ is subordinate to CetAB. In conclusion, we present evidence that C. jejuni balances the input from two counteracting PAS-domain-containing sensory systems to position itself for optimal usage of energy resources. PMID:23382896

  17. 41 CFR 301-10.306 - What will I be reimbursed if authorized to use a POV instead of a taxi between my residence and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What will I be reimbursed if authorized to use a POV instead of a taxi between my residence and office to a common carrier... taxi between my residence and office to a common carrier terminal, or from my residence directly to...

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301... tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301... tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your...

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  3. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, G D; Harrison, R M; Lynam, D R

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half of the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM2.5, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rais, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear. PMID:10535124

  4. Factors associated with drug use among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Vu, Thinh Toan; Pham, Ha Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 291 male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs) recruited through social mapping technique in Hanoi, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with drug use among MMTDs using Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model. Among 291 MMTDs, 17.18% reported drug use sometime in their lives, 96% of whom were drug injectors. Being depressed, being originally borne in urban cities, currently residing in rural areas, having a longer time living apart from their wives/lovers, using alcohol, following Buddhism, and reporting lower motivation of HIV prevention predict significantly higher odds of uptaking drugs. PMID:24601783

  5. Study of cross-correlation in a self-affine time series of taxi accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebende, G. F.; da Silva, P. A.; Machado Filho, A.

    2011-05-01

    We study in this paper the cross-correlation between self-affine time series of real variables recorded simultaneously in cases of taxi accidents. For this purpose, we apply the DCCA method and show that the cross-correlation can be divided into three distinct groups, if we look for the detrended covariance function, i.e., long-range cross-correlations, short-range cross-correlations and no cross-correlations. Finally, it will be seen that the detrended covariance function is robust, if compared with other methods, in identifying these types of cross-correlations.

  6. Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation and oxidative damage in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Durgante, Juliano; Freitas, Fernando; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Bulcão, Rachel P; Bubols, Guilherme B; Ferrari, Pedro D; Thiesen, Flávia V; Gioda, Adriana; Duarte, Marta M M F; de Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic-related air pollution. Experimental studies indicate that PAH exposure could be associated with inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of PAH exposure is associated with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and if these effects modulate the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in workers exposed to air pollution. This study included 60 subjects, comprising 39 taxi drivers and 21 non-occupationally exposed persons. Environmental PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels, in addition to biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage, were determined. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and hs-CRP) and serum levels of oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), auto-antibodies (ox-LDL-Ab) and homocysteine (Hcy) were also evaluated. PM2.5 and BaP exhibited averages of 12.4±6.9 μg m(-3) and 1.0±0.6 ng m(-3), respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels were increased in taxi drivers compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05) and were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with antioxidants. Furthermore, taxi drivers had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative damage, and ox-LDL, ox-LDL-Ab and Hcy levels, although antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that taxi drivers showed major exposure to pollutants, such as PAHs, in relation to non-occupationally exposed subjects. This finding was associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers and Hcy, which represent important predictors for cardiovascular events. These data suggest a contribution of PAHs to cardiovascular diseases upon occupational exposure. PMID:23872245

  7. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  8. A Lightweight Neighbor-Info-Based Routing Protocol for No-Base-Station Taxi-Call System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  9. The Effects of Very Light Jet Air Taxi Operations on Commercial Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the potential effects of Very Light Jet (VLJ) air taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The affordable cost relative to existing business jets and ability to use many of the existing small, minimally equipped, but conveniently located airports is projected to stimulate a large demand for the aircraft. The resulting increase in air traffic operations will mainly be at smaller airports, but this study indicates that VLJs have the potential to increase further the pressure of demand at some medium and large airports, some of which are already operating at or near capacity at peak times. The additional delays to commercial passenger air transportation due to VLJ air taxi operations are obtained from simulation results using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) simulator. The direct increase in operating cost due to additional delays is estimated. VLJs will also cause an increase in traffic density, and this study shows increased potential for conflicts due to VLJ operations.

  10. Transposon mutagenesis of Campylobacter jejuni identifies a bipartite energy taxis system required for motility.

    PubMed

    Hendrixson, D R; Akerley, B J; DiRita, V J

    2001-04-01

    Campylobacter jejuni constitutes the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. Little is known about virulence mechanisms in this organism because of the scarcity of suitable genetic tools. We have developed an efficient system of in vitro transposon mutagenesis using a mariner-based transposon and purified mariner transposase. Through in vitro transposition of C. jejuni chromosomal DNA followed by natural transformation of the transposed DNA, large random transposon mutant libraries consisting of approximately 16 000 individual mutants were generated. The first genetic screen of C. jejuni using a transposon-generated mutant library identified 28 mutants defective for flagellar motility, one of the few known virulence determinants of this pathogen. We developed a second genetic system, which allows for the construction of defined chromosomal deletions in C. jejuni, and demonstrated the requirement of sigma28 and sigma54 for motility. In addition, we show that sigma28 is involved in the transcription of flaA and that sigma54 is required for transcription of three other flagellar genes, flaB and flgDE. We also identified two previously uncharacterized genes required for motility encoding proteins that we call CetA and CetB, which mediate energy taxis responses. Through our analysis of the Cet proteins, we propose a unique mechanism for sensing energy levels and mediating energy taxis in C. jejuni. PMID:11298288

  11. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2014-08-01

    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. PMID:25066167

  12. Enhancing pilot situation awareness by using an onboard taxi guidance system: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Biella, Markus; Jakobi, Joern

    2004-08-01

    This study supplements prior and concurrent field trials testing the operational benefit of an Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). A-SMGCS comprises a range of new technologies for both the flight deck and the air traffic control tower enabling more efficient and safe airport surface movement. These technologies are expected to significantly increase the throughput at presently highly congested major airports without compromising safety. A flight deck A-SMGCS module is the onboard guidance system TARMAC-AS. This module consists of a controller pilot data link (DL) communication and an electronic moving map (EMM), which also displays airport surface traffic information to the pilot crew. TARMAC-AS is evaluated in an investigation involving twenty commercial pilots who performed a series of approach, landing and taxiing simulation trials that were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator. Evaluation was based on subjective questionnaires, effectiveness of taxi operation, and visual scanning strategies derived from eye-point-of-gaze measurements. Results support the notion that EMM + DL improve awareness of the global airport surface situation, particularly under conditions of low visibility, enabling more efficient and timely surface movements and avoidance of conflicting traffic. A potential negative impact of increased head-down times was not substantiated.

  13. Analyses on influencing factors of airborne VOCS pollution in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2014-11-01

    Due to the long time in vehicular cabins, people have high exposure to the airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCS), which will lead to negative effects on human health. In order to analyze the influencing factors of in-car VOCS pollution concentrations, 38 taxis were investigated on the static and closed conditions. The interior air of taxis was collected through activated Tenax adsorption tubes, and the air samples were analyzed with thermally desorbed gas chromatograph. The average concentrations of in-car benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, butyl acetate, undecane, and total VOCS (TVOC) were 82.7, 212.3, 74.7, 182.3, 24.7, 33.5, 61.3, and 1,441.7 μg/m(3), respectively. Furthermore, the VOCS and TVOC concentrations increase with the rise of in-car temperature and relative humidity, and decrease with the increase of car age and total mileage. In addition, the VOCS and TVOC concentrations are higher in vehicles with small cabins than in ones with big cabins, and change with different sampling sites and various vehicular grades. Finally, according to the multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, car age is the most important factor influencing airborne VOCS and TVOC pollution concentrations in vehicular cabins, followed by interior temperature and total mileage. PMID:24972656

  14. Assessment and cleanup of the Taxi Strip waste storage area at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Buerer, A.

    1983-01-26

    In September 1982 the Hazards Control Department of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a final radiological survey of a former low-level radioactive waste storage area called the Taxi Strip so that the area could be released for construction of an office building. Collection of soil samples at the location of a proposed sewer line led to the discovery of an old disposal pit containing soil contaminated with low-level radioactive waste and organic solvents. The Taxi Strip area was excavated leading to the discovery of three additional small pits. The clean-up of Pit No. 1 is considered to be complete for radioactive contamination. The results from the chlorinated solvent analysis of the borehole samples and the limited number of samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry indicate that solvent clean-up at this pit is complete. This is being verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of a few additional soil samples from the bottom sides and ends of the pit. As a precaution, samples are also being analyzed for metals to determine if further excavation is necessary. Clean-up of Pits No. 2 and No. 3 is considered to be complete for radioactive and solvent contamination. Results of analysis for metals will determine if excavation is complete. Excavation of Pit No. 4 which resulted from surface leakage of radioactive contamination from an evaporation tray is complete.

  15. Atherosclerotic process in taxi drivers occupationally exposed to air pollution and co-morbidities.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele F; Moro, Angela M; Ferrari, Pedro; Bubols, Guilherme; Sauer, Elisa; Fracasso, Rafael; Durgante, Juliano; Thiesen, Flávia V; Duarte, Marta M; Gioda, Adriana; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-05-01

    Consistent evidence has indicated that the exposure to environmental air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of occupational exposure to air pollution, especially to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the influence of co-morbidities on the atherosclerotic process and inflammation. For that, biomarkers of exposure such as 1-hydroxypyrene urinary, oxidative damage and markers of cardiovascular risk were determined in plasma, serum and blood. In addition, inflammation models such as carotid intima-media thickness and serum inflammatory cytokines were analyzed in 58 taxi drivers with and without co-morbidity. The results demonstrated that considering only taxi drivers without co-morbidities, 15% presented carotid intima-media thickness above reference values. For the first time it has been demonstrated that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were associated with carotid intima-media thickness and with serum homocysteine levels. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that several factors may contribute to the increased carotid intima-media thickness, among which age, interleukin-6, fibrinogen and exposure to PAHs stand out. In summary, our results suggest that chronic occupational exposure to atmospheric pollution could be an additional contributor to the atherogenesis process, leading to impaired vascular health. Moreover, carotid intima-media thickness, serum homocysteine levels, fibrinogen and the total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio could be suggested as preventive measures to monitor drivers' health. PMID:24637182

  16. Discrepancy analysis of driving performance of taxi drivers and non-professional drivers for red-light running violation and crash avoidance at intersections.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiawei; Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam

    2016-06-01

    Due to comfort, convenience, and flexibility, taxis have become increasingly more prevalent in China, especially in large cities. However, many violations and road crashes that occurred frequently were related to taxi drivers. This study aimed to investigate differences in driving performance between taxi drivers and non-professional drivers from the perspectives of red-light running violation and potential crash involvement based on a driving simulation experiment. Two typical scenarios were established in a driving simulator, which includes the red-light running violation scenario and the crash avoidance scenario. There were 49 participants, including 23 taxi drivers (14 males and 9 females) and 26 non-professional drivers (13 males and 13 females) recruited for this experiment. The driving simulation experiment results indicated that non-professional drivers paid more attention to red-light running violations in comparison to taxi drivers who had a higher probability of red-light running violation. Furthermore, it was found that taxi drivers were more inclined to turn the steering wheel in an attempt to avoid a potential collision and non-professional drivers had more abrupt deceleration behaviors when facing a potential crash. Moreover, the experiment results showed that taxi drivers had a smaller crash rate compared to non-professional drivers and had a better performance in terms of crash avoidance at the intersection. PMID:26945471

  17. The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III counteracts the necrotic activity of a Fusarium graminearum xylanase in vitro and in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Moro, Stefano; Sabbadin, Davide; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-08-01

    The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death. PMID:25346411

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of official travel are reimbursable for the usual fare plus tip for use of a taxi, shuttle service or.... (i) From your residence or other authorized point of departure, e.g., residence to airport; (ii) To your residence or other authorized point of return, e.g., airport to residence; (iii) From...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of official travel are reimbursable for the usual fare plus tip for use of a taxi, shuttle service or.... (i) From your residence or other authorized point of departure, e.g., residence to airport; (ii) To your residence or other authorized point of return, e.g., airport to residence; (iii) From...

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation? 301-10.420 Section 301-10.420 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION...

  1. Three Types of Taxis Used in the Response of Acidovorax sp. Strain JS42 to 2-Nitrotoluene

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 is able to utilize 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) as its sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. We report here that strain JS42 is chemotactic to 2NT and that the response is increased when cells are grown on compounds such as 2NT that are known to induce the first step of 2NT degradation. Assays with JS42 mutants unable to oxidize 2NT showed that the first step of 2NT metabolism was required for the induced response, but not for a portion of the constitutive response, indicating that 2NT itself is an attractant. The 2NT metabolite nitrite was shown to be a strong attractant for strain JS42, and sufficient nitrite was produced during the taxis assay to account for a large part of the induced response. A mutant with an inactivated ntdY gene, which is located adjacent to the 2NT degradation genes and codes for a putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, showed a defect in taxis toward 2NT that may involve a reduced response to nitrite. Responses of a mutant defective for the energy-taxis receptor, Aer, indicated that a functional aer gene is required for a substantial part of the wild-type induced response to 2NT. In summary, strain JS42 utilizes three types of taxis to sense and respond to 2NT: constitutive 2NT-specific chemotaxis to directly sense 2NT, metabolism-dependent nitrite-specific chemotaxis that may be mediated by NtdY, and energy taxis mediated by Aer. PMID:22286989

  2. Positive taxis and sustained responsiveness to water motions in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin; De Marco, Rodrigo J.

    2015-01-01

    Larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become favored subjects for studying the neural bases of behavior. Here, we report a highly stereotyped response of zebrafish larvae to hydrodynamic stimuli. It involves positive taxis, motion damping and sustained responsiveness to flows derived from local, non-stressful water motions. The response depends on the lateral line and has a high sensitivity to stimulus frequency and strength, sensory background and rearing conditions—also encompassing increased threshold levels of response to parallel input. The results show that zebrafish larvae can use near-field detection to locate sources of minute water motions, and offer a unique handle for analyses of hydrodynamic sensing, sensory responsiveness and arousal with accurate control of stimulus properties. PMID:25798089

  3. Taxiing, Take-Off, and Landing Simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.

    1999-01-01

    The aircraft industry jointly with NASA is studying enabling technologies for higher speed, longer range aircraft configurations. Higher speeds, higher temperatures, and aerodynamics are driving these newer aircraft configurations towards long, slender, flexible fuselages. Aircraft response during ground operations, although often overlooked, is a concern due to the increased fuselage flexibility. This paper discusses modeling and simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport aircraft during taxiing, take-off, and landing. Finite element models of the airframe for various configurations are used and combined with nonlinear landing gear models to provide a simulation tool to study responses to different ground input conditions. A commercial computer simulation program is used to numerically integrate the equations of motion and to compute estimates of the responses using an existing runway profile. Results show aircraft responses exceeding safe acceptable human response levels.

  4. Soyuz missions and taxi flights. New opportunities for technology development. An example: The ENEIDE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortezza, R.; Pontetti, G.; Martinelli, E.; Lo Castro, F.; Di Natale, C.; D'Amico, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Soyuz vehicle represents today a key Spacecraft: it provides astronaut transfer from the ground to the ISS and it ensures, at the same time, the possibility to escape from it. A Soyuz capsule therefore has to remain always attached to the ISS to be potentially used as Crew Escape Vehicle in case of need. To maintain the full operability the Soyuz needs to be replaced every six months by a new one. The mission aimed to launch a new spacecraft and to retrieve the "used" one is called Taxi Flight. The Russians, since few years, offer commercial seat available during this mission on the bases of commercial contracts. Several Space Tourists already made use of this opportunity like Dennis Tito or Mark Shuttleworth. But a Taxi Flight is not only a good opportunity for Space Flight; it could represent also a unique chance for scientist and engineers to find new flight opportunities to carry out experiments. It is possible to fly a piece of equipment onboard ISS for up 10 days, with the possibility to have also other resources available, like crew time, telemetry, commanding, etc. Of course to exploit such an opportunity and to develop space hardware, a company willing to carry out its own experiment need to have in-house resource to support the mission. Often the resources are not enough or the specific know-how for a space mission is missing. But today to help the users, very often represented by a SME, there is in ESA a dedicated team, supported by national user support centers, able to transform an idea into a consolidated flying experiment. The paper is aimed at presenting the reference scenario, the approach and methodologies used and offer a guide for future users. The example of three experiments flown in the Soyuz 10S mission is presented together with the strategy used to pass from the idea to the results in less than nine months.

