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Sample records for 803g south taxi

  1. Taxi 'sugar daddies' and taxi queens: male taxi driver attitudes regarding transactional relationships in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, Cheryl; Strebel, Anna; Shefer, Tamara; Wagner, Claire

    2012-11-01

    Media reports are emerging on the phenomenon of young girls who travel with older mini-bus taxi drivers, and who are thought to have sex with the drivers in exchange for gifts and money. The extent to which such relationships might facilitate unsafe sexual practices and increased risks for both the men and the young women, often referred to as taxi queens, remains an important question in the light of the current challenges of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. However, very little research has been undertaken on this issue, especially regarding the perceptions and experiences of taxi drivers. Thus this paper aims to provide some preliminary findings on taxi drivers' attitudes and beliefs about taxi queens and their relationships with taxi drivers. A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 223 male taxi drivers in two regions in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Taxi drivers in this study largely saw the relationship between taxi drivers and the young girls who ride with them as providing status for both the girls and drivers, and there seemed to be recognition of the transactional nature of the relationship between taxi drivers and taxi queens. The stigmatisation of young girls who ride with taxi drivers was evident. Drivers had knowledge and awareness of the risks of unsafe sex and supported condom use, although there appeared to be some uncertainty and confusion about the likelihood of HIV infection between drivers and girls. While taxi drivers recognised the role of alcohol in relationships with young girls, they seemed to deny that the abuse of drugs was common. The study highlights a number of key areas that need to be explored with men in the taxi industry, in order to address risk behaviours for both taxi drivers and the girls who ride with them.

  2. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) to decrease cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Gill, Pavan; Baser, Raymond; Leng, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating the positive impact of pedometers and walking programs for increasing physical activity and reducing risk for cardiovascular disease among diverse populations. However, no interventions have been targeted towards South Asian taxi drivers, a population that may be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) was a 12-week pilot study among South Asian taxi drivers to increase their daily step counts. SSTEP assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of an exercise intervention employing pedometers, a step diary, written materials, and telephone follow-up to initiate or increase physical activity in this at-risk occupational group. Seventy-four drivers were recruited to participate at sites frequented by South Asian taxi drivers. Participant inclusion criteria were: (1) age 18 or over; (2) birthplace in India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh; (3) fluent in English, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, or Bengali; and (4) intention to remain in New York City for the 3-month study period. Comprehensive intake and exit questionnaires were administered to participants in their preferred languages. Intake and exit health screenings, including blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose were completed. Daily step counts were obtained 4 days after recruitment, and at the 4-, 8-, and 12-week mark via phone calls. To measure the impact of the intervention, step counts, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body mass index were compared at intake and exit. Participants in SSTEP were sedentary at baseline. The SSTEP intervention resulted in a small increase in step counts among participants overall, and in a significant increase (>2,000 steps) among a subset ("Bigsteppers"). Drivers with higher baseline glucose values had significantly greater improvements in their step counts. Focused lifestyle interventions for drivers at high risk for cardiovascular disease may

  3. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  4. Perseus Taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle is seen here as it taxis on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The

  5. Jobs, food, taxis and journals: complexities of implementing Stepping Stones and Creating Futures in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Mbatha, Nompumelelo; Washington, Laura; Willan, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to refocus debates on structural interventions away from 'assessing' their effectiveness towards understanding processes around how such interventions are implemented. Implementation Science is focused on understanding potential challenges of translating interventions from highly controlled conditions into 'real life' settings. Using the case study of Stepping Stones and Creating Futures a structural and behavioural intervention to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviours amongst young women and men in urban informal settlements, we explore the challenges of implementing such an approach. We move beyond simply describing challenges of implementing, to understand how these challenges had an impact on the safe social space the intervention seeks to create as its underlying theory of change. We identify four major challenges of implementation: taxi fares, food provided during the intervention, young people's ongoing need to work and journals provided during the intervention. We suggest that, in different ways, these factors all impinged on the emergence of a safe social space. Understanding the challenges of implementing the intervention is critical for reflecting on scaling up interventions. Central to this is the need to work with participants to help them negotiate the challenges of participating in interventions.

  6. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  7. Pleiotropic aspartate taxis and serine taxis mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reader, R W; Tso, W W; Springer, M S; Goy, M F; Adler, J

    1979-04-01

    Mutants that at one time were thought to be specifically defective in taxis toward aspartate and related amino acids (tar mutants) or specifically defective in taxis toward serine and related amino acids (tar mutants) are now shown to be pleiotropic in their defects. The tar mutants also lack taxis toward maltose and away from Co2+ and Ni2+. The tsr mutants are altered in their response to a variety of repellents. Double mutants (tar tsr) fail in nearly all chemotactic responses. The tar and tsr mutants provide evidence for two complementary, converging pathways of information flow: certain chemoreceptors feed information into the tar pathway and others into the tsr pathway. The tar and tsr products have been shown to be two different sets of methylated proteins.

  8. On-board gaseous emissions of LPG taxis and estimation of taxi fleet emissions.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jason; Hung, W T; Cheung, C S

    2011-11-15

    Instantaneous CO, NO, and HC emissions and exhaust flow rates from four LPG taxis, which adhered to Euro 2-4 emission standards, were measured using a sophisticated portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Instantaneous air/fuel ratios, emission rates, and emission factors at different operating modes were derived to explore the emission characteristics of these four taxis. Results show that gaseous emissions from these four taxis exceed emission standards, due to extended vehicle use and poor maintenance. NO emissions from newer taxis are lower whilst CO and HC emissions of the Euro 4 taxi are similar to those of Euro 2 taxis during idling and low speed travel. The taxis emit lower amounts of gaseous pollutants whilst idling and emit the highest amounts of CO and NO whilst accelerating. Large fluctuations in air/fuel ratios can be observed from the Euro 4 taxi during idling, indicating a malfunction of fuel supply control to the engine. Such fluctuations are not observed from the other taxis. This shows that a Euro 4 taxi is not necessarily cleaner than a Euro 3 taxi. Emission factors derived from on-board measurements are applied to estimate gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet; these results show that emissions are higher during peak hour traffic conditions. An estimate of the taxi fleet's emissions whilst the older taxis are replaced is also calculated. It can be seen that faster replacement of older taxis can lead to reductions in gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet. This study shows that the PEMS is an adequate tool for measuring emissions from LPG vehicles and that there is an urgent need to enforce emission standards on taxis. This study also shows that on-board measurements should be incorporated in the estimation of emissions from other vehicle types. This would result in better emission estimations under local traffic conditions.

  9. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue.

    PubMed

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-21

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis-especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting-other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars.

  10. TAXI Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahiport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'TAXI Direct-to-Disk' interface is a special purpose interface unit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). The acronym 'TAXI' signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface. The TAXI interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket testing facility. The installation of the TAXI interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test.

  11. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis—especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting—other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars. PMID:28265081

  12. Pattern formation in prey-taxis systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, J M; Hillen, T; Lewis, M A

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we consider spatial predator-prey models with diffusion and prey-taxis. We investigate necessary conditions for pattern formation using a variety of non-linear functional responses, linear and non-linear predator death terms, linear and non-linear prey-taxis sensitivities, and logistic growth or growth with an Allee effect for the prey. We identify combinations of the above non-linearities that lead to spatial pattern formation and we give numerical examples. It turns out that prey-taxis stabilizes the system and for large prey-taxis sensitivity we do not observe pattern formation. We also study and find necessary conditions for global stability for a type I functional response, logistic growth for the prey, non-linear predator death terms, and non-linear prey-taxis sensitivity.

  13. Bacterial energy taxis: a global strategy?

    PubMed

    Schweinitzer, Tobias; Josenhans, Christine

    2010-07-01

    A functional energy metabolism is one of the most important requirements for survival of all kinds of organisms including bacteria. Therefore, many bacteria actively seek conditions of optimal metabolic activity, a behaviour which can be termed "energy taxis". Motility, combined with the sensory perception of the internal energetic conditions, is prerequisite for tactic responses to different energy levels and metabolic yields. Diverse mechanisms of energy sensing and tactic response have evolved among various bacteria. Many of the known energy taxis sensors group among the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP)-like sensors. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of energy taxis and explores the current concept that energy taxis is an important part of the bacterial behavioural repertoire in order to navigate towards more favourable metabolic niches and to survive in a specific habitat.

  14. Ecological role of energy taxis in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Gladys; Greer-Phillips, Suzanne; Zhulin, Igor B

    2004-02-01

    Motile microorganisms rapidly respond to changes in various physico-chemical gradients by directing their motility to more favorable surroundings. Energy generation is one of the most important parameters for the survival of microorganisms in their environment. Therefore it is not surprising that microorganisms are able to monitor changes in the cellular energy generating processes. The signal for this behavioral response, which is called energy taxis, originates within the electron transport system. By coupling energy metabolism and behavior, energy taxis is fine-tuned to the environment a cell finds itself in and allows efficient adaptation to changing conditions that affect cellular energy levels. Thus, energy taxis provides cells with a versatile sensory system that enables them to navigate to niches where energy generation is optimized. This behavior is likely to govern vertical species stratification and the active migration of motile cells in response to shifting gradients of electron donors and/or acceptors which are observed within microbial mats, sediments and soil pores. Energy taxis has been characterized in several species and might be widespread in the microbial world. Genome sequencing revealed that many microorganisms from aquatic and soil environments possess large numbers of chemoreceptors and are likely to be capable of energy taxis. In contrast, species that have a fewer number of chemoreceptors are often found in specific, confined environments, where relatively constant environmental conditions are expected. Future studies focusing on characterizing behavioral responses in species that are adapted to diverse environmental conditions should unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying sensory behavior in general and energy taxis in particular. Such knowledge is critical to a better understanding of the ecological role of energy taxis.

  15. Kwazulu-Natal minibus taxi drivers' perceptions on HIV and AIDS: transmission, prevention, support and effects on the industry.

    PubMed

    McHunu, Gugu; Ncama, Busisiwe; Naidoo, Joanne Rachel; Majeke, Sisana; Myeza, Thandazile; Ndebele, Thandiwe; Pillay, Padmini

    2012-11-01

    In South Africa, the minibus taxi drivers are largely becoming another high-risk category in the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Although previous studies have shown that knowledge of HIV and AIDS is relatively high among the taxi drivers it is still not clear how this sub-population perceive the support rendered to them with regard to HIV and AIDS prevention strategies. This study aimed to focus on this atypical workplace and explore the KwaZulu-Natal, minibus taxi drivers' perceptions on HIV and AIDS. In this study, qualitative methods were utilized to determine the minibus taxi drivers' understanding of HIV and AIDS infection, HIV prevention strategies, existing support strategies and effects of HIV and AIDS on the taxi industry. Focus-group discussions were conducted, to collect data. The results showed that even though the taxi drivers had some understanding on HIV and AIDS there was still a dire need for interventions that were geared towards addressing HIV-related needs of the drivers in this industry.

  16. Inferring Passenger Denial Behavior of Taxi Drivers from Large-Scale Taxi Traces

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sihai; Wang, Zhiyang

    2016-01-01

    How to understand individual human actions is a fundamental question to modern science, which drives and incurs many social, technological, racial, religious and economic phenomena. Human dynamics tries to reveal the temporal pattern and internal mechanism of human actions in letter or electronic communications, from the perspective of continuous interactions among friends or acquaintances. For interactions between stranger to stranger, taxi industry provide fruitful phenomina and evidence to investigate the action decisions. In fact, one striking disturbing events commonly reported in taxi industry is passenger refusing or denial, whose reasons vary, including skin color, blind passenger, being a foreigner or too close destination, religion reasons and anti specific nationality, so that complaints about taxi passenger refusing have to be concerned and processed carefully by local governments. But more universal factors for this phenomena are of great significance, which might be fulfilled by big data research to obtain novel insights in this question. In this paper, we demonstrate the big data analytics application in revealing novel insights from massive taxi trace data, which, for the first time, validates the passengers denial in taxi industry and estimates the denial ratio in Beijing city. We first quantify the income differentiation facts among taxi drivers. Then we find out that choosing the drop-off places also contributes to the high income for taxi drivers, compared to the previous explanation of mobility intelligence. Moreover, we propose the pick-up, drop-off and grid diversity concepts and related diversity analysis suggest that, high income taxi drivers will deny passengers in some situations, so as to choose the passengers’ destination they prefer. Finally we design an estimation method for denial ratio and infer that high income taxi drivers will deny passengers with 8.52% likelihood in Beijing. Our work exhibits the power of big data analysis in

  17. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  2. Global stability of prey-taxis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hai-Yang; Wang, Zhi-An

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we prove the global boundedness and stability of the predator-prey system with prey-taxis in a two-dimensional bounded domain with Neumann boundary conditions. By deriving an entropy-like equality and a boundedness criterion, we show that the intrinsic interaction between predators and preys is sufficient to prevent the population overcrowding even the prey-taxis is included and strong. Furthermore, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functionals, we show that prey-only steady state is globally asymptotically stable if the predation is weak, and the co-existence steady state is globally asymptotically stable under some conditions (like the prey-taxis is weak or the prey diffuses fast) if the predation is strong. The convergence rates of solutions to the steady states are derived in the paper.

  3. Continuous traveling waves for prey-taxis.

    PubMed

    Lee, J M; Hillen, T; Lewis, M A

    2008-04-01

    Spatially moving predators are often considered for biological control of invasive species. The question arises as to whether introduced predators are able to stop an advancing pest or foreign population. In recent studies of reaction-diffusion models, it has been shown that the prey invasion can only be stopped if the prey dynamics observes an Allee effect. In this paper, we include prey-taxis into the model. Prey-taxis describe the active movement of predators to regions of high prey density. This effect leads to the observation that predators are drawn away from the leading edge of a prey invasion where its density is low. This leads to counterintuitive result that prey-taxis can actually reduce the likelihood of effective biocontrol.

  4. Taxis response of various denitrifying bacteria to nitrate and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Yun; Ramos, Adela; Macomber, Lee; Shapleigh, James P

    2002-05-01

    The taxis response of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 and 2.4.3, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to nitrate and nitrite was evaluated by observing the macroscopic behavior of cells suspended in soft agar and incubated under various conditions. R. sphaeroides 2.4.3, which is capable of both nitrate and nitrite reduction, showed a taxis response to both nitrate and nitrite. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1, which contains nitrate reductase but not nitrite reductase, did not show a taxis response towards either nitrogen oxide. Insertional inactivation of the nitrite reductase structural gene or its transcriptional regulator, NnrR, in strain 2.4.3 caused a loss of a taxis response towards both nitrate and nitrite. An isolate of 2.4.1 carrying a copy of the nitrite reductase gene from 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to both nitrogen oxides. The taxis response of 2.4.3 was observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the taxis response was due to nitrate and nitrite respiration, not to inhibition of oxygen respiration by respiration of nitrogen oxides. Strain 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to nitrate and nitrite under photosynthetic and aerobic conditions. Changing the carbon source in the culture medium caused an unexpected subtle shift in the taxis response of 2.4.3 to nitrite. A taxis response to nitrogen oxides was also observed in R. palustris and A. tumefaciens. R. palustris exhibited a taxis response to nitrite but not to nitrate, while A. tumefaciens exhibited a response to both compounds.

  5. Taxis Response of Various Denitrifying Bacteria to Nitrate and Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Yun; Ramos, Adela; Macomber, Lee; Shapleigh, James P.

    2002-01-01

    The taxis response of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 and 2.4.3, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to nitrate and nitrite was evaluated by observing the macroscopic behavior of cells suspended in soft agar and incubated under various conditions. R. sphaeroides 2.4.3, which is capable of both nitrate and nitrite reduction, showed a taxis response to both nitrate and nitrite. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1, which contains nitrate reductase but not nitrite reductase, did not show a taxis response towards either nitrogen oxide. Insertional inactivation of the nitrite reductase structural gene or its transcriptional regulator, NnrR, in strain 2.4.3 caused a loss of a taxis response towards both nitrate and nitrite. An isolate of 2.4.1 carrying a copy of the nitrite reductase gene from 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to both nitrogen oxides. The taxis response of 2.4.3 was observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the taxis response was due to nitrate and nitrite respiration, not to inhibition of oxygen respiration by respiration of nitrogen oxides. Strain 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to nitrate and nitrite under photosynthetic and aerobic conditions. Changing the carbon source in the culture medium caused an unexpected subtle shift in the taxis response of 2.4.3 to nitrite. A taxis response to nitrogen oxides was also observed in R. palustris and A. tumefaciens. R. palustris exhibited a taxis response to nitrite but not to nitrate, while A. tumefaciens exhibited a response to both compounds. PMID:11976082

  6. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  7. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  8. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  9. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  10. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  11. Stochastic models for cell motion and taxis.

    PubMed

    Ionides, Edward L; Fang, Kathy S; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Oster, George F

    2004-01-01

    Certain biological experiments investigating cell motion result in time lapse video microscopy data which may be modeled using stochastic differential equations. These models suggest statistics for quantifying experimental results and testing relevant hypotheses, and carry implications for the qualitative behavior of cells and for underlying biophysical mechanisms. Directional cell motion in response to a stimulus, termed taxis, has previously been modeled at a phenomenological level using the Keller-Segel diffusion equation. The Keller-Segel model cannot distinguish certain modes of taxis, and this motivates the introduction of a richer class of models which is nevertheless still amenable to statistical analysis. A state space model formulation is used to link models proposed for cell velocity to observed data. Sequential Monte Carlo methods enable parameter estimation via maximum likelihood for a range of applicable models. One particular experimental situation, involving the effect of an electric field on cell behavior, is considered in detail. In this case, an Ornstein- Uhlenbeck model for cell velocity is found to compare favorably with a nonlinear diffusion model.

  12. 22. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, LOWER FLOOR PLANS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  13. 23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, UPPER FLOOR PLANS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  14. 21. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, RAMP DETAILS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  15. 25. Photocopy of engineering drawing, January, 1988 (original drawing located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of engineering drawing, January, 1988 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS (northeast and southeast) - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  16. 20. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of engineering drawing, April 10, 1958 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). READINESS CREW BUILDING, ELEVATIONS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  17. 24. Photocopy of engineering drawing, August 17, 1965 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of engineering drawing, August 17, 1965 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). 2080 READINESS CREW, COVERED WALKWAYS, PLAN AND DETAILS - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  18. 26. Photocopy of engineering drawing, March 3, 1988 (original drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of engineering drawing, March 3, 1988 (original drawing located at Fairchild Air Force Base, Civil Engineering Building, Civil Engineering Vault). EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS (southwest and northwest) - Fairchild Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility, 803G South Taxi Way, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  19. TAXI Direct-to-Disk Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahlport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface is a special-purpose interface circuit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). (The name TAXI as used here is derived from the acronym TAXI, which signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface.) The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket-testing facility. The control, data-recording, and data-postprocessing equipment of the facility are located in a control room at a safe distance from the test stand. Heretofore, the transfer of data from the instrumentation to the postprocessing equipment has entailed post-test downloading via software, requiring many hours to days of post-test reduction before the data could be viewed in a channelized format. The installation of the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test. The instrumentation is connected to the input terminals of the signal-processing unit of multichannel recorder by standard coaxial cables. The coaxial output of the signal processing unit is converted to fiber-optic output by means of a commercial coaxial-cable/fiber-optic converter (that is, a fiber-optic transceiver) designed specifically for this application. The fiber-optic link carries the data signals to an identical fiber-optic transceiver in the control room. On the way to the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface that is the focus of this article, the data signals are processed through a companion special purpose circuit denoted by the similar name parallel TAXI interface.

  20. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-06-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

  1. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery. PMID:26073316

  2. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  3. Drosophila photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gepner, Ruben; Bernat, Natalie; Kaplow, Margarita; Gershow, Marc

    In natural environments, the Drosophila larva makes navigational decisions based on variable and conflicting sensory inputs. How larvae respond to multi-modal stimuli and how their neural circuits integrate and prioritize multi-sensory information remains unknown. To identify larval navigational computations we developed a high-throughput reverse-correlation assay. We provided larvae with visual and optogenetically induced fictive olfactory stimuli and measured the correlation between the presented stimulus and evoked turn decisions. We used this technique to fit parameters of a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson model describing computations underlying turn decisions. For uni-modal inputs, the parameterized model allowed us to predict the behavior of populations of larvae responding to novel stimulus presentations. For multi-modal inputs, our assay showed that larvae linearly combine olfactory and visual signals upstream of the decision to turn. We verified this prediction using controlled combinations of stimuli. We studied other navigational decisions that determine the size and directions of turns and found that larvae integrated odor and light according to the same rule in all cases. These results suggest that photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway.

  4. Uncovering urban human mobility from large scale taxi GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jinjun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Taxi GPS trajectories data contain massive spatial and temporal information of urban human activity and mobility. Taking taxi as mobile sensors, the information derived from taxi trips benefits the city and transportation planning. The original data used in study are collected from more than 1100 taxi drivers in Harbin city. We firstly divide the city area into 400 different transportation districts and analyze the origin and destination distribution in urban area on weekday and weekend. The Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm is used to cluster pick-up and drop-off locations. Furthermore, four spatial interaction models are calibrated and compared based on trajectories in shopping center of Harbin city to study the pick-up location searching behavior. By extracting taxi trips from GPS data, travel distance, time and average speed in occupied and non-occupied status are then used to investigate human mobility. Finally, we use observed OD matrix of center area in Harbin city to model the traffic distribution patterns based on entropy-maximizing method, and the estimation performance verify its effectiveness in case study.

  5. Mining spatiotemporal patterns of urban dwellers from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Feng; Ji, Minhe; Liu, Ting

    2016-06-01

    With the widespread adoption of locationaware technology, obtaining long-sequence, massive and high-accuracy spatiotemporal trajectory data of individuals has become increasingly popular in various geographic studies. Trajectory data of taxis, one of the most widely used inner-city travel modes, contain rich information about both road network traffic and travel behavior of passengers. Such data can be used to study the microscopic activity patterns of individuals as well as the macro system of urban spatial structures. This paper focuses on trajectories obtained from GPS-enabled taxis and their applications for mining urban commuting patterns. A novel approach is proposed to discover spatiotemporal patterns of household travel from the taxi trajectory dataset with a large number of point locations. The approach involves three critical steps: spatial clustering of taxi origin-destination (OD) based on urban traffic grids to discover potentially meaningful places, identifying threshold values from statistics of the OD clusters to extract urban jobs-housing structures, and visualization of analytic results to understand the spatial distribution and temporal trends of the revealed urban structures and implied household commuting behavior. A case study with a taxi trajectory dataset in Shanghai, China is presented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed method.

  6. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  7. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a) Every air taxi operator who plans to commence operations under this part shall register with...

  8. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a) Every air taxi operator who plans to commence operations under this part shall register with...

  9. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a) Every air taxi operator who plans to commence operations under this part shall register with...

  10. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a) Every air taxi operator who plans to commence operations under this part shall register with...

  11. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a) Every air taxi operator who plans to commence operations under this part shall register with...

  12. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  13. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  14. Pilot Age and Error in Air-Taxi Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The associations of pilot error with the type of flight operations and basic weather conditions are well documented. The correlation between pilot characteristics and error is less clear. This study aims to examine whether pilot age is associated with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Methods Investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board for crashes involving non-scheduled Part 135 operations (i.e., air taxis) in the United States between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed to identify pilot error and other contributing factors. Crash circumstances and the presence and type of pilot error were analyzed in relation to pilot age using Chi-square tests. Results Of the 1751 air-taxi crashes studied, 28% resulted from mechanical failure, 25% from loss of control at landing or takeoff, 7% from visual flight rule conditions into instrument meteorological conditions, 7% from fuel starvation, 5% from taxiing, and 28% from other causes. Crashes among older pilots were more likely to occur during the daytime rather than at night and off airport than on airport. The patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes were similar across age groups. Of the errors identified, 27% were flawed decisions, 26% were inattentiveness, 23% mishandled aircraft kinetics, 15% mishandled wind and/or runway conditions, and 11% were others. Conclusions Pilot age is associated with crash circumstances but not with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Lack of age-related differences in pilot error may be attributable to the “safe worker effect.” PMID:19601508

  15. 77 FR 20789 - Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis AGENCY: National... Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to develop proposals to revise the...

  16. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane... aircraft is operating over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation....

  17. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane... aircraft is operating over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation....

  18. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane... aircraft is operating over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation....

  19. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll....

  20. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll....

  1. SR-71 - Taxi on Ramp with Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft taxiing on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, heat waves from its engines blurring the hangars in the background. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena

  2. The scaling of human mobility by taxis is exponential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Xudong; Lv, Weifeng; Zhu, Tongyu; Xu, Ke

    2012-03-01

    As a significant factor in urban planning, traffic forecasting and prediction of epidemics, modeling patterns of human mobility draws intensive attention from researchers for decades. Power-law distribution and its variations are observed from quite a few real-world human mobility datasets such as the movements of banking notes, trackings of cell phone users' locations and trajectories of vehicles. In this paper, we build models for 20 million trajectories with fine granularity collected from more than 10 thousand taxis in Beijing. In contrast to most models observed in human mobility data, the taxis' traveling displacements in urban areas tend to follow an exponential distribution instead of a power-law. Similarly, the elapsed time can also be well approximated by an exponential distribution. Worth mentioning, analysis of the interevent time indicates the bursty nature of human mobility, similar to many other human activities.

  3. Electron acceptor taxis and blue light effect on bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B L; Miller, J B; Warrick, H M; Koshland, D E

    1979-11-01

    Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli from anaerobic cultures displayed tactic responses to gradients of nitrate, fumarate, and oxygen when the appropriate electron transport pathway was present. Such responses were named "electron acceptor taxis" because they are elicited by terminal electron acceptors. Mutant strains of S. typhimurium and E. coli were used to establish that functioning electron transport pathways to nitrate and fumarate are required for taxis to these compounds. Aerotaxis in S. typhimurium was blocked by 1.0 mM KCN, which inhibited oxygen uptake. Similarly, a functioning electron transport pathway was shown to be essential for the tumbling response of S. typhimurium and E. coli to intense light (290 to 530 nm). Some inhibitors and uncouplers of respiration were repellents of S. typhimurium. We propose that behavioral responses to light or electron acceptors involve electron transport-mediated perturbations of the proton motive force.

  4. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2009-05-27

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25,000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature.

  5. Salmonella uses energy taxis to benefit from intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Winter, Sebastian E; Lopez, Christopher A; Xavier, Mariana N; Winter, Maria G; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Russell, Joseph M; Laughlin, Richard C; Lawhon, Sara D; Sterzenbach, Torsten; Bevins, Charles L; Tsolis, Renée M; Harshey, Rasika; Adams, L Garry; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis enhances the fitness of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) during colitis. However, the chemotaxis receptors conferring this fitness advantage and their cognate signals generated during inflammation remain unknown. Here we identify respiratory electron acceptors that are generated in the intestinal lumen as by-products of the host inflammatory response as in vivo signals for methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Three MCPs, including Trg, Tsr and Aer, enhanced the fitness of S. Typhimurium in a mouse colitis model. Aer mediated chemotaxis towards electron acceptors (energy taxis) in vitro and required tetrathionate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. Tsr mediated energy taxis towards nitrate but not towards tetrathionate in vitro and required nitrate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. These data suggest that the energy taxis receptors Tsr and Aer respond to distinct in vivo signals to confer a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium during inflammation by enabling this facultative anaerobic pathogen to seek out favorable spatial niches containing host-derived electron acceptors that boost its luminal growth.