  5. Changes in functional connectivity dynamics associated with vigilance network in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Li, Zhenfeng; Qin, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lubin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Li, Hong; Hu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have suggested that the fluctuations of low-frequency resting-state functional connectivity (FC) are not noise but are instead linked to the shift between distinct cognitive states. However, there is very limited knowledge about whether and how the fluctuations of FC at rest are influenced by long-term training and experience. Here, we investigated how the dynamics of resting-state FC are linked to driving behavior by comparing 20 licensed taxi drivers with 20 healthy non-drivers using a sliding window approach. We found that the driving experience could be effectively decoded with 90% (p<0.001) accuracy by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in some specific connections, based on a multivariate pattern analysis technique. Interestingly, the majority of these connections fell within a set of distributed regions named "the vigilance network". Moreover, the decreased amplitude of the FC fluctuations within the vigilance network in the drivers was negatively correlated with the number of years that they had driven a taxi. Furthermore, temporally quasi-stable functional connectivity segmentation revealed significant differences between the drivers and non-drivers in the dwell time of specific vigilance-related transient brain states, although the brain's repertoire of functional states was preserved. Overall, these results suggested a significant link between the changes in the time-dependent aspects of resting-state FC within the vigilance network and long-term driving experiences. The results not only improve our understanding of how the brain supports driving behavior but also shed new light on the relationship between the dynamics of functional brain networks and individual behaviors. PMID:26363345

  6. Energy Taxis Drives Campylobacter jejuni toward the Most Favorable Conditions for Growth ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Li, Yi-Ping; Bang, Dang D.; Ingmer, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a serious food-borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. Poultry is a major reservoir, and C. jejuni appears highly adapted to the gastrointestinal tract of birds. Several factors are important for chicken colonization and virulence, including a taxis mechanism for environmental navigation. To explore the mechanism of chemotaxis in C. jejuni, we constructed mutants with deletions of five putative mcp (methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein) genes (tlp1, tlp2, tlp3, docB, and docC). Surprisingly, the deletions did not affect the chemotactic behavior of the mutants compared to that of the parental strain. However, the tlp1, tlp3, docB, and docC mutant strains displayed a 10-fold decrease in the ability to invade human epithelial and chicken embryo cells, hence demonstrating that the corresponding proteins affect the host interaction. l-Asparagine, formate, d-lactate, and chicken mucus were identified as new attractants of C. jejuni, and we observed that chemical substances promoting tactic attraction are all known to support the growth of this organism. The attractants could be categorized as carbon sources and electron donors and acceptors, and we furthermore observed a correlation between an attractant's potency and its efficiency as an energy source. The tactic attraction was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors HQNO (2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide) and sodium azide, which significantly reduce energy production by oxidative phosphorylation. These findings strongly indicate that energy taxis is the primary force in environmental navigation by C. jejuni and that this mechanism drives the organism toward the optimal chemical conditions for energy generation and colonization. PMID:19542337

  7. Compliance and enforcement of a partial smoking ban in Lisbon taxis: an exploratory cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research evaluating enforcement and compliance with smoking partial bans is rather scarce, especially in countries with relative weak tobacco control policies, such as Portugal. There is also scarce evidence on specific high risk groups such as vehicle workers. In January 2008, Portugal implemented a partial ban, followed by poor enforcement. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a partial smoking ban in a pro-smoking environment, specifically transportation by taxi in the city of Lisbon. Ban effectiveness was generally defined by ban awareness and support, compliance and enforcement. Methods Exploratory cross-sectional study; purposive sampling in selected Lisbon streets. Structured interviews were conducted by trained researchers while using taxi services (January 2009-December 2010). Participants: 250 taxi drivers (98.8% participation rate). Chi-square, McNemar, Man Whitney tests and multiple logistic regression were performed. Results Of the participants, 249 were male; median age was 53.0 years; 43.6% were current smokers. Most participants (82.8%) approved comprehensive bans; 84.8% reported that clients still asked to smoke in their taxis; 16.8% allowed clients to smoke. Prior to the ban this value was 76.9% (p < 0.001). The major reason for not allowing smoking was the legal ban and associated fines (71.2%). Of the smokers, 66.1% admitted smoking in their taxi. Stale smoke smells were detected in 37.6% of the cars. None of the taxi drivers did ever receive a fine for non-compliance. Heavy smoking, night-shift and allowing smoking prior the ban predicted non-compliance. Conclusions Despite the strong ban support observed, high smoking prevalence and poor enforcement contribute to low compliance. The findings also suggest low compliance among night-shift and vehicle workers. This study clearly demonstrates that a partial and poorly-enforced ban is vulnerable to breaches, and highlights the need for clear and strong

  8. Sphingomonas taxi, Isolated from Cucurbita pepo, Proves to Be a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain.

    PubMed

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome of Sphingomonas taxi, a strain of the Sphingomonadaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue, is presented. This Gram-negative bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacities. An analysis of its 3.9-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE-degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils. PMID:25977415

  9. Sphingomonas taxi, Isolated from Cucurbita pepo, Proves to Be a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain

    PubMed Central

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Weyens, Nele

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome of Sphingomonas taxi, a strain of the Sphingomonadaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue, is presented. This Gram-negative bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacities. An analysis of its 3.9-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE-degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils. PMID:25977415

  10. "Dammed Taxi Cab"--How Silent Communication in Questionnaires Can Be Understood and Used to Give Voice to Children's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alerby, E.; Kostenius, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dammed taxi cab"--a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way…

  11. Targeted axonal import (TAxI) peptide delivers functional proteins into spinal cord motor neurons after peripheral administration.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Drew L; Bergen, Jamie M; Johnson, Russell N; Back, Heidi; Ravits, John M; Horner, Philip J; Pun, Suzie H

    2016-03-01

    A significant unmet need in treating neurodegenerative disease is effective methods for delivery of biologic drugs, such as peptides, proteins, or nucleic acids into the central nervous system (CNS). To date, there are no operative technologies for the delivery of macromolecular drugs to the CNS via peripheral administration routes. Using an in vivo phage-display screen, we identify a peptide, targeted axonal import (TAxI), that enriched recombinant bacteriophage accumulation and delivered protein cargo into spinal cord motor neurons after intramuscular injection. In animals with transected peripheral nerve roots, TAxI delivery into motor neurons after peripheral administration was inhibited, suggesting a retrograde axonal transport mechanism for delivery into the CNS. Notably, TAxI-Cre recombinase fusion proteins induced selective recombination and tdTomato-reporter expression in motor neurons after intramuscular injections. Furthermore, TAxI peptide was shown to label motor neurons in the human tissue. The demonstration of a nonviral-mediated delivery of functional proteins into the spinal cord establishes the clinical potential of this technology for minimally invasive administration of CNS-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26888285

  12. TrajGraph: A Graph-Based Visual Analytics Approach to Studying Urban Network Centralities Using Taxi Trajectory Data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ye; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Chao; Ye, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    We propose TrajGraph, a new visual analytics method, for studying urban mobility patterns by integrating graph modeling and visual analysis with taxi trajectory data. A special graph is created to store and manifest real traffic information recorded by taxi trajectories over city streets. It conveys urban transportation dynamics which can be discovered by applying graph analysis algorithms. To support interactive, multiscale visual analytics, a graph partitioning algorithm is applied to create region-level graphs which have smaller size than the original street-level graph. Graph centralities, including Pagerank and betweenness, are computed to characterize the time-varying importance of different urban regions. The centralities are visualized by three coordinated views including a node-link graph view, a map view and a temporal information view. Users can interactively examine the importance of streets to discover and assess city traffic patterns. We have implemented a fully working prototype of this approach and evaluated it using massive taxi trajectories of Shenzhen, China. TrajGraph's capability in revealing the importance of city streets was evaluated by comparing the calculated centralities with the subjective evaluations from a group of drivers in Shenzhen. Feedback from a domain expert was collected. The effectiveness of the visual interface was evaluated through a formal user study. We also present several examples and a case study to demonstrate the usefulness of TrajGraph in urban transportation analysis. PMID:26529696

  13. Targeted axonal import (TAxI) peptide delivers functional proteins into spinal cord motor neurons after peripheral administration

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Drew L.; Bergen, Jamie M.; Johnson, Russell N.; Back, Heidi; Ravits, John M.; Horner, Philip J.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2016-01-01

    A significant unmet need in treating neurodegenerative disease is effective methods for delivery of biologic drugs, such as peptides, proteins, or nucleic acids into the central nervous system (CNS). To date, there are no operative technologies for the delivery of macromolecular drugs to the CNS via peripheral administration routes. Using an in vivo phage-display screen, we identify a peptide, targeted axonal import (TAxI), that enriched recombinant bacteriophage accumulation and delivered protein cargo into spinal cord motor neurons after intramuscular injection. In animals with transected peripheral nerve roots, TAxI delivery into motor neurons after peripheral administration was inhibited, suggesting a retrograde axonal transport mechanism for delivery into the CNS. Notably, TAxI-Cre recombinase fusion proteins induced selective recombination and tdTomato-reporter expression in motor neurons after intramuscular injections. Furthermore, TAxI peptide was shown to label motor neurons in the human tissue. The demonstration of a nonviral-mediated delivery of functional proteins into the spinal cord establishes the clinical potential of this technology for minimally invasive administration of CNS-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26888285

  14. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. PMID:21376850

  15. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (space taxi) with aerobraking at Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report shall cover all major aspects of the design of an Aeroassisted Manned Transfer Vehicle (or TAXI) for use as part of advanced manned Mars missions based on a cycling ship concept. Along with the heliocentric orbiting Cycling Spacecraft, such a TAXI would be a primary component of a long-term transportation system for Mars exploration. The Aeroassisted Manned Transfer Vehicle (AMTV) design developed shall operate along transfer trajectories between Earth and a Cycling Spacecraft (designed by the University of Michigan) and Mars. All operations of the AMTV shall be done primarily within the sphere of influence of the two planets. Maximum delta-V's for the vehicle have been established near 9 km/sec, with transfer durations of about 3 days. Acceleration deltaV's will be accomplished using 3 SSME-based hydrogen-oxygen chemical rockets (l(sub sp) = 485 sec & Thrust greater than = 300,00 Ib(sub f)/engine) with a thrust vector directly opposite the aerobraking deceleration vector. The aerobraking deceleration portion of an AMTV mission would be accomplished in this design by a moderate L/D aeroshield of an ellipsoidally-blunt, raked-off, elliptic cone (EBROEC) shape. The reusable thermal protection material comprising the shield will consist of a flexible, multi-layer, ceramic fabric stretched over a lightweight, rigid, shape - defining truss structure. Behind this truss, other components, including the engine supports, would be attached and protected from heating during aerobraking passes. Among these other components would be 2 LOX tanks and 4 LH2 tanks (and their support frames) holding over 670,000 lbm of propellant necessary to impart the required delta-V to the 98,000 lbm burnout mass vehicle. A 20,000 lbm crew module with docking port (oriented parallel to the accel./decel. axis) will provide accommodations for 9 crew members (11 under extreme conditions) for durations up to seven days, thus allowing extra time for emergency situations. This AMTV will be

  16. Autonomous taxis could greatly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions of US light-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Saxena, Samveg

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are conveyances to move passengers or freight without human intervention. AVs are potentially disruptive both technologically and socially, with claimed benefits including increased safety, road utilization, driver productivity and energy savings. Here we estimate 2014 and 2030 greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and costs of autonomous taxis (ATs), a class of fully autonomous shared AVs likely to gain rapid early market share, through three synergistic effects: (1) future decreases in electricity GHG emissions intensity, (2) smaller vehicle sizes resulting from trip-specific AT deployment, and (3) higher annual vehicle-miles travelled (VMT), increasing high-efficiency (especially battery-electric) vehicle cost-effectiveness. Combined, these factors could result in decreased US per-mile GHG emissions in 2030 per AT deployed of 87-94% below current conventionally driven vehicles (CDVs), and 63-82% below projected 2030 hybrid vehicles, without including other energy-saving benefits of AVs. With these substantial GHG savings, ATs could enable GHG reductions even if total VMT, average speed and vehicle size increased substantially. Oil consumption would also be reduced by nearly 100%.

  17. Epidemiological study of low back pain and occupational risk factors among taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Masabumi; Konno, Shunsuke; Gembun, Yoshikazu; Liu, Xinyu; Minami, Kazufumi; Ito, Hiromoto

    2008-04-01

    A survey of taxi drivers was conducted to determine the actual situation of drivers' low back pain (LBP). The survey was carried out in October 2002, the target drivers were asked to complete a questionnaire which contains questions regarding physique of drivers, demographic features, working conditions, office environment, health conditions, the presence of low back pain, the level of low back pain based on Visual Analogue Scale and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire score. As a result, the total number of valid responses was 1,334 and the response rate was 71 percent, and the 1-wk prevalence of LBP was 20.5 percent of respondents. Regarding 275 subjects with LBP, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) averaged 4.3. There was a positive weak correlation between VAS and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire score (R=0.41). And Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between LBP and occupational factors, the results suggested following items as risk factors; such as history of LBP, suffering from fatigue, diseases other than LBP and smoking habit. PMID:18413963

  18. Predictors of whole-body vibration levels among urban taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Chen, J C; Chang, W R; Shih, T S; Chen, C J; Chang, W P; Dennerlein, J T; Ryan, L M; Christiani, D C

    2003-09-15

    To identify a set of important WBV predictors that could be used to develop a statistical instrument for exposure assessment in a large epidemiologic study, a total of 432 WBV measures were taken from a sample of 247 male drivers in Taipei City, Taiwan. In accordance with the ISO 2631-1 (1997) methods, we measured the frequency-weighted vertical acceleration (z-axis) over drivers' seat surface, under conditions representing different types of rides (vacant vs. short vs. long) assigned to random destinations. Mixed effect models were used to analyse the WBV data including repeated measures. For this group of urban taxi drivers regularly exposed to WBV of low intensity (mean = 0.31 ms( - 2), ranging from 0.17 to 0.55 ms( - 2) r.m.s.), our analyses indicated that average driving speed was the primary predictor (p < 0.0001). As average driving speed increased, measured vertical acceleration increased in a quadratic-linear manner (p < 0.0001). Other WBV predictors, after adjusting for the effects of other covariates, included automobile manufacturer (p = 0.02), engine size (p = 0.04), body weight (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.02), use of seat cushion (p = 0.03), and traffic period (p = 0.02). Our study suggests that a similar statistical approach could be employed in future studies to improve the quality and efficiency of WBV exposure assessment in professional drivers. PMID:12850932

  19. The Detection of Transport Land-Use Data Using Crowdsourcing Taxi Trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, T.; Yang, W.

    2016-06-01

    This study tries to explore the question of transport land-use change detection by large volume of vehicle trajectory data, presenting a method based on Deluanay triangulation. The whole method includes three steps. The first one is to pre-process the vehicle trajectory data including the point anomaly removing and the conversion of trajectory point to track line. Secondly, construct Deluanay triangulation within the vehicle trajectory line to detect neighborhood relation. Considering the case that some of the trajectory segments are too long, we use a interpolation measure to add more points for the improved triangulation. Thirdly, extract the transport road by cutting short triangle edge and organizing the polygon topology. We have conducted the experiment of transport land-use change discovery using the data of taxi track in Beijing City. We extract not only the transport land-use area but also the semantic information such as the transformation speed, the traffic jam distribution, the main vehicle movement direction and others. Compared with the existed transport network data, such as OpenStreet Map, our method is proved to be quick and accurate.

  20. TaxI: a software tool for DNA barcoding using distance methods

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, Dirk; Vences, Miguel; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2005-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a promising approach to the diagnosis of biological diversity in which DNA sequences serve as the primary key for information retrieval. Most existing software for evolutionary analysis of DNA sequences was designed for phylogenetic analyses and, hence, those algorithms do not offer appropriate solutions for the rapid, but precise analyses needed for DNA barcoding, and are also unable to process the often large comparative datasets. We developed a flexible software tool for DNA taxonomy, named TaxI. This program calculates sequence divergences between a query sequence (taxon to be barcoded) and each sequence of a dataset of reference sequences defined by the user. Because the analysis is based on separate pairwise alignments this software is also able to work with sequences characterized by multiple insertions and deletions that are difficult to align in large sequence sets (i.e. thousands of sequences) by multiple alignment algorithms because of computational restrictions. Here, we demonstrate the utility of this approach with two datasets of fish larvae and juveniles from Lake Constance and juvenile land snails under different models of sequence evolution. Sets of ribosomal 16S rRNA sequences, characterized by multiple indels, performed as good as or better than cox1 sequence sets in assigning sequences to species, demonstrating the suitability of rRNA genes for DNA barcoding. PMID:16214755

  1. Effect of steady and unsteady flow on chemoattractant plume formation and sperm taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Allison F.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2015-08-01

    The formation of chemoattractant plumes around benthic invertebrate eggs in steady and unsteady shear flows is investigated for a range of shear rates, and the ability of sperm to navigate within these plumes is assessed using several chemotactic strategies. Although many of the details of sperm taxis remain uncertain, we investigate the role of basic processes using a toy model in two dimensions. Search strategies in 2D are intrinsically less complex than 3D, but many of the basic components are similar, and the simplified geometry permits an understanding and identification of the key factors of navigation tactics. Numerical simulations are used to model the advection and diffusion of the chemoattractant within the different flows, using three different sperm swimming behaviors. A Monte-Carlo approach is then used to determine the probability of a sperm reaching an egg for a range of flow conditions, initial conditions, and swimming behaviors. The spatial structure of chemoattractant plumes at the scale of the gametes is also investigated. Success rates for locating an egg decrease monotonically with increasing shear rates, and a definitive hierarchical ordering of the tested swimming strategies is identified. A conceptual framework to study and identify important aspects of this fundamental process to support further studies is provided.

  2. Association of Heart Rate Variability in Taxi Drivers with Marked Changes in Particulate Air Pollution in Beijing in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Niu, Jie; Huang, Qinsheng; Liu, Youcheng; Guo, Xinbiao

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic function, has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, especially in older patients and those with cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PM exposure on cardiac autonomic function in young, healthy adults has received less attention. Objectives We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traffic-related PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and HRV in a highly exposed panel of taxi drivers. Methods Continuous measurements of personal exposure to PM2.5 and ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring were conducted on 11 young healthy taxi drivers for a 12-hr work shift during their work time (0900–2100 hr) before, during, and after the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate associations between PM2.5 exposure and percent changes in 5-min HRV indices after combining data from the three time periods and controlling for potentially confounding variables. Results Personal exposures of taxi drivers to PM2.5 changed markedly across the three time periods. The standard deviation of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals decreased by 2.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), −3.8% to −0.6%] with an interquartile range (IQR; 69.5 μg/m3) increase in the 30-min PM2.5 moving average, whereas the low-frequency and high-frequency powers decreased by 4.2% (95% CI, −9.0% to 0.8%) and 6.2% (95% CI, −10.7% to −1.5%), respectively, in association with an IQR increase in the 2-hr PM2.5 moving average. Conclusions Marked changes in traffic-related PM2.5 exposure were associated with altered cardiac autonomic function in young healthy adults. PMID:20056565

  3. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. More taxi and radio frequency tests were slated before it's first flight would be made. This took place on May 17, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems

  4. Factors associated with HIV testing among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huy, Nguyen Van; Khuyen, Le Thi; Ha, Pham Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Using the Attitude-Skills-Knowledge (ASK) model, this study examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs). In a cross-sectional design, using quantitative approaches, 291 MMTDs were recruited from 135 sites across 13 districts in Hanoi, Vietnam, for a face-to-face interview. Applying the ASK model modified as a central theory, logistic regression was used to identify determinants of HIV testing. Although many MMTDs engaged in multiple risk behaviours for HIV, only 20.6% had been tested for HIV during the past 12 months. The tested model included one factor of the ASK model, HIV prevention knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.12-10.7) and five additional factors: being married (AOR = 3.13; 95% CI = 1.25-4.78), preferring sex with men or with both men and women (AOR = 8.72; 95% CI = 1.48-51.5), having lower number of lifetime sex partners (AOR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.49-0.88), higher number of past year sex partners (AOR = 2.97: 95% CI = 1.21-7.31) and discussing condom use when having sex with partners (AOR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01-7.31). This modified ASK model provided better fit than the ASK model, as it explained more variance in HIV testing (47 vs. 29.8%). Recognising factors associated with HIV testing among MMTDs enables us to create suitable public health intervention strategies. PMID:25415855

  5. Magnetostratigraphy of the Northern Tian Shan foreland, Taxi He section, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanxin; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guo, Zhaojie

    2010-05-01

    The Tian Shan range formed in the late Cenozoic in response to the northward propagation of deformation related to the India-Eurasia continental collision. Precise timing of the Tian Shan uplift is required to understand possible mechanisms of continental lithosphere deformation and interactions between climate, tectonism and erosion. Here, we provide magnetostratigraphic age control on the northern Chinese Tian Shan foreland successions. A thorough rock magnetic analysis identifies hematite and magnetite bearing alluvial deposits in the upper portion of the sampled stratigraphy as more reliable paleomagnetic recorders than magnetite bearing fluvial and lacustrine deposits that are often maghemitized in the lower part of the record. As a result, a robust correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale is obtained from 6 Ma to 2 Ma while a tentative correlation is proposed from 6 to 16 Ma. Sediment accumulation rates increase from 155 to 260 m/Myr at 3.9+/-0.4 Ma. This change coincides with a gradual lithologic transition from fluvial (sandstone dominated) to alluvial (conglomerate dominated). Theis change is so drastic that it more likely corresponds to an approaching erosional source associated to tectonically increased subsidence rather than differential compaction alone. Clear evidences for growth strata starting at an estimated age of ca. 2 Ma provide a minimum age for the folding. These results are compared to previous magneotstratigraphic studies from the same and other section of the northern Tian Shan foreland deposits. This enables critical assessment of the reliability of magnetostratigraphic dating and the significance of sediment accumulation rate variations with respect to facies variations and growth strata. Our results in the Taxi He section provide a sequence of events that is consistent with enhanced tectonic forcing starting at ~4 Ma although a climatic contribution must be considered given the close relationship of these ages with the Pliocene

  6. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft taxies at airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane for the Eclipse project taxiing on the runway at Mojave Airport, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  7. Characterization of CetA and CetB, a bipartite energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Dirita, Victor J

    2008-09-01

    The energy taxis receptor Aer, in Escherichia coli, senses changes in the redox state of the electron transport system via an flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor bound to a PAS domain. The PAS domain (a sensory domain named after three proteins Per, ARNT and Sim, where it was first identified) is thought to interact directly with the Aer HAMP domain to transmit this signal to the highly conserved domain (HCD) found in chemotaxis receptors. An apparent energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni is composed of two proteins, CetA and CetB, that have the domains of Aer divided between them. CetB has a PAS domain, while CetA has a predicted transmembrane region, HAMP domain and the HCD. In this study, we examined the expression of cetA and cetB and the biochemical properties of the proteins they encode. cetA and cetB are co-transcribed independently of the flagellar regulon. CetA has two transmembrane helices in a helical hairpin while CetB is a peripheral membrane protein tightly associated with the membrane. CetB levels are CetA dependent. Additionally, we demonstrated that both CetA and CetB participate in complexes, including a likely CetB dimer and a complex that may include both CetA and CetB. This study provides a foundation for further characterization of signal transduction mechanisms within CetA/CetB. PMID:18631239

  8. Energy Taxis toward Host-Derived Nitrate Supports a Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1-Independent Mechanism of Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Lopez, Christopher A.; Zhang, Lillian F.; García-Pastor, Lucía; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L.; Tsolis, Renée M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can cross the epithelial barrier using either the invasion-associated type III secretion system (T3SS-1) or a T3SS-1-independent mechanism that remains poorly characterized. Here we show that flagellum-mediated motility supported a T3SS-1-independent pathway for entering ileal Peyer’s patches in the mouse model. Flagellum-dependent invasion of Peyer’s patches required energy taxis toward nitrate, which was mediated by the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) Tsr. Generation of nitrate in the intestinal lumen required inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which was synthesized constitutively in the mucosa of the terminal ileum but not in the jejunum, duodenum, or cecum. Tsr-mediated invasion of ileal Peyer’s patches was abrogated in mice deficient for Nos2, the gene encoding iNOS. We conclude that Tsr-mediated energy taxis enables S. Typhimurium to migrate toward the intestinal epithelium by sensing host-derived nitrate, thereby contributing to invasion of Peyer’s patches. PMID:27435462

  9. Fusarium graminearum produces different xylanases causing host cell death that is prevented by the xylanase inhibitors XIP-I and TAXI-III in wheat.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Silvio; Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Lafond, Mickaël; Giardina, Thierry; Favaron, Francesco; Sella, Luca; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-11-01

    To shed light on the role of Xylanase Inhibitors (XIs) during Fusarium graminearum infection, we first demonstrated that three out of four F. graminearum xylanases, in addition to their xylan degrading activity, have also the capacity to cause host cell death both in cell suspensions and wheat spike tissue. Subsequently, we demonstrated that TAXI-III and XIP-I prevented both the enzyme and host cell death activities of F. graminearum xylanases. In particular, we showed that the enzymatic inhibition by TAXI-III and XIP-I was competitive and only FGSG_11487 escaped inhibition. The finding that TAXI-III and XIP-I prevented cell death activity of heat inactivated xylanases and that XIP-I precluded the cell death activity of FGSG_11487 - even if XIP-I does not inhibit its enzyme activity - suggests that the catalytic and the cell death activities are separated features of these xylanases. Finally, the efficacy of TAXI-III or XIP-I to prevent host cell death caused by xylanases was confirmed in transgenic plants expressing separately these inhibitors, suggesting that the XIs could limit F. graminearum infection via direct inhibition of xylanase activity and/or by preventing host cell death. PMID:26475196

  10. Indirect enzyme-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of TAXI and XIP type xylanase inhibitors in wheat and other cereals.

    PubMed

    Beaugrand, Johnny; Gebruers, Kurt; Ververken, Cedric; Fierens, Ellen; Dornez, Emmie; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2007-09-19

    To quantify Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI) and xylanase inhibiting protein (XIP) type proteins in cereals in general and wheat ( T. aestivum) in particular, a robust enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using an uncommon enzyme-antibody sandwich format was developed. Bacillus subtilis glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 11 and Aspergillus oryzae GH 10 xylanases were selected for coating ELISA plate wells to capture TAXI and XIP, respectively, prior to probing with antibodies. The detection threshold of the developed ELISA was much lower than that of the currently used xylanase inhibitor assay and the recently described Western blot approach. Because of its broad dynamic range (TAXI, 30-600 ng/mL, and XIP, 3-60 ng/mL), one proper standard extract dilution can be used for analyzing different wheat varieties, whereas for the currently used colorimetric assay, often different dilutions need to be analyzed. The TAXI ELISA for wheat was successfully adapted for barley ( Hordeum vulgare) and could also be used for other cereals. PMID:17715986

  11. PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN'S DPF SYSTEM ON A TAXI FLEET IN THE PARIS AREA

    SciTech Connect

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    The use of Diesel engines has strongly increased during the last years and now represents 40% of the sales in Europe and up to 50% of the number of cars in circulation for some countries. This success is linked not only to the economical aspect of the use of such vehicles, but also to the recent technological improvements of these engines. The new technical solutions (high pressure direct injection, turbocharger) have indeed allowed the increase of these engine performances while decreasing their fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and noise level. From an environment point of view, Diesel engines are nevertheless penalized by their particulates and NOx emissions. The study and the treatment of the particulate, highly criticized for their potential impact on health, are the subject of numerous works of characterizations and developments. PSA Peugeot Citroen has recently (2000) launched its particulate filter technology on several types of vehicles (500,000 vehicles with DPF have been sold today). In order to evaluate the durability of this technology over a long period of time, a study program has been set-up by ADEME (French Environmental Agency), IFP Powertrain, PSA Peugeot Citroen and Taxis G7 (a Parisian taxis Company). The objective is to study the evolution of five taxis and their after-treatment system performances over 80,000km mileage--which corresponds to the recommended mileage before the first DPF maintenance--in hard urban driving conditions, as well over 120,000km, after the DPF maintenance and remanufacturing. More specifically, the following evaluations are being performed at regular intervals (around 20,000km): regulated gaseous pollutant emissions on NEDC cycle, particulate emissions and unregulated pollutant emissions. The results obtained until now have not shown any degradation of the particulate filter efficiency (more than 90%). This paper presents the methodology set-up, and the explanation of the first results obtained. Indeed, a more

  12. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X

  13. Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Taxi to Runway for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft No. 911, with the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour securely mounted atop its fuselage, taxies to the runway to begin the ferry flight from Rockwell's Plant 42 at Palmdale, California, where the orbiter was built, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. At Kennedy, the space vehicle was processed and launched on orbital mission STS-49, which landed at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, 16 May 1992. NASA 911, the second modified 747 that went into service in November 1990, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the added weight of the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay

  14. Large-scale functional brain network changes in taxi drivers: evidence from resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lubin; Liu, Qiang; Shen, Hui; Li, Hong; Hu, Dewen

    2015-03-01

    Driving a car in the environment is a complex behavior that involves cognitive processing of visual information to generate the proper motor outputs and action controls. Previous neuroimaging studies have used virtual simulation to identify the brain areas that are associated with various driving-related tasks. Few studies, however, have focused on the specific patterns of functional organization in the driver's brain. The aim of this study was to assess differences in the resting-state networks (RSNs) of the brains of drivers and nondrivers. Forty healthy subjects (20 licensed taxi drivers, 20 nondrivers) underwent an 8-min resting-state functional MRI acquisition. Using independent component analysis, three sensory (primary and extrastriate visual, sensorimotor) RSNs and four cognitive (anterior and posterior default mode, left and right frontoparietal) RSNs were retrieved from the data. We then examined the group differences in the intrinsic brain activity of each RSN and in the functional network connectivity (FNC) between the RSNs. We found that the drivers had reduced intrinsic brain activity in the visual RSNs and reduced FNC between the sensory RSNs compared with the nondrivers. The major finding of this study, however, was that the FNC between the cognitive and sensory RSNs became more positively or less negatively correlated in the drivers relative to that in the nondrivers. Notably, the strength of the FNC between the left frontoparietal and primary visual RSNs was positively correlated with the number of taxi-driving years. Our findings may provide new insight into how the brain supports driving behavior. PMID:25338709

  15. Lévy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Bartumeus, Frederic; Grasso, Frank W.

    2009-10-01

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Lévy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Lévy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Lévy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accomodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for

  16. Hearing Deficit in a Birth Cohort of U.S. Male Commuter Air Carrier and Air Taxi Pilots

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W.; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Long-term exposure to multiple risk factors in aviation may place pilots at excess risk of developing hearing deficits. We examined the incidence and risk factors for hearing deficit in a birth cohort of male commuter and air taxi pilots. Methods The subjects (N = 3019), who were 45–54 yr of age and held Class I medical certificates in 1987, were followed up from 1987 to 1997 through the medical certification system of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In this study, hearing deficit refers to the FAA pathology code 220 (defective hearing, deafness, not elsewhere classified). Poisson regression modeling based on generalized estimation equations was used to assess the associations between pilot characteristics and the risk of developing hearing deficit. Results The 10-yr follow-up accumulated a total of 20,671 person-years and 574 incident cases of hearing deficit, yielding an incidence rate of 27.8 per 1000 person-years. Compared with age 45–49 yr, the risk of developing hearing deficit at age 50–54 yr, 55–59 yr, and 60–64 yr increased by 12% [adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98–1.30], 34% (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13–1.59), and 79% (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.20–2.67), respectively. Conclusions Hearing deficit is prevalent among commuter air carrier and air taxi pilots and the risk of hearing deficit increases progressively with pilot age. Effective programs for preventing excess hearing loss in the pilot population are warranted. PMID:18998487

  17. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  18. Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Taxi to Runway for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft No. 911, with the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour securely mounted atop its fuselage, taxies to the runway to begin the ferry flight from Rockwell's Plant 42 at Palmdale, California, where the orbiter was built, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. At Kennedy, the space vehicle was processed and launched on orbital mission STS-49, which landed at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, 16 May 1992. NASA 911, the second modified 747 that went into service in November 1990, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the added weight of the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay

  19. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Road Traffic Crash among Taxi Drivers in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia, 2014: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asefa, Nigus Gebremedhin; Ingale, Lalit; Shumey, Ashenafi; Yang, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130) and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582) taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers’ involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey. Findings Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188) of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33–0.78), while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05–7.44), receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67–7.85), and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81–8.61) were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24–2.92) and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00–2.28) were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement. Conclusion The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties. PMID:25781940

  20. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Health risk equations and risk assessment of airborne benzene homologues exposure to drivers and passengers in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2016-03-01

    Interior air environment and health problems of vehicles have attracted increasing attention, and benzene homologues (BHs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and styrene are primary hazardous gases in vehicular cabins. The BHs impact on the health of passengers and drivers in 38 taxis is assessed, and health risk equations of in-car BHs to different drivers and passengers are induced. The health risk of in-car BHs for male drivers is the highest among all different receptors and is 1.04, 6.67, and 6.94 times more than ones for female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, respectively. In-car BHs could not lead to the non-cancer health risk to all passengers and drivers as for the maximal value of non-cancer indices is 0.41 and is less than the unacceptable value (1.00) of non-cancer health risk from USEPA. However, in-car BHs lead to cancer health risk to drivers as for the average value of cancer indices is 1.21E-04 which is 1.21 times more than the unacceptable value (1.00E-04) of cancer health risk from USEPA. Finally, for in-car airborne benzene concentration (X, μg/m(3)) to male drivers, female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, the cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.48E-06X, Y = 1.42E-06X, Y = 2.22E-07X, and Y = 2.13E-07X, respectively, and the non-cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.70E-03X, Y = 1.63E-03X, Y = 2.55E-04X, and Y = 2.45E-04X, respectively. PMID:26538262

  2. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ... red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses ...