  6. Salmonella Uses Energy Taxis to Benefit from Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Winter, Sebastian E.; Lopez, Christopher A.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Winter, Maria G.; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Russell, Joseph M.; Laughlin, Richard C.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Sterzenbach, Torsten; Bevins, Charles L.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Harshey, Rasika; Adams, L. Garry; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis enhances the fitness of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) during colitis. However, the chemotaxis receptors conferring this fitness advantage and their cognate signals generated during inflammation remain unknown. Here we identify respiratory electron acceptors that are generated in the intestinal lumen as by-products of the host inflammatory response as in vivo signals for methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Three MCPs, including Trg, Tsr and Aer, enhanced the fitness of S. Typhimurium in a mouse colitis model. Aer mediated chemotaxis towards electron acceptors (energy taxis) in vitro and required tetrathionate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. Tsr mediated energy taxis towards nitrate but not towards tetrathionate in vitro and required nitrate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. These data suggest that the energy taxis receptors Tsr and Aer respond to distinct in vivo signals to confer a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium during inflammation by enabling this facultative anaerobic pathogen to seek out favorable spatial niches containing host-derived electron acceptors that boost its luminal growth. PMID:23637594

  7. A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Justin Vincent; Wood, Zachary Paul; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Malik, Waqar Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, which include routing decisions for taxiing aircraft. The model extends an existing single route formulation to include routing decisions. An efficient comparison framework compares the multi-route formulation and the single route formulation. The multi-route model is exercised for east side airport surface traffic at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to determine if any arrival taxi time savings can be achieved by allowing arrivals to have two taxi routes: a route that crosses an active departure runway and a perimeter route that avoids the crossing. Results indicate that the multi-route formulation yields reduced arrival taxi times over the single route formulation only when a perimeter taxiway is used. In conditions where the departure aircraft are given an optimal and fixed takeoff sequence, accumulative arrival taxi time savings in the multi-route formulation can be as high as 3.6 hours more than the single route formulation. If the departure sequence is not optimal, the multi-route formulation results in less taxi time savings made over the single route formulation, but the average arrival taxi time is significantly decreased.

  8. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  9. Taxis of Pseudomonas putida F1 toward phenylacetic acid is mediated by the energy taxis receptor Aer2.

    PubMed

    Luu, Rita A; Schneider, Benjamin J; Ho, Christie C; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Ngwesse, Stacy E; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Juanito V; Ditty, Jayna L; Parales, Rebecca E

    2013-04-01

    The phenylacetic acid (PAA) degradation pathway is a widely distributed funneling pathway for the catabolism of aromatic compounds, including the environmental pollutants styrene and ethylbenzene. However, bacterial chemotaxis to PAA has not been studied. The chemotactic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 has the ability to utilize PAA as a sole carbon and energy source. We identified a putative PAA degradation gene cluster (paa) in P. putida F1 and demonstrated that PAA serves as a chemoattractant. The chemotactic response was induced during growth with PAA and was dependent on PAA metabolism. A functional cheA gene was required for the response, indicating that PAA is sensed through the conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system. A P. putida F1 mutant lacking the energy taxis receptor Aer2 was deficient in PAA taxis, indicating that Aer2 is responsible for mediating the response to PAA. The requirement for metabolism and the role of Aer2 in the response indicate that P. putida F1 uses energy taxis to detect PAA. We also revealed that PAA is an attractant for Escherichia coli; however, a mutant lacking a functional Aer energy receptor had a wild-type response to PAA in swim plate assays, suggesting that PAA is detected through a different mechanism in E. coli. The role of Aer2 as an energy taxis receptor provides the potential to sense a broad range of aromatic growth substrates as chemoattractants. Since chemotaxis has been shown to enhance the biodegradation of toxic pollutants, the ability to sense PAA gradients may have implications for the bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons that are degraded via the PAA pathway.

  10. Taxis of Pseudomonas putida F1 toward Phenylacetic Acid Is Mediated by the Energy Taxis Receptor Aer2

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Rita A.; Schneider, Benjamin J.; Ho, Christie C.; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Ngwesse, Stacy E.; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Juanito V.; Ditty, Jayna L.

    2013-01-01

    The phenylacetic acid (PAA) degradation pathway is a widely distributed funneling pathway for the catabolism of aromatic compounds, including the environmental pollutants styrene and ethylbenzene. However, bacterial chemotaxis to PAA has not been studied. The chemotactic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 has the ability to utilize PAA as a sole carbon and energy source. We identified a putative PAA degradation gene cluster (paa) in P. putida F1 and demonstrated that PAA serves as a chemoattractant. The chemotactic response was induced during growth with PAA and was dependent on PAA metabolism. A functional cheA gene was required for the response, indicating that PAA is sensed through the conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system. A P. putida F1 mutant lacking the energy taxis receptor Aer2 was deficient in PAA taxis, indicating that Aer2 is responsible for mediating the response to PAA. The requirement for metabolism and the role of Aer2 in the response indicate that P. putida F1 uses energy taxis to detect PAA. We also revealed that PAA is an attractant for Escherichia coli; however, a mutant lacking a functional Aer energy receptor had a wild-type response to PAA in swim plate assays, suggesting that PAA is detected through a different mechanism in E. coli. The role of Aer2 as an energy taxis receptor provides the potential to sense a broad range of aromatic growth substrates as chemoattractants. Since chemotaxis has been shown to enhance the biodegradation of toxic pollutants, the ability to sense PAA gradients may have implications for the bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons that are degraded via the PAA pathway. PMID:23377939

  11. Factors associated with crashes involving taxi owners and non-owners: A case of moral hazard and adverse selection?

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard; Choi, Jaisung

    2016-02-01

    Taxis experience a higher risk of a motor vehicle crash partly because of their much higher levels of exposure on the roads. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with the frequency and severity of taxi collisions, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors associated with owner taxis and non-owner taxis. This study finds that collisions involving non-owners are more likely to be associated with poor or risky driving behaviors than collisions involving taxi vehicle owners. This result is consistent with the economic principles of moral hazard and adverse selection. Hence, policy makers responsible for traffic safety, taxi regulation or taxi operations should consider measures to reduce these market inefficiencies and improve the safety of not only taxi drivers but all road users.

  12. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  13. Taxis but not private cars are mite allergen reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taketomi, E A; Justino, C M; Pereira, F L; Segundo, G R; Sopelete, M C; Sung, S J; Silva, D A

    2006-01-01

    Indoor allergens are major causative agents in allergic disease development. Besides homes, public transport vehicles have been considered important mite and pet allergen reservoirs. Our recent studies on allergen exposure in automobiles showed that different allergen levels are found in private cars versus taxis. We quantified group 1 Dermatophagoides spp. (Der 1), Felis domesticus (Fel d 1), and Canis familiaris (Can f 1) allergen levels by ELISA in dust samples from 60 taxi and 60 private car upholstered seats. Mean levels of Der 1 and Fel d 1 were significantly higher in taxis than private cars. A significantly higher percentage of taxis (42%) harboring sensitizing levels of Der 1 compared to private cars (5%) was also found. In spite of the low mean Fel d 1 levels, comparison of the percentage of vehicles with moderate Fel d 1 levels showed a significant difference between taxis and private cars (43% vs. 20%). On the other hand, mean Can f 1 levels were significantly higher in private cars compared to taxis concomitant with a significantly higher percentage of private cars containing moderate Can f 1 levels than taxis (53% vs. 28%). We conclude that upholstered seats from Brazilian taxis but not private cars constitute an important mite allergen reservoir. Thus, additional effective measures for the reduction of allergen exposure in vehicles within the global allergen avoidance strategy should also be routinely accomplished to minimize the induction of sensitization and symptoms in allergic patients.

  14. Driving to better health: cancer and cardiovascular risk assessment among taxi cab operators in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Apantaku-Onayemi, Funmi; Baldyga, William; Amuwo, Shaffdeen; Adefuye, Adedeji; Mason, Terry; Mitchell, Robin; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-05-01

    While a number of investigations of the health of taxi cab drivers have been conducted in Europe, Asia, and Africa, virtually none have been conducted in the United States. We undertook a survey of taxi cab operators in the Chicago area to understand better their health status and health promotion practices. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 751 Chicago taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had low rates of insurance coverage, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity compared with the general Chicago population. Participation in cancer screening tests was also lower for this group. A high proportion of taxi drivers are immigrants. They tend to be highly educated and report a readiness to engage in more health-promoting behaviors. Further research is needed to develop a targeted intervention for this population.

  15. Driving to Better Health: Cancer and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment among Taxi Cab Operators in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Apantaku-Onayemi, Funmi; Baldyga, William; Amuwo, Shaffdeen; Adefuye, Adedeji; Mason, Terry; Mitchell, Robin; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    While a number of investigations of the health of taxi cab drivers have been conducted in Europe, Asia, and Africa, virtually none have been conducted in the United States. We undertook a survey of taxi cab operators in the Chicago area to understand better their health status and health promotion practices. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 751 Chicago taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had low rates of insurance coverage, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity compared with the general Chicago population. Participation in cancer screening tests was also lower for this group. A high proportion of taxi drivers are immigrants. They tend to be highly educated and report a readiness to engage in more health-promoting behaviors. Further research is needed to develop a targeted intervention for this population. PMID:22643623

  16. Measurement of cellular chemotaxis with ECIS/Taxis.

    PubMed

    Pietrosimone, Kathryn M; Yin, Xiuyin; Knecht, David A; Lynes, Michael A

    2012-04-01

    Cellular movement in response to external stimuli is fundamental to many cellular processes including wound healing, inflammation and the response to infection. A common method to measure chemotaxis is the Boyden chamber assay, in which cells and chemoattractant are separated by a porous membrane. As cells migrate through the membrane toward the chemoattractant, they adhere to the underside of the membrane, or fall into the underlying media, and are subsequently stained and visually counted (1). In this method, cells are exposed to a steep and transient chemoattractant gradient, which is thought to be a poor representation of gradients found in tissues (2). Another assay system, the under-agarose chemotaxis assay, (3, 4) measures cell movement across a solid substrate in a thin aqueous film that forms under the agarose layer. The gradient that develops in the agarose is shallow and is thought to be an appropriate representation of naturally occurring gradients. Chemotaxis can be evaluated by microscopic imaging of the distance traveled. Both the Boyden chamber assay and the under-agarose assay are usually configured as endpoint assays. The automated ECIS/Taxis system combines the under-agarose approach with Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) (5, 6). In this assay, target electrodes are located in each of 8 chambers. A large counter-electrode runs through each of the 8 chambers (Figure 2). Each chamber is filled with agarose and two small wells are the cut in the agarose on either side of the target electrode. One well is filled with the test cell population, while the other holds the sources of diffusing chemoattractant (Figure 3). Current passed through the system can be used to determine the change in resistance that occurs as cells pass over the target electrode. Cells on the target electrode increase the resistance of the system (6). In addition, rapid fluctuations in the resistance represent changes in the interactions of cells with the electrode

  17. XB-70A during startup and ramp taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The XB-70 was the world's largest experimental aircraft. Capable of flight at speeds of three times the speed of sound (2,000 miles per hour) at altitudes of 70,000 feet, the XB-70 was used to collect in-flight information for use in the design of future supersonic aircraft, military and civilian. This 35-second video shows the startup of the XB-70A airplane engines, the beginning of its taxi to the runway, and a turn on the ramp that shows the unique configuration of this aircraft.

  18. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  19. SemanticTraj: A New Approach to Interacting with Massive Taxi Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Al-Dohuki, Shamal; Wu, Yingyu; Kamw, Farah; Yang, Jing; Li, Xin; Zhao, Ye; Ye, Xinyue; Chen, Wei; Ma, Chao; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Massive taxi trajectory data is exploited for knowledge discovery in transportation and urban planning. Existing tools typically require users to select and brush geospatial regions on a map when retrieving and exploring taxi trajectories and passenger trips. To answer seemingly simple questions such as "What were the taxi trips starting from Main Street and ending at Wall Street in the morning?" or "Where are the taxis arriving at the Art Museum at noon typically coming from?", tedious and time consuming interactions are usually needed since the numeric GPS points of trajectories are not directly linked to the keywords such as "Main Street", "Wall Street", and "Art Museum". In this paper, we present SemanticTraj, a new method for managing and visualizing taxi trajectory data in an intuitive, semantic rich, and efficient means. With SemanticTraj, domain and public users can find answers to the aforementioned questions easily through direct queries based on the terms. They can also interactively explore the retrieved data in visualizations enhanced by semantic information of the trajectories and trips. In particular, taxi trajectories are converted into taxi documents through a textualization transformation process. This process maps GPS points into a series of street/POI names and pick-up/drop-off locations. It also converts vehicle speeds into user-defined descriptive terms. Then, a corpus of taxi documents is formed and indexed to enable flexible semantic queries over a text search engine. Semantic labels and meta-summaries of the results are integrated with a set of visualizations in a SemanticTraj prototype, which helps users study taxi trajectories quickly and easily. A set of usage scenarios are presented to show the usability of the system. We also collected feedback from domain experts and conducted a preliminary user study to evaluate the visual system.

  20. Human Mars Mission Performance Crew Taxi Profile. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duaro, Vince A.

    1999-01-01

    This timeline was generated on the Integrated Mission Program (IMP). All burn events over 2 seconds are finite with IMP solving a two point boundary value setup for begin burn time, burn time and control angles. Perigee and apogee shown above are mean orbital values. Significant events are listed. Each finite thrust event has two lines. The first is the beginning time showing the initial conditions, thrust and ISP used. The second has the end burn conditions and the delta v and time of burn. This case is an abort from the 750 x 750 phasing abort, using the taxi's main engines. An abort using the Reaction Control System (RCS) was also investigated but required a large increase in RCS propellant and was abandoned.

  1. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  2. Characterization of Halobacterium halobium mutants defective in taxis.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, S A; Alam, M; Lebert, M; Spudich, J L; Oesterhelt, D; Hazelbauer, G L

    1990-05-01

    Mutant derivatives of Halobacterium halobium previously isolated by using a procedure that selected for defective phototactic response to white light were examined for an array of phenotypic characteristics related to phototaxis and chemotaxis. The properties tested were unstimulated swimming behavior, behaviorial responses to temporal gradients of light and spatial gradients of chemoattractants, content of photoreceptor pigments, methylation of methyl-accepting taxis proteins, and transient increases in rate of release of volatile methyl groups induced by tactic stimulation. Several distinct phenotypes were identified, corresponding to a mutant missing photoreceptors, a mutant defective in the methyltransferase, a mutant altered in control of the methylesterase, and mutants apparently defective in intracellular signaling. All except the photoreceptor mutant were defective in both chemotaxis and phototaxis.

  3. Glycerol elicits energy taxis of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Zhulin, I B; Rowsell, E H; Johnson, M S; Taylor, B L

    1997-05-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium show positive chemotaxis to glycerol, a chemical previously reported to be a repellent for E. coli. The threshold of the attractant response in both species was 10(-6) M glycerol. Glycerol chemotaxis was energy dependent and coincident with an increase in membrane potential. Metabolism of glycerol was required for chemotaxis, and when lactate was present to maintain energy production in the absence of glycerol, the increases in membrane potential and chemotactic response upon addition of glycerol were abolished. Methylation of a chemotaxis receptor was not required for positive glycerol chemotaxis in E. coli or S. typhimurium but is involved in the negative chemotaxis of E. coli to high concentrations of glycerol. We propose that positive chemotaxis to glycerol in E. coli and S. typhimurium is an example of energy taxis mediated via a signal transduction pathway that responds to changes in the cellular energy level.

  4. Pili-taxis: Clustering of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taktikos, Johannes; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Biais, Nicolas; Stark, Holger; Weitz, David A.

    2012-02-01

    The first step of colonization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria, the etiological agent of gonorrhea, is the attachment to human epithelial cells. The attachment of N. gonorrhoeae bacteria to surfaces or other cells is primarily mediated by filamentous appendages, called type IV pili (Tfp). Cycles of elongation and retraction of Tfp are responsible for a common bacterial motility called twitching motility which allows the bacteria to crawl over surfaces. Experimentally, N. gonorrhoeae cells initially dispersed over a surface agglomerate into round microcolonies within hours. It is so far not known whether this clustering is driven entirely by the Tfp dynamics or if chemotactic interactions are needed. Thus, we investigate whether the agglomeration may stem solely from the pili-mediated attraction between cells. By developing a statistical model for pili-taxis, we try to explain the experimental measurements of the time evolution of the mean cluster size, number of clusters, and area fraction covered by the cells.

  5. Taxis assays measure directional movement of mosquitoes to olfactory cues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria control methods targeting indoor-biting mosquitoes have limited impact on vectors that feed and rest outdoors. Exploiting mosquito olfactory behaviour to reduce blood-feeding outdoors might be a sustainable approach to complement existing control strategies. Methodologies that can objectively quantify responses to odour under realistic field conditions and allow high-throughput screening of many compounds are required for development of effective odour-based control strategies. Methods The olfactory responses of laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae in a semi-field tunnel and A. arabiensis females in an outdoor field setting to three stimuli, namely whole human odour, a synthetic blend of carboxylic acids plus carbon dioxide and CO2 alone at four distances up to 100 metres were measured in two experiments using three-chambered taxis boxes that allow mosquito responses to natural or experimentally-introduced odour cues to be quantified. Results Taxis box assays could detect both activation of flight and directional mosquito movement. Significantly more (6-18%) A. arabiensis mosquitoes were attracted to natural human odour in the field up to 30 metres compared to controls, and blended synthetic human odours attracted 20% more A. gambiae in the semi-field tunnel up to 70 metres. Whereas CO2 elicited no response in A. arabiensis in the open field, it was attractive to A. gambiae up to 50 metres (65% attraction compared to 36% in controls). Conclusions We have developed a simple reproducible system to allow for the comparison of compounds that are active over medium- to long-ranges in semi-field or full-field environments. Knowing the natural range of attraction of anopheline mosquitoes to potential blood sources has substantial implications for the design of malaria control strategies, and adds to the understanding of olfactory behaviour in mosquitoes. This experimental strategy could also be extended from malaria vectors to other motile arthropods of

  6. Increasing influenza vaccination in New York City taxi drivers: A community driven approach.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Mujawar, Imran

    2015-05-21

    The Healthy People 2020 influenza immunization goal is 80% for non-institutionalized adults 18-64. However, vaccination rates remain stubbornly low. Culturally tailored approaches to communities with poor vaccine uptake are necessary. Taxi drivers are at risk for influenza and its complications, could serve as vectors for influenza infection, and could be an effective vaccination target to enhance herd immunity of the urban population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study related to influenza vaccination among taxi drivers. The NYC Taxi Network surveyed a convenience sample of 53 taxi drivers to understand vaccination barriers. Only 17% had been vaccinated. Results informed a pilot tailored workplace intervention, which resulted in vaccinations for 44% of unvaccinated drivers. The study revealed that older drivers were more likely to be vaccinated than younger drivers, while the most common barrier to immunization was that drivers thought vaccination was 'not necessary'.

  7. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liyong; Zhang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly.

  8. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  9. Unexpected chemoreceptors mediate energy taxis towards electron acceptors in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Baraquet, Claudine; Théraulaz, Laurence; Iobbi-Nivol, Chantal; Méjean, Vincent; Jourlin-Castelli, Cécile

    2009-07-01

    Shewanella oneidensis uses a wide range of terminal electron acceptors for respiration. In this study, we show that the chemotactic response of S. oneidensis to anaerobic electron acceptors requires functional electron transport systems. Deletion of the genes encoding dimethyl sulphoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide reductases, or inactivation of these molybdoenzymes as well as nitrate reductase by addition of tungstate, abolished electron acceptor taxis. Moreover, addition of nigericin prevented taxis towards trimethylamine N-oxide, dimethyl sulphoxide, nitrite, nitrate and fumarate, showing that this process depends on the DeltapH component of the proton motive force. These data, together with those concerning response to metals (Bencharit and Ward, 2005), support the idea that, in S. oneidensis, taxis towards electron acceptors is governed by an energy taxis mechanism. Surprisingly, energy taxis in S. oneidensis is not mediated by the PAS-containing chemoreceptors but rather by a chemoreceptor (SO2240) containing a Cache domain. Four other chemoreceptors also play a minor role in this process. These results indicate that energy taxis can be mediated by new types of chemoreceptors.

  10. Nonconstant Positive Steady States and Pattern Formation of 1D Prey-Taxis Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Yang; Shao, Lingjie

    2016-08-01

    Prey-taxis is the process that predators move preferentially toward patches with highest density of prey. It is well known to have an important role in biological control and the maintenance of biodiversity. To model the coexistence and spatial distributions of predator and prey species, this paper concerns nonconstant positive steady states of a wide class of prey-taxis systems with general functional responses over 1D domain. Linearized stability of the positive equilibrium is analyzed to show that prey-taxis destabilizes prey-predator homogeneity when prey repulsion (e.g., due to volume-filling effect in predator species or group defense in prey species) is present, and prey-taxis stabilizes the homogeneity otherwise. Then, we investigate the existence and stability of nonconstant positive steady states to the system through rigorous bifurcation analysis. Moreover, we provide detailed and thorough calculations to determine properties such as pitchfork and turning direction of the local branches. Our stability results also provide a stable wave mode selection mechanism for thee reaction-advection-diffusion systems including prey-taxis models considered in this paper. Finally, we provide numerical studies of prey-taxis systems with Holling-Tanner kinetics to illustrate and support our theoretical findings. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that the 2× 2 prey-taxis system is able to model the formation and evolution of various striking patterns, such as spikes, periodic oscillations, and coarsening even when the domain is one-dimensional. These dynamics can model the coexistence and spatial distributions of interacting prey and predator species. We also give some insights on how system parameters influence pattern formation in these models.

  11. Nonconstant Positive Steady States and Pattern Formation of 1D Prey-Taxis Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Yang; Shao, Lingjie

    2017-02-01

    Prey-taxis is the process that predators move preferentially toward patches with highest density of prey. It is well known to have an important role in biological control and the maintenance of biodiversity. To model the coexistence and spatial distributions of predator and prey species, this paper concerns nonconstant positive steady states of a wide class of prey-taxis systems with general functional responses over 1D domain. Linearized stability of the positive equilibrium is analyzed to show that prey-taxis destabilizes prey-predator homogeneity when prey repulsion (e.g., due to volume-filling effect in predator species or group defense in prey species) is present, and prey-taxis stabilizes the homogeneity otherwise. Then, we investigate the existence and stability of nonconstant positive steady states to the system through rigorous bifurcation analysis. Moreover, we provide detailed and thorough calculations to determine properties such as pitchfork and turning direction of the local branches. Our stability results also provide a stable wave mode selection mechanism for thee reaction-advection-diffusion systems including prey-taxis models considered in this paper. Finally, we provide numerical studies of prey-taxis systems with Holling-Tanner kinetics to illustrate and support our theoretical findings. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that the 2× 2 prey-taxis system is able to model the formation and evolution of various striking patterns, such as spikes, periodic oscillations, and coarsening even when the domain is one-dimensional. These dynamics can model the coexistence and spatial distributions of interacting prey and predator species. We also give some insights on how system parameters influence pattern formation in these models.

  12. Electrical nature of the taxis signal in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Murvanidze, G V; Glagolev, A N

    1982-04-01

    Electrical events after a light-dark stimulus were studied in the multicellular organism Phormidium uncinatum. Normally, such a stimulus causes the gliding trichome to reverse direction. By directing a large light spot on the end of a batch of trichomes and then switching it off, we achieved synchronization of the trichomes, since the "head" is much more sensitive than the "tail." The abrupt disappearance of a uniform light produced a depolarization wave which initiated at the head, as registered by externally applied electrodes. The second stimulus produced a depolarization of the opposite direction, reflecting the reorientation of the trichomes. No electrical response was observed at Ca2+ concentrations less than or equal to 10(-8) M. Factors causing oscillatory reversals, i.e., a combination of Ca2+ and A23187, or a viscous environment also abolished the electrical signal. Changes in an externally applied electrical field (4 V/cm2) had little effect on the motile behavior of P. uncinatum or Oscillatoria princeps. However, in the presence of 5 microM Ca2+-1 microM A23187, all the trichomes reversed synchronously to the anode after a change in polarity of an externally applied electrical field. We suggest that an increased Ca2+ concentration together with a change in delta psi (or delta mu H+) represents the taxis signal in cyanobacteria.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers.

  14. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Arphorn, Sara; Jirapongsuwan, Ann

    2016-10-08

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from participant health check-up files. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographics, driving mileage, working hours, and lifestyle. Statistical associations were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Our results showed that obesity (p=0.007), daily alcohol drinking (p=0.003), and current or past smoking (p=0.016) were associated with higher HCT levels. While working hours were not directly associated with HCT levels in the current study, the effect on overworking is statistically arguable because most participants worked substantially longer hours. Our findings suggest that taxi drivers' CVD risk may be increased by their unhealthy work styles. Initiatives to improve general working conditions for taxi drivers should take into account health promotion and CVD prevention. The policy of providing periodic health check-ups is important to make workers in the informal sector aware of their health status.

  15. 77 FR 12103 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations AGENCY... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13, this notice announces the intention of the... the following collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations, responsibility for which has...

  16. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control 1: Automatic rollout, turnoff, and taxis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1981-01-01

    A study developed for the TCV B-737, designed to apply existing navigation aids plus magnetic leader cable signals and develop breaking and reverse thrust guidance laws to provide for rapid automated rollout, turnoff, and taxi to reduce runway occupation time for a wide variety of landing conditions for conventional commercial-type aircraft, is described. Closed loop guidance laws for braking and reverse thrust are derived for rollout, turnoff, and taxi, as functions of the landing speed, the desired taxi speed and the distance to go. Brake limitations for wet runway conditions and reverse thrust limitations are taken into account to provide decision rules to avoid tire skid and to choose an alternate turnoff point, farther down the runway, to accommodate extreme landing conditions.

  17. Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

  18. Cloning and characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene involved in the negative regulation of phosphate taxis.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Sakai, Y; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1994-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 exhibited a positive chemotactic response to P(i). The chemotactic response was induced by P(i) limitation. An alkaline phosphatase (AP) constitutive mutant showed a chemotactic response to P(i), regardless of whether the cells were starved for P(i). Sequence analysis and complementation studies showed that the P. aeruginosa phoU gene was involved both in the regulation of AP expression and in the induction of P(i) taxis. However, unlike AP expression, P(i) taxis was not regulated by the phoB gene product.

  19. Conserved residues in the HAMP domain define a new family of proposed bipartite energy taxis receptors.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Zhulin, Igor B; Stuckey, Jeanne A; DiRita, Victor J

    2009-01-01

    HAMP domains, found in many bacterial signal transduction proteins, generally transmit an intramolecular signal between an extracellular sensory domain and an intracellular signaling domain. Studies of HAMP domains in proteins where both the input and output signals occur intracellularly are limited to those of the Aer energy taxis receptor of Escherichia coli, which has both a HAMP domain and a sensory PAS domain. Campylobacter jejuni has an energy taxis system consisting of the domains of Aer divided between two proteins, CetA (HAMP domain containing) and CetB (PAS domain containing). In this study, we found that the CetA HAMP domain differs significantly from that of Aer in the predicted secondary structure. Using similarity searches, we identified 55 pairs of HAMP/PAS proteins encoded by adjacent genes in a diverse group of microorganisms. We propose that these HAMP/PAS pairs form a new family of bipartite energy taxis receptors. Within these proteins, we identified nine residues in the HAMP domain and proximal signaling domain that are highly conserved, at least three of which are required for CetA function. Additionally, we demonstrated that CetA contributes to the invasion of human epithelial cells by C. jejuni, while CetB does not. This finding supports the hypothesis that members of HAMP/PAS pairs possess the capacity to act independently of each other in cellular traits other than energy taxis.