  3. Pyramiding PvPGIP2 and TAXI-III But Not PvPGIP2 and PMEI Enhances Resistance Against Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Silvio; Kalunke, Raviraj; Janni, Michela; Volpi, Chiara; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2016-08-01

    Plant protein inhibitors counteract the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) secreted by pathogens to breach the plant cell-wall barrier. Transgenic plants expressing a single protein inhibitor restrict pathogen infections. However, since pathogens secrete a number of CWDEs at the onset of infection, we combined more inhibitors in a single wheat genotype to reinforce further the cell-wall barrier. We combined polygalacturonase (PG) inhibiting protein (PGIP) and pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI), both controlling the activity of PG, one of the first CWDEs secreted during infection. We also pyramided PGIP and TAXI-III, a xylanase inhibitor that controls the activity of xylanases, key factors for the degradation of xylan, a main component of cereal cell wall. We demonstrated that the pyramiding of PGIP and PMEI did not contribute to any further improvement of disease resistance. However, the presence of both pectinase inhibitors ensured a broader spectrum of disease resistance. Conversely, the PGIP and TAXI-III combination contributed to further improvement of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, probably because these inhibitors target the activity of different types of CWDEs, i.e., PGs and xylanases. Worth mentioning, the reduction of FHB symptoms is accompanied by a reduction of deoxynivalenol accumulation with a foreseen great benefit to human and animal health. PMID:27366923

  4. Initiated by the south. South - South Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J S

    1993-12-01

    The UNFPA Deputy Chief of the Asia and Pacific Division explains how relations between representatives of developing countries to the South have often been less than congenial and how efforts have been made to smooth the way for greater cooperation between neighbors in the region. President Soeharto of Indonesia at a G-15 submeeting of Non-Aligned Countries in Malaysia in 1990 made the first overtures to his peers. He offered to work more closely with other interested countries economically and in terms of technical assistance. Prime Minister Von Van Kiet of Vietnam took him up on his offer and visited the President in Indonesia in January 1992 to discuss family planning issues. The subsequent assistance rendered by Indonesia to Vietnam in developing its family planning program was unique in bilateral relations in the region in that it was initiated by the nonaligned countries without outside interference. The author thinks that the UNFPA should play a facilitating role financially and organizationally in what may be the beginning of a trend toward greater South-South cooperation. Any help which developing countries could render to other developing nations will certainly be appreciated in this period of waning resources from developed countries for international population programs. The author also argues that service quality in donor countries is likely to improve. PMID:12345389

  5. Human Mars Mission: SEP Architecture Crew Taxi Propulsion Stage Study and Design and Technology for Reaction and Control System. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The Mars exploration is a candidate pathway to expand human presence and useful activities in the solar system. There are several propulsion system options being considered to place the Mars payload on its inter-planetary transfer trajectory. One propulsion option is the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to spiral out with the Mars payload from an initial Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to an elliptical High Earth Orbit (HEO). This report, presented in annotated facing page format, describes the work completed on the design of a crew taxi propulsion stage used in conjunction with the SEP. Transportation system/mission analysis topics covered in this report include sub-system analysis, trajectory profile description, mass performance and crew taxi stage sizing, stage configuration, stage cost, and Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) launch window. The high efficiency of SEP is used to provide the major part of the TMI propulsion maneuver. Orbital energy is continuously added over a period of approximately twelve months. The SEP and Mars payload follow a spiral trajectory from an initial LEO to a final elliptical HEO. A small chemical stage is then used to provide the final part of the TMI. The now unloaded SEP returns to LEO to repeat another spiral trajectory with payload to HEO. The spiral phase of the SEP's trajectory takes several months to reach HEO, thus significantly increasing the exposure time of the crew to zero-gravity. In order to minimize the long zero-gravity effects, a high thrust chemical stage delivers the crew to the SEP's HEO. The crew rendezvous with the Mars payload in HEO. After a checkout period the Mars payload with the crew is injected onto a Trans-Mars Trajectory by a small chemical stage.

  6. Human Mars Mission: SEP Architecture, Crew Taxi Propulsion Stage Study and Design and Technology for Reaction and Control System. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The Mars exploration is a candidate pathway to expand human presence and useful activities in the solar system. There are several propulsion system options being considered to place the Mars payload on its interplanetary transfer trajectory. One propulsion option is the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to spiral out with the Mars payload from an initial Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to an elliptical High Earth Orbit (HEO). This report, presented in annotated facing page format, describes the work completed on the design of a crew taxi propulsion stage used in conjunction with the SEP. Transportation system/mission analysis topics covered in this report include sub-system analysis, trajectory profile description, mass performance and crew taxi stage sizing, stage configuration, stage cost, and Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) launch window. The high efficiency of SEP is used to provide the major part of the TMI propulsion maneuver. Orbital energy is continuously added over a period of approximately twelve months. The SEP and Mars payload follow a spiral trajectory from an initial LEO to a final elliptical HEO. A small chemical stage is then used to provide the final part of the TMI. The now unloaded SEP returns to LEO to repeat another spiral trajectory with payload to HEO. The spiral phase of the SEP's trajectory takes several months to reach HEO, thus significantly increasing the exposure time of the crew to zero-gravity. In order to minimize the long zero-gravity effects, a high thrust chemical stage delivers the crew to the SEP's HEO. The crew rendezvous with the Mars payload in HEO. After a checkout period the Mars payload with the crew is injected onto a Trans-Mars Trajectory by a small chemical stage.

  7. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  8. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  9. South Korea.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Background notes and statistics on South Korea are provided in the document. 98,500 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1988 population of 43 million growing at the annual rate of 1%. The work force totals 17 million. South Korea claims a population comprised of Koreans with a small Chinese minority, 4 religious beliefs, and native Korean-speakers. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 98% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 6/1,000, while life expectancy is 67-73 years. 1990 estimated GNP was $224 billion, and was growing at the estimated rate of 9%. Per capita GNP was $5,500, while a 9% increase was reported in the consumer price index for 1990. Agriculture accounts for 9% of GNP, mining and manufacturing for 35%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $5 billion. Additional data are provided on South Korea's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. South Korea has enjoyed remarkable economic growth over the past 25 years, and has grown to become a middle-ranking industrial power. Korea's bilateral trade surpluses with the United States of nearly $10 billion in 1987 and 1988 declined decisively in 1989 due to a variety of factors. Surplus remained, however, approximately $4 billion in 1990. Whether or not these declines are indicative of structural, lasting trends is not yet discernible. Long-term growth prospects remain good, Korea's ability to adapt to a more open democratic system playing an important role. PMID:12178031

  10. 70. South El Paso St., 818820 (commercial), west and south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. South El Paso St., 818-820 (commercial), west and south facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  11. 6. South El Paso St., street view from 615 South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. South El Paso St., street view from 615 South El Paso Street showing west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  12. 50. South El Paso St., 618620 (commercial), west and south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. South El Paso St., 618-620 (commercial), west and south facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  13. 55. South El Paso St., 719 (commercial), south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. South El Paso St., 719 (commercial), south and east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  14. 43. South El Paso St., 623 (commercial), east and south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. South El Paso St., 623 (commercial), east and south facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  15. South Africa.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239. PMID:12178120

  16. THE PROFITS AND PERILS OF PUBLICITY: ALLGEMEINE LITERATUR- ZEITUNG, THE THURN UND TAXIS POST, AND THE PERIODICAL TRADE AT THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2015-09-20

    Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents. First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade. Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation. The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from 1785. PMID:26495577

  17. [South] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects. PMID:12178022

  18. ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC): an integrated quantitative high-throughput screening platform for electrical field-directed cell migration†

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Siwei; Zhu, Kan; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zijie; Xu, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Both endogenous and externally applied electrical stimulation can affect a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, migration, differentiation and division. Among those effects, the electrical field (EF)-directed cell migration, also known as electrotaxis, has received broad attention because it holds great potential in facilitating clinical wound healing. Electrotaxis experiment is conventionally conducted in centimetre-sized flow chambers built in Petri dishes. Despite the recent efforts to adapt microfluidics for electrotaxis studies, the current electrotaxis experimental setup is still cumbersome due to the needs of an external power supply and EF controlling/monitoring systems. There is also a lack of parallel experimental systems for high-throughput electrotaxis studies. In this paper, we present a first independently operable microfluidic platform for high-throughput electrotaxis studies, integrating all functional components for cell migration under EF stimulation (except microscopy) on a compact footprint (the same as a credit card), referred to as ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC). Inspired by the R–2R resistor ladder topology in digital signal processing, we develop a systematic approach to design an infinitely expandable microfluidic generator of EF gradients for high-throughput and quantitative studies of EF-directed cell migration. Furthermore, a vacuum-assisted assembly method is utilized to allow direct and reversible attachment of our device to existing cell culture media on biological surfaces, which separates the cell culture and device preparation/fabrication steps. We have demonstrated that our ETC platform is capable of screening human cornea epithelial cell migration under the stimulation of an EF gradient spanning over three orders of magnitude. The screening results lead to the identification of the EF-sensitive range of that cell type, which can provide valuable guidance to the clinical application of EF-facilitated wound healing

  19. ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC): an integrated quantitative high-throughput screening platform for electrical field-directed cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siwei; Zhu, Kan; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zijie; Xu, Zhengping; Zhao, Min; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-11-21

    Both endogenous and externally applied electrical stimulation can affect a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, migration, differentiation and division. Among those effects, the electrical field (EF)-directed cell migration, also known as electrotaxis, has received broad attention because it holds great potential in facilitating clinical wound healing. Electrotaxis experiment is conventionally conducted in centimetre-sized flow chambers built in Petri dishes. Despite the recent efforts to adapt microfluidics for electrotaxis studies, the current electrotaxis experimental setup is still cumbersome due to the needs of an external power supply and EF controlling/monitoring systems. There is also a lack of parallel experimental systems for high-throughput electrotaxis studies. In this paper, we present a first independently operable microfluidic platform for high-throughput electrotaxis studies, integrating all functional components for cell migration under EF stimulation (except microscopy) on a compact footprint (the same as a credit card), referred to as ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC). Inspired by the R-2R resistor ladder topology in digital signal processing, we develop a systematic approach to design an infinitely expandable microfluidic generator of EF gradients for high-throughput and quantitative studies of EF-directed cell migration. Furthermore, a vacuum-assisted assembly method is utilized to allow direct and reversible attachment of our device to existing cell culture media on biological surfaces, which separates the cell culture and device preparation/fabrication steps. We have demonstrated that our ETC platform is capable of screening human cornea epithelial cell migration under the stimulation of an EF gradient spanning over three orders of magnitude. The screening results lead to the identification of the EF-sensitive range of that cell type, which can provide valuable guidance to the clinical application of EF-facilitated wound healing

  20. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, SOUTH WING, AND ENGINE HOUSE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  2. 7. South El Paso St., South El Paso St., 101103 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. South El Paso St., South El Paso St., 101-103 (Grand Hotel), east (front) and north facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  3. 19. South El Paso St., 405411 (commercial), east facades, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. South El Paso St., 405-411 (commercial), east facades, south facade of 400 visible, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  4. High-risk motorcycle taxi drivers in the HIV/AIDS era: a respondent-driven sampling survey in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lindan, Christina P; Anglemyer, Andrew; Hladik, Wolfgang; Barker, Joseph; Lubwama, George; Rutherford, George; Ssenkusu, John; Opio, Alex; Campbell, James

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated motorcycle taxi ('boda-boda') drivers in Kampala for the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted infections. We used respondent-driven sampling to recruit a cross-sectional sample of boda-boda drivers. We collected data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. Men were tested for HIV, syphilis serology using Rapid Plasma Reagin and enzyme immunoassay, and Chlamydia and gonorrhoea using urine polymerase chain reaction. We recruited 683 men. Median age was 26 years; 59.4% were single. The prevalence of HIV was 7.5% (95% CI 5.2-10.0), of positive syphilis serology was 6.1% (95% CI 4.3-8.1), of Chlamydia was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-2.0), and of gonorrhoea was 1.2% (95% CI 0.1-1.2). Many men (67.8%) had both casual and regular partners, sex with other men (8.7%), and commercial sex (33.1%). Factors associated with having HIV included reporting a genital ulcer (odds ratio [OR] =2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.4), drinking alcohol during last sex (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7), having 4-6 lifetime partners (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.8), and having one's last female partner be >24 years of age (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.6). Independent predictors of HIV included age ≥31 (adjusted OR (aOR) 5.8, 95% CI 1.5-48.5), having 4-6 partners (aOR 2.2, 95%CI 1.0-5.1), and self-report of a genital ulcer (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.1). Only 39.2% of men were circumcised, and 36.9% had been HIV tested in the past. Male boda-boda drivers have a higher prevalence of HIV than the general population, and low frequency of preventive behaviours, such as circumcision and HIV testing. Targeted and intensified interventions for this group are warranted. PMID:24970473

  5. Latinos in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily Elliott, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains five articles about the growing Latino population in the South and its impact on communities, particularly in rural areas. "Social Capital of Mexican Communities in the South" (Ruben Hernandez-Leon, Victor Zuniga) argues that, to understand and advocate for Mexican newcomer communities in the South, scholars,…

  6. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  7. Air Taxi at Your Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Under an exclusive agreement with Eclipse Aviation Corporation, Williams International is manufacturing the EJ22 engine, a commercial version of the NASA/Williams FJX-2, for the Eclipse 500 aircraft. The new engine, which weighs approximately 85 pounds and delivers over 770 pounds of thrust, provides a higher thrust-to-weight ratio than any commercial turbofan ever produced. Being the smallest, quietest, and lightest commercial aircraft engine currently available, the EJ22 engine makes a whole new class of twinjet light aircraft feasible.

  8. Taxis through Computer Simulation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, David

    1983-01-01

    Describes a sequence of five computer programs (listings for Apple II available from author) on tactic responses (oriented movement of a cell, cell group, or whole organism in reponse to stimuli). The simulation programs are useful in helping students examine mechanisms at work in real organisms. (JN)

  9. South Cascade Glacier bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, A.G.; Fulk, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    South Cascade Glacier, in Washington State, resides in a well-defined basin with mainly unglacierized divides making it ideal for most glaciological and hydrological studies. This bibliography is divided into three cateogories: (1) studies done about South Cascade Glacier specifically; (2) studies that use data from South Cascade Glacier but do not focus on or give insight to the glacier itself; and (3) instrumentation studies and non-glacier projects including snow studies done in the basin. (ACR)

  10. Utilization of the Primary Health Care Services in the Tshwane Region of Gauteng Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nteta, Thembi P.; Mokgatle-Nthabu, Matilda; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2010-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the provision of primary health care is a basic service designed to be cost effective and bring healthcare as close as possible to the population, particularly to those people of low economic status. It is a service which is provided free of charge by the South African government and as part of the millennium health goals, it is intended that the service should be accessible to the populace and be effectively utilized. Objective This study was designed to investigate the accessibility and utilization of the primary health care services in three community health care centres in the Tshwane of the Gauteng Province, South Africa. Methodology Data were obtained from participants attending three Community Health Care Centres in the Tshwane Region using self-administered structured questionnaires. A document review of the Community Health Care Centres records was conducted to investigate the utilization trends of the services provided and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. Results The results showed that the Community Health Care Centres in the Tshwane Region are accessible to most participants who lived within 5 km of such centres and who traveled 30 minutes or less to the clinic. Using a taxi or walking were found to be the most common means of transport used to gain access to such a clinic. The findings showed that generally, participants were satisfied with the services provided. Conclusion Participants of this study have access to the community health care centres in the Tshwane Region and there seems to be effective utilization by patients attending them. PMID:21085475

  11. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  12. 253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, AND 1829, SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  13. Perspective view looking northwest across the south end of South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view looking northwest across the south end of South Washington Place; view includes the east elevation of the Walters Art Museum and the south balustrade - Mount Vernon Place, Charles & Monument Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. 13. OBLIQUE OF UNDERSIDE OF SOUTH TRUSS SPAN, SOUTH APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OBLIQUE OF UNDERSIDE OF SOUTH TRUSS SPAN, SOUTH APPROACH SPAN, AND SOUTH PIER, SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM AND BEARINGS. LOOKING NORTH. - Flintville Bridge, Spanning Broad Creek at Flintville Road (Maryland Route 623), Castleton, Harford County, MD

  15. 10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS OF COLD STORAGE, ALSO SHOWING REMNANTS OF COOLING PIPES - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 3. South side of Viaduct. View to northwest. South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. South side of Viaduct. View to northwest. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  17. 3. SOUTH SIDE. Edwards Air Force Base, South Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 56. SOUTH ENTRANCE DOORS WITH RESTORED FANLIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. SOUTH ENTRANCE DOORS WITH RESTORED FANLIGHT, LOOKING SOUTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  20. Characterization and speciation of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their implications on the atmosphere of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianhui

    2007-12-01

    A large pool of ambient and source NMHC data was obtained for the first time in various environments of South China, extending from less developed Yunnan and Hainan Provinces to more developed Guangdong and Zhejiang Provinces. The source and source regions of these C2-C10 NMHC species were assessed through comparison of the profiles and characteristic ratios of NMHC species in ambient and source samples. Tools such as backward air trajectory and satellite images are utilized. Analysis of NMHC profiles in these regions unveiled that there were complex characteristics of NMHCs involving different extents of contributions from urban vehicular and industrial emissions, local biofuel combustion and biogenic emissions, and biomass burning emissions. At the developed sites, such as Guangzhou in Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Lin'an in Yangtze River Delta (YRD), vehicular and industrial emissions were the major contributors. However, in rural and remote areas such as at Jiangfeng Mountain on Hainan Island and Tengchong Mountain in southwest of China, long-range transports of biomass burning pollution from the SE Asia subcontinent in addition to contributions from in situ biogenic and other local anthropogenic emissions from South China, are important sources of NMHCs in spring. More in depth studies were conducted in the urban sites of Guangzhou and at the rural site of Dinghu Mountain during 2001 to 2005. The levels of toluene increased in Dinghu Mountain but decreased in Guangzhou urban sites, which was contrary to the increase of industrial activities in this region. This was in part due to the implementation of stringent emission standards for polluting industries especially in the urban areas and the relocation of polluting industries from urban to the less developed parts of the PRD. We had found for the first time significant increase of propane levels in the urban air of Guangzhou, due to the introduction of LPG-fueled buses and taxis. The signatures of LPG influence

  1. View looking south out the door opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south out the door opening from the south side of the rotunda extension onto the "dog house" or vestibule positioned where the west Verandah of the south wing turns ninety degrees and continues along the south wall of the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 21. South El Paso St., 423425 (commercial/residential), east and south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. South El Paso St., 423-425 (commercial/residential), east and south facades of building - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  3. 65. South El Paso St., 823825 (residential/warehouse),south and east facades ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. South El Paso St., 823-825 (residential/warehouse),south and east facades - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  4. Lunar South Pole Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions over the lunar South Pole region, from ~80°S to the pole. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, 2009. The illumination ca...

  5. Ladybugs of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 79 species of Coccinellidae occurring in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-familial classification, and lengths and widths....

  6. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  7. The South Asian Genome

    PubMed Central

    Scott, William R.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Afzal, Uzma; Afaq, Saima; Loh, Marie; Lehne, Benjamin; O'Reilly, Paul; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Pearson, Richard D.; Li, Xinzhong; Lavery, Anita; Vandrovcova, Jana; Wass, Mark N.; Miller, Kathryn; Sehmi, Joban; Oozageer, Laticia; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Al-Hussaini, Abtehale; Mills, Rebecca; Grewal, Jagvir; Panoulas, Vasileios; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Northwood, Korrinne; Wander, Gurpreet S.; Geoghegan, Frank; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Aitman, Timothy J.; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians. PMID:25115870

  8. Anaglyph, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian

  9. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  10. South Polar Scarps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-438, 31 July 2003

    The terrain of the south polar residual ice cap, made up mostly of frozen carbon dioxide, has come to be known by many as 'swiss cheese terrain,' because many areas of the cap resemble slices of swiss cheese. However, not all of the south polar cap looks like a tasty lunch food. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of curving scarps formed by erosion and sublimation of carbon dioxide from the south polar cap. This area is located near 86.3oS, 51.2oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left; the area is about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) wide.

  11. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome. PMID:17070947

  12. DETAIL VIEW, OXEYE WINDOW, SOUTH WALL OF SOUTH GARRET. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, OX-EYE WINDOW, SOUTH WALL OF SOUTH GARRET. THE MUNTIN PATTERN USED IN THIS WINDOW WAS REFERRED TO AS “GOTHIC” IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 64. Credit JTL. West and south elevations from across South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Credit JTL. West and south elevations from across South Battle Creek. Note penstock descending hill in background and new powerhouse construction in foreground. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  14. 7. SOUTH ELEVATION OF BUILDING 262 (SOUTH SENTRY POST) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTH ELEVATION OF BUILDING 262 (SOUTH SENTRY POST) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  15. INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  16. 27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE SEAL IN FLOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 5. Mispillion Lighthouse, South Elevation Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Mispillion Lighthouse, South Elevation - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  18. 9. SOUTH CABLEWAY TOWER AND OVERHEAD SKIP, SOUTH SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SOUTH CABLEWAY TOWER AND OVERHEAD SKIP, SOUTH SIDE OF THE COLORADO RIVER ABOVE THE DENVER AND RIO GRANDE RAILROAD TRACKS, VIEW TO THE EAST. - Shoshone Hydroelectric Plant Complex, 60111 U.S. Highway 6, Garfield County, CO

  19. View of south entrance to #157 through south breezeway arches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south entrance to #157 through south breezeway arches - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 4. SOUTH ELEVATION OF BOSTON STREET BRIDGE, FROM SOUTH, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTH ELEVATION OF BOSTON STREET BRIDGE, FROM SOUTH, WITH PORTION OF AMERICAN CAN COMPANY COMPLEX - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber for Incinerator within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  2. Detail of south wing south elevation wall section; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of south wing south elevation wall section; camera facing northwest - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. 22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP IN GEARING THAT DRIVES OPERATING WHEEL, WITH HYDRAULIC SHAFT BRAKE - Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River at U.S. Route 1, Groton, New London County, CT

  4. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH OF SOUTHEASTERN CORNER OF BUILDING 441-B, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, On Northwest Corner of K Street & Fifth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 14. South room first floor. View looking south. East porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. South room first floor. View looking south. East porch visible through window. - Fort Hill Farm, Mansion, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  6. 13. South room first floor. View looking southwest. South addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. South room first floor. View looking southwest. South addition visible through doorway. - Fort Hill Farm, Mansion, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  7. 54. VIEW TO SOUTH; SOUTH END OF MBE BUILDING, THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW TO SOUTH; SOUTH END OF MBE BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, HALLWAY AND DOOR TO FORMER REGIONAL OFFICES OF REA (Andersen) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Analysis of Background Seismic Noise Recorded at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Aster, R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.

    2006-12-01

    A small array of high frequency seismometers was recently placed around the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in order to characterize seismic noise generated by the station during operations. This week long experiment, titled, "South Pole Analysis of Machines" or SPAM was conducted in January of 2006 using equipment provided by IRIS PASSCAL to sample the high frequency noise sources generated at the NSF's research base. These data will be correlated to those observed at the ultra quiet GSN seismic station (QSPA) located 5 miles from the base. The purpose of the experiment is to show that although the QSPA sensors are 5 miles away and nearly 1000 feet deep in the ice, there is still a risk of contamination of the signals by cultural noise from the South Pole research base. A Quiet Sector was established around the QSPA station in order to minimize vibrational noise sources, but there is interest in moving some experiments out into the Quiet Sector. Characterizing the noise sources will help us determine the potential reduction in data quality expected at the QSPA station as experiments move closer to the site. Sensors were placed next to the power generators, aircraft taxiway, large antenna towers, as well as at the base of the new station itself. Sensors were also placed between the research base and the QSPA station to get an idea of the propagation of the noise toward the QSPA station. Several high frequency noise sources are clearly seen on all array elements with a number of very clear spectral lines above 1 Hz. These are primarily associated with snow moving tractors and power generators. Smaller signals are seen that may be related to wind loading on the new South Pole elevated station along with harmonics that appear to be correlated with large air handling equipment in the station. Also evident are air operations with landings, takeoffs, taxi and idling C-130's evident. Although greatly attenuated, almost all of these signals are observed at the QSPA

  9. South Polar Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of linear troughs and mesas formed in the frozen carbon dioxide of the martian south polar residual cap. This image, obtained in May 2005, is a reminder that not all of the south polar cap landscapes resemble 'swiss cheese.'

    Location near: 86.7oS, 24.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  10. South portal and deck view from south, showing inclined endposts, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South portal and deck view from south, showing inclined endposts, Pratt through trusses, south portal strut, overhead bracing, pipe rails and posts, and concrete deck with bituminous wearing surface - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  11. 51. VIEW SOUTH, WIDE VIEW INTO SOUTH STREET RAMP NECKDOWN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW SOUTH, WIDE VIEW INTO SOUTH STREET RAMP NECKDOWN, SHOWING UNDERSIDE FRAMING OF CENTER RAMP SECTION AND BOTH EAST AND WEST SPLITS, AND STEEL BENTS - Route 1 Extension, Southbound Viaduct, Spanning Conrail Yards, Wilson Avenue, Delancy Street, & South Street on Routes 1 & 9 Southbound, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  12. 12. View from south to north, south oblique of missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View from south to north, south oblique of missile site control building emphasizing diesel generators and exhaust an intake towers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  13. 24. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south of East Ward Street, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  14. 23. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south of East Ward Street, facing west. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  15. View of south elevation of Building No. 21. South Twentysixth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Building No. 21. South Twenty-sixth Street and Parking Area No. 21 at left, Building No. 20 at left rear. Looking northwest - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 21, East side of South Twenty-sixth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. 7. DETAIL, LOOKING SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH ARCH, SHOWING DRAINAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL, LOOKING SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH ARCH, SHOWING DRAINAGE HOLE IN THE WEST END OF THE SOUTH WALL AND VERTICAL QUARRY DRILLING HOLES ON THE STONE FACE - Mulladay Hollow Bridge, Spanning Mulladay Hollow Creek at County Road No.61, Eureka Springs, Carroll County, AR

  17. 12. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING OF TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING OF TECHWOOD DORMITORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM NEAR CENTER OF SOUTH SIDE. ORIGINAL CASEMENT WINDOWS HAVE BEEN REPLACED WITH SASH WINDOWS, SOME WITH SCREENS. - Techwood Homes, McDaniel Dormitory, 581-587 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  18. SOUTH FLORIDA ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The South Florida Ecosystem Assessment Project is an innovative, large-scale monitoring and assessment program designed to measure current and changing conditions of ecological resources in South Florida using an integrated holistic approach. Using the United States Environmenta...

  19. Workforce Brief: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In South Dakota, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare and healthcare support occupations will see growth of about 25 percent; over 2,500 new practitioners and technicians will be needed. There will be a 24 percent increase in the number of…

  20. North-South Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Melville

    1975-01-01

    Multinational corporations operating mostly in northern Canada export natural resources thus creating jobs and money for foreign shareholders. Similarly, businesses based in southern Canada reap benefits from northern resources. Environmentalists and churches can ally north-south interests to protect northern resources and people from corporate…

  1. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has, in…

  2. Miscellany South Asian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Carlo, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This volume contains articles about South Asian literature and poetry by G.M. Muktibodh, P. Naik, S. Chattopadhyay, M. Kureishi, and P.S. Rege. The articles and authors are: "The Hindi 'Riti' Tradition and the "Rasakapriya' of Keshavadasa: An Introductory Review" by K.C. Bahl; "Tradition and Modernity in Literature" by M.R. Anand; "The Novelist as…

  3. South Platte Data Browser

    EPA Science Inventory

    The common goal among the developers of the South Platte River Basin Data Browser is to improve decision-making relative to environmental management through the development of applied research. The focus of the research has been to design an integrated system of landscape metri...

  4. South Georgia Autograph Parties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Geneva H.

    1978-01-01

    The manager of the South Georgia College Bookstore describes several autograph parties used as a sales promotion technique. The planning process, including initial contacts with the guest authors, are discussed, and the schedules and events of the authors' visits are reviewed. (JMD)

  5. Neptune's 'Hot' South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These thermal images show a 'hot' south pole on the planet Neptune. These warmer temperatures provide an avenue for methane to escape out of the deep atmosphere.

    The images were obtained with the Very Large Telescope in Chile, using an imager/spectrometer for mid-infrared wavelengths on Sept. 1 and 2, 2006. The telescope is operated by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (known as ESO).

    Scientists say Neptune's south pole is 'hotter' than anywhere else on the planet by about 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). The average temperature on Neptune is about minus 200 degrees Celsius (minus 392 degrees Fahrenheit).

    The upper left image samples temperatures near the top of Neptune's troposphere (near 100 millibar pressure, which is one-tenth the Earth atmospheric pressure at sea level). The hottest temperatures are indicated at the lower part of the image, at Neptune's south pole (see the graphic at the upper right). The lower two images, taken 6.3 hours apart, sample temperatures at higher altitudes in Neptune's stratosphere. They do show generally warmer temperatures near, but not at, the south pole. They also show a distinct warm area which can be seen in the lower left image and rotated completely around the back of the planet and returned to the earth-facing hemisphere in the lower right image.

  6. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  7. South Carolina and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with South Carolina and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

  8. SOUTH WARNER WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Weldin, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral appraisal utilized geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data and an examination of mining claims in the South Warner Wilderness, California. Results of this study indicate that little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources exists within the area. Small veins of optical quality calcite occur on the east side of the area but, are not considered a resource.

  9. Teaching About South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schisgall, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Identifies reasons why social studies educators should improve their teaching about South Korea. Included in the list is the increasing numbers of Koreans being educated in the United States, the summer Olympics in 1988, and the use of Korean culture as a case study demonstrating the effects of cultural transmission and society in transition. (JDH)

  10. South Dakota's State Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The South Dakota Assessment System provides information for schools to use in evaluating their teaching and curriculum as well as allowing parents to monitor their child's progress. All public schools in South Dakota test students according to South Dakota Codified Law 13-3-55, which was adopted in January 1997 and amended in January 2003. This…

  11. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  12. Resources of South Carolina Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Edward G.; And Others

    The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education and the Postsecondary Planning Commission conducted this study of the library resources and needs of South Carolina postsecondary institutions as part of its goal to improve the quality of South Carolina state higher education programs. Questionnaires sent to college libraries were designed to test…

  13. Anaglyph, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian

  14. South Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-516, 17 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, stair-stepped layers in the south polar region of Mars. These layers have been considered, for the past three decades, to consist of a mixture of dust and ice. The Mars Polar Lander (MPL) mission was designed to test this hypothesis. However, sadly, MPL was lost during descent in December 1999. This exposure of south polar layered material is located near 86.3oS, 187.7oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  15. South Atlantic interbasin exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, Stephen Rich

    1991-01-01

    The exchange of mass and heat between the South Atlantic and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the Atlantic and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the Atlantic ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.

  16. South Polar Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows details among some of the eroded layer outcrops of the martian south polar region. Much of the south polar region of Mars is covered by a thick unit of layered material. For decades, the layers have been assumed to consist of a mixture of dust and ice, but it is equally possible that the materials are sedimentary rocks. This image was captured during southern spring, at a time when some of the surface was still covered by seasonal carbon dioxide (CO2) frost.

    Location near: 86.5oS, 116.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  17. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  18. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  19. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber. PMID:18716649

  20. South-South Cooperation: Brazilian experiences in South America and Africa.

    PubMed

    Santos, Roberta de Freitas; Cerqueira, Mateus Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years Brazil has played an increasingly active role internationally, the result of its model of integration and its foreign policy directives. The health sector is a valuable and strategic area for Brazilian technical cooperation to achieve various objectives, including its development goals. This article describes the main directives of Brazilian foreign policy, conceptually defining and characterizing South-South Cooperation, illustrated through an analysis of two Brazilian technical cooperation initiatives in healthcare: one in South America, the other in Africa. The study concludes that, irrespective of the interests and power asymmetries existing in South-South Cooperation, the objectives of this cooperation were achieved through the technical work. PMID:25742098

  1. 88. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115117 South El Paso St., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115-117 South El Paso St., south facade, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  2. The South Pacific superswell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Fischer, Karen M.