  20. Continuous lateral oscillations as a core mechanism for taxis in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Wystrach, Antoine; Lagogiannis, Konstantinos; Webb, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Taxis behaviour in Drosophila larva is thought to consist of distinct control mechanisms triggering specific actions. Here, we support a simpler hypothesis: that taxis results from direct sensory modulation of continuous lateral oscillations of the anterior body, sparing the need for ‘action selection’. Our analysis of larvae motion reveals a rhythmic, continuous lateral oscillation of the anterior body, encompassing all head-sweeps, small or large, without breaking the oscillatory rhythm. Further, we show that an agent-model that embeds this hypothesis reproduces a surprising number of taxis signatures observed in larvae. Also, by coupling the sensory input to a neural oscillator in continuous time, we show that the mechanism is robust and biologically plausible. The mechanism provides a simple architecture for combining information across modalities, and explaining how learnt associations modulate taxis. We discuss the results in the light of larval neural circuitry and make testable predictions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15504.001 PMID:27751233

  1. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers.

  2. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 330 - Forms for Air Taxi Operators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms for Air Taxi Operators C Appendix C to Part 330 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Pt. 330, App. C Appendix C...

  3. Evolution of taxis responses in virtual bacteria: non-adaptive dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Richard A; Soyer, Orkun S

    2008-05-23

    Bacteria are able to sense and respond to a variety of external stimuli, with responses that vary from stimuli to stimuli and from species to species. The best-understood is chemotaxis in the model organism Escherichia coli, where the dynamics and the structure of the underlying pathway are well characterised. It is not clear, however, how well this detailed knowledge applies to mechanisms mediating responses to other stimuli or to pathways in other species. Furthermore, there is increasing experimental evidence that bacteria integrate responses from different stimuli to generate a coherent taxis response. We currently lack a full understanding of the different pathway structures and dynamics and how this integration is achieved. In order to explore different pathway structures and dynamics that can underlie taxis responses in bacteria, we perform a computational simulation of the evolution of taxis. This approach starts with a population of virtual bacteria that move in a virtual environment based on the dynamics of the simple biochemical pathways they harbour. As mutations lead to changes in pathway structure and dynamics, bacteria better able to localise with favourable conditions gain a selective advantage. We find that a certain dynamics evolves consistently under different model assumptions and environments. These dynamics, which we call non-adaptive dynamics, directly couple tumbling probability of the cell to increasing stimuli. Dynamics that are adaptive under a wide range of conditions, as seen in the chemotaxis pathway of E. coli, do not evolve in these evolutionary simulations. However, we find that stimulus scarcity and fluctuations during evolution results in complex pathway dynamics that result both in adaptive and non-adaptive dynamics depending on basal stimuli levels. Further analyses of evolved pathway structures show that effective taxis dynamics can be mediated with as few as two components. The non-adaptive dynamics mediating taxis responses

  4. Effect of Surface Traffic Count on Taxi Time at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gupta, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of air traffic increases over the years, most airports simply do not have the means of expanding to handle the intensified traffic on the surface that will ensue. Precise surveillance equipment and automation concepts, as well as advanced surface traffic algorithms are being developed to improve airport efficiency. These surface algorithms require inputs unique to each airport to ensure maximum efficiency, and minimal taxi delay. This study analyzes surface traffic at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) to determine the effect of the number of aircraft on the surface and the amount of stop and go situations they experience to the amount of additional taxi time encountered. If the surface capacity of an airport is known, minimal delay can be accomplished by limiting the number of taxiing aircraft to that capacity. This concept is related to highways, where traffic flow drastically decreases as more cars occupy the road. An attempt to minimize this effect on highways is seen with the use of metering lights at freeway on-ramps. Since the surface traffic at airports is highly regulated, and aircraft are less mobile on the ground, limiting the surface count to a certain number can greatly reduce the amount of additional taxi time encountered, as well as reduce hazardous emissions. This study will also find the regions of an airport that encounter the most additional taxi time when the number of aircraft in that area is increased. This could help surface traffic algorithms avoid congesting that area, or re-route aircraft to different runways when that area reaches its capacity. The relationship between the amount of stop and go situations an aircraft encounters and their effect on the taxi time of that aircraft will also be investigated. This will help to determine the effect of holding an aircraft on the taxiway as opposed to re-routing it. The lesser of the two should be used when developing surface traffic algorithms to further minimize the

  5. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Cao, Xinyue; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xintong; He, Kebin

    2014-09-01

    To alleviate air pollution and lessen the petroleum demand from the motor vehicle sector in China, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been rapidly developed over the last several years. However, the understanding of the real-world emissions of NGVs is very limited. In this study, the emissions from 20 compressed-natural-gas-fueled bi-fuel taxis were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual driving conditions in Yichang, China. The emission characteristics of the tested vehicles were analyzed, revealing that the average CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the tested compressed-natural-gas (CNG) taxis under urban driving conditions were 1.6, 4.0, 2.0 and 0.98 times those under highway road conditions, respectively. The CO, HC and NOx emissions from Euro 3 CNG vehicles were approximately 40%, 55% and 44% lower than those from Euro 2 vehicles, respectively. Compared with the values for light-duty gasoline vehicles reported in the literature, the CO2 and CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were clearly lower; however, significant increases in the HC and NOx emissions were observed. Finally, we normalized the emissions under the actual driving cycles of the entire test route to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)-based emissions using a VSP modes method developed by North Carolina State University. The simulated NEDC-based CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were better than the corresponding emissions standards, whereas the simulated NEDC-based HC and NOx emissions greatly exceeded the standards. Thus, more attention should be paid to the emissions from CNG vehicles. As for the CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis currently in use, the department of environmental protection should strengthen their inspection and supervision to reduce the emissions from these vehicles. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding and controlling emissions from CNG-fueled bi-fuel vehicles in China.

  6. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As crewmen jog and cycle alongside, a battery-powered, quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing rolls across the El Mirage Dry Lake during pre-flight taxi tests. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  7. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Prepared for Taxi Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As sunlight breaks over Southern California's El Mirage Dry Lake, Crew members prepare a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing for a taxi test. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  8. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p < 0.007); dyspneoa (p < 0.001); and sinusitis (p < 0.03). A higher prevalence of all acute symptoms was recorded in garage workers than in taxi drivers, although the differences were significant only for throat (p < 0.02), hearing problems (p < 0.002); nose (dryness, bleeding and secretion) (p < 0.008); and low back pain (p < 0.05). Almost all forced spirometric tests in the exposed garage workers were lower than in taxi drivers. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only phlegm, sinusitis, hearing problems, nasal catarrh, throat, low back pain, smoking and FEF25-75, variables were statistically significant predictors as risk factors. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated with exposure to motor vehicle exhaust emission in garage working places. Long-term working as garage workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and have effects on their daily life and health.

  9. Global existence of solutions and uniform persistence of a diffusive predator-prey model with prey-taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sainan; Shi, Junping; Wu, Boying

    2016-04-01

    This paper proves the global existence and boundedness of solutions to a general reaction-diffusion predator-prey system with prey-taxis defined on a smooth bounded domain with no-flux boundary condition. The result holds for domains in arbitrary spatial dimension and small prey-taxis sensitivity coefficient. This paper also proves the existence of a global attractor and the uniform persistence of the system under some additional conditions. Applications to models from ecology and chemotaxis are discussed.

  10. Video event data recording of a taxi driver used for diagnosis of epilepsy☆

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Junko; Kurita, Tsugiko; Takeda, Youji; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    A video event data recorder (VEDR) in a motor vehicle records images before and after a traffic accident. This report describes a taxi driver whose seizures were recorded by VEDR, which was extremely useful for the diagnosis of epilepsy. The patient was a 63-year-old right-handed Japanese male taxi driver. He collided with a streetlight. Two years prior to this incident, he raced an engine for a long time while parked. The VEDR enabled confirmation that the accidents depended on an epileptic seizure and he was diagnosed with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. The VEDR is useful not only for traffic accident evidence; it might also contribute to a driver's health care and road safety. PMID:25667862

  11. Taxis of Artificial Swimmers in a Spatio-Temporally Modulated Activation Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiseler, Alexander; Hänggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    Contrary to microbial taxis, where a tactic response to external stimuli is controlled by complex chemical pathways acting like sensor-actuator loops, taxis of artificial microswimmers is a purely stochastic effect associated with a non-uniform activation of the particles' self-propulsion. We study the tactic response of such swimmers in a spatio-temporally modulated activating medium by means of both numerical and analytical techniques. In the opposite limits of very fast and very slow rotational particle dynamics, we obtain analytic approximations that closely reproduce the numerical description. A swimmer drifts on average either parallel or anti-parallel to the propagation direction of the activating pulses, depending on their speed and width. The drift in line with the pulses is solely determined by the finite persistence length of the active Brownian motion performed by the swimmer, whereas the drift in the opposite direction results from the combination of ballistic and diffusive properties of the swimmer's dynamics.

  12. Artificial neural network model for identifying taxi gross emitter from remote sensing data of vehicle emission.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Guo, Hua-fang; Hu, Yue-ming

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle emission has been the major source of air pollution in urban areas in the past two decades. This article proposes an artificial neural network model for identifying the taxi gross emitters based on the remote sensing data. After carrying out the field test in Guangzhou and analyzing various factors from the emission data, the artificial neural network modeling was proved to be an advisable method of identifying the gross emitters. On the basis of the principal component analysis and the selection of algorithm and architecture, the Back-Propagation neural network model with 8-17-1 architecture was established as the optimal approach for this purpose. It gave a percentage of hits of 93%. Our previous research result and the result from aggression analysis were compared, and they provided respectively the percentage of hits of 81.63% and 75%. This comparison demonstrates the potentiality and validity of the proposed method in the identification of taxi gross emitters.

  13. Acceptability testing of radioluminescent lights for VFR-night air taxi operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tritium-powered radioluminescent (RL) lights have been under development for remote, austere, and tactical airfield lighting applications. The State of Alaska has requested FAA approval for use of the technology as a safe alternative lighting system to meet the airfield lighting needs of air taxi operations and general aviation in the state. The tests described in this report were performed by PNL for the DOE Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. These tests are a step toward gaining the required approvals.

  14. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1996-06-03

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  15. Step On It! - Workplace cardiovascular risk assessment of New York City yellow taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Gill, Pavan; Ramirez, Julia; Ayash, Claudia; Loeb, Rebecca; Aragones, Abraham; Leng, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple factors associated with taxi driving can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in taxi drivers. Methods This paper describes the results of Step On It!, which assessed CVD risk factors among New York City taxi drivers at John F. Kennedy International Airport. Drivers completed an intake questionnaire and free screenings for blood pressure, glucose and body mass index (BMI). Results 466 drivers participated. 9% had random plasma glucose values >200 mg/dl. 77% had elevated BMIs. Immigrants who lived in the U.S. for >10 years had 2.5 times the odds (CI: 1.1–5.9) of having high blood pressure compared to newer immigrants. Discussion Abnormalities documented in this study were significant, especially for immigrants with greater duration of residence in the U.S., and underscore the potential for elevated CVD risk in this vulnerable population, and the need to address this risk through frameworks that utilize multiple levels of intervention. PMID:25680879

  16. Signal balancing by the CetABC and CetZ chemoreceptors controls energy taxis in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Mark; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of environmental sensing to flagella-mediated directed motility allows bacteria to move to optimum environments for growth and survival, either by sensing external stimuli (chemotaxis) or monitoring internal metabolic status (energy taxis). Sensing is mediated by transducer-like proteins (Tlp), either located in the membrane or in the cytoplasm, which commonly influence motility via the CheA-CheY chemotaxis pathway. In this study we have investigated the role of PAS-domain-containing intracellular Tlp-sensors in energy taxis of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, using plate- and tube-based assays utilising the conversion of the redox indicator dyes triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and resazurin. Inactivation of the genes encoding the Campylobacter Energy Taxis system (CetA (Tlp9) and CetB (Aer2)) in C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168 resulted in reduced taxis. Inactivation of the cj1191c gene, encoding the CetB homolog CetC (Aer1), did not affect taxis per se, but the cetC gene complemented a cetB mutant in trans, indicating that CetC can form a functional signal transduction complex with CetA in the absence of CetB. Inactivation of both CetB and CetC resulted in greatly reduced taxis confirming the role of CetC in energy taxis. Inactivation of the cj1110c gene, encoding Tlp8 (CetZ), a cytoplasmic sensor with two PAS-domains, resulted in increased taxis, a phenotype opposite to that of CetAB. Inactivation of the cheA gene resulted in the same overall phenotype as the cetAB mutant in both wild-type and cetZ backgrounds, suggesting that both systems use the CheA system for signal transduction. Absence of both CetAB and CetZ resulted in the cetAB taxis phenotype, suggesting that CetZ is subordinate to CetAB. In conclusion, we present evidence that C. jejuni balances the input from two counteracting PAS-domain-containing sensory systems to position itself for optimal usage of energy resources.

  17. Modeling the Role of Public Transportation in Sustaining Tuberculosis Transmission in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jason R.; Morrow, Carl; Wood, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Current tuberculosis notification rates in South Africa are among the highest ever recorded. Although the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic has been a critical factor, the density of respiratory contacts in high-risk environments may be an important and underappreciated driver. Using a modified Wells-Riley model for airborne disease transmission, we estimated the risk of tuberculosis transmission on 3 modes of public transit (minibus taxis, buses, and trains) in Cape Town, South Africa, using exhaled carbon dioxide as a natural tracer gas to evaluate air exchange. Carbon dioxide measurements were performed between October and December of 2011. Environmental risk, reflected in the rebreathed fraction of air, was highest in minibus taxis and lowest in trains; however, the average number of passengers sharing an indoor space was highest in trains and lowest in minibus taxis. Among daily commuters, the annual risk of tuberculosis infection was projected to be 3.5%–5.0% and was highest among minibus taxi commuters. Assuming a duration of infectiousness of 1 year, the basic reproductive number attributable to transportation was more than 1 in all 3 modes of transportation. Given its poor ventilation and high respiratory contact rates, public transportation may play a critical role in sustaining tuberculosis transmission in South African cities. PMID:23423215

  18. Modeling the role of public transportation in sustaining tuberculosis transmission in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jason R; Morrow, Carl; Wood, Robin

    2013-03-15

    Current tuberculosis notification rates in South Africa are among the highest ever recorded. Although the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic has been a critical factor, the density of respiratory contacts in high-risk environments may be an important and underappreciated driver. Using a modified Wells-Riley model for airborne disease transmission, we estimated the risk of tuberculosis transmission on 3 modes of public transit (minibus taxis, buses, and trains) in Cape Town, South Africa, using exhaled carbon dioxide as a natural tracer gas to evaluate air exchange. Carbon dioxide measurements were performed between October and December of 2011. Environmental risk, reflected in the rebreathed fraction of air, was highest in minibus taxis and lowest in trains; however, the average number of passengers sharing an indoor space was highest in trains and lowest in minibus taxis. Among daily commuters, the annual risk of tuberculosis infection was projected to be 3.5%-5.0% and was highest among minibus taxi commuters. Assuming a duration of infectiousness of 1 year, the basic reproductive number attributable to transportation was more than 1 in all 3 modes of transportation. Given its poor ventilation and high respiratory contact rates, public transportation may play a critical role in sustaining tuberculosis transmission in South African cities.

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301... tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your...

  3. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301... tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your...

  4. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, G D; Harrison, R M; Lynam, D R

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half of the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM2.5, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rais, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear.

  5. Exposure of Paris taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants within their vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Zagury, E.; Le Moullec, Y.; Momas, I.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study the exposure of Parisian taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants during their professional activity.
METHODS—A cross sectional study was carried out from 27 January to 27 March 1997, with measurements performed in the vehicles of 29 randomly selected drivers. Carbon monoxide (CO) content was measured over an 8 hour period by a CO portable monitor. The fine suspended particles were measured according to the black smoke index (BS), with a flow controlled portable pump provided with a cellulose filter. The nitrogen oxides, NO and NO2 were measured with a passive sampler.
RESULTS—These drivers are exposed during their professional activity to relatively high concentrations of pollutants (mean, median (SD) 3.8, 2 (1.7) ppm for CO, 168, 164 (53) µg/m3 for BS, 625, 598 (224) µg/m3 for NO, and 139, 131 (43) µg/m3 for NO2.) For CO the concentrations were clearly lower than the threshold values recommended by the World Health Organisation. The situation is less satisfactory for the other pollutants, especially for the BS index. All concentrations of pollutants recorded were noticeably higher than concentrations in air recorded by the ambient Parisian air monitoring network and were close to, or slightly exceeded, the concentrations measured at the fixed stations close to automobile traffic. Pollutant concentrations were also influenced greatly by weather conditions.
CONCLUSION—This first French study conducted in taxi drivers shows that they are highly exposed to automobile pollutants. The results would justify a medical follow up of this occupational group.


Keywords: taxi drivers; exposure assessment PMID:10810130

  6. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene.

  7. A Lightweight Neighbor-Info-Based Routing Protocol for No-Base-Station Taxi-Call System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  8. Transposon mutagenesis of Campylobacter jejuni identifies a bipartite energy taxis system required for motility.

    PubMed

    Hendrixson, D R; Akerley, B J; DiRita, V J

    2001-04-01

    Campylobacter jejuni constitutes the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. Little is known about virulence mechanisms in this organism because of the scarcity of suitable genetic tools. We have developed an efficient system of in vitro transposon mutagenesis using a mariner-based transposon and purified mariner transposase. Through in vitro transposition of C. jejuni chromosomal DNA followed by natural transformation of the transposed DNA, large random transposon mutant libraries consisting of approximately 16 000 individual mutants were generated. The first genetic screen of C. jejuni using a transposon-generated mutant library identified 28 mutants defective for flagellar motility, one of the few known virulence determinants of this pathogen. We developed a second genetic system, which allows for the construction of defined chromosomal deletions in C. jejuni, and demonstrated the requirement of sigma28 and sigma54 for motility. In addition, we show that sigma28 is involved in the transcription of flaA and that sigma54 is required for transcription of three other flagellar genes, flaB and flgDE. We also identified two previously uncharacterized genes required for motility encoding proteins that we call CetA and CetB, which mediate energy taxis responses. Through our analysis of the Cet proteins, we propose a unique mechanism for sensing energy levels and mediating energy taxis in C. jejuni.

  9. Perception and reality of particulate matter exposure in New York City taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Prasad, Lakshmi; Leng, Jennifer; Lee, Trevor; Thurston, George D; Gordon, Terry; Acharya, Sudha; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) have been linked to negative health risks, but exposure among professional taxi drivers is understudied. This pilot study measured drivers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) about air pollution compared with direct measures of exposures. Roadside and in-vehicle levels of PM2.5 and BC were continuously measured over a single shift on each subject, and exposures compared with central site monitoring. One hundred drivers completed an air pollution KAB questionnaire, and seven taxicabs participated in preliminary in-cab air sampling. Taxicab PM2.5 and BC concentrations were elevated compared with nearby central monitoring. Average PM2.5 concentrations per 15-min interval were 4-49 μg/m(3). BC levels were also elevated; reaching>10 μg/m(3). Fifty-six of the 100 drivers surveyed believed they were more exposed than non-drivers; 81 believed air pollution causes health problems. Air pollution exposures recorded suggest that driver exposures would likely exceed EPA recommendations if experienced for 24 h. Surveys indicated that driver awareness of this was limited. Future studies should focus on reducing exposures and increasing awareness among taxi drivers.

  10. Analyses on influencing factors of airborne VOCS pollution in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2014-11-01

    Due to the long time in vehicular cabins, people have high exposure to the airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCS), which will lead to negative effects on human health. In order to analyze the influencing factors of in-car VOCS pollution concentrations, 38 taxis were investigated on the static and closed conditions. The interior air of taxis was collected through activated Tenax adsorption tubes, and the air samples were analyzed with thermally desorbed gas chromatograph. The average concentrations of in-car benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, butyl acetate, undecane, and total VOCS (TVOC) were 82.7, 212.3, 74.7, 182.3, 24.7, 33.5, 61.3, and 1,441.7 μg/m(3), respectively. Furthermore, the VOCS and TVOC concentrations increase with the rise of in-car temperature and relative humidity, and decrease with the increase of car age and total mileage. In addition, the VOCS and TVOC concentrations are higher in vehicles with small cabins than in ones with big cabins, and change with different sampling sites and various vehicular grades. Finally, according to the multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, car age is the most important factor influencing airborne VOCS and TVOC pollution concentrations in vehicular cabins, followed by interior temperature and total mileage.

  11. The Effects of Very Light Jet Air Taxi Operations on Commercial Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the potential effects of Very Light Jet (VLJ) air taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The affordable cost relative to existing business jets and ability to use many of the existing small, minimally equipped, but conveniently located airports is projected to stimulate a large demand for the aircraft. The resulting increase in air traffic operations will mainly be at smaller airports, but this study indicates that VLJs have the potential to increase further the pressure of demand at some medium and large airports, some of which are already operating at or near capacity at peak times. The additional delays to commercial passenger air transportation due to VLJ air taxi operations are obtained from simulation results using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) simulator. The direct increase in operating cost due to additional delays is estimated. VLJs will also cause an increase in traffic density, and this study shows increased potential for conflicts due to VLJ operations.

  12. Discrepancy analysis of driving performance of taxi drivers and non-professional drivers for red-light running violation and crash avoidance at intersections.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiawei; Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam

    2016-06-01

    Due to comfort, convenience, and flexibility, taxis have become increasingly more prevalent in China, especially in large cities. However, many violations and road crashes that occurred frequently were related to taxi drivers. This study aimed to investigate differences in driving performance between taxi drivers and non-professional drivers from the perspectives of red-light running violation and potential crash involvement based on a driving simulation experiment. Two typical scenarios were established in a driving simulator, which includes the red-light running violation scenario and the crash avoidance scenario. There were 49 participants, including 23 taxi drivers (14 males and 9 females) and 26 non-professional drivers (13 males and 13 females) recruited for this experiment. The driving simulation experiment results indicated that non-professional drivers paid more attention to red-light running violations in comparison to taxi drivers who had a higher probability of red-light running violation. Furthermore, it was found that taxi drivers were more inclined to turn the steering wheel in an attempt to avoid a potential collision and non-professional drivers had more abrupt deceleration behaviors when facing a potential crash. Moreover, the experiment results showed that taxi drivers had a smaller crash rate compared to non-professional drivers and had a better performance in terms of crash avoidance at the intersection.

  13. 76 FR 65769 - Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter... to show cause why it should revoke the Commuter Air Carrier Authorization issued to...

  14. Identification of a malate chemoreceptor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by screening for chemotaxis defects in an energy taxis-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Harwood, Caroline S

    2007-12-01

    We found that a robust energy taxis response mediated by the Aer receptor can sometimes mask chemotaxis mediated by other methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We identified PA2652 as a chemoreceptor for malate by screening aer mcp double mutants by using swarm plate assays.

  15. Visual exploration of big spatio-temporal urban data: a study of New York City taxi trips.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nivan; Poco, Jorge; Vo, Huy T; Freire, Juliana; Silva, Cláudio T

    2013-12-01

    As increasing volumes of urban data are captured and become available, new opportunities arise for data-driven analysis that can lead to improvements in the lives of citizens through evidence-based decision making and policies. In this paper, we focus on a particularly important urban data set: taxi trips. Taxis are valuable sensors and information associated with taxi trips can provide unprecedented insight into many different aspects of city life, from economic activity and human behavior to mobility patterns. But analyzing these data presents many challenges. The data are complex, containing geographical and temporal components in addition to multiple variables associated with each trip. Consequently, it is hard to specify exploratory queries and to perform comparative analyses (e.g., compare different regions over time). This problem is compounded due to the size of the data-there are on average 500,000 taxi trips each day in NYC. We propose a new model that allows users to visually query taxi trips. Besides standard analytics queries, the model supports origin-destination queries that enable the study of mobility across the city. We show that this model is able to express a wide range of spatio-temporal queries, and it is also flexible in that not only can queries be composed but also different aggregations and visual representations can be applied, allowing users to explore and compare results. We have built a scalable system that implements this model which supports interactive response times; makes use of an adaptive level-of-detail rendering strategy to generate clutter-free visualization for large results; and shows hidden details to the users in a summary through the use of overlay heat maps. We present a series of case studies motivated by traffic engineers and economists that show how our model and system enable domain experts to perform tasks that were previously unattainable for them.

  16. Three types of taxis used in the response of Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 to 2-nitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A; Parales, Rebecca E

    2012-04-01

    Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 is able to utilize 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) as its sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. We report here that strain JS42 is chemotactic to 2NT and that the response is increased when cells are grown on compounds such as 2NT that are known to induce the first step of 2NT degradation. Assays with JS42 mutants unable to oxidize 2NT showed that the first step of 2NT metabolism was required for the induced response, but not for a portion of the constitutive response, indicating that 2NT itself is an attractant. The 2NT metabolite nitrite was shown to be a strong attractant for strain JS42, and sufficient nitrite was produced during the taxis assay to account for a large part of the induced response. A mutant with an inactivated ntdY gene, which is located adjacent to the 2NT degradation genes and codes for a putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, showed a defect in taxis toward 2NT that may involve a reduced response to nitrite. Responses of a mutant defective for the energy-taxis receptor, Aer, indicated that a functional aer gene is required for a substantial part of the wild-type induced response to 2NT. In summary, strain JS42 utilizes three types of taxis to sense and respond to 2NT: constitutive 2NT-specific chemotaxis to directly sense 2NT, metabolism-dependent nitrite-specific chemotaxis that may be mediated by NtdY, and energy taxis mediated by Aer.

  17. Three Types of Taxis Used in the Response of Acidovorax sp. Strain JS42 to 2-Nitrotoluene

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 is able to utilize 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) as its sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. We report here that strain JS42 is chemotactic to 2NT and that the response is increased when cells are grown on compounds such as 2NT that are known to induce the first step of 2NT degradation. Assays with JS42 mutants unable to oxidize 2NT showed that the first step of 2NT metabolism was required for the induced response, but not for a portion of the constitutive response, indicating that 2NT itself is an attractant. The 2NT metabolite nitrite was shown to be a strong attractant for strain JS42, and sufficient nitrite was produced during the taxis assay to account for a large part of the induced response. A mutant with an inactivated ntdY gene, which is located adjacent to the 2NT degradation genes and codes for a putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, showed a defect in taxis toward 2NT that may involve a reduced response to nitrite. Responses of a mutant defective for the energy-taxis receptor, Aer, indicated that a functional aer gene is required for a substantial part of the wild-type induced response to 2NT. In summary, strain JS42 utilizes three types of taxis to sense and respond to 2NT: constitutive 2NT-specific chemotaxis to directly sense 2NT, metabolism-dependent nitrite-specific chemotaxis that may be mediated by NtdY, and energy taxis mediated by Aer. PMID:22286989

  18. Taxiing, Take-Off, and Landing Simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.

    1999-01-01

    The aircraft industry jointly with NASA is studying enabling technologies for higher speed, longer range aircraft configurations. Higher speeds, higher temperatures, and aerodynamics are driving these newer aircraft configurations towards long, slender, flexible fuselages. Aircraft response during ground operations, although often overlooked, is a concern due to the increased fuselage flexibility. This paper discusses modeling and simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport aircraft during taxiing, take-off, and landing. Finite element models of the airframe for various configurations are used and combined with nonlinear landing gear models to provide a simulation tool to study responses to different ground input conditions. A commercial computer simulation program is used to numerically integrate the equations of motion and to compute estimates of the responses using an existing runway profile. Results show aircraft responses exceeding safe acceptable human response levels.