    Seafloor depths in a broad area of French Polynesia are 250 to 750 m shallower than lithosphere of the same age in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. The area of shallow seafloor also correlates with a region of high density of volcanoes, low seismic velocity in the upper mantle, and a reduction in the thickness of the elastic plate supporting the volcanoes. The Marquesas fracture zone marks an abrupt transition between normal lithosphere to the north which follows the thermal subsidence curve for a 125-km-thick plate and shallow lithosphere to the south which behaves as though it is only 75-km thick. This age dependence in the French Polynesian depth anomalies, the low elastic plate thickness, and the change in depth at the Marquesas fracture zone, a lithospheric discontinuity, require elevated temperatures in the lithosphere. The pattern and amplitude of the depth anomaly is not consistent with the notion that it results from lithospheric thinning beneath a number of overlapping hot spot swells. Rather, we propose that hot spot traces cluster in this region because the lithosphere is already thinner and more vulnerable to magma penetration. The reduction in the thickness of the thermal plate is presumably due to enhanced small-scale convection resulting from the thermal and/or chemical effect of a broad mantle up welling beneath the South Pacific as imaged by seismic tomography. The morphologic and petrologic characteristics of this superswell resemble those that existed in the mid-Cretaceous over H. W. Menard's Darwin Rise, a region of the Pacific which includes the Mid-Pacific Mountains, the Marshall Islands, Magellan Seamounts, and Wake Guyots. We propose that the South Pacific superswell is the modern-day equivalent of the Darwin Rise, and that it may be merely an extreme example of global variability in lithospheric thermal structure as a function of temperature, chemistry, and/or state-of-stress in the upper mantle.

  3. A comparative assessment of the price, brands and pack characteristics of illicitly traded cigarettes in five cities and towns in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wherry, Anna E; McCray, Cheyenne A; Adedeji-Fajobi, Temidayo I; Sibiya, Xolani; Ucko, Peter; Lebina, Limakatso; Golub, Jonathan E; Cohen, Joanna E; Martinson, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of illicitly traded cigarettes in South Africa has been reported to be 40–50%. However, these estimates do not account for the more nuanced characteristics of the illicit cigarette trade. With the goal of better understanding contraband cigarettes in South Africa, this study piloted three methods for assessing the price, brands, pack features and smoker's views about illicit cigarettes in five cities/towns. Data were collected in June and July 2012. Setting A convenience sample of three South African cities (Johannesburg, Durban and Nelspruit) and two smaller towns (Musina and Ficksburg) were chosen for this study. Outcome measures Three cross-sectional approaches were used to assess the characteristics of contraband cigarettes: (1) a dummy purchase of cigarettes from informal retailers, (2) the collection of discarded cigarette packs and (3) a survey of tobacco smokers. Participants For the purposes of the survey, 40 self-reported smokers were recruited at taxi ranks in each downtown site. Adults who were over the age of 18 were asked to verbally consent to participate in the study and answer a questionnaire administered by a researcher. Results The leading reason for labelling a pack as illicit in each city/town was the absence of an excise stamp (28.6% overall), and the least common reason was an illegal tar or nicotine level (11.1% overall). The overall proportion of informal vendors who sold illicit cigarettes was 41%. Singles and packs of 20 were consistently cheaper at informal vendors. Survey participants’ responses reflected varied perspectives on illicit cigarettes and purchasing preferences. Conclusions Each approach generated an interesting insight into physical aspects of illicit cigarettes. While this pilot study cannot be used to generate generalisable statistics on illicit cigarettes, more systematic surveys of this nature could inform researchers’ and practitioners’ initiatives to combat illicit and legal cigarette

  4. South Polar Polygons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    4 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polgyon-cracked surface, into which deep, somewhat kidney-bean-shaped pits have formed. These are landscapes of the martian south polar residual cap. This view was captured during May 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 5.1oW Image width: 1.5 km (0.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season Southern Spring

  5. South Polar Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    5 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the south polar residual cap. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left, thus the somewhat kidney bean-shaped features are pits, not mounds. These pits and their neighboring polygonal cracks are formed in a material composed mostly of carbon dioxide ice. The image is located near 87.0oS, 5.7oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  6. South Dakota geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    South Dakota is normally not thought of as a geothermal state. However, geothermal direct use is probably one of the best kept secrets outside the state. At present there are two geothermal district heating systems in place and operating successfully, a resort community using the water in a large swimming pool, a hospital being supplied with part of its heat, numerous geothermal heat pumps, and many individual uses by ranchers, especially in the winter months for heating residences, barns and other outbuildings, and for stock watering.

  7. Home Reef, South Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In the South Pacific, south of Late Island along the Tofua volcanic arc in Tonga, a new volcanic island Home Reef is being re-born. The island is thought to have emerged after a volcanic eruption in mid-August that has also spewed large amounts of floating pumice into Tongan waters and sweeping across to Fiji about 350 km (220 miles) to the west of where the new island has formed. In 2004 a similar eruption created an ephemeral island about 0.5 by 1.5 km (0.3 by 0.9 miles) in size; it was no longer visible in an ASTER image acquired November 2005. This simulated natural color image shows the vegetation-covered stratovolcanic island of Late in the upper right. Home Reef is found in the lower left. The two bluish plumes are hot seawater that is laden with volcanic ash and chemicals; the larger one can be traced for more than 14 km (8.4 miles) to the east. The image was acquired October 10, 2006 and covers an area of 24.3 by 30.2 km. It is located at 18.9 degrees South latitude, 174.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation

  8. South Polar Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of erosion acting upon a layer of material in the south polar region of Mars. The elliptical pit in the lower left corner of the image was once buried beneath this eroding layer, as well. The processes that eroded the material, and the composition of the material, are unknown. The image is located near 80.7oS, 300.9oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the top.

  9. Estuaries of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanson, Brian; Baird, Dan

    1999-05-01

    Estuaries of South Africa presents an authoritative and comprehensive review of the current status of that country's estuarine research and management. Contributors provide information on a wide range of topics, including geological, physical and chemical processes; diversity and productivity of plant and animal communities; interactions among estuarine organisms; and system properties, ecological modeling and current management issues. This broad scope is complemented by a comparative perspective, resulting in a volume that provides a unique contribution to the subject of estuarine ecology. This volume is relevant to all those working in this field throughout the world.

  10. South Polar Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a circular depression and a suite of eroding mesas of carbon dioxide. These features occur in the south polar residual cap of Mars. The eroding carbon dioxide creates landforms reminiscent of 'Swiss cheese.' The circular feature might indicate the location of a filled, buried impact crater.

    Location near: 86.8oS, 111.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  11. Secondary Teaching Strategies on South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    1987-01-01

    Offers learning activities on South Africa, which help students gain background information on South Africa's culture, history, and geography; examine United States foreign policy toward South Africa; conduct community research on United States involvement with South Africa; confront different life styles of individuals living in South Africa; and…

  12. 149. INTERIOR, EIGHTH FLOOR, SOUTH PENTHOUSE, FORMERLY EMPLOYEES' LOUNGE, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. INTERIOR, EIGHTH FLOOR, SOUTH PENTHOUSE, FORMERLY EMPLOYEES' LOUNGE, SOUTH ANNEX, DETAIL OF BRONZE WALL LIGHTING FIXTURE (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. South wing roof from the south looking toward center city ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South wing roof from the south looking toward center city Philadelphia (note the third-floor monitor on the left and damage to the roof over the central pavillion). - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TS-D-26 (R) 157.4815. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TS-D-26 (R) 157.4815. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 5. View of south tower, facing northnortheast from south bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of south tower, facing north-northeast from south bank of the Columbia River. Center tower and north tower in background, lower right. - Pasco-Kennewick Transmission Line, Columbia River Crossing Towers, Columbia Drive & Gum Street, Kennewick, Benton County, WA

  17. 11. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, SOUTH MEZZANINE, FROM SOUTH WALL APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, SOUTH MEZZANINE, FROM SOUTH WALL APPROXIMATELY ONE-THIRD OF DISTANCE WEST FROM EAST END, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 31. South El Paso St., 416426 (commercial), west facades,and south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. South El Paso St., 416-426 (commercial), west facades,and south facade of 426, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  19. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  20. The South Dakota Ethanol Industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the need for biorenewable fuels increases, the ethanol industry in the U.S. continues to thrive and grow. The same is true here in South Dakota as well. In fact, South Dakota has been a leader in ethanol production for years, and will continue to be for years to come. This industry is making a...

  1. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  2. South Polar 'Poodle'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-422, 15 July 2003

    Have you ever stared up at the clouds in the sky and seen the shapes of animals, people, or objects? Sometimes when the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) team is looking at newly-returned pictures from Mars, the same thing happens. This is a picture of pits and scarps in the frozen south polar carbon dioxide ice cap. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper right. At the bottom of the picture is a feature that resembles a long, thin poodle; its head faces to the left, the tail to the right. This picture is located near 86.9oS, 55.8oW.

  3. South American oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  4. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  5. South Polar Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    8 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an area adjacent to the south polar residual cap that hosts several intricate fracture networks. Each network consists of multiple fractures radiating from a central location. Their origin is not understood -- some investigators have speculated that these are sites of release of carbon dioxide from beneath the ground, but this explanation seems inadequate to explain all attributes of the features. MOC images have shown that these features have not been changing from year to year during the course of the MGS mission.

    Location near: 87.1oS, 234.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  6. Valley South of Cerberus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-413, 6 July 2003

    To date, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle system has only imaged about 3% of the martian surface. Thus, a new discovery can come at any time, as additional places are covered every day. This MOC image shows a portion of a shallow valley south of Cerberus that was just discovered in April 2003. The valley may have been cut but torrents of mud-laden water; alternatively, an extremely fluid lava was involved. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the left. North is toward the top/upper right. The picture is located near 4.6oN, 204.3oW.

  7. "COMPARE" Forum: The Idea of North-South and South-South Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.; Desai, Zubeida; Botha, Louis Royce; Breidlid, Anders; Bastien, Sheri; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Ezekiel, Mangi J.; Helleve, Arnfinn; Farag, Alawia I.; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi

    2013-01-01

    The idea of having a "Compare" Forum focusing on the above title was first discussed with one of the Editors of "Compare" during a PhD defence in Oslo in 2011. The PhD dissertation itself was linked to a larger project in which researchers from the North (Norway) and the South (South Africa) had been collaborating in educational research for over…

  8. South Atlantic meridional fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzoli, Silvia L.; Baringer, Molly O.; Dong, Shenfu; Perez, Renellys C.; Yao, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The properties of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and associated meridional heat transport (MHT) and salt fluxes are analyzed in the South Atlantic. The oceanographic data used for the study consist of Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data collected along 27 sections at nominally 35°S for the period of time 2002-2011, and Argo profile data collected in the region. Previous estimates obtained with a shorter record are improved and extended, using new oceanographic sections and wind fields. Different wind products are analyzed to determine the uncertainty in the Ekman component of the MHT derived from their use. Results of the analysis provide a 9-year time series of MHT, and volume transport in the upper layer of the MOC. Salt fluxes at 35°S are estimated using a parameter introduced by numerical studies, the Mov that represents the salt flux and helps determine the basin scale salt feedback associated with the MOC. Volume and heat transport by the western and eastern boundary currents are estimated, and their covariablity is examined. Analysis of the data shows that the South Atlantic is responsible for a northward MHT with a mean value of 0.54±0.14 PW. The MHT exhibits no significant trend from 2002 to 2011. The MOC varies from 14.4 to 22.7 Sv with a mean value of 18.1±2.3 Sv and the maximum overturning transport is found at a mean depth of 1250 m. Statistical analysis suggests that an increase of 1 Sv in the MOC leads to an increase of the MHT of 0.04±0.02 PW. Estimates of the Mov from data collected from three different kinds of observations, contrary to those obtained from models, feature a positive salt advection feedback (Mov<0) suggesting that freshwater perturbations will be amplified and that the MOC is bistable. In other words, the MOC might collapse with a large enough freshwater perturbation. Observations indicate that the mean value of the Brazil Current is -8.6±4.1 Sv at 24°S and -19.4±4.3 Sv at 35°S, increasing towards the

  9. 8. View of south and west wings of main building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of south and west wings of main building in south court; facing south (south addition in background at left). - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 66. South El Paso St., 800 (commercial), west and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. South El Paso St., 800 (commercial), west and north facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  11. 5. South El Paso St., street vew, west side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. South El Paso St., street vew, west side of street, north of Overland St. - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  12. 91. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115117 South El Paso St., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115-117 South El Paso St., east facade, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  13. 13. South El Paso St., 208210 (commercial), west facades, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. South El Paso St., 208-210 (commercial), west facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  14. 33. South El Paso St., 507509 (theater), east elevation, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. South El Paso St., 507-509 (theater), east elevation, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  15. 18. South El Paso St., 309317 (commercial), east facades, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. South El Paso St., 309-317 (commercial), east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  16. 51. South El Paso St., 701707 (commercial), east facades, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. South El Paso St., 701-707 (commercial), east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  17. 71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse to left in background - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  18. 12. South El Paso St., 213221 (commercial), view looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. South El Paso St., 213-221 (commercial), view looking northwest showing east facades - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  19. 46. South El Paso St., 516 (commercial), west elevation, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. South El Paso St., 516 (commercial), west elevation, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  20. 17. South El Paso St., 309317 (commercial), east facades, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. South El Paso St., 309-317 (commercial), east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  1. 22. South El Paso St., 300302 (commercial), west and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. South El Paso St., 300-302 (commercial), west and north facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  2. PASO DEL NORTE HOTEL, 115117 S. EL PASO ST., SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PASO DEL NORTE HOTEL, 115-117 S. EL PASO ST., SOUTH AND EAST FACADES, WEST SIDE OF STREET - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  3. 36. South El Paso St., 523525 (commercial), east elevation, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. South El Paso St., 523-525 (commercial), east elevation, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  4. 92. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115117 South El Paso St., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115-117 South El Paso St., interior, lobby rotunda - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  5. 24. South El Paso St., 310318 (commerical), west facades, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. South El Paso St., 310-318 (commerical), west facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  6. 14. South El Paso St., 216222 (commercial), west facades, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. South El Paso St., 216-222 (commercial), west facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  7. 25. South El Paso St., 320324 (commercial), west facades, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. South El Paso St., 320-324 (commercial), west facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  8. 30. South El Paso St., 412416 (commercial), west facades, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. South El Paso St., 412-416 (commercial), west facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  9. 9. South El Paso St., 203205 (Hotel Fisher), east and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. South El Paso St., 203-205 (Hotel Fisher), east and north facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  10. 57. South El Paso St., 704708 (commercial), west facades, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. South El Paso St., 704-708 (commercial), west facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  11. 54. South El Paso St., 713 (commercial), east elevation, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. South El Paso St., 713 (commercial), east elevation, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  12. 52. South El Paso St., 709711 (commercial), east facades, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. South El Paso St., 709-711 (commercial), east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  13. 16. South El Paso St., 309317 (commercial), east elevations, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. South El Paso St., 309-317 (commercial), east elevations, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  14. 15. South El Paso St., 305307 (commercial), east facades, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. South El Paso St., 305-307 (commercial), east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  15. 10. South El Paso St., 207211 (commercial), east elevations, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. South El Paso St., 207-211 (commercial), east elevations, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  16. 35. South El Paso St., 513521 (commercial), east facades, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. South El Paso St., 513-521 (commercial), east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  17. 58. South El Paso St., 710714 (commercial), west facades, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. South El Paso St., 710-714 (commercial), west facades, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  18. 64. South El Paso St., 813821 (commercial), east facades, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. South El Paso St., 813-821 (commercial), east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  19. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  20. Libby South Fire, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 9, 2001, a fire burned about 15 miles south of Twisp, Washington, that officials believe was caused by human error. NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on the Terra satellite observed the fire, indicated with a red dot in this image, on July 10, after the fire had already consumed about 1,240 acres. On July 10, another fire-called the Thirty Mile Fire-trapped 21 firefighters and 2 civilians in a narrow canyon in the Chewuch River Valley, north of Winthrop, WA. (That fire did not erupt until later in the day after this image was acquired and is therefore not visible.) Tragically, four firefighters were killed and six people were injured, including the two civilians. Rolling debris, rugged and steep terrain, and limited access are impeding efforts to contain the now 8,200-acre fire, which according to current fire incident reports, is completely uncontained. Nearly all the areas in the full-size image, including Washington (center), Idaho (right), Oregon (bottom) are in a state of severe drought, which means the region could be in for another devastating fire season. Another fire is visible in Idaho in the full-size image just east of where Idaho borders with Washington and Oregon. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  1. Country watch: South Africa.

    PubMed

    Everett, K; Schaay, N

    1994-01-01

    Photo-comics are an ideal format for education of South African youth about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) given their low literacy rate and the widespread popularity of comic books. An example of the success of this strategy is "Roxy: Life, Love, and Sex in the Nineties," a comic produced as part of a school-based AIDS prevention program run by the National AIDS Research Program. The comic tells the story of an adolescent girl who learns her friend committed suicide because she was infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Roxy learns about AIDS and discusses the risk factors with her friends. Focus group discussions were used to generate story ideas and pretesting of the comic book took place among several student groups. By July 1993, 30,000 copies of "Roxy" had been distributed to students, churches, youth groups, civic associations, and organizations working with street children. In addition, the comic was reproduced in a magazine, "Upbeat," that is popular among out-of-school youth. Qualitative evaluation through 8 student focus groups revealed that young people from various cultural backgrounds strongly identify with the themes, characters, and situations depicted in "Roxy." Of particular significance were the realistic portrayals of romantic and sexual relationships, relationships with parents, and dilemmas posed by pressures to use drugs and alcohol. The comic includes a sex education chart with concise condom use instructions. PMID:12287665

  2. Wind powering America: South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    2000-04-11

    This fact sheet contains a description of South Dakota's wind energy resources, and the state's financial incentives that support the installation of renewable energy systems. The fact sheet includes a list of contacts for those interested in obtaining more information.

  3. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  4. F-18 SRA taxi at dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    One of NASA's F/A-18 Hornets is seen here sitting on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, at dawn August 6, 1993. F-18 aircraft, on loan to NASA by the U.S. Navy, are currently being flown at Dryden as support aircraft and as research testbeds. As support aircraft, they are used primarily for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. As research aircraft, they are involved in thrust vectoring and high angle of attack research, as well as numerous smaller scale experiments.

  5. Human Mars Mission Performance Crew Taxi Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duaro, Vince A.

    1999-01-01

    Using the results from Integrated Mission Program (IMP), a simulation language and code used to model present and future Earth Moon, or Mars missions, this report presents six different case studies of a manned Mars mission. The mission profiles, timelines, propellant requirements, feasibility and perturbation analysis is presented for two aborted, two delayed rendezvous, and two normal rendezvous cases for a future Mars mission.

  6. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2004 This image was collected February 29, 2004 during the end of southern summer season. The local time at the location of the image was about 2 pm. The image shows an area in the South Polar region.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -84.7, Longitude 9.3 East (350.7 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet

  7. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  8. 21. SOUTH THROUGH FACTORY FROM NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER TOWARD SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. SOUTH THROUGH FACTORY FROM NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER TOWARD SOUTH FRONT OF BUILDING. VISIBLE FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE CIRCA 1865 METAL-TURNING LATHE; CIRCA 1875 POWER SHEAR, PUNCH, AND RIVETING MACHINE (WITH FLOORING RAISED TO SHOW OPERATOR'S 'PIT'); LINE SHAFT WITH PULLEYS AND BELTS FOR OPERATING MACHINERY; PERMANENT WOODEN LADDER TO SKYLIGHT AREA (LOCATION OF CIRCA 1920 ELECTRIC MOTOR WHICH POWERED LINE SHAFT); AND BUFFALO FORGE CO. HAND SHEAR FOR ANGLE STEEL. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  9. PPP insights in South Africa.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals. PMID:12743881

  10. Textures in south polar ice cap #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 15 x 14 km area image (frame 7306) is centered near 87 degrees south, 341 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  11. Textures in south polar ice cap #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 30 x 29 km area image (frame 7709) is centered near 87 degrees south, 77 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  12. Libraries in South Carolina: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southcarolina.html Libraries in South Carolina To use the sharing features ... Columbia University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library 6311 Garners Ferry Road Columbia, SC 29208 803- ...

  13. Libraries in South Dakota: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southdakota.html Libraries in South Dakota To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Huron Huron Public Library Library 521 Dakota South Huron, SD 57350-2797 ...

  14. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.342 South Dakota.... South Dakota—PM-10 Designated area Designation Date Type Classification Date Type Rapid City Area...

  15. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.342 South Dakota.... South Dakota—PM-10 Designated area Designation Date Type Classification Date Type Rapid City Area...

  16. Conscientious Objectives: Campuses Respond to South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexter, Holly

    1985-01-01

    In the wake of political pressures and deteriorating conditions in South Africa, many campuses are reviewing their investment policies and considering other contributions. The rising interest in educational initiatives is discussed including establishment of scholarships for South African students. (MLW)

  17. Toward the "New South Africa."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Examines, in the light of political reforms in South Africa, the prime concerns of geographers. Discusses the future of the Bantustans; questions of land redistribution, tenure systems, production levels, and support systems; spatial economic policies; land and housing; and regional relations. Argues that, to realize its potential, southern Africa…

  18. South Texas Maquiladora Suppliers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, J. Michael

    This project was undertaken to assist South Texas industries in improving export to nearby Mexican maquiladoras (factories). The maquiladora program is based on co-production by two plants under a single management, one on each side of the border. Activities addressed four objectives: (1) to determine the dollar value, quantity, and source of the…

  19. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  20. Moral Education in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Pieter C.

    1980-01-01

    This overview notes that moral education permeates all school curriculum, especially social studies and religion, since South African law mandates that education for Whites have a Christian character. The code of conduct for White teachers is quoted. Different provisions for Blacks are described and segregated schooling discussed in this context.…

  1. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  2. Phytosanitary irradiation in south Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation has the potential to solve phytosanitary problems related to trade in south Asia. In general, it is the phytosanitary treatment most tolerated by fresh agricultural commodities. Irradiation technology is available in some countries of the region but is only used for phytosanitary purpos...

  3. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  4. South Africa: a toxicologist's goldmine.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    The emerging nation of South Africa, in common with some other countries, notably Eastern Europe, is heir to decades of neglect with regards to the exposure of the majority of its population to toxic materials. In this short review, the major toxic health hazards are described. For most of these risks there are now programs in place to improve the situation, but co-ordination and financial constraints, along with the fact that the majority of the population neither live, nor work, in a controlled environment, mean that much remains to be done. The recent formation of a South African Toxicology society, which strives to bring together environmental, industrial, forensic and clinical toxicology should assist in an improvement, both in the epidemiology of toxicity in South Africa and in improved measures to reduce the incidence of preventable noncommunicable diseases related to both acute and chronic exposure to toxins. The South African scene also provides a "window' of opportunity to study the more fundamental aspects of exposure in human subjects and to couple these to animal and in vitro studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms where these are unknown. PMID:11805740

  5. The South: Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Leslie W.

    1978-01-01

    This article suggests that the southern experience of the past two or three decades is one of the great transformations in American history. During these years the South moved into the present, something it had never done before (Author/AM)

  6. Slavery in the Lower South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Provides a detailed account of slave history within the Lower South region of the colonial United States. Focuses on the experiences of Africans in the colonies. Explores the role of the English, Spanish, and French in establishing slavery within the future United States. Addresses the systems of slavery used and treatment of the Africans. (CMK)

  7. South Carolina's High Technology Blitz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, G. William, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a South Carolina project to incorporate high technology training into programs at 16 technical colleges. Also discusses the development of training modules, supervisory training courses, special schools instructor training packages, a statewide system of resource centers, and mobile training units. (CT)

  8. Monitoring Optimism in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mari

    2007-01-01

    An article with exactly this same title was published in Social Indicators Research (41:279-304, 1997). The purpose of the current article is to update the findings discussed in that first article. Therefore the abstract published previously is still relevant: The last few decades have been the most crucial and eventful ones in South Africa's…

  9. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  10. Review of South American mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    A general overview is presented of the mining activity and plans for South America. The countries which are presented are Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The products of the mines include coal, bauxite, gold, iron, uranium, copper and numerous other minor materials. A discussion of current production, support and processing facilities, and mining strategies is also given.

  11. The Northification of the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Reviews book, "The Selling of the South: The Southern Crusade for Industrial Development, 1936-1980" (Cobb, 1982). Describes socioeconomic influences and history of industrialization in southern United States. Emphasizes development's negative effect on people and environment. Suggests that rural Southerners should reconsider and scrutinize…

  12. Apartheid and South Africa's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  13. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  14. South African AIDS plan criticised.

    PubMed

    Sidley, P

    1998-10-17

    In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037

  15. Human fascioliasis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Black, J; Ntusi, N; Stead, P; Mayosi, B; Mendelson, M

    2013-09-01

    Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus.  PMID:24300687

  16. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  17. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  18. South Asians in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  19. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…

  20. South Carolina Wins the Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses factors involved in locating new BMW car-manufacturing plant in South Carolina. Discusses state's business environment, transportation, and education system. Describes development process, site selection, and implications for economic development. Describes importance of state's labor-force development via regional technical colleges and…

  1. Language Laboratories in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacquiere, Arie

    1992-01-01

    Reviews trends in language instruction and the use of language laboratories in South African higher education from 1962 to 1990, paying particular attention to racial differences and the movement from an audio-lingual method to a communicative language technique. Questions the wisdom of equipping institutions with sophisticated hardware without…

  2. South Korean Digital Textbook Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jackie Hee-Young; Jung, Hye-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    South Korea has adopted the widespread use of digital textbooks. Part school reform and part an effort to prepare today's children for tomorrow's challenging world, the way in which this effort was implemented and the lessons learned are valuable. This article highlights the history of the digital textbook project and compares printed textbooks…

  3. Heart Failure in South America

    PubMed Central

    Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries. PMID:23597301

  4. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  5. Biobank Regulation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Bok

    2016-06-01

    Like many other countries, South Korea has recognized the importance of biobanks as a tool for medical research and has engaged in two very important tasks to foster biobanking infrastructure: funding biobanks and setting up rules to protect the integrity of biobanks that share potentially sensitive personal information. PMID:27338609

  6. Designing the Future: South-South Cooperation in Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yiping, Ed.; Gitta, Cosmas, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal special issue contains the following articles on the role of science and Technology in accelerating sustainable development in the countries of the South: (1) "The History and Urgency of South-South Cooperation in Science and Technology" (John F.E. Ohiorhenuan, Amitav Rath); (2) "Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies: South-South…

  7. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  8. South Carolina Guide for Industrial Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Occupational Education.

    This guide is intended for teachers conducting industrial technology education (TE) courses in South Carolina. Presented first is introductory information about the mission, clusters and units, and recommended educational format of TE in South Carolina. Discussed in the seven sections are various aspects of South Carolina's modular delivery system…

  9. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  10. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  11. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  12. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  13. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  14. South Dakota Kids Count Project: 1994 Factbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry; Dykstra, De Vee

    This factbook provides data on the well-being of South Dakota children. It is intended as a vehicle for policy makers, advocates, the media, and service providers to raise awareness on the status of children in South Dakota. Section 1 of the factbook is an introduction and overview on South Dakota demographics. Section 2 presents special reports…

  15. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  16. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.342 Section 81.342 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.342 South Dakota. South Dakota—SO2 Designated...

  17. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.342 Section 81.342 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.342 South Dakota. South Dakota—SO2 Designated...

  18. 33 CFR 117.756 - South River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South River. 117.756 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.756 South River. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 2.8 at South River shall open on weekdays (exclusive of holidays) from December 1 through the...

  19. 33 CFR 117.756 - South River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South River. 117.756 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.756 South River. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 2.8 at South River shall open on weekdays (exclusive of holidays) from December 1 through the...

  20. 33 CFR 117.756 - South River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South River. 117.756 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.756 South River. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 2.8 at South River shall open on weekdays (exclusive of holidays) from December 1 through the...

  1. 33 CFR 117.756 - South River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South River. 117.756 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.756 South River. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 2.8 at South River shall open on weekdays (exclusive of holidays) from December 1 through the...

  2. 33 CFR 117.756 - South River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South River. 117.756 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.756 South River. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 2.8 at South River shall open on weekdays (exclusive of holidays) from December 1 through the...

  3. The State of the South, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

    This report charts the economic changes occurring in the South during the past two decades, presents a status report on where the South is today, and offers an agenda for future development. The South has made great strides, diversifying its economy and improving racial inequities. Several of its cities have successfully engaged the new economy,…

  4. Theme: Education with Production in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ben; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes " A Bridge Too Far: Democracy, Development and Education in Rural South Africa (Parker); "Khuphuka: A Skills Training and Employment Programme in Durban, South Africa" (Comninos); "Reconstruction and Development Programme and Tertiary Institutions in South Africa"; and "Report on the First Session of the Seminar: Mafeking, September…

  5. The State of the South 2007: Philanthropy as the South's "Passing Gear". State of the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDC, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    The South is arguably the most generous region of a generous nation. Southerners give to their universities and schools, to their soup kitchens and homeless shelters, to the community United Way, to relief agencies responding to natural disasters, and most specially to their churches and other religious institutions. As a whole, Southerners give…

  6. 59. South El Paso St., 716718 (commercial), west facades and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. South El Paso St., 716-718 (commercial), west facades and south facade of 718, east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  7. 87. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115117 South El Paso St., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115-117 South El Paso St., south and east facades, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  8. 1. South El Paso St., Street view, southwest from roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South El Paso St., Street view, southwest from roof of 210 South El Paso Street, West Overland Street is first cross street on right - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  9. Modeling Climate Impacts on Agriculture in South East South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ines, A. M.; Baethgen, W.; Greene, A. M.; Goddard, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the past two decades, a rapid expansion of croplands in South East South America is observed. This drastic change in landuse is seen to be due to two major factors - climate and economics. Converting marginal lands into agricultural lands is possible due to the increase in annual precipitation in the region and the increasing prices of soybeans and higher demands for grain crops have played a key role to this expansion. But the question is, how sustainable is the current trend in the future? A modeling study is conducted to evaluate the impacts of climate on agriculture in the Southern Cone of South America. We examine the impacts of climate variability and current climate change to crop yields using crop simulation models. Using the results of our current climate analysis as a baseline, we evaluate the impacts of future climate change in the next 10-30 years. Climate projections include scenarios considering only global warming, ozone and both impacting the near-term climate of the future in the region and considering decadal variability. We aim to evaluate the vulnerability of the current system to climate change. This paper will present the results of our modeling study.

  10. South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

  11. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions. PMID:16846602

  12. South Polar Cap, Summer 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the south polar cap of Mars as it appeared to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on April 17, 2000. In winter and early spring, this entire scene would be covered by frost. In summer, the cap shrinks to its minimum size, as shown here. Even though it is summer, observations made by the Viking orbiters in the 1970s showed that the south polar cap remains cold enough that the polar frost (seen here as white) consists of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide freezes at temperatures around -125o C (-193o F). Mid-summer afternoon sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left from about 11.2o above the horizon. Soon the cap will experience sunsets; by June 2000, this pole will be in autumn, and the area covered by frost will begin to grow. Winter will return to the south polar region in December 2000. The polar cap from left to right is about 420 km (260 mi) across.

  13. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  14. The South-East Karst Province of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, K. G.

    1994-03-01

    The South-East Karst Province of South Australia is an extensive area of low relief with dolines, cenotes, uvalas, and a variety of cave types developed in the soft, porous, flat-lying Tertiary Gambier Limestone and also as syngenetic karst in the overlying calcarenite dunes of the Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation. The most spectacular surface karst features are the large collapse dolines, especially those that extend below the water table to form cenotes. Shallow swampy hollows occur in superficial Quaternary sediments. These are an enigmatic feature of the Bool Region, where all gradations appear to occur between definite karst dolines and nonkarstic hollows. Some depressions may be polygenetic—involving a combination of: (1) primary depositional hollows on coastal flats or in dune fields, (2) deflation, and (3) karst solution and subsidence. There are extensive underwater cave systems in the southern part of the province, and the bulk of the cave development there may well lie below the present water table, although these systems would have been at least partly drained during the lower sea levels of the last glacial period. Systematic variations within the province reflect differences in the parent rock types, the extent and nature of the cover and, most importantly, the hydrology—in particular the depth to the water table and its gradient.