  19. Positive taxis and sustained responsiveness to water motions in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Groneberg, Antonia H; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin; De Marco, Rodrigo J

    2015-01-01

    Larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become favored subjects for studying the neural bases of behavior. Here, we report a highly stereotyped response of zebrafish larvae to hydrodynamic stimuli. It involves positive taxis, motion damping and sustained responsiveness to flows derived from local, non-stressful water motions. The response depends on the lateral line and has a high sensitivity to stimulus frequency and strength, sensory background and rearing conditions--also encompassing increased threshold levels of response to parallel input. The results show that zebrafish larvae can use near-field detection to locate sources of minute water motions, and offer a unique handle for analyses of hydrodynamic sensing, sensory responsiveness and arousal with accurate control of stimulus properties.

  20. Algerian pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.) contains XIP but not TAXI and TLXI type xylanase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mokrane, Hind; Gebruers, Kurt; Beaugrand, Johnny; Proost, Paul; Nadjemi, Boubekeur; Belhanèche-Bensemra, Naima; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-06-24

    An XIP (xylanase inhibiting protein) type xylanase inhibitor was purified from Algerian pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.) grains and characterized for the first time. Cation exchange and affinity chromatography with immobilized Trichoderma longibrachiatum glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 xylanase resulted in electrophoretically pure protein with a molecular mass of 27-29 kDa and a pI value of 6.7. The experimentally determined N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified XIP protein is 87.5%, identical to that of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) XIP and 79.2% identical to that of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) XIP-I. The biochemical properties of pearl millet XIP are comparable to those described earlier for sorghum XIP, except for the higher specific activity toward a T. longibrachiatum GH family 11 xylanase. On the basis of immunoblot neither TAXI nor TLXI type xylanase inhibitors were detected in pearl millet grains.

  1. Positive taxis and sustained responsiveness to water motions in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin; De Marco, Rodrigo J.

    2015-01-01

    Larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become favored subjects for studying the neural bases of behavior. Here, we report a highly stereotyped response of zebrafish larvae to hydrodynamic stimuli. It involves positive taxis, motion damping and sustained responsiveness to flows derived from local, non-stressful water motions. The response depends on the lateral line and has a high sensitivity to stimulus frequency and strength, sensory background and rearing conditions—also encompassing increased threshold levels of response to parallel input. The results show that zebrafish larvae can use near-field detection to locate sources of minute water motions, and offer a unique handle for analyses of hydrodynamic sensing, sensory responsiveness and arousal with accurate control of stimulus properties. PMID:25798089

  2. Studying taxis in real time using optical tweezers: applications for Leishmania amazonensis parasites.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, L Y; Fontes, A; de Thomaz, A A; Santos, B S; Farias, P M A; Ayres, D C; Giorgio, S; Cesar, C L

    2009-01-01

    Beads trapped by an optical tweezers can be used as a force transducer for measuring forces of the same order of magnitude as typical forces induced by flagellar motion. We used an optical tweezers to study chemotaxis by observing the force response of a flagellated microorganism when placed in a gradient of attractive chemical substances. This report shows such observations for Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for leishmaniasis, a serious disease. We quantified the movement of this protozoan for different gradients of glucose. We were able to observe both the strength and the directionality of the force. The characterization of the chemotaxis of these parasites can help to understand the mechanics of infection and improve the treatments employed for this disease. This methodology can be used to quantitatively study the taxis of any kind of flagellated microorganisms under concentration gradients of different chemical substances, or even other types of variable gradients such as temperature and pressure.

  3. Changes in functional connectivity dynamics associated with vigilance network in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Li, Zhenfeng; Qin, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lubin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Li, Hong; Hu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have suggested that the fluctuations of low-frequency resting-state functional connectivity (FC) are not noise but are instead linked to the shift between distinct cognitive states. However, there is very limited knowledge about whether and how the fluctuations of FC at rest are influenced by long-term training and experience. Here, we investigated how the dynamics of resting-state FC are linked to driving behavior by comparing 20 licensed taxi drivers with 20 healthy non-drivers using a sliding window approach. We found that the driving experience could be effectively decoded with 90% (p<0.001) accuracy by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in some specific connections, based on a multivariate pattern analysis technique. Interestingly, the majority of these connections fell within a set of distributed regions named "the vigilance network". Moreover, the decreased amplitude of the FC fluctuations within the vigilance network in the drivers was negatively correlated with the number of years that they had driven a taxi. Furthermore, temporally quasi-stable functional connectivity segmentation revealed significant differences between the drivers and non-drivers in the dwell time of specific vigilance-related transient brain states, although the brain's repertoire of functional states was preserved. Overall, these results suggested a significant link between the changes in the time-dependent aspects of resting-state FC within the vigilance network and long-term driving experiences. The results not only improve our understanding of how the brain supports driving behavior but also shed new light on the relationship between the dynamics of functional brain networks and individual behaviors.

  4. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws.

  5. Exposure of taxi drivers and office workers to total and respirable manganese in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Zayed, J; Mikhaïl, M; Loranger, S; Kennedy, G; L'Espérance, G

    1996-04-01

    This research measured the exposure of two groups of workers to respirable and total manganese (Mn) and characterized the Mn particles emitted from an automobile tailpipe. The exposure of 20 office workers and 9 taxi drivers in Toronto to total airborne Mn and respirable Mn was measured over a 7-day period, 24 hours per day. Subjects were asked to wear two pumps (one included a size-selective cyclone that collected the respirable particles), and two battery chargers were supplied to each person so that the pump batteries could be recharged overnight while sampling continued. All filters were analyzed by neutron activation. In addition, Mn particles emitted from a car were collected directly at the exhaust. Particles were observed using secondary electron images in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and their elemental composition was determined by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The Mn concentrations obtained for the group of office workers ranged from 0.001 to 0.034 microgram/m3 for respirable Mn and from 0.002 to 0.044 microgram/m3 for total Mn. For the taxi drivers the Mn concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 0.032 microgram/m3 for respirable Mn and from 0.008 to 0.073 microgram/m3 for total Mn. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two groups for both respirable and total Mn. SEM analysis showed that the particles were mostly heterogeneous agglomerates varying from 1 to 100 microns. Even if the specific exposure to Mn from automobiles has not been directly established, these results suggest that the related increase of exposure may be limited.

  6. Occupational and personal factors associated with acquired lumbar spondylolisthesis of urban taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Chan, W; Katz, J; Chang, W; Christiani, D

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the occupational and personal factors associated with lumbar spondylolisthesis in taxi drivers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the Taxi Drivers' Health Study cohort. Information was retrieved from the medical records of standardised lumbosacral spine plain films, age, and anthropometric measures of 1242 subjects. Acquired spondylolisthesis (ASL) was defined as non-lytic spondylolisthesis involving lumbar spines above L5. Questionnaires were used to gather information on demographic features, health behaviours, exercise, work related physical and psychosocial factors, and driving time profiles. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the odds ratio (OR) for prevalent ASL cases associated with personal and occupational factors. Results: A total of 40 cases (3.2%) of ASL were diagnosed. Among those driving ⩽5 years, 6–15 years, and >15 years, the estimated prevalence of lumbar spondylolisthesis was 1.1%, 2.4%, and 7.1% respectively. Results of multiple logistic regression suggested that taxicab driving >15 years (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.7, compared to driving ⩽5 years), age (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.6 for age 46–55; and OR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 12.9 for age >55), body mass index ⩾25 kg/m2 (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.6), and frequent strenuous exercise (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.5) were significantly associated with higher prevalence of spondylolisthesis. There was a consistent likely exposure-response relation between professional seniority and ASL prevalence. Conclusions: Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the observed association between professional driving and spondylolisthesis, and to examine further the specific occupational exposures accountable for this association. PMID:15550605

  7. Repellent taxis in response to nickel ion requires neither Ni2+ transport nor the periplasmic NikA binding protein.

    PubMed

    Englert, Derek L; Adase, Christopher A; Jayaraman, Arul; Manson, Michael D

    2010-05-01

    Ni(2+) and Co(2+) are sensed as repellents by the Escherichia coli Tar chemoreceptor. The periplasmic Ni(2+) binding protein, NikA, has been suggested to sense Ni(2+). We show here that neither NikA nor the membrane-bound NikB and NikC proteins of the Ni(2+) transport system are required for repellent taxis in response to Ni(2+).

  8. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran.

  9. TrajGraph: A Graph-Based Visual Analytics Approach to Studying Urban Network Centralities Using Taxi Trajectory Data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ye; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Chao; Ye, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    We propose TrajGraph, a new visual analytics method, for studying urban mobility patterns by integrating graph modeling and visual analysis with taxi trajectory data. A special graph is created to store and manifest real traffic information recorded by taxi trajectories over city streets. It conveys urban transportation dynamics which can be discovered by applying graph analysis algorithms. To support interactive, multiscale visual analytics, a graph partitioning algorithm is applied to create region-level graphs which have smaller size than the original street-level graph. Graph centralities, including Pagerank and betweenness, are computed to characterize the time-varying importance of different urban regions. The centralities are visualized by three coordinated views including a node-link graph view, a map view and a temporal information view. Users can interactively examine the importance of streets to discover and assess city traffic patterns. We have implemented a fully working prototype of this approach and evaluated it using massive taxi trajectories of Shenzhen, China. TrajGraph's capability in revealing the importance of city streets was evaluated by comparing the calculated centralities with the subjective evaluations from a group of drivers in Shenzhen. Feedback from a domain expert was collected. The effectiveness of the visual interface was evaluated through a formal user study. We also present several examples and a case study to demonstrate the usefulness of TrajGraph in urban transportation analysis.

  10. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (space taxi) with aerobraking at Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report shall cover all major aspects of the design of an Aeroassisted Manned Transfer Vehicle (or TAXI) for use as part of advanced manned Mars missions based on a cycling ship concept. Along with the heliocentric orbiting Cycling Spacecraft, such a TAXI would be a primary component of a long-term transportation system for Mars exploration. The Aeroassisted Manned Transfer Vehicle (AMTV) design developed shall operate along transfer trajectories between Earth and a Cycling Spacecraft (designed by the University of Michigan) and Mars. All operations of the AMTV shall be done primarily within the sphere of influence of the two planets. Maximum delta-V's for the vehicle have been established near 9 km/sec, with transfer durations of about 3 days. Acceleration deltaV's will be accomplished using 3 SSME-based hydrogen-oxygen chemical rockets (l(sub sp) = 485 sec & Thrust greater than = 300,00 Ib(sub f)/engine) with a thrust vector directly opposite the aerobraking deceleration vector. The aerobraking deceleration portion of an AMTV mission would be accomplished in this design by a moderate L/D aeroshield of an ellipsoidally-blunt, raked-off, elliptic cone (EBROEC) shape. The reusable thermal protection material comprising the shield will consist of a flexible, multi-layer, ceramic fabric stretched over a lightweight, rigid, shape - defining truss structure. Behind this truss, other components, including the engine supports, would be attached and protected from heating during aerobraking passes. Among these other components would be 2 LOX tanks and 4 LH2 tanks (and their support frames) holding over 670,000 lbm of propellant necessary to impart the required delta-V to the 98,000 lbm burnout mass vehicle. A 20,000 lbm crew module with docking port (oriented parallel to the accel./decel. axis) will provide accommodations for 9 crew members (11 under extreme conditions) for durations up to seven days, thus allowing extra time for emergency situations. This AMTV will be

  11. Autonomous taxis could greatly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions of US light-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Saxena, Samveg

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are conveyances to move passengers or freight without human intervention. AVs are potentially disruptive both technologically and socially, with claimed benefits including increased safety, road utilization, driver productivity and energy savings. Here we estimate 2014 and 2030 greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and costs of autonomous taxis (ATs), a class of fully autonomous shared AVs likely to gain rapid early market share, through three synergistic effects: (1) future decreases in electricity GHG emissions intensity, (2) smaller vehicle sizes resulting from trip-specific AT deployment, and (3) higher annual vehicle-miles travelled (VMT), increasing high-efficiency (especially battery-electric) vehicle cost-effectiveness. Combined, these factors could result in decreased US per-mile GHG emissions in 2030 per AT deployed of 87-94% below current conventionally driven vehicles (CDVs), and 63-82% below projected 2030 hybrid vehicles, without including other energy-saving benefits of AVs. With these substantial GHG savings, ATs could enable GHG reductions even if total VMT, average speed and vehicle size increased substantially. Oil consumption would also be reduced by nearly 100%.

  12. Reactivation of latent herpes viruses in cosmonauts during a soyuz taxi mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-09-01

    The hypothesis tested by this project is that space flight increases the incidence and duration of herpes virus reactivation and shedding in saliva. Saliva, urine, and blood samples were collected from 3 crew members who participated in a 14-day Odessa Soyuz taxi mission. Saliva samples were collected before, during, and after the mission, and blood and urine were collected before and after the mission. The saliva and urine samples were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of 3 important herpes viruses. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were tested in saliva, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was measured in urine samples. Plasma antibodies levels to these viruses were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after flight. EBV reactivated before, during, and after flight; CMV reactivated before and after flight; and VZV reactivated during and after flight. In other studies, greater frequencies of positive samples and greater numbers of copies of viral DNA have been found. No increases in titer of antibodies to these viruses were found, suggesting that an immune response may not be necessary for reactivation.

  13. Effect of steady and unsteady flow on chemoattractant plume formation and sperm taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Allison F.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2015-08-01

    The formation of chemoattractant plumes around benthic invertebrate eggs in steady and unsteady shear flows is investigated for a range of shear rates, and the ability of sperm to navigate within these plumes is assessed using several chemotactic strategies. Although many of the details of sperm taxis remain uncertain, we investigate the role of basic processes using a toy model in two dimensions. Search strategies in 2D are intrinsically less complex than 3D, but many of the basic components are similar, and the simplified geometry permits an understanding and identification of the key factors of navigation tactics. Numerical simulations are used to model the advection and diffusion of the chemoattractant within the different flows, using three different sperm swimming behaviors. A Monte-Carlo approach is then used to determine the probability of a sperm reaching an egg for a range of flow conditions, initial conditions, and swimming behaviors. The spatial structure of chemoattractant plumes at the scale of the gametes is also investigated. Success rates for locating an egg decrease monotonically with increasing shear rates, and a definitive hierarchical ordering of the tested swimming strategies is identified. A conceptual framework to study and identify important aspects of this fundamental process to support further studies is provided.

  14. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. More taxi and radio frequency tests were slated before it's first flight would be made. This took place on May 17, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems

  15. Myocardial infarction among male bus, taxi, and lorry drivers in middle Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, P; Alfredsson, L; Brunnberg, H; Hammar, N; Jakobsson, R; Reuterwall, C; Ostlin, P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present case-referent study was to investigate the incidence of myocardial infarction among male professional drivers, taking the type of vehicles and area of residence into account. METHODS: The study base comprised all men aged 30-74 in five counties in middle Sweden during 1976-81 or 1976-84. Incident cases of the first episode of myocardial infarction were identified from registers of hospital admissions and causes of deaths. Referents were selected randomly from the study base. Information about occupation was obtained from the national censuses in 1970 and 1975. The possible impact from tobacco smoking and overweight were evaluated by simulations in combination with indirect data on these factors. RESULTS: The incidence of myocardial infarction was increased among bus drivers in Stockholm (relative risk (RR) = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-2.05), and among taxi drivers both in Stockholm (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.30-2.11) and in the surrounding rural counties (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.17-2.82). A smaller increase was found among long distance lorry drivers, whereas the relative risk among short distance lorry drivers was close to unity. Indirect comparisons make it unlikely that the excess among bus drivers in Stockholm could be explained by uncontrolled confounding from tobacco smoking or overweight. A very high proportion (more than 80%) of urban bus drivers in Sweden report a combination of high psychological demands and low control at work. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of drivers are at different risk of myocardial infarction. Bus drivers in urban areas seem to be at an increased risk, which is unlikely to be explained by uncontrolled confounding from tobacco smoking or overweight. Psychosocial work conditions may play a part in the increased incidence of myocardial infarction among urban bus drivers and should be investigated further. PMID:8664960

  16. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft taxies at airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane for the Eclipse project taxiing on the runway at Mojave Airport, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  17. Characterization of CetA and CetB, a bipartite energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Dirita, Victor J

    2008-09-01

    The energy taxis receptor Aer, in Escherichia coli, senses changes in the redox state of the electron transport system via an flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor bound to a PAS domain. The PAS domain (a sensory domain named after three proteins Per, ARNT and Sim, where it was first identified) is thought to interact directly with the Aer HAMP domain to transmit this signal to the highly conserved domain (HCD) found in chemotaxis receptors. An apparent energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni is composed of two proteins, CetA and CetB, that have the domains of Aer divided between them. CetB has a PAS domain, while CetA has a predicted transmembrane region, HAMP domain and the HCD. In this study, we examined the expression of cetA and cetB and the biochemical properties of the proteins they encode. cetA and cetB are co-transcribed independently of the flagellar regulon. CetA has two transmembrane helices in a helical hairpin while CetB is a peripheral membrane protein tightly associated with the membrane. CetB levels are CetA dependent. Additionally, we demonstrated that both CetA and CetB participate in complexes, including a likely CetB dimer and a complex that may include both CetA and CetB. This study provides a foundation for further characterization of signal transduction mechanisms within CetA/CetB.

  18. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  19. Long driving time is associated with haematological markers of increased cardiovascular risk in taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Chen, Y; Chang, W; Christiani, D

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association between driving time and changes in haematological markers of increased risks for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: The authors conducted a cross sectional analysis of baseline data from the Taxi Drivers' Health Study cohort in Taipei, Taiwan. They retrieved information on comorbidity, laboratory tests, age, and anthropometric measures from medical records of 1157 subjects (mean age 44.6 (SD 8.6) years). Whole blood cell (WBC) count was used as the primary haematological marker for increased CVD risk, and platelet count and haematocrit as the secondary markers. Standardised questionnaires were implemented to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, work related physical and psychosocial factors, and driving time profiles. Multiple regression was used to estimate the adjusted effects of driving time on three haematological markers. Results: The mean measured hematological marker was 6656 (SD 1656) cells x106/l for WBC, 47.2 (SD 3.5) % for hematocrit, and 243 (SD 52) cells x109/l for platelets. The driving time was 264 (SD 76) hours/month. Compared with drivers who drove ⩽208 hours/month (1st quartile cut off), drivers who drove >208 hours/month had a higher WBC count (by 317 x106/l; 95% CI 99 to 535), haematocrit (by 0.8%; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.2), and platelets (7.9 x109/l; 95% CI 1.0 to 14.8). After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors (age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolaemia), obesity, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, and sociodemographics (education, marital status, income, and so on), long driving time was still associated with significant increases in WBC and platelets, whereas the effect on haematocrit was diminished and became statistically non-significant. Additional controls for physical workload, self-perceived job stress, and job dissatisfaction did not alter the associations with increased WBC and platelets. Conclusions: Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the

  20. PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN'S DPF SYSTEM ON A TAXI FLEET IN THE PARIS AREA

    SciTech Connect

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    The use of Diesel engines has strongly increased during the last years and now represents 40% of the sales in Europe and up to 50% of the number of cars in circulation for some countries. This success is linked not only to the economical aspect of the use of such vehicles, but also to the recent technological improvements of these engines. The new technical solutions (high pressure direct injection, turbocharger) have indeed allowed the increase of these engine performances while decreasing their fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and noise level. From an environment point of view, Diesel engines are nevertheless penalized by their particulates and NOx emissions. The study and the treatment of the particulate, highly criticized for their potential impact on health, are the subject of numerous works of characterizations and developments. PSA Peugeot Citroen has recently (2000) launched its particulate filter technology on several types of vehicles (500,000 vehicles with DPF have been sold today). In order to evaluate the durability of this technology over a long period of time, a study program has been set-up by ADEME (French Environmental Agency), IFP Powertrain, PSA Peugeot Citroen and Taxis G7 (a Parisian taxis Company). The objective is to study the evolution of five taxis and their after-treatment system performances over 80,000km mileage--which corresponds to the recommended mileage before the first DPF maintenance--in hard urban driving conditions, as well over 120,000km, after the DPF maintenance and remanufacturing. More specifically, the following evaluations are being performed at regular intervals (around 20,000km): regulated gaseous pollutant emissions on NEDC cycle, particulate emissions and unregulated pollutant emissions. The results obtained until now have not shown any degradation of the particulate filter efficiency (more than 90%). This paper presents the methodology set-up, and the explanation of the first results obtained. Indeed, a more

  1. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X

  2. Half-soliton interaction of population taxis waves in predator-prey systems with pursuit and evasion.

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, M A; Biktashev, V N

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate a half-soliton interaction of waves in a mathematical model of a "prey-predator" system with taxis when of two colliding waves, one annihilates and the other continues to propagate. We show that this effect depends on the "ages" or, equivalently, "widths" of the colliding waves. In two spatial dimensions we demonstrate that the type of interaction, i.e., annihilation, quasisoliton, or half-soliton, depends not only on curvature and width of the colliding waves, but also on the angle of the collision. When conditions of collision are varying in such a way that only a part of a wave survives the collision, then "taxitons," compact pieces of solitary waves, may form, which can exist for a significant time.

  3. Lévy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Bartumeus, Frederic; Grasso, Frank W.

    2009-10-01

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Lévy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Lévy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Lévy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accomodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for

  4. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  5. Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Taxi to Runway for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft No. 911, with the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour securely mounted atop its fuselage, taxies to the runway to begin the ferry flight from Rockwell's Plant 42 at Palmdale, California, where the orbiter was built, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. At Kennedy, the space vehicle was processed and launched on orbital mission STS-49, which landed at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, 16 May 1992. NASA 911, the second modified 747 that went into service in November 1990, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the added weight of the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay

  6. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  7. Metabolism-dependent taxis towards (methyl)phenols is coupled through the most abundant of three polar localized Aer-like proteins of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Sarand, Inga; Osterberg, Sofia; Holmqvist, Sofie; Holmfeldt, Per; Skärfstad, Eleonore; Parales, Rebecca E; Shingler, Victoria

    2008-05-01

    Comparatively little is known about directed motility of environmental bacteria to common aromatic pollutants. Here, by expressing different parts of a (methyl)phenol-degradative pathway and the use of specific mutants, we show that taxis of Pseudomonas putida towards (methyl)phenols is dictated by its ability to catabolize the aromatic compound. Thus, in contrast to previously described chemoreceptor-mediated chemotaxis mechanisms towards benzoate, naphthalene and toluene, taxis in response to (methyl)phenols is mediated by metabolism-dependent behaviour. Here we show that P. putida differentially expresses three Aer-like receptors that are all polar-localized through interactions with CheA, and that inactivation of the most abundant Aer2 protein significantly decreases taxis towards phenolics. In addition, the participation of a sensory signal transduction protein composed of a PAS, a GGDEF and an EAL domain in motility towards these compounds is demonstrated. The results are discussed in the context of the versatility of metabolism-dependent coupling and the necessity for P. putida to integrate diverse metabolic signals from its native heterogeneous soil and water environments.

  8. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Road Traffic Crash among Taxi Drivers in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia, 2014: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asefa, Nigus Gebremedhin; Ingale, Lalit; Shumey, Ashenafi; Yang, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130) and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582) taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers’ involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey. Findings Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188) of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33–0.78), while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05–7.44), receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67–7.85), and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81–8.61) were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24–2.92) and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00–2.28) were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement. Conclusion The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties. PMID:25781940

  9. Opposite responses by different chemoreceptors set a tunable preference point in Escherichia coli pH taxis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiling; Sourjik, Victor

    2012-12-01

    In bacterial habitats, the ability to follow spatial gradients of environmental factors that affect growth and survival can be largely advantageous. The bacterial strategy for unidirectional chemotactic movement in gradients of typical attractants or repellents, such as nutrients or toxins, is well understood. Optimal levels of other factors, however, may be found at intermediate points of a gradient and thus require a bidirectional tactic movement towards the optimum. Here we investigate the chemotactic response of Escherichia coli to pH as an example of such bidirectional taxis. We confirm that E. coli uses chemotaxis to avoid both extremes of low and high pH and demonstrate that the sign of the response is inverted from base-seeking to acid-seeking at a well-defined value of pH. Such inversion is enabled by opposing pH sensing by the two major chemoreceptors, Tar and Tsr, such that the relative strength of the response is modulated by adaptive receptor methylation. We further demonstrate that the inversion point of the pH response can be adjusted in response to changes in the cell density.

  10. Cloning and characterization of the Salmonella typhimurium-specific chemoreceptor Tcp for taxis to citrate and from phenol.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Imae, Y

    1993-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium shows an attractant response to citrate and a repellent response to phenol, and a chemoreceptor mediating these responses has been identified and named Tcp (taxis to citrate and away from phenol). Tcp is one of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins that have a molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa estimated by SDS/PAGE, and its methylation level is increased by citrate and decreased by phenol. Tcp also mediates an attractant response to metal-citrate complexes. The complete nucleotide sequence of the tcp coding region has been determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of Tcp, consisting of 547-amino acid residues, is homologous with that of the aspartate chemoreceptor of S. typhimurium. Thus, Tcp is another member of the bacterial transmembrane chemoreceptor family. Because citrate is a good carbon source for S. typhimurium but is not a carbon source for the closely related species Escherichia coli and because citrate utilization is used as a key diagnostic character to distinguish these species, it is reasonable to assume that Tcp is specific to S. typhimurium.

  11. Driving performance changes of middle-aged experienced taxi drivers due to distraction tasks during unexpected situations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Seung; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Hong, Sang-Pyo; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Tack, Gye-Rae; Kim, Boseong; Min, Ung-Chan; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of distraction taskssuch as sending a text message with a cellphone and searching navigation with car navigation system-on the driving performance of 29 highly experienced taxi drivers in their 50s. All participants were instructed to drive using a driving simulator for 2 min. while maintaining a constant distance from the vehicle in front and a constant speed. Participants drove without any distractions for the first minute. For an additional minute, they performed Driving Only or performed a task while driving (Driving + Sending Text Message or Driving + Searching Navigation). An unexpected situation, in which the participant had to stop abruptly due to a sudden stop of the preceding vehicle, occurred during this period. Driving performance during the unexpected situation was evaluated by car control variables, medial-lateral coefficient of variation and brake time, and by motion variables such as the jerk-cost function. Compared to Driving Only, jerk-cost function, medial-lateral coefficient of variation, and brake time increased during Driving + Sending Text Message or Driving + Searching Navigation.

  12. Health risk equations and risk assessment of airborne benzene homologues exposure to drivers and passengers in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2016-03-01

    Interior air environment and health problems of vehicles have attracted increasing attention, and benzene homologues (BHs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and styrene are primary hazardous gases in vehicular cabins. The BHs impact on the health of passengers and drivers in 38 taxis is assessed, and health risk equations of in-car BHs to different drivers and passengers are induced. The health risk of in-car BHs for male drivers is the highest among all different receptors and is 1.04, 6.67, and 6.94 times more than ones for female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, respectively. In-car BHs could not lead to the non-cancer health risk to all passengers and drivers as for the maximal value of non-cancer indices is 0.41 and is less than the unacceptable value (1.00) of non-cancer health risk from USEPA. However, in-car BHs lead to cancer health risk to drivers as for the average value of cancer indices is 1.21E-04 which is 1.21 times more than the unacceptable value (1.00E-04) of cancer health risk from USEPA. Finally, for in-car airborne benzene concentration (X, μg/m(3)) to male drivers, female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, the cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.48E-06X, Y = 1.42E-06X, Y = 2.22E-07X, and Y = 2.13E-07X, respectively, and the non-cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.70E-03X, Y = 1.63E-03X, Y = 2.55E-04X, and Y = 2.45E-04X, respectively.

  13. The Helicobacter pylori chemotaxis receptor TlpB (HP0103) is required for pH taxis and for colonization of the gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Croxen, Matthew A; Sisson, Gary; Melano, Roberto; Hoffman, Paul S

    2006-04-01

    The location of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of mammals is defined by natural pH gradients within the gastric mucus, which are more alkaline proximal to the mucosal epithelial cells and more acidic toward the lumen. We have used a microscope slide-based pH gradient assay and video data collection system to document pH-tactic behavior. In response to hydrochloric acid (HCl), H. pylori changes its swimming pattern from straight-line random swimming to arcing or circular patterns that move the motile population away from the strong acid. Bacteria in more-alkaline regions did not swim toward the acid, suggesting the pH taxis is a form of negative chemotaxis. To identify the chemoreceptor(s) responsible for the transduction of pH-tactic signals, a vector-free allelic replacement strategy was used to construct mutations in each of the four annotated chemoreceptor genes (tlpA, tlpB, tlpC, and tlpD) in H. pylori strain SS1 and a motile variant of strain KE26695. All deletion mutants were motile and displayed normal chemotaxis in brucella soft agar, but only tlpB mutants were defective for pH taxis. tlpD mutants exhibited more tumbling and arcing swimming, while tlpC mutants were hypermotile and responsive to acid. While tlpA, tlpC, and tlpD mutants colonized mice to near wild-type levels, tlpB mutants were defective for colonization of highly permissive C57BL/6 interleukin-12 (IL-12) (p40-/-)-deficient mice. Complementation of the tlpB mutant (tlpB expressed from the rdxA locus) restored pH taxis and infectivity for mice. pH taxis, like motility and urease activity, is essential for colonization and persistence in the gastric mucosa, and thus TlpB function might represent a novel target in the development of therapeutics that blind tactic behavior.

  14. The Helicobacter pylori Chemotaxis Receptor TlpB (HP0103) Is Required for pH Taxis and for Colonization of the Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Croxen, Matthew A.; Sisson, Gary; Melano, Roberto; Hoffman, Paul S.

    2006-01-01

    The location of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of mammals is defined by natural pH gradients within the gastric mucus, which are more alkaline proximal to the mucosal epithelial cells and more acidic toward the lumen. We have used a microscope slide-based pH gradient assay and video data collection system to document pH-tactic behavior. In response to hydrochloric acid (HCl), H. pylori changes its swimming pattern from straight-line random swimming to arcing or circular patterns that move the motile population away from the strong acid. Bacteria in more-alkaline regions did not swim toward the acid, suggesting the pH taxis is a form of negative chemotaxis. To identify the chemoreceptor(s) responsible for the transduction of pH-tactic signals, a vector-free allelic replacement strategy was used to construct mutations in each of the four annotated chemoreceptor genes (tlpA, tlpB, tlpC, and tlpD) in H. pylori strain SS1 and a motile variant of strain KE26695. All deletion mutants were motile and displayed normal chemotaxis in brucella soft agar, but only tlpB mutants were defective for pH taxis. tlpD mutants exhibited more tumbling and arcing swimming, while tlpC mutants were hypermotile and responsive to acid. While tlpA, tlpC, and tlpD mutants colonized mice to near wild-type levels, tlpB mutants were defective for colonization of highly permissive C57BL/6 interleukin-12 (IL-12) (p40−/−)-deficient mice. Complementation of the tlpB mutant (tlpB expressed from the rdxA locus) restored pH taxis and infectivity for mice. pH taxis, like motility and urease activity, is essential for colonization and persistence in the gastric mucosa, and thus TlpB function might represent a novel target in the development of therapeutics that blind tactic behavior. PMID:16547053

  15. Human Mars Mission: SEP Architecture, Crew Taxi Propulsion Stage Study and Design and Technology for Reaction and Control System. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The Mars exploration is a candidate pathway to expand human presence and useful activities in the solar system. There are several propulsion system options being considered to place the Mars payload on its interplanetary transfer trajectory. One propulsion option is the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to spiral out with the Mars payload from an initial Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to an elliptical High Earth Orbit (HEO). This report, presented in annotated facing page format, describes the work completed on the design of a crew taxi propulsion stage used in conjunction with the SEP. Transportation system/mission analysis topics covered in this report include sub-system analysis, trajectory profile description, mass performance and crew taxi stage sizing, stage configuration, stage cost, and Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) launch window. The high efficiency of SEP is used to provide the major part of the TMI propulsion maneuver. Orbital energy is continuously added over a period of approximately twelve months. The SEP and Mars payload follow a spiral trajectory from an initial LEO to a final elliptical HEO. A small chemical stage is then used to provide the final part of the TMI. The now unloaded SEP returns to LEO to repeat another spiral trajectory with payload to HEO. The spiral phase of the SEP's trajectory takes several months to reach HEO, thus significantly increasing the exposure time of the crew to zero-gravity. In order to minimize the long zero-gravity effects, a high thrust chemical stage delivers the crew to the SEP's HEO. The crew rendezvous with the Mars payload in HEO. After a checkout period the Mars payload with the crew is injected onto a Trans-Mars Trajectory by a small chemical stage.

  16. Human Mars Mission: SEP Architecture Crew Taxi Propulsion Stage Study and Design and Technology for Reaction and Control System. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The Mars exploration is a candidate pathway to expand human presence and useful activities in the solar system. There are several propulsion system options being considered to place the Mars payload on its inter-planetary transfer trajectory. One propulsion option is the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to spiral out with the Mars payload from an initial Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to an elliptical High Earth Orbit (HEO). This report, presented in annotated facing page format, describes the work completed on the design of a crew taxi propulsion stage used in conjunction with the SEP. Transportation system/mission analysis topics covered in this report include sub-system analysis, trajectory profile description, mass performance and crew taxi stage sizing, stage configuration, stage cost, and Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) launch window. The high efficiency of SEP is used to provide the major part of the TMI propulsion maneuver. Orbital energy is continuously added over a period of approximately twelve months. The SEP and Mars payload follow a spiral trajectory from an initial LEO to a final elliptical HEO. A small chemical stage is then used to provide the final part of the TMI. The now unloaded SEP returns to LEO to repeat another spiral trajectory with payload to HEO. The spiral phase of the SEP's trajectory takes several months to reach HEO, thus significantly increasing the exposure time of the crew to zero-gravity. In order to minimize the long zero-gravity effects, a high thrust chemical stage delivers the crew to the SEP's HEO. The crew rendezvous with the Mars payload in HEO. After a checkout period the Mars payload with the crew is injected onto a Trans-Mars Trajectory by a small chemical stage.

  17. Initiated by the south. South - South Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J S

    1993-12-01

    The UNFPA Deputy Chief of the Asia and Pacific Division explains how relations between representatives of developing countries to the South have often been less than congenial and how efforts have been made to smooth the way for greater cooperation between neighbors in the region. President Soeharto of Indonesia at a G-15 submeeting of Non-Aligned Countries in Malaysia in 1990 made the first overtures to his peers. He offered to work more closely with other interested countries economically and in terms of technical assistance. Prime Minister Von Van Kiet of Vietnam took him up on his offer and visited the President in Indonesia in January 1992 to discuss family planning issues. The subsequent assistance rendered by Indonesia to Vietnam in developing its family planning program was unique in bilateral relations in the region in that it was initiated by the nonaligned countries without outside interference. The author thinks that the UNFPA should play a facilitating role financially and organizationally in what may be the beginning of a trend toward greater South-South cooperation. Any help which developing countries could render to other developing nations will certainly be appreciated in this period of waning resources from developed countries for international population programs. The author also argues that service quality in donor countries is likely to improve.

  18. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  19. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  20. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  1. THE PROFITS AND PERILS OF PUBLICITY: ALLGEMEINE LITERATUR- ZEITUNG, THE THURN UND TAXIS POST, AND THE PERIODICAL TRADE AT THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2015-09-20

    Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents. First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade. Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation. The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from 1785.

  2. Development of neuronal and sensorimotor systems in the absence of gravity: Neurobiological research on four soyuz taxi flights to the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Eberhard R.; Dournon, Christian; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Marco, Roberto; Böser, Sybille; Kirschnick, Uta

    2007-09-01

    Neurobiological experiments on 4 animal species (Xenopus laevis, Pleurodeles waltl, Drosophila melanogaster, Acheta domesticus) were performed to study effects of microgravity on development and aging of neuronal, sensory and motor systems. Animal models were selected according to their suitability to answer questions concerning μg-effects on neuroanatomy, neuronal activity, and behaviour. The studies were performed on the Soyuz Taxi flights Andromède, Cervantes, Eneide and LDM-TMA8/TMA7. Observations from these flights include: (1) In tadpoles and cricket larvae, morphological features of sensory cells and neurons are rarely affected by microgravity. (2) In crickets, in-flight fertilization was successful; after landing, flight larvae hatched earlier than ground reared siblings. (3) In crickets, proliferation of peptidergic neurons and their projection patterns within the nervous system were not affected by microgravity. (4) During aging, the impact of microgravity on peptidergic neurons of male Drosophila was limited to the size of cell body. (5) In Xenopus, neurophysiological features of the spinal motor system during fictive swimming were partially modified. (6) In Xenopus tadpoles, the vestibuloocular reflex was affected in an age-related manner. Modifications were also related to the occurrence of a tail lordosis induced by microgravity. It is concluded that adaptation to microgravity during development and aging is mainly based on physiological mechanisms within the central nervous system while structural modifications of the sensory and neuronal system contribute less.

  3. The profits and perils of publicity: Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, the Thurn und Taxis Post, and the periodical trade at the end of the eighteenth century

    PubMed Central

    Broman, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents. First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade. Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation. The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from 1785. PMID:26495577

  4. ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC): an integrated quantitative high-throughput screening platform for electrical field-directed cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siwei; Zhu, Kan; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zijie; Xu, Zhengping; Zhao, Min; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-11-21

    Both endogenous and externally applied electrical stimulation can affect a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, migration, differentiation and division. Among those effects, the electrical field (EF)-directed cell migration, also known as electrotaxis, has received broad attention because it holds great potential in facilitating clinical wound healing. Electrotaxis experiment is conventionally conducted in centimetre-sized flow chambers built in Petri dishes. Despite the recent efforts to adapt microfluidics for electrotaxis studies, the current electrotaxis experimental setup is still cumbersome due to the needs of an external power supply and EF controlling/monitoring systems. There is also a lack of parallel experimental systems for high-throughput electrotaxis studies. In this paper, we present a first independently operable microfluidic platform for high-throughput electrotaxis studies, integrating all functional components for cell migration under EF stimulation (except microscopy) on a compact footprint (the same as a credit card), referred to as ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC). Inspired by the R-2R resistor ladder topology in digital signal processing, we develop a systematic approach to design an infinitely expandable microfluidic generator of EF gradients for high-throughput and quantitative studies of EF-directed cell migration. Furthermore, a vacuum-assisted assembly method is utilized to allow direct and reversible attachment of our device to existing cell culture media on biological surfaces, which separates the cell culture and device preparation/fabrication steps. We have demonstrated that our ETC platform is capable of screening human cornea epithelial cell migration under the stimulation of an EF gradient spanning over three orders of magnitude. The screening results lead to the identification of the EF-sensitive range of that cell type, which can provide valuable guidance to the clinical application of EF-facilitated wound healing.

  5. ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC): an integrated quantitative high-throughput screening platform for electrical field-directed cell migration†

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Siwei; Zhu, Kan; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zijie; Xu, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Both endogenous and externally applied electrical stimulation can affect a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, migration, differentiation and division. Among those effects, the electrical field (EF)-directed cell migration, also known as electrotaxis, has received broad attention because it holds great potential in facilitating clinical wound healing. Electrotaxis experiment is conventionally conducted in centimetre-sized flow chambers built in Petri dishes. Despite the recent efforts to adapt microfluidics for electrotaxis studies, the current electrotaxis experimental setup is still cumbersome due to the needs of an external power supply and EF controlling/monitoring systems. There is also a lack of parallel experimental systems for high-throughput electrotaxis studies. In this paper, we present a first independently operable microfluidic platform for high-throughput electrotaxis studies, integrating all functional components for cell migration under EF stimulation (except microscopy) on a compact footprint (the same as a credit card), referred to as ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC). Inspired by the R–2R resistor ladder topology in digital signal processing, we develop a systematic approach to design an infinitely expandable microfluidic generator of EF gradients for high-throughput and quantitative studies of EF-directed cell migration. Furthermore, a vacuum-assisted assembly method is utilized to allow direct and reversible attachment of our device to existing cell culture media on biological surfaces, which separates the cell culture and device preparation/fabrication steps. We have demonstrated that our ETC platform is capable of screening human cornea epithelial cell migration under the stimulation of an EF gradient spanning over three orders of magnitude. The screening results lead to the identification of the EF-sensitive range of that cell type, which can provide valuable guidance to the clinical application of EF-facilitated wound healing

  6. [South] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects.

  7. Taxis equations for amoeboid cells.

    PubMed

    Erban, Radek; Othmer, Hans G

    2007-06-01

    The classical macroscopic chemotaxis equations have previously been derived from an individual-based description of the tactic response of cells that use a "run-and-tumble" strategy in response to environmental cues [17,18]. Here we derive macroscopic equations for the more complex type of behavioral response characteristic of crawling cells, which detect a signal, extract directional information from a scalar concentration field, and change their motile behavior accordingly. We present several models of increasing complexity for which the derivation of population-level equations is possible, and we show how experimentally measured statistics can be obtained from the transport equation formalism. We also show that amoeboid cells that do not adapt to constant signals can still aggregate in steady gradients, but not in response to periodic waves. This is in contrast to the case of cells that use a "run-and-tumble" strategy, where adaptation is essential.

  8. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Ito, A; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemotactic response to phosphate regardless of whether the cells were starved for phosphate.

  9. Spatial Representations of Taxi Drivers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-28

    some people have suggested that adults, when they learn a new environment, proceed through these same Piagetian Stages in their representations...East Green Street Naval Postgraduate School Pasadena, CA 91101 Monterey, CA 93940 1 Special Asst. for Education and I Dr. Robert Wisher Training (OP-O1E...Research Laborat Pensacola, FL 32508 1 Dr. Gary Poock Operations Research Department Code 55PK Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93940 1 Roger W

  10. South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  11. Latinos in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily Elliott, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains five articles about the growing Latino population in the South and its impact on communities, particularly in rural areas. "Social Capital of Mexican Communities in the South" (Ruben Hernandez-Leon, Victor Zuniga) argues that, to understand and advocate for Mexican newcomer communities in the South,…

  12. New South, Old Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The South's recent rapid growth has not erased its widespread poverty and low levels of human capital. The rural South remains the nation's low-income and high-poverty region, and low education levels may limit the rural South's prospects for development. Underlying social and economic conditions that depend on and reinforce a low-skill population…

  13. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  14. South Cascade Glacier bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, A.G.; Fulk, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    South Cascade Glacier, in Washington State, resides in a well-defined basin with mainly unglacierized divides making it ideal for most glaciological and hydrological studies. This bibliography is divided into three cateogories: (1) studies done about South Cascade Glacier specifically; (2) studies that use data from South Cascade Glacier but do not focus on or give insight to the glacier itself; and (3) instrumentation studies and non-glacier projects including snow studies done in the basin. (ACR)

  15. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  16. 118. Stage basement. View, facing south, of the south hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. Stage basement. View, facing south, of the south hydraulic ram (type D) in the middle row. Photo was taken before the stage flooring was removed. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. 10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS OF COLD STORAGE, ALSO SHOWING REMNANTS OF COOLING PIPES - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 3. SOUTH SIDE. Edwards Air Force Base, South Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 9. West elevation, west end of south wing wall, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. West elevation, west end of south wing wall, south abutment and south railing panel looking east - Western Maryland Railway Bridge, Spanning Maryland Route 51 at Spring Gap, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  20. South Atlantic Anomaly

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  The South Atlantic Anomaly     View larger GIF image The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) . Even before the cover opened, the Multi-angle Imaging ... Atlantic Anomaly location:  Atlantic Ocean Global Images First Light Images region:  Before the ...

  1. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  2. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and…

  3. Huntsville South Side Square

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    This 1940s photo of the South side of Square in downtown Huntsville, Alabama, looking west, shows a historical bank in the background with cars parked just South of the Courthouse (not shown in photo). (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  4. Neosporosis in South America.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  5. View looking south out the door opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south out the door opening from the south side of the rotunda extension onto the "dog house" or vestibule positioned where the west Verandah of the south wing turns ninety degrees and continues along the south wall of the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  7. Ladybugs of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 79 species of Coccinellidae occurring in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-familial classification, and lengths and widths....

  8. Lunar South Pole Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions over the lunar South Pole region, from ~80°S to the pole. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, 2009. The illumination ca...

  9. Anaglyph, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian

  10. South China Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  11. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  12. Analysis of Background Seismic Noise Recorded at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Aster, R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.

    2006-12-01

    A small array of high frequency seismometers was recently placed around the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in order to characterize seismic noise generated by the station during operations. This week long experiment, titled, "South Pole Analysis of Machines" or SPAM was conducted in January of 2006 using equipment provided by IRIS PASSCAL to sample the high frequency noise sources generated at the NSF's research base. These data will be correlated to those observed at the ultra quiet GSN seismic station (QSPA) located 5 miles from the base. The purpose of the experiment is to show that although the QSPA sensors are 5 miles away and nearly 1000 feet deep in the ice, there is still a risk of contamination of the signals by cultural noise from the South Pole research base. A Quiet Sector was established around the QSPA station in order to minimize vibrational noise sources, but there is interest in moving some experiments out into the Quiet Sector. Characterizing the noise sources will help us determine the potential reduction in data quality expected at the QSPA station as experiments move closer to the site. Sensors were placed next to the power generators, aircraft taxiway, large antenna towers, as well as at the base of the new station itself. Sensors were also placed between the research base and the QSPA station to get an idea of the propagation of the noise toward the QSPA station. Several high frequency noise sources are clearly seen on all array elements with a number of very clear spectral lines above 1 Hz. These are primarily associated with snow moving tractors and power generators. Smaller signals are seen that may be related to wind loading on the new South Pole elevated station along with harmonics that appear to be correlated with large air handling equipment in the station. Also evident are air operations with landings, takeoffs, taxi and idling C-130's evident. Although greatly attenuated, almost all of these signals are observed at the QSPA

  13. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome.

  14. 170. GWMP SOUTH OF GREAT HUNTING CREEK LOOKING SOUTH. (NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. GWMP SOUTH OF GREAT HUNTING CREEK LOOKING SOUTH. (NOTE ASPHALT PAVEMENT AND FILLED LAND) - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  15. View of south grounds, from west entrance, looking south towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south grounds, from west entrance, looking south towards Wilshire Blvd. - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP IN GEARING THAT DRIVES OPERATING WHEEL, WITH HYDRAULIC SHAFT BRAKE - Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River at U.S. Route 1, Groton, New London County, CT

  17. 18. WEST PART OF SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WEST PART OF SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING AND PART OF REAR OF FRONT (WEST) PORTION OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  18. INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  19. South Bedroom Mantel Profile, South Bedroom Fireplace Details, Front Stair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Bedroom Mantel Profile, South Bedroom Fireplace Details, Front Stair Bracket, Attic Door Jamb and Door Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Governor's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  20. 9. VIEW TO NORTH; SOUTH RETAINING WALL AND SOUTH FACADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW TO NORTH; SOUTH RETAINING WALL AND SOUTH FACADE OF MBE BUILDING (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 14. South room first floor. View looking south. East porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. South room first floor. View looking south. East porch visible through window. - Fort Hill Farm, Mansion, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  2. 13. South room first floor. View looking southwest. South addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. South room first floor. View looking southwest. South addition visible through doorway. - Fort Hill Farm, Mansion, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  3. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH OF SOUTHEASTERN CORNER OF BUILDING 441-B, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, On Northwest Corner of K Street & Fifth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. Interior planar view of south wall, view towards the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior planar view of south wall, view towards the south southeast with scale - Fort McClellan Ammunition Storage Area, Building No. 4404, Second Avenue (Magazine Road), Anniston, Calhoun County, AL

  5. 5. Mispillion Lighthouse, South Elevation Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Mispillion Lighthouse, South Elevation - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  6. DETAIL VIEW, OXEYE WINDOW, SOUTH WALL OF SOUTH GARRET. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, OX-EYE WINDOW, SOUTH WALL OF SOUTH GARRET. THE MUNTIN PATTERN USED IN THIS WINDOW WAS REFERRED TO AS “GOTHIC” IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 7. SOUTH ELEVATION OF BUILDING 262 (SOUTH SENTRY POST) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTH ELEVATION OF BUILDING 262 (SOUTH SENTRY POST) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  8. Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber for Incinerator within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  9. 64. Credit JTL. West and south elevations from across South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Credit JTL. West and south elevations from across South Battle Creek. Note penstock descending hill in background and new powerhouse construction in foreground. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  10. 27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE SEAL IN FLOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. View of south entrance to #157 through south breezeway arches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south entrance to #157 through south breezeway arches - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Detail of south wing south elevation wall section; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of south wing south elevation wall section; camera facing northwest - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms created by sublimation processes on the south polar residual cap of Mars. The bulk of the ice in the south polar residual cap is frozen carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 86.6oS, 342.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  14. 23. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south of East Ward Street, facing west. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  15. 7. DETAIL, LOOKING SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH ARCH, SHOWING DRAINAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL, LOOKING SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH ARCH, SHOWING DRAINAGE HOLE IN THE WEST END OF THE SOUTH WALL AND VERTICAL QUARRY DRILLING HOLES ON THE STONE FACE - Mulladay Hollow Bridge, Spanning Mulladay Hollow Creek at County Road No.61, Eureka Springs, Carroll County, AR

  16. 24. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View of west side of South Coweta Avenue south of East Ward Street, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  17. South portal and deck view from south, showing inclined endposts, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South portal and deck view from south, showing inclined endposts, Pratt through trusses, south portal strut, overhead bracing, pipe rails and posts, and concrete deck with bituminous wearing surface - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  18. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has,…

  19. Workforce Brief: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In South Dakota, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare and healthcare support occupations will see growth of about 25 percent; over 2,500 new practitioners and technicians will be needed. There will be a 24 percent increase in the number of…

  20. SOUTH WARNER WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Weldin, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral appraisal utilized geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data and an examination of mining claims in the South Warner Wilderness, California. Results of this study indicate that little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources exists within the area. Small veins of optical quality calcite occur on the east side of the area but, are not considered a resource.

  1. South American sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  2. South Georgia Autograph Parties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Geneva H.

    1978-01-01

    The manager of the South Georgia College Bookstore describes several autograph parties used as a sales promotion technique. The planning process, including initial contacts with the guest authors, are discussed, and the schedules and events of the authors' visits are reviewed. (JMD)

  3. Neptune's 'Hot' South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These thermal images show a 'hot' south pole on the planet Neptune. These warmer temperatures provide an avenue for methane to escape out of the deep atmosphere.

    The images were obtained with the Very Large Telescope in Chile, using an imager/spectrometer for mid-infrared wavelengths on Sept. 1 and 2, 2006. The telescope is operated by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (known as ESO).

    Scientists say Neptune's south pole is 'hotter' than anywhere else on the planet by about 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). The average temperature on Neptune is about minus 200 degrees Celsius (minus 392 degrees Fahrenheit).

    The upper left image samples temperatures near the top of Neptune's troposphere (near 100 millibar pressure, which is one-tenth the Earth atmospheric pressure at sea level). The hottest temperatures are indicated at the lower part of the image, at Neptune's south pole (see the graphic at the upper right). The lower two images, taken 6.3 hours apart, sample temperatures at higher altitudes in Neptune's stratosphere. They do show generally warmer temperatures near, but not at, the south pole. They also show a distinct warm area which can be seen in the lower left image and rotated completely around the back of the planet and returned to the earth-facing hemisphere in the lower right image.

  4. South Platte Data Browser

    EPA Science Inventory

    The common goal among the developers of the South Platte River Basin Data Browser is to improve decision-making relative to environmental management through the development of applied research. The focus of the research has been to design an integrated system of landscape metri...

  5. Trends Abroad: South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Douglas H.

    1970-01-01

    In South Africa today there is a complex structure of laws and regulations which impose a variety of restrictions on individual liberties including the freedom to publish and read literary material. The successive steps by which this state of affairs has been reached are briefly described. (NH)

  6. South Carolina and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with South Carolina and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the…

  7. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  8. Geography: The South Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Malcolm; Shepherd, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Geography as a discipline has a long and healthy history in South Australia. Due to the passion of individual educators and the activities of the Geography Teachers Association of South Australia (GTASA) since its foundation in 1936, South Australia has experienced ongoing curriculum development and indeed innovation in the geographical studies in…

  9. Emergency nursing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brysiewicz, Petra; Bruce, Judy

    2008-04-01

    The role of the emergency nurse in South Africa is a challenging one due to a variety of reasons. This article describes the healthcare system of South Africa with particular attention to the emergency medical system as well as the reason why most emergency clients present to the emergency departments. The actual experience of working as an emergency nurse in South Africa is highlighted.

  10. Anaglyph, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian

  11. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  12. South Polar Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-516, 17 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, stair-stepped layers in the south polar region of Mars. These layers have been considered, for the past three decades, to consist of a mixture of dust and ice. The Mars Polar Lander (MPL) mission was designed to test this hypothesis. However, sadly, MPL was lost during descent in December 1999. This exposure of south polar layered material is located near 86.3oS, 187.7oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  13. South Atlantic interbasin exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, Stephen Rich

    1991-01-01

    The exchange of mass and heat between the South Atlantic and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the Atlantic and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the Atlantic ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.

  14. Summer South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 April 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each summer, a little bit of this carbon dioxide sublimes away. Pits grow larger, and mesas get smaller, as this process continues from year to year. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of a small portion of the south polar cap as it appeared in mid-summer in January 2004. The dark areas may be places where the frozen carbon dioxide contains impurities, such as dust, or places where sublimation of ice has roughened the surface so that it appears darker because of small shadows cast by irregularities in the roughened surface. The image is located near 86.9oS, 7.6oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  15. Terrorism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  16. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  17. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  18. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  19. Terrorism in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-09

    and their supporters in South Asia is identified as a threat to both regional stability and to the attainment of central U.S. policy goals. Al Qaeda...forces that fled from Afghanistan with their Taliban supporters remain active on Pakistani territory, and Al Qaeda is believed to have links with...portion of Pakistan’s ethnic Pashtun population is reported to sympathize with the Taliban and even Al Qaeda. The United States maintains close

  20. A comparative assessment of the price, brands and pack characteristics of illicitly traded cigarettes in five cities and towns in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wherry, Anna E; McCray, Cheyenne A; Adedeji-Fajobi, Temidayo I; Sibiya, Xolani; Ucko, Peter; Lebina, Limakatso; Golub, Jonathan E; Cohen, Joanna E; Martinson, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of illicitly traded cigarettes in South Africa has been reported to be 40–50%. However, these estimates do not account for the more nuanced characteristics of the illicit cigarette trade. With the goal of better understanding contraband cigarettes in South Africa, this study piloted three methods for assessing the price, brands, pack features and smoker's views about illicit cigarettes in five cities/towns. Data were collected in June and July 2012. Setting A convenience sample of three South African cities (Johannesburg, Durban and Nelspruit) and two smaller towns (Musina and Ficksburg) were chosen for this study. Outcome measures Three cross-sectional approaches were used to assess the characteristics of contraband cigarettes: (1) a dummy purchase of cigarettes from informal retailers, (2) the collection of discarded cigarette packs and (3) a survey of tobacco smokers. Participants For the purposes of the survey, 40 self-reported smokers were recruited at taxi ranks in each downtown site. Adults who were over the age of 18 were asked to verbally consent to participate in the study and answer a questionnaire administered by a researcher. Results The leading reason for labelling a pack as illicit in each city/town was the absence of an excise stamp (28.6% overall), and the least common reason was an illegal tar or nicotine level (11.1% overall). The overall proportion of informal vendors who sold illicit cigarettes was 41%. Singles and packs of 20 were consistently cheaper at informal vendors. Survey participants’ responses reflected varied perspectives on illicit cigarettes and purchasing preferences. Conclusions Each approach generated an interesting insight into physical aspects of illicit cigarettes. While this pilot study cannot be used to generate generalisable statistics on illicit cigarettes, more systematic surveys of this nature could inform researchers’ and practitioners’ initiatives to combat illicit and legal cigarette

  1. The South Pacific superswell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Fischer, Karen M.

    Seafloor depths in a broad area of French Polynesia are 250 to 750 m shallower than lithosphere of the same age in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. The area of shallow seafloor also correlates with a region of high density of volcanoes, low seismic velocity in the upper mantle, and a reduction in the thickness of the elastic plate supporting the volcanoes. The Marquesas fracture zone marks an abrupt transition between normal lithosphere to the north which follows the thermal subsidence curve for a 125-km-thick plate and shallow lithosphere to the south which behaves as though it is only 75-km thick. This age dependence in the French Polynesian depth anomalies, the low elastic plate thickness, and the change in depth at the Marquesas fracture zone, a lithospheric discontinuity, require elevated temperatures in the lithosphere. The pattern and amplitude of the depth anomaly is not consistent with the notion that it results from lithospheric thinning beneath a number of overlapping hot spot swells. Rather, we propose that hot spot traces cluster in this region because the lithosphere is already thinner and more vulnerable to magma penetration. The reduction in the thickness of the thermal plate is presumably due to enhanced small-scale convection resulting from the thermal and/or chemical effect of a broad mantle up welling beneath the South Pacific as imaged by seismic tomography. The morphologic and petrologic characteristics of this superswell resemble those that existed in the mid-Cretaceous over H. W. Menard's Darwin Rise, a region of the Pacific which includes the Mid-Pacific Mountains, the Marshall Islands, Magellan Seamounts, and Wake Guyots. We propose that the South Pacific superswell is the modern-day equivalent of the Darwin Rise, and that it may be merely an extreme example of global variability in lithospheric thermal structure as a function of temperature, chemistry, and/or state-of-stress in the upper mantle.

  2. Lightning medicine in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Ryan; Trengrove, Estelle; Jandrell, Ian R; Saayman, Gert

    2012-06-06

    South Africa has a rich history of lightning research; however, research on the clinical and pathological effects and features of lightning-related injury (keraunomedicine or lightning medicine) remains neglected locally. By providing an overview of keraunomedicine and focussing on South African perspectives, we hope to raise awareness and propose that a concerted and co-ordinated attempt be made to report and collate data regarding lightning strike victims in South Africa.

  3. South Polar Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    19 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer scene in the south polar region of the red planet. The light-toned surface is covered with seasonal frost that, later in the season, would have sublimed away.

    Location near: 86.8oS, 322.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  4. South Polar Polygons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    4 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polgyon-cracked surface, into which deep, somewhat kidney-bean-shaped pits have formed. These are landscapes of the martian south polar residual cap. This view was captured during May 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 5.1oW Image width: 1.5 km (0.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season Southern Spring

  5. South Polar Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    5 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the south polar residual cap. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left, thus the somewhat kidney bean-shaped features are pits, not mounds. These pits and their neighboring polygonal cracks are formed in a material composed mostly of carbon dioxide ice. The image is located near 87.0oS, 5.7oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  6. Home Reef, South Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In the South Pacific, south of Late Island along the Tofua volcanic arc in Tonga, a new volcanic island Home Reef is being re-born. The island is thought to have emerged after a volcanic eruption in mid-August that has also spewed large amounts of floating pumice into Tongan waters and sweeping across to Fiji about 350 km (220 miles) to the west of where the new island has formed. In 2004 a similar eruption created an ephemeral island about 0.5 by 1.5 km (0.3 by 0.9 miles) in size; it was no longer visible in an ASTER image acquired November 2005. This simulated natural color image shows the vegetation-covered stratovolcanic island of Late in the upper right. Home Reef is found in the lower left. The two bluish plumes are hot seawater that is laden with volcanic ash and chemicals; the larger one can be traced for more than 14 km (8.4 miles) to the east. The image was acquired October 10, 2006 and covers an area of 24.3 by 30.2 km. It is located at 18.9 degrees South latitude, 174.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation

  7. South Polar Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of erosion acting upon a layer of material in the south polar region of Mars. The elliptical pit in the lower left corner of the image was once buried beneath this eroding layer, as well. The processes that eroded the material, and the composition of the material, are unknown. The image is located near 80.7oS, 300.9oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the top.

  8. South Polar Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a circular depression and a suite of eroding mesas of carbon dioxide. These features occur in the south polar residual cap of Mars. The eroding carbon dioxide creates landforms reminiscent of 'Swiss cheese.' The circular feature might indicate the location of a filled, buried impact crater.

    Location near: 86.8oS, 111.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  9. South Asia: Danger Ahead?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    2011 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE South Asia: Danger Ahead? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...its opponent and preclude a devastating retaliatory response. 4 Fundamen­ tally, both countries are restricted to use their nuclear forces to threaten...threaten India’s hold in the Kashmir Valley; to control a part of the Himalayan Range to facili­ tate insurgent movement into the Kashmir Valley and the

  10. 11. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, SOUTH MEZZANINE, FROM SOUTH WALL APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, SOUTH MEZZANINE, FROM SOUTH WALL APPROXIMATELY ONE-THIRD OF DISTANCE WEST FROM EAST END, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 5. View of south tower, facing northnortheast from south bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of south tower, facing north-northeast from south bank of the Columbia River. Center tower and north tower in background, lower right. - Pasco-Kennewick Transmission Line, Columbia River Crossing Towers, Columbia Drive & Gum Street, Kennewick, Benton County, WA

  12. 149. INTERIOR, EIGHTH FLOOR, SOUTH PENTHOUSE, FORMERLY EMPLOYEES' LOUNGE, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. INTERIOR, EIGHTH FLOOR, SOUTH PENTHOUSE, FORMERLY EMPLOYEES' LOUNGE, SOUTH ANNEX, DETAIL OF BRONZE WALL LIGHTING FIXTURE (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. How to Restore Plant's Taxis in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    All plants respond to gravity, yet in micro-gravity not all plants will grow the way as they do on the Earth. Successful space experiments with plants grown from seed to seed, were performed (to the best of my knowledge) with non electrotropic plants. Such plants use phototropism instead of the gravitropism. The electrotropic plants have been successfully grown in phytotron and in a greenhouse. We used the electric field to direct their growth where we want them to grow. Normally the ground or soil is negatively charged, and plants grow upwards towards positive charges in the air or the anode (positive electrode) in plant growth chambers. In reversed field polarization with "ground positive" the lettuce grows down-wards. In horizontal electric fields it grows horizontally again towards positively charged field generating conducting plate. This is at the first glance a very surprising effect even to the physicist. But one has to remember the most important fact that the electromagnetic forces are a factor of 1038 times stronger than the gravitational force. On the Earth the gravity acts on the entire plant, but the electrical field acts only on ions which are distributed on the surface of leaves, sprouts or stem tips. The ions are directed so very much strongly (1038 times) by the electrical field, than by gravity. The electric field lines guide the concentrations of ions to follow the field lines rendering the plants electrotropic and shaping their growth pattern. There is also a clear positive dependence of the rate of plant growth on field strength and crop yield. This is why it is so important to know which plants are electrotropic not only for use in space but also in greenhouse plant cultures. It is very much cheaper to select the electrotropic plant here, and not in space experiments for best cost efficiency. Special light weight plant growth chambers have been designed and very successfully used in terrestrial experiments. We can make the plant growth chambers very much lighter for space applications. We do not need to send them assembled into space, but rather make them foldable. Then we do not strain the plant growth chambers by vibrations and about 10 times stronger accelerations than gravity during launch, besides they are also not gravitationally loaded in space. We deploy them by stretching or inflating, them and suspend them using springs to get them into the needed shape and position. Some considerations have been given to some designs of space borne plant growth chambers. We pay special attention to secure the very important advantages of light weight and low cost so vital in space applications.

  14. F-18 SRA taxi at dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    One of NASA's F/A-18 Hornets is seen here sitting on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, at dawn August 6, 1993. F-18 aircraft, on loan to NASA by the U.S. Navy, are currently being flown at Dryden as support aircraft and as research testbeds. As support aircraft, they are used primarily for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. As research aircraft, they are involved in thrust vectoring and high angle of attack research, as well as numerous smaller scale experiments.

  15. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  16. Guayule rubber for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-17

    It is reported that Agtec together with South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, is investigating the possibility of large-scale production of guayule. The rubber-yielding shrub grows in semi-arid climates and may be the source of a $35-million natural rubber industry in South Africa.

  17. School Psychology in South America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange; Oakland, Thomas

    The literature discussing professional practices of school psychology in South America is very meager. This study attempted to identify demographic characteristics of school psychologists in four South American countries, their typical responsibilities, significant problems, and threats that jeopardize the delivery of psychological services within…

  18. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  19. South Polar Knob

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small, relatively light-toned knob of layered material, and the erosional expression of the underlying layers, in the south polar region of Mars. When the image was acquired in April 2005, the surface was still covered with seasonal carbon dioxide frost. Dark spots and streaks mark locations where the frost had begun to change and sublime away.

    Location near: 84.2oS, 138.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season Southern Spring

  20. South Polar 'Poodle'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-422, 15 July 2003

    Have you ever stared up at the clouds in the sky and seen the shapes of animals, people, or objects? Sometimes when the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) team is looking at newly-returned pictures from Mars, the same thing happens. This is a picture of pits and scarps in the frozen south polar carbon dioxide ice cap. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper right. At the bottom of the picture is a feature that resembles a long, thin poodle; its head faces to the left, the tail to the right. This picture is located near 86.9oS, 55.8oW.

  1. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  2. Glaciers of South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    1998-01-01

    Landsat images, together with maps and aerial photographs, have been used to produce glacier inventories, define glacier locations, and study glacier dynamics in the countries of South America, along with the Andes Mountains. In Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia, the small glaciers have been undergoing extensive glacier recession since the late 1800's. Glacier-related hazards (outburst floods, mud flows, and debris avalanches) occur in Colombia, in Ecuador, and associated with the more extensive (2,600 km2) glaciers of Peru. The largest area of glacier ice is found in Argentina and Chile, including the northern Patagonian ice field (about 4,200 km2) and the southern Patagonian ice field (about 13,000 km2), the largest glacier in the Southern Hemisphere outside Antarctica.

  3. South Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 July 2003

    Similar to ice cores taken from Greenland and Antarctica, Mars also has fine-scale layered deposits in both the north and south polar regions. In this image from the south pole, alternating light and dark bands represent varying amounts of dust or sand mixed in with carbon dioxide ice. These layers are related in part to climate cycles caused by variations in the tilt of Mars' rotational axis, as well as other orbital variations that occur on geologic time scales (tens of thousands of years).

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1, Longitude 260.4 East (99.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. "COMPARE" Forum: The Idea of North-South and South-South Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.; Desai, Zubeida; Botha, Louis Royce; Breidlid, Anders; Bastien, Sheri; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Ezekiel, Mangi J.; Helleve, Arnfinn; Farag, Alawia I.; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi

    2013-01-01

    The idea of having a "Compare" Forum focusing on the above title was first discussed with one of the Editors of "Compare" during a PhD defence in Oslo in 2011. The PhD dissertation itself was linked to a larger project in which researchers from the North (Norway) and the South (South Africa) had been collaborating in…

  5. 8. View of south and west wings of main building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of south and west wings of main building in south court; facing south (south addition in background at left). - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse to left in background - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  7. Neuropsychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Truter, Sharon; Mazabow, Menachem; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-21

    This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. Ninety-five professionals working in neuropsychology completed an online survey between July and November 2015. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 46.97 years. The majority of professions working in neuropsychology have a background in psychology, with additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice and are on average satisfied with their work. Participants identified as clinicians primarily work with TBI and ADHD individuals. The main limitation for the use of neuropsychological instruments is the lack of normative data in SA and the main barrier to the field is the lack of academic training programs. There is a need to improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.

  8. Libby South Fire, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 9, 2001, a fire burned about 15 miles south of Twisp, Washington, that officials believe was caused by human error. NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on the Terra satellite observed the fire, indicated with a red dot in this image, on July 10, after the fire had already consumed about 1,240 acres. On July 10, another fire-called the Thirty Mile Fire-trapped 21 firefighters and 2 civilians in a narrow canyon in the Chewuch River Valley, north of Winthrop, WA. (That fire did not erupt until later in the day after this image was acquired and is therefore not visible.) Tragically, four firefighters were killed and six people were injured, including the two civilians. Rolling debris, rugged and steep terrain, and limited access are impeding efforts to contain the now 8,200-acre fire, which according to current fire incident reports, is completely uncontained. Nearly all the areas in the full-size image, including Washington (center), Idaho (right), Oregon (bottom) are in a state of severe drought, which means the region could be in for another devastating fire season. Another fire is visible in Idaho in the full-size image just east of where Idaho borders with Washington and Oregon. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  9. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  10. Accomplishments of South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Accomplishments of the South Platte Watershed of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  11. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  12. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  13. Producing physicians for south Texas.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W A; Denk, J P; Ferry, P G; Martinez-Wedig, C; Michael, L H

    1999-01-01

    South Texas, one of the fastest growing regions in the country, remains among the most medically underserved, in part, because few students from South Texas enter medical school. To address this issue and to increase the diversity of the matriculant pool, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) and The University of Texas-Pan American (UT-PA) established in 1994 the Premedical Honors College (PHC), a rigorous undergraduate program at UT-PA for students from South Texas high schools. Students who complete all PHC requirements and BCM prerequisites are accepted into BCM upon graduation from UT-PA. Those in good standing receive counseling, enrichment experiences, and tuition and fee waivers from UT-PA and BCM. The program is increasing the number of students from South Texas universities matriculating into medical school, and is expanding the involvement of local physicians in undergraduate education, heightening visibility for partner institutions, and becoming an effective, replicable bachelor of science/doctor of medicine model.

  14. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  15. Gallbladder cancer: South American experience.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Gerardo F; Gentile, Alberto; Parada, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Large differences in terms of incidence and mortality due to gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been reported worldwide. Moreover, it seems that GBC has unique characteristics in South America. We surveyed the literature looking for information about the epidemiology, basic and translational research, and clinical trials performed in South America in order to critically analyze the magnitude of this health problem in the region. Compared to other geographic areas, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for GBC in women are very high, particularly in many western areas of South America. Genetic, as well as dietary and environmental factors likely contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease in the area. Compared to other regions the profile of abnormalities of key genes such as KRAS and TP53 in GBC seems to slightly differ in South America, while the clinical behavior appears to be similar with a median overall survival (OS) of 6.5 to 8 months in advanced GBC. In contrast to Europe and USA, prophylactic cholecystectomy is a common practice in western areas of South America. GBC particularly affects women in South America, and represents a significant public health problem. It appears to have peculiarities that pose an urgent need for additional research aimed to discover risk factors, molecular events associated with its development and new treatment options for this lethal disease.

  16. South America consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-03-01

    Privatization of hydropower assets is creating new consortia opportunities throughout South America. This is particularly true in Argentina, where recent operating concession and ownership arrangements with CMS Generating Co. and Duke Energy Corp. for the country's two largest hydropower projects are the latest developments in Argentina's effort to develop private power. By the end of last year, Argentina had opened more than 7,000 MW of generation assets to privatization. In July, Hidroelectrica Norpatagonia S.A. (Hidronor) sold the 1,320 MW El Chocon project located on the Limay River in southwestern Argentina to the Hidroinvest S.A. consortium composed of CMS Generating Co., Chilean electric company Empressa Nacional de Electridad (Endesa), the Argentina province of Neuquen, BEA Associates and Sawgrass Limited of Spain. CMS holds about 15 percent of the ownership interest in El Chocon, a two-unit facility consisting of the 1,200 MW El Chocon station and the 120 MW Aroyito station on the Limay River. The plants will be operated by CMS according to a 30-year concession agreement. The other Argentine consortium that made financial headlines at the end of 1993 was Hidronenquen S.A., an international group of investors consisting of Duke Energy, Chilgener S.A. of Chile and TransAlta Energy of Canada. This consortium was awarded majority ownership and operation of Hidroelectrica Piedra del Aguila S.A., a 1,400 MW facility also on the Limay River, 62 miles upstream from the El Chocon station. The Emerging Marks Growth Fund Inc. and the New World Investment Fund, based on Los Angeles, Calif., are financial investors for the consortium's $272 million bid, which was selected in November by the government. Hidronenquen S.A. assumed ownership and operation of the complex in December 1993.

  17. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 8 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected March 5, 2002 during the southern summer season. Layering in the South polar cap interior is readily visible and may indicate yearly ice/dust deposition.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.6, Longitude 156.8 East (203.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  18. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  19. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  20. The silent struggle. South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shiner, C

    1994-01-01

    South Africa's new Constitution will include a women's rights charter that addresses issues such as domestic violence. The Women's National Coalition, which drafted the charter, united South African women across political, racial, ethnic, and social class boundaries. Despite vastly different priorities, the women were able to agree on the centrality of the domestic violence issue. One in six South African women is battered by her husband and one out of two is raped. The charter mandates the state to provide education to police and the courts about violence against women and to offer counseling and shelters. A problem faced by the group is the inability of federal law to override customary laws that give village chiefs the right to control the lives of Black women. Similarly, the charter's call for gender equality in development funding is not binding on international agencies. Nonetheless, the charter is expected to create a political climate of greater awareness of and respect for women's rights.

  1. South Pole Lorentz Invariance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Morgan; Smiciklas, Marc; Romalis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Atomic spin co-magnetometers are among the most sensitive instruments to test for violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry. Our rotating co-magnetometer has, in recent years, set the most stringent limits for such violations in fermions with measurements conducted in Princeton. In order to eliminate the gyroscopic pickup of Earth's rotation as a major limiting background, we now operate a Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. We discuss the current status of our ongoing South Pole experiment along with the latest results. This research is funded by NSF grant #PLR-1142032.

  2. Lyme Disease in South America?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    20889-5044 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11 TITLE (include Security Classification) Lyme disease in South America? 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Need JI...secretor state and susceptilty to recurrent 002~2 IS500’) h101i o()52iil i0i urinary, tract Infection in ssiimcn. BNIJ 1982.285>7 Lyme Disease in South...antiboy in human serum. I an irbo19;22347 tial vectors. 7. arbour AG. The diagnosis of Lyme disease ; rewards and perils. Ann j Intern Med 1989:110:501

  3. South Africa: defiance campaign continues.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) has continued its "defiance campaign against patent abuse and AIDS profiteering." In partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), and with the support of Oxfam and the Council of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), on 28 January 2002 three TAC members returned to South Africa from Brazil carrying generic versions of the antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP). Some of the imported capsules contain a combination of AZT and 3TC.

  4. HIV-1 variants in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsuchie, H; Saraswathy, T S; Sinniah, M; Vijayamalar, B; Maniar, J K; Monzon, O T; Santana, R T; Paladin, F J; Wasi, C; Thongcharoen, P

    1995-01-01

    HIV spread in South and South-East Asia is most alarming, and genetic variability of HIV-1 is an important consideration in vaccine development. In this study, we examined the third variable (V3) region of env gene of HIV-1 variants prevalent in Thailand, Malaysia, India, and the Philippines. By phylogenetic tree analyses, an HIV-1 variant from an injecting drug user (IDU) in Thailand belonged to subtype B, and HIV-1 variants from 2 IDUs in Malaysia were classified into 2 subtypes, B and E. One HIV-1 variant from a male homosexual in the Philippines belonged to subtype B. Out of 8 HIV-1 variants from sexually transmitted disease patients in India, 7 belonged to subtype C, and one to subtype A. Although the total number of individuals examined in this study was limited, 4 HIV-1 subtypes were found in South and South-East Asia and large international movements of HIV-1-infected individuals in this region could induce global dissemination of these HIV-1 variants.

  5. Conscientious Objectives: Campuses Respond to South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexter, Holly

    1985-01-01

    In the wake of political pressures and deteriorating conditions in South Africa, many campuses are reviewing their investment policies and considering other contributions. The rising interest in educational initiatives is discussed including establishment of scholarships for South African students. (MLW)

  6. Textures in south polar ice cap #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 15 x 14 km area image (frame 7306) is centered near 87 degrees south, 341 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  7. Textures in south polar ice cap #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Textures of the south polar permanent residual ice cap and polar layered terrains. This 30 x 29 km area image (frame 7709) is centered near 87 degrees south, 77 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  8. Libraries in South Carolina: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southcarolina.html Libraries in South Carolina To use the sharing features ... Columbia University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library 6311 Garners Ferry Road Columbia, SC 29208 803- ...

  9. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Heart Failure in South America

    PubMed Central

    Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries. PMID:23597301

  11. Apartheid and South Africa's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  12. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  13. Monitoring Optimism in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mari

    2007-01-01

    An article with exactly this same title was published in Social Indicators Research (41:279-304, 1997). The purpose of the current article is to update the findings discussed in that first article. Therefore the abstract published previously is still relevant: The last few decades have been the most crucial and eventful ones in South Africa's…

  14. The Northification of the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Reviews book, "The Selling of the South: The Southern Crusade for Industrial Development, 1936-1980" (Cobb, 1982). Describes socioeconomic influences and history of industrialization in southern United States. Emphasizes development's negative effect on people and environment. Suggests that rural Southerners should reconsider and…

  15. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  16. Life in South Korea Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  17. Slavery in the Lower South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Provides a detailed account of slave history within the Lower South region of the colonial United States. Focuses on the experiences of Africans in the colonies. Explores the role of the English, Spanish, and French in establishing slavery within the future United States. Addresses the systems of slavery used and treatment of the Africans. (CMK)

  18. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  19. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  20. South Asians in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  1. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…

  2. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  3. South Carolina Wins the Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses factors involved in locating new BMW car-manufacturing plant in South Carolina. Discusses state's business environment, transportation, and education system. Describes development process, site selection, and implications for economic development. Describes importance of state's labor-force development via regional technical colleges and…

  4. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  5. South Texas Maquiladora Suppliers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, J. Michael

    This project was undertaken to assist South Texas industries in improving export to nearby Mexican maquiladoras (factories). The maquiladora program is based on co-production by two plants under a single management, one on each side of the border. Activities addressed four objectives: (1) to determine the dollar value, quantity, and source of the…

  6. Reflections on South African Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the state of higher education in South Africa looks at the economic context, the structure of the higher education system, including the role of apartheid and languages (English and Afrikaans), the government's role in governance and funding, and the actual and potential roles of professional associations in education. (MSE)

  7. South Korean Digital Textbook Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jackie Hee-Young; Jung, Hye-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    South Korea has adopted the widespread use of digital textbooks. Part school reform and part an effort to prepare today's children for tomorrow's challenging world, the way in which this effort was implemented and the lessons learned are valuable. This article highlights the history of the digital textbook project and compares printed textbooks…

  8. Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Road to Democracy in South Africa," Peace Review 15, no. 3 (09 2003): 268. 32 Lowenberg, 64. 33 Wood, 143. 34 Ibid, 175. 35 Peter Gastrow...Winter 1997): 11. Frankel, Philip. Soldiers in a Storm. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2000. Gastrow, Peter . Bargaining for Peace South Africa...132. Louw, Antoinette . "Citizen Perceptions of Crime and Policing in South Africa." Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies. Johannesburg, South

  9. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  10. The State of the South, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

    This report charts the economic changes occurring in the South during the past two decades, presents a status report on where the South is today, and offers an agenda for future development. The South has made great strides, diversifying its economy and improving racial inequities. Several of its cities have successfully engaged the new economy,…

  11. Supporting Change: Working with South African Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Anne D.; Volmink, John

    1986-01-01

    University and pre-university education in South Africa is briefly described, along with areas where U.S. universities can assist South African organizations working to promote equal access to quality education. Three basic areas are explored: financial aid for South African students; manpower support to help in tutorials and academic research;…

  12. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  13. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  14. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  16. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  17. Décision d'amputation dans la prise en charge initiale d'une luxation ouverte grave de la cheville à propos d'un cas observé à l'Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala suite à un accident par moto-taxi

    PubMed Central

    Tsatedem, Faustin Atemkeng; Tsiagadigui, Jean Gustave; Ndando, Richard Polle; Arabo, Mohamadou Saidou; Bayiha, Alphonse; Kenfack, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    La décision d'amputation pour traumatisme grave de membre n'est pas toujours facile à prendre. Les auteurs rapportent le cas d'un traumatisme ouvert de la cheville gauche avec luxation tibiotalienne complète, référé pour amputation. Il s'agit d'une passagère d'une moto-taxi percutée par une voiture. A l'admission, le pouls tibial postérieur était présent et le score dit MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score) côté à 5, ce qui a permis et d'éviter l'amputation. Après débridement et réduction, une broche transplantaire a permis d'immobiliser la cheville et de faire les pansements. L'amputation a été évitée. La cicatrisation dirigée de la peau a été suivie par la kinésithérapie. La mobilité de la cheville autorise une marche avec cannes au quatrième mois post-opératoire. Les auteurs recommandent l'utilisation du MESS dans la décision d'amputation après traumatisme grave de membre. PMID:23396997

  18. The State of the South 2007: Philanthropy as the South's "Passing Gear". State of the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDC, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    The South is arguably the most generous region of a generous nation. Southerners give to their universities and schools, to their soup kitchens and homeless shelters, to the community United Way, to relief agencies responding to natural disasters, and most specially to their churches and other religious institutions. As a whole, Southerners give…

  19. Return of the Lost Boys to South Sudan: A Strategy to Building a Stronger South Sudan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    conflict South Sudan. Thus, it is stated in the South Sudan Development Plan (SSDP), 2011–2013 that “educated and skilled South Sudanese from the...during the conference with the USAID, Juba, South Sudan, June 15, 2009), www.gurtong.net (Accessed December 14, 2010). 11 South Sudan Development Plan ...you are married and have children, you have to consider them when making plans ,” he explained.44 Concerns about the welfare of nuclear family seem

  20. Modeling Climate Impacts on Agriculture in South East South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ines, A. M.; Baethgen, W.; Greene, A. M.; Goddard, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the past two decades, a rapid expansion of croplands in South East South America is observed. This drastic change in landuse is seen to be due to two major factors - climate and economics. Converting marginal lands into agricultural lands is possible due to the increase in annual precipitation in the region and the increasing prices of soybeans and higher demands for grain crops have played a key role to this expansion. But the question is, how sustainable is the current trend in the future? A modeling study is conducted to evaluate the impacts of climate on agriculture in the Southern Cone of South America. We examine the impacts of climate variability and current climate change to crop yields using crop simulation models. Using the results of our current climate analysis as a baseline, we evaluate the impacts of future climate change in the next 10-30 years. Climate projections include scenarios considering only global warming, ozone and both impacting the near-term climate of the future in the region and considering decadal variability. We aim to evaluate the vulnerability of the current system to climate change. This paper will present the results of our modeling study.

  1. South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

  2. South Africa, Namibia Diamond Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image covers a portion of the Richtersveld National Park and Orange River (top of image) in the Northern Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa. The Orange River marks the boundary between South Africa to the south and Namibia to the north. This is an area of active mining for diamonds, which were washed downstream from the famous Kimberley Diamond Area, millions of years ago when the river was much larger. The mining is focused on ancient drainages of the Orange River which are currently buried by think layers of sand and gravel. Scientists are investigating whether these ancient drainages can be seen with the radar's ability to penetrate sand cover in extremely dry regions. A mine, shown in yellow, is on the southern bank of the river in an abandoned bend which is known as an 'oxbow.' The small bright circular areas (left edge of image) west of the mine circles are fields of a large ostrich farm that are being watered with pivot irrigation. The large dark area in the center of the image is the Kubus Pluton, a body of granite rock that broke through the surrounding rocks about 550 million years ago. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is about 55 by 60 kilometers (34 by 37 miles) centered at 28.4 degrees south latitude, 16.8 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired on April 18, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

  3. Heart Failure in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region PMID:23597297

  4. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions.

  5. Deployment and Testing of KELT-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Rudi; Pepper, J.; Stassun, K.; James, D. J.; Siverd, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    The KELT-South telescope is a wide-field, small aperture robotic telescope recently deployed at Sutherland, South Africa. Based on the design of the KELT-North telescope in Arizona, KELT-South will survey the southern sky for planetary transits of bright (8 < V < 10) stars. It consists of a 4k by 4k Apogee CCD camera with a medium format telephoto lens, mounted on a Paramount ME mount. Here we describe the instrument, robotic operations, site, and observing strategy. We also describe the instrument's performance and prospects for planet discovery based on initial measurements and observations. The KELT-South project is funded by the Vanderbilt Initiative in Data-intensive Astrophysics (VIDA) at Vanderbilt University, and by the NSF PAARE grant AST-0849736. We also thank the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) for cooperation with KELT-South and operational support.

  6. Unsung heroes in the South.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    While recognizing the important role played by lesbian women in HIV/AIDS prevention in many countries, and as members of some gay organizations in the South, this article focuses only on gay men. Even though formidable societal proscriptions against homosexuality exist in many developing countries and Eastern European countries, gay men served duty on the front lines as AIDS educators and care givers. The threat of the AIDS crisis impelled some to openly acknowledge their sexuality in an effort to reach gay men at risk. In the West, gay organizations had already laid a 10 year foundation of organization and community trust, when the AIDS epidemic appeared in the public spot light. This fact allowed them to act as effective educators of their own gay communities. They were so effective that the number of new HIV cases has leveled off in the gay community. In Central and South America, gay movement cohered in 1976 and responded quickly to AIDS in 1983. In Africa, homosexuality is often considered a contamination of the West and national gay organizations (NGOs) have only recently been formed in Ghana, Tanzania, and Nigeria. The only AIDS services organizations (ASOs) for black men exist in Zimbabwe and South Africa. In Asia NGOs are a new phenomenon that exist only in Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. All NGOs have several things in common. Governments are rarely interested in working with NGOs so they are forced to find their own funding and develop their own education campaigns. Even in countries that recognize the implications and magnitude of the AIDS crisis, their education programs and policies are often homophobic or anti-gay. In the countries where the government is sympathetic to the gay community they rely upon NGOs to help them develop national education programs for both gays and the rest of the population.

  7. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  8. United States interests in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    sea lanes running from the Persian Gulf to South East Asia . Therefore the purpose of this study is to analyze the five factors; geography, security...Sri Lanka which is strategically located in the Indian Ocean close to the major sea lanes running from the Persian Gulf to South East Asia . Therefore...Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world after Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It lies South of Asia , between Africa and Australia with

  9. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    News , December 1, 2012. U.S.- South Korea Relations Congressional Research Service 7 • China’s rising influence in ...entered into force and will be eliminated completely in the fifth year of the agreement. South Korea also agreed to allow U.S.-based car manufacturers to...sell in South Korea up to 25,000 cars per year per manufacturer as long as they met U.S. safety and environmental standards. This

  10. Private Observatories in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  11. Heading South on 'Erebus Highway'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is currently traveling southward over a pavement of outcrop dubbed the 'Erebus Highway.' 'Erebus Crater,' the rover's next target, lies less than 100 meters (328 feet) south of its current position. This view is a mosaic produced from from frames taken by the rover's navigation camera during Opportunity's 582nd martian day, or sol (Sept. 13, 2005). It shows fractured blocks of ancient sedimentary rock separated by recent sand dunes. Mars Exploration Rover team scientists are investigating both the composition of the rocks and the processes by which the distinctive fracture pattern arose.

  12. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  13. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY81 Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic Red Snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Marine Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR)...

  14. 75 FR 47266 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XX60 Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic red snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center. Participants include...

  15. 4. SOUTH SIDE, WITH SUBSTATION (MI98D) AT RIGHT AND SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTH SIDE, WITH SUBSTATION (MI-98-D) AT RIGHT AND SOUTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-E) AT LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Powerhouse, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  16. View from south/southeast at Chapel of grave area C, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from south/southeast at Chapel of grave area C, south rond point, and grave area D. Note flagstone path and steps leading to rond point from Chapel. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  17. 480mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  18. 480mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  19. 78 FR 65615 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC941 Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and ] Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public...

  20. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research.

  1. South Carolina Course Alignment Project Newsletter. Volume 1, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In response to the Education and Economic Development Act of 2005 (EEDA), South Carolina has embarked on an exciting initiative called the South Carolina Course Alignment Project. In partnership with the South Carolina Department of Education and the South Carolina Technical College System, the project is led by the South Carolina Commission on…

  2. South Dakota Public Higher Education System Opportunities Plan: A Report to the South Dakota Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The South Dakota Opportunities Plan is being presented to the South Dakota Legislature in fulfillment of the Legislature's directive from the 2006 session (House Bill 1238). The plan is intended to provide insight into the critical issues confronting higher education in South Dakota, responses made by the Board of Regents to these situations, and…

  3. 76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata) and Golden... Workshop for South Atlantic black sea bass and golden tilefish. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 25 Review of the South Atlantic stock of black sea bass and golden tilefish will consist of one workshop, originally scheduled...

  4. 6. South elevation, facing north (Note: B/W scale on south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. South elevation, facing north (Note: B/W scale on south elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. Protein malnutrition in South India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Someswara; Swaminathan, M. C.; Swarup, S.; Patwardhan, V. N.

    1959-01-01

    A protein malnutrition survey was carried out in ten areas of four States of South India among children under 5 years of age in families with a monthly income of less than Rs 100, estimated to constitute 85% of the population. The agricultural situation and socio-economic conditions are described. The diets investigated consisted largely of cereals, with small quantities of pulses and green vegetables; milk, meat and eggs were little eaten. The survey covered investigation of infant care, feeding and weaning practices, clinical examinations, anthropometric measurements, determinations of haemoglobin and serum protein, and analysis of hospital records. Although infants were usually breast-fed for a long time, the quantity of breast milk was found to be low after 6 months, at which time supplementary foods were introduced, but these were usually inadequate. Extreme growth retardation was seen after weaning. Diarrhoea was complained of in some 20% of children. Such deficiency signs as dyschromotrichia, hepatomegaly, moon face, angular stomatitis and xerophthalmia were frequently seen. Frank cases of kwashiorkor and marasmus were observed in 1% and 1.7% respectively of children at home. These findings and others clearly show protein malnutrition to be a problem of very considerable magnitude in the poorer communities of South India. A comparison is made with the results of surveys conducted in Africa and in Central America. ImagesFIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 2 PMID:14436226

  6. South Pole Lorentz Invariance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Morgan; Smiciklas, Marc; Romalis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Tests of Lorentz and CPT symmetries are important because they form a cornerstone of quantum field theory and general relativity. To test one of the consequences of local Lorentz invariance we have performed a precision test of spatial isotropy at the Amundsen-Scott station near the geographic South Pole. This location provides the most isotropic environment available on Earth. We use an atomic spin co-magnetometer to compare energy levels in 21 Ne and Rubidium atoms as the apparatus rotates with respect to the cosmos. Our experimental sensitivity is more than an order of magnitude greater than in previous such measurements, known as Hughes-Drever experiments. By operating at the South Pole we eliminate background signals due to the gyroscopic interactions of spins with Earth's rotation as well as diurnal environmental effects. The experiment has finished a 2-year data collection period and we expect to present the final results at the meeting. This is the first precision atomic physics experiment performed at the Pole and we will discuss the potential for future such measurements.

  7. [Goiter epidemiology in South Tirol].

    PubMed

    Oberhofer, R; Ober, A; Seeber, A; Amor, H

    1992-10-02

    To ascertain the prevalence of goitre among schoolchildren in South Tyrol (uncontrolled voluntary iodine salt prophylaxis), the size of the thyroid gland was determined by palpation and ultrasound in 1,013 of 1,224 children, aged 6 to 14 years (547 boys, 466 girls), selected by statistically criteria. At the same time, to assess thyroid function, total and free fractions of T3 and T4, and TSH were measured, while iodine supply was determined by measuring urinary iodine. Stage Ia goitre was diagnosed by palpation in 157 children, stage Ib in 18 and stage II in two (goitre prevalence of 1.97% according to WHO criteria). Mean thyroid volume as determined by ultrasound was 4.26 (0.8-23.4) ml. As expected, it increased with age and body surface area: it was 2.55 +/- 0.49 ml in 6-year olds, 3.83 +/- 0.42 ml in 10-year olds and 6.42 +/- 0.69 ml in 14-year olds. Iodine excretion (143.8 [4.1-984.8] micrograms iodine/g creatinine) indicated adequate iodine supply to the tested subjects. South Tyrol is thus, according to WHO criteria, no longer an endemic goitre area. The voluntary use of iodinated cooking salt and changed food habits have probably effected this change in goitre epidemiology.

  8. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  9. Financing Schools in the New South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In almost every dimension, South Africa has undergone dramatic changes since the end of apartheid. Public education in South Africa has been completely transformed from an amalgam of separate and highly unequal educational systems, defined in terms of the race and place of residence of students, into a unified system based on the principle of…

  10. 33 CFR 117.756 - South River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South River. 117.756 Section 117.756 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.756 South River. The draw of the Conrail...

  11. 33 CFR 117.756 - South River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South River. 117.756 Section 117.756 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.756 South River. The draw of the Conrail...

  12. 33 CFR 117.756 - South River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South River. 117.756 Section 117.756 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.756 South River. The draw of the Conrail...

  13. 33 CFR 117.756 - South River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South River. 117.756 Section 117.756 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.756 South River. The draw of the Conrail...

  14. 33 CFR 117.756 - South River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South River. 117.756 Section 117.756 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.756 South River. The draw of the Conrail...

  15. 40 CFR 81.426 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Carolina. 81.426 Section 81.426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.426 South Carolina. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  16. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.427 Section 81.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  17. Researching Postgraduate Educational Research in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…

  18. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  19. Statistics of South Dakota Libraries. 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

    The South Dakota State Library 1975 annual report is presented in this volume, followed by tables of statistical data on services, resources, income, and expenditures for South Dakota public, academic, and special libraries. Sections include: (1) a summary of public library statistics by size of library and type of library; (2) map of areas with…

  20. South's Schools Pass Milestone on Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    According to a new report, the South region in the U.S. now has a "new majority" in its public schools: students from low-income families. Poor children, for the first time in at least 40 years, now constitute 54 percent of students in public schools across that part of the country. While that makes the South the nation's first…

  1. Are Community Colleges Right for South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, James L.; Gibson-Benninger, Barbara

    Post-apartheid South Africa has been struggling with the question of how to restructure its institutions of higher education to both foster an equitable society and contribute to economic and technological development. Proponents of community colleges in the United States suggest that these institutions may best meet South Africa's needs.…

  2. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores…

  3. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  4. Title V in South Carolina -- An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Nelson L.

    Since South Carolina's Title V Community and Resource Development (CRD) project is limited to one small rural county (Williamsburg) affording careful documentation, this paper explicates South Carolina's CRD process via a social action model. This project, then, is described in terms of the following model components: (1) community initiative…

  5. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  6. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections…

  7. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  8. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  9. Public Library Development in New South Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Today every citizen in New South Wales has access to public library services through a sophisticated network, a partnership between local and State Government. In fact, free public libraries in New South Wales only began to operate in any numbers after the end of World War II--not even sixty years ago. Why did it take so long here, bearing in mind…

  10. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear Energy Set to Increase,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 9, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 38 David...Foresees Massive Expansion,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 5, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 41 Sven Lunsche

  11. Ladybugs of South Dakota, 2nd edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 80 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as lady beetles, that occur in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. The second edition updates information, including the addition of a species new to South Dakota. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-fami...

  12. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  13. Academic Entrepreneurship in South African HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundling, J. P.; Steynberg, L.

    2008-01-01

    This article first identifies the principal forces that impact on and shape entrepreneurially-oriented higher education institutions (HEIs) in South Africa, and then analyses the degree to which those institutions have succeeded in becoming entrepreneurial. The results reveal that South Africa's HEIs are still in the initial phases of…

  14. Mars South Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 8, 2003

    Remarkable layered deposits covering older, cratered surfaces near Mars' south pole dominate this mosaic of images taken by the camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft between Nov. 8 and Nov. 26, 2003. The margin of these layered deposits appears to be eroding poleward, exposing a series of layers in the retreating cliff.

    The mosaic, stitched from eight visible-wavelength images from Odyssey's thermal emission imaging system, covers an area more than 325 kilometers (200 miles) long and 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide. The pictured area lies between 78 degrees and 82 degrees south latitude and between 90 degrees and 104 degrees east longitude.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    A zoom shows details in an area about 75 kilometers (47 miles) by 100 kilometers (62 miles), centered at about 80 degrees south latitude and 99 degrees east longitude. An older impact crater in the left part of the scene is filled with younger deposits from the layered terrain.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    A further zoom emphasizes a small, fresh crater about 350 meters (1,150 feet) in diameter near the center of the scene. The adjacent cliff contains numerous individual layers. An unusual set of small mesas, seen in the lower right part of the image, is being eroded from the polar layered material. The images making up this mosaic have a spatial resolution of 36 meters (118 feet) per pixel, allowing detection of features as small as 75 to 100 meters (246 to 328 feet) across.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington. The thermal emission imaging system on Odyssey was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built

  15. 30. DETAIL OF TOP OF TYPICAL HYDRAULIC RAM IN SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL OF TOP OF TYPICAL HYDRAULIC RAM IN SOUTH RANK SHOWING ROLLER CONNECTIONS FOR STAGE FLOORS, MIDDLE LEVEL OF STAGE, LOOKING SOUTH. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 19. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION AT DOUBLE COLUMN CONCRETE EXPANSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION AT DOUBLE COLUMN CONCRETE EXPANSION JOINT AT PIER NUMBER 112 - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  17. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  18. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  19. 7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  20. 18. DETAIL OF DOOR CONSTRUCTION. (DOOR LEANED AGAINST SOUTH INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF DOOR CONSTRUCTION. (DOOR LEANED AGAINST SOUTH INTERIOR WALL). CAMERA POINTING SOUTH. - James H. Lane Ranch, Barn, One Mile South of Richfield on Highway 26, Richfield, Lincoln County, ID

  1. 78 FR 17357 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC579 South Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery.... Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201,...

  2. South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view to southeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  3. South Fork Latrine, east elevation showing structure in context, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, east elevation showing structure in context, view west - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  4. 7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; and parts of north and south wings of main building; facing east. - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. South and east (with two onestory wings) sides. Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South and east (with two one-story wings) sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Red Cross Building, South Eighth Street Bounded by West McAfee Avenue on South & West Harlow Avenue on North, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. 4. DETAIL VIEW SOUTH OF SOUTHMOST HEADGATE OPERATING MECHANISM (LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW SOUTH OF SOUTH-MOST HEADGATE OPERATING MECHANISM (LOWER CENTER); DRAINGATE OPERATING MECHANISM AT UPPER CENTER - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  7. South side of reservoir with buildings 20 and 21 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side of reservoir with buildings 20 and 21 in background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Water Reservoir, West Bushnell Avenue, South side, 150 feet West of intersection of West Bushnell Avenue & South First Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. Homocystinuria in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Wilcken, B; Turner, G

    1978-03-01

    Homocystinuria was studied in 27 patients from 15 families in New South Wales. All 2 had biochemical findings consistent with cystathionine synthetase deficiency. One patient was ascertained by newborn screening, but the remaining index cases were detected because of symptoms: poor eyesight 6, mental retardation 3, thromboses 2, skeletal abnormalities 2, and urinary infection1. 9 patients, one-third of all cases, were mildly affected: either they had no features of the disease, or these did not occur until the late teens. Pyridoxine responsiveness was found in 8 sibships, and clinically there were two distinct kinds of response. For patients born in the decade 1960-69 the ascertainment rate for the total population was 1:58 000. The true incidence must be much higher. Our series indicates that homocystinuria occurs more frequently than has heretofore been thought, and that mild cases are common. It is likely that cases are often missed in current newborn screening programmes.

  9. South Mid-latitude Gullies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    19 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows deep gullies cut into the wall of a south mid-latitude crater. Erosion has exposed layers in the upper wall of the crater; it is possible that groundwater seeping through a layer or layers in the wall led to the genesis of the gullies. The banked nature of the gully channels suggests that a liquid was involved.

    Location near: 35.5oS, 194.8oW Image width: width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  10. Strengthening pharmacovigilance in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mehta, U; Dheda, M; Steel, G; Blockman, M; Ntilivamunda, A; Maartens, G; Pillay, Y; Cohen, K

    2014-02-01

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a national pharmacovigilance workshop held in August 2012 in South Africa (SA). A survey of current pharmacovigilance activities, conducted in preparation for the meeting, identified multiple programmes collecting drug safety data in SA, with limited co-ordination at national level. The meeting resolved that existing pharmacovigilance programmes need to be strengthened and consolidated to ensure that important local safety issues are addressed, data can be pooled and compared and outputs shared more widely. Pharmacovigilance activities should inform treatment guidelines with the goal of improving patient care. A variety of pharmaco-epidemiological approaches should be employed, including nesting drug safety studies within existing sentinel cohorts and the creation of a pregnancy exposure registry. The attendees agreed on key principles that will inform a national pharmacovigilance plan and compiled a list of priority pharmacovigilance issues facing public health programmes in SA.

  11. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  12. 10. WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE OF WAREHOUSE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE OF WAREHOUSE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, International Harvester Company Showroom, Office & Warehouse, 10 South Main Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  13. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Wilfred Anderton, Photographer, 1939 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Wilfred Anderton, Photographer, 1939 SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS (SOUTH FRONT). - Thomas Clemence House, 38 George Waterman Road, North Providence, Providence County, RI

  14. An overview of South African psychology.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  15. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  16. E-Voting: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanepoel, E.; Thomson, K.; van Niekerk, J. F.

    The South African democracy, despite being worthy of admiration, is in its infancy. As such its electoral processes still needs to be nurtured and protected. Since 1994 there has been four national elections. All of these have been declared "free and fair" by the Independent Electoral Commission. However, there has been some problems and growing pains. This paper firstly discusses the current electoral system in South Africa. It then examines E-voting systems and discusses the feasibility of such a voting system for use in the South African context.

  17. Quebrada jaguay: early south american maritime adaptations

    PubMed

    Sandweiss; McInnis; Burger; Cano; Ojeda; Paredes; Sandweiss; Glascock

    1998-09-18

    Excavations at Quebrada Jaguay 280 (QJ-280) (16 degrees30'S) in south coastal Peru demonstrated that Paleoindian-age people of the Terminal Pleistocene (about 11,100 to 10,000 carbon-14 years before the present or about 13,000 to 11,000 calibrated years before the present) in South America relied on marine resources while resident on the coast, which extends the South American record of maritime exploitation by a millennium. This site supports recent evidence that Paleoindian-age people had diverse subsistence systems. The presence of obsidian at QJ-280 shows that the inhabitants had contact with the adjacent Andean highlands during the Terminal Pleistocene.

  18. Nuclear relations in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1998-12-18

    The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.

  19. South Pole Lorentz Invariance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Morgan; Smiciklas, Marc; Romalis, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Searches for Lorentz and CPT violation play an important role in testing current theories of space-time. To test one of the consequences of local Lorentz invariance we have performed a precision test of spatial isotropy at the Amundsen-Scott station near the geographic South Pole. This location provides the most isotropic environment available on Earth. The experiment is a rotating atomic-spin co-magnetometer which compares energy levels of 21Ne and Rubidium atoms as a function of direction. The experimental sensitivity obtained is more than an order of magnitude better than in previous such measurements, known as Hughes-Drever experiments. By operating the experiment at the Pole we are able to eliminate background signals due to the gyroscopic interactions of spins with Earth's rotation as well as diurnal environmental effects. Here we will present final results from the experiment's 2-year data collection period. This is the first precision atomic physics experiment performed at the Pole, and we will discuss the potential for future such measurements.

  20. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  1. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  2. South to south learning in great ape conservation.

    PubMed

    Schoneveld-de Lange, Nicolien; Meijaard, Erik; Löhr, Ansje

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that killing of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in South-East Asia is a major threat to the species, few researchers and non-governmental conservationists have addressed it in management and research, and there is virtually no implementation of anti-killing strategies. In large parts of the Congo Basin, Central Africa, instead, illegal killing of great apes is acknowledged to be their largest threat, and many conservation strategies have been used to reduce killing pressure. However, since these strategies have not been subject to systematic and comprehensive review, it remains unclear which of them have been successful and why. Knowledge of the success, failure, and practices of common conservation strategies to manage great ape killing is critical to ensure adaptive conservation management in the Congo Basin. Understanding the Congo context also facilitates simultaneously highlighting great ape killing in Borneo and suggesting solutions to manage orangutan killing. Here, we compile and analyze the available literature on great ape conservation strategies for reducing killing rates in the Congo Basin. Through a systematic literature review of 198 publications, we find that the most widely employed conservation strategies in the Congo Basin are legislation and law enforcement, protected area management, community-based conservation, alternatives to bushmeat consumption and trade, ecotourism, education, and capacity building. Despite lack of rigorous post-intervention evaluation of conservation impact, we derive several recommendations for addressing the orangutan killing issue in Borneo. A critical lesson, widely applicable to developing countries for conservationists and not limited to Congo Basin realities, is the need for rigorous post-intervention evaluations compared to pre-intervention baselines and over appropriate time frames. Am. J. Primatol. 78:669-678, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  4. Meetings and Events about South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating.

  5. Photo Gallery for South Platte Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  6. Food composition activities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, Petro; Chetty, Joelaine; Danster-Christians, Natasha

    2013-10-01

    Researchers at the South African Medical Research Council used the Bangkok Declaration, Thailand, 2009, as a guideline for their food composition activities. The vision is to build a comprehensive food composition database for the country. Activities are directed at increasing the number of food items with country-specific nutrient information; encouraging research organisations, universities and the food industry to become involved in nutrient data generation and the generation of yield factors for South African dishes. The introduction of the South African Food Data System (SAFOODS) website and a symposium were major food composition activities. Educating users on the correct application of food composition data is an important endeavour. The national South African Food Data Advisory Group (SAFDAG) formed in 2008, advises and supports food composition activities at SAFOODS. In conclusion, with the support of SAFDAG, SAFOODS activities are aimed at compiling a country-specific food composition database and promoting its scientific use.

  7. Polarimetric submillimeter observations from the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Giles; Platt, Stephen R.; Dragovan, Mark

    1995-01-01

    We discuss proposed observations of the polarization of submillimeter continuum emission from the extended Galactic Center region. The observations will be made from the South Pole, using the VIPER 2-meter telescope.

  8. Titan's South Polar Vortex in Motion

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie captured by NASA'S Cassini spacecraft shows a south polar vortex, or a swirling mass of gas around the pole in the atmosphere, at Saturn’s moon Titan. The swirling mass appears to exec...

  9. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis epidemiology in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Iverson, D A; Hurley, B; Pueringer, R

    1994-03-01

    Tuberculosis incidence in the United States has recently increased from its rate of decline resulting in an excess of cases nationwide. The increase has been attributed largely to the HIV epidemic. Although tuberculosis incidence in South Dakota has increased similar to the national trend, South Dakota has not reported a single HIV-associated case of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis incidence in South Dakota has decreased in younger individuals. As a result, the percentage of tuberculosis cases in the elderly has increased. Though the reported cases of pulmonary tuberculosis have decreased, the reported cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis have not changed. Furthermore, the percentage of extrapulmonary tuberculosis occurring in the elderly has increased. Tuberculosis incidence in South Dakota is, in part, increasing because of the persistence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the elderly.

  11. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  12. Links from South Platte Watershed Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating.

  13. Absaloka Mine South Extension NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030783, Westmoreland Resources, Inc. is authorized to discharge mine drainage from outfalls associated with the Absaloka Mine South Extension on the Crow Indian reservation near Hardin, Montana to Middle Fork of Sarpy Creek.

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF WESLEY PARK FACING NORTH, SHOWING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF WESLEY PARK FACING NORTH, SHOWING SOUTH FACADE OF AUDITORIUM, WEST FACADES OF COTTAGES (Nos. 84-89, see site plan included with historical data), AND SOUTH FACADES OF COTTAGES ON MORRIS AVENUE (in background) - South Seaville Methodist Camp Meeting Grounds, Dennisville Road, West of U.S. Highway 9, South Seaville, Cape May County, NJ

  15. South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood floor; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  16. South Fork Latrine, interior showing head with steel tank mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, interior showing head with steel tank mounted to wall; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  17. 77 FR 25144 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    .... Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N... Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC, 29405;...

  18. 75 FR 44228 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Fishery Management Council office, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC; telephone... Information Officer, South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201,...

  19. 75 FR 11133 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; telephone: (843... Officer, South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North...

  20. 78 FR 16658 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC 29405. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kim Iverson, Public Information Officer, 4055 Faber Place...

  1. Cuba and Brazil: an important example of South-South collaboration in health biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Tirso W; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; de Souza, Maria Carlota

    2010-07-01

    This article analyzes the entrepreneurial cooperation between Cuba and Brazil in health biotechnology. It looks at the strategies applied and the main impacts. The respective government/political wills and the corresponding South-South collaboration policies are discussed, as well as the steps taken to materialize collaboration programs, including joint production of a meningitis vaccine for Africa. This cooperation is a good example of how South-South collaboration can be a useful tool to promote capacity building and provide cost-effective health solutions for developing countries.

  2. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  3. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  4. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Nigeria in Egypt’s capacity as current head of the Organization of African Egypt Lobbies for African Replacement for Perez Unity, urging the African... leather goods dealer, who said: [Editorial by Muhammad Sayyid Ahmad] "As for the mechanics of the work of the offices with us, [Text] To uncover the...South Africa. Nigeria led this currently go along with the African consensus, as repre- trend. [passage omitted] sented in the position on South Africa

  5. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Morocco

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-NEA-92-030 19 MARCH 1992 SFOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -:PRS Report "Near East & South Asia MOROCCO 19980113 275 REPRODUCED BY U.S...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 Near East & South Asia MOROCCO JPRS-NEA-92-030 CONTENTS 19 March 1992...NEA-92-030 19 March 1992 POLITICAL 1 INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS "Fish should not poison relations between the EEC and Morocco . It is up to the competent

  6. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Arkendu; Joardar, Siddhartha N.; Isore, Devi Prasad; Samanta, Indranil; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti; Lodh, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT) in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005) samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum), rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent. PMID:27051176

  7. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  8. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim. This special local regulation is necessary to protect... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments...

  9. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  10. 77 FR 68071 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Reopening of the 2012 Commercial Sector for South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... reopens the 2012 commercial sector for red snapper, gag, and all other South Atlantic Shallow-Water... the South Atlantic; Reopening of the 2012 Commercial Sector for South Atlantic Red Snapper, Gag, and South Atlantic Shallow-Water Grouper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  11. DAB, South Side, ODH Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.; Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1990-01-03

    This report covers the ODH concerns of the south side of the D0 Assembly Building. from the bottom (el. 700-feet) to the top (774-feet 6-inches). volume by volume. Each volume is covered in its own section. with each section broken down into three parts. The first is a description of the volume. including its function. dimensions. and all relative ODH concerns; cryogenic piping and ventilation. Second. the actual ODH analysis of the volume is shown. Third. the provisions for the ODH condition of the volume are detailed. including securing the area and the posting of signs. The liquid argon dewar room is at an elevation of 701-feet 6-inch (38-feet underground), with the dewar surrounded by 7700 cubic feet of air. The area is accessible only through a single door. which has a small window and a lock (lock out only). There is small metal scaffolding in front of the dewar to facilitate maintenance and U-tube pulling and installation. The room is directly on top of the Pipe Chase Well and the Cryo Sump, and the bottom of the Stairway is just outside the door. The dewar is designed to be completely operated by remote computer control and the area will be unmanned during normal operation. Room occupancy will occur only during dewar or central control junction box maintenance, or U-tube changes. The dewar has these additions to it: 20 valves, 10 bayonet connections (or 5 U-tubes), 8 bolted flanges, 100 pipe sections (approx.). 100 brazed joints and welds (approx.). and 10 pipe elbows. In addition, 3 of the U-tubes will be changed twice a year on average.

  12. South Polar Projection of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view of the Earth shows a wonderfully unique but physically impossible view of the southern hemisphere and Antarctica. While a spacecraft could find itself directly over the Earth's pole, roughly half of the image should be in darkness! This view was created by mosaicing together several images taken by Galileo over a 24 hour period and projecting them as they would be seen from above the pole. The continents of South America, Africa, and Australia are respectively seen at the middle left, upper right, and lower right. The slightly bluish ice and snow of Antarctica include large ice shelves (upper left, lower middle), a broad fan of broken offshore pack ice (lower left and middle) and continental glaciers protruding into the sea (lower right). The regularly spaced weather systems are prominent.

    Most spacecraft traveling near the Earth's poles are in very low Earth orbit, and cannot acquire panoramic shots like this one. Galileo's view of the southern hemisphere, combined with the spacecraft's special spectral properties (four separate narrowband filters that measure the brightness of reflected light at specific infrared wavelengths), led to a number of unique observations. For example, Galileo's cameras distinguished between ice and high stratospheric clouds, allowing scientists to study the correlation between these clouds and growth of the ozone hole.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA'is Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  13. The Asia Pacific Academic Consortium for Global Public Health and medicine: stabilizing south-south academic collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Walter K

    2011-09-01

    Developmental strategies over the last 4 decades have generally tended to transfer knowledge and technology along north-south axes as trickle-down theories in development, especially in health knowledge transfers, prevailed. Limited efforts in development assistance for health (DAH) were made to promote south-south cooperation for basic health needs. Globalization with increased educational networks and development health assistance has enhanced the potential for more effective south-south partnerships for health. The stages of development in a consortium and key catalysts in the metamorphosis to a south-south partnership are identified: leadership, resources, expertise, visibility participation, and dynamism of a critical mass of young professionals.

  14. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

    PubMed

    Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21

  15. Academic Staff Research Productivity: A Study of Universities in South-South Zone of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usang, Bassey; Basil, Akuegwu; Lucy, Udida; Udey, Franca U.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined academic staff research productivity in Universities in South-South zone of Nigeria. Ex post facto design was adopted for this study. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. The sample size comprised of 480 academic staff drawn from a population of 3120. Data collection was carried out using a…

  16. 75 FR 43964 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of... Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission or FERC's) regulations, 18...

  17. The Ethnic History of South Carolina. American History, South Carolina History. Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston County School District, North Charleston, SC. Div. of Instruction.

    This guide for eighth grade teachers was the product of a Title IX ethnic studies project. The guide was designed to supplement the regular South Carolina state history textbooks and place in a more positive frame of reference the ethnic contributions that specific ethnic groups have made to South Carolina history. Written by teachers, the guide…

  18. 75 FR 42378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XX73 Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic red snapper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Atlantic stock of red snapper will consist of a series of workshops and webinars: a Data Workshop, a...

  19. 75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XX50 Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic red snapper. AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Fisheries Commissions have implemented the Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process, a...

  20. 5. SOUTH BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH BAY 5TON P&H ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH BAY 5-TON P&H ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE. VIEW EAST SHOWING JUNCTURE WITH NORTHWEST CORNER OF OFFICE/MACHINE SHOP - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Managing Research Output for Knowledge Creation in South-South Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akuegwu, B. A.; Edet, A. O.; Uchendu, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    This ex-post facto designed study investigated the extent of Deans and Heads of Departments' effectiveness in managing research output for knowledge creation in South-South Nigerian universities. One research question and one hypothesis were drawn along the four dimensions of knowledge creation namely: socialization, combination, externalization…

  2. Employers Assessment of Work Ethics Required of University Business Education Graduates in South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the employers assessment of work ethics required of university Business Education graduates in south south Nigeria. One research question and three hypotheses guided the study. The design of this study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 318 identified employers of Business Education graduates in…

  3. 76 FR 62042 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Coral Advisory... INFORMATION: Members of the Coral AP will meet from 8:30 a.m. until 5 p.m. on October 25, 2011 and from 8:30 a... coral research and activity in the South Atlantic region; a discussion of measures to be included in...

  4. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. SOUTH SIDE OF ETR REACTOR, CAMERA FACING NORTH. CABINET CONTAINING "NUCLEAR INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS" IS RESTRICTED. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-18-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Language and Social Justice in South Africa's Higher Education: Insights from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, Munene

    2012-01-01

    The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…

  6. 61. Credit PG&E. South elevation from across South Battle Creek. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Credit PG&E. South elevation from across South Battle Creek. Note two exciter water discharge pipes and also the transformer cooling water discharge pipes (6). Photo taken 10 November 1927. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  7. Mid South Middle Start: Studies of Three Middle Start Schools in the Mid South Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lea Williams; Cheney, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    These three case studies highlight the implementation and impact of Mid South Middle Start by: (1) contributing toward an in-depth understanding of what it means to be a school implementing Middle Start; (2) describing a holistic portrait of the schools' participation in Mid South Middle Start; and (3) assisting the Academy for Educational…

  8. SOUTH WING, TRA661. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. MTR HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, TRA-661. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. MTR HIGH BAY BEYOND. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Peace Management and Enhanced Academic Performance of Tertiary Institutions in South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebuara, Victor Obule; Ekpoh, Uduak Imo

    2011-01-01

    This study was embarked upon with a view to examining the need for peace in the management of tertiary institutions towards enhancing academic performance in south-south Nigeria. Three hypotheses and one research question guided the study. One thousand, two hundred and nineteen (1219) academic and non-academic staff were selected for the study. A…

  10. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Location: 15.4 degree south latitude, 167.9 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 36.8 by 27.8 kilometers (22.9 by 17.3 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  11. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns

  12. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Unenlagiinae revisited: dromaeosaurid theropods from South America.

    PubMed

    Gianechini, Federico A; Apesteguia, Sebastian

    2011-03-01

    Over the past two decades, the record of South American unenlagiine dromaeosaurids was substantially increased both in quantity as well as in quality of specimens. Here is presented a summary review of the South American record for these theropods.Unenlagia comahuensis, Unenlagia paynemili, and Neuquenraptor argentinus come from the Portezuelo Formation, the former genus being the most complete and with putative avian features. Neuquenraptor is more incomplete and exhibits pedal features resembling those of Unenlagia. The earliest and most complete South American dromaeosaurid is Buitreraptor gonzalezoru, whose preserved cranial remains, provides important data in the characterization of unenlagiines. The most recently described,Austroraptor cabazai also with cranial remains, allows further comparisons with Laurasian lineages and a better characterization of unenlagiines. The possible synonymy between nenlagia and Neuquenraptor is discussed. Additional evidences from Brazil and Colombia show that dinosaurs with similar dentition to that of unenlagiines were present in the whole South America. However, it is not possible to discard that these remains may belong to other unknown maniraptoran lineages, considering the increasing number of taxa of this group found in South America.

  14. Articulation: A Working Paper on Rhetoric and "Taxis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormer, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    This essay suggests a way to historicize different rhetorical practices--in effect, alternative ways to write genealogies of diverse rhetorics. A certain distinction between culture and nature is a fundamental organizing concept in humanistic rhetoric that has circumscribed scholars' ability to appreciate rhetoric that does not emanate from the…

  15. Slow Thinking and Deep Learning: Tversky and Kahneman's Taxi Cabs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedwell, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on classroom application of a problem story constructed by Amos Tversky in the 1970s. His intention was to evaluate human beings' intuitions about statistical inference. The problem was revisited by his colleague, the Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman. The aim of this article is to show how popular science textbooks can…

  16. MULTISCALE MODELS OF TAXIS-DRIVEN PATTERNING IN BACTERIAL POPULATIONS

    PubMed Central

    XUE, CHUAN; OTHMER, HANS G.

    2009-01-01

    Spatially-distributed populations of various types of bacteria often display intricate spatial patterns that are thought to result from the cellular response to gradients of nutrients or other attractants. In the past decade a great deal has been learned about signal transduction, metabolism and movement in E. coli and other bacteria, but translating the individual-level behavior into population-level dynamics is still a challenging problem. However, this is a necessary step because it is computationally impractical to use a strictly cell-based model to understand patterning in growing populations, since the total number of cells may reach 1012 - 1014 in some experiments. In the past phenomenological equations such as the Patlak-Keller-Segel equations have been used in modeling the cell movement that is involved in the formation of such patterns, but the question remains as to how the microscopic behavior can be correctly described by a macroscopic equation. Significant progress has been made for bacterial species that employ a “run-and-tumble” strategy of movement, in that macroscopic equations based on simplified schemes for signal transduction and turning behavior have been derived [14, 15]. Here we extend previous work in a number of directions: (i) we allow for time-dependent signals, which extends the applicability of the equations to natural environments, (ii) we use a more general turning rate function that better describes the biological behavior, and (iii) we incorporate the effect of hydrodynamic forces that arise when cells swim in close proximity to a surface. We also develop a new approach to solving the moment equations derived from the transport equation that does not involve closure assumptions. Numerical examples show that the solution of the lowest-order macroscopic equation agrees well with the solution obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation of cell movement under a variety of temporal protocols for the signal. We also apply the method to derive equations of chemotactic movement that are governed by multiple chemotactic signals. PMID:19784399

  17. Oxygen taxis and proton motive force in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Shioi, J; Taylor, B L

    1984-09-10

    The aerotactic response of Salmonella typhimurium SL3730 has been quantitatively correlated with a change in the proton motive force (delta p) as measured by a flow-dialysis technique. At pH 7.5, the membrane potential (delta psi) in S. typhimurium changed from -162 +/- 13 to -111 +/- 15 mV when cells grown aerobically were made anaerobic, and it returned to the original value when the cells were returned to aerobiosis. The delta pH across the membrane was zero. At pH 5.5, delta psi was -70 mV in aerobiosis and -20 mV in anaerobiosis, and delta pH was -118 and -56 mV for aerobic and anaerobic cells, respectively. A decrease in delta p resulted in increased tumbling, and an increase in delta p resulted in a smooth swimming response at either pH. Inhibition of aerotaxis at pH 7.5 by various concentrations of KCN correlated with a decreased delta p, due to a decreased delta psi in aerobiosis and little change in delta psi in anaerobiosis. At concentrations up to 100 mM, 2,4-dinitrophenol decreased delta psi, but did not inhibit aerotaxis because the difference between delta psi in aerobic and anaerobic cells remained constant. Considered as a whole, the results indicate that aerotaxis in S. typhimurium is mediated by delta p.

  18. Electron transport-dependent taxis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Gauden, D E; Armitage, J P

    1995-10-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides showed chemotaxis to the terminal electron acceptors oxygen and dimethyl sulfoxide, and the responses to these effectors were shown to be influenced by the relative activities of the different electron transport pathways. R. sphaeroides cells tethered by their flagella showed a step-down response to a decrease in the oxygen or dimethyl sulfoxide concentration when using them as terminal acceptors. Bacteria using photosynthetic electron transport, however, showed a step-down response to oxygen addition. Addition of the proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone did not cause a transient behavioral response, although it decreased the electrochemical proton gradient (delta p) and increased the rate of electron transport. However, removal of the ionophore, which caused an increase in delta p and a decrease in the electron transport rate, resulted in a step-down response. Together, these data suggest that behavioral responses of R. sphaeroides to electron transport effectors are caused by changes in the rate of electron transport rather than changes in delta p.

  19. MULTISCALE MODELS OF TAXIS-DRIVEN PATTERNING IN BACTERIAL POPULATIONS.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuan; Othmer, Hans G

    2009-01-01

    Spatially-distributed populations of various types of bacteria often display intricate spatial patterns that are thought to result from the cellular response to gradients of nutrients or other attractants. In the past decade a great deal has been learned about signal transduction, metabolism and movement in E. coli and other bacteria, but translating the individual-level behavior into population-level dynamics is still a challenging problem. However, this is a necessary step because it is computationally impractical to use a strictly cell-based model to understand patterning in growing populations, since the total number of cells may reach 10(12) - 10(14) in some experiments. In the past phenomenological equations such as the Patlak-Keller-Segel equations have been used in modeling the cell movement that is involved in the formation of such patterns, but the question remains as to how the microscopic behavior can be correctly described by a macroscopic equation. Significant progress has been made for bacterial species that employ a "run-and-tumble" strategy of movement, in that macroscopic equations based on simplified schemes for signal transduction and turning behavior have been derived [14, 15]. Here we extend previous work in a number of directions: (i) we allow for time-dependent signals, which extends the applicability of the equations to natural environments, (ii) we use a more general turning rate function that better describes the biological behavior, and (iii) we incorporate the effect of hydrodynamic forces that arise when cells swim in close proximity to a surface. We also develop a new approach to solving the moment equations derived from the transport equation that does not involve closure assumptions. Numerical examples show that the solution of the lowest-order macroscopic equation agrees well with the solution obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation of cell movement under a variety of temporal protocols for the signal. We also apply the method to derive equations of chemotactic movement that are governed by multiple chemotactic signals.

  20. Control of the receptor for galactose taxis in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Fahnestock, M; Koshland, D E

    1979-02-01

    The chemotactic response to galactose in wild-type Salmonella typhimurium is not inducible by galactose, but is inducible by fucose, a non-metabolizable analog. In a galactokinase mutant, however, the galactose receptor is inducible by galactose. These data indicate that the concentration of free galactose in the cell controls the levels of the galactose receptor. The intensities of the chemotactic responses were found to vary in proportion to the concentration of galactose receptors. In bacteria with higher levels of galactose receptors, the ribose response is inhibited by galactose. This supports the model in which the ribose and galactose receptors compete for a common component of the signaling system.

  1. Oxygen taxis and proton motive force in Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Zhulin, I B; Bespalov, V A; Johnson, M S; Taylor, B L

    1996-09-01

    The microaerophilic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense formed a sharply defined band in a spatial gradient of oxygen. As a result of aerotaxis, the bacteria were attracted to a specific low concentration of oxygen (3 to 5 microM). Bacteria swimming away from the aerotactic band were repelled by the higher or lower concentration of oxygen that they encountered and returned to the band. This behavior was confirmed by using temporal gradients of oxygen. The cellular energy level in A. brasilense, monitored by measuring the proton motive force, was maximal at 3 to 5 microM oxygen. The proton motive force was lower at oxygen concentrations that were higher or lower than the preferred oxygen concentration. Bacteria swimming toward the aerotactic band would experience an increase in the proton motive force, and bacteria swimming away from the band would experience a decrease in the proton motive force. It is proposed that the change in the proton motive force is the signal that regulates positive and negative aerotaxis. The preferred oxygen concentration for aerotaxis was similar to the preferred oxygen concentration for nitrogen fixation. Aerotaxis is an important adaptive behavioral response that can guide these free-living diazotrophs to the optimal niche for nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere.

  2. Big yellow taxi, or, unhealthy terms of trade?

    PubMed

    Broom, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    International trade agreements, including the General Agreement on Trade in Services, are central elements of globalization. These agreements are likely to have significant implications for population health in rich nations such as Australia as well as in the developing world. But the technical language of the legal agreements and the comparative secrecy of the negotiations and approval procedures make it difficult for most people to be adequately informed about them. Australian public health academics and practitioners must become better informed and more pro-active in their approach to 'free trade' if Australia's public health infrastructure is to be protected from potential legal erosion.

  3. South African minerals and world demand

    SciTech Connect

    van Rensburg, W.C.J.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is a prodigious source of many mineral supplies that are critical to the industrial nations. Increasing and intensifying Soviet and Soviet-surrogate thrusts into Africa reflect a longstanding ambition to target the ''weak links'' in vulnerable Western supplies. The dangers to the Western countries relate not only to direct denial of critical resources, but to a trend toward a mineral cartel. The cessation of mineral supplies from South Africa would in most cases have a more serious effect on the availability of these commodities to the West than on their prices. A review ofpossible Soviet control and international trade developments suggests that the Western nations must consider the possible elimination of South Africa as a major supplier. 15 references, 1 figure.

  4. South African TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruendlingh, Marten L.; Shannon, L. V.; Lutjeharms, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The area surrounding the southern tip of Africa contains a juxtaposition of a variety of interesting and climatically relevant features. On the Indian Ocean side, the Agulhas Current with its tributaries form a conduit through which much of the southern Indian Ocean surface flow is focused. South of the continent, this flow is fragmented and partially injected into the Atlantic Ocean and across the Subtropical Convergence into the Southern Ocean. To the west of the subcontinent, the circulation of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre in the Cape Basin interacts with the vigorous Benguela upwelling regime. The creation, transformation, and transport of water masses and the intra-annual and climatic importance of all these processes have been specifically recognized by the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The South African TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter Experiment addresses many of these issues through four mutually complementary and interrelated subprojects.

  5. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  6. Gravity increase at the south pole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.

    1967-01-01

    Abstract. Measurements made between December 1957 and January 1966 of the gravity difference between the McMurdo Sound pendulum station, which is on bedrock, and the South Pole station, which is on the Antarctic ice sheet, show a gravity increase at the South Pole of 0.11 milligals per year. The most likely hypothesis for the increase is that it was caused by ice flowing downslope across a gravity gradient and by the sinking of the South Pole station as a result of accumulation of ice. An alternate hypothesis that the gravity increase was caused by a decrease in ice thickness, of about 40 centimeters per year, is theoretically possible but is not supported by direct evidence.

  7. The South China Sea Deep: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pinxian; Li, Qianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has increasingly become a global focus in ocean research and hydrocarbon explorations. Over the last two decades, at least 17 international cruises including two ODP/IODP expeditions were conducted in the SCS, and more than 2000 exploratory wells were drilled (Wang et al., 2014a). While its sedimentary basins on the continental shelf and slope are explored for offshore resources, the deep basin below 3500 m in depth that overlies the basaltic oceanic crust preserves the key to understanding their formation and development. In order to better understand the life history and functional system of the marginal sea, a major research program "Deep Sea Processes and Evolution of the South China Sea", or "The South China Sea Deep" for short, was launched in January 2011 by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of China. This venture represents the first ever large-scale basic-research program in ocean science in the country (Wang, 2012).

  8. Embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Sumar, Julio B

    2013-01-10

    Intraspecific and interspecific embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids is developing into a well-established technique. Reports reveal many benefits of using reproductive biotechnologies to allow rapid propagation of alpacas and llamas of high genetic merit (e.g., high fiber quality, preserve color variation). The objective of this review is to provide up-to-date information about embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids. Specific information is provided on criteria for male selection, donor and recipient synchronization, the practice of single- vs. super-ovulation protocols, embryo recovery and transfer techniques, advances in cryopreservation of embryos, results of intra- and inter-specific transfer, and the future of the embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids.

  9. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  10. Obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-07-16

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at "ectopic" sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m(2) for overweight and ≥ 25 kg/m(2) for obesity, WC ≥ 80 cm for women and ≥ 90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  11. Regional integration and south-south cooperation in health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Roa, Alejandra; Santana, José Paranaguá de

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes whether south-south cooperation is legitimately a recent practice or merely an improved version of previous regional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors reviewed and systematized the historic development of subregional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean and focused on health cooperation in the following contexts: the Central American Integration System, the Andean Community of Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, the Southern Common Market, and the Union of South American Nations. The study concludes that the conceptual and methodologic foundations of south-south cooperation in health were born from and nurtured by the processes of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper posits that regional political and economic integration initiatives bring potential benefits to the health sector and act as an important mechanism to develop south-south cooperation in this domain. The study recommends furthering this type of research to provide information that will allow national and multilateral agencies, or other stakeholders, to formulate and implement better policies for international health cooperation that target reducing inequities and promoting health and well-being for all people.

  12. Diversity and origin of South African chickens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Chimonyo, M; Groeneveld, E; Weigend, S; Dzama, K

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and structure of South African conserved and field chicken populations and to investigate the maternal lineages of these chicken populations. Four South African conserved chicken populations (n = 89), namely, Venda (VD_C), Ovambo, Naked Neck, and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Animal Production Institute of the Agricultural Research Council, and 2 field populations, the Venda and Ovambo (OV_F), from which the Ovambo and the Venda conservation flocks were assumed to have been sampled, were genotyped for 460 bp of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence. Haplotypes of these chickens were aligned to 7 Japanese and 9 Chinese and Eurasian chicken mtDNA D-loop sequences taken from GenBank and reflecting populations from presumed centers of domestication. Sequence analysis revealed 48 polymorphic sites that defined 13 haplotypes in the South African chicken populations. All 6 South African conserved and field chicken populations observed were found to be polymorphic, with the number of haplotypes ranging from 3 for VD_C to 8 for OV_F. The lowest haplotype diversity, 0.54 ± 0.08, was observed in VD_C chickens, whereas the highest value, 0.88 ± 0.05, was observed in OV_F chickens. Genetic diversity between the 4 South African conserved and 2 field chicken populations constituted 12.34% of the total genetic variation, whereas within-population diversity constituted 87.66% of the total variation. The median network analysis of the mtDNA D-loop haplotypes observed in the South African conserved and field populations and the reference set resulted in 5 main clades. All 6 South African chickens were equally represented in the major clade, E, which is presumed to be of Indian subcontinent maternal origin and may have its roots in Southeast Asia. The results showed multiple maternal lineages of South African chickens. Conservation flocks and field chicken populations shared the major haplotypes A, D and E

  13. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  14. Detectors for the South Pole Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. L.; Ade, P.; Aird, K.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J.; Becker, D.; Benson, B.; Bleem, L.; Britton, J.; Carlstrom, J.; Cho, H.; de Haan, T.; Crawford, T.; Crites, A.; Datesman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Everett, W.; Ewall-Wice, A.; George, E.; Halverson, N.; Harrington, N.; Henning, J.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hoover, S.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Keisler, R.; Kennedy, J.; Lee, A.; Leitch, E.; Li, D.; Lueker, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Mcmahon, J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.; Montgomery, J.; Montroy, T.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J.; Niemack, M.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C.; Ruhl, J.; Saliwanchik, B.; Sayre, J.; Schafer, K.; Shirokoff, E.; Story, K.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J.; Wang, G.; Williamson, R.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.; Young, E.

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10-m mm/sub-mm telescope at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. It's primary science goals consist of a galaxy cluster survey for understanding Dark Energy and probing the physics of Inflation through the CMB polarization. Both science goals require exceptional sensitivity necessitating focal planes with many optical elements. The focal planes of the SPT utilize Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers to build arrays of nearly 1000 detectors. In this talk, I will present the TES bolometer technology for both the first SPT focal plane and its upcoming upgrade to a polarization sensitive array.

  15. Flash Flooding Events in South Central Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    I AD-ALI 977 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFa OH F/G 4/2 FLASH FLOODING EVENTS IN SOUTH CENTRAL TEXAS. CU) N AU 82 T W UTLEY UNCLASSIFIED...COVERED Flash Flooding Events in South Central Texas THESIS/ESeAMAN S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORI NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Tom...and to flash flooding events which occurred in 1981 they proved to be excellent predi’ctors. When compared to the 1981 National Weather Service

  16. [Immigration and immigrants in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Bouillon, A

    1998-01-01

    "The reversal of [South Africa's] pro-active (white) immigration policy in 1990 has been supplemented by an unprecedented level of repression of ¿illegal' immigration. Although they have never been recognised as such, black immigrants are the most numerous component of the South African immigrant population. After giving an account of this situation, this article endeavours to take stock of the immigrant population as a whole, by covering the whole range of permanent, temporary, refugee and ¿illegal' immigrant status and populations." (EXCERPT)

  17. Enslaved Africans and doctors in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Martia Graham

    2003-03-01

    This interpretation of the relationship between enslavement and American medicine in 19th century South Carolina reveals the intimacy that existed between Africans enslaved in that state and the doctors who practiced and taught there. Enslaved Africans were resourceful and reliable medical figures in the slave community. Their knowledge of medical botany permeated the slave quarters and plantation hospitals and was appropriated into southern medical knowledge. The trajectories of the careers of three South Carolina physicians are tied to their practice around and on the enslaved. The beginnings of gynecological surgery are linked to 1840s experimentation on enslaved African women performed by one of them.

  18. Mineral resources potential map of the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area, Inyo and Tulare counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    There are five areas with mineral resource potential and one area with geothermal energy potential in the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area. The area south of Summit Meadows and the area south of Hogback Creek have moderate resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum in small skarn deposits. The area between Summit meadow and Hogback Creek and the area from south of Jackass Meadows to northwest of Granite Knob have low mineral resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum. The area south of and including Walker Creek has low mineral resource potential for lead and zinc. The area including and surrounding Monache Mountain has high geothermal energy resource potential.

  19. Coastal Change Along the Shore of Northeastern South Carolina: The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, conducted a 7-year, multi-disciplinary study of coastal erosion in northeastern South Carolina. The main objective was to understand the geologic and oceanographic processes that control sediment movement along the region's shoreline and thereby improve projections of coastal change. The study used high-resolution remote sensing and sampling techniques to define the geologic framework and assess historic shoreline change. Based on these findings, oceanographic-process studies and numerical modeling were carried out to determine the rates and directions of sediment transport along South Carolina's Grand Strand.

  20. Cytoplasmic pH mediates pH taxis and weak-acid repellent taxis of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kihara, M; Macnab, R M

    1981-03-01

    Bacteria migrate away from an acid pH and from a number of chemicals, including organic acids such as acetate; the basis for detection of these environmental cues has not been demonstrated. Membrane-permeant weak acids caused prolonged tumbling when added to Salmonella sp. or Escherichia coli cells at pH 5.5. Tethered Salmonella cells went from a prestimulus behavior of 14% clockwise rotation to 80% clockwise rotation when 40 mM acetate was added and remained this way for more than 30 min. A low external pH in the absence of weak acid did not markedly affect steady-state tumbling frequency. Among the weak acids tested, the rank for acidity (salicylate greater than benzoate greater than acetate greater than 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione) was the same as the rank for the ability to collapse the transmembrane pH gradient and to cause tumbling. At pH 7.0, the tumbling responses caused by the weak acids were much briefer. Indole, a non-weak-acid repellent, did not cause prolonged tumbling at low pH. Two chemotaxis mutants (a Salmonella mutant defective in the chemotaxis methylesterase and an E. coli mutant defective in the methyl-accepting protein in MCP I) showed inverse responses of enhanced counterclockwise rotation in the first 1 min after acetate addition. The latter mutant had been found previously to be defective in the sensing of gradients of extracellular pH and (at neutral pH) of acetate. We conclude (i) that taxes away from acid pH and membrane-permeant weak acids are both mediated by a pH-sensitive component located either in the cytoplasm or on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, rather than by an external receptor (as in the case of the attractants), and (ii) that both of these taxes involve components of the chemotaxis methylation system, at least in the early phase of the response.