  15. Unsung heroes in the South.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    While recognizing the important role played by lesbian women in HIV/AIDS prevention in many countries, and as members of some gay organizations in the South, this article focuses only on gay men. Even though formidable societal proscriptions against homosexuality exist in many developing countries and Eastern European countries, gay men served duty on the front lines as AIDS educators and care givers. The threat of the AIDS crisis impelled some to openly acknowledge their sexuality in an effort to reach gay men at risk. In the West, gay organizations had already laid a 10 year foundation of organization and community trust, when the AIDS epidemic appeared in the public spot light. This fact allowed them to act as effective educators of their own gay communities. They were so effective that the number of new HIV cases has leveled off in the gay community. In Central and South America, gay movement cohered in 1976 and responded quickly to AIDS in 1983. In Africa, homosexuality is often considered a contamination of the West and national gay organizations (NGOs) have only recently been formed in Ghana, Tanzania, and Nigeria. The only AIDS services organizations (ASOs) for black men exist in Zimbabwe and South Africa. In Asia NGOs are a new phenomenon that exist only in Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. All NGOs have several things in common. Governments are rarely interested in working with NGOs so they are forced to find their own funding and develop their own education campaigns. Even in countries that recognize the implications and magnitude of the AIDS crisis, their education programs and policies are often homophobic or anti-gay. In the countries where the government is sympathetic to the gay community they rely upon NGOs to help them develop national education programs for both gays and the rest of the population. PMID:12285096

  16. Nodding syndrome - South Sudan, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-01-27

    In November 2010, the Ministry of Health of the proposed nation of South Sudan requested CDC assistance in investigating a recent increase and geographic clustering of an illness resulting in head nodding and seizures. The outbreak was suspected to be nodding syndrome, an unexplained neurologic condition characterized by episodes of repetitive dropping forward of the head, often accompanied by other seizure-like activity, such as convulsions or staring spells. The condition predominantly affects children aged 5-15 years and has been reported in South Sudan from the states of Western and Central Equatoria and in Northern Uganda and southern Tanzania. Because of visa and security concerns, CDC investigators did not travel to South Sudan until May 2011. On arrival, a case-control study was conducted that included collecting exposure information and biologic specimens to assess the association of nodding syndrome with suspected risk factors. A total of 38 matched case-control pairs were enrolled from two different communities: Maridi and Witto. Overall, current infection with Onchocerca volvulus diagnosed by skin snip was more prevalent among the 38 case-patients (76.3%) than the controls (47.4%) (matched odds ratio [mOR] = 3.2). This difference was driven by the 25 pairs in Maridi (88.0% among case-patients, 44.0% among controls, mOR=9.3); among the 13 pairs in Witto, no significant association with onchocerciasis (known as river blindness) was observed. Although onchocerciasis was more prevalent among case-patients, whether infection preceded or followed nodding syndrome onset was unknown. Priorities for nodding syndrome investigations include improving surveillance to monitor the number of cases and their geographic distribution and continued work to determine the etiology of the syndrome. PMID:22278159

  17. Growing pains in South America.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S

    1997-08-01

    This article describes some negative effects from modernization and urban growth in South America, including disease, pesticides, occupational hazards, poor environmental controls of water and garbage, sanitation, and environmental degradation. South America is following the global trend toward urbanization and the problems that accompany it. Agricultural expansion led to an expanded market for pesticides that includes the deadly DDT, paraquat, and heptachlor. Brazil and Colombia are the largest consumers. Latin American officials justify use of DDT, which is banned in the US and many European countries, as an effective means of combating mosquitos that carry malaria. Exposure occurs during harvesting, transporting, forestry, livestock farming, and vector control activities. Methyl bromide, which is used post-harvest and as a soil fumigant, is dangerous enough to be banned in the US in 2001, and in developing countries in 2002. Exposure to toxic chemicals can severely inhibit enzyme action that is necessary for neurological functioning. A hot climate, which prevents protective clothing, lack of education on proper application, and absence of water to wash exposed skin, make pesticide protection very difficult. Over 40 million agricultural workers are at risk of pesticide poisoning. Habitat destruction has contributed to increased mosquito infestations. Children in the workplace are at even greater risk of noise pollution and chemical poisoning. South America pollutes almost 11 times more fresh water per capita than Europe. About 70% of domestic garbage is collected, and about 30% is disposed of correctly. Only 10% of urban wastewater is treated before discharge into waterways. The loss of coastal wetlands reduces the ability of waterways to filter and absorb nutrients. Environmental health problems suggest an interlinkage between environmental sustainability, human health, and economic growth. PMID:9347893

  18. Men's health in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae-Chul; Kim, Sang Wook; Chung, Yun Jae

    2011-07-01

    Over the last four decades, rapid industrialisation and a Westernized lifestyle have changed disease patterns in South Korea. This study was conducted to review the current state of men's health in South Korea. By reviewing reports of government authorities and domestic and foreign studies related to men's health, we found that in men ≥ 65 years of age, 28.4% considered their health status good, whereas 38.3% considered their health status poor. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms was similar to that in Caucasians. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was higher than the global average. The incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias showed a tendency towards increase. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continuously increased by 10.8% in 2008 and was the fifth leading cause of death in 2008. The prevalence of obesity increased from 26.0% in 1998 to 31.7% in 2007. The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease has continuously increased, with heart diseases causing one of every 12 deaths. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2005 was 17.2% among adults ≥ 45 years of age. The top five prevalent cancers in men, in descending order, were cancers of the stomach, lung, liver, large bowel and prostate, among which the incidence of stomach, lung and liver cancers decreased by 0.7%, 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively, from 1999 to 2007, whereas the incidence of large bowel and prostate cancers increased by 7.0% and 13.2%, respectively. The prevalence of depression, dementia and sleep disorders was estimated as 17.3%, 4.21% and 20.2%, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that disease patterns in South Korean men are becoming Westernized. PMID:21478896

  19. Rural and urban suicide in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, B C Ben; Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea. PMID:23234093

  20. Heading South on 'Erebus Highway'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is currently traveling southward over a pavement of outcrop dubbed the 'Erebus Highway.' 'Erebus Crater,' the rover's next target, lies less than 100 meters (328 feet) south of its current position. This view is a mosaic produced from from frames taken by the rover's navigation camera during Opportunity's 582nd martian day, or sol (Sept. 13, 2005). It shows fractured blocks of ancient sedimentary rock separated by recent sand dunes. Mars Exploration Rover team scientists are investigating both the composition of the rocks and the processes by which the distinctive fracture pattern arose.

  1. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  2. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  3. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic Red Snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 24 Assessment Stage 2, Webinar 3. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the South Atlantic stock of...

  4. 76 FR 62042 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Information and Education Advisory Panel (AP) and a Social Media Workshop in conjunction with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium in North Charleston,...

  5. 480mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  6. 480mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  7. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. PMID:24973022

  8. View of South TwentyEighth Street from south boundary of Easter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Eighth Street from south boundary of Easter Hill project site. Buildings No. 15, 16, 41, 46, 45, and 48 from left to right. Church Building at right foreground is not an element of Easter Hill object site. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. South Carolina Course Alignment Project Newsletter. Volume 1, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In response to the Education and Economic Development Act of 2005 (EEDA), South Carolina has embarked on an exciting initiative called the South Carolina Course Alignment Project. In partnership with the South Carolina Department of Education and the South Carolina Technical College System, the project is led by the South Carolina Commission on…

  10. 32. South El Paso St., 501509 (commercial), east facades, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. South El Paso St., 501-509 (commercial), east facades, and north facade of 501, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  11. 89. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115117 South El Paso St., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115-117 South El Paso St., detail view of roof, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  12. 44. South El Paso St., 500506 (commercial), 500502 (north and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. South El Paso St., 500-506 (commercial), 500-502 (north and west facades), 504-506 (west facades),east side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  13. 8. South El Paso St., 106108 (commercial), west facades of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. South El Paso St., 106-108 (commercial), west facades of building east side of street, 101 East San Antonio Ave can be seen to right - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  14. 6. South elevation, facing north (Note: B/W scale on south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. South elevation, facing north (Note: B/W scale on south elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  15. 75 FR 16097 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed South Carolina Electric and Gas Company's application for license for the Saluda Hydroelectric... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice...

  16. 75 FR 43964 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of... Energy Projects has reviewed South Carolina Electric and Gas Company's application for license for the.... Enter the docket number excluding the last three digits in the docket number field to access...

  17. 75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic red snapper. AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 24 Assessment Webinars 3 & 4 and Review Workshop for South Atlantic red snapper. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the South Atlantic stock of red snapper will consist of a series of workshops and webinars:...

  18. South Dakota Public Higher Education System Opportunities Plan: A Report to the South Dakota Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The South Dakota Opportunities Plan is being presented to the South Dakota Legislature in fulfillment of the Legislature's directive from the 2006 session (House Bill 1238). The plan is intended to provide insight into the critical issues confronting higher education in South Dakota, responses made by the Board of Regents to these situations, and…

  19. More South Polar 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some of the surface of the residual south polar cap has a pattern that resembles that of sliced, swiss cheese. Shown here at the very start of southern spring is a frost-covered surface in which there are two layers evident--a brighter upper layer into which are set swiss cheese-like holes, and a darker, lower layer that lies beneath the 'swiss cheese' pattern. Nothing like this exists anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap.

    This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired on August 2,1999. It is located near 84.8oS, 71.8oW, and covers an area 3 km across and about 6.1 km long (1.9 by 3.8 miles).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  20. Adolescent health in South America.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    Since the 1950s, a significant amount of work has been done on behalf of the comprehensive health of young people in South America. This article focuses on the regional process of training health professionals to work with this age group. There are countries in which the growth of adolescent health training has been significant, others that have made progress but still have a narrower offer of teaching activities, and a few where only very basic and limited training is available. Latin American professional associations, scientific societies, and international organizations have also contributed to the education of the adolescent health work force. Although the training in the region has advanced in some countries to the point that there is specialization in adolescent medicine, much remains to be done. Certain regional conditions have contributed to the education of providers in adolescent care. The most important has been the existence of professionals who have been highly motivated to improve the health of young people. They have worked very hard and with great commitment to achieve this goal. There have also been important obstacles to educating professionals in adolescent care. Aside from the usual lack of funding, barriers have existed in the health care system and its providers, as well as the training entities and because of certain South American conditions. Finally, this article describes the regional adolescent medicine programs and the status of recognition of this specialty, and addresses the opportunities and challenges for adolescent health training. PMID:26115500

  1. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  2. Potential barriers to rapid testing for human immunodeficiency virus among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tshuma, Ndumiso; Muloongo, Keith; Setswe, Geoffrey; Chimoyi, Lucy; Sarfo, Bismark; Burger, Dina; Nyasulu, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine barriers to accessing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and testing (HCT) services among a commuter population. Methods A cross-sectional, venue-based intercept survey was conducted. Participants were recruited during a 2-day community campaign at the Noord Street taxi rank in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire loaded onto an electronic data collection system and analyzed using Stata software. Factors contributing to barriers for HCT were modeled using multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 1,146 (567 male and 579 female) individuals were interviewed; of these, 51.4% were females. The majority (59.5%) were aged 25–35 years. Significant factors were age group (15–19 years), marital status (married), educational level (high school), distance to the nearest clinic (>30 km), area of employment/residence (outside inner city), and number of sexual partners (more than one). Participants aged 15–19 years were more likely to report low-risk perception of HIV as a barrier to HCT (odds ratio [OR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–2.59), the married were more likely to report low-risk perception of HIV as a barrier to HCT (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.13–1.96), and those living outside the inner city were more likely to report lack of partner support as a potential barrier (OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.34–2.80), while those with a high school education were more likely to report poor health worker attitude as a potential barrier to HIV testing (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.36–3.45). Conclusion Age, marital status, occupation, educational level, area of employment and residence, distance to the nearest clinic, and number of sexual partners were factors significantly associated with barriers to HIV testing in the study population. Future HIV intervention targeting this population need to be reinforced in order to enhance HIV testing while taking cognizance of these factors

  3. Ethanol Making Significant Impact on South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the need for biorenewable fuels increases, the ethanol industry in the U.S. continues to thrive and grow. The same is true here in South Dakota as well. In fact, South Dakota has been a leader in ethanol production for years, and will continue to be for years to come. This industry is making a...

  4. South Africa: Challenge and Hope. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Lyle, Ed.

    In South Africa, racial identification determines all facets of a person's life--political, economic, and social. Divided into ten chapters, this book was prepared to increase public awareness of black South Africans' struggle for freedom. Chapter one discusses how the system of apartheid is built on the official identification of all citizens by…

  5. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Dakota. 32.61 Section 32.61 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.61 South Dakota. The following...

  6. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  7. Evaluating the MBA in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Mala; Lange, Lis; Naidoo, Prem

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Quality Committee of the Council on Higher Education in South Africa recently carried out an evaluation of all MBA programmes offered in the country by South African as well as foreign higher education institutions. The MBA review is located within the context of the implementation of a comprehensive external quality assurance…

  8. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  9. The Amerindians of South America. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Andrew

    This report provides an overview of the threats facing indigenous peoples in South America today and their efforts to resist invasion, colonization, and extermination. The first two sections outline the history of South America with regard to indigenous peoples; and the predominant features of Andean and lowland communities, religion, settlement,…

  10. South's Schools Pass Milestone on Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    According to a new report, the South region in the U.S. now has a "new majority" in its public schools: students from low-income families. Poor children, for the first time in at least 40 years, now constitute 54 percent of students in public schools across that part of the country. While that makes the South the nation's first geographic region…

  11. University Affiliated Facilities Program of South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winthrop Coll., Rock Hill, SC.

    The University Associated Facilities (UAF) Program of South Carolina is comprised of 24 colleges and universities under a grant awarded to Winthrop College and the University of South Carolina. Objectives of the program are to (1) provide interdisciplinary training to students from a broad range of disciplines in the evaluation and management of…

  12. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  13. Public Library Development in New South Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Today every citizen in New South Wales has access to public library services through a sophisticated network, a partnership between local and State Government. In fact, free public libraries in New South Wales only began to operate in any numbers after the end of World War II--not even sixty years ago. Why did it take so long here, bearing in mind…

  14. Ladybugs of South Dakota, 2nd edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 80 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as lady beetles, that occur in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. The second edition updates information, including the addition of a species new to South Dakota. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-fami...

  15. Teenage Pregnancy in South Carolina: Everybody's Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia.

    This publication examines in detail the problem of teenage pregnancy in South Carolina. Following the executive summary and a listing of eight recommendations based on the report, chapter 1 presents tables of selected vital statistics related to teen pregnancy in South Carolina. All statistics are shown by county and by Department of Health and…

  16. Financing Schools in the New South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In almost every dimension, South Africa has undergone dramatic changes since the end of apartheid. Public education in South Africa has been completely transformed from an amalgam of separate and highly unequal educational systems, defined in terms of the race and place of residence of students, into a unified system based on the principle of…

  17. The State of the South, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Alison; Guillory, Ferrel; Lipsitz, Joan; Rubin, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    State of the South 2004 is the fifth edition in MDC's State of the South series, which examines the region's economic and demographic landscape and how Southerners are faring within it. This edition considers the region through the lens of public education, 50 years after the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision. That…

  18. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  19. South Africa Divestiture. Target Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Joel

    This student resource guide prepared by the South Africa Catalyst Project for the United States Student Association (USSA) focuses on the student anti-apartheid movement and divestiture activities of American students. Divestiture of university-held stock in U.S. corporations operating in South Africa is the major focus of the student…

  20. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.427 Section 81.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  1. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.427 Section 81.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  2. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.427 Section 81.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  3. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.427 Section 81.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  4. Academic Entrepreneurship in South African HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundling, J. P.; Steynberg, L.

    2008-01-01

    This article first identifies the principal forces that impact on and shape entrepreneurially-oriented higher education institutions (HEIs) in South Africa, and then analyses the degree to which those institutions have succeeded in becoming entrepreneurial. The results reveal that South Africa's HEIs are still in the initial phases of…

  5. 50 CFR 32.60 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Carolina. 32.60 Section 32.60 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.60 South Carolina. The following...

  6. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  7. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  8. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections provides…

  9. Increasing Equity in Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RTI International, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The South African government has made significant efforts to overcome the legacy of apartheid education, committing itself to the dual goals of achieving high-quality education with more equitable access for all South Africans. Substantial investments have been made to achieve this vision, however, translating policies into improved school-level…

  10. 5. 30026 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 7 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 300-26 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 7 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF WEST (FRONT) AND SOUTH, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  11. 1. 21820 SOUTH FIFTH STREET, 3 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 218-20 SOUTH FIFTH STREET, 3 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, WITH COMMERCIAL ADDITIONS IN FRONT, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF WEST (FRONT) AND SOUTH, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. 3. SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, FROM PARKING LOT SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES, FROM PARKING LOT SOUTH OF BUILDING, APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET SOUTH OF SOUTH CORNER, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administrative Offices, On Seventh Street East of Maritime Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES FROM CENTER LANE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES FROM CENTER LANE OF PARKING AREA ON SOUTH AVENUE. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Laundry, Marine Barracks area, South Avenue between Seventh Street & Fuller Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. South side of reservoir with buildings 20 and 21 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side of reservoir with buildings 20 and 21 in background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Water Reservoir, West Bushnell Avenue, South side, 150 feet West of intersection of West Bushnell Avenue & South First Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view to southeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  16. South Fork Latrine, east elevation showing structure in context, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, east elevation showing structure in context, view west - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  17. 2. Elevated perspective of Scrap Platform, looking south. Delaware, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elevated perspective of Scrap Platform, looking south. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  18. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  19. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  20. 7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME