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Sample records for 80supr beta propiolactone

  1. beta-Propiolactone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Propiolactone ; CASRN 57 - 57 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1013 - beta-Propiolactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false beta-Propiolactone. 1910.1013 Section 1910.1013 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... beta-Propiolactone. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. ...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1013 - beta-Propiolactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false beta-Propiolactone. 1910.1013 Section 1910.1013 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... beta-Propiolactone. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens. ...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1013 - beta-Propiolactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false beta-Propiolactone. 1915.1013 Section 1915.1013 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1013 beta-Propiolactone. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1113 - beta-Propiolactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false beta-Propiolactone. 1926.1113 Section 1926.1113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1113 beta...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1113 - beta-Propiolactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false beta-Propiolactone. 1926.1113 Section 1926.1113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1113 beta...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.1013 - beta-Propiolactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false beta-Propiolactone. 1915.1013 Section 1915.1013 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1013 - beta-Propiolactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true beta-Propiolactone. 1910.1013 Section 1910.1013 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1013...

  9. Evaluation of thrombogenicity of beta-propiolactone/ultraviolet (beta-PL/UV) treated PPSB in chimpanzees

    SciTech Connect

    Kotitschke, R.; Stephan, W.; Prince, A.M.; Brotman, B.

    1983-05-01

    The thrombogenicity of beta-PL/UV-treated PPSB (factor IX concentrate) was evaluated in chimpanzees. PPSB isolated from beta-propiolactone-treated and UV-irradiated plasma was injected into chimpanzees at a dose of approximately 100 units/kg body weight. An FDA licensed PPSB preparation served as the negative control, and a preparation containing activated as well as precursor clotting factors served as the positive control. 15 minutes, 1 h, 4 h, and 24 h after the PPSB application the following parameters were determined in the chimpanzee blood: factors II, VII, IX, X, VIII, fibrinogen, AT III, thrombin coagulase, Quick value, APTT and platelet count. Neither the untreated control preparation, nor the PPSB isolated from beta-propiolactone-treated and UV-irradiated plasma, showed signs of thrombogenicity in the chimpanzee model. The positive control indicated that the chimpanzee is a suitable model for the thrombogenicity testing of activated clotting factors.

  10. Inactivation of the Hutchinson strain of non-A, non-B hepatitis virus by combined use of beta-propiolactone and ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, A.M.; Stephan, W.; Dichtelmueller, H.B.; Brotman, B.; Huima, T.

    1985-06-01

    A beta-propiolactone/ultraviolet irradiation procedure (beta PL/UV) has been evaluated for its ability to inactivate 30,000 chimpanzee infectious doses of the Hutchinson strain of non-A, non-B (NANB) virus. The chimpanzees were inoculated with plasma to which this dose of the titrated virus had been added prior to application of the beta PL/UV process in accordance with a procedure used for licensed blood derivatives in Germany. Neither animal developed hepatitis. When subsequently challenged with the same contaminated plasma, which had not been sterilized, both animals promptly developed typical NANB hepatitis. This study extends the high (approximately 10(7)-fold) process efficiency of the beta PL/UV procedure previously reported for hepatitis B virus to a blood-borne NANB virus.

  11. Efficacy and safety of two whole IgG polyvalent antivenoms, refined by caprylic acid fractionation with or without beta-propiolactone, in the treatment of Bothrops asper bites in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Otero, Rafael; León, Guillermo; Gutiérrez, José María; Rojas, Gustavo; Toro, María Fabiola; Barona, Jacqueline; Rodríguez, Verónica; Díaz, Abel; Núñez, Vitelbina; Quintana, Juan Carlos; Ayala, Shirley; Mosquera, Diana; Conrado, Lesdy L; Fernández, Diego; Arroyo, Yobana; Paniagua, Carlos A; López, Mercedes; Ospina, Carlos E; Alzate, Claudia; Fernández, Jorge; Meza, Jazmín J; Silva, Juan F; Ramírez, Patricia; Fabra, Patricia E; Ramírez, Eugenio; Córdoba, Elkin; Arrieta, Ana B; Warrell, David A; Theakston, R David G

    2006-12-01

    The efficacy and safety of two whole IgG polyvalent antivenoms (A and B) were compared in a randomised, blinded clinical trial in 67 patients systemically envenomed by Bothrops asper in Colombia. Both antivenoms were fractionated by caprylic acid precipitation and had similar neutralising potencies, protein concentrations and aggregate contents. Antivenom B was additionally treated with beta-propiolactone to lower its anticomplementary activity. Analysing all treatment regimens together, there were no significant differences between the two antivenoms (A=34 patients; B=33 patients) in the time taken to reverse venom-induced bleeding and coagulopathy, to restore physiological fibrinogen concentrations and to clear serum venom antigenaemia. Blood coagulability was restored within 6-24 h in 97% of patients, all of whom had normal coagulation and plasma fibrinogen levels 48 h after the start of antivenom treatment. Two patients (3.0%) had recurrent coagulopathy and eight patients suffered recurrence of antigenaemia within 72 h of treatment. None of the dosage regimens of either antivenom used guaranteed resolution of venom-induced coagulopathy within 6 h, nor did they prevent recurrences. A further dose of antivenom at 6 h also did not guarantee resolution of coagulopathy within 12-24 h in all patients. The incidence of early adverse reactions (all mild) was similar for both antivenoms (15% and 24%; P>0.05).

  12. Reactions of β-Propiolactone with Nucleobase Analogues, Nucleosides, and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Uittenbogaard, Joost P.; Zomer, Bert; Hoogerhout, Peter; Metz, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    β-Propiolactone is often applied for inactivation of viruses and preparation of viral vaccines. However, the exact nature of the reactions of β-propiolactone with viral components is largely unknown. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the chemical modifications occurring on nucleotides and amino acid residues caused by β-propiolactone. Therefore, a set of nucleobase analogues was treated with β-propiolactone, and reaction products were identified and quantified. NMR revealed at least one modification in either deoxyguanosine, deoxyadenosine, or cytidine after treatment with β-propiolactone. However, no reaction products were found from thymidine and uracil. The most reactive sides of the nucleobase analogues and nucleosides were identified by NMR. Furthermore, a series of synthetic peptides was used to determine the conversion of reactive amino acid residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. β-Propiolactone was shown to react with nine different amino acid residues. The most reactive residues are cysteine, methionine, and histidine and, to a lesser degree, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, lysine, serine, and threonine. Remarkably, cystine residues (disulfide groups) do not react with β-propiolactone. In addition, no reaction was observed for β-propiolactone with asparagine, glutamine, and tryptophan residues. β-Propiolactone modifies proteins to a larger extent than expected from current literature. In conclusion, the study determined the reactivity of β-propiolactone with nucleobase analogues, nucleosides, and amino acid residues and elucidated the chemical structures of the reaction products. The study provides detailed knowledge on the chemistry of β-propiolactone inactivation of viruses. PMID:21868382

  13. Fourier Transform Microwave and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation of Propiolactone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziqiu; van Wijngaarden, Jennifer

    2009-06-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of the four-membered ester ring propiolactone (C{_3}H{_4}O{_2}) has been measured in a supersonic jet between 7 and 22 GHz using Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy. For the normal isotopologue, a total of 19 a- and b-type transitions have been recorded. Fifteen transitions due to three different ^{13}C isotopologues have also been observed. The microwave spectrum was analyzed to obtain an improved set of ground state rotational constants in comparison to earlier microwave experiments. The new set of rotational parameters was used to predict the rovibrational band structure of the lowest frequency modes of propiolactone. A total of 12 vibrational band origins have been observed between 400 and 1500 cm^{-1} using the far infrared beamline of the Canadian Light Source coupled to a Bruker IFS125HR spectrometer. The spectra were recorded with a resolution of 0.000969 cm^{-1} and although the intensities of the bands vary, 9 bands are of sufficient quality for complete rovibrational assignment. The progress of the assignment of this rich spectrum will be discussed. D. W. Boone, C O. Britt and J. E. Boggs J. Chem. Phys. 43 (1190), 1965.

  14. Ab initio dynamics of unimolecular decomposition of β-propiolactone and β-propiolactam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V.-T. Mai, Tam; Duong, Minh v.; Le, Xuan T.; Huynh, Lam K.

    2017-10-01

    Using the potential energy surface and molecular properties obtained at the accurate composite W1U method, time-resolved temperature- and pressure-dependent behaviors of the thermal decomposition of β-propiolactone and β-propiolactam (for 500-2000 K & 0.001-760 Torr) were charaterized using the integrated deterministic/stochastic model within the master equation/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (ME/RRKM) framework. The integrated model helps to confidently explain and predict the different kinetic behaviors of the two similar-ring systems, which is consistent with experimental data, namely, β-propiolactone only decomposes to C2H4 + CO2 while β-propiolactam can form both C2H4 + HNCO (main product) and CH2CO + CH2NH (minor product).

  15. M*¡*G*†‰E ÈC**È***** .25 Beta-propiolactone_c 300.1ppm ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2015-09-01

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  16. M*¡*G*†‰E ÈC**È***** .25 Beta-propiolactone_c 300.1ppm ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2015-09-01

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  17. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice and hamsters of a β-propiolactone inactivated whole virus SARS-CoV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anjeanette; Lamirande, Elaine W; Vogel, Leatrice; Baras, Benoît; Goossens, Geneviève; Knott, Isabelle; Chen, Jun; Ward, Jerrold M; Vassilev, Ventzislav; Subbarao, Kanta

    2010-10-01

    The immunogenicity and efficacy of β-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated whole virion SARS-CoV (WI-SARS) vaccine was evaluated in BALB/c mice and golden Syrian hamsters. The vaccine preparation was tested with or without adjuvants. Adjuvant Systems AS01(B) and AS03(A) were selected and tested for their capacity to elicit high humoral and cellular immune responses to WI-SARS vaccine. We evaluated the effect of vaccine dose and each adjuvant on immunogenicity and efficacy in mice, and the effect of vaccine dose with or without the AS01(B) adjuvant on the immunogenicity and efficacy in hamsters. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge with wild-type virus at early and late time points (4 and 18 wk post-vaccination). A single dose of vaccine with or without adjuvant was poorly immunogenic in mice; a second dose resulted in a significant boost in antibody levels, even in the absence of adjuvant. The use of adjuvants resulted in higher antibody titers, with the AS01(B)-adjuvanted vaccine being slightly more immunogenic than the AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine. Two doses of WI-SARS with and without Adjuvant Systems were highly efficacious in mice. In hamsters, two doses of WI-SARS with and without AS01(B) were immunogenic, and two doses of 2 μg of WI-SARS with and without the adjuvant provided complete protection from early challenge. Although antibody titers had declined in all groups of vaccinated hamsters 18 wk after the second dose, the vaccinated hamsters were still partially protected from wild-type virus challenge. Vaccine with adjuvant provided better protection than non-adjuvanted WI-SARS vaccine at this later time point. Enhanced disease was not observed in the lungs or liver of hamsters following SARS-CoV challenge, regardless of the level of serum neutralizing antibodies.

  18. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy in Mice and Hamsters of a β-Propiolactone Inactivated Whole Virus SARS-CoV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Anjeanette; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Vogel, Leatrice; Baras, Benoît; Goossens, Geneviève; Knott, Isabelle; Chen, Jun; Ward, Jerrold M.; Vassilev, Ventzislav

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The immunogenicity and efficacy of β-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated whole virion SARS-CoV (WI-SARS) vaccine was evaluated in BALB/c mice and golden Syrian hamsters. The vaccine preparation was tested with or without adjuvants. Adjuvant Systems AS01B and AS03A were selected and tested for their capacity to elicit high humoral and cellular immune responses to WI-SARS vaccine. We evaluated the effect of vaccine dose and each adjuvant on immunogenicity and efficacy in mice, and the effect of vaccine dose with or without the AS01B adjuvant on the immunogenicity and efficacy in hamsters. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge with wild-type virus at early and late time points (4 and 18 wk post-vaccination). A single dose of vaccine with or without adjuvant was poorly immunogenic in mice; a second dose resulted in a significant boost in antibody levels, even in the absence of adjuvant. The use of adjuvants resulted in higher antibody titers, with the AS01B-adjuvanted vaccine being slightly more immunogenic than the AS03A-adjuvanted vaccine. Two doses of WI-SARS with and without Adjuvant Systems were highly efficacious in mice. In hamsters, two doses of WI-SARS with and without AS01B were immunogenic, and two doses of 2 μg of WI-SARS with and without the adjuvant provided complete protection from early challenge. Although antibody titers had declined in all groups of vaccinated hamsters 18 wk after the second dose, the vaccinated hamsters were still partially protected from wild-type virus challenge. Vaccine with adjuvant provided better protection than non-adjuvanted WI-SARS vaccine at this later time point. Enhanced disease was not observed in the lungs or liver of hamsters following SARS-CoV challenge, regardless of the level of serum neutralizing antibodies. PMID:20883165

  19. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  20. Beta measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schotland, R. M.; Warren, A. J.; Funariu, O. M.

    1991-01-01

    The second year's results of the BETA project research are presented. The program is divided into two areas, aerosol modification and climatology in the trade wind region and the climatology of BETA (CO2) on remote mountain top locations. Limited data is available on the aerosol climatology of the marine free troposphere (MFT) in the trade wind region. In order to study the effects of cumulus convection on the MFT values of BETA, a cloud model was developed to simulate the evolution of a typical Pacific trade wind cumulus cloud. The stages involved in this development are outlined. The assembly of the major optical components of the lidar was made. Tests were run of the spectral bandwidth of the Synrad laser when a portion of the beam is mixed with a component which has traveled 450 meters corresponding to a delay of 1.5 microsecs. The bandwidth of the beat signal was measured to be 3 KHz. The data processing system based on a parallel processing filter bank analyzer using true time squaring detectors at each filter was completed.

  1. Production of Antigens and Antibodies for Diagnosis of Arbovirus Diseases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-20

    for Germiston, Qalyub, Sicilian, vesicular stomatitis Indiana, and Ganjam viruses . The antigens were inactivated with beta-propiolactone. Rabbits were...immunized successfully intravenously with Ross River, Germiston, and Japanese encephalitis viruses using immunogens grown in RK-13 rabbit kidney...vesicular stomatitis Indiana, and Ganjam viruses . The antigens were inactivated with beta-propiolactone. Rabbits were immunized successfully intravenously

  2. Cereal beta-glucans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  3. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  4. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists at the human beta1, beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jillian G

    2005-02-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ("beta-blockers") are one of the most widely used classes of drugs in cardiovascular medicine (hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and increasingly in heart failure) as well as in the management of anxiety, migraine and glaucoma. Where known, the mode of action in cardiovascular disease is from antagonism of endogenous catecholamine responses in the heart (mainly at beta1-adrenoceptors), while the worrisome side effects of bronchospasm result from airway beta2-adrenoceptor blockade. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of beta-antagonists for the human beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. (3)H-CGP 12177 whole cell-binding studies were undertaken in CHO cell lines stably expressing either the human beta1-, beta2- or the beta3-adrenoceptor in order to determine the affinity of ligands for each receptor subtype in the same cell background. In this study, the selectivity of well-known subtype-selective ligands was clearly demonstrated: thus, the selective beta1 antagonist CGP 20712A was 501-fold selective over beta2 and 4169-fold selective over beta3; the beta2-selective antagonist ICI 118551 was 550- and 661-fold selective over beta1 and beta3, respectively, and the selective beta3 compound CL 316243 was 10-fold selective over beta2 and more than 129-fold selective over beta1. Those beta2-adrenoceptor agonists used clinically for the treatment of asthma and COPD were beta2 selective: 29-, 61- and 2818-fold for salbutamol, terbutaline and salmeterol over beta1, respectively. There was little difference in the affinity of these ligands between beta1 and beta3 adrenoceptors. The clinically used beta-antagonists studied ranged from bisoprolol (14-fold beta1-selective) to timolol (26-fold beta2-selective). However, the majority showed little selectivity for the beta1- over the beta2-adrenoceptor, with many actually being more beta2-selective. This study shows that the beta1/beta2 selectivity of most clinically used beta-blockers is

  5. Alpha and beta thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Muncie, Herbert L; Campbell, James

    2009-08-15

    The thalassemias are a group of inherited hematologic disorders caused by defects in the synthesis of one or more of the hemoglobin chains. Alpha thalassemia is caused by reduced or absent synthesis of alpha globin chains, and beta thalassemia is caused by reduced or absent synthesis of beta globin chains. Imbalances of globin chains cause hemolysis and impair erythropoiesis. Silent carriers of alpha thalassemia and persons with alpha or beta thalassemia trait are asymptomatic and require no treatment. Alpha thalassemia intermedia, or hemoglobin H disease, causes hemolytic anemia. Alpha thalassemia major with hemoglobin Bart's usually results in fatal hydrops fetalis. Beta thalassemia major causes hemolytic anemia, poor growth, and skeletal abnormalities during infancy. Affected children will require regular lifelong blood transfusions. Beta thalassemia intermedia is less severe than beta thalassemia major and may require episodic blood transfusions. Transfusion-dependent patients will develop iron overload and require chelation therapy to remove the excess iron. Bone marrow transplants can be curative for some children with beta thalassemia major. Persons with thalassemia should be referred for preconception genetic counseling, and persons with alpha thalassemia trait should consider chorionic villus sampling to diagnose infants with hemoglobin Bart's, which increases the risk of toxemia and postpartum bleeding. Persons with the thalassemia trait have a normal life expectancy. Persons with beta thalassemia major often die from cardiac complications of iron overload by 30 years of age.

  6. MOON for neutrino-less {beta}{beta} decays and {beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ejiri, H.

    2009-11-09

    The MOON project aims at spectroscopic 0v{beta}{beta} studies with the v-mass sensitivity of 100-30 meV by measuring two beta rays from {sup 100}Mo and/or {sup 82}Se. The detector is a compact super-module of multi-layer PL scintillator plates. R and D works made by the pro to-type MOON-1 and the small PL plate show the possible energy resolution of around {sigma}{approx}2.2%, as required for the mass sensitivity. Nuclear matrix elements M{sup 2v} for 2v{beta}{beta} are shown to be given by the sum {sigma}{sub L}M{sub k} of the 2v{beta}{beta} matrix elements M{sub k} through intermediate quasi-particle states in the Fermi-surface, where Mi is obtained experimentally by using the GT(J{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +}) matrix elements of M{sub i}(k) and M{sub f}(k) for the successive single-{beta} transitions through the k-th intermediate state.

  7. Beta-Carotene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  8. Beta blockers in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Thadani, U

    1983-11-10

    Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists are effective in the management of patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. Noncardioselective agents, cardioselective agents and beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) are equally effective, provided they are used in equipotent doses. Beta blockers can be used as first-line therapy in the management of hypertension and can be safely combined with diuretics, vasodilators, or both, for a better control of blood pressure. The exact mechanism by which beta blockers decrease blood pressure remains speculative, but they all reduce cardiac output during long-term therapy; drugs with ISA lower cardiac output and heart rate less than do drugs without ISA. Pharmacokinetic properties of beta blockers differ widely; drugs metabolized by the liver have shorter plasma half-lives than drugs primarily excreted by the kidneys. Although many of the side effects of various beta blockers are similar, differences in water and lipid solubility account for a higher incidence of central nervous system side effects with lipid-soluble drugs (such as propranolol and metoprolol) than with hydrophilic drugs (such as atenolol and timolol). The incidence of cold extremities has been reported to be less with drugs with ISA, and the incidence of bronchospasm less with cardioselective drugs. In the management of uncomplicated mild-to-moderate hypertension, all beta blockers are equally effective and produce less troublesome side effects than alternative antihypertensive agents. For effective therapy beta blockers can be used in 2 divided daily doses or even once daily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  10. Beta Cell Breakthroughs

    MedlinePlus

    ... says Douglas Melton, PhD, a biologist at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute. Fluctuating blood glucose levels do ... journal Cell, Melton reported that his team at Harvard managed to turn human stem cells into beta ...

  11. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease, rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, and skin disorders including psoriasis and vitiligo. Beta-carotene is also in used ... Depression. Epilepsy. Headaches. Heartburn. Hypertension. Infertility. ... Rheumatoid arthritis. Schizophrenia. Other conditions. More evidence is ...

  12. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: beta-ureidopropionase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... down N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to beta-alanine, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Both beta-aminoisobutyric acid and ... beta-ureidopropionase deficiency Merck Manual Professional Version: Pyrimidine Metabolism Disorders Orphanet: Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency Patient Support and ...

  14. The beta cell immunopeptidome.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Nadine L; Purcell, Anthony W

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells, leading to beta cell loss and insulin deficiency. Presentation of peptides derived from beta cell proteins to autoreactive lymphocytes is critical for the development of disease, and the list of antigens recognized is increasing. A number of these proteins are found within the beta cell secretory granules, which are transiently exposed to the immune system during normal cellular function. How the interplay of environmental and genetic determinants culminates in destructive autoimmunity remains to be clearly defined. Nonconventional presentation of peptide ligands, posttranslational modification of peptides, and the role of the gut microbiome in the development of the immune system are all considered central topics in disease pathogenesis. Each of these may provide a mechanism by which presentation of antigenic peptides in the target tissue differs from presentation in the thymus, allowing autoreactive cells to escape tolerance induction. The high metabolic demand on pancreatic islets, the high concentration of granule proteins, and the susceptibility of islets to cellular stress may all contribute to the presentation of abnormal ligands in the pancreas. Moreover, the finding that small molecules can alter the repertoire of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules provides a tantalizing hypothesis for the presentation of autoantigenic peptides in the presence of microbial or endogenous metabolites. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the immunopeptidome of beta cells and the key factors that may influence presentation of beta cell antigens to the immune system.

  15. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  16. Beta in Streamers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven T.; Gary G. A.; Nerney, S. F.

    1999-01-01

    Streamers are often described as regions of the corona in which the density is higher than in coronal holes because the plasma is trapped by closed loops of magnetic flux. In contrast, Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models of the global corona show that the plasma beta identically equal to 8(pi)p/B(exp 2) > 1 in streamers above approximately 1.2Rs heliocentric height (p=pressure, B=magnetic field strength). There are three recent contributions to this topic. The first is that heating near the cusp further drives Beta up and can result in release of new slow solar wind from the top of the streamer. The second is SOHO/UVCS observations, in combination with a potential field/source surface model of the magnetic field, show beta > 1 above 1.2Rs in a streamer observed near solar sunspot minimum. The third is a magnetic field reconstruction technique (using field deforming algorithms) which was applied both to an isolated active region (AR 7999) and to the Pneuman & Kopp global MHD model. In the active region, beta becomes larger than unity at approximately 1.2Rs. In the Pneuman & Kopp model, beta = 1.0 at the base of the streamer and rises with increasing height, becoming 15-20 at 1.6Rs and 35-55 at 1.7RS. The collective implication of these three results is that beta > 1 everywhere in streamers above approximately 1.2 Rs. Global simulations go on to show that the reason streamers do not simply explode under such high beta conditions is that they are held down by pressure from the sides due to the magnetic fields (and low beta) in adjacent coronal holes. The main role of the closed magnetic loops near the cusp is to keep the streamer from continuously leaking plasma, as otherwise happens in a magnetic pinch which is similar but has no closed loops. The purpose of this note is to summarize the results implying that beta > 1 is a general property of streamers above 1.2 Rs.

  17. Boosted Beta Regression

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

  18. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, Greg

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/output library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.

  19. Expression of TGF-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 in localized and systemic scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Querfeld, C; Eckes, B; Huerkamp, C; Krieg, T; Sollberg, S

    1999-09-01

    Scleroderma is a generalized or localized disorder which leads to fibrosis of the affected organs. TGF-beta has been implicated as a causal agent in its pathogenesis. In mammals, TGF-beta comprises a family of three members, beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3. Since cutaneous wound healing is thought to result either in formation of a scar or in scar-free tissue regeneration, depending on the relative amounts of the beta 3 isoform, the expression of all three isoforms was studied in skin biopsies of patients with either localized or systemic scleroderma. mRNA for all three isoforms was detected in inflammatory skin areas of both disease forms, but never in sclerotic or healthy skin. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed expression of beta1 and beta 2 proteins in inflammatory skin of patients, whereas beta 3 protein appeared to be present in the subepidermal area and also found throughout the dermis of patients and healthy dermis as well.

  20. beta-Chloronaphthalene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Chloronaphthalene ; CASRN 91 - 58 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  1. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  2. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  3. Venus - Beta Regio

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-05

    This portion of NASA Magellan radar image strip shows a small region on Venus 20 kilometers 12.4 miles wide and 75 km 50 miles long on the east flank of a major volcanic upland called Beta Regio. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00206

  4. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  5. Production of Antigens and Antibodies for Diagnosis of Arbovirus Diseases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-20

    arboviruses and residual infectivity was inactivated with beta-propiolactone. An additional 10 viruses were passaged in mice and the mice vere stored...beta- propiolactone. An additional 10 viruses were passaged in mice and the mice were stored frozen awaiting sucrose-acetone extraction of the brains...35 314 VS-New Jersey Hazelhurst CEl8V4sml 1 58 422 Additionally, 10 viruses were passaged in baby mice awaiting preparation of antigen lots. These were

  6. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  7. Beta-rolls, beta-helices, and other beta-solenoid proteins.

    PubMed

    Kajava, Andrey V; Steven, Alasdair C

    2006-01-01

    Beta-rolls and beta-helices belong to a larger group of topologically similar proteins with solenoid folds: because their regular secondary structure elements are exclusively beta-strands, they are referred to as beta-solenoids. The number of beta-solenoids whose structures are known is now large enough to support a systematic analysis. Here we survey the distinguishing structural features of beta-solenoids, also documenting their notable diversity. Appraisal of these structures suggests a classification based on handedness, twist, oligomerization state, and coil shape. In addition, beta-solenoids are distinguished by the number of chains that wind around a common axis: the majority are single-stranded but there is a recently discovered subset of triple-stranded beta-solenoids. This survey has revealed some relationships of the amino acid sequences of beta-solenoids with their structures and functions-in particular, the repetitive character of the coil sequences and conformations that recur in tracts of tandem repeats. We have proposed the term beta-arc for the distinctive turns found in beta-solenoids and beta-arch for the corresponding strand-turn-strand motifs. The evolutionary mechanisms underlying these proteins are also discussed. This analysis has direct implications for sequence-based detection, structural prediction, and de novo design of other beta-solenoid proteins. The abundance of virulence factors, toxins and allergens among beta-solenoids, as well as commonalities of beta-solenoids with amyloid fibrils, imply that this class of folds may have a broader role in human diseases than was previously recognized. Thus, identification of genes with putative beta-solenoid domains promises to be a fertile direction in the search for viable targets in the development of new antibiotics and vaccines.

  8. SNS Medium Beta Cryomodule Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Isidoro Campisi; Edward Daly; G. Davis; Jean Delayen; Christiana Grenoble; John Hogan; Lawrence King; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Mircea Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Mark Wiseman

    2003-09-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) is producing 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This includes one medium-beta (0.61) prototype, 11 medium-beta production, and 12 high-beta (0.81) production cryomodules. Each of the medium-beta cryomodules is scheduled to undergo complete operational performance testing at Jefferson Laboratory before shipment to ORNL. To date, the prototype and three production models of the medium beta cryomodule have been tested. The performance results of the tested cryomodules will be discussed.

  9. Beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  10. Investigation of horizon Beta.

    PubMed

    Windisch, C C; Leyden, R J; Worzel, J L; Saito, T; Ewing, J

    1968-12-27

    Horizon beta is a subbottom reflector in the North Atlantic deep ocean sediments that extends over a large portion of the North America basin. Cores from an outcrop of beta contained shallow-water Aptian-Albian sediments and deep-water Cenomanian sediments. A core near an outcrop of a deeper horizon, horizon B, contained shallow-water Lower Cretaceous (Barremian-Hauterivian) sediments. These cores can be interpreted to support extensive subsidence of the eastern portion of the basin in early Cretaceous time. It is equally likely that the shallow-water deposits are a result of sediments slumping into an already deep basin. A reconciliation of these interpretations depends upon the JOIDES project.

  11. Beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  12. Regeneration of pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hee-Sook

    2008-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus results from inadequate mass of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by absolute loss of beta cells due to autoimmune-mediated destruction. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by relative deficiency of beta cells due to lack of compensation for insulin resistance. Restoration of deficient beta cell mass by transplantation from exogenous sources or by endogenous regeneration of insulin-producing cells would be therapeutic options. Mature beta cells have an ability to proliferate; however, it has been shown to be difficult to expand adult beta cells in vitro. Alternatively, regeneration of beta cells from embryonic and adult stem cells and pancreatic progenitor cells is an attractive method to restore islet cell mass. With information obtained from the biology of pancreatic development, direct differentiation of stem and progenitor cells toward a pancreatic beta cell phenotype has been tried using various strategies, including forced expression of beta cell-specific transcription factors. Further research is required to understand how endogenous beta cells differentiate and to develop methods to regenerate beta cells for clinically applicable therapies for diabetes.

  13. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  14. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  15. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Blaney Davidson, E N; van der Kraan, P M; van den Berg, W B

    2007-06-01

    Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth factor TGF-beta in cartilage repair and on the side effects of TGF-beta treatment that could occur. This review summarizes peer-reviewed articles published in the PubMed database before November 2006. In addition, this review is supplemented with recent data of our own group on the use of TGF-beta as a cartilage reparative factor in OA. TGF-beta is crucial for cartilage maintenance and lack there of results in OA-like changes. Moreover, TGF-beta supplementation can enhance cartilage repair and is therefore a potential therapeutic tool. However, application of TGF-beta supplementation provides problems in other tissues of the joint and results in fibrosis and osteophyte formation. This can potentially be overcome by local inhibition of TGF-beta at sites of unwanted side-effects or by blocking downstream mediators of TGF-beta that are important for the induction of fibrosis or osteophyte formation. Current understanding of TGF-beta suggests that it essential for cartilage integrity and that it is a powerful tool to prevent or repair cartilage damage. The side-effects that occur with TGF-beta supplementation can be overcome by local inhibition of TGF-beta itself or downstream mediators.

  16. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  17. Neutron Induced Beta Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, A. M.; Shylaja, D.

    2011-07-15

    In the present paper we give a new methodology named, 'neutron induced beta radiography-NIBR' which makes use of neutron activated Dy or In foils as source of (3-radiation. Radiographs are obtained with an aluminium cassette containing image plate, a sample under inspection and the activated Dy or In foil kept in tight contact. The sensitivity of the technique to thickness was evaluated for different materials in the form of step wedges. Some radiographs are presented to demonstrate potential of method to inspect thin samples.

  18. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  19. Scintillator based beta batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  20. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    PubMed

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-07

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  1. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  2. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  3. RAVEN Beta Release

    SciTech Connect

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  4. Superallowed Fermi beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J. C.; Towner, I. S.

    1998-12-21

    Superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} nuclear beta decay provides a direct measure of the weak vector coupling constant, G{sub V}. We survey current world data on the nine accurately determined transitions of this type, which range from the decay of {sup 10}C to that of {sup 54}Co, and demonstrate that the results confirm conservation of the weak vector current (CVC) but differ at the 98% confidence level from the unitarity condition for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. We examine the reliability of the small calculated corrections that have been applied to the data, and assess the likelihood of even higher quality nuclear data becoming available to confirm or deny the discrepancy. Some of the required experiments depend upon the availability of intense radioactive beams. Others are possible today.

  5. Double beta decay: Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brofferio, Chiara

    2008-11-01

    Calorimeters or, with a more specific definition, low temperature detectors, have been used by now for more than 15 years in Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, with excellent results: they compete with Ge diodes for the rank of detectors with the highest sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass, which is defined as a linear combination of the neutrino mass eigenvalues. After a brief introduction to the argument, with some notes on DBD and on bolometers, an update on the now closed experiment CUORICINO and on its successor, CUORE, is given. The fundamental role of background is then revealed and commented, introducing in this way the importance of the specific experiment now under construction, CUORE-0, that will precede CUORE to help optimizing the struggle against surface background. The possible future of this technique is then commented, quoting important R&D studies that are going on, for active shielding bolometers and for scintillating bolometers coupled with light detecting bolometers.

  6. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2007-06-01

    The recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicate that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavors is different from zero, but are unable to determine the nature and the absolute value of the neutrino mass. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to ascertain if the neutrino is a Majorana particle and to determine under this condition the absolute value of its mass. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is Dirac or Majorana particle.

  7. Beta systems error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  8. Just a beta....

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, K. S.; Bailey, D. W.; Dorman, K. F.; Moos, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    Traditional implementation of clinical information systems follows a predictable project management process. The selection, development, implementation, and evaluation of the system and the project management aspects of those phases require considerable time and effort. The purpose of this paper is to describe the beta site implementation of a knowledge-based clinical information system in a specialty area of a southeastern hospital that followed a less than traditional approach to implementation. Highlighted are brief descriptions of the hospital's traditional process, the nontraditional process, and key findings from the experience. Preliminary analysis suggests that selection of an implementation process is contextual. Selection of elements from each of these methods may provide a more useful process. The non-traditional process approached the elements of communication, areas of responsibility, training, follow-up and leadership differently. These elements are common to both processes and provide a focal point for future research. PMID:10566425

  9. Beta measurement evaluation and upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.W.; Faust, L.G.; Selby, J.M.; Essig, T.H.; Vallario, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Safety, initiated a program to evaluate dosimeters and instruments used at DOE laboratories in the determination of personnel beta dose. The program focuses on significant problems which affect field measurements and is involved in the development and evaluation of new beta dosimetry systems (both dosimeters and instruments). Currently the program is reviewing systems and practices; developing calibration systems and procedures for the calibration of instruments and dosimeters; and developing new concepts which may improve beta dosimetry. The program has been designed to provide a continuing effort for resolution of problems of assessing personnel beta dose at DOE facilities. The current personnel beta dosimetry practices at DOE facilities are being surveyed.

  10. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  11. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  12. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  13. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  14. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Clancy, Brian Gorre

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  15. Venus - Beta Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This portion of a Magellan radar image strip shows a small region on Venus 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) wide and 75 km (50 miles) long on the east flank of a major volcanic upland called Beta Regio. The image is centered at 23 degrees north latitude and 286.7 degrees east longitude. The ridge and valley network in the middle part of the image is formed by intersecting faults which have broken the Venusian crust into a complex, deformed type of surface called tessera, the Latin word for tile. The parallel mountains and valleys resemble the Basin and Range Province in the western United States. The irregular dark patch near the top of the image is a smooth surface, probably formed by lava flows in a region about 10 km (6 miles) across. Similar dark surfaces within the valleys indicate lava flows that are younger than the tessera giving an indication of the geologic time relationships of the events that formed the present surface. The image has a resolution of 120 meters (400 feet).

  16. Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2010-12-01

    Almost exactly seventy years ago and only one year before his tragic disappearance the ingenious idea of Ettore Majorana is becoming one of the most important step in the development of fundamental physics. The problem of the nature of the neutrino, namely if it is a massless Dirac particle different from its antineutrino or a Majorana particle with finite mass, is discussed. In fact the recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicates that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavours is finite. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to determine the effective value of the mass of a Majorana neutrino. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already at least partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is indeed a Majorana particle.

  17. Evolution of outer membrane beta-barrels from an ancestral beta beta hairpin.

    PubMed

    Remmert, M; Biegert, A; Linke, D; Lupas, A N; Söding, J

    2010-06-01

    Outer membrane beta-barrels (OMBBs) are the major class of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and plastids. Their transmembrane domains consist of 8-24 beta-strands forming a closed, barrel-shaped beta-sheet around a central pore. Despite their obvious structural regularity, evidence for an origin by duplication or for a common ancestry has not been found. We use three complementary approaches to show that all OMBBs from Gram-negative bacteria evolved from a single, ancestral beta beta hairpin. First, we link almost all families of known single-chain bacterial OMBBs with each other through transitive profile searches. Second, we identify a clear repeat signature in the sequences of many OMBBs in which the repeating sequence unit coincides with the structural beta beta hairpin repeat. Third, we show that the observed sequence similarity between OMBB hairpins cannot be explained by structural or membrane constraints on their sequences. The third approach addresses a longstanding problem in protein evolution: how to distinguish between a very remotely homologous relationship and the opposing scenario of "sequence convergence." The origin of a diverse group of proteins from a single hairpin module supports the hypothesis that, around the time of transition from the RNA to the protein world, proteins arose by amplification and recombination of short peptide modules that had previously evolved as cofactors of RNAs.

  18. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-10-21

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs.

  19. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  20. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1997-01-01

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means.

  1. Beta-Testing Agreement | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    Beta-Testing Agreements are appropriate forlimited term evaluation and applications development of new software, technology, or equipment platforms by the Frederick National Labin collaboration with an external commercial partner. It may

  2. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  3. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  4. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptors, TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 production and autocrine growth control in osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kloen, P; Jennings, C L; Gebhardt, M C; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J

    1994-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a polypeptide with multiple physiological functions. Isoforms of this growth factor have important roles in control of the cell cycle, in regulation of cell-cell interactions and in growth and development. Malignant transformation has been shown to be associated with increased expression of TGF-beta. Since bone is the largest storage site and producer of TGF-beta, we speculated on the existence of an autocrine mechanism in osteosarcoma, a malignant bone tumor. Expression of TGF-beta cell surface receptors, effects on growth of TGF-beta and TGF-beta antibodies and production of 2 TGF-beta isoforms were studied in a panel of 7 osteosarcoma cell lines. In contrast to most previous reports on the effects of TGF-beta on osteosarcoma cell growth, we found a mitogenic effect of TGF-beta 1 in 4 of 7 osteosarcoma cell lines. Receptor profiles for TGF-beta were aberrant in 5 of the 7 cell lines tested, and production of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 varied among cell lines. Addition of anti-TGF-beta antagonized the effects of endogenous TGF-beta. Our results suggest a potential role of TGF-beta in autocrine growth control of osteosarcoma cells.

  5. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Morant, Marc

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  6. Cardiovascular and metabolic alterations in mice lacking both beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, D K; Chruscinski, A; Schauble, E H; Bernstein, D; Kobilka, B K

    1999-06-11

    The activation state of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-ARs) in vivo is an important determinant of hemodynamic status, cardiac performance, and metabolic rate. In order to achieve homeostasis in vivo, the cellular signals generated by beta-AR activation are integrated with signals from a number of other distinct receptors and signaling pathways. We have utilized genetic knockout models to test directly the role of beta1- and/or beta2-AR expression on these homeostatic control mechanisms. Despite total absence of beta1- and beta2-ARs, the predominant cardiovascular beta-adrenergic subtypes, basal heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolic rate do not differ from wild type controls. However, stimulation of beta-AR function by beta-AR agonists or exercise reveals significant impairments in chronotropic range, vascular reactivity, and metabolic rate. Surprisingly, the blunted chronotropic and metabolic response to exercise seen in beta1/beta2-AR double knockouts fails to impact maximal exercise capacity. Integrating the results from single beta1- and beta2-AR knockouts as well as the beta1-/beta2-AR double knock-out suggest that in the mouse, beta-AR stimulation of cardiac inotropy and chronotropy is mediated almost exclusively by the beta1-AR, whereas vascular relaxation and metabolic rate are controlled by all three beta-ARs (beta1-, beta2-, and beta3-AR). Compensatory alterations in cardiac muscarinic receptor density and vascular beta3-AR responsiveness are also observed in beta1-/beta2-AR double knockouts. In addition to its ability to define beta-AR subtype-specific functions, this genetic approach is also useful in identifying adaptive alterations that serve to maintain critical physiological setpoints such as heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolic rate when cellular signaling mechanisms are perturbed.

  7. From Beta Cell Replacement to Beta Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is affecting more than 25.8 million people in the United States, causing huge burden on the health care system and economy. Insulin injection, which is the predominant treatment for diabetes, is incapable of replenishing the lost insulin-producing beta cell in patients. Restoring beta cell mass through replacement therapy such as islet transplantation or beta cell regeneration through in vitro and in vivo strategies has attracted particular attentions in the field due to its potential to cure diabetes. In the aspect of islet transplantation, gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and more biocompatible immunosuppressive drugs have been tested in various preclinical animal models to improve the longevity and function of human islets against the posttransplantation challenges. In the islet regeneration aspect, insulin-producing cells have been generated through in vitro transdifferentiation of stem cells and other types of cells and demonstrated to be capable of glycemic control. Moreover, several biomarkers including cell-surface receptors, soluble factors, and transcriptional factors have been identified or rediscovered in mediating the process of beta cell proliferation in rodents. This review summarizes the current progress and hurdles in the preclinical efforts in resurrecting beta cells. It may provide some useful insights into the future drug discovery for antidiabetic purposes. PMID:25355714

  8. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  9. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    PubMed

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  10. Beta-blockers for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Bradley, Hazel A; Volmink, Jimmy; Mayosi, Bongani M; Opie, Lionel H

    2017-01-01

    Background Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial. This review is an update of a Cochrane Review initially published in 2007 and updated in 2012. Objectives To assess the effects of beta-blockers on morbidity and mortality endpoints in adults with hypertension. Search methods The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to June 2016: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), and ClinicalTrials.gov. We checked reference lists of relevant reviews, and reference lists of studies potentially eligible for inclusion in this review, and also searched the the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 06 July 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year of duration, which assessed the effects of beta-blockers compared to placebo or other drugs, as first-line therapy for hypertension, on mortality and morbidity in adults. Data collection and analysis We selected studies and extracted data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by consensus. We expressed study results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and conducted fixed-effect or random-effects meta-analyses, as appropriate. We also used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. GRADE classifies the certainty of evidence as high (if we are confident that the true effect lies

  11. The Sine _beta β operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkó, Benedek; Virág, Bálint

    2017-07-01

    We show that Sine$_\\beta$, the bulk limit of the Gaussian $\\beta$-ensembles is the spectrum of a self-adjoint random differential operator \\[ f\\to 2 {R_t^{-1}} \\left[ \\begin{array}{cc} 0 &-\\tfrac{d}{dt} \\tfrac{d}{dt} &0 \\end{array} \\right] f, \\qquad f:[0,1)\\to \\mathbb R^2, \\] where $R_t$ is the positive definite matrix representation of hyperbolic Brownian motion with variance $4/\\beta$ in logarithmic time. The result connects the Montgomery-Dyson conjecture about the Sine$_2$ process and the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function, the Hilbert-P\\'olya conjecture and de Brange's attempt to prove the Riemann hypothesis. We identify the Brownian carousel as the Sturm-Liouville phase function of this operator. We provide similar operator representations for several other finite dimensional random ensembles and their limits: finite unitary or orthogonal ensembles, Hua-Pickrell ensembles and their limits, hard-edge $\\beta$-ensembles, as well as the Schr\\"odinger point process. In this more general setting, hyperbolic Brownian motion is replaced by a random walk or Brownian motion on the affine group. Our approach provides a unified framework to study $\\beta$-ensembles that has so far been missing in the literature. In particular, we connect It\\^o's classification of affine Brownian motions with the classification of limits of random matrix ensembles.

  12. Fundamental processes in the interacting boson model: 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Iachello, F.; Barea, J.

    2011-05-06

    A program to calculate nuclear matrix elements for fundamental processes in the interacting boson model has been initiated. Results for the nuclear matrix elements in neutrinoless double beta decay 0{nu}{beta}{beta} are presented.

  13. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R; Bernardi, F; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F

    1985-01-01

    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in a beta(+), homozygote and in a beta (+), beta(0) 39 (nonsense mutation at codon 39) double heterozygote is approximately 20% and 10% respectively of total non-alpha globin synthesis. Despite some overlapping of the results, similar beta globin synthesis levels have been obtained in 43 beta(+)-thalassaemia patients. This suggests that in the Po river delta region the most common thalassaemic genes are beta(0) 39 and beta(+) IVS I. Images PMID:2580095

  14. Beta 1-adrenoreceptors regulate resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Lamont, L S; Romito, R A; Finkelhor, R S; Kalhan, S C

    1997-06-01

    This was a randomized, cross-over experiment designed to determine which beta-adrenergic receptors, beta 1, beta 2, or both, regulate metabolic rate in humans. All subjects (3 women, 4 men) were administered a 7-d therapeutic dose of a selective beta 1-antagonist (atenolol 50 mg BID), a combined beta 1, beta 2-antagonist (propranolol 80 mg BID), and a placebo control (BID). Indirect calorimetry was determined before and after 1 h of submaximal exercise. Exercise was performed at 50% of the trial specific VO2peak because maximal exercise was significantly decreased in the presence of the nonselective beta 1, beta 2-antagonist (VO2peak placebo: 44.90 +/- 4.40 mL.kg-1.min-1 vs beta 1, beta 2-antagonism: 39.20 +/- 3.00 mL.kg-1.min-1; P < 0.05). Both the beta 1 and the combined beta 1, beta 2-adrenoreceptor antagonists reduced resting oxygen consumption to a similar extent (0.247 +/- 0.007 L.min-1 placebo, vs 0.218 +/- 0.007 L.min-1 beta 1-antagonism, vs 0.226 +/- 0.007 L.min-1 beta 1, beta 2-antagonism; P < 0.05). However, the 30-min and 60-min excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (mean EPOC) remained unchanged. It is concluded that the beta 1-receptors are regulating the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on resting but not exercise recovery metabolic rate. These metabolic side effects may suggest that changes need to be made in the nutritional requirements of patients using beta-adrenergic antagonists.

  15. Interplanetary Lyman-beta emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, F.

    1973-01-01

    Derivation of the intensity of the diffuse hydrogen Lyman-beta glow at 1025 A which is due to resonance scattering of the solar H I 1025 A line by interstellar and interplanetary hydrogen. Two sources of neutral hydrogen are considered: the local interstellar medium interacting with the solar system, and the dust deionization of the H(+) component of the solar wind. It is shown that if the dust geometrical factor is less than or equal to five quintillionths per cm, observations of backscattered Lyman-beta radiation will provide a unique determination of the density and temperature of the local interstellar medium.

  16. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J.; Goldstein, Norman P.

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  17. BETA-GAMMA PERSONNEL DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, D.M.; Gupton, E.D.; Hart, J.C.; Hull, A.P.

    1961-01-17

    A personnel dosimeter is offered which is sensitive to both gamma and soft beta radiations from all directions within a hemisphere. The device is in the shape of a small pill box which is worn on a worker-s wrist. The top and sides of the device are provided with 50 per cent void areas to give 50 per cent response to the beta rays and complete response to the gamma rays. The device is so constructed as to have a response which will approximate the dose received by the basal layer of the human epidermis.

  18. sin 2 beta + gamma Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Therin, G; /Paris U., VI-VII

    2005-06-24

    I report on the most recent measurements done to constrain sin(2{beta}+{gamma}) with neutral B mesons. Direct measurements of 2{beta} + {gamma} will provide a precise test of the standard model predictions with higher statistics. Present constraints come from studies of B {yields} D{sup (*){+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}/{rho}{sup {-+}} decays done by BABAR and Belle collaborations with full and inclusive techniques to reconstruct B mesons. B {yields} D{sup 0(*)}K{sup 0} decays are also very promising but statistics are too low to give any constraint at the moment.

  19. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  20. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    PubMed Central

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; Figus, A; Loi, A; Pirastu, M; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation of a large scale prevention programme based on fetal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia by DNA analysis in the Turkish population. PMID:3236356

  1. Production of poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-beta-hydroxyvaleric) acids.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, B A; Lomaliza, K; Chavarie, C; Dubé, B; Bataille, P; Ramsay, J A

    1990-01-01

    Alcaligenes latus, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Micrococcus halodenitrificans were found to accumulate poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-beta-hydroxyvaleric) acid [P(HB-co-HV)] copolymer when supplied with glucose (or sucrose in the case of A. latus) and propionic acid under nitrogen-limited conditions. A fed-batch culture of A. eutrophus produced 24 g of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) liter-1 under ammonium limitation conditions. When the glucose feed was replaced with glucose and propionic acid during the polymer accumulation phase, 17 g of P(HB-co-HV) liter-1 was produced. The P(HB-co-HV) contained 5.0 mol% beta-hydroxyvaleric acid (HV). Varying the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio at a dilution rate of 0.15 h-1 in a chemostat culture of A. eutrophus resulted in a maximum value of 33% (wt/wt) PHB in the biomass. In comparison, A. latus accumulated about 40% (wt/wt) PHB in chemostat culture under nitrogen-limited conditions at the same dilution rate. When propionic acid was added to the first stage of a two-stage chemostat, A. latus produced 43% (wt/wt) P(HB-co-HV) containing 18.5 mol% HV. In the second stage, the P(HB-co-HV) increased to 58% (wt/wt) with an HV content of 11 mol% without further addition of carbon substrate. The HV composition in P(HB-co-HV) was controlled by regulating the concentration of propionic acid in the feed. Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates containing a higher percentage of HV were produced when pentanoic acid replaced propionic acid. PMID:2117877

  2. The mammalian beta-tubulin repertoire: hematopoietic expression of a novel, heterologous beta-tubulin isotype

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    We describe the structure of a novel and unusually heterologous beta- tubulin isotype (M beta 1) isolated from a mouse bone marrow cDNA library, and a second isotype (M beta 3) isolated from a mouse testis cDNA library. Comparison of M beta 1 and M beta 3 with the completed (M beta 4, M beta 5) or extended (M beta 2) sequence of three previously described beta-tubulin isotypes shows that each includes a distinctive carboxy-terminal region, in addition to multiple amino acid substitutions throughout the polypeptide chain. In every case where a mammalian interspecies comparison can be made, both the carboxy- terminal and internal amino acid substitutions that distinguish one isotype from another are absolutely conserved. We conclude that these characteristic differences are important in determining functional distinctions between different kinds of microtubule. The amino acid homologies between M beta 2, M beta 3, M beta 4, and M beta 5 are in the range of 95-97%; however the homology between M beta 1 and all the other isotypes is very much less (78%). The dramatic divergence in M beta 1 is due to multiple changes that occur throughout the polypeptide chain. The overall level of expression of M beta 1 is low, and is restricted to those tissues (bone marrow, spleen, developing liver and lung) that are active in hematopoiesis in the mouse. We predict that the M beta 1 isotype is functionally specialized for assembly into the mammalian marginal band. PMID:3782288

  3. Caliber Schools. Caliber: Beta Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Caliber: Beta Academy is reimagining education as we know it, with the belief that the innovations in its model will allow 100% of its students to graduate ready to attend and succeed in a competitive four-year college and beyond. The academic model of the school features personalized learning plans, blended learning for English and math,…

  4. Caliber Schools. Caliber: Beta Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Caliber: Beta Academy is reimagining education as we know it, with the belief that the innovations in its model will allow 100% of its students to graduate ready to attend and succeed in a competitive four-year college and beyond. The academic model of the school features personalized learning plans, blended learning for English and math,…

  5. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blockers and Physical Activity Interestingly, beta blockers and exercise have some similar effects on the body. “Your blood pressure and heart rate are similarly changed by exercise and beta blockers,” said Gerald Fletcher, M.D., ...

  6. [Treatment of glaucoma with beta receptor blockers].

    PubMed

    Demmler, N

    1980-06-19

    We report the possibility of treatment with beta-adrenergic blocking agents in glaucoma-therapy. In open-angle glaucoma the therapy with beta-adrenergic blocking agents is often the best one. The combination of beta-adrenergic blocking agents with miotics is the therapy of choice in the treatment of closure-angle glaucoma. In special forms of glaucoma it is necessary to decide if the best therapy is the treatment with beta-adrenergaic blocking agents alone or a combined treatment of beta-adrenergic blocking agents with miotics. The beta-adrenergic blocking agent timolol (Chibro-Timoptol) and bupranolol (Ophtorenin) lower in the intraocular pressure to a greater extent than other beta-adrenergic blocking agents. Timolol eye drops and bupranolol eye drops are therefore the best beta-adrenergic blocking agents in therpay of glaucoma.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: beta-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... beta-mannosidosis . The MANBA gene provides instructions for making the enzyme beta-mannosidase. This enzyme works in the lysosomes , which are compartments that digest and recycle materials in the cell. Within lysosomes, the enzyme helps ...

  8. Neutron beta decay studies with Nab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeßler, S.; Alarcon, R.; Alonzi, L. P.; Balascuta, S.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Bowman, J. D.; Bychkov, M. A.; Byrne, J.; Calarco, J. R.; Chupp, T.; Cianciolo, T. V.; Crawford, C.; Frlež, E.; Gericke, M. T.; Glück, F.; Greene, G. L.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gudkov, V.; Harrison, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Ito, T.; Makela, M.; Martin, J.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGovern, S.; Page, S.; Penttilä, S. I.; Počanić, D.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Salas-Bacci, A.; Tompkins, Z.; Wagner, D.; Wilburn, W. S.; Young, A. R.

    2013-10-01

    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  9. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... can occur as a side effect of some beta blockers, especially the older ones, such as atenolol (Tenormin) ...

  10. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  11. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon beta-1a subcutaneous injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms and slow the development of ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  12. Recombinant GST-I-A beta 28-induced efficient serum antibody against A beta 42.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuemei; Wang, Jiapeng; Cui, Lili; Zou, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Yingjiu

    2010-01-30

    Six recombinant proteins GST-A beta 28/A beta 35/A beta 42 and GST-I-A beta 28/A beta 35/A beta 42 [I was the abbreviation for an immunostimulatory sequence that consisted of pan HLA DR binding epitope (PADRE) and Tetanus toxin epitope (TT)] were used as antigens after expressed and purified to immunize mice. The strongest antibody response against A beta 42 (titer 1:3200) was achieved by GST-I-A beta 28 or GST-A beta 42 immunization. However, IgG1 and IgG2b were the predominant serum antibody isotype responses by GST-I-A beta 28 immunization, whereas did IgG2a by GST-A beta 42 immunization. Thus, it indicated that GST-I-A beta 28 immunization in a mouse mainly evoked a stronger Th-2-type response; whereas, GST-A beta 42 immunization mainly elicited a Th-1-type response. Moreover, GST-I-A beta 28-induced serum antibodies had higher specificity to A beta 42 monomers and oligomers than to protofibrils and mature fibrils and exhibited the highest efficacy to block A beta 42 aggregation or fibrillogenesis and to disassemble A beta 42 aggregates in vitro. GST-I-A beta 28-induced serum antibodies also showed the most protective and restorative effects on target cells in vitro by inhibiting or neutralizing A beta 42-induced cytotoxicity. All of the above results indicated that A beta 28 could be speculated to substitute for A beta 42 and would become a better antigenic peptide for Alzheimer's disease immunotherapy in the presence of additional Th-cell epitopes such as the immunostimulatory sequence (I) applied in this study. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Heterogeneity of the Pancreatic Beta Cell

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Giselle Dominguez; Gromada, Jesper; Sussel, Lori

    2017-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell functions as a key regulator of blood glucose levels by integrating a variety of signals in response to changing metabolic demands. Variations in beta cell identity that translate into functionally different subpopulations represent an interesting mechanism to allow beta cells to efficiently respond to diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Recently, there is emerging evidence that morphological and functional differences between beta cells exist. Furthermore, the ability of novel single cell technologies to characterize the molecular identity of individual beta cells has created a new era in the beta cell field. These studies are providing important novel information about the origin of beta cell heterogeneity, the type and proportions of the different beta cell subpopulations, as well as their intrinsic properties. Furthermore, characterization of different beta cell subpopulations that could variably offer protection from or drive progression of diabetes has important clinical implications in diabetes prevention, beta cell regeneration and stem cell treatments. In this review, we will assess the evidence that supports the existence of heterogeneous populations of beta cells and the factors that could influence their formation. We will also address novel studies using islet single cell analysis that have provided important information toward understanding beta cell heterogeneity and discuss the caveats that may be associated with these new technologies. PMID:28321233

  14. beta. -decay asymmetry of the free neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, P.; Dubbers, D.; Klemt, E.; Last, J.; Schuetze, H.; Weibler, W.; Freedman, S.J.; Schaerpf, O.

    1983-01-01

    The ..beta..-decay of polarized neutrons has been studied with the new superconducting spectrometer PERKEO at the ILL. The energy dependence of the ..beta..-decay asymmetry has been measured for the first time. From the measured ..beta..-asymmetry parameter we obtain a new value for the ratio of weak coupling constants g/sub A//g/sub V/. 11 references.

  15. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, L.A.; Swinth, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that /sup 234/Th- /sup 234m/Pa, /sup 231/Th, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and /sup 60/Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  17. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Synthesis of new 10 beta-propargylic and 11 beta-allenic steroidal spirolactones.

    PubMed

    Faraj, H; Aumelas, A; Claire, M; Rondot, A; Auzou, G

    1991-11-01

    As part of continuing studies on the synthesis of new, biologically interesting 11 beta-substituted steroidal spirolactones, we describe here the competition between 10 beta-propargylation and 11 beta-allenylation. Grignard addition of allenyl magnesium bromide to an appropriate 5,10-epoxy-9(11)-olefin provides 10 beta-propargylation or 11 beta-allenylation. The role of the catalytic effect of copper chloride and of the solvent is evaluated. Confirmation of the structural assignments of these new 3,3-ethylenethioxy-10 beta-propargyl (or 11 beta-allenyl)-19-nor-17 alpha-pregna-4,9-diene-21,17-carbolactones is reported.

  20. Cytoplasmic tails of beta 1, beta 2, and beta 7 integrins differentially regulate LFA-1 function in K562 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lub, M; van Vliet, S J; Oomen, S P; Pieters, R A; Robinson, M; Figdor, C G; van Kooyk, Y

    1997-01-01

    The beta 2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) mediates activation-dependent adhesion of lymphocytes. To investigate whether lymphocyte-specific elements are essential for LFA-1 function, we expressed LFA-1 in the erythroleukemic cell line K562, which expresses only the integrin very late antigen 5. We observed that LFA-1-expressing K562 cannot bind to intercellular adhesion molecule 1-coated surfaces when stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), whereas the LFA-1-activating antibody KIM185 markedly enhanced adhesion. Because the endogenously expressed beta 1 integrin very late antigen 5 is readily activated by PMA, we investigated the role of the cytoplasmic domain of distinct beta subunits in regulating LFA-1 function. Transfection of chimeric LFA-1 receptors in K562 cells reveals that replacement of the beta 2 cytoplasmic tail with the beta 1 but not the beta 7 cytoplasmic tail completely restores PMA responsiveness of LFA-1, whereas a beta 2 cytoplasmic deletion mutant of LFA-1 is constitutively active. Both deletion of the beta 2 cytoplasmic tail or replacement by the beta 1 cytoplasmic tail alters the localization of LFA-1 into clusters, thereby regulating LFA-1 activation and LFA-1-mediated adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1. These data demonstrate that distinct signaling routes activate beta 1 and beta 2 integrins through the beta-chain and hint at the involvement of lymphocyte-specific signal transduction elements in beta 2 and beta 7 integrin activation that are absent in the nonlymphocytic cell line K562. Images PMID:9247650

  1. Transforming growth factor beta in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, C C; Hu, S; Frey, W H; Ala, T A; Tourtellotte, W W; Peterson, P K

    1994-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been hypothesized to be an inflammatory condition. We hypothesized that anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), counteract the inflammatory process. In the present study, we found that TGF-beta levels were elevated in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples obtained from AD patients < 6 h after death. Serum TGF-beta levels were also markedly elevated before death. These results suggest that elevated TGF-beta levels in AD may represent a protective host response to immunologically mediated neuronal injury. PMID:7496909

  2. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Beta Genus Papillomaviruses and Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Howley, Peter M.; Pfister, Herbert J.

    2015-01-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. PMID:25724416

  4. Molecular basis for amyloid-[beta] polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Laganowsky, Arthur; Landau, Meytal; Zhao, Minglei; Soriaga, Angela B.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Flot, David; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberga, David

    2011-10-19

    Amyloid-beta (A{beta}) aggregates are the main constituent of senile plaques, the histological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A{beta} molecules form {beta}-sheet containing structures that assemble into a variety of polymorphic oligomers, protofibers, and fibers that exhibit a range of lifetimes and cellular toxicities. This polymorphic nature of A{beta} has frustrated its biophysical characterization, its structural determination, and our understanding of its pathological mechanism. To elucidate A{beta} polymorphism in atomic detail, we determined eight new microcrystal structures of fiber-forming segments of A{beta}. These structures, all of short, self-complementing pairs of {beta}-sheets termed steric zippers, reveal a variety of modes of self-association of A{beta}. Combining these atomic structures with previous NMR studies allows us to propose several fiber models, offering molecular models for some of the repertoire of polydisperse structures accessible to A{beta}. These structures and molecular models contribute fundamental information for understanding A{beta} polymorphic nature and pathogenesis.

  5. Estimating beta-mixing coefficients

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Daniel J.; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Schervish, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The literature on statistical learning for time series assumes the asymptotic independence or “mixing” of the data-generating process. These mixing assumptions are never tested, and there are no methods for estimating mixing rates from data. We give an estimator for the beta-mixing rate based on a single stationary sample path and show it is L1-risk consistent. PMID:26279742

  6. Current double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, A.

    2005-01-01

    After an introduction about double beta decay and the deep connections between the lepton-violating channel and the neutrino properties, the most sensitive experimental approaches to the search for this rare nuclear transition are described. An overview of the experiments presently running is then given, with particular emphasis on the adopted techniques and their possible extrapolation to next-generation, higher-sensitivity experiments. The present situation about the experimental determination of the Majorana neutrino mass is presented and discussed.

  7. [Beta-adrenergic receptor blocker poisoning].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara

    2007-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, cardiac dysrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, migraine headache, thyrotoxicosis, and glaucoma. beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents are competitive antagonist at beta(1), beta(2), or both types of adrenergic receptors. Overdoses of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers are uncommon, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review article discusses the properties of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, presents the doses of these drugs causing toxicity and doses, after ingestion of which, referral to an emergency department is recommended. Clinical presentation of overdose (the cardiovascular, neurologic manifestations, pulmonary and other complications), diagnosis, and treatment (gastrointestinal decontamination; the usage of atropine, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, glucagon, insulin; indications for cardiac pacing, extracorporeal procedures of drug removal, etc.) are analyzed. In addition, this article focuses on clinical course and prognosis of beta-blocker overdose.

  8. Basal Ganglia Beta Oscillations Accompany Cue Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Daniel K.; Gage, Gregory J.; Schmidt, Robert; Pettibone, Jeffrey R.; Case, Alaina C.; Berke, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Beta oscillations in cortical-basal ganglia (BG) circuits have been implicated in normal movement suppression and motor impairment in Parkinson’s disease. To dissect the functional correlates of these rhythms we compared neural activity during four distinct variants of a cued choice task in rats. Brief beta (~20 Hz) oscillations occurred simultaneously throughout the cortical-BG network, both spontaneously and at precise moments of task performance. Beta phase was rapidly reset in response to salient cues, yet increases in beta power were not rigidly linked to cues, movements, or movement suppression. Rather, beta power was enhanced after cues were used to determine motor output. We suggest that beta oscillations reflect a postdecision stabilized state of cortical-BG networks, which normally reduces interference from alternative potential actions. The abnormally strong beta seen in Parkinson’s Disease may reflect overstabilization of these networks, producing pathological persistence of the current motor state. PMID:22325204

  9. Mammalian. beta. /sub 1/- and. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors: immunological and structural comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Moxham, C.P.; George, S.T.; Graziano, M.P.; Brandwein, H.J.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-11-05

    ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors, pharmacologically distinct proteins, have been reported to be structurally dissimilar. In the present study three techniques were employed to compare the nature of mammalian ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Antibodies against each of the receptor subtypes were raised separately. Polyclonal antisera against ..beta../sub 1/-receptors of rat fat cells were raised in mice, and antisera against ..beta../sub 2/-receptors of guinea pig lung were raised in rabbits. Receptors purified from rat fat cells (..beta../sub 1/-), S49 mouse lymphoma cells (..beta../sub 2/-), and rat liver (..beta../sub 2/-) were probed with these antisera. Each anti-receptor antisera demonstrated the ability to immunoprecipitate purified receptors of both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes. The mobility of ..beta..-receptors subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was probed using antireceptor antibodies and nitrocellulose blots of the gels. Fat cell ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors display M/sub r/ = 67,000 under reducing conditions and M/sub r/ = 54,000 under nonreducing conditions, as previously reported. Both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-receptors displayed this same shift in electrophoretic mobility observed in the presence as compared to the absence of disulfide bridge-reducing agents, as detected both by autoradiography of the radiolabeled receptors and by immunoblotting of native receptors. Finally, isoelectric focusing of purified radioiodinated ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors revealed identical isoelectric points. These data are the first to provide analyses of immunological, structural, and biochemical features of ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes in tandem and underscore the structural similarities that exist between these pharmacologically distinct receptors.

  10. Synergistic mobilization of hemopoietic progenitor cells using concurrent beta1 and beta2 integrin blockade or beta2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Papayannopoulou, T; Priestley, G V; Nakamoto, B; Zafiropoulos, V; Scott, L M; Harlan, J M

    2001-03-01

    The hierarchy of cytoadhesion molecules involved in hematopoietic/stem progenitor cell mobilization has not yet been delineated. Previous studies have suggested an important role for alpha4beta1 integrin in this process. To test whether mobilization involves dynamic interactions of alpha4beta1 with other integrins on hematopoietic cells, especially the beta2 integrins, mice and primates were treated with anti-beta1 or anti-beta2 antibodies alone or in combination. A single injection of anti-alpha4beta1 antibody elicited reproducible mobilization in contrast to other antibodies, and 3 injections yielded higher mobilization efficiency than each of the other antibodies. When the anti-beta2 (anti-CD11a or anti-CD18) or anti-alpha5/beta1 integrin antibody was combined with anti-alpha4, an augmentation in mobilization was seen that was either additive or synergistic, depending on the potency of the antibody used. Synergy between anti-alpha4 and anti-CD18 (beta(2)) antibody blockade was seen in primates and confirmed in anti-alpha4-treated CD18-deficient mice. In the latter, there was a 49-fold increase in mobilization with anti-alpha4, much higher than in littermate control animals, in CD18 hypomorphic mice, or in other strains of mice tested. Data from both the antibody blockade and gene-targeted mice suggest that the cooperativity of alpha4beta1 with beta2 integrins becomes evident when they are concurrently inhibited. It is unclear whether this cooperativity is exerted at the stage of reversible adhesion versus migration, and enhancement of and whether the 2 integrins work in a sequential or parallel manner. Whatever the mechanism, the data provide a novel example of beta1 and beta2 integrin crosstalk in stem/progenitor cell mobilization.

  11. Association of heterocellular HPFH, beta(+)-thalassaemia, and delta beta(0)-thalassaemia: haematological and molecular aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Cianetti, L; Care, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M; Massa, A; Marinucci, M; Mavilio, F; Ceccanti, M

    1984-01-01

    An Italian family in which heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) interacts with both beta(+)- and delta beta-thalassaemia is described. The index case was an 8 year old girl who was presumed to inherit both heterocellular HPFH and beta (+)-thalassaemia from her mother and delta beta-thalassaemia from her father. She was healthy and never needed blood transfusions. The possible contribution of heterocellular HPFH to the less severe expression of the compound delta beta/beta(+)-thalassaemia heterozygosity is discussed. By DNA analysis the specific delta beta-thalassaemia defect on the gamma delta beta globin gene region has been established. In addition, a previously unreported association of a polymorphic restriction site haplotype with a beta (+)-thalassaemia mutation has been observed. PMID:6208362

  12. beta-Endorphin-induced analgesia is inhibited by synthetic analogs of beta-endorphin.

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, P; Hammonds, R G; Li, C H

    1984-01-01

    Competitive antagonism of human beta-endorphin (beta h-EP)-induced analgesia by synthetic beta h-EP analogs with high in vitro opiate receptor binding to in vivo analgesic potency ratio has been demonstrated. A parallel shift of the dose-response curve for analgesia to the right was observed when either beta h-EP or [ Trp27 ] -beta h-EP was coinjected with various doses of [Gln8, Gly31 ]-beta h-EP-Gly-Gly-NH2, [Arg9,19,24,28,29]-beta h-EP, or [ Cys11 ,26, Phe27 , Gly31 ]-beta h-EP. It was estimated that the most potent antagonist, [Gln8, Gly31 ]-beta h-EP-Gly-NH2, is at least 200 times more potent than naloxone. PMID:6328494

  13. De novo design of monomeric beta-hairpin and beta-sheet peptides.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Santiveri, Clara M; Jiménez, M Angeles

    2006-01-01

    Since the first report in 1993 (JACS 115, 5887-5888) of a peptide able to form a monomeric beta-hairpin structure in aqueous solution, the design of peptides forming either beta-hairpins (two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets) or three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets has become a field of intense interest. These studies have yielded great insights into the principles governing the stability and folding of beta-hairpins and antiparallel beta-sheets. This chapter reviews briefly those principles and describes a protocol for the de novo design of beta-sheet-forming peptides based on them. Criteria to select appropriate turn and strand residues and to avoid aggregation are provided. Because nuclear magnetic resonance is the most appropriate technique to check the success of new designs, the nuclear magnetic resonance parameters characteristic of beta-hairpins and three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets are given.

  14. TGF-{beta} modulates {beta}-Catenin stability and signaling in mesenchymal proliferations

    SciTech Connect

    Amini Nik, Saeid; Ebrahim, Rasoul Pour; Dam, Kim van; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Tejpar, Sabine . E-mail: sabine.tejpar@med.kuleuven.be

    2007-08-01

    Here for the first time we showed, despite the oncogenic mutations in {beta}-Catenin, that TGF-{beta} is a modulator of {beta}-Catenin levels in tumoral fibroblasts as well as non-tumoral fibroblasts. The results show that the TGF-{beta} pathway is active in desmoids cells and in in situ tumors. A dose dependent increase in {beta}-Catenin protein levels was observed after TGF-{beta} treatment in combination with an increased repression of GSK-3{beta} both in normal and tumoral fibroblasts. TGF-{beta} stimulation also led to an altered - up to 5 fold - transcriptional activity of {beta}-Catenin responsive promoters, such as IGFBP6 as well as increase of TOPflash activity. TGF-{beta} stimulation increased cell proliferation and BrdU incorporation 2.5 times. Taken together, we propose that TGF-{beta} is a modulator of {beta}-Catenin levels in tumoral fibroblasts and non-tumoral fibroblasts, despite the oncogenic mutations already present in this gene in tumoral fibroblasts of desmoid tumors. This modulation of {beta}-Catenin levels by TGF-{beta} may be involved in determining the tumoral phenotype of the cells.

  15. Ultraviolet observations of beta Canis majoris and beta Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, D.; Sparks, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of the two variables exhibit periodic variations in the H I, Si IV, and C IV resonance lines. Later scans of the beta Cep atmosphere show that the C IV line disappeared for short periods. Three possible mechanisms for this effect are: a beat phenomenon, shock waves, or tidal distortions. It is concluded that a tidal distortion is possible if the period of revolution is 12 days and if the inclination is sufficiently small to keep one tidal bulge out of sight and large enough to keep the secondary from eclipsing the primary bulge.

  16. A method for isolating beta-casein.

    PubMed

    Ward, L S; Bastian, E D

    1996-08-01

    A new method was developed for obtaining pure beta-CN. Calcium caseinate (3%) was reconstituted, renneted to form a gel, cooled (4 degrees C) to allow beta-CN dissociation from the caseinate gel, and centrifuged. The supernatant was warmed to 30 degrees C, precipitating pure beta-CN from solution. Large quantities of beta-CN were recovered by scaling-up this procedure, but these beta-CN preparations were less pure than the beta-CN that was prepared on a smaller scale. Chromatography (FPLC) and urea-PAGE showed beta-CN to be the main component in the precipitate. Chymosin, used to form the caseinate gel, did not extensively hydrolyze beta-CN under the conditions of these experiments. Calcium concentration, cooling time, and caseinate concentration influenced the recovery of beta-CN. Maximum recovery of beta-CN, under the experimental conditions used, occurred at 10 mM calcium, 48 h of cooling, and 3% caseinate concentration.

  17. Beta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

  18. Bovine haemoglobin beta A Zebu, beta A43(CD3)Ser----Thr: an intermediate globin type between the beta A and beta D Zambia is present in Indian zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, T; Nagai, A; Takenaka, O; Takenaka, A

    1987-01-01

    Two bovine haemoglobin beta chains, electrophoretically identical with the beta A chain of Herefords, were obtained from Ongole and Banteng, Bos javanicus, cattle. The amino acid residue differences of the two beta chains were compared by electrophoresis, cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography, amino acid analyses, and Edman degradation in comparison with beta A chain. The results showed that two beta chains differed from the beta A chain of the Hereford breed by the substitution of serine with threonine at the beta 43 position. No other difference was found between the two chains and beta A. This new beta chain type was termed beta A Zebu, which forms a possible evolutionarily transitional type between the beta A and the rare variant beta D Zambia found previously in African zebu cattle. The beta A Zebu differentiates from the previous beta B by at least four amino acid substitutions involving five codon-base changes.

  19. Reorganization of axoplasmic organelles following beta, beta'- iminodipropionitrile administration

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    beta, beta'-Iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), a synthetic compound that selectively impairs slow axonal transport, produced a rearrangement of the axonal cytoskeleton, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. Immunoperoxidase staining using an antiserum to the 68,000-dalton neurofilament subunit demonstrated a displacement of neurofilaments toward the periphery of the axons of IDPN-treated rats. This change occurred simultaneously along the entire length of the sciatic nerve. Ultrastructural morphometry of the axonal organelles confirmed the peripheral relocation of neurofilaments and also showed a displacement of microtubules, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria to the center of the axons. The overall density of axonal mitochondria was increased, whereas those of other organelles were not significantly changed. Axons were reduced in size by 10--24%, the large axons being more affected than the small ones. The observed rearrangement of axonal organelles may be due to an effect of IDPN on microtubule-neurofilament interactions, which could in turn explain the impairment of the slow transport. Axons in IDPN intoxication are a useful model to study the organization of the axoplasm and the mechanism of axonal transport. PMID:7199048

  20. Human globin gene analysis for a patient with beta-o/delta beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ottolenghi, S; Lanyon, W G; Williamson, R; Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B; Pitcher, C S

    1975-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) was prepared with RNA-dependent DNA polymerase from human globin messenger RNA (mRNA). Annealing and translation experimenta with total mRNA from circulating cells from a patient with heterozygous beta/heterozygous beta-delta-o thalassemia (beta-o/delta beta-o-thalassemia) demonstrated no detectable mRNA for beta-globin. cDNA enriched in sequences homologous to beta-globin mRNA was prepared by hydroxylapatite fractionation of hybrids formed between beta-o/delta beta-o-thalassemic mRNA and cDNA made from mRNA from a patient with alpha-thalassemia (hemoglobin H disease). The rate of annealing of this beta-enriched cDNA to normal human nuclear DNA was that of a sequence present as only a single copy per haploid genome. The beta-enriched cDNA annealed to the beta-o-delta beta-o-thalassemia total DNA with approximately the same kinetics as to normal DNA, indicating that no total gene deletion of beta-globin genes from the diploid genome has occurred, although the accuracy of the technique could not exclude with certainty a partial deletion or a deletion of a beta-globin gene from only one of the haploid genomes. This demonstrates that at least one of the beta-o- or the delta beta-o-thalassemia haploid genomes in this case contains a substantially intact beta-globin gene. PMID:49057

  1. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade of feline myocardium. Cardiac mechanics, energetics, and beta adrenoceptor regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G; Kent, R L; McGonigle, P; Watanabe, A M

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial oxygen consumption is regulated by interrelated mechanical and inotropic conditions; there is a parallel increase in the aerobic metabolism and inotropic state during beta-adrenergic stimulation under fixed mechanical conditions. In contrast, there is some evidence that beta-blockade may reduce oxygen consumption through effects independent of its influence on mechanical conditions and contractile state, and that prolonged beta-blockade may sensitize the myocardium to beta-adrenergic stimulation. To clarify these two points, the present study examined the relationship of myocardial energetics to mechanics and inotropism during acute beta-blockade and after the withdrawal of long-term beta-blockade, whereupon the basis for any effect observed was sought by characterizing the number, affinity, and affinity states of the beta-receptors as well as the coupling of activated beta-receptors to cyclic AMP generation. Studies of right ventricular papillary muscles from control and chronically beta-blocked cats demonstrated contractile and energetic properties as well as dose-response behavior and inotropic specificity suggestive of an increase in myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the latter group. Assays of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors from further groups of control and pretreated cats, both in cardiac tissue and in isolated cardiac muscle cells, failed to define a difference between the two groups either in terms of receptor number and affinity or in terms of the proportion of receptors in the high-affinity state. However, coupling of the activated beta-adrenoceptors to cyclic AMP generation was enhanced in cardiac muscle cells from chronically beta-blocked cats. These data demonstrate that beta-adrenoceptor blockade (a) produces parallel effects on inotropic state and oxygen consumption without an independent effect on either and (b) increases myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation after beta-blockade withdrawal, not by "up

  2. Binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to beta-lactam antibiotics by frontal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jianting; Bian, Liujiao

    2017-04-15

    TEM-1 beta-lactamases can accurately catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics, which make beta-lactam antibiotics lose its activity, and the prerequisite for the hydrolysis procedure in the binding interaction of TEM-1 beta-lactamases with beta-lactam antibiotics is the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to three beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, cefalexin as well as cefoxitin was explored here by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra, adsorption and thermodynamic data in the temperature range of 278-288K under simulated physiological conditions. The results showed that all the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to the three antibiotics were spontaneously exothermic processes with the binding constants of 8.718×10(3), 6.624×10(3) and 2.244×10(3) (mol/L), respectively at 288K. All the TEM-1 beta-lactamases were immobilized on the surface of the stationary phase in the mode of monolayer and there existed only one type of binding sites on them. Each TEM-1 beta-lactamase bound with only one beta-lactam antibiotic and hydrogen bond interaction and Van der Waals force were the main forces between them. This work provided an insight into the binding interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamases and beta-lactam antibiotics, which may be beneficial for the designing and developing of new substrates resistant to TEM-1 beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Heterocygous beta thalassaemia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Méndez Aparicio, F

    1978-01-01

    Two girls with an heterocigotic beta-thalassemy are presented in this study. Case 1 has an hypochromic and microtic anaemia with an enormous splenomegaly, increased osmotic resistence of red blood cells in salted solution and increase of A2 hemoglobin. This situation is associated with an increase of the glucolitic intraerythrocitic enzimes. Case 2 showed increase of A2 hemoglobine, but this anomaly was associated with decrease of intraerythrocitic enzimatic rate. First clinical signs of erythrocitic disturbances was an acute hemolytic crisis developed by the supply of the sulphometoxipiridacine. The erythroquinetic study showed a decrease of the average life of the red blood cells in both patients.

  4. Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    In this paper we briefly review the concepts of Neutrino Factories and Beta Beam facilities, and indicate the main challenges in terms of beam performance and technological developments. We also describe the worldwide organizations that have embarked on defining and carrying out the necessary R&D on component design, beam simulations of facility performance, and benchmarking of key subsystems via actual beam tests. Currently approved subsystem tests include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the Mercury Intense Target (MERIT) experiment, to be carried out at CERN. These experiments are briefly described, and their schedules are indicated.

  5. Experiment M408: Beta spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marbach, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The beta spectrometer functioned as planned throughout the Gemini 10 mission. The cool temperatures that were recorded from the instrument during the mission were indicative that the evaporative cooler, coupled with apparently lower-than-expected spacecraft-adapter temperatures, maintained ideal operating conditions. The data facilitate a good analysis of the electron directional distribution. The omnidirectional flux that was calculated is apparently consistent with previous measurements. Representative electron spectra, measured during the Gemini 12 mission, established the apparent decay of the artificially injected electrons (from the Starfish high altitude nuclear test) to such low levels that natural trapped electrons were becoming detectable.

  6. [Plasma beta-2-microglobulin in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, A; Giordano, N; Loi, F; D'Amato, S; Castagna, M L; Frati, E; Marcolongo, R

    1984-09-30

    The beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) is a low molecular weight protein, recognized on the cellular membranes of numerous nucleated cells and strictly correlated to the antigens of Major Histocompatibility Complex. Many authors have demonstrated an increase of the plasmatic beta 2m in different inflammatory diseases and, particularly in rheumatic ones, as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Reiter's syndrome, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Systemic lupus erythematosus. We have also investigated the behaviour of the plasmatic beta 2m in 52 RA patients and in 17 healthy subjects. The beta 2m was measured in serum, by radioimmunoassay. We have demonstrated that the plasmatic beta 2m has moderately increased in the serum of RA patients, even if there is not a significant difference when compared to the normal subjects.

  7. IKK and (Beta) - Catenin in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    activity is not due to a decrease in total beta-catenin protein levels, however, the dephosphorylated form of beta-catenin within the nucleus...2000. 19. Staal F J, Noort MM, Strous G J, and Clevers HC, Wnt signals are transmitted through N-terminally dephosphorylated beta-catenin. EMBO Rep. 3...catenin is phoshorylated sequentially by casein kinase 1 (CK1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-P (GSK-313) (4,52); activation of frizzled receptors by Wnt

  8. Mode identification in Beta Cephei stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aizenmen, M. L.; Lesh, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The essential observational characteristics related to mode identification are summarized. Major emphasis is placed on the following: both light and velocity amplitudes; typical periods in both light and radial velocity; the light curve for Beta Cephei stars in comparison to the classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars; the van Hoof effect with respect to the radial velocity curves in many Beta Cephei stars; and the line profiles of many Beta Cephei stars.

  9. Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, E.E.

    1984-08-30

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  10. Production of Antigens and Antibodies for Diagnosis of Arbovirus Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-20

    ISS Phl-3 Vlsm2 7 314 VS-Indiana Indiana Lab sm9 5 271 VS-New Jersey Hazelhurst CEl8V4sml 4 364 Zika prototype smlSi 11 501 5 Additionally, 8 viruses ...residual infectivity was inactivated with beta-propiolactone. An additional 8 viruses were passaged in mice and the mice were stored frozen awaiting...beta- propiolactone. An additional 8 viruses were passaged in mice and the mice were stored frozen awaiting sucrose-acetone extraction of the brains

  11. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Aselage, Terrence L.; Emin, David

    2002-01-01

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15beta radiation source, and means for transmitting electrical energy to an outside load. The icosahedral boride compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  12. {beta} decay of {sup 95}Ag

    SciTech Connect

    Harissopulos, S.; Galanopoulos, S.; Skouras, L. D.; Doering, J.; Schmidt, K.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Hellstroem, M.; Kirchner, R.; Roeckl, E.; La Commara, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Borcea, R.; Janas, Z.; Johnstone, I.P.; Schwengner, R.

    2005-08-01

    We studied the {beta}-decay properties of the N=Z+1 nucleus {sup 95}Ag by measuring {beta}-delayed {gamma} rays and {beta}-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidences with a plastic scintillator as {beta} detector and a Ge-detector array. The {sup 95}Ag nuclei were produced by means of the {sup 58}Ni({sup 40}Ca,p2n) reaction and separated with the GSI online mass separator. The previously reported level scheme of the {sup 95}Pd daughter nucleus was extended considerably. The deduced level scheme is compared with different shell-model calculations with or without breaking the {sup 100}Sn core.

  13. Gyrokinetic turbulence simulations at high plasma beta

    SciTech Connect

    Pueschel, M. J.; Kammerer, M.; Jenko, F.

    2008-10-15

    Electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence simulations employing Cyclone Base Case parameters are presented for {beta} values up to and beyond the kinetic ballooning threshold. The {beta} scaling of the turbulent transport is found to be linked to a complex interplay of linear and nonlinear effects. Linear investigation of the kinetic ballooning mode is performed in detail, while nonlinearly, it is found to dominate the turbulence only in a fairly narrow range of {beta} values just below the respective ideal limit. The magnetic transport scales like {beta}{sup 2} and is well described by a Rechester-Rosenbluth-type ansatz.

  14. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  15. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  16. Effect of training on beta1 beta2 beta3 adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Julie; Rannou-Bekono, Françoise; Marchais, Jérome; Berthon, Phanélie-Marie; Delamarche, Paul; Carré, François

    2004-06-01

    Physical training is known to alter several cardiovascular parameters. These adaptations are for a great part linked to an alteration of the myocardial responses to its autonomic nervous regulation. To further explain the parasympathetic and catecholamine effects, we hypothesized that endurance training could modify rat myocardial beta1, beta2, beta3 adrenoreceptors (AR) and M2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (AchR) densities. Two groups of adults female Wistar rats were studied: controls (C) (N = 7) and trained (T) (N = 9). An 8-wk treadmill training protocol was performed, 5 d x wk and of 1 h x d. At the end of the training session, left ventricle and atria muscle were isolated and weighed. Then, quantification of beta1, beta2, beta3 AR and M2 AchR was performed using Western blot analysis. M2 AchR densities were not modified in left ventricle or in atria by training (respectively, 100 +/- 22%, C vs 101 +/- 14%, T and 100 +/- 23%, C vs 119 +/- 30%, T). Concerning the left ventricle beta AR isoforms, beta1AR density was decreased in T (80 +/- 10% T vs 100 +/- 14% C, P = 0.01), beta2AR was unaltered (102 +/- 12%, T vs 100 +/- 17%, C), and beta3 AR density was increased in T (139 +/- 38% T vs 100 +/- 15% C; P < 0.05). Our results show for the first time that in female rats an 8-wk treadmill training protocol alters specifically the left ventricle beta AR isoforms densities but not the M2 AchR one. These results could explain some of the beneficial cardiovascular adaptations of the physically trained heart.

  17. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  18. Interaction of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) with proteinase 3.

    PubMed

    Kekow, J; Csernok, E; Szymkowiak, C; Gross, W L

    1997-01-01

    TGF beta is a multifunctional cytokine modulating onset and course of autoimmune diseases as shown in experimental models. Aim of this study was to investigate possible interactions of TGF beta with lysosomal enzymes identified as ANCA autoantigens (e.g. proteinase 3, PR3). This included TGF beta effects on the translocation the lysosomal enzymes to the cell surface of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and the presumabe activation of non bioactive, latent TGF beta by these enzymes. Flow cytometry analysis showed TGF beta 1 to be a potent translocation factor for PR3 comparable with other neutrophil activating factors such as interleukin 8 (IL8). The PR3 membrane expression on primed PMN increased by up to 51% after incubation with TGF beta 1. PR3 itself was revealed as a potent activator of latent TGF beta, thus mediating bioeffects of this cytokine. Patients with various types of systemic vasculitis (SV) showed marked TGF beta overexpression correlating with disease. Mean TGF beta 1 plasma levels in the ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV) patients ranged from 8.9 (Wegeners granulomatosis, WG) to 13.3 ng/ml (Churg-Strauss syndrome, CSS)(control: 4.2 ng/ml, p < 0.01) while TGF beta 2 levels were not elevated. Our findings, together with other features of TGF beta's such as induction of angiogenesis and its strong chemotactic capacity, indicate that TGF beta might serve as a proinflammatory factor in SV, especially in AAV.

  19. Pin1 promotes production of Alzheimer's amyloid {beta} from {beta}-cleaved amyloid precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Uchida, Chiyoko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Uchida, Takafumi . E-mail: uchidat@cir.tohoku.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is involved in the A{beta} production central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Enzyme immunoassay of brains of the Pin1-deficient mice revealed that production of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 was lower than that of the wild-type mice, indicating that Pin1 promotes A{beta} production in the brain. GST-Pin1 pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Pin1 binds phosphorylated Thr668-Pro of C99. In the Pin1 {sup -/-} MEF transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the levels of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 compared to that without Pin1 co-transfection. In COS7 cells transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the generation of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42, and reduced the expression level of C99, facilitating the C99 turnover. Thus, Pin1 interacts with C99 and promotes its {gamma}-cleavage, generating A{beta}40 and A{beta}42. Further, GSK3 inhibitor lithium blocked Pin1 binding to C99 by decreasing Thr668 phosphorylation and attenuated A{beta} generation, explaining the inhibitory effect of lithium on A{beta} generation.

  20. Plant and algal interference in bacterial beta-D-galactosidase and beta-D-glucuronidase assays.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, C M; Apte, S C; Peterson, S M; Stauber, J L

    1994-01-01

    Several commonly occurring freshwater and marine plants and algae were screened for beta-D-galactosidase and beta-D-glucuronidase activities by using a 60-min enzyme assay based on the hydrolysis by these enzymes of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl- beta-glucuronide, respectively. All freshwater plant extracts tested showed beta-D-galactosidase activity several at relatively high levels, and a number also showed beta-D-glucuronidase activity. A number of the macroalgae showed no activity of either enzyme, but those showing beta-D-galactosidase activity also showed beta-D-glucuronidase activity. The majority of microalgae showed some beta-D-galactosidase activity, but few showed beta-D-glucuronidase activity. Further studies, using the commercial Colilert test and the marine water formulation of Colilert, revealed that 2 of 11 of the microalgal species and several of the plant extracts tested caused positive reactions. It was concluded that several plant extracts and algae could significantly interfere with the detection of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli with the use of rapid assays, on the basis of their production of beta-D-galactosidase and beta-D-glucuronidase, respectively. The significance of the plant and algal interferences in tests such as Colilert is dependent on the levels of enzymes released under natural conditions, the dilution which they may undergo, and the numbers of algal cells present. This also applies to interferences in rapid enzyme assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7993085

  1. The role of beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors in isoproterenol-induced drinking.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R F; Novak, C M; Thunhorst, R L; Johnson, A K

    1994-09-05

    The present study examined the contribution of beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptor activation to drinking behavior and the stimulation of plasma renin activity produced by the mixed beta adrenoceptor agonist, isoproterenol. The stimulation of drinking by beta adrenoceptor activation could occur via two independent pathways; by either directly stimulating renal beta1 adrenoceptors on the juxtaglomerular cells to release renin or by stimulating vascular beta2 adrenoceptors that would decrease blood pressure and activate afferent neural and humoral mechanisms. Selective pharmacological antagonism of each adrenoceptor type was achieved by administering atenolol (2.5 mg/kg), a beta1 adrenoceptor antagonist, or ICI 118,551 (1 mg/kg), a beta2 adrenoceptor antagonist, before treatment with isoproterenol (25 micrograms/kg). Neither adrenoceptor mechanism alone could account for all of the water intake or stimulation of plasma renin activity due to isoproterenol treatment. Cardiovascular recordings confirmed the selectivity of the antagonists to their respective receptor subtypes, with atenolol blocking the beta1 adrenoceptor-mediated heart rate increases and ICI 118,551 blocking the beta 2 adrenoceptor-mediated depressor response to isoproterenol. The results provide evidence that the stimulation of both beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors by isoproterenol acts in a synergistic manner to induce drinking and renin-angiotensin system activation.

  2. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander

    2016-09-20

    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  3. Cytoplasmic beta-catenin in esophageal cancers.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Shiozaki, H; Doki, Y; Yamamoto, M; Utsunomiya, T; Kawanishi, K; Fukuchi, N; Inoue, M; Tsujinaka, T; Monden, M

    1999-04-20

    beta-Catenin has 2 distinct roles in E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion and carcinogenesis through APC gene mutation. One occurs at cell-adhesion sites, where cadherins become linked to the actin-based cytoskeleton. The others occur in the cytoplasm and nuclei and are thought to regulate cell transformation. We studied these different beta-catenins and evaluated their significance in carcinogenesis. Fresh surgical specimens were obtained from 22 patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus. beta-Catenin in the free soluble fraction and the insoluble fraction was immunoblotted separately. At the same time, its localization was observed by immuno-histochemical techniques. In the normal esophageal epithelium, 91% of beta-catenin was detected in the insoluble fraction and beta-catenin staining occurred at the cell membrane, in co-existence with E-cadherin. In cancerous tissues, the amount of soluble beta-catenin was significantly (about 4-fold) higher than in normal tissues. Also, in cancerous tissues with higher amounts of soluble beta-catenin, immuno-histochemical techniques revealed the presence of beta-catenin in the cytoplasm and nuclei, as well as in the cell membrane. However, in samples with lower amounts of beta-catenin, expression was found only at the cell boundaries. The amount of soluble beta-catenin was not associated with the clinico-pathological grading of the tumors. Our results show that the accumulation of free soluble beta-catenin in the cytoplasm and nuclei frequently occurs during carcinogenesis of the squamous epithelium of the esophagus.

  4. Thymosin beta4: actin regulation and more.

    PubMed

    Yarmola, Elena G; Klimenko, Evguenia S; Fujita, Go; Bubb, Michael R

    2007-09-01

    The intracellular function of thymosin beta(4) is not limited to simple sequestration of globular actin. Our recent studies revealed that thymosin beta(4) affects actin critical concentration and forms a ternary complex with actin and profilin. The consequences of this complex formation can be very significant. Our new data demonstrate that it is likely that profilin affects binding of thymosin beta(4) to actin in the ternary complex through allosteric changes in actin rather than through competition for the binding site. The N- and C-terminal thymosin beta(4) helices are known to be unstructured in aqueous solution and to adopt helical conformation in organic solvents or upon binding to actin. Osmolytes stabilize protein structure, and TMAO (trimethylamine N-oxide) specifically stabilizes hydrogen bonds. This increases affinity of intact thymosin beta(4) to actin significantly, but the increase is much less for thymosin beta(4) sulfoxide. Our data show that oxidation does not alter binding of profilin to form a ternary complex, and therefore it is very likely that there is no direct steric interference by methionine 6 of thymosin beta(4). Rather, since TMAO has little effect on thymosin beta(4) sulfoxide, this observation is consistent with the hypothesis that methionine oxidation prevents helix transition. The experiment with truncated versions of thymosin beta(4) also supports this hypothesis. Oxidation and formation of the helices are important for both intra- and extracellular properties of thymosin beta(4). We found that actin and, in lesser extent, profilin-actin complex protect thymosin beta(4) from oxidation.

  5. The Beta Cage: Screening Low Radioactive Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinar, K.; Akerib, D.; Grant, D.; Schnee, R.; Shutt, T.; Golwala, S.; Ahmed, Z.

    2006-10-01

    The beta cage is a proposed multi-wire proportional chamber that will be the most sensitive device available to screen low-energy (200 keV) betas emitted at rates as low as 10-5 counts keV^1 cm-2 day-1 (of order 10-4 Bq/m^2). The expected sensitivity and details of the construction and commissioning of its prototype chamber are presented. The prototype beta cage is a 50x50x25 cm frame gridded by stacked wire planes contained in a chamber of gas. To reduce background, the chamber contains only enough mass to stop betas of interest. Samples are placed beneath the grid; the wires multiply the betas and collect their electron avalanche. Readouts allow discrimination of its events from background and determination of the beta (or alpha) source. The beta cage has potential use in carbon or tritium dating, with ^3H/^1H sensitivity of 10-20 and ^ 14C/ ^12C sensitivity of 10-18. Its design was motivated by CDMS, whose sensitivity to the dark matter candidate WIMPs is currently limited by low-energy beta contamination.

  6. Beta maritima: the Origin of Beets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Along the undisturbed shores, especially of the Mediterranean Sea and the European North Atlantic Ocean, is a widespread plant called Beta maritima (Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima) by the botanists, or more commonly sea beet. Nothing for the inexperienced observer's eye distinguishes it from surr...

  7. Beta-adrenergic blockade in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Frishman, W H

    1982-09-01

    Although all beta-blocking agents have similar pharmacologic effects, they have vastly different pharmacokinetic properties, which can influence the clinical usefulness of a given beta blocker in an individual patient. The efficacy of these drugs in a host of disorders-both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular-and their modes of action in these clinical contexts are examined and discussed.

  8. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  9. Modeling the beta diversity of coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Harborne, Alastair R; Mumby, Peter J; Zychaluk, Kamila; Hedley, John D; Blackwell, Paul G

    2006-11-01

    Quantifying the beta diversity (species replacement along spatiotemporal gradients) of ecosystems is important for understanding and conserving patterns of biodiversity. However, virtually all studies of beta diversity focus on one-dimensional transects orientated along a specific environmental gradient that is defined a priori. By ignoring a second spatial dimension and the associated changes in species composition and environmental gradients, this approach may provide limited insight into the full pattern of beta diversity. Here, we use remotely sensed imagery to quantify beta diversity continuously, in two dimensions, and at multiple scales across an entire tropical marine seascape. We then show that beta diversity can be modeled (0.852 > or = r2 > or = 0.590) at spatial scales between 0.5 and 5.0 km2, using the environmental variables of mean and variance of depth and wave exposure. Beta diversity, quantified within a "window" of a given size, is positively correlated to the range of environmental conditions within that window. For example, beta diversity increases with increasing variance of depth. By analyzing such relationships across seascapes, this study provides a framework for a range of disparate coral reef literature including studies of zonation, diversity, and disturbance. Using supporting evidence from soft-bottom communities, we hypothesize that depth will be an important variable for modeling beta diversity in a range of marine systems. We discuss the implications of our results for the design of marine reserves.

  10. Shielding for beta-gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J J

    1993-06-01

    The build-up factor, B, for lead was expressed as a polynominal cubic function of the relaxation length, mu x, and incorporated in a "general beta-gamma shielding equation." A computer program was written to determine shielding thickness for polyenergetic beta-gamma sources without resorting to the conventional "add-one-HVL" method.

  11. Venus: Geology of Beta Regio rift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Borozdin, V. K.; Bobina, N. N.

    1992-01-01

    Beta Regio is characterized by the existence of rift structures. We compiled new geologic maps of Beta Regio according to Magellan data. There are many large uplifted tesserae on beta upland. These tesserae are partly buried by younger volcanic cover. We can conclude, using these observations, that Beta upland formed mainly due to lithospheric tectonic uplifting and was only partly constructed by volcanism. Theia Mons is the center of the Beta rift system. Many rift belts are distributed radially to Theia Mons. Typical widths of rifts are 40-160 km. Rift valleys are structurally represented by crustal grabens or half-grabens. There are symmetrical and asymmetrical rifts. Many rifts have shoulder uplifts up to 0.5-1 km high and 40-60 km wide. Preliminary analysis for rift valley structural cross sections lead to the conclusion that rifts originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extension. Many rifts traverse Beta upland and spread to the surrounding lowlands. We can assume because of these data that Beta rift system has an active-passive origin. It formed due to regional tectonic lithospheric extension. Rifting was accelerated by upper-mantle hot spot origination under the center of passive extension (under the Beta Regio).

  12. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended.

  13. The chromosphere of Beta Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teays, Terry J.; Schmidt, Edward G.; Pasinetti Fracassini, Laura E.; Fracassini, Massimo

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution, long-wavelength IUE observations and ground-based photometry of the Delta Scuti star Beta Cas is reported. The ground-based observations were used together with previous results of Antonello et al. (1986) to ensure that the IUE observations were correctly phased relative to the photometric variation. Fluxes for the emission core of the Mg II k 2796-A line were obtained from the UV spectra over several cycles in 1986 and 1987. It is found that there is an increase in the emission during part of the cycle, but it occurs near minimum light in contrast to another Delta Scuti star, Rho Pup, and the classical Cepheids (where it occurs near maximum light). The mean level of chromospheric activity is comparable to other early F dwarfs.

  14. DREAM: Research to Operations Beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Reiner; Reeves, Geoffrey; Zaharia, Sorin; Koller, Josef; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Mike; Thomsen, Davis

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a dataassimilative model of the Earth's radiation belts that has, until recently, been used primarily as a re-search tool to understand radiation belt dynamics and to develop Kalman filter techniques for application to magnetospheric modeling. More recently, the emphasis of the DREAM program has shifted toward implementation of an operational prototype for testing and validation at the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Space Weather Forecast Laboratory (SWFL) and NASA's Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). The transition has required significant effort, funding, and shifting of priorities that serve as a recent example of the oppor-tunities and challenges of transitioning a model from research to operations (R2O). DREAM is still in the early stages of transition to operations but we do not see any significant obstacles to success. We present here the BETA version of this model, operating in real-time, using GOES energetic particle data as input.

  15. Generalized Beta Mixtures of Gaussians.

    PubMed

    Armagan, Artin; Dunson, David B; Clyde, Merlise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a rich variety of shrinkage priors have been proposed that have great promise in addressing massive regression problems. In general, these new priors can be expressed as scale mixtures of normals, but have more complex forms and better properties than traditional Cauchy and double exponential priors. We first propose a new class of normal scale mixtures through a novel generalized beta distribution that encompasses many interesting priors as special cases. This encompassing framework should prove useful in comparing competing priors, considering properties and revealing close connections. We then develop a class of variational Bayes approximations through the new hierarchy presented that will scale more efficiently to the types of truly massive data sets that are now encountered routinely.

  16. Expression pattern and localization of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase in different tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, A; Wirtz, G M; Woggon, W D; Brugger, R; Wyss, M; Friedlein, A; Riss, G; Bachmann, H; Hunziker, W

    2001-01-01

    Beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase cleaves beta,beta-carotene into two molecules of retinal, and is the key enzyme in the metabolism of beta,beta-carotene to vitamin A. The enzyme has been known for more than 40 years, yet all attempts to purify the protein to homogeneity have failed. Recently, the successful cloning and sequencing of an enzyme with beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase activity from chicken, as well as from Drosophila, has been reported. Here, we describe in detail our attempt to enrich the chicken beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase to such an extent as to allow determination of partial amino acid sequences, which were then used to design degenerate oligonucleotides. Screening of a chicken duodenal expression library yielded a full-length clone containing a coding sequence of 1578 bp. Functional expression in Escherichia coli and in eukaryotic cell lines confirmed that we had cloned the first vertebrate dioxygenase that cleaves beta,beta-carotene at the central 15,15'-double bond. By performing a sequence homology search, the cDNA sequence of the mouse homologue was found as an expressed sequence tag (EST) in the gene bank. At the amino-acid level, the degree of homology between the chicken and mouse sequences is 81%. Thus beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase can be considered as being an enzyme that is evolutionarily rather well conserved. We established the expression pattern of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase in chicken and mouse tissues with a combination of Northern blots and in situ hybridization. The mRNA for beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase was localized primarily in duodenal villi, as well as in liver and in tubular structures of lung and kidney. These new findings demonstrate that beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase is also expressed in epithelial structures, where it serves to provide the tissue-specific vitamin A supply. PMID:11237856

  17. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  18. Gamma-ray blind beta particle probe

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2001-01-01

    An intra-operative beta particle probe is provided by placing a suitable photomultiplier tube (PMT), micro channel plate (MCP) or other electron multiplier device within a vacuum housing equipped with: 1) an appropriate beta particle permeable window; and 2) electron detection circuitry. Beta particles emitted in the immediate vicinity of the probe window will be received by the electron multiplier device and amplified to produce a detectable signal. Such a device is useful as a gamma insensitive, intra-operative, beta particle probe in surgeries where the patient has been injected with a beta emitting radiopharmaceutical. The method of use of such a device is also described, as is a position sensitive such device.

  19. Beta-glucuronidase in physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Basińska, Agnieszka; Floriańczyk, Bolesław

    2003-01-01

    beta-glucoronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) is a lysosomal enzyme catylysing the decomposition of beta-D-glucoronides--compounds arising as a result of the combination of beta-D-glucoronic acid and a number of compounds both exo- and endogenous, containing hydroxylic, carboxylic, amine, imine or thiol groups. The most common test evaluating the activity of the enzyme is that using phenolphtalein glucoronide as a biosynthetic substrate. The freed aglycons are colorimetrically assayed. The activity of beta-glucoronidase increases in many pathological conditions: liver infammations, cirrhosis of the liver, inflammations of other organs, cholestatic jaundice, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and also in neoplasms. Many authors point to beta-glucoronidase as a sensitive indicator signalling cell damage.

  20. Precision measurements in 20F beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Maximilian; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Voytas, Paul; George, Elizabeth; Paulauskas, Stan; Huyan, Xueying

    2017-01-01

    Precision measurements of the shape of the beta particle energy spectrum provide a sensitive window to search for new interactions beyond the standard model. The decay of 20F offers an attractive system due to the simple decay scheme for a coincidence measurement. A beam of 20F ions, produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, was implanted into a beta-detector. A gamma-ray detection system surrounded the beta detector to detect the beta-delayed gammas in coincidence to reduce the background. Preliminary analysis of these data focus on the half-life of 20F due to the statistical inconsistency of previous work. Monte Carlo simulations are ongoing to analyze the shape of the beta energy spectrum. Results of the analysis of the half-life will be presented. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1102511.

  1. Singular points of protein beta-sheets.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W. M.; Chou, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Protein beta-sheets can be regarded as surfaces. Two surfaces can be connected along a common edge to form a larger surface, or two edges of a surface can coalesce to form a closed sheet such as a beta-barrel. Singular points are locations where these connections are not perfect. In protein beta-sheets, a singular point is characterized by a residue separating two beta-ladders. In this paper, we study the singular points of protein beta-sheets from the surface topologic viewpoint, summarize our search results from the protein structural data in the Protein Data Bank, and present examples where singular points are near the active sites and may contribute to forming the proper relative positions of catalytic residues. PMID:9827998

  2. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-10-07

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  3. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  4. Effect of finite. beta. on stellarator transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1984-04-01

    A theory of the modification of stellarator transport due to the presence of finite plasma pressure is developed, and applied to a range of stellarator configurations. For many configurations of interest, plasma transport can change by more than an order of magnitude in the progression from zero pressure to the equilibrium ..beta.. limit of the device. Thus, a stellarator with transport-optimized vacuum fields can have poor confinement at the desired operating ..beta... Without an external compensating field, increasing ..beta.. tends to degrade confinement, unless the initial field structure is very carefully chosen. The theory permits one to correctly determine this vacuum structure, in terms of the desired structure of the field at a prescribed operating ..beta... With a compensating external field, the deleterious effect of finite ..beta.. on transport can be partially eliminated.

  5. Beta Pictoris planet finally imaged?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    A team of French astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered an object located very close to the star Beta Pictoris, and which apparently lies inside its disc. With a projected distance from the star of only 8 times the Earth-Sun distance, this object is most likely the giant planet suspected from the peculiar shape of the disc and the previously observed infall of comets onto the star. It would then be the first image of a planet that is as close to its host star as Saturn is to the Sun. Sharpening Up Jupiter ESO PR Photo 42a/08 Beta Pictoris as seen in infrared light The hot star Beta Pictoris is one of the best-known examples of stars surrounded by a dusty 'debris' disc. Debris discs are composed of dust resulting from collisions among larger bodies like planetary embryos or asteroids. They are a bigger version of the zodiacal dust in our Solar System. Its disc was the first to be imaged -- as early as 1984 -- and remains the best-studied system. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and infalling comets onto the star. "These are indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggest the presence of a massive planet lying between 5 and 10 times the mean Earth-Sun distance from its host star," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "However, probing the very inner region of the disc, so close to the glowing star, is a most challenging task." In 2003, the French team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [1]), mounted on one of the 8.2 m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to benefit from both the high image quality provided by the Adaptive Optics system at infrared wavelengths and the good dynamics offered by the detector, in order to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris. Recently, a member of the team re-analysed the data in a different way to seek the trace of a companion to the star. Infrared wavelengths are indeed very well suited for such searches. "For this, the real challenge

  6. Maternal plasma concentrations of beta-lipotrophin, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotrophin throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Browning, A J; Butt, W R; Lynch, S S; Shakespear, R A

    1983-12-01

    Plasma beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 10 pregnant women from 12 weeks gestation until term and in nine women in the early follicular phase of the cycle. There was a progressive and significant rise in the concentration of all three peptides throughout pregnancy and by 32 weeks the concentrations of beta-LPH and beta-EP were greater than the corresponding concentrations in the follicular phase: gamma-LPH was greater than in the follicular phase by the end of pregnancy in those women who were delivered after 40 weeks. The ratio of beta-LPH to gamma-LPH did not change significantly throughout pregnancy, but there was a progressive fall in the beta-LPH/beta-EP ratio. The possible presence of a 'big LPH' to explain this finding is discussed.

  7. Inverse Beta: Inverse cumulative density function (CDF) of a Beta distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David

    2014-03-01

    The Beta Inverse code solves the inverse cumulative density function (CDF) of a Beta distribution, allowing one to sample from the Beta prior directly. The Beta distribution is well suited as a prior for the distribution of the orbital eccentricities of extrasolar planets; imposing a Beta prior on orbital eccentricity is valuable for any type of observation of an exoplanet where eccentricity can affect the model parameters (e.g. transits, radial velocities, microlensing, direct imaging). The Beta prior is an excellent description of the current, empirically determined distribution of orbital eccentricities and thus employing it naturally incorporates an observer’s prior experience of what types of orbits are probable or improbable. The default parameters in the code are currently set to the Beta distribution which best describes the entire population of exoplanets with well-constrained orbits.

  8. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin {beta}E subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Osamu . E-mail: ohashim@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-03-10

    Activins, TGF-{beta} superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin {beta} subunit genes, {beta}C and {beta}E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin {beta}E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells.

  9. The lipolytic effect of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor activation in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Haffner, C A; Kendall, M J; Maxwell, S; Hughes, B

    1993-01-01

    1. We investigated the effect of activation beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors on the process of lipolysis in human volunteers. Ten male subjects underwent a single-blind randomized cross-over trial using infusions of terbutaline (a specific beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist), xamoterol (a partial beta 1-agonist with beta 2-adrenoceptor blocking activity) and saline (placebo control). The effect of these infusions on plasma potassium, glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) (total and individual) and insulin levels was studied. 2. Terbutaline infusion induced a significant rise in plasma glucose and a fall in plasma potassium in keeping with its beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulant properties. Xamoterol infusion had no significant effect on these values. Terbutaline infusion caused a greater rise in total and individual FFA than xamoterol, but both effects were significantly different from placebo. 3. The possible reasons for these results and their implications on the beta-adrenergic control of lipolysis are discussed. PMID:8383517

  10. Purification of an isoflavonoid 7-O-beta-apiosyl-glucoside beta-glycosidase and its substrates from Dalbergia nigrescens Kurz.

    PubMed

    Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Hua, Yanling; Svasti, Jisnuson; Sakdarat, Santi; Sullivan, Patrick A; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2005-08-01

    A beta-glycosidase was purified from the seeds of Dalbergia nigescens Kurz based on its ability to hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl beta-glucoside and beta-fucoside. This enzyme did not hydrolyze various glycosidic substrates efficiently, so it was used to identify its own natural substrates. Two substrates were identified, isolated and their structures determined as: compound 1, dalpatein 7-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and compound 2, 6,2',4',5'-tetramethoxy-7-hydroxy-7-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (dalnigrein7-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside). The beta-glycosidase removes the sugar from these glycosides as a disaccharide, despite its initial identification as a beta-glucosidase and beta-fucosidase.

  11. Sequence swapping does not result in conformation swapping for the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 beta-hairpin turns in human acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaewon; Lee, Jihun; Brych, Stephen R; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The beta-turn is the most common type of nonrepetitive structure in globular proteins, comprising ~25% of all residues; however, a detailed understanding of effects of specific residues upon beta-turn stability and conformation is lacking. Human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) is a member of the beta-trefoil superfold and contains a total of five beta-hairpin structures (antiparallel beta-sheets connected by a reverse turn). beta-Turns related by the characteristic threefold structural symmetry of this superfold exhibit different primary structures, and in some cases, different secondary structures. As such, they represent a useful system with which to study the role that turn sequences play in determining structure, stability, and folding of the protein. Two turns related by the threefold structural symmetry, the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 turns, were subjected to both sequence-swapping and poly-glycine substitution mutations, and the effects upon stability, folding, and structure were investigated. In the wild-type protein these turns are of identical length, but exhibit different conformations. These conformations were observed to be retained during sequence-swapping and glycine substitution mutagenesis. The results indicate that the beta-turn structure at these positions is not determined by the turn sequence. Structural analysis suggests that residues flanking the turn are a primary structural determinant of the conformation within the turn.

  12. Resistance exercise decreases beta-endorphin immunoreactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, E F; Eastman, N W; McGowan, R W; Tripathi, H; Dewey, W L; Olson, K G

    1994-01-01

    Previous research investigating the response of plasma beta-endorphins (beta-EP) to resistance exercise has resulted in equivocal findings. To examine further the effects of resistance exercise on beta-EP immunoreactivity, 10 male and 10 female college-age students participated in a series of controlled isotonic resistance exercises. The session consisted of three sets of eight repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1-RM) for each of the following exercises: (1) bench press; (2) lateral pull-downs; (3) seated arm curls; and (4) military press. Blood plasma was sampled both before and after the lifting routine and beta-endorphin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. A Students t test for paired samples indicated that mean(s.e.) plasma beta-endorphin levels after exercise (10.5(1.3) pg beta-EP ml-1) were significantly decreased as compared with pre-exercise (control) levels (16.5(1.2), P < 0.05). While the mechanism(s) contributing to the decrease in immunoreactivity is unclear, it may be the result of the synergistic effect of beta-EP clearance during rest intervals and changes in psychological states between sampling. PMID:8000813

  13. Latent TGF-[beta] structure and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Minlong; Zhu, Jianghai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xing; Mi, Lizhi; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-09-16

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-{beta}1 requires the binding of {alpha}v integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-{beta} binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-{beta}1 reveal a ring-shaped complex, a novel fold for the prodomain, and show how the prodomain shields the growth factor from recognition by receptors and alters its conformation. Complex formation between {alpha}v{beta}6 integrin and the prodomain is insufficient for TGF-{beta}1 release. Force-dependent activation requires unfastening of a 'straitjacket' that encircles each growth-factor monomer at a position that can be locked by a disulphide bond. Sequences of all 33 TGF-{beta} family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  14. Beta adrenoceptors and regenerating corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Liu, G S; Trope, G E; Basu, P K

    1990-01-01

    Beta blockers inhibit corneal re-epithelialization. This may be due to beta-2 receptor controlled mechanisms. To investigate this possibility we performed a randomized, double-masked study involving 60 rabbit iatrogenic induced corneal ulcers produced with iodine vapour. Two beta specific drug compounds were tested, namely, betaxolol hydrochloride 0.25% (Alcon) (beta 1) and L132-468 (Sandoz, Basel) 0.25% (beta 2), and phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) as control. There was no statistical difference in the wound healing rates among all groups at 24 hours but there were significant differences at 48 hours (p less than 0.01). At 72 hours, the L132-468 treated groups showed significantly less healing than the betaxolol hydrochloride treated group. The PBS-treated group was healed at this time. By 20th post burning day, SEM revealed that betaxolol hydrochloride treated corneas were completely healed with normal epithelial microvilli. The L132-468 treated corneas were also healed but desquamation and abnormal cells were observed. In conclusion, beta-2 blockers inhibit corneal re-epithelialization more potently than beta-1 blockers.

  15. Cellular pathways to beta-cell replacement.

    PubMed

    Fellous, Tariq G; Guppy, Naomi J; Brittan, Mairi; Alison, Malcolm R

    2007-02-01

    In the twenty-first century, diabetic patients are likely to be one of the major beneficiaries from the advancement of regenerative medicine through cellular therapies. Though the existence of a specific self-renewing stem cell within the pancreas is still far from clear, a surprising variety of cells within the pancreas can differentiate towards a beta-cell phenotype: ductular cells, periductular mesenchymal cells and beta-cells themselves can all give rise to new beta-cells. Extra-pancreatic adult somatic stem cells, in particular, those originating from bone marrow may also be capable of differentiating to beta-cells, though equally well the beneficial effects of bone marrow cells may reside in their contribution to the damaged islet vasculature. Forced expression of the beta-cell-specific transcription factor Pdx1 in hepatocytes also holds promise as a therapeutic strategy to increase insulin levels in diabetic individuals. Embryonic stem (ES) cells are clearly another possible source for generating beta-cells, but ES cells are beyond the scope of this review, which focuses on adult stem and progenitor cells capable of producing beta-cells. Despite considerable endeavour, we still have much to learn in the field of pancreatic regeneration prior to any clinically applicable therapy based upon adult stem cells.

  16. BACE2, a beta -secretase homolog, cleaves at the beta site and within the amyloid-beta region of the amyloid-beta precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Farzan, M; Schnitzler, C E; Vasilieva, N; Leung, D; Choe, H

    2000-08-15

    Production of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) is initiated by a beta-secretase that cleaves the Abeta precursor protein (APP) at the N terminus of Abeta (the beta site). A recently identified aspartyl protease, BACE, cleaves the beta site and at residue 11 within the Abeta region of APP. Here we show that BACE2, a BACE homolog, cleaves at the beta site and more efficiently at a different site within Abeta. The Flemish missense mutation of APP, implicated in a form of familial Alzheimer's disease, is adjacent to this latter site and markedly increases Abeta production by BACE2 but not by BACE. BACE and BACE2 respond identically to conservative beta-site mutations, and alteration of a common active site Arg inhibits beta-site cleavage but not cleavage within Abeta by both enzymes. These data suggest that BACE2 contributes to Abeta production in individuals bearing the Flemish mutation, and that selective inhibition of these highly similar proteases may be feasible and therapeutically advantageous.

  17. Significance of alpha 9 beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 integrin expression in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Arihiro, K; Kaneko, M; Fujii, S; Inai, K; Yokosaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Both alpha 9 beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 integrins have been newly identified from the tracheal epithelium of guinea pig. It has been pointed out that alpha 9 beta 1 functions as a receptor for tenascin-C and osteopontin. As for the ligands of alpha v beta 6, fibronectin and tenascin-C have been identified. It has not been ascertained whether alpha 9 beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 are expressed in normal breast tissue, benign breast lesion or breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining for alpha 9 beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 was performed in benign breast lesion and breast carcinoma specimens. Western blotting was carried out on 11 breast carcinoma cases. alpha 9 beta 1 was expressed in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells in 23 of 90 cases (26%) and alpha v beta 6 in the membrane of carcinoma cells in 16 of 90 cases (18%). However, these findings of alpha 9 beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 did not correlate with any clinicopathological factors including the patients' age, tumor size, histological type of carcinoma, location of carcinoma cells and hormone receptor status. With regard to the histological grade of carcinoma, alpha v beta 6 and alpha 9 beta 1 expression did not statistically correlate, although no expression of alpha v beta 6 was observed in 14 cases of Grade I. On Western-blott analysis strong and weak bands consistent with alpha v beta 6 were noted in the membrane fraction extracted from breast carcinoma cells. On the other hand weak bands consistent with alpha 9 subunit were noted in the whole cell lysates of breast carcinoma cells and very weak or no bands consistent with alpha 9 subunit were noted in the membrane fraction extracted from the breast carcinoma cells. Significance of alpha 9 beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 integrins expression in breast carcinoma was still unknown on clinicopathological examination. The findings of Western blot analysis may indicate that the transportation system of glycoproteins such as integrins to the cell membrane of carcinoma cells is

  18. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min; Sun, Gui-yuan; Liu, Rui-tian

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  19. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  20. Comparison of the apoptotic processes induced by the oxysterols 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol-5beta,6beta-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Ryan, L; O'Callaghan, Y C; O'Brien, N M

    2004-09-01

    Oxysterols have been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell lines. The mechanism of oxysterol-induced apoptosis is mainly known at the post-mitochondrial level. The aim of the present study was to compare the pathway of apoptosis induced by the oxysterols 7beta-hydroxycholesterol (7beta-OH) and cholesterol-5beta,6beta-epoxide (beta-epoxide) in U937 cells. To this end, we employed a range of inhibitors of apoptosis; a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor and an inhibitor of cytochrome c release and the antioxidants; trolox, ebselen and resveratrol. The three inhibitors of apoptosis prevented cell death induced by 7beta-OH; however, in beta-epoxide-treated cells, the inhibitor of cytochrome c release did not protect against apoptosis. The cellular antioxidant glutathione was depleted in 7beta-OH-treated cells but not in cells incubated with beta-epoxide. Trolox, a water-soluble synthetic analogue of alpha-tocopherol, prevented 7beta-OH-induced apoptosis but did not protect against cell death induced by beta-epoxide. Ebselen and resveratrol did not protect U937 cells against apoptosis induced by either 7beta-OH or beta-epoxide. Our results suggest that differences occur in the pathways of apoptosis induced by 7beta-OH and beta-epoxide in U937 cells.

  1. Fabrication of thin layer beta alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennenhouse, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Beta alumina tubes having walls 700 microns, 300 microns, and 140 microns were processed by extrusion and sintering utilizing Ford proprietary binder and fabrication systems. Tubes prepared by this method have properties similar to tubes prepared by isostatic pressing and sintering, i.e. density greater than 98% of theoretical and a helium leak rate less than 3 x 10 to the -9th power cc/sq cm/sec. Ford ultrasonic bonding techniques were used for bonding beta alumina end caps to open ended beta -alumina tubes prior to sintering. After sintering, the bond was hermetic, and the integrity of the bonded area was comparable to the body of the tube.

  2. Syntheses of stable isotope-labeled 6 beta-hydroxycortisol, 6 beta-hydroxycortisone, and 6 beta-hydroxytestosterone.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Takashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Matsuzawa, Mitsuhiro; Shibasaki, Hiromi; Kasuya, Yasuji

    2003-09-01

    A method is described for the preparation of two types of multi-labeled 6 beta-hydroxycortisol containing either five deuterium atoms at C-19 methyl and C-1 methylene or four 13C atoms at C-1, C-2, C-4, and C-19 in addition to the five deuterium atoms for use as analytical internal standards for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). BMD derivatives of [1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisone and [1,2,4,19-13C(4),1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisone (cortisone-2H(5)-BMD and cortisone-13C(4),2H(5)-BMD) were first synthesized via indan synthon method starting from optical active 11-oxoindanylpropionic acid and labeled isopropenyl anion ([1,1,3,3,3-2H(5)]- or [1,3-13C(2),1,1,3,3,3-2H(5)]isopropenyl anion). The labeled isopropenyl anion was prepared from commercially available [1,1,1,3,3,3-2H(6)]- or [1,3-13C(2),1,1,1,3,3,3-2H(6)]acetone. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiated autoxidation at C-6 position of 3-ethyl-3,5-dienol ether derivatives of the labeled cortisone-BMDs gave 6 beta-hydroxy-[1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisone-BMD and 6 beta-hydroxy-[1,2,4,19-13C(4),1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisone-BMD, respectively, as a mixture of 6 beta- and 6 alpha-epimers in a ratio of 4:1. Separation of 6 beta- and 6 alpha-epimers by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and subsequent hydrolysis of the BMD group at C-17 gave pure labeled 6 beta-hydroxycortisone. After protecting the keto group at C-3 of the labeled 6 beta-hydroxycortisone-BMD as semicarbazone, reduction of 11-keto group with NaBH(4) and subsequent removal of the C-3 and C-17 protecting groups gave 6beta-hydroxy-[1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisol (6 beta-hydroxycortisol-2H(5)) and 6 beta-hydroxy-[1,2,4,19-13C(4),1,1,19,19,19-2H(5)]cortisol (6 beta-hydroxycortisol-13C(4),2H(5)), respectively, as a mixture of 6 beta- and 6 alpha-epimers (6 beta:6 alpha=4.4:1). The isotopic compositions of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol-2H(5) and 6 beta-hydroxycortisol-13C(4),2H(5) were 90.9 and 92.1 at.%, respectively. Furthermore, 6 beta-hydroxy-[1 alpha,16,16,17 alpha-2H(4

  3. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  4. beta-Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms: relationship to the beta-agonist controversy and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D Robin

    2007-12-01

    Aspects of the 'beta-agonist controversy' have recently re-emerged with the publication of data implicating the long-acting beta-agonist salmeterol in increased mortality from asthma. The reasons underlying the adverse effects of beta2-agonists as a class are unclear. Polymorphisms of the beta2 adrenoceptor (ADRB2), notably the variant associated with an arginine moiety at position 16 of the ADRB2 protein result in changes in in vitro receptor function. There is now consistent clinical evidence showing that, in vivo, patients with asthma harbouring the Arg-16 genotype may experience reduced lung function and an increased frequency of exacerbations when treated with regular short-acting beta-agonists. This may, in part, explain why beta-agonists have been associated with adverse outcomes in the past. ADRB2 genotyping of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma may shed light on a possible contributor to their clinical instability.

  5. Beta scaling of transport in microturbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.

    2005-07-15

    A systematic study of the beta ({beta}) scaling and spatial structure of thermal and particle transport in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations is presented. Here, {beta} is the ratio of the plasma kinetic pressure to the magnetic pressure. Results show that the nonlinear self-consistent temperature profiles exhibit a (statistically) time-stationary flattening in the vicinity of rational surfaces with a concomitant drop in the electrostatic components of the thermal diffusivity. Simultaneously, the increased magnetic fluctuation amplitude at these surfaces enhances the steady-state electromagnetic (flutter) component of the electron thermal diffusivity. The electromagnetic components of the ion transport coefficients remain close to zero, as expected on theoretical grounds. Only a weak dependence of ion energy transport on {beta} is observed, consistent with recent tokamak experiments [C. C. Petty et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2514 (2004)].

  6. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  7. Optical properties of {beta}-Sn films

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Katsuki; Adachi, Sadao

    2009-04-01

    Optical properties of white tin ({beta}-Sn) have been investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the photon-energy range between 0.6 and 6.5 eV at room temperature. The {beta}-Sn films are deposited by vacuum evaporation on Si(001) substrates. The structural properties of the films are evaluated by x-ray diffraction and ex situ atomic force microscopy. The measured {epsilon}(E) spectra reveal distinct structures at several interband critical points in the Brillouin zone of {beta}-Sn. These spectra are analyzed on the basis of a simplified model of the interband transitions, including the free-carrier absorption between the filled and empty electronic states. Dielectric-related optical constants, such as the complex refractive index, absorption coefficient, and normal-incidence reflectivity, of bulk {beta}-Sn films are also presented.

  8. [Beta 3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism and obesity].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Umekawa, T

    1998-07-01

    The beta 3-adrenoceptor plays a significant role in the control of lipolysis and thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue of rodents and humans. In human beta 3-adrenoceptor, a Trp to Arg replacement has recently been discovered. This change which occurs at position 64, in the first coding exon, has been correlated with increased weight gain, difficulty in losing weight, insulin resistance syndrome, and worsened diabetic situation. Higher percentages of this mutation are observed in Pima Indians (over 30%) and Japanese (20%). The possible functional mechanism of Trp54Arg is reported using human HEK293 cell line stably expressing the wild type and the [Arg64] beta 3-adrenoceptor type. Beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists available for humans are been also developing. In this paper we describe these points up-to-date.

  9. A massive neutrino in nuclear beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Y. ); da Cruz, M.F. Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo ); Garcia, A. ); Hindi, M.M. Physics Department, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee ); Lesko, K.T.; Larimer, R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sur, B. ); Wietfeldt, F.E. Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California ); Zlimen, I. (Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berke

    1992-02-01

    We have continued our studies of the [beta]-spectrum of [sup 14]C using a germanium detector doped with [sup 14]C. There is a feature in the [beta]-spectrum 17 keV below the endpoint which could be explained by the hypothesis that there is a heavy neutrino emitted in the [beta]-decay of [sup 14]C with a mass of 17[plus minus]1 keV and an emission probability of 1.26[plus minus]0.25%. However, we also have performed a high statistics measurement of the inner bremsstrahlung spectrum of [sup 55]Fe and find no indication of the emission of a 17-keV neutrino. We conclude that the origin of the kink'' that has been observed in some recent beta spectral measurements is not a neutrino.

  10. A massive neutrino in nuclear beta decay?

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Larimer, R.M.; Stokstad, R.G. Sur, B.; Zlimen, I.; da Cruz, M.T.F. |; Hindi, M.M. |; Wietfeldt, F.E. |

    1992-09-01

    We have continued our studies of the {beta}-spectrum of {sup 14}C using a germanium detector doped with {sup l4}C. There is a feature in the {beta}-spectrum 17 keV below the endpoint which could be explained by the hypothesis that there is a heavy neutrino emitted in the {beta}-decay of {sup 14}C with a mass of 17{plus_minus}1 keV and an emission probability of 1.26{plus_minus}0.25%. However, we also have performed a high statistics measurement of the inner bremsstrahlung spectrum of {sup 55}Fe and find no indication of the emission of a {sup 17}-keV neutrino. We conclude that the origin of the ``kink`` that has been observed in some recent beta spectral measurements is not a neutrino.

  11. A massive neutrino in nuclear beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Larimer, R.M.; Stokstad, R.G. Sur, B.; Zlimen, I. ); da Cruz, M.T.F. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil . Physics Institute); Hindi, M.M. Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United Stat

    1992-09-01

    We have continued our studies of the [beta]-spectrum of [sup 14]C using a germanium detector doped with [sup l4]C. There is a feature in the [beta]-spectrum 17 keV below the endpoint which could be explained by the hypothesis that there is a heavy neutrino emitted in the [beta]-decay of [sup 14]C with a mass of 17[plus minus]1 keV and an emission probability of 1.26[plus minus]0.25%. However, we also have performed a high statistics measurement of the inner bremsstrahlung spectrum of [sup 55]Fe and find no indication of the emission of a [sup 17]-keV neutrino. We conclude that the origin of the kink'' that has been observed in some recent beta spectral measurements is not a neutrino.

  12. Carotenoids: more than just beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Gellenbeck, K W

    1998-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables of the human diet contain many of the over 600 carotenoid pigments that have been identified in plants. Led by work with beta-carotene, researchers have constantly been learning more about the metabolism of these compounds in the human body. Research work is now expanding beyond beta-carotene in an effort to understand what happens to all the pigments found in the human diet. This discussion briefly looks at research results on the carotenoids found in human serum as well as the effects of supplementation. Recent confusing results from large intervention trials with beta-carotene and lung cancer incidence are emphasized in relation to supplementation doses and beta-carotene source (synthetic vs. natural). The summation of results emphasizes the importance of the broad spectrum of carotenoids in the diet and relates to supplementation products currently being designed for the marketplace.

  13. Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Serum or Urine Related tests: Albumin , Creatinine , BUN , Heavy Metals Were you looking for Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor ... to high levels of cadmium and/or other heavy metals like mercury, such as may occur with occupational ...

  14. Identification of residues in beta-lactamase critical for binding beta-lactamase inhibitory protein.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, G W; Palzkill, T

    1999-03-12

    beta-Lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) is a potent inhibitor of several beta-lactamases including TEM-1 beta-lactamase (Ki = 0.1 nM). The co-crystal structure of TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP has been solved, revealing the contact residues involved in the interface between the enzyme and inhibitor. To determine which residues in TEM-1 beta-lactamase are critical for binding BLIP, the method of monovalent phage display was employed. Random mutants of TEM-1 beta-lactamase in the 99-114 loop-helix and 235-240 B3 beta-strand regions were displayed as fusion proteins on the surface of the M13 bacteriophage. Functional mutants were selected based on the ability to bind BLIP. After three rounds of enrichment, the sequences of a collection of functional beta-lactamase mutants revealed a consensus sequence for the binding of BLIP. Seven loop-helix residues including Asp-101, Leu-102, Val-103, Ser-106, Pro-107, Thr-109, and His-112 and three B3 beta-strand residues including Ser-235, Gly-236, and Gly-238 were found to be critical for tight binding of BLIP. In addition, the selected beta-lactamase mutants A113L/T114R and E240K were found to increase binding of BLIP by over 6- and 11-fold, respectively. Combining these substitutions resulted in 550-fold tighter binding between the enzyme and BLIP with a Ki of 0.40 pM. These results reveal that the binding between TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP can be improved and that there are a large number of sequences consistent with tight binding between BLIP and beta-lactamase.

  15. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  16. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  17. Enzyme-catalyzed formation of beta-peptides: beta-peptidyl aminopeptidases BapA and DmpA acting as beta-peptide-synthesizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Heck, Tobias; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Limbach, Michael; Flögel, Oliver; Seebach, Dieter; Geueke, Birgit

    2007-09-01

    In recent studies, we discovered that the three beta-peptidyl aminopeptidases, BapA from Sphingosinicella xenopeptidilytica 3-2W4, BapA from S. microcystinivorans Y2, and DmpA from Ochrobactrum anthropi LMG7991, possess the unique feature of cleaving N-terminal beta-amino acid residues from beta- and alpha/beta-peptides. Herein, we investigated the use of the same three enzymes for the reverse reaction catalyzing the oligomerization of beta-amino acids and the synthesis of mixed peptides with N-terminal beta-amino acid residues. As substrates, we employed the beta-homoamino acid derivatives H-beta hGly-pNA, H-beta3 hAla-pNA, H-(R)-beta3 hAla-pNA, H-beta3 hPhe-pNA, H-(R)-beta3 hPhe-pNA, and H-beta3 hLeu-pNA. All three enzymes were capable of coupling the six beta-amino acids to oligomers with chain lengths of up to eight amino acid residues. With the enzyme DmpA as the catalyst, we observed very high conversion rates, which correspond to dimer yields of up to 76%. The beta-dipeptide H-beta3 hAla-beta3 hLeu-OH and the beta/alpha-dipeptide H-beta hGly-His-OH (carnosine) were formed with almost 50% conversion, when a five-fold excess of beta3-homoleucine or histidine was incubated with H-beta3 hAla-pNA and H-beta hGly-pNA, respectively, in the presence of the enzyme BapA from S. microcystinivorans Y2. BapA from S. xenopeptidilytica 3-2W4 turned out to be a versatile catalyst capable of coupling various beta-amino acid residues to the free N-termini of beta- and alpha-amino acids and even to an alpha-tripeptide. Thus, these aminopeptidases might be useful to introduce a beta-amino acid residue as an N-terminal protecting group into a 'natural' alpha-peptide, thereby stabilizing the peptide against degradation by other proteolytic enzymes.

  18. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 in human developing teeth: immunolocalization according to the odontogenesis phases.

    PubMed

    Sassá Benedete, Ana Paula; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras; Lima, Dirce Mary Correia; Kamibeppu, Leonardo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional growth factor that has several biological effects in vivo, including control of cell growth and differentiation, cell migration, lineage determination, motility, adhesion, apoptosis, and synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, and TGF-beta plays an important role in regulating tissue repair and regeneration. Our study analyzed the participation of TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 in the different stages of morphogenesis and differentiation of human developing dental organ using immunohistochemistry. The maxillae and mandibles of 10 human embryos ranging from 8 to 23 weeks of gestation were employed, according to the approval of the ethical committee. Our study revealed that the TGF-beta subunits-beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3-were present in the various stages of tooth development, but the expression varied according to the differentiation stage, tissue, and TGF-beta subunit. Our results indicated that TGF-beta 1 is closely related to differentiation of enamel organ and initiation of matrix secretion, TGF-beta 2 to cellular differentiation, and TGF-beta 3 to mineral maturation matrix.

  19. Solid-state NMR analysis of the {beta}-strand orientation of the protofibrils of amyloid {beta}-protein

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Takashi; Masuda, Yuichi; Irie, Kazuhiro; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi; Takegoshi, K.

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular structure of A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by solid-state NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala-21 residue in the A{beta}42 protofibrils is included in a slightly disordered {beta}-strand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The A{beta}42 protofibrils do not form intermolecular in-register parallel {beta}-sheets. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by abnormal deposition (fibrillation) of a 42-residue amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}42) in the brain. During the process of fibrillation, the A{beta}42 takes the form of protofibrils with strong neurotoxicity, and is thus believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. To elucidate the supramolecular structure of the A{beta}42 protofibrils, the intermolecular proximity of the Ala-21 residues in the A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C rotational resonance experiments in the solid state. Unlike the A{beta}42 fibrils, an intermolecular {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation was not found in the A{beta}42 protofibrils. This result suggests that the {beta}-strands of the A{beta}42 protofibrils are not in an in-register parallel orientation. A{beta}42 monomers would assemble to form protofibrils with the {beta}-strand conformation, then transform into fibrils by forming intermolecular parallel {beta}-sheets.

  20. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  1. [Transforming growth factor of beta-type].

    PubMed

    Stoĭka, R S

    1988-01-01

    Recent data about the structure and properties of the beta-type transforming growth factor as well as evidence about its influence on different target cells are presented. The regulatory action of the factor is shown to depend mainly on the type of tested cells, conditions of their culturing and the presence of other bioregulators of cell proliferation in the medium. The prospects of the beta-type transforming growth factor use in practice are considered.

  2. Giant impacts in the Beta Pic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, A.

    2014-09-01

    One scenario that can potentially explain the brightness asymmetry in the Beta Pictoris debris disk in the mid-infrared and millimetre is that of a comparatively recent (< 1 Myr ago) impact between planetary scale bodies at an orbital distance of ˜85 AU, as discussed by Dent et al 2014. I will discuss the details of this model, how it applies to Beta Pictoris, and how it may be applied elsewhere.

  3. Stability of Beta Limited Thermonuclear Burn.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-28

    critical value of beta is exceeded. For example, in tokamaks such a critical beta might result due to the onset of magnetohydrodynamic *instabilities. Since...generally accepted theoretical models for anoma- lous plasma loss in such devices as tokamaks are not available, we shall try to make as few...situation might result from the onset of magnetic field braiding in a tokamak ). In this case a 3 % a4 >> a 1 %,a2 (6) (Note that since the a terms are

  4. Method for treating beta-spodumene ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Day, J. Paul; Hickman, David L.

    1994-09-27

    A vapor-phase method for treating a beta-spodumene ceramic article to achieve a substitution of exchangeable hydrogen ions for the lithium present in the beta-spodumene crystals, wherein a barrier between the ceramic article and the source of exchangeable hydrogen ions is maintained in order to prevent lithium contamination of the hydrogen ion source and to generate highly recoverable lithium salts, is provided.

  5. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  6. N=1 supersymmetric {beta}-functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D. R. T.

    1997-06-15

    Recent results on three-loop, four-loop and large-N{sub f}{beta}-functions in supersymmetric gauge theories are summarised. It is argued that the O(1/N{sub f})-corrected form of {beta}{sub g} in SQCD is consistent with the existence of the conformal window 3N{sub c}/2

  7. New osmoregulated beta(1-3),beta(1-6) glucosyltransferase(s) in Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed Central

    Altabe, S G; Iñón de Iannino, N; de Mendoza, D; Ugalde, R A

    1994-01-01

    A linear beta(1-3),beta(1-6) glucan was detected in the periplasm of Azospirillum brasilense cells growing in a medium of low osmotic strength. This glucan was produced in vitro by purified bacterial inner membranes with UDP-glucose as the sugar donor in the presence of Mg2+. Growth in a high-osmotic-strength medium strongly reduced the amount of this glucan accumulated in the periplasmic space, and the inhibition was associated with a reduction in the enzymatic activity of the beta(1-3),beta(1-6) glucosyltransferase(s). Images PMID:8051002

  8. 6-beta-Iodopenicillanate as a probe for the classification of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    De Meester, F; Frère, J M; Waley, S G; Cartwright, S J; Virden, R; Lindberg, F

    1986-01-01

    An inactivator of serine beta-lactamases, 6 beta-iodopenicillanate, can be utilized as a probe in the classification of beta-lactamases. It is a substrate for class-B Zn2+-containing beta-lactamase II. Although it inactivates enzymes from both classes A and C, it is much more efficient for the former group, with which it sometimes interacts following a branched pathway. On the basis of these observations, predictions are made concerning the class to which several enzymes belong. PMID:3030266

  9. AE activity during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Gong, X. Z.; Ren, Q. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Pan, C. K.; Li, G. Q.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Garofalo, A. M.; McClenaghan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced AE activity has been observed during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta DIII-D discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs). These drops in beta are believed to be caused by n=1 external kink modes. In some discharges, beta recovers within 200 ms but, in others, beta stays suppressed. A typical discharge has βP 3, qmin 3, and q95 12. The drop in beta affects both fast ions and thermal particles, and a drop is also observed in the density and rotation. The enhanced AE activity follows the instability that causes the beta drop, is largest at the lowest beta, and subsides as beta recovers. MHD stability analysis is planned. A database study of the plasma conditions associated with the collapse will be also presented. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11575249, and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China No. 2015GB110005.

  10. Endogenous beta-cell CART regulates insulin secretion and transcription of beta-cell genes.

    PubMed

    Shcherbina, L; Edlund, A; Esguerra, J L S; Abels, M; Zhou, Y; Ottosson-Laakso, E; Wollheim, C B; Hansson, O; Eliasson, L; Wierup, N

    2017-05-15

    Impaired beta-cell function is key to the development of type 2 diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide with insulinotropic and glucagonostatic properties. Here we studied the role of endogenous CART in beta-cell function. CART silencing in INS-1 (832/13) beta-cells reduced insulin secretion and production, ATP levels and beta-cell exocytosis. This was substantiated by reduced expression of several exocytosis genes, as well as reduced expression of genes important for insulin secretion and processing. In addition, CART silencing reduced the expression of a network of transcription factors essential for beta-cell function. Moreover, in RNAseq data from human islet donors, CARTPT expression levels correlated with insulin, exocytosis genes and key beta-cell transcription factors. Thus, endogenous beta-cell CART regulates insulin expression and secretion in INS-1 (832/13) cells, via actions on the exocytotic machinery and a network of beta-cell transcription factors. We conclude that CART is important for maintaining the beta-cell phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Presynaptic beta-adrenoceptors in rat atria: evidence for the presence of stereoselective beta 1-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Heimburger, M.; Montero, M. J.; Fougeres, V.; Beslot, F.; Davy, M.; Midol-Monnet, M.; Cohen, Y.

    1989-01-01

    1. Presynaptic beta-adrenoceptor activity was studied in rat isolated atria, previously loaded with [3H]-noradrenaline. The stimulation-induced release of 3H transmitter was measured in the presence of cocaine, and adrenaline was used as a facilitatory beta-adrenoceptor agonist. 2. Adrenaline (0.1 and 2 nM) increased, by about 50%, the evoked efflux of tritium. With phenoxybenzamine present, the same activity was shown with 10 nM adrenaline. 3. The beta 2-selective adrenoceptor blocking drugs: IPS 339 and ICI 118 551 caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the activity of adrenaline. Cardioselective beta-blocking drugs: acebutolol, beta-xolol, nebivolol and its isomers (R 67 138 and R 67 145) also reduced dose-dependently the agonistic action of adrenaline. The order of potency for nebivolol and its isomers was R 67 138 greater than nebivolol greater than R 67 145. The activity of pindolol was not concentration-dependent. The inhibitory effect of acebutolol was also observed in the presence of blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors. 4. The postsynaptic beta-adrenoceptor blocking activity of nebivolol and its isomers was studied in pithed rats. They reduced isoprenaline-induced tachycardia without altering hypotensive responses. The order of potency was: R 67 138 greater than nebivolol greater than R 67 145. 5. It is concluded that in rat isolated atria, presynaptic beta 2- and beta 1-adrenoceptors coexist and that facilitatory beta 1-adrenoceptors are stereospecific. PMID:2572291

  12. Beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid levels in two siblings with dihydropyrimidinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    van Kuilenburg, A B P; Stroomer, A E M; Bosch, A M; Duran, M

    2008-06-01

    Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) deficiency is an inborn error of the pyrimidine degradation pathway, affecting the hydrolytic ring opening of the dihydropyrimidines. In two siblings with a complete DHP deficiency and a variable clinical presentation, a normal concentration of beta-alanine and strongly decreased levels of beta-aminoisobutyric acid were observed in plasma, urine and CSF. No major differences were observed for the concentrations of the beta-amino acids in plasma and urine between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sibling. Thus, the relevance of the shortage of beta-aminoisobutyric acid for the onset of a clinical phenotype in patients with DHP deficiency remains to be established.

  13. Transcriptional upregulation of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) expression by phenylacetate in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sidell, N; Chang, B; Yamashiro, J M; Wada, R K

    1998-02-25

    Sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) has been shown to synergize with retinoic acid (RA) in inducing the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells. Our studies indicated that NaPA can impact on the RA differentiation program by upregulating nuclear retinoic acid receptor-beta (RAR beta) expression. We have found that NaPA does not alter the half-life of RAR beta mRNA; thus, increased stability of mRNA levels does not contribute to NaPA induction. In contrast, NaPA was able to specifically activate a reporter gene construct (delta SV beta RE-CAT) which contains a retinoic acid response element (RARE beta) that is located in the RAR beta promoter. Activation of delta SV beta RE-CAT by NaPA also occurred in neuroblastoma cells cotransfected with a nuclear retinoic acid receptor expression vector, demonstrating the independence of this activation on cellular RAR levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that induction of RAR beta by NaPA is regulated at the level of transcription and mediated through the retinoic acid response element, RARE beta. This effect may account, at least in part, for the strong synergy between NaPA and RA in promoting neuroblastoma differentiation.

  14. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) isoforms in osteosarcomas: TGF-beta3 is related to disease progression.

    PubMed

    Kloen, P; Gebhardt, M C; Perez-Atayde, A; Rosenberg, A E; Springfield, D S; Gold, L I; Mankin, H J

    1997-12-15

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multipotent growth factor affecting development, homeostasis, and tissue repair. In addition, increased expression of TGF-beta has been reported in different malignancies, suggesting a role for this growth factor in tumorigenesis. Using immunohistochemistry, the expression, prevalence, and distribution of TGF-beta isoforms were evaluated in 25 high grade human osteosarcomas. The Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier curves were calculated correlating disease free survival with TGF-beta expression. Expression of one or more TGF-beta isoforms was found in all the osteosarcomas. Immunoreactivity for TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 generally was stronger than for TGF-beta2. The cytoplasm of the tumor cells showed stronger staining than their surrounding extracellular stroma. Most notably, osteoclasts showed strong to intense staining for all three isoforms. In 11 of 25 specimens angiogenic activity was noted with staining of multiple small vessels in the tumor stroma. Expression of TGF-beta3, but not of TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta1, related to disease progression, such that there was a statistically significant decrease in the disease free interval as the immunoreactivity for TGF-beta3 increased. All osteosarcomas expressed TGF-beta in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells as well as in their extracellular stroma. The presence of TGF-beta in the endothelial and perivascular layers of small vessels in the tumor stroma suggests angiogenic activity of this growth factor. The expression of TGF-beta3 was correlated strongly with disease progression (P = 0.027). These data suggest that increased expression of TGF-beta isoforms, especially TGF-beta3, may play a role in osteosarcoma progression.

  15. Adsorption of beta blockers to environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kibbey, Tohren C G; Paruchuri, Rajiv; Sabatini, David A; Chen, Lixia

    2007-08-01

    Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta blockers) are widely used pharmaceuticals which have been detected in the environment. Predicting the transport and ultimate fate of beta blockers in the environment requires understanding their adsorption to soils and sediments, something for which little information is currently available. The objective of this work was to examine the adsorption of three beta blockers, propranolol, metoprolol and nadolol, to a natural alluvial material, as well as to six minerals present as components of the alluvial material. Batch adsorption experiments indicate that, for most of the minerals studied, compound hydrophobicity is an important predictor of adsorption, with propranolol,the most hydrophobic compound studied, adsorbing to the greatest extent. Results further suggest that, for the minerals studied, electrostatic effects are not a good predictor of adsorption; adsorption extent was not well-predicted by either surface zeta potential or by the difference between experiment pH and point of zero charge, despite the cationic nature af the three beta blockers at experiment pH values. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), on adsorption. Results indicate that SDBS significantly increases the adsorption of propranolol to two different sorbents. This result is potentially important because surfactants such as SDBS are likely to be present in wastewater effluents with beta blockers and could influence their mobility in the environment.

  16. Peptidase activity of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Rhazi, N; Galleni, M; Page, M I; Frère, J M

    1999-01-01

    Although beta-lactamases have generally been considered as being devoid of peptidase activity, a low but significant hydrolysis of various N-acylated dipeptides was observed with representatives of each class of beta-lactamases. The kcat/Km values were below 0.1 M(-1). s(-1), but the enzyme rate enhancement factors were in the range 5000-20000 for the best substrates. Not unexpectedly, the best 'peptidase' was the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99, but, more surprisingly, the activity was always higher with the phenylacetyl- and benzoyl-d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptides than with the diacetyl- and alpha-acetyl-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala tripeptides, which are the preferred substrates of the low-molecular-mass, soluble dd-peptidases. A comparison between the beta-lactamases and dd-peptidases showed that it might be as difficult for a dd-peptidase to open the beta-lactam ring as it is for the beta-lactamases to hydrolyse the peptides, an observation which can be explained by geometric and stereoelectronic considerations. PMID:10393100

  17. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  18. Beta-blockers in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ram, C Venkata S

    2010-12-15

    Beta blockers have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular conditions for decades. Despite a long history and status as a guideline-recommended treatment option for hypertension, recent meta-analyses have brought into question whether β blockers are still an appropriate therapy given outcomes data from other antihypertensive drug classes. However, β blockers are a heterogenous class of agents with diverse pharmacologic and physiologic properties. Much of the unfavorable data revealed in the recent meta-analyses were gleaned from studies involving nonvasodilating, traditional β blockers, such as atenolol. However, findings with traditional β blockers may not be extrapolated to other members of the class, particularly those agents with vasodilatory activity. Vasodilatory β blockers (i.e., carvedilol and nebivolol) reduce blood pressure in large part through reducing systemic vascular resistance rather than by decreasing cardiac output, as is observed with traditional β blockers. Vasodilating ability may also ameliorate some of the concerns associated with traditional β blockade, such as the adverse effects on metabolic and lipid parameters, including an increased risk for new-onset diabetes. Furthermore, vasodilating ability is physiologically relevant and important in treating a condition with common co-morbidities involving metabolic and lipid abnormalities such as hypertension. In patients with hypertension and diabetes or coronary artery disease, vasodilating β blockers provide effective blood pressure control with neutral or beneficial effects on important parameters for the co-morbid disease. In conclusion, it is time for a reexamination of the clinical evidence for the use of β blockers in hypertension, recognizing that there are patients for whom β blockers, particularly those with vasodilatory actions, are an appropriate treatment option.

  19. Flavonoids from Tephrosia major. A new prenyl-beta-hydroxychalcone.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Garibay, Federico; Téllez-Valdez, Oswaldo; Moreno-Torres, Gregorio; Calderón, José S

    2002-01-01

    The roots and aerial parts of Tephrosia major Micheli, afforded a new prenylated-beta-hydroxychalcone, characterized as 2',6'-dihydroxy-3'-prenyl-4'-methoxy-beta-hydroxychalcone. In addition, seven prenylated flavonoids, two rotenoids, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol and quercetin were isolated. The structure of the new beta-hydroxy chalcone was established by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments.

  20. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. Isolation of cDNA clones coding for the beta subunit of human beta-hexosaminidase.

    PubMed Central

    O'Dowd, B F; Quan, F; Willard, H F; Lamhonwah, A M; Korneluk, R G; Lowden, J A; Gravel, R A; Mahuran, D J

    1985-01-01

    The major forms of beta-hexosaminidase (2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside acetamidodeoxyglucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.30) occur as multimers of alpha and beta chains--hexosaminidase A (alpha beta a beta b) and hexosaminidase B 2(beta a beta b). To facilitate the investigation of beta-chain biosynthesis and the nature of mutation in Sandhoff disease, a human hexosaminidase beta-chain cDNA clone was isolated. Hexosaminidase B (10 mg) was treated with CNBr, five peptide fragments were isolated by reverse-phase HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were determined. One of these contained a string of six amino acids from which an oligonucleotide probe was defined. The simian virus 40-transformed human fibroblast cDNA library of Okayama and Berg was screened by colony hybridization with the radiolabeled probe. Thirteen probe-binding clones were selected out of 50,000 clones screened. Four of these designated pHex were shown to be identical at their 3' ends by restriction enzyme mapping, differing only in their 5' extensions (1.4-1.7 kilobases). The nucleotide sequence of a 174-base-pair segment contained the deduced amino acid sequence of two of the five CNBr peptides, indicating that the pHex clones encode the beta subunit of hexosaminidase. In addition, pHex cDNA was found homologous to multiple bands in digests of genomic human DNA totaling 43 kilobases (kb), all of which were mapped to chromosome 5 in somatic cell hybrids, as expected of the HEXB gene. The pHex cDNA also hybridized to a 2.2-kilobase RNA that apparently codes for the pre-beta-polypeptide of hexosaminidase. This RNA species was absent in the fibroblasts of one of three patients with Sandhoff disease examined. We anticipate that these clones will be of value to diagnosis and carrier detection of Sandhoff disease in affected families. Images PMID:2579389

  2. The turn sequence directs beta-strand alignment in designed beta-hairpins.

    PubMed Central

    de Alba, E.; Rico, M.; Jiménez, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    A previous NMR investigation of model decapeptides with identical beta-strand sequences and different turn sequences demonstrated that, in these peptide systems, the turn residues played a more predominant role in defining the type of beta-hairpin adopted than cross-strand side-chain interactions. This result needed to be tested in longer beta-hairpin forming peptides, containing more potentially stabilizing cross-strand hydrogen bonds and side-chain interactions that might counterbalance the influence of the turn sequence. In that direction, we report here on the design and 1H NMR conformational study of three beta-hairpin forming pentadecapeptides. The design consists of adding two and three residues at the N- and C-termini, respectively, of the previously studied decapeptides. One of the designed pentadecapeptides includes a potentially stabilizing R-E salt bridge to investigate the influence of this interaction on beta-hairpin stability. We suggest that this peptide self-associates by forming intermolecular salt bridges. The other two pentadecapeptides behave as monomers. A conformational analysis of their 1H NMR spectra reveals that they adopt different types of beta-hairpin structure despite having identical strand sequences. Hence, the beta-turn sequence drives beta-hairpin formation in the investigated pentadecapeptides that adopt beta-hairpins that are longer than the average protein beta-hairpins. These results reinforce our previous suggestion concerning the key role played by the turn sequence in directing the kind of beta-hairpin formed by designed peptides. PMID:10595526

  3. Beta-1-Selective Beta-Blockers and Cognitive Functions in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Burkauskas, Julius; Noreikaite, Aurelija; Bunevicius, Adomas; Brozaitiene, Julija; Neverauskas, Julius; Mickuviene, Narseta; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-01-01

    The association between current beta-1-selective beta-blocker use and cognitive function was evaluated in 722 patients with coronary artery disease without dementia. Beta-1-selective beta-blocker use was associated with worse incidental learning independently of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical coronary artery disease severity, and depression/anxiety.

  4. Characterization of 10 adjuvants for inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines against challenge with highly pathogenic AIV in chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inactivated vaccines comprise 95% of all vaccine used for avian influenza virus (AIV) by dose. Optimizing the adjuvant is one way to improve vaccine efficacy. Inactivated vaccines were produced with beta-propiolactone inactivated A/chicken/BC/314514-1/2004 H7N3 low pathogenicity AIV and standardiz...

  5. The failure of an inactivated mink enteritis virus vaccine in four preparations to provide protection to dogs against challenge with canine parvovirus-2.

    PubMed Central

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Four experimental vaccine preparations comprising a strain of mink enteritis virus inactivated by either formalin or beta-propiolactone, and either adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted, failed to stimulate a consistent serum antibody response in 20 vaccinated dogs and failed to protect all but one of these dogs against oral challenge with canine parvovirus-2. PMID:6280820

  6. Structural studies of dopamine. beta. -hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Dopamine ..beta..-hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, a ..beta..-hydroxylation reaction, utilizing ascorbic acid as reducing agent and molecular oxygen as cosubstrate. Modifications of the previously published purification procedure for D..beta..H have produced findings which show that (1) enzyme is inactivated by ascorbate autooxidation during the isolation procedure, (2) active as well as inactive D..beta..H co-purify throughout the entire purification procedure and (3) beef liver catalase totally protects against this time dependent inactivation. The stoichiometry of copper binding to the active sites of D..beta..H has been investigated using /sup 19/F-NMR and radioactive binding experiments. The data unequivocally show that homogeneous D..beta..H (isolated in the presence of catalase) specifically binds up to approx.8 copper atoms per enzyme tetramer. Distance determinations done using NMR relaxation rate theory show that anion activators of the catalytic reaction are bound at a fairly far distance from the Cu/sup 2 +/ centers. Spin-echo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that at least one, possibly two, histidines are bound as equatorial ligands to each Cu/sup 2 +/ ion. The combined data indicate that highly purified dopamine ..beta..-hydroxylase contains a 2 copper atom active site, composed of magnetically non-interacting metal centers. Active site components are distant from the Cu/sup 2 +/ centers, suggesting a possible movement of active site residues or components after reduction of enzyme bound copper in order to achieve the insertion of 1 atom of oxygen into the benzylic C-H bond of dopamine.

  7. Beta-thalassaemia trait: haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Yousafzai, Yasar M; Khan, Shahtaj; Raziq, Fazle

    2010-01-01

    Beta-Thalassaemia syndromes are a group of hereditary disorders characterised by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of beta-globin chains due to a defect in beta-globin genes. The objective of this study was to determine the haematological features of beta-thalassaemia trait (BTT). and to determine the sensitivity of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and Mentzer Index (ML) as a screening tool for beta-thalassaemia trait. A descriptive study was conducted in Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from May 2009 to May 2010 with 203 subjects having BTT. Blood samples were collected in EDTA anti-coagulated tubes. RBC indices were taken as part of complete blood count (CBC) by haematology analyser, and Haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis was done to determine the HbA2 percentage. The data was collected and analysed on statistical software for demographic details, RBC indices and HbA2 levels. Out of 203 patients, 92 (45%) were males and 111 (55%) were females. Most patients tested were in the 15-45 year age group. One-hundred-sixty (79%) patients had anaemia. MCV was lower than 76 fl in all the cases. Mean MCV was 59.1 fl. MCH was low, the mean MCH being 19.3 g/dl. MCH < 26 gave sensitivity of 99% in detecting BTT. We calculated MI for these cases and found out that it was < 12 in 75% of cases and < 15 in 197 (97%). Beta-thalassaemia traits present with a microcytic hypochromic blood picture, detected on simple haematology analysers as low MCV and MCH and MI which provide a useful screening tool for beta-thalassaemia trait.

  8. Comparison of ophthalmic beta-blocking agents.

    PubMed

    Lesar, T S

    1987-06-01

    Glaucoma is described, and the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage and administration of betaxolol and levobunolol in comparison with timolol are reviewed. Betaxolol and levobunolol are two beta-adrenergic blocking agents being marketed as ophthalmic solutions for treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT). Betaxolol is a relatively cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocker, while levobunolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent. Double-blind comparative trials have suggested that betaxolol has an equal to slightly lower efficacy and levobunolol has equal efficacy in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) compared with timolol, the first ophthalmic beta blocker. A mean reduction in intraocular pressure of 15-35% occurs with both betaxolol and levobunolol and is reported to be maintained with prolonged use. Betaxolol is associated with a higher (25%) incidence of local ocular adverse reactions than timolol. However, betaxolol produces less systemic beta 2- and possibly beta 1-adrenergic receptor blockade than either timolol or levobunolol. Betaxolol may be relatively safer to use in patients with reactive airway disease than either timolol or levobunolol. Levobunolol causes a similar to greater incidence of local ocular adverse reactions and similar systemic beta blockade compared with timolol. Levobunolol may possibly be longer acting than timolol, allowing more patients to be controlled by once-daily dosing. Betaxolol and levobunolol appear to be similar to timolol in controlling IOP in patients with POAG and OHT; additional experience with these agents is needed to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each agent.

  9. The biology of beta human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Tommasino, Massimo

    2017-03-02

    The beta genus comprises more than 50 beta human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are suspected to be involved, together with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most common form of human cancer. Two members of the genus beta, HPV5 and HPV8, were first identified in patients with a genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), that confers high susceptibility to beta HPV infection and NMSC development. The fact that organ transplant recipients (OTRs) with an impaired immune system have an elevated risk of NMSC raised the hypothesis that beta HPV types may also be involved in skin carcinogenesis in non-EV patients. Epidemiological studies have shown that serological and viral DNA markers are weakly, but significantly, associated with history of NMSC in OTRs and the general population. Functional studies on mucosal high-risk (HR) HPV types have clearly demonstrated that the products of two early genes, E6 and E7, are the main viral oncoproteins, which are able to deregulate events closely linked to transformation, such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Studies on a small number of beta HPV types have shown that their E6 and E7 oncoproteins also have the ability to interfere with the regulation of key pathways/events associated with cellular transformation. However, the initial functional data indicate that the molecular mechanisms leading to cellular transformation are different from those of mucosal HR HPV types. Beta HPV types may act only at early stages of carcinogenesis, by potentiating the deleterious effects of other carcinogens, such as UV radiation.

  10. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caine, Joanne M.; Bharadwaj, Prashant R.; Sankovich, Sonia E.; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  11. Cytotoxic bis-3,4-dihydro-beta-carbolines and bis-beta-carbolines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Qun; Charlet-Fagnère, Catherine; Sapi, Janos; Laronze, Jean-Yves; Renard, Pierre; Pfeiffer, Bruno; Léonce, Stéphane

    2002-12-01

    Ten bis-beta-carboline 1, 2 and bis-3,4-dihydro-beta-carboline 3, 4 derivatives, linked between carbons 1 and 1' by a polymethylene spacer, were synthesized from bistryptamine amides 9, 10. Some of them display a micromolar IC50 towards L-1210 cells.

  12. Beta-Lactamase Production and Resistance to Beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Nocardia

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Richard J.; Vance, Paula; Weissfeld, Alice; Martin, R. Russell

    1978-01-01

    Although ampicillin has been suggested as a useful agent for the treatment of nocardiosis in man, little is known regarding the presence of beta-lactamase in Nocardia or its possible role in determining resistance to ampicillin and the other beta-lactam antibiotics. We have evaluated 55 isolates of Nocardia for susceptibility to five beta-lactam antibiotics and for the presence of beta-lactamase. Nocardia were resistant to penicillin G, cloxacillin, and cefazolin, but 27 and 62% were susceptible to 3.1 and 25 μg of ampicillin per ml, respectively. Almost 90% of these ampicillin-susceptible or intermediate strains were also susceptible to carbenicillin. The combination of ampicillin and cloxacillin was synergistic against many ampicillin-resistant strains. Beta-lactamase was detected in 89% of Nocardia isolates when intact cells were used and in six of six strains after cell fractionation. This beta-lactamase was most active against penicillin G and ampicillin, with lesser activity against carbenicillin and cephaloridine. These studies suggest that beta-lactamase may be present in all clinical isolates of Nocardia and that mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance other than or in addition to beta-lactamase are responsible for resistance of Nocardia to ampicillin and carbenicillin. PMID:310280

  13. Organocatalytic synthesis of beta-alkylaspartates via beta-lactone ring opening.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Alan; Geldart, Stephen P; Jenner, Chloe R; Scutt, James N

    2007-10-12

    Cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed reaction of ethyl glyoxylate with substituted ketenes, formed in situ, gives disubstituted beta-lactones in moderate yield and high enantiomeric excess. Subsequent azide ring opening, reduction, and ester hydrolysis allows access to chiral beta-alkyl aspartates.

  14. Biochemical and immunochemical analysis of avian beta 1 and mammalian beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Chapot, M P; Cervantes, P; Kaveri, S; Durieu-Trautmann, O; Delavier-Klutchko, C; Emorine, L; Couraud, P O; Strosberg, A D

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the molecular properties of avian beta 1-adrenergic receptor and human beta 2-adrenergic receptor. The turkey erythrocytes beta 1-receptor has been solubilized in active form by digitonin and has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography followed by electroelution from polyacrylamide gel. The photoactivable ligand, iodocyanopindololdiazirine, labels specifically a major 45 kDa and minor 55 kDa polypeptide in turkey erythrocytes, whereas in A431, it labels two polypeptides of molecular weights 65 kDa and 55 kDa. Both types of receptors are N- and possibly O-glycosylated but the turkey beta 1 receptor has only complex carbohydrates whereas the human beta 2 receptor has in addition oligo mannosidic polysaccharidic moiety. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised against the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors. Polyclonal antibodies were found to mimic beta-adrenergic agonists by stimulating adenylate cyclase upon binding to the receptors. The monoclonal antibodies precipitated both intact and affinity labeled receptors which they also revealed on immunoblots.

  15. Hemoglobinopathies in the Dogon Country: presence of beta S, beta C, and delta A' genes.

    PubMed

    Ducrocq, R; Bennani, M; Bellis, G; Baby, M; Traore, K; Nagel, R L; Krishnamoorthy, R; Chaventre, A

    1994-07-01

    The population of the Dogon, located in Mali, is divided in an endogamic Noble class and two endogamic servant castes (Tanners and Blacksmiths). We find that the polymorphic frequencies of beta c, beta S, and, unexpectedly, a mutation of the delta-chain (delta A'), are geographically (valley vs. plateau) as well as social status dependent.

  16. Quasiparticle random phase approximation uncertainties and their correlations in the analysis of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, Amand; Rodin, V.; Fogli, G. L.; Rotunno, A. M.; Lisi, E.; Simkovic, F.

    2009-03-01

    The variances and covariances associated to the nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) are estimated within the quasiparticle random phase approximation. It is shown that correlated nuclear matrix elements uncertainties play an important role in the comparison of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay rates for different nuclei, and that they are degenerate with the uncertainty in the reconstructed Majorana neutrino mass.

  17. beta1-integrin cytoplasmic subdomains involved in dominant negative function.

    PubMed

    Retta, S F; Balzac, F; Ferraris, P; Belkin, A M; Fässler, R; Humphries, M J; De Leo, G; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1998-04-01

    The beta1-integrin cytoplasmic domain consists of a membrane proximal subdomain common to the four known isoforms ("common" region) and a distal subdomain specific for each isoform ("variable" region). To investigate in detail the role of these subdomains in integrin-dependent cellular functions, we used beta1A and beta1B isoforms as well as four mutants lacking the entire cytoplasmic domain (beta1TR), the variable region (beta1COM), or the common region (beta1 deltaCOM-B and beta1 deltaCOM-A). By expressing these constructs in Chinese hamster ovary and beta1 integrin-deficient GD25 cells (Wennerberg et al., J Cell Biol 132, 227-238, 1996), we show that beta1B, beta1COM, beta1 deltaCOM-B, and beta1 deltaCOM-A molecules are unable to support efficient cell adhesion to matrix proteins. On exposure to Mn++ ions, however, beta1B, but none of the mutants, can mediate cell adhesion, indicating specific functional properties of this isoform. Analysis of adhesive functions of transfected cells shows that beta1B interferes in a dominant negative manner with beta1A and beta3/beta5 integrins in cell spreading, focal adhesion formation, focal adhesion kinase tyrosine phosphorylation, and fibronectin matrix assembly. None of the beta1 mutants tested shows this property, indicating that the dominant negative effect depends on the specific combination of common and B subdomains, rather than from the absence of the A subdomain in the beta1B isoform.

  18. Measurements of the CKM Angle beta

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoldus, Rainer; /SLAC

    2005-12-14

    In this article I report on new and updated measurements of the CP-violating parameter {beta}({phi}{sub 1}), which is related to the phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark-mixing matrix of the electroweak interaction. Over the past few years, {beta} has become the most precisely known parameter of the CKM unitarity triangle that governs the B system. The results presented here were produced by the two B Factories, BABAR and Belle, based on their most recent datasets of over 600 million B{bar B} events combined. The new world average for sin2{beta}, measured in the theoretically and experimentally cleanest charmonium modes, such as B{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}, is sin 2{beta} = 0.685 {+-} 0.032. In addition to these tree-level dominated decays, independent measurements of sin2{beta} are obtained from gluonic b {yields} s penguin decays, including B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0}, B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'K{sub S}{sup 0} and others. There are hints, albeit somewhat weaker than earlier this year, that these measurements tend to come out low compared to the charmonium average, giving rise to the tantalizing possibility that New Physics amplitudes could be contributing to the corresponding loop diagrams. Clearly, more data from both experiments are needed to elucidate these intriguing differences.

  19. beta-Amyloid1-40 increases expression of beta-amyloid precursor protein in neuronal hybrid cells.

    PubMed

    Le, W; Xie, W J; Nyormoi, O; Ho, B K; Smith, R G; Appel, S H

    1995-11-01

    Studies of cell injury and death in Alzheimer's disease have suggested a prominent role for beta-amyloid peptide (beta-AP), a 40-43-amino-acid peptide derived from a larger membrane glycoprotein, beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP). Previous experiments have demonstrated that beta-AP induces cytotoxicity in a neuronal hybrid cell line (MES 23.5) in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that beta-APP mRNA content is increased 3.5-fold in 24 h after treatment with beta-AP1-40. Accompanying beta-AP1-40-induced cell injury, levels of cell-associated beta-APP and a C-terminal intermediate fragment are increased up to 15-fold, and levels of secreted forms of beta-APP and 12- and 4-kDa fragments are also increased. Application of beta-APP antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reduces both cytotoxicity and beta-APP expression. 6-Hydroxydopamine application or glucose deprivation causes extensive cell damage, but they do not increase beta-APP expression. These results suggest a selective positive feedback mechanism whereby beta-AP may induce cytotoxicity and increase levels of potentially neurotrophic as well as amyloidogenic fragments of beta-APP with the net consequence of further neuronal damage.

  20. Distribution of beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase activity and of beta-glucuronidase gene gus in human colonic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dabek, Marta; McCrae, Sheila I; Stevens, Valerie J; Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra

    2008-12-01

    beta-Glycosidase activities present in the human colonic microbiota act on glycosidic plant secondary compounds and xenobiotics entering the colon, with potential health implications for the human host. Information on beta-glycosidases is currently limited to relatively few species of bacteria from the human colonic ecosystem. We therefore screened 40 different bacterial strains that are representative of dominant bacterial groups from human faeces for beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase activity. More than half of the low G+C% Gram-positive firmicutes harboured beta-glucosidase activity, while beta-glucuronidase activity was only found in some firmicutes within clostridial clusters XIVa and IV. Most of the Bifidobacterium spp. and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron carried beta-glucosidase activity. A beta-glucuronidase gene belonging to family 2 glycosyl hydrolases was detected in 10 of the 40 isolates based on degenerate PCR. These included all nine isolates that gave positive assays for beta-glucuronidase activity, suggesting that the degenerate PCR could provide a useful assay for the capacity to produce beta-glucuronidase in the gut community. beta-Glucuronidase activity was induced by growth on d-glucuronic acid, or by addition of 4-nitrophenol-glucuronide, in Roseburia hominis A2-183, while beta-glucosidase activity was induced by 4-nitrophenol-glucopyranoside. Inducibility varied between strains.

  1. Beta-cryptoxanthin as a source of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Burri, Betty J

    2015-07-01

    Beta-cryptoxanthin is a common carotenoid that is found in fruit, and in human blood and tissues. Foods that are rich in beta-cryptoxanthin include tangerines, persimmons and oranges. Beta-cryptoxanthin has several functions that are important for human health, including roles in antioxidant defense and cell-to-cell communication. Most importantly, beta-cryptoxanthin is a precursor of vitamin A, which is an essential nutrient needed for eyesight, growth, development and immune response. We evaluate the evidence for beta-cryptoxanthin as a vitamin A-forming carotenoid in this paper. Observational, in vitro, animal model and human studies suggest that beta-cryptoxanthin has greater bioavailability from its common food sources than do alpha- and beta-carotene from theirs. Although beta-cryptoxanthin appears to be a poorer substrate for beta-carotene 15,15' oxygenase than is beta-carotene, animal model and human studies suggest that the comparatively high bioavailability of beta-cryptoxanthin from foods makes beta-cryptoxanthin-rich foods equivalent to beta-carotene-rich foods as sources of vitamin A. These results mean that beta-cryptoxanthin-rich foods are probably better sources of vitamin A, and more important for human health in general, than previously assumed. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Beta-Diversity in Tropical Forest Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condit, Richard; Pitman, Nigel; Leigh, Egbert G.; Chave, Jérôme; Terborgh, John; Foster, Robin B.; Núñez V., Percy; Aguilar, Salomón; Valencia, Renato; Villa, Gorky; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Losos, Elizabeth; Hubbell, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    The high alpha-diversity of tropical forests has been amply documented, but beta-diversity-how species composition changes with distance-has seldom been studied. We present quantitative estimates of beta-diversity for tropical trees by comparing species composition of plots in lowland terra firme forest in Panama, Ecuador, and Peru. We compare observations with predictions derived from a neutral model in which habitat is uniform and only dispersal and speciation influence species turnover. We find that beta-diversity is higher in Panama than in western Amazonia and that patterns in both areas are inconsistent with the neutral model. In Panama, habitat variation appears to increase species turnover relative to Amazonia, where unexpectedly low turnover over great distances suggests that population densities of some species are bounded by as yet unidentified processes. At intermediate scales in both regions, observations can be matched by theory, suggesting that dispersal limitation, with speciation, influences species turnover.

  3. A massive neutrino in nuclear beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Larimer, R.M.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sur, B.; Zlimen, I. ); da Cruz, M.T.F. Sao Paulo Univ., SP . Inst. of Physics); Hindi, M.M. Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN . Dept. of Physics); Wietfeld

    1992-08-01

    We have continued our studies of the p-spectrum of [sup 14]C using a germanium detector doped with [sup 14]C. There is a feature in the [beta]-spectrum 17 keV below the endpoint which could be explained by the hypothesis that there is a heavy neutrino emitted in the [beta]-decay of [sup 14]C with a mass of 17[plus minus]1 keV and an emission probability of 1.26[plus minus]0.25%. However, we also have performed a high statistics measurement of the inner bremsstrahlung spectrum of [sup 55]Fe and find no indication of the emission of a 17-keV neutrino. We conclude that the origin of the kink'' that has been observed in some recent beta spectral measurements is not a neutrino.

  4. A massive neutrino in nuclear beta decay?

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Larimer, R.M.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sur, B.; Zlimen, I.; da Cruz, M.T.F. |; Hindi, M.M. |; Wietfeldt, F.E.

    1992-08-01

    We have continued our studies of the p-spectrum of {sup 14}C using a germanium detector doped with {sup 14}C. There is a feature in the {beta}-spectrum 17 keV below the endpoint which could be explained by the hypothesis that there is a heavy neutrino emitted in the {beta}-decay of {sup 14}C with a mass of 17{plus_minus}1 keV and an emission probability of 1.26{plus_minus}0.25%. However, we also have performed a high statistics measurement of the inner bremsstrahlung spectrum of {sup 55}Fe and find no indication of the emission of a 17-keV neutrino. We conclude that the origin of the ``kink`` that has been observed in some recent beta spectral measurements is not a neutrino.

  5. {beta} decay of {sup 32}Na

    SciTech Connect

    Mattoon, C. M.; Sarazin, F.; Hackman, G.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Scraggs, H. C.; Smith, M. B.; Cunningham, E. S.; Walker, P. M.; Austin, R. A. E.; Finlay, P.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Garrett, P. E.; Koopmans, K. A.; Waddington, J. C.; Washbrook, B.

    2007-01-15

    The {beta}-decay of {sup 32}Na has been studied using {beta}-{gamma} coincidences. New transitions and levels are tentatively placed in the level scheme of {sup 32}Mg from an analysis of {gamma}-{gamma} and {beta}-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidences. The observation of the indirect feeding of the 2321 keV state in {sup 32}Mg removes some restrictions previously placed on the spin assignment for this state. No evidence of a state at 2117 keV in {sup 32}Mg is found. Previously unobserved weak transitions up to 5.4 MeV were recorded but could not be placed in the decay scheme of {sup 32}Na.

  6. Pitfalls in prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Rosatelli, C; Maccioni, L; Scalas, M T; Cao, A

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, we report a pregnancy at risk for beta thalassaemia in which the fetal red blood cell volume was reduced while that of the mother was relatively great, so that the presence of a fetal red blood cell population in a mixed maternal-fetal sample was difficult to recognise. The molecular basis for these haematological phenotypes was clarified by follow up examination and alpha globin gene mapping. These indicated that the fetus was heterozygous for beta thalassaemia and had deletion of three alpha globin structural genes, while the mother, heterozygous for beta thalassaemia, also had deletion of two alpha globin structural genes. When the coinheritance of alpha thalassaemia is suspected, it is necessary to examine carefully the red blood cell distribution of a placental sample, so that the presence of a population of fetal red blood cells is not missed. PMID:3783623

  7. Beta-blockers in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hayes, P E; Schulz, S C

    1987-01-01

    Studies evaluating the antianxiety and antipanic properties of beta-blockers do not support their routine use in treating either generalized anxiety disorder or panic disorder. The use of propranolol for anxiety disorders accompanied by physical symptoms, especially cardiovascular complaints, may be effective in some patients when combined with benzodiazepines or perhaps in some non-responders to conventional treatment. Better designed studies are needed to evaluate the exact role of beta-blocking agents in treating anxiety. The efficacy of propranolol in patients with panic disorder has not been widely researched, but preliminary results have not been encouraging. Propranolol may provide symptomatic relief in some patients with residual somatic complaints (i.e., palpitations and tachycardia), when combined with the patient's ongoing drug regimen. Because beta-blockers may induce depression, they should be used cautiously--if at all--in panic patients with concurrent depressive illness.

  8. Ovine colostrum nanopeptide affects amyloid beta aggregation.

    PubMed

    Janusz, Maria; Woszczyna, Mirosław; Lisowski, Marek; Kubis, Adriana; Macała, Józefa; Gotszalk, Teodor; Lisowski, Józef

    2009-01-05

    A colostral proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP) consisting of over 30 peptides shows beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients when administered in the form of sublinqual tablets called Colostrinin. The aim of the present studies was to investigate whether nanopeptide fragment of PRP (NP) - one of the PRP complex components can affect aggregation of amyloid beta (Abeta1-42). The effect of NP on Abeta aggregation was studied using Thioflavin T (ThT) binding, atomic force microscopy, and analyzing circular dichroism spectra. Results presented suggest that NP can directly interact with amyloid beta, inhibit its aggregation and disrupt existing aggregates acting as a beta sheet breaker and reduce toxicity induced by aggregated forms of Abeta.

  9. Atomic structure of Beta-tantalum nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Karsten; Thust, Andreas; Gerber, Andreas; Weides, Martin P; Urban, Knut

    2005-12-01

    The structural properties of beta-phase tantalum nanocrystallites prepared by room temperature magnetron sputter deposition on amorphous carbon substrates are investigated at atomic resolution. For these purposes spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is applied in tandem with the numerical retrieval of the exit-plane wavefunction as obtained from a through-focus series of experimental micrographs. We demonstrate that recent improvements in the resolving power of electron microscopes enable the imaging of the atomic structure of beta-tantalum with column spacings of solely 0.127 nm with directly interpretable contrast features. For the first time ever, we substantiate the existence of grain boundaries of 30 degrees tilt type in beta-Ta whose formation may be well explained by atomic agglomeration processes taking place during sputter deposition.

  10. The core lipocalin, bovine beta-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, L; Kontopidis, G

    2000-10-18

    The lipocalin family became established shortly after the structural similarity was noted between plasma retinol binding protein and the bovine milk protein, beta-lactoglobulin. During the past 60 years, beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by essentially every biochemical technique available and so there is a huge literature upon its properties. Despite all of these studies, no specific biological function has been ascribed definitively to the protein, although several possibilities have been suggested. During the processing of milk on an industrial scale, the unpredictable nature of the process has been put down to the presence of beta-lactoglobulin and certainly the whey protein has been implicated in the initiation of aggregation that leads to the fouling of heat exchangers. This short review of the properties of the protein will concentrate mainly on studies carried out under essentially physiological conditions and will review briefly some of the possible functions for the protein that have been described.

  11. Why search for double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, B.

    1988-04-20

    Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is the only known practical method for trying to determine whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. The theoretical motivation for supposing that they may indeed be their own antiparticles is described. The reason that it is so difficult to ascertain experimentally whether they are or are not is explained, as is the special sensitivity of neutrinoless double beta decay. The potential implications of the observation of this reaction for neutrino mass and for the physics of neutrinos is discussed.

  12. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version supports interactive selection and graphical display of data generated by the Sandia Cognitive Framework, which simulates the examination of security data by experts of various specialties. Insider Alert also encompasses the configuration and data files input to the Cognitive Framework for this application. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version is a computer program for analyzing data indicative of possible espionage or improper handling of data by employees at Sandia National Laboratories (or other facilities with comparable policies and procedures for managing sensitive information) It prioritizes and displays information for review by security analysts.

  13. Problems and progress in tritium beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, B.; Fackler, O.; Mugge, M.; White, R.

    1988-04-01

    It has been nearly eight years since the group led by Lubimov first saw evidence for a finite neutrino mass in the tritium beta decay spectrum. Their measurement provided a great stimulus to the field; the number of experiments currently underway reflects the significance of their claim. The fact that further data are only now beginning to appear reflects the difficulty of this measurement. As an introduction to related papers in these proceedings, we briefly consider the key elements involved in neutrino-mass measurements using tritium beta decay and list the experiments currently underway in the field. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  14. C0 low-{beta} optics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, J.A.

    2001-02-02

    A low-{beta} insertion has been designed for the BTeV experiment at C0. With {+-} 12 m for detector space, a {beta}* of 0.5 m can be achieved using 170 T/m magnets in the final focus triplets. A total half-crossing angle of 240 {micro}r is necessary to keep the beams separated by 5{sigma} at the 2nd parasitic crossing. There are 2 possible Tevatron collision scenarios: B0 and D0, but not C0, and; C0, but not B0 or D0.

  15. Strategies, Implementation and Results of BETA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

    The Harvard University/Planetary Society BETA project is an all-sky, narrow-band, microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligent signals. It has been operating more-or-less continuously for the last four years during which time it has automatically scanned the sky visible from Agassiz station (+60^̂ - -30^̂) over the entire waterhole (1400-1720 MHz) five times. We will discuss BETA's search strategies, our implementation and the results of how these fared in the observatory's interference environment. We will also present qualified limits on the prevalence of transmitting civilizations given our (current) negative results.

  16. Double-Beta Decay at TUNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Mary

    2007-10-01

    Studying double-beta decay at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is perhaps one of the most promising ways to pinpoint the neutrino mass. What they do not mention is that to study double-beta decay, you probably have to become a certified miner, and if you have a fear of goats, you should stay away. In this talk, I will tell you some of my experiences as a TUNL graduate student, and how I am now nearly qualified for a job in the mining industry.

  17. Method of producing .beta.-spodumene bodies

    DOEpatents

    Chyung, Kenneth; Day, J. Paul; Holleran, Louis M.; Olszewski, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    Beta-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of beta-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of <10.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C.(0-800.degree. C.), and a strength of .gtoreq.4 Ksi.

  18. Measurement of gamma and 2 beta + gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.

    2005-01-03

    We report on the initial measurements of the angle {gamma} and the sum of angles 2{beta} +{gamma} of the Unitarity Triangle. When compared with indirect information on the value of {gamma} from other measurements of CKM parameters, the measurement of these angles will provide a precise test of Standard Model predictions, as statistics increase. There are several methods for directly measuring {gamma} and 2{beta} +{gamma}. We report on the status of each of these techniques, and the resulting constraints on the values of these angles.

  19. Scintillating bolometers for Double Beta Decay search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gironi, L.

    2010-05-01

    In the field of Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, the use of high resolution detectors in which background can be actively discriminated is very appealing. Scintillating bolometers containing a Double Beta Decay emitter can largely fulfill this very interesting possibility. In this paper we present the latest results obtained with CdWO4 and CaMoO4 crystals. Moreover we report, for the first time, a very interesting feature of CaMoO4 bolometers: the possibility to discriminate β-γ events from those induced by α particles thanks to different thermal pulse shape.

  20. The double-beta decay: Theoretical challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Horoi, Mihai

    2012-11-20

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a unique process that could reveal physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics namely, if observed, it would prove that neutrinos are Majorana particles. In addition, it could provide information regarding the neutrino masses and their hierarchy, provided that reliable nuclear matrix elements can be obtained. The two neutrino double beta decay is an associate process that is allowed by the Standard Model, and it was observed for about ten nuclei. The present contribution gives a brief review of the theoretical challenges associated with these two process, emphasizing the reliable calculation of the associated nuclear matrix elements.

  1. Atypical beta(s) haplotypes are generated by diverse genetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Dalle, B; Gualandro, S; Hutz, M H; Lapoumeroulie, C; Tavella, M H; Araujo, A G; Krieger, J E; Elion, J; Krishnamoorthy, R

    2000-02-01

    The majority of the chromosomes with the beta(S) gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, in every large series of sickle cell patients, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as "atypical" haplotypes. In order to explore the genetic mechanisms that could generate these atypical haplotypes, we extended our analysis to other rarely studied polymorphic markers of the beta(S)-gene cluster, in a total of 40 chromosomes with uncommon haplotypes from Brazil and Cameroon. The following polymorphisms were examined: seven restriction site polymorphisms of the epsilongammadeltabeta-cluster, the pre-(G)gamma framework sequence including the 6-bp deletion/insertion pattern, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta (AT)xTy repeat motifs, the GC/TT polymorphism at -1105-1106 of (G)gamma-globin gene, the C/T polymorphism at -551 of the beta-globin gene, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. Among the Brazilian subjects, the most common atypical structure (7/16) was a Bantu 3'-subhaplotype associated with different 5'-sequences, while in two chromosomes a Benin 3'-subhaplotype was associated with two different 5'-subhaplotypes. A hybrid Benin/Bantu configuration was also observed. In three chromosomes, the atypical haplotype differed from the typical one by the change of a single restriction site. In 2/134 chromosomes identified as having a typical Bantu RFLP-haplotype, a discrepant LCR repeat sequence was observed, probably owing to a crossover 5' to the epsilon-gene. Among 80 beta(S) chromosomes from Cameroon, 22 were associated with an atypical haplotype. The most common structure was represented by a Benin haplotype (from the LCR to the beta-gene) with a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In two cases a Bantu LCR was associated with a Benin haplotype and a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In three other cases, a more complex

  2. Economic burden of beta-thalassemia/Hb E and beta-thalassemia major in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Nuchprayoon, Issarang; Torcharus, Kitti; Indaratna, Kaemthong; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat; Ubol, Bang-On

    2010-01-30

    Hemoglobin E beta-thalassemia (beta-thalassemia/Hb E) has a variable severity, and the cost of treatment has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the societal cost of caring for children with beta-thalassemias in Thailand. The study was designed as a prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis in a societal perspective. Medical records from three public hospitals of children aged 2-18 years with beta-thalassemia/Hb E and homozygous beta-thalassemia were reviewed for direct medical cost determination. For direct non-medical cost and indirect cost, a family member was interviewed. It was found that 201 patients with beta-thalassemia/Hb E (91%) and homozygous beta-thalassemia (9%) were recruited for this study. Ninety-two (46%) were severe thalassemia and 109 (54%) were mild to moderate severity. The annual average cost of treatment was US$950; 59% was direct medical cost, 17% direct non-medical cost, and 24% indirect cost. The costs were differentiated by some potential predictors. Significant predictor variables were: hospital, health insurance scheme, blood transfusion pattern, and iron chelation drug use. The average annual cost per patient was calculated, and the cost model was estimated. These would be applied for national planning, economic evaluation of treatment and prevention interventions, and budget impact analysis.

  3. Crystal structure of recombinant soybean beta-amylase complexed with beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Adachi, M; Mikami, B; Katsube, T; Utsumi, S

    1998-07-31

    In order to study the interaction of soybean beta-amylase with substrate, we solved the crystal structure of beta-cyclodextrin-enzyme complex and compared it with that of alpha-cyclodextrin-enzyme complex. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli at a high level as a soluble and catalytically active protein. The purified recombinant enzyme had properties nearly identical to those of native soybean beta-amylase and formed the same crystals as the native enzyme. The crystal structure of recombinant enzyme complexed with beta-cyclodextrin was refined at 2. 07-A resolution with a final crystallographic R value of 15.8% (Rfree = 21.1%). The root mean square deviation in the position of C-alpha atoms between this recombinant enzyme and the native enzyme was 0.22 A. These results indicate that the expression system established here is suitable for studying structure-function relationships of beta-amylase. The conformation of the bound beta-cyclodextrin takes an ellipsoid shape in contrast to the circular shape of the bound alpha-cyclodextrin. The cyclodextrins shared mainly two glucose binding sites, 3 and 4. The glucose residue 4 was slightly shifted from the maltose binding site. This suggests that the binding site of the cyclodextrins is important for its holding of a cleaved substrate, which enables the multiple attack mechanism of beta-amylase.

  4. The nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus generates the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta).

    PubMed

    Korten, Simone; Büttner, Dietrich W; Schmetz, Christel; Hoerauf, Achim; Mand, Sabine; Brattig, Norbert

    2009-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a highly conserved cytokine that has a well-known regulatory role in immunity, but also in organ development of most animal species including helminths. Homologous tgf-b genes and mRNA have been detected in the filaria Brugia malayi. The in situ protein expression is unknown for filariae. Therefore, we examined several filariae for the expression and localization of latent (stable) TGF-beta in adult and larval stages. A specific goat anti-human latency associated protein (LAP, TGF-beta 1) antibody, purified by affinity chromatography, was used for light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. Adult Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca gibsoni, Onchocerca ochengi, Onchocerca armillata, Onchocerca fasciata, Onchocerca flexuosa, Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria sp., B. malayi, and infective larvae of W. bancrofti reacted with the antibody. Labeling of worm tissues varied between negative and all degrees of positive reactions. Latent TGF-beta was strongly expressed adjacent to the cell membranes of the hypodermis, epithelia, and muscles and adjacent to many nuclei in all organs. TGF-beta was well expressed in worms without Wolbachia endobacteria eliminated by doxycycline treatment. Pleomorphic neoplasms in O. volvulus were also labeled. We conclude that latent TGF-beta protein is expressed by filariae independently of Wolbachia, possibly regulating worm tissue homeostasis.

  5. Structural differences between brain beta 1- and beta 2-tubulins: implications for microtubule assembly and colchicine binding.

    PubMed Central

    Little, M; Ludueña, R F

    1985-01-01

    Brain beta 1- and beta 2-tubulins are the major and minor beta-tubulin components of chordate brain tissue, respectively. Two cysteines of beta 1, but not beta 2, can be specifically cross-linked with the bifunctional sulfhydryl reagent N,N'-ethylenebis(iodoacetamide) (EBI). They are in positions 239 and 354. Although separated by 115 amino acid residues along the beta 1-chain, the two sulfur atoms are maximally 9 A apart in the beta 1 tertiary structure. The failure of beta 2 to form a similar cross-bridge is due to the absence of a cysteine in position 239. At least 10 other sequence differences are also present between beta 1 and beta 2. Positions 239 and 354 of beta 1 probably occupy a key part of the tubulin molecule. The microtubule assembly inhibitors colchicine and podophyllotoxin appear to bind on or near this site and EBI is a potent inhibitor of microtubule assembly. Furthermore, the beta 1-cysteine in position 239 appears to be the most reactive in brain tubulin under the given conditions. The marked difference between beta 1 and beta 2 in this critical region suggests that they may have different functions in brain tissue. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4018027

  6. Mechanisms of impaired beta-adrenoceptor-induced airway relaxation by interleukin-1beta in vivo in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Koto, H; Mak, J C; Haddad, E B; Xu, W B; Salmon, M; Barnes, P J; Chung, K F

    1996-01-01

    We studied the in vivo mechanism of beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) hyporesponsiveness induced by intratracheal instillation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta, 500 U) in Brown-Norway rats. Tracheal and bronchial smooth muscle responses were measured under isometric conditions ex vivo. Contractile responses to electrical field stimulation and to carbachol were not altered, but maximal relaxation induced by isoproterenol (10(-6)-10(-5) M) was significantly reduced 24 h after IL-1beta treatment in tracheal tissues and to a lesser extent, in the main bronchi. Radioligand binding using [125I]iodocyanopindolol revealed a 32+/-7% reduction in beta-ARs in lung tissues from IL-1beta-treated rats, without any significant changes in beta2-AR mRNA level measured by Northern blot analysis. Autoradiographic studies also showed significant reduction in beta2-AR in the airways. Isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation was reduced by IL-1beta at 24 h in trachea and lung tissues. Pertussis toxin reversed this hyporesponsiveness to isoproterenol but not to forskolin in lung tissues. Western blot analysis revealed an IL-1beta-induced increase in Gi(alpha) protein expression. Thus, IL-1beta induces an attenuation of beta-AR-induced airway relaxation through mechanisms involving a reduction in beta-ARs, an increase in Gi(alpha) subunit, and a defect in adenylyl cyclase activity. PMID:8878428

  7. (22S)-6-O-acetyl-21betaH-hopane-3beta,6beta,22,29-tetrol from oakmoss (Evernia prunastri).

    PubMed

    Lutnaes, Bjart Frode; Bruun, Torger; Kjøsen, Helge

    2004-08-01

    A novel hopanoid triterpene, (22S)-6-O-acetyl-21betaH-hopane-3beta,6beta,22,29-tetraol, was isolated from oakmoss (Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.), as identified from 1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC NMR, MS and IR spectroscopy. During recrystallisation a new compound, 30-nor-6-O-acetyl-3beta,6beta-dihydroxy-21alphaH-hopan-22-one, was formed by a formal loss of methanol from the dihydroxypropyl moiety. No biological activity was found for the naturally occurring compound upon testing against a series of fish and human pathogenic bacteria.

  8. Monitoring the human beta1, beta2, beta3 adrenergic receptors expression and purification in Pichia pastoris using the fluorescence properties of the enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Talmont, Franck

    2009-01-01

    The three beta adrenergic receptor subtypes, beta1-, beta2- and beta3-, were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. These receptors were N-terminally fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and the fluorescent properties of EGFP were used: (1) to select the recombinant strains, (2) to monitor the expression of the fluorescent receptors, and (3) to monitor the purification of the receptors by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. We demonstrate here that Pichia pastoris can be an alternative host to express and purify milligram amounts of human beta adrenergic receptors.

  9. Macrocyclic beta-sheet peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through intermolecular beta-sheet interactions.

    PubMed

    Khakshoor, Omid; Demeler, Borries; Nowick, James S

    2007-05-02

    This paper reports the design, synthesis, and characterization of a family of cyclic peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through beta-sheet interactions. These peptides are 54-membered-ring macrocycles comprising an extended heptapeptide beta-strand, two Hao beta-strand mimics [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] joined by one additional alpha-amino acid, and two delta-linked ornithine beta-turn mimics [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Peptide 3a, as the representative of these cyclic peptides, contains a heptapeptide sequence (TSFTYTS) adapted from the dimerization interface of protein NuG2 [PDB ID: 1mio]. 1H NMR studies of aqueous solutions of peptide 3a show a partially folded monomer in slow exchange with a strongly folded oligomer. NOE studies clearly show that the peptide self-associates through edge-to-edge beta-sheet dimerization. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion coefficient measurements and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) studies establish that the oligomer is a tetramer. Collectively, these experiments suggest a model in which cyclic peptide 3a oligomerizes to form a dimer of beta-sheet dimers. In this tetrameric beta-sheet sandwich, the macrocyclic peptide 3a is folded to form a beta-sheet, the beta-sheet is dimerized through edge-to-edge interactions, and this dimer is further dimerized through hydrophobic face-to-face interactions involving the Phe and Tyr groups. Further studies of peptides 3b-3n, which are homologues of peptide 3a with 1-6 variations in the heptapeptide sequence, elucidate the importance of the heptapeptide sequence in the folding and oligomerization of this family of cyclic peptides. Studies of peptides 3b-3g show that aromatic residues across from Hao improve folding of the peptide, while studies of peptides 3h-3n indicate that hydrophobic residues at positions R3 and R5 of the heptapeptide sequence are important in oligomerization.

  10. The soybean beta-conglycinin beta 51-63 fragment suppresses appetite by stimulating cholecystokinin release in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Takashi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2003-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that soybean beta-conglycinin peptone suppresses food intake and gastric emptying by direct action on rat small intestinal mucosal cells to stimulate cholecystokinin (CCK) release. The aim of the present study was to define the active fragment in beta-conglycinin by using synthetic peptides chosen from the sequence of three beta-conglycinin subunits. We selected the fragments that had multiple nonadjacent arginine residues, and investigated their ability to bind to components of the rat intestinal brush border membrane as well as to stimulate CCK release and appetite suppression. The fragment from 51 to 63 of the beta subunit (beta 51-63) had the strongest binding activity. Intraduodenal infusion of beta 51-63 inhibited food intake and markedly increased portal CCK concentration. The threshold concentration of beta 51-63 to affect food intake was 3 micro mol/L. The CCK-A receptor antagonist abolished the beta 51-63-induced suppression of food intake. Three types of smaller fragments of beta 51-63 (beta 51-59, beta 53-63 and beta 53-59) and two types of fragments similar to beta 51-63 in the beta-conglycinin alpha and alpha' subunits (alpha 212-224 and alpha' 230-240) had less binding ability than did beta 51-63. Model peptides constructed with arginine (R) and glycine (G), such as GRGRGRG, had strong binding affinity, but peptides containing a single R or RR did not. These results indicate that the beta-conglycinin beta 51-63 fragment is the bioactive appetite suppressant in beta-conglycinin, and multiple arginine residues in the fragment may be involved in this effect.

  11. Effect of targeted deletions of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic-receptor subtypes on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Phillip M; Lin, Chu-Chuan; Powers, Jennifer; Kobilka, Brian K; Dubin, Anne M; Bernstein, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-ARs) play a major role in regulating heart rate (HR) and contractility in the intact cardiovascular system. Three subtypes (beta1, beta2, and beta3) are expressed in heart tissue, and the role of each subtype in regulating cardiac function has previously been determined by using both pharmacological and gene-targeting approaches. However, previous studies have only examined the role of beta-ARs in the macrolevel regulation of HR. We employed three knockout (KO) mouse lines, beta1-KO, beta2-KO, and beta1/beta2 double KO (DL-KO), to examine the role that beta-AR subtypes play in HR variability (HRV) and in the sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs into HR control. Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) in frequency domain methods of ECG spectral analysis was used to resolve HRV into high- and low-frequency (HF and LF) powers. Resting HR (in beats/min) was decreased in beta1-KO [488 (SD 27)] and DL-KO [495 (SD 12)] mice compared with wild-type [WT; 638 (SD 30)] or beta2-KO [656 (SD 51)] (P < 0.0005) mice. Mice lacking beta1-ARs (beta1-KO and DL-KO) had increased HRV (as illustrated by the standard deviation of normal R-R intervals) and increased normalized HF and LF powers compared with mice with intact beta1-ARs (WT and beta2-KO). These results demonstrate the differential role of beta-AR subtypes in regulating autonomic signaling.

  12. Gene encoding the human beta-hexosaminidase beta chain: extensive homology of intron placement in the alpha- and beta-chain genes.

    PubMed Central

    Proia, R L

    1988-01-01

    Lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) is composed of two structurally similar chains, alpha and beta, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing beta-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the alpha and beta chains, the beta-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The beta-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over approximately 40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the alpha-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions. This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the alpha and beta chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor. PMID:2964638

  13. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 modulates beta 1 and beta 5 integrin receptors and induces the de novo expression of the alpha v beta 6 heterodimer in normal human keratinocytes: implications for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying the promotion of wound healing by TGF-beta 1 is incompletely understood. We report that TGF-beta 1 regulates the regenerative/migratory phenotype of normal human keratinocytes by modulating their integrin receptor repertoire. In growing keratinocyte colonies but not in fully stratified cultured epidermis, TGF-beta 1: (a) strongly upregulates the expression of the fibronectin receptor alpha 5 beta 1, the vitronectin receptor alpha v beta 5, and the collagen receptor alpha 2 beta 1 by differentially modulating the synthesis of their alpha and beta subunits; (b) downregulates the multifunctional alpha 3 beta 1 heterodimer; (c) induces the de novo expression and surface exposure of the alpha v beta 6 fibronectin receptor; (d) stimulates keratinocyte migration toward fibronectin and vitronectin; (e) induces a marked perturbation of the general mechanism of polarized domain sorting of both beta 1 and beta 4 dimers; and (f) causes a pericellular redistribution of alpha v beta 5. These data suggest that alpha 5 beta 1, alpha v beta 6, and alpha v beta 5, not routinely used by keratinocytes resting on an intact basement membrane, act as "emergency" receptors, and uncover at least one of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the peculiar integrin expression in healing human wounds. Indeed, TGF-beta 1 reproduces the integrin expression pattern of keratinocytes located at the injury site, particularly of cells in the migrating epithelial tongue at the leading edge of the wound. Since these keratinocytes are inhibited in their proliferative capacity, these data might account for the apparent paradox of a TGF-beta 1-dependent stimulation of epidermal wound healing associated with a growth inhibitory effect on epithelial cells. PMID:7537276

  14. Immunolocalization of keratin-associated beta-proteins (beta-keratins) in scales of the reptiles Sphenodon punctatus indicates that different beta-proteins are present in beta- and alpha-layers.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, L

    2012-12-01

    The present ultrastructural immunocytochemical study analyzes the localization of keratin-associated beta-proteins (beta-keratins) in the epidermis of the ancient reptile Sphenodon punctatus, a relict species adapted to mid-cold conditions. The epidermis comprises two main layers, indicated as beta- and alpha-keratin layers. The beta-layer contains small beta-proteins (beta-keratins) identified by using three different antibodies while the alpha-layer is poorly or not labeled for these proteins. Using other two antibodies directed against specific amino acid sequences identified in beta-proteins of lizard it results that a high-glycine beta-protein (HgG5) is specific for the beta-layer. Another antibody that recognizes glycine-cysteine medium-rich beta-proteins (HgGC10) immuno-stains beta- and alpha-layers. This pattern of distribution suggests that both beta- and alpha-layers contain beta-proteins of different types that associate and replace intermediate-filament alpha-keratins during the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Therefore the different epidermal layers of the epidermis in S. punctatus, characterized by a specific cytology, material properties and consistency appear to derive from the prevalent type of beta-proteins synthesized in each epidermal layer and not from the alternation between beta- and alpha-keratins. The present observations are discussed in comparison to previous results from lizard epidermis and indicate that beta-keratins correspond to keratin-associated proteins that through their internal beta-pleated region are capable to form filaments in addition to intermediate filaments keratins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Critical role for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection and bacterial replication-independent secretion of IL-1beta in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Prantner, Daniel; Darville, Toni; Sikes, James D; Andrews, Charles W; Brade, Helmut; Rank, Roger G; Nagarajan, Uma M

    2009-12-01

    Recent findings have implicated interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) as an important mediator of the inflammatory response in the female genital tract during chlamydial infection. But how IL-1beta is produced and its specific role in infection and pathology are unclear. Therefore, our goal was to determine the functional consequences and cellular sources of IL-1beta expression during a chlamydial genital infection. In the present study, IL-1beta(-/-) mice exhibited delayed chlamydial clearance and decreased frequency of hydrosalpinx compared to wild-type (WT) mice, implying an important role for IL-1beta both in the clearance of infection and in the mediation of oviduct pathology. At the peak of IL-1beta secretion in WT mice, the major producers of IL-1beta in vivo are F4/80(+) macrophages and GR-1(+) neutrophils, but not CD45(-) epithelial cells. Although elicited mouse macrophages infected with Chlamydia muridarum in vitro secrete minimal IL-1beta, in vitro prestimulation of macrophages by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Escherichia coli or C. trachomatis L2 prior to infection greatly enhanced secretion of IL-1beta from these cells. By using LPS-primed macrophages as a model system, it was determined that IL-1beta secretion was dependent on caspase-1, potassium efflux, and the activity of serine proteases. Significantly, chlamydia-induced IL-1beta secretion in macrophages required bacterial viability but not growth. Our findings demonstrate that IL-1beta secreted by macrophages and neutrophils has important effects in vivo during chlamydial infection. Additionally, prestimulation of macrophages by chlamydial TLR ligands may account for the elevated levels of pro-IL-1beta mRNA observed in vivo in this cell type.

  16. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) monoclonal antibodies with lupus anticoagulant-like activity enhance the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids.

    PubMed Central

    Takeya, H.; Mori, T.; Gabazza, E. C.; Kuroda, K.; Deguchi, H.; Matsuura, E.; Ichikawa, K.; Koike, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    beta2-Glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), a plasma glycoprotein with phospholipid-binding property, is known to be the actual target antigen for autoimmune type anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLs). Certain groups of aCLs (anti-beta2GPI antibodies) exert lupus anticoagulant (LA) activity and perturb the function of vascular endothelial cells. This investigation aimed at highlighting some insights into the molecular basis by which aCLs exert their biological effects by using anti-beta2GPI mAbs with well-characterized epitopes from mice and from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Anti-beta2GPI mAbs directed against the third domain (Cof-20 and Cof-22) and fourth domain (Cof-21, EY1C8, and EY2C9) of beta2GPI inhibited the thrombin generation induced by Russell's viper venom in diluted plasma and that induced by the prothrombinase complex reconstituted with purified clotting factors. This anticoagulant activity was abrogated in the presence of an excess amount of phospholipids, thus resembling the LA activity. In stark contrast, anti-beta2GPI mAbs directed against the fifth domain and the carboxy-terminal region of the fourth domain showed no LA-like activity. These findings suggest that the LA activity of anti-beta2GPI antibodies depends on their epitope specificity. Experiments carried out to clarify the mechanism of the LA activity showed that anti-beta2GPI mAbs with LA-like activity, but not those without this effect, enhance the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids. In addition, the F(ab')2 fragment, but not the Fab' fragment, of the anti-beta2GPI mAbs was found to enhance the LA activity and the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids, suggesting that anti-beta2GPI antibodies induce formation of multiple complexes of beta2GPI on the surface of phospholipids because of their bivalent property. This clustering of beta2GPI molecules induced by anti-beta2GPI antibodies, probably because of their multivalent property and epitope specificity, might hinder the lateral mobility and

  17. MCNP S(. alpha. beta. ) detector scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J.S.; Prael, R.E.

    1990-10-01

    An approximate method to allow S({alpha},{Beta}) thermal collision contributions to point detectors and DXTRAN by Prael has been implemented in MCNP4. The method is described and test results are presented, including some results that indicate inadequacies in the NJOY processing of the nuclear data. 9 refs., 53 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Beta Bremsstrahlung dose in concrete shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Chandrika, B. M.; Rudraswamy, B.; Sankarshan, B. M.

    2012-05-01

    In a nuclear reactor, beta nuclides are released during nuclear reactions. These betas interact with shielding concrete and produces external Bremsstrahlung (EB) radiation. To estimate Bremsstrahlung dose and shield efficiency in concrete, it is essential to know Bremsstrahlung distribution or spectra. The present work formulated a new method to evaluate the EB spectrum and hence Bremsstrahlung dose of beta nuclides (32P, 89Sr, 90Sr-90Y, 90Y, 91Y, 208Tl, 210Bi, 234Pa and 40K) in concrete. The Bremsstrahlung yield of these beta nuclides in concrete is also estimated. The Bremsstrahlung yield in concrete due to 90Sr-90Y is higher than those of other given nuclides. This estimated spectrum is accurate because it is based on more accurate modified atomic number (Zmod) and Seltzer's data, where an electron-electron interaction is also included. Presented data in concrete provide a quick and convenient reference for radiation protection. The present methodology can be used to calculate the Bremsstrahlung dose in nuclear shielding materials. It can be quickly employed to give a first pass dose estimate prior to a more detailed experimental study.

  19. Automatic TLI recognition system beta prototype testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the beta prototype automatic target recognition system ATR3, and some performance tests done with this system. This is a fully operational system, with a high computational speed. It is useful for findings any kind of target in digitized image data, and as a general purpose image analysis tool.

  20. Depression and topical ophthalmic beta adrenergic blockade.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, J A

    1991-05-01

    Beta adrenergic blocking agents are in widespread use as both systemic and topical medications. While they are safely used in the great majority of cases, several side effects are well known. Central nervous system side effects, specifically depression, can be among the most clinically important of these and must be investigated by the clinician.

  1. Beta Backscatter Measures the Hardness of Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, E. T.; Roje, F. N.

    1986-01-01

    Nondestructive testing method determines hardness, on Shore scale, of room-temperature-vulcanizing silicone rubber. Measures backscattered beta particles; backscattered radiation count directly proportional to Shore hardness. Test set calibrated with specimen, Shore hardness known from mechanical durometer test. Specimen of unknown hardness tested, and radiation count recorded. Count compared with known sample to find Shore hardness of unknown.

  2. Double beta decay: recent developments and projections

    SciTech Connect

    Avignone, F.T. III; Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H.; Wogman, N.A.

    1983-08-01

    A report of recent events in both theoretical and experimental aspects of double beta decay is given. General theoretical considerations, recent developments in nuclear structure theory, geochronological determinations of half lives and ratios as well as laboratory experiments are discussed with emphasis on the past three years. Some projections are given. 28 references.

  3. ATCA characterisation of first BETA fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feain, Ilana; Johnston, Simon

    2011-04-01

    To fully characterise 2 30 square degree fields that will become the first science fields observed on BETA and at the same time to extract new science from the ATCA observations. The fields are centred on the Circinus galaxy and the Fornax cluster (and including Fornax A)

  4. Successful pregnancy in beta-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Martin, K

    1983-09-01

    Successful pregnancy is described in a patient with beta-thalassaemia major, transfusion-dependent from four months of age and treated with desferrioxamine from 13 years of age. The pregnancy was concealed. No antenatal care was given nor any planned alteration in management of her thalassaemic state.

  5. Beta Backscatter Measures the Hardness of Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, E. T.; Roje, F. N.

    1986-01-01

    Nondestructive testing method determines hardness, on Shore scale, of room-temperature-vulcanizing silicone rubber. Measures backscattered beta particles; backscattered radiation count directly proportional to Shore hardness. Test set calibrated with specimen, Shore hardness known from mechanical durometer test. Specimen of unknown hardness tested, and radiation count recorded. Count compared with known sample to find Shore hardness of unknown.

  6. Performance Comparison: Superbeams, Beta Beams, Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Walter

    2011-10-06

    In this talk, the performance comparison among superbeams (SB), beta beams (BB), and the Neutrino Factory (NF) is discussed. The ingredients to such a comparison are described, and the optimization and status of BB and NF are addressed. Finally, one example for the performance comparison is shown.

  7. Effect of beta blockade on singing performance.

    PubMed

    Gates, G A; Saegert, J; Wilson, N; Johnson, L; Shepherd, A; Hearne, E M

    1985-01-01

    The symptoms associated with performance anxiety, or the so-called stage fright syndrome, are similar to those of alpha and beta adrenergic stimulation. Suppression of symptoms and improvement in instrumentalist's performance after beta blockade suggest that this modality would be of benefit for singers as well. To evaluate the dose-effect relationship of beta blockade upon singing performance and the possible effect of these agents upon performance maturation, we studied 34 singing students during end of semester juries, using a double-blind crossover paradigm. Students performed once with either placebo, 20, 40, or 80 mg of nadolol, and again 48 hours later, with placebo. There was a significant dose-related, limiting effect upon intraperformance cardiac rate. A small, but statistically significant, dichotomous effect upon performance rating was noted: low-dose nadolol tended to enhance performance, whereas larger doses impaired performance. We conclude that the effects of low dose beta blockade upon singing are minimally helpful and high doses may detract from performance ability.

  8. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; Hayes, James C.; Mayer, Michael F.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Sivels, Ciara B.; Suarez, Rey

    2016-03-31

    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  9. .beta.-glucosidase 5 (BGL5) compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl5, and the corresponding BGL5 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL5, recombinant BGL5 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  10. Aerospace applications of beta titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Rodney R.

    1994-07-01

    Beta alloys are beginning to play a significant role in both military and commercial aircraft. Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al forgings, for example, play major roles in the McDonnell Douglas C-17 and the Boeing 777. The attractive properties of Beta-C are increasing the use of titanium, rather than steel, in aircraft springs. Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn is subject to increasing usage primarily because of its strip producibility and formability. Beta-21S is gaining importance for high-temperature applications. New alloys such as β-CEZ, SP-700, and Timetal® LCB could become important because of advantageous costs, processing, and/or properties. In the past, the use of beta alloys has largely been driven by their superior properties and weight-savings potential. In the future, cost will become more important. As a result, a greater emphasis will be placed on lower cost alloys and/or taking advantage of the improved processing capabilities of these alloys to minimize final component costs.

  11. Venus - Fractured Somerville Crater in Beta Regio

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This radar image from NASA's Magellan spacecraft is of a half crater located in the rift between Rhea and Theia Montes in Beta Regio on Venus and has been cut by many fractures or faults since it was formed by the impact of a large asteroid. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00100

  12. Beta-2-agonists of third generation.

    PubMed

    Palma-Carlos, A G; Palma-Carlos, G S

    1986-04-01

    Beta-adrenergic agents have been used for a long time in the treatment of asthma. For the purpose of bronchodilation the better results would be attained with the increase in Beta-2-selectivity. From the newer Beta-agonists the mot currently used are TERBUTALINE, FENOTEROL, SALBUTAMOL, CLEMBUTEROL, TOLBUTEROL, CARBUTEROL, PROCATEROL, RIMITEROL and REPROTEROL, this last combining in its molecule the structure of a beta-agonist with a Xanthine group. These agents could be used in different ways, by mouth, injection and inhalation (with a exception of Clembuterol which is effective only by oral route). The authors have, some years ago, comparatively studied the bronchodilating effect of Salbutamol and Fenoterol including 18 patients. The main increase of PFR was slightly higher after FENOTEROL but this difference was not significant. The authors have studied REPROTEROL by inhalation and oral routes in 11 asthmatic patients. After inhalation of 400 mcg of REPROTEROL the bronchodilator effect was comparable to others inhaled bronchodilators. However they could not confirm that REPROTEROL acts also as a Xanthine and only traces of Theophylline have been detected in blood of subjects taking it. These data seem to indicate that REPROTEROL do not release Theophylline in the body or only release a Xanthine like compound not detected by "EMIT" of high pressure liquid chromatography.

  13. Anionic Emulsion-Mediated Synthesis of Zeolite Beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chao; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Wei; Cui, Lishan

    Well-crystallized zeolite beta is first synthesized in the anionic emulsion systems of cyclohexane/sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate(SDBS)/pentanol/zeolite synthesis mixture. Beta materials are then characterized by XRD, SEM, and N2-adsorption techniques. Compared to beta samples grown using the same synthesis mixture in the absence of the anionic emulsion, the as-synthesized beta presents uniform and well-defined larger crystals. Interestingly, N2-adsorption results show that such beta sample possesses both ordered mesopores at 3.9 nm and macropores centered at 60.5 nm. These pores combined with the intricate micropores of the Beta crystal comprise the hierarchical porosity. The hierarchical pore-structured zeolite beta may have potential catalysis application in reactions involving large molecules. Additionally, control experiments are also performed to ascertain the effects of the individual emulsion components. Further synthesis study finds the transformation of zeolite beta to ZSM-5 through increasing oil contents, crystallization temperature and time.

  14. Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

  15. BETA-SILICON CARBIDE AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR DEVICES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BETA- SILICON CARBIDE AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR DEVICES. GROWTH OF BETA SIC CRYSTALS FROM SOLUTION USING MOLTEN SI AS SOLVENT. INCREASED RESISTIVITY (FROM 0.5 TO 3.8 OHM/CM) ACCOMPANIED DECREASE IN N CONTAMINATION SOURCES.

  16. Multivariate Generalized Beta Distributions with Applications to Utility Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libby, David L.; Novick, Melvin R.

    1982-01-01

    Two multivariate probability distributions, a generalized beta distribution and a generalized F distribution, are derived. Formulas for the moments of these distributions are given and an example of the bivariate generalized beta is presented. (Author/JKS)

  17. BetaShape: A new code for improved analytical calculations of beta spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougeot, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    The new code BetaShape has been developed in order to improve the nuclear data related to beta decays. An analytical model was considered, except for the relativistic electron wave functions, for ensuring fast calculations. Output quantities are mean energies, log ft values and beta and neutrino spectra for single and multiple transitions. The uncertainties from the input parameters, read from an ENSDF file, are propagated. A database of experimental shape factors is included. A comparison over the entire ENSDF database with the standard code currently used in nuclear data evaluations shows consistent results for the vast majority of the transitions and highlights the improvements that can be expected with the use of BetaShape.

  18. Universality in Chiral Random Matrix Theory at {beta} = 1 and {beta} = 4

    SciTech Connect

    Sener, M.K.; Verbaarschot, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the kernel for the spectral correlation functions of invariant chiral random matrix ensembles with real ({beta}=1 ) and quaternion real ({beta}=4 ) matrix elements is expressed in terms of the kernel of the corresponding complex Hermitian random matrix ensembles ({beta}=2 ). Such identities are exact in case of a Gaussian probability distribution and, under certain smoothness assumptions, they are shown to be valid asymptotically for an arbitrary finite polynomial potential. They are proved by means of a construction proposed by Brezin and Neuberger. Universal behavior of the eigenvalues close to zero for all three chiral ensembles then follows from microscopic universality for {beta}=2 as shown by Akemann, Damgaard, Magnea, and Nishigaki. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Calcium channel beta subunit promotes voltage-dependent modulation of alpha 1 B by G beta gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, A; Bell, D C; Stephens, G J; Page, K M; Dolphin, A C

    2000-01-01

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) are heteromultimers composed of a pore-forming alpha1 subunit and auxiliary subunits, including the intracellular beta subunit, which has a strong influence on the channel properties. Voltage-dependent inhibitory modulation of neuronal VDCCs occurs primarily by activation of G-proteins and elevation of the free G beta gamma dimer concentration. Here we have examined the interaction between the regulation of N-type (alpha 1 B) channels by their beta subunits and by G beta gamma dimers, heterologously expressed in COS-7 cells. In contrast to previous studies suggesting antagonism of G protein inhibition by the VDCC beta subunit, we found a significantly larger G beta gamma-dependent inhibition of alpha 1 B channel activation when the VDCC alpha 1 B and beta subunits were coexpressed. In the absence of coexpressed VDCC beta subunit, the G beta gamma dimers, either expressed tonically or elevated via receptor activation, did not produce the expected features of voltage-dependent G protein modulation of N-type channels, including slowed activation and prepulse facilitation, while VDCC beta subunit coexpression restored all of the hallmarks of G beta gamma modulation. These results suggest that the VDCC beta subunit must be present for G beta gamma to induce voltage-dependent modulation of N-type calcium channels. PMID:10920007

  20. Integrin alpha v beta 3 differentially regulates adhesive and phagocytic functions of the fibronectin receptor alpha 5 beta 1

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The plasma protein fibronectin is an important opsonin in wound repair and host defense. To better understand the process of fibronectin- mediated phagocytosis, we have transfected K562 cells, which endogenously express alpha 5 beta 1, with alpha v beta 3. In these transfectants, antibodies to alpha v beta 3 block phagocytosis of fibronectin-opsonized beads completely, even though half the ingestion occurs through endogenous alpha 5 beta 1 receptors. alpha 5 beta 1- mediated adhesion to fibronectin-coated surfaces is unaffected by alpha v beta 3 ligation. Neither alpha v beta 5 nor alpha M beta 2 ligation affects alpha 5 beta 1 phagocytic function in transfectants expressing these receptors. Pharmacologic data suggest that alpha v beta 3 ligation suppresses the phagocytic competence of high affinity alpha 5 beta 1 receptors through a signal transduction pathway, perhaps involving protein kinase C. In addition to its significance for phagocytosis, alpha v beta 3 regulation of alpha 5 beta 1 function may be significant for its roles in cell migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis. PMID:7525603

  1. Binding capacity of a barley beta-D-glucan to the beta-glucan recognition molecule dectin-1.

    PubMed

    Tada, Rui; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Tsubaki, Kazufumi; Ohno, Naohito

    2008-02-27

    To clarify whether barley beta-glucans exhibit their biological effects via binding to dectin-1, a pivotal receptor for beta-1,3-glucan, the structure of barley beta-glucan E70-S (BBG-70) was unambiguously investigated by NMR spectroscopy and studied for its binding capacity and specificity to dectin-1 by ELISA. NMR spectroscopy confirmed that BBG-70 contains two different linkage glucans, namely, alpha-glucan and beta-glucan, which are not covalently attached to one another. Beta-glucan within BBG-70 is a linear mixed-linkage beta-glucan composed of 1,3- and 1,4-beta-D-glucopyranose residues but does not contain the continuous 1,3-linkage. Competitive ELISA revealed that highly purified barley beta-glucan E70-S (pBBG-70) inhibits the binding of soluble dectin-1 to sonifilan (SPG), a beta-1,3-glucan, although at a concentration higher than that of SPG and laminarin. It was found that barley beta-glucan can be recognized by dectin-1, implying that barley beta-glucan might, at least in part, exhibit its biological effects via the recognition by dectin-1 of the ligand sugar structure, which may be formed by 1,3-beta- and 1,4-beta-glucosyl linkage.

  2. Synthesis and biological activity of brassinolide and its 22 beta, 23 beta-isomer: novel plant growth-promoting steroids.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M J; Mandava, N B; Meudt, W J; Lusby, W R; Spaulding, D W

    1981-11-01

    Brassinolide (2 alpha, 3 alpha, 22 alpha, 23 alpha-tetrahydroxy-24 alpha-methyl -B-homo-7-oxa-5 alpha-cholestan-6-one), a novel plant growth-promoting steroid isolated from rape pollen, and its hitherto unknown 22 beta, 23 beta-isomer were synthesized from a C-24 epimeric 60:40 mixture of 22-dehydroxampesterol (24 alpha-methyl) and brassicasterol (24 beta-methyl) from oysters. The method of synthesis favored the formation of the 22 beta, 23 beta-isomer by better than 4:1. Comparative plant growth-promoting capabilities of brassinolide, both natural and synthetic, and its three side chain cis-glycolic isomers in the bean second internode bioassay showed that the natural and synthetic brassinolides were equally active and caused splitting of the internode at the 0.1 microgram level. The least active was the 22 beta, 23 beta-isomer of brassinolide. The isomers with the 22 alpha, 23 alpha and 24 alpha, and the 22 beta, 23 beta and 24 beta configurations were highly active and were required at about 10 times the concentration of brassinolide to cause the same physiological response. In the bean first internode bioassay, an auxin-induced growth test system which employs isolated bean plant segments, the isomer with 22 beta, 23 beta and 24 beta configuration caused a greater response than brassinolide. Two of the four tetrahydroxy ketones obtained in the synthesis of the isomers were also active in both assays.

  3. Interleukin-1 beta inhibits proinsulin conversion in rat beta-cells via a nitric oxide-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zambre, Y; Van Schravendijk, C; Ling, Z

    2001-11-01

    Exposure of pancreatic beta-cells to interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) alters their protein expression and phenotype. Previous work has shown that IL-1 beta inhibited proinsulin conversion in rat islets, but the mechanism of this inhibition remained unknown. To investigate this phenomenon further, we examined purified rat beta-cells for IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of proinsulin conversion and nitric oxide (NO)-dependency of this inhibitory process. Rat beta-cells were cultured for 24 h with or without IL-1 beta and the inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase (iNOS) inhibitor N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (NMA). Exposure to IL-1 beta suppressed proinsulin-1 and proinsulin-2 synthesis by more than 50 %. Conversion of both proinsulin isoforms was also delayed. The suppressive effects of IL-1 beta on proinsulin synthesis and conversion were prevented by addition of NMA. Exposure to IL-1 beta also decreased the expression of the proinsulin convertase (PC) PC2. This decrease in PC2 expression was NO-dependent. In conclusion, IL-1 beta inhibition of proinsulin conversion in rat beta-cells occurs via an NO-mediated pathway.

  4. [Concentrations of thyroxine, beta carotene, vitamin A and pregnancy in heifers after administration of beta carotene].

    PubMed

    Bekeová, E; Elecko, J; Rosíval, I; Hajurka, J; Krajnicáková, M

    1985-12-01

    Serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), beta-carotene (beta K), vitamin A and conception after the first insemination on the zero, sixth and 21st day were studied in 63 heifers fed synthetic beta K supplement in groups I to IV at stanchion housing and low-carotene diet. The following amount of beta K was supplemented per head/day: I--0 mg (control, n = 17), II--100 mg (n = 16), III--200 mg (n = 14) and IV--400 mg (n = 16). The parameters were evaluated separately according to groups and conception. By comparing the T4 concentration between experimental groups and control, separately in non-gravid and gravid animals, a significant increase (P less than 0.05) was determined only on the zero day in the fourth group. At the same time, in the fourth group, in comparison with the others, insignificantly lower T4 values were recorded in non-gravid animals. beta K values on the zero day in gravid animals increased in a direct proportion to the higher supplement (P less than 0.05; P less than 0.01; P less than 0.001); in non-gravid animals the increase was slower (P less than 0.05; P less than 0.05; P less than 0.01), but differences in relation to gravidity were not significant. An increase of beta K had no significant effect on serum concentrations of vitamin A. Differences between groups as far as conception was concerned were insignificant. It follows from the results that increasing rates of beta K, with the exception of serum concentrations, had no significant effect on other parameters. Higher concentrations of T4 and a slower increase of beta K in non-gravid animals, however, point at mutual co-operation relation and its positive effect on conception in animals.

  5. An intermediate in a new synthesis approach to beta-substituted beta-hydroxyaspartame.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Johny; Rolland, Valérie; Martinez, Jean; Rolland, Marc

    2003-08-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of 1-tert-butyl 4-ethyl (2'R,3'R,5'R,2S,3S)-3-bromomethyl-3-hydroxy-2-[(2'-hydroxy-2',6',6'-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3'-ylidene)amino]succinate, C(21)H(34)BrNO(6), is presented. This compound is an intermediate in the new synthetic route to beta-substituted beta-hydroxyaspartates, which are blockers of glutamate transport.

  6. Biodegradation and aquatic toxicity of beta-alaninediacetic acid (beta-ADA).

    PubMed

    Nitschke, L; Wilk, A; Cammerer, C; Lind, G; Metzner, G

    1997-02-01

    The aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of the new chelating agent beta-alaninediacetic acid (beta-ADA) were investigated. There is no inhibition effect of beta-ADA in the daphnia magna 24 h test up to a concentration of 1000 mg/L. The algal growth inhibition test resulted in an EC 50 of 19.7 mg/L. An EC 20 of 740 mg/L was determined in the luminescent bacteria test. An EC 50 was not obtained in this test up to a concentration of 2000 mg/L beta-ADA. The degree of biodegradation of beta-ADA was determined in a static and a continuous test. The beta-ADA removal reached 98% at the end of the test after eight weeks in the continuous test which was carried out with laboratory activated sludge units simulating a waste water treatment plant. Further, biodegradation and toxicity tests were coupled, i.e. the effluents of the laboratory activated sludge units were applied in the toxicity tests. A higher toxicity of the effluents of the test units in comparison with the control unit was not observed.

  7. Study on the inclusion complexes of bromazepam with beta- and beta-hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Archontaki, H A; Vertzoni, M V; Athanassiou-Malaki, M H

    2002-05-15

    Solubility enhancement of the water insoluble bromazepam was studied during the formation of its inclusion complexes with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and beta-hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrin (beta-HP-CD). The phase solubility technique established by Higuchi and Connors and UV-spectrophotometric methods (zero- and second-order derivative approaches) were used to measure the changes introduced in this chemical system. The amount of time, which was necessary to reach equilibrium between inclusion complexes and their free components, was estimated and found equal to 24 h. The study was carried out at (i) pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C and (ii) pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C. The solubility of bromazepam increased linearly as a function of concentration for both beta-and beta-hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins. Thus, the phase solubility diagrams were classified as of A(L) type in all cases. Under the above-mentioned conditions, the formation constants of the inclusion complexes were calculated and their stoichiometry was evaluated, found in the range of 69-85 M(-1) and 1:1, respectively.

  8. Charge-exchange reactions and nuclear matrix elements for {beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Frekers, D.

    2009-11-09

    Charge-exchange reactions of (n, p) and (p, n) type at intermediate energies are a powerful tool for the study of nuclear matrix element in {beta}{beta} decay. The present paper reviews some of the most recent experiments in this context. Here, the (n, p) type reactions are realized through (d, {sup 2}He), where {sup 2}He refers to two protons in a singlet {sup 1}S{sub 0} state and where both of these are momentum analyzed and detected by the same spectrometer and detector. These reactions have been developed and performed exclusively at KVI, Groningen (NL), using an incident deuteron energy of 183 MeV. Final state resolutions of about 100 keV have routinely been available. On the other hand, the ({sup 3}He, t) reaction is of (p, n) type and was developed at the RCNP facility in Osaka (JP). Measurements with an unprecedented high resolution of 30 keV at incident energies of 420 MeV are now readily possible. Using both reaction types one can extract the Gamow-Teller transition strengths B(GT{sup +}) and B(GT{sup -}), which define the two ''legs'' of the {beta}{beta} decay matrix elements for the 2v{beta}{beta} decay The high resolution available in both reactions allows a detailed insight into the excitations of the intermediate odd-odd nuclei and, as will be shown, some unexpected features are being unveiled.

  9. 17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) in scleractinian corals and zooxanthellae.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Charles H; Lima, P H; Tarrant, A M; Atkinson, M J; Atkinson, S

    2006-04-01

    Steroid metabolism studies have yielded evidence of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) activity in corals. This project was undertaken to clarify whether there are multiple isoforms of 17beta-HSD, whether activity levels vary seasonally, and if zooxanthellae contribute to activity. 17Beta-HSD activity was characterized in zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate coral fragments collected in summer and winter and in zooxanthellae cultured from Montipora capitata. More specifically, 17beta-HSD activity was characterized with regard to steroid substrate and inhibitor specificity, coenzyme specificity, and Michaelis constants for estradiol (E2) and NADP+. Six samples each of M. capitata and Tubastrea coccinea (three summers, three winters) were assayed with E2 and NADP+. Specific activity levels (pmol/mg protein) varied 10-fold among M. capitata samples and 6-fold among T. coccinea samples. There was overlap of activity levels between summer and winter samples. NADP+/NAD+ activity ratios varied from 1.6 to 22.2 for M. capatita, 2.3 to 3.8 for T. coccinea and 0.7 to 1.1 for zooxanthellae. Coumestrol was the most inhibitory of the steroids and phytoestrogens tested. Our data confirm that corals and zooxanthellae contain 17beta-HSD and are consistent with the presence of more than one isoform of the enzyme.

  10. Beta scattering and beta back-scattering from a thin target

    SciTech Connect

    Bafandeh, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical technique is presented to determine the distribution of transmitted and back scattered beta particles as a function of angle of incident radiation on a target. Scatterers used consisted of metallic foils of various thicknesses and atomic number, such as Al, Zn, Fe, Ag, and Zr. Three pure beta-emitting radionuclides, [sup 32]P, [sup 204]Tl, and [sup 147]Pm characterized by end-point energies of 1.71 Mev, 0.769 Mev, and 0.225 Mev, respectively, were prepared as individual sources and used in the experimental work. A scintillation detector used in conjunction with the target scatterer and a specially designed fixture that allowed rotation about its vertical rotation axis provided the proper geometry and shielding for this experiment. Finally, the author attempted to compare experimental results with computer calculations and derived an algebraic equation to predict the intensity of beta particle back-scattered radiation as a function of energy of the source material, the scattering angle, scatterer thickness, and the material of the target scatterer. Unlike the case of heavy charged particles such as alpha particles, the effects of beta particle back scattering on dose calculations cannot be ignored. Scattering effects also have important implications with respect to the measurement of beta-emitting radionuclides and the measurements of beta radiation dose.

  11. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Morant, Marc

    2014-01-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase, or beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. [beta]-Lactamases in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amador, Paula; Prudencio, Cristina; Vieira, Monica; Ferraz, Ricardo; Fonte, Rosalia; Silva, Nuno; Coelho, Pedro; Fernandes, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    [beta]-lactamases are hydrolytic enzymes that inactivate the [beta]-lactam ring of antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. The major diversity of studies carried out until now have mainly focused on the characterization of [beta]-lactamases recovered among clinical isolates of Gram-positive staphylococci and Gram-negative…

  13. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    DOEpatents

    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  14. [beta]-Lactamases in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amador, Paula; Prudencio, Cristina; Vieira, Monica; Ferraz, Ricardo; Fonte, Rosalia; Silva, Nuno; Coelho, Pedro; Fernandes, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    [beta]-lactamases are hydrolytic enzymes that inactivate the [beta]-lactam ring of antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. The major diversity of studies carried out until now have mainly focused on the characterization of [beta]-lactamases recovered among clinical isolates of Gram-positive staphylococci and Gram-negative…

  15. Why Downside Beta Is Better: An Educational Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, James T.; Jennings, William P.; Phillips, G. Michael

    2013-01-01

    An educational example is presented that is an effective teaching illustration to help students understand the difference between traditional CAPM beta and downside (or down-market) beta and why downside beta is a superior measure for use in personal financial planning investment policy statements.

  16. Beta-Cryptoxanthin as a source of Vitamin A.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beta-cryptoxanthin is a common carotenoid that is found in fruit, and in human blood and tissues. Foods that are rich in beta-cryptoxanthin include tangerines, persimmons, and oranges. Beta-cryptoxanthin has several functions that are important for human health, including roles in antioxidant defens...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10215 - Benzenepropanol, .beta.-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzenepropanol, .beta.-methyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10215 Benzenepropanol, .beta.-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzenepropanol, .beta.-methyl- (PMN P-09...

  18. Stereoselective synthesis of nicotinamide beta-riboside and nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Franchetti, Palmarisa; Pasqualini, Michela; Petrelli, Riccardo; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vita, Patrizia; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2004-09-20

    The beta-anomers of N-ribofuranosylnicotine-3-carboxamide (beta-NAR) and its nicotinic acid analog (beta-NaR) were obtained by stereoselective synthesis via glycosylation of the presilylated bases under Vorbruggen's protocol. A NAR analog, methylated in position 3 of the ribosylic moiety, is also reported.

  19. [Beta-blockers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Sova, Milan; Kamasová, Monika; Václavík, Jan; Sovová, Eliška; Hajdová, Lenka; Kolek, Vítězslav

    2016-04-01

    This general article discusses the problems of beta-blockers use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its aim is to refute exaggerated concerns of physicians over possible undesirable effects of beta-blockers on the patient respiratory functions and present new data on the effects of beta-blockers on the extent of COPD exacerbations, bronchial reactivity and mortality of patients.

  20. Beta distributions: A computer program for probabilities and fractile points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlow, J. D.; Swaroop, R.

    1979-01-01

    A beta distribution is specified by range parameters a b, and two shape parameters alpha and beta 0. The computer program presented calculates any desired probability and/or fractile point for specified values of a, b, alpha, and beta. This program additionally computes gamma function values for integer and noninteger arguments.

  1. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply superficial...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply superficial...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply superficial...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply superficial...

  5. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply superficial...

  6. Occurrence of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    AWAPARA, J; ALLEN, K

    1959-11-06

    beta-Aminoisobutyric acid was isolated from organ extracts of Mytilus edulis. Ion-exchange resins and large-scale paper chromatography were used to isolate minute quantities of the compound. beta-Aminoisobutyric acid was identified by paper chromatography in several solvents and by conversion to DNP-beta-aminoisobutyric acid and subsequent chromatography of the derivative in several solvents.

  7. BAT3 interacts with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptors and enhances TGF-beta1-induced type I collagen expression in mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Joon Hyeok; Kim, Sung Il; Kim, Jin Kuk; Choi, Mary E

    2008-07-11

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) plays essential roles in a wide array of cellular processes, such as in development and the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis, including that associated with progressive kidney diseases. Tight regulation of its signaling pathways is critical, and proteins that associate with the TGF-beta receptors may exert positive or negative regulatory effects on TGF-beta signaling. In the present study we employed a yeast-based two-hybrid screening system to identify BAT3 (HLA-B-associated transcript 3) as a TGF-beta receptor-interacting protein. Analysis of endogenously expressed BAT3 in various tissues including the kidney reveals the existence of approximately 140-kDa full-length protein as well as truncated forms of BAT3 whose expression is developmentally regulated. Endogenous BAT3 protein interacts with TGF-beta receptors type I and type II in renal mesangial cells. Functional assays show that expression of full-length BAT3 results in enhancement of TGF-beta1-stimulated transcriptional activation of p3TP-Lux reporter, and these effects require the presence of functional TGF-beta signaling receptors as demonstrated in R-1B and DR-26 mutant cells. Moreover, expression of full-length BAT3, but not C-terminal truncated mutant of BAT3, enhanced TGF-beta1-induced type I collagen expression in mesangial cells, whereas knock down of BAT3 protein expression by small interfering RNA suppressed the expression of type I collagen induced by TGF-beta1. Our findings suggest that BAT3, a TGF-beta receptor-interacting protein, is capable of modulating TGF-beta signaling and acts as a positive regulator of TGF-beta1 stimulation of type I collagen expression in mesangial cells.

  8. The occultation of beta Scorpii by Jupiter. VII - The angular diameters of beta Scorpii A1 and A2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Rages, K.; Veverka, J.

    1976-01-01

    A new technique for measuring angular diameters of stars, which makes use of stellar images formed by planetary atmospheres during occultations, is described. This method has been applied to light curves of the 1971 May 13 occultation of beta Sco by Jupiter, yielding the angular diameters of the two early B stars comprising the spectroscopic binary beta Sco A. An angular diameter of about .000422 arcsec for beta Sco A1 and about .000264 arcsec is found for beta Sco A2. These angular diameters are in good agreement with that obtained with the intensity interferometer for beta Sco, a star of nearly the same magnitude and spectral type as beta Sco A1. If the distance to beta Sco A were precisely known, beta Sco A1 and A2 would become fundamental standards of mass, luminosity, and radius for early B stars. Present constraints on the distance and methods by which it could be accurately determined are discussed.

  9. Chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases of Citrobacter diversus. Interaction with beta-iodopenicillanate and labelling of the active site.

    PubMed Central

    Amicosante, G; Oratore, A; Joris, B; Galleni, M; Frère, J M; Van Beeumen, J

    1988-01-01

    Both forms of the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase of Citrobacter diversus react with beta-iodopenicillanate at a rate characteristic of class A beta-lactamases. The active site of form I was labelled with the same reagent. The sequence of the peptide obtained after trypsin hydrolysis is identical with that of a peptide obtained in a similar manner from the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase of Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:2848500

  10. Wind-Forced Baroclinic Beta-Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmadani, A.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.; Schneider, N.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2011-12-01

    A planetary beta-plume is a classical example of oceanic circulation induced by a localized vorticity source or sink that allows an analytical description in simplistic cases. Its barotropic structure is a zonally-elongated, gyre-like cell governed by the Sverdrup circulation on the beta-plane. The dominant zonal currents, found west of the source/sink, are often referred to as zonal jets. This simple picture describes the depth-integrated flow. Previous studies have investigated beta-plumes in a reduced-gravity framework or using other simple models with a small number of vertical layers, thereby lacking representation of the vertical structure. In addition, most previous studies use a purely linear regime without considering the role of eddies. However, these jets are often associated with strong lateral shear that makes them unstable under increased forcing. The circulation in such a nonlinear regime may involve eddy-mean flow interactions, which modify the time-averaged circulation. Here, the baroclinic structures of linear and nonlinear wind-forced beta-plumes are studied using a continuously-stratified, primitive equation, eddy-permitting ocean model (ROMS). The model is configured in an idealized rectangular domain for the subtropical ocean with a flat bottom. The surface wind forcing is a steady anticyclonic Gaussian wind vortex, which provides a localized vorticity source in the center of the domain. The associated wind stress curl and Ekman pumping comprise downwelling in the vortex center surrounded by a ring of weaker upwelling. Under weak forcing, the simulated steady-state circulation corresponds well with a theoretical linear beta-plume. While its depth-integrated transport exhibits a set of zonal jets, consistent with Sverdrup theory, the baroclinic structure of the plume is remarkably complex. Relatively fast westward decay of the surface currents occurs simultaneously with the deepening of the lower boundary of the plume. This deepening suggests

  11. Transforming growth factor-{beta}-inducible phosphorylation of Smad3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guannan; Matsuura, Isao; He, Dongming; Liu, Fang

    2009-04-10

    Smad proteins transduce the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signal at the cell surface into gene regulation in the nucleus. Upon TGF-beta treatment, the highly homologous Smad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptor at the SSXS motif in the C-terminal tail. Here we show that in addition to the C-tail, three (S/T)-P sites in the Smad3 linker region, Ser(208), Ser(204), and Thr(179) are phosphorylated in response to TGF-beta. The linker phosphorylation peaks at 1 h after TGF-beta treatment, behind the peak of the C-tail phosphorylation. We provide evidence suggesting that the C-tail phosphorylation by the TGF-beta receptor is necessary for the TGF-beta-induced linker phosphorylation. Although the TGF-beta receptor is necessary for the linker phosphorylation, the receptor itself does not phosphorylate these sites. We further show that ERK is not responsible for TGF-beta-dependent phosphorylation of these three sites. We show that GSK3 accounts for TGF-beta-inducible Ser(204) phosphorylation. Flavopiridol, a pan-CDK inhibitor, abolishes TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of Thr(179) and Ser(208), suggesting that the CDK family is responsible for phosphorylation of Thr(179) and Ser(208) in response to TGF-beta. Mutation of the linker phosphorylation sites to nonphosphorylatable residues increases the ability of Smad3 to activate a TGF-beta/Smad-target gene as well as the growth-inhibitory function of Smad3. Thus, these observations suggest that TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 linker sites inhibits its antiproliferative activity.

  12. Neutralizing Antibodies against IFN-[Beta] in Multiple Sclerosis: Antagonization of IFN-[Beta] Mediated Suppression of MMPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilli, Francesca; Bertolotto, Antonio; Sala, Arianna; Hoffmann, Francine; Capobianco, Marco; Malucchi, Simona; Glass, Tracy; Kappos, Ludwig; Lindberg, Raija L. P.; Leppert, David

    2004-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against interferon-[Beta] (IFN-Beta) develop in about a third of treated multiple sclerosis patients and are believed to reduce therapeutic efficacy of IFN-[Beta] on clinical and MRI measures. The expression of the interferon acute-response protein, myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) is a sensitive measure of the…

  13. Inhibition of 3beta- and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in rat Leydig cells by perfluorooctane acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Binghai; Chu, Yanhui; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-kun; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) is classified as a persistent organic pollutant and as an endocrine disruptor. The mechanism by which PFOA causes reduced testosterone production in males is not known. We tested our hypothesis that PFOA interferes with Leydig cell steroidogenic enzymes by measuring its effect on 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17beta-HSD3) activities in rat testis microsomes and Leydig cells. The IC(50)s of PFOA and mode of inhibition were assayed. PFOA inhibited microsomal 3beta-HSD with an IC(50) of 53.2+/-25.9 microM and 17beta-HSD3 with an IC(50) 17.7+/-6.8 microM. PFOA inhibited intact Leydig cell 3beta-HSD with an IC(50) of 146.1+/-0.9 microM and 17beta-HSD3 with an IC(50) of 194.8+/-1.0 microM. The inhibitions of 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD3 by PFOA were competitive for the substrates. In conclusion, PFOA inhibits 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD3 in rat Leydig cells.

  14. Human transforming growth factor. beta. -. cap alpha. /sub 2/-macroglobulin complex is a latent form of transforming growth factor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.S.; O'Grady, P.; Huang, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Human platelet-derived transforming growth factor ..beta.. (TGF..beta..) has been shown to be present as a high molecular weight latent form in human serum. Appearance of transforming growth factor activity, along with the change from high molecular weight form to low molecular weight form, was observed following treatment of the latent form of TGF..beta.. with acid or urea, suggesting that the latent form of TGF..beta.. is a complex of TGF..beta.. and a high molecular weight binding protein. Human ..cap alpha../sub 2/-M has been found to be a plasma binding protein for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in serum or plasma. TGF..beta.. and PDGF share similar properties. They, therefore, investigated the interaction between /sup 125/I-TGF..beta.. and ..cap alpha../sub 2/M. /sup 125/I-TGF..beta.. and purified human ..cap alpha../sub 2/M formed a complex as demonstrated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Most of the /sup 125/I-TGF..beta..-..cap alpha../sub 2/M complex could be dissociated by acid or urea treatment. These results suggest that ..cap alpha../sub 2/M is a binding protein for TGF..beta.. and that TGF..beta..-..cap alpha../sub 2/M complex may be the latent form of TGF..beta.. in serum.

  15. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled recombinant beta interferon (IFN-beta Ser17) to human cells

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, E.C.; Drummond, R.J.; Creasey, A.A.

    1984-12-01

    The authors investigated the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled beta interferon (IFN-beta Ser17), a nonglycosylated recombinant human fibroblast interferon in which cysteine at position 17 is replaced by serine by site-specific mutagenesis. An optimized chloramine T radiolabeling method produced a highly labeled, fully active /sup 125/I-IFN suitable for these studies. Unlike the case with the chloramine T method, incorporation of a single mole of Bolton-Hunter reagent into a mole of IFN-beta Ser17 led to nearly complete loss of biological activity. /sup 125/I-IFN-beta Ser17, prepared by the chloramine T method, bound specifically to human lymphoblastoid cells (Daudi) with a dissociation constant of 0.24 nM. The number of binding sites per cell was 4,000. In competition assays, unlabeled beta interferons (native, recombinant IFN-beta Cys17, and various preparations of IFN-beta Ser17) equally displaced labeled IFN-beta Ser17 on Daudi cells. Recombinant IFN-alpha-1 displaced /sup 125/I-IFN-beta binding to Daudi cells less efficiently than did unlabeled native or recombinant beta interferon. However, at the concentrations tested, native gamma interferon showed no competition with /sup 125/I-IFN. The results indicate that IFN-beta Ser17 and native IFN-beta posses similar binding properties.

  16. Neutralizing Antibodies against IFN-[Beta] in Multiple Sclerosis: Antagonization of IFN-[Beta] Mediated Suppression of MMPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilli, Francesca; Bertolotto, Antonio; Sala, Arianna; Hoffmann, Francine; Capobianco, Marco; Malucchi, Simona; Glass, Tracy; Kappos, Ludwig; Lindberg, Raija L. P.; Leppert, David

    2004-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against interferon-[Beta] (IFN-Beta) develop in about a third of treated multiple sclerosis patients and are believed to reduce therapeutic efficacy of IFN-[Beta] on clinical and MRI measures. The expression of the interferon acute-response protein, myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) is a sensitive measure of the…

  17. Beta-lactamases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii.

    PubMed

    Segura, C; Salvadó, M

    1997-09-01

    Re-emergence of infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria as well as the emergence of multiresistant strains of Mycobacterium has promoted the research on the use of beta-lactames in the treatment of such diseases. Mycobacteria produce beta-lactamases: M. tuberculosis produces a wide-spectrum beta-lactamase whose behaviour mimicks those of Gram-negative bacteria. M. kansasii produces also beta-lactamase which can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. An overview on beta-lactamases from both species is reported.

  18. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Sardinians: implications for prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rosatelli, C; Leoni, G B; Tuveri, T; Scalas, M T; Di Tucci, A; Cao, A

    1987-01-01

    In this study we have characterised by oligonucleotide hybridisation and direct restriction endonuclease analysis the beta thalassaemia mutation in 494 Sardinian beta thalassaemia heterozygotes. The most prevalent mutation, accounting for 95.4% of the cases, was the nonsense mutation at codon 39. The remainder, in decreasing order of frequency, were a frameshift at codon 6 (2.2%), beta + IVS-1, nt 110 (0.4%), and beta + IVS-2, nt 745 (0.4%). This information allows prenatal diagnosis by DNA analysis to be made in the great majority of Sardinian couples at risk for beta thalassaemia. Images PMID:3031299

  19. Anxiolytics not acting at the benzodiazepine receptor: beta blockers.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, P

    1992-01-01

    1. Although there is clear evidence for many controlled trials in the past 25 years that beta blockers are effective in anxiety disorders clear indications for their use are lacking. 2. The balance of evidence suggests that the mechanism of action of beta-blocking drugs is through peripheral blockade of beta-mediated symptoms. 3. Most evidence to the efficacy of beta-blockers comes from study of their use in generalized anxiety and in acute stress. 4. Because beta-blockers carry no risks of pharmacological dependence they may be preferred to many other anti-anxiety drugs.

  20. Peptide hybrids containing alpha - and beta-amino acids: structure of a decapeptide beta-hairpin with two facing beta-phenylalanine residues.

    PubMed

    Karle, I L; Gopi, H N; Balaram, P

    2001-03-27

    A beta-hairpin conformation has been characterized in crystals of the decapeptide t-butoxycarbonyl-Leu-Val-beta Phe-Val-(D)Pro-Gly-Leu-beta Phe-Val-Val-methyl ester [beta Phe; (S)-beta(3) homophenylalanine] by x-ray diffraction. The polypeptide chain reversal is nucleated by the centrally positioned (D)Pro-Gly segment, which adopts a type-I' beta-turn conformation. Four intramolecular cross-strand hydrogen bonds stabilize the peptide fold. The beta Phe(3) and beta Phe(8) residues occupy facing positions on the hairpin, with the side chains projecting on opposite faces of the beta-sheet. At the site of insertion of beta-residues, the polarity of the peptide units along each strand reverses, as compared with the alpha-peptide segments. In this analog, a small segment of a polar sheet is observed, where adjacent CO and NH groups line up in opposite directions in each strand. In the crystal, an extended beta-sheet is formed by hydrogen bonding between strands of antiparallel pairs of beta-hairpins. The crystallographic parameters for C(65)H(102)N(10)O(13) x 3H(2)O are: space group P2(1)2(1)2(1); a = 19.059(8) A, b = 19.470(2) A, c = 21.077(2) A; Z = 4; agreement factor R(1) = 9.12% for 3,984 data observed >4 sigma(F) and a resolution of 0.90 A.

  1. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Brackbill, J.U.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs.

  2. Variability in the BETA Science Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Jamie; Johnston, Simon; Bannister, Keith

    2011-04-01

    We propose to observe the Fornax BETA test field over a period of 6 months to characterise the variability of sources in the field. The resultant outcomes will (a) provide unique science, (b) contribute vital information for BETA observations, including calibration and imaging and (c) help refine the VAST science case. We will use novel on-the-fly mapping and CABB's increased bandwidth to cover 30 square degrees to 0.1 mJy sensitivity. We expect to detect in excess of 100 variable sources, providing us with insight into the structure of both the interstellar and intergalactic mediums. We have the potential to detect true transients and characterise them over the electromagnetic spectrum via ToO follow-ups.

  3. Screening Surface Contamination with BetaCage

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, R. W.; Grant, D. R.; Poinar, K.; Ahmed, Z.; Golwala, S. R.

    2007-03-28

    Existing screening facilities are insufficiently sensitive to meet the needs of rare-event experiments for low-energy electron emitters and alpha-decaying isotopes. To provide such screening, the BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. Minimization of the detector mass and use of radiopure materials reduce background events. The chamber design accepts nearly all alphas and low-energy electrons from the sample surface while allowing excellent rejection of residual backgrounds. A non-radiopure prototype is under construction to test the design. The BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science as well as for a wider community that uses radioactive screening for areas including archaeology, biology, climatology, environmental science, geology, planetary science, and integrated-circuit quality control.

  4. Environmental Contaminants and Pancreatic Beta-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fabricio, Gabriel; Malta, Ananda; Chango, Abalo; De Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2016-01-01

    Despite health policies as well as clinical and research efforts, diabetes prevalence is still rising around the world. A multitude of causes have been suggested for this increase, mostly related to familial background, the occidental diet which is rich in fat/carbohydrates, and sedentary life style. Type 2 diabetes involves malfunctions of the primary pancreatic beta-cells, usually attributed to local damage; however, it can be associated with other stressful environmental agents, such as chemical contaminants from food, plastic and air, among others. Indeed, exposure to these chemical agents during perinatal and adolescent life can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases later in life. This review explores data showing which environmental chemical agents may produce injury in beta-cells and further impair the insulinotropic process of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, it points the need to also consider unusual causes of metabolic diseases, such as environmental contaminants. PMID:27087124

  5. Beta-haemolytic streptococci in acute pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Boukadida, J; Hannechi, N; Boukadida, N; Ben Said, H; Elmherbech, H; Errai, S

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role and importance of beta-haemolytic streptococci in acute pharyngitis and its relative susceptibility to antibiotics, we cultured samples from 143 patients (age range: 3-72 years) who presented over a 5-month period in 2001 at three primary health care centres in Sousse, Tunisia. The cultures yielded 80 beta-haemolytic streptococci (59 group A streptococci and 21 non-group A streptococci). All strains were susceptible to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and pristinamycin. Susceptibility was variable in erythromycin, tetracycline, fosfomycin, telithromycin and levofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by E-test for penicillin, erythromycin and levofloxacin. Our results confirm that penicillin is still the reference treatment for acute pharyngitis. However, to minimize the potential for complications arising from its use, continued vigilance is required.

  6. Plasma lipids in beta-thalassemia minor.

    PubMed

    Maioli, M; Pettinato, S; Cherchi, G M; Giraudi, D; Pacifico, A; Pupita, G; Tidore, M G

    1989-02-01

    Because total cholesterol levels have been found to be lower in patients affected by thalassemia major and intermedia, we examined the plasma lipid pattern of 628 beta-thalassemia trait carriers and 4552 controls in order to evaluate whether the plasma lipid impairment is also present in the heterozygous state. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in beta-thalassemia trait carriers when compared to controls, whereas plasma triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels did not differ between the two groups. We suggest that accelerated erythropoiesis and increased uptake of LDL by macrophages and histiocytes of the reticuloendothelial system are the main determinants of low plasma cholesterol levels in heterozygous thalassemia.

  7. Protein beta-turn prediction using nearest-neighbor method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saejoon

    2004-01-01

    With the emerging success of protein secondary structure prediction through the applications of various statistical and machine learning techniques, similar techniques have been applied to protein beta-turn prediction. In this study, we perform protein beta-turn prediction using a k-nearest neighbor method, which is combined with a filter that uses predicted protein secondary structure information. Traditional beta-turn prediction from k-nearest neighbor method is modified to account for the unbalanced ratio of the natural occurrence of beta-turns and non-beta-turns. Our prediction scheme is tested on a set of 426 non-homologous protein sequences. The prediction scheme consists of two stages: k-nearest neighbor method stage and filtering stage. Variations of the k-nearest neighbor method were used to take property of beta-turns into consideration. Our filtering method uses beta-turn/non-beta-turn estimates from the k-nearest neighbor method stage and predicted protein secondary structure information from PSI-PRED in order to get new beta-turn/non-beta-turn estimate. Our result is compared with the previously best known beta-turn prediction method on the dataset of 426 non-homologous protein sequences and is shown to give slightly superior performance at significantly lower computational complexity. Contact the author for information on the source code of the programs used.

  8. Respiratory effects of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers.

    PubMed

    Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele; Pedone, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Antagonists of the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR antagonists) are a heterogeneous class of drugs. Selected members of this class are highly recommended in congestive heart failure (HF) and after acute myocardial infarction. Hydrosolubility, half life and prevalent route of excretion define the pharmacokinetic profile of individual drugs, whereas the respective degree of affinity for beta1-AR and beta2-AR, the level of coexistent agonist properties and several beta-AR independent properties (e. g. antioxidant, direct vasodilating effect) contribute to shape the pharmacodynamic profile. Genetically determined differences in the response to beta-AR antagonists and, probably, age-related changes in the neuroautonomic system are further source of variability in the effect of beta-AR antagonists on bronchial tone. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are theoretically at risk of worsening respiratory flows and symptoms caused by beta-AR antagonists prescribed for concurrent HF or myocardial infarction. Most of these patients, however, do not experience side effects, maybe because the improved haemodynamic due to beta-AR antagonists therapy may in turn improve the respiratory function. Occasional patients can develop untoward respiratory effects of beta-AR antagonists, and this risk is higher for those with severe COPD or active asthma. We provide some simple common sense rules for selecting patients with COPD or asthma that are suitable for beta-AR antagonists therapy while minimizing the risk of adverse respiratory effects.

  9. Autoradiographic localization of beta-adrenoreceptors in rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Tolszczuk, M.; Pelletier, G.

    1988-12-01

    The inhibitory effects of catecholamines on uterine smooth muscle are known to be mediated through beta-adrenergic receptors. To investigate further the distribution of these receptors in the rat uterus, we utilized in vitro autoradiography using ( SVI)-cyanopindolol (CYP), a specific beta-receptor ligand that has equal activity for both beta 1- and beta 2-receptor subtypes. The specificity of the labeling and the characterization of receptor subtypes in different cell types were achieved by displacement of radioligand with increasing concentrations of zinterol, a beta-adrenergic agonist with preferential affinity for the beta 2-adrenoreceptor subtype, and practolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist that binds preferentially to the beta 1-subtype. Quantitative estimation of ligand binding was performed by densitometry. It was shown that the vast majority of beta-adrenoreceptors were of the beta 2-subtype and were found in high concentration not only in the myometrium but also in the endometrial and serosal epithelia. Specific labeling was also observed in glandular elements. These results suggest that beta-adrenoreceptors might be involved in different functions in the uterus.

  10. Babar: Sin(2beta) With Charm

    SciTech Connect

    Grenier, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Clermont-Ferrand U.

    2006-04-12

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries of neutral B decays to several charm and charmonium final states. Data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. In the absence of penguin contribution, the Standard Model predicts the time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters S and C are to be {eta}{sub CP} sin(2{beta}) and 0, respectively.

  11. Review: Beta-thalassemia and molecular chaperones.

    PubMed

    Sumera, Afshan; Radhakrishnan, Ammu; Baba, Abdul Aziz; George, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Thalassemia is known as a diverse single gene disorder, which is prevalent worldwide. The molecular chaperones are set of proteins that help in two important processes while protein synthesis and degradation include folding or unfolding and assembly or disassembly, thereby helping in cell homeostasis. This review recaps current knowledge regarding the role of molecular chaperones in thalassemia, with a focus on beta thalassemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Beta-Blockers: An Abstracted Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-04

    IEffect of Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Drugs on Speaker’s Performance and Memory . REFERENCE: British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 142, pp. 512-517, 1983...PROCEDURES-: Tested for drug influence on barbiturate hypnosis , anialgesia, anticonvulsant effect, metrazol convulsions, strychnine convulsions, audiogenic...condiLtioned avoid- ance behavior. FINDINGS: Propranolol increased the hypnosis caused by pentobarbital. The drug had no effect on the righting reflex

  13. High-{beta} disruption in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Janos, A.

    1995-07-01

    Three dimensional MHD simulations of high-{beta} plasmas show that toroidally localized high-n ballooning modes can be driven unstable by the local pressure steepening which arises from the evolution of low-n modes. Nonlinearly, the high-n mode becomes even more localized and produces a strong local pressure bulge which destroys the flux surfaces resulting in a thermal quench. The flux surfaces then recover temporarily but now contain large magnetic islands. This scenario is supported by experimental data.

  14. Double beta decay: yesterday, today, tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2011-12-16

    After a brief introduction on the main features of Double Beta Decay (DBD) and on its origin, its importance is stressed in view of the recent results of experiments on neutrino oscillations. The present experimental situation is reported with special reference to direct experiments and to the comparison of their results with theory. The expectations of the future experiments aiming to reach the sensitivity indicated by neutrino oscillations in the inverse hierarchy hypothesis are discussed.

  15. High beta and confinement studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, G.A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Iacono, R.; Mauel, M.E.; Sabbagh, S.A. ); Kesner, J. )

    1992-01-01

    A new regime of high poloidal beta operation in TFTR was developed in the course of the first two years of this project (9/25/89 to 9/24/91). Our proposal to continue this successful collaboration between Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for a three year period (9/25/91 to 9/24/94) to continue to investigate improved confinement and tokamak performance in high poloidal beta plasmas in TFTR through the DT phase of operation was approved by the DOE and this is a report of our progress during the first 9 month budget period of the three year grant (9/25/91 to 6/24/92). During the approved three year project period we plan to (1) extend and apply the low current, high QDD discharges to the operation of TFTR using Deuterium and Tritium plasma; (2) continue the analysis and plan experiments on high poloidal beta phenomena in TFTR including: stability properties, enhanced global confinement, local transport, bootstrap current, and divertor formation; (3) plan and carry out experiments on TFTR which attempt to elevate the central q to values > 2 where entry to the second stability regime is predicted to occur; and (4) collaborate on high beta experiments using bean-shaped plasmas with a stabilizing conducting shell in PBX-M. In the seven month period covered by this report we have made progress in each of these four areas through the submission of 4 TFTR Experimental Proposals and the partial execution of 3 of these using a total of 4.5 run days during the August 1991 to February 1992 run.

  16. Group 6 heteroatom- and non-heteroatom-stabilized carbene complexes. beta,beta'- and alpha,beta,beta'-annulation reactions of cyclic enamines.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, José; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Bernardo De La Rúa, Ramón; Santamaría, Javier; Rubio, Eduardo; Tomás, Miguel

    2003-02-19

    Cyclization reactions of group 6 Fischer carbene complexes with cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone enamines are described. Enamine 3a undergoes thermal alpha,beta,beta'-annulation with alkenylcarbene complexes 1 and 2 (THF, 60 degrees C), affording semibullvalenes 5. The metalate intermediates 6, resulting from beta,beta'-annulation of the enamines 3a and 4a, were quantitatively formed by running the reaction in hexane at room temperature. Acid-promoted demetalation of 6 afforded endo-2-bicyclo[3.2.1]octen-8-ones 7 and endo/exo-2-bicyclo[3.3.1]nonen-9-ones 8 (endo/exo = 5:1). Using (S)-methoxymethylpyrrolidine-derived enamines 3b and 4b,c allowed highly enantioenriched cycloadducts endo-(+)-7 as well as endo-(-)-8 and exo-(-)-8 to be accessed. The non-heteroatom-stabilized carbene complex 10 was formed from complex 6 by Me(3)SiOTf-promoted elimination of the methoxy group, characterized by (13)C NMR, and transformed into the organic compounds 7, 7-d, and 11 as well as into bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-2,8-diones 14 and cycloheptanones 15. On the basis of this sequence, enantioenriched cycloheptanones (+)-15 were efficiently prepared in one pot from carbene complexes 2 and enamine 3b (51-55% yield, 91-96% ee). Extension of this work to simple Fischer carbene complexes 16 allowed an appropriate way to generate the nonstabilized pentacarbonyl[(phenyl(alkyl)carbene]tungsten complex 17 to be designed, for which the thermal and chemical behavior leading to compounds 18-21 is described.

  17. Inhibition of human and rat 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2007-05-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) plays an important role in regulating the cortisol availability to bind to corticosteroid receptors within specific tissue. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome indicate that elevation of cortisol levels within specific tissues through the action of 11beta-HSD1 could contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Therefore, selective inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1 have been investigated as potential treatments for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity. Here we report the discovery and synthesis of some 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18beta-GA) derivatives (2-5) and their inhibitory activities against rat hepatic11beta-HSD1 and rat renal 11beta-HSD2. Once the selectivity over the rat type 2 enzyme was established, these compounds' ability to inhibit human 11beta-HSD1 was also evaluated using both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) methods. The 11-modified 18beta-GA derivatives 2 and 3 with apparent selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 showed a high percentage inhibition for human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 at 10 microM and exhibited IC50 values of 400 and 1100 nM, respectively. The side chain modified 18beta-GA derivatives 4 and 5, although showing selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 inhibited human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  18. Hypoglycemia Reduces Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Production by Pancreatic Beta Cells as a Regulator of Beta Cell Mass*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Guo, Ping; Chen, Zean; El-Gohary, Yousef; Wiersch, John; Gaffar, Iljana; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K.

    2013-01-01

    VEGF-A expression in beta cells is critical for pancreatic development, formation of islet-specific vasculature, and Insulin secretion. However, two key questions remain. First, is VEGF-A release from beta cells coupled to VEGF-A production in beta cells? Second, how is the VEGF-A response by beta cells affected by metabolic signals? Here, we show that VEGF-A secretion, but not gene transcription, in either cultured islets or purified pancreatic beta cells, was significantly reduced early on during low glucose conditions. In vivo, a sustained hypoglycemia in mice was induced with Insulin pellets, resulting in a significant reduction in beta cell mass. This loss of beta cell mass could be significantly rescued with continuous delivery of exogenous VEGF-A, which had no effect on beta cell mass in normoglycemic mice. In addition, an increase in apoptotic endothelial cells during hypoglycemia preceded an increase in apoptotic beta cells. Both endothelial and beta cell apoptosis were prevented by exogenous VEGF-A, suggesting a possible causative relationship between reduced VEGF-A and the loss of islet vasculature and beta cells. Furthermore, in none of these experimental groups did beta cell proliferation and islet vessel density change, suggesting a tightly regulated balance between these two cellular compartments. The average islet size decreased in hypoglycemia, which was also prevented by exogenous VEGF-A. Taken together, our data suggest that VEGF-A release in beta cells is independent of VEGF-A synthesis. Beta cell mass can be regulated through modulated release of VEGF-A from beta cells based on physiological need. PMID:23378532

  19. A comparison of heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Amoozgar, Hamid; Zeighami, Samaneh; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major. In this cross-sectional study, 60 patients with beta thalassemia major and 60 patients with beta thalassemia intermedia who had clinically no symptoms of arrhythmia and clinically normal heart function were evaluated using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring and echocardiography. For data analysis SPSS ver.20 software was used. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of the beta thalassemia intermedia patients was 24.18 ± 7.9 years and the mean age in beta thalassemia major was 24.38 ± 7.7 years (P>0.05). Premature atrial contractions (PACs) were observed in 14 (23.3%) patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and in 22 (36.6%) beta thalassemia major patients. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were detected in 8 (13.3%) patients in the beta thalassemia intermediate group and 16 (26.6) patients in the beta thalassemia major group, respectively. The left ventricular diastolic dimension, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume were significantly higher in beta thalassemia intermedia group (P<0.05). Pulmonary acceleration time as an indicator of pulmonary pressure was lower in beta thalassemia intermedia group. Both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were more common in the beta thalassemia major group. Higher end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were detected in the beta thalassemia intermedia group. Pulmonary acceleration time was lower in the beta thalassemia intermedia group, which can be an indicator of higher pulmonary pressure.

  20. Beta2-amino acids-syntheses, occurrence in natural products, and components of beta-peptides1,2.

    PubMed

    Lelais, Gérald; Seebach, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    Although they are less abundant than their alpha-analogues, beta-amino acids occur in nature both in free form and bound to peptides. Oligomers composed exclusively of beta-amino acids (so-called beta-peptides) might be the most thoroughly investigated peptidomimetics. Beside the facts that they are stable to metabolism, exhibit slow microbial degradation, and are inherently stable to proteases and peptidases, they fold into well-ordered secondary structures consisting of helices, turns, and sheets. In this respect, the most intriguing effects have been observed when beta2-amino acids are present in the beta-peptide backbone. This review gives an overview of the occurrence and importance of beta2-amino acids in nature, placing emphasis on the metabolic pathways of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-Aib) and the appearance of beta2-amino acids as secondary metabolites or as components of more complex natural products, such as peptides, depsipeptides, lactones, and alkaloids. In addition, a compilation of the syntheses of both achiral and chiral beta2-amino acids is presented. While there are numerous routes to achiral beta2-amino acids, their EPC synthesis is currently the subject of many investigations. These include the diastereoselective alkylation and Mannich-type reactions of cyclic- or acyclic beta-homoglycine derivatives containing chiral auxiliaries, the Curtius degradation, the employment of transition-metal catalyzed reactions such as enantioselective hydrogenations, reductions, C-H insertions, and Michael-type additions, and the resolution of rac. beta2-amino acids, as well as several miscellaneous methods. In the last part of the review, the importance of beta2-amino acids in the formation of beta-peptide secondary structures is discussed.

  1. AMPK beta subunits display isoform specific affinities for carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Koay, Ann; Woodcroft, Ben; Petrie, Emma J; Yue, Helen; Emanuelle, Shane; Bieri, Michael; Bailey, Michael F; Hargreaves, Mark; Park, Jong-Tae; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Ralph, Stuart; Neumann, Dietbert; Stapleton, David; Gooley, Paul R

    2010-08-04

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimer of catalytic (alpha) and regulatory (beta and gamma) subunits with at least two isoforms for each subunit. AMPK beta1 is widely expressed whilst AMPK beta2 is highly expressed in muscle and both beta isoforms contain a mid-molecule carbohydrate-binding module (beta-CBM). Here we show that beta2-CBM has evolved to contain a Thr insertion and increased affinity for glycogen mimetics with a preference for oligosaccharides containing a single alpha-1,6 branched residue. Deletion of Thr-101 reduces affinity for single alpha-1,6 branched oligosaccharides by 3-fold, while insertion of this residue into the equivalent position in the beta1-CBM sequence increases affinity by 3-fold, confirming the functional importance of this residue. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. beta-Lactamases in laboratory and clinical resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Livermore, D M

    1995-01-01

    beta-Lactamases are the commonest single cause of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Numerous chromosomal and plasmid-mediated types are known and may be classified by their sequences or phenotypic properties. The ability of a beta-lactamase to cause resistance varies with its activity, quantity, and cellular location and, for gram-negative organisms, the permeability of the producer strain. beta-Lactamases sometimes cause obvious resistance to substrate drugs in routine tests; often, however, these enzymes reduce susceptibility without causing resistance at current, pharmacologically chosen breakpoints. This review considers the ability of the prevalent beta-lactamases to cause resistance to widely used beta-lactams, whether resistance is accurately reflected in routine tests, and the extent to which the antibiogram for an organism can be used to predict the type of beta-lactamase that it produces. PMID:8665470

  3. Serum beta2-microglobulin in cadmium exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M

    1978-09-01

    In cadmium exposed workers with renal tubular dysfunction the determination of beta2m in urine is an important diagnostic test. Cadmium exposure's influence on serum beta2m levels and its relationship to urinary excretion of beta2m were studied in 24 cadmium exposed workers with normal serum creatinine levels (less than 10 mg/l)) and no obvious tubular dysfunction. With increasing blood levels of cadmium beta2m was found to increase in serum. There was no concomitant increase in the urinary excretion of beta2m. Serum beta2m was not dependent on serum creatinine within the range studied. The results suggest that for evaluating renal glomerular function in cadmium exposed workers, it might be better to use the serum creatinine level, creatinine clearance or inulin clearance since beta2m might give some false positive results.

  4. Beyond low beta-decay Q values

    SciTech Connect

    Mustonen, M. T.; Suhonen, J.

    2010-11-24

    Beta decays with low Q values can be utilized in the quest to determine the neutrino mass scale. This is being realized in two experiments, KATRIN and MARE, using tritium and {sup 187}Re, respectively. The beta-decay of {sup 187}Re had the lowest known Q value until 2005, when the beta decay of {sup 115}In to the first excited state of {sup 115}Sn was discovered in Gran Sasso underground laboratory. Last year two independent ion trap measurements confirmed that this decay breaks the former record by an order of magnitude.Our theoretical study on this tiny decay channel complemented the experimental effort by the JYFLTRAP group in Finland and HADES underground laboratory in Belgium. A significant discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical results was found. This might be explained by various atomic contributions known to grow larger as the Q value decreases. However, the traditional recipes for taking these effects into account break down on this new ultra-low Q value regime, providing new challenges for theorists on the borderline between nuclear and atomic physics.

  5. BetaNMR Experiments on Liquid Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottberg, A.; Stachura, M.; Hemmingsen, L.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Bio-Beta-Nmr Collaboration; Collaps Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    In 2012 betaNMR spectroscopy was successfully applied on liquid samples; an achievement which opens new opportunities in the fields of chemistry and biochemistry. This project was motivated by the need for finding a new experimental approach to directly study biologically highly relevant metal ions, such as Mg(II), Cu(I), Ca(II), and Zn(II), which are silent in most spectroscopic techniques. The resonance spectrum recorded for Mg-31 implanted into an ionic liquid sample showed two resonances which originate from Mg ions occupying two different coordination geometries, illustrating that this technique can discriminate between different structures. This proof-of-principle result lays the foundation for studies of these metal ions at low concentrations and in environments of biological relevance where other methods are silent. The prototype chamber for bio-betaNMR allows for experiments not only on different samples such as: liquids, gels and solids, but also operates at different vacuum environments. In order to exploit the potential of betaNMR on liquid samples, tests with polarized beams of Mg-29 and Mg-31 have recently been performed at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF.

  6. Shape of the A=14 {beta} spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.; Brown, B.A.

    1995-10-01

    The shape of allowed {Beta} spectra have a small contribution from the interference of the vector, weak-magnetism and axial GT matrix elements. According to CVC plus charge-symmetry of nuclear interactions, in a 0{sup +}{r_arrow} 1{sup +} transition like the {Beta} and {gamma} decays of the A=14 system, the weak-magnetism and electro-magnetic-Ml matrix elements should be equal. A measurement of the shape of the {sup 14}O spectrum, however, disagrees, by a factor of two with naive calculation described above. It has been speculated that because of the high supression of GT matrix element in the A=14 system, one could understand this discrepancy based on small charge-symmetry-effects. We have used shell-model wave functions adjusted to fit {sup 14}N(e,e{sup {prime}}) inelastic scattering, the width of the M1-{gamma} transition, and the {Beta} log f t`s, and show that reasonable assumptions lead to estimates that are very close to the naive CVC estimation. We propose that the {sup 14}O discrepancy is important and that new experiments should be done to measure the shape of the spectrum.

  7. [Clinical management of beta-thalassaemia].

    PubMed

    Thuret, Isabelle

    2014-10-01

    Beta-thalassemia syndromes are autosomal recessive disorders related to the inability to produce beta-globin chains. Thalassemia major is by definition a transfusion dependent anemia and iron overload is the leading cause of death and morbidity. Beta-thalassemia is rarely encountered in France where patients mainly originated from Mediterranean countries and South East Asia. Recently, two major advances have substantially improved the disease management: oral iron chelation therapy and the introduction of cardiac MRI for monitoring cardiac iron. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains, in clinical practice, the only curative approach and is proposed to children having an HLA-identical sibling. Diagnosis of thalassemia trait is important in order to propose genetic counseling to couples at risk. Thalassemia intermedia is a clinical entity where anemia is mild or moderate, requiring no or occasional transfusion. Clinical severity increases with age with a more severe anemia, thrombotic complications and extra-medullary hematopoiesis. Iron overload, optimally monitored with liver MRI, occurs in adult patients and is related to increased iron hyper-absorption.

  8. Antianginal Actions of Beta-Adrenoceptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Angina pectoris is usually the first clinical sign of underlying myocardial ischemia, which results from an imbalance between oxygen supply and oxygen demand in the heart. This report describes the pharmacology of β-adrenoceptor antagonists as it relates to the treatment of angina. The β-adrenoceptor antagonists are widely used in long-term maintenance therapy to prevent acute ischemic episodes in patients with chronic stable angina. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists competitively inhibit the binding of endogenous catecholamines to β1-adrenoceptors in the heart. Their anti-ischemic effects are due primarily to a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. By decreasing heart rate, myocardial contractility and afterload, β-adrenoceptor antagonists reduce myocardial workload and oxygen consumption at rest as well as during periods of exertion or stress. Predictable adverse effects include bradycardia and cardiac depression, both of which are a direct result of the blockade of cardiac β1-adrenoceptors, but adverse effects related to the central nervous system (eg, lethargy, sleep disturbances, and depression) may also be bothersome to some patients. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists must be used cautiously in patients with diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, and asthma or other obstructive airway diseases. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may be used in combination with nitrates or calcium channel blockers, which takes advantage of the diverse mechanisms of action of drugs from each pharmacologic category. Moreover, concurrent use of β-adrenoceptor antagonists may alleviate the reflex tachycardia that sometimes occurs with other antianginal agents. PMID:17998992

  9. A low-noise beta-radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenko, G.I.; Savina, V.I.

    1995-12-01

    The two-channel detector for a low-noise (down to 0.06 sec{sup -1}) beta-radiometer for measuring the mass concentration of {sup 90}Sr in the environment after the chemical extraction of strontium by the oxalate-nitrate method was certified at the D.I. Mendeleev Institute of Metrology (certificate No. 137/93). A detector unit using two end-window self-quenching counters with thin input windows (8 {mu}m thick and 60 mm in diameter) operating as a Geiger-Mueller counter and filled with a mixture of 90% helium (atomic gas) and 10% ethanol (organic molecules) can measure the beta-activity of two substrates concurrently. It is often used to detect the beta-radiation of {sup 90}Sr. This isotope produces particles with energies ranging from 180 to 1000 keV, and the detection efficiency is 50% at a level of 0.1 Bq after measuring for 20 min with an uncertainty of 25%.

  10. Tripod-BETA: Incident investigation and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.A.; Graaf, G.C. van der

    1996-12-31

    Tripod-BETA is a methodology for conducting an incident analysis in parallel with the investigation, supported by a PC based tool. Interaction between these two processes provides the investigators with confirmation of the relevance of their fact gathering and highlights avenues of investigation leading to latent failures. The benefit to the analysis process is that logical anomalies can be highlighted and resolved while The investigation is still active. Tripod-BETA focuses initially on the accident mechanism - the physical process of the accident - and uses it as a structure to identify the controls and defenses that should have been in place. For the incident to happen these controls and defenses either were missing or failed. The investigation then examines the immediate and latent failures behind each missing or failed defense, following the Tripod theory of accident causation. Tripod-BETA software provides the means to collect and assemble investigation facts and manipulate them on screen into a graphic representation of the event and its causes - an accident tree. The logic of the tree structure (labeling and connections) can be tested to ensure that it conforms to the concepts of the Hazard and Effects Management Process (HEMP) and the Tripod theory. When anomalies and omissions have been resolved, a draft accident report can be auto-generated for final editing using a word processing package.

  11. Novel 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangdong; Lawrence, Harshani; Ganeshapillai, Dharshini; Cruttenden, Adrian; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L

    2004-08-15

    Extensive structural modifications to the 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid template are described and their effects on the SAR of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozymes type 1 and 2 from the rat are investigated. Isoform selective inhibitors have been discovered and compound 7 N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3beta-hydroxy-11-oxo-18beta-olean-12-en-30-oic acid amide is highlighted as a very potent selective inhibitor of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 with an IC(50) = 4pM.

  12. Minimalist design of water-soluble cross-[beta] architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Biancalana, Matthew; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2010-08-13

    Demonstrated successes of protein design and engineering suggest significant potential to produce diverse protein architectures and assemblies beyond those found in nature. Here, we describe a new class of synthetic protein architecture through the successful design and atomic structures of water-soluble cross-{beta} proteins. The cross-{beta} motif is formed from the lamination of successive {beta}-sheet layers, and it is abundantly observed in the core of insoluble amyloid fibrils associated with protein-misfolding diseases. Despite its prominence, cross-{beta} has been designed only in the context of insoluble aggregates of peptides or proteins. Cross-{beta}'s recalcitrance to protein engineering and conspicuous absence among the known atomic structures of natural proteins thus makes it a challenging target for design in a water-soluble form. Through comparative analysis of the cross-{beta} structures of fibril-forming peptides, we identified rows of hydrophobic residues ('ladders') running across {beta}-strands of each {beta}-sheet layer as a minimal component of the cross-{beta} motif. Grafting a single ladder of hydrophobic residues designed from the Alzheimer's amyloid-{beta} peptide onto a large {beta}-sheet protein formed a dimeric protein with a cross-{beta} architecture that remained water-soluble, as revealed by solution analysis and x-ray crystal structures. These results demonstrate that the cross-{beta} motif is a stable architecture in water-soluble polypeptides and can be readily designed. Our results provide a new route for accessing the cross-{beta} structure and expanding the scope of protein design.

  13. Effects of (-)-RO363 at human atrial beta-adrenoceptor subtypes, the human cloned beta 3-adrenoceptor and rodent intestinal beta 3-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, P; Sarsero, D; Arch, J R; Kelly, J; Henson, S M; Kaumann, A J

    1997-01-01

    1. Chronic treatment of patients with beta-blockers causes atrial inotropic hyperresponsiveness through beta 2-adrenoceptors, 5-HT4 receptors and H2-receptors but apparently not through beta 1-adrenoceptors despite data claiming an increased beta 1-adrenoceptor density from homogenate binding studies. We have addressed the question of beta 1-adrenoceptor sensitivity by determining the inotropic potency and intrinsic activity of the beta 1-adrenoceptor selective partial agonist (-)-RO363 and by carrying out both homogenate binding and quantitative beta-adrenoceptor autoradiography in atria obtained from patients treated or not treated with beta-blockers. In the course of the experiments it became apparent that (-)-RO363 also may cause agonistic effects through the third atrial beta-adrenoceptor. To assess whether (-)-RO363 also caused agonistic effects through beta 3-adrenoceptors we studied its relaxant effects in rat colon and guinea-pig ileum, as well as receptor binding and adenylyl cyclase stimulation of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human beta 3-adrenoceptors. 2. beta-Adrenoceptors were labelled with (-)-[125I]-cyanopindolol. The density of both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors was unchanged in the 2 groups, as assessed with both quantitative receptor autoradiography and homogenate binding. The affinities of (-)-RO363 for beta 1-adrenoceptors (pKi = 8.0-7.7) and beta 2-adrenoceptors (pKi = 6.1-5.8) were not significantly different in the two groups. 3. (-)-RO363 increased atrial force with a pEC50 of 8.2 (beta-blocker treated) and 8.0 (non-beta-blocker treated) and intrinsic activity with respect to (-)-isoprenaline of 0.80 (beta-blocker treated) and 0.54 (non-beta-blocker treated) (P < 0.001) and with respect to Ca2+ (7 mM) of 0.65 (beta-blocker treated) and 0.45 (non-beta-blocker treated) (P < 0.01). The effects of (-)-RO363 were resistant to antagonism by the beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118,551 (50 nM). The effects of 0.3-10 nM (-)-RO

  14. A novel beta-Thalassemic allele due to a two nucleotide deletion: beta76 (-GC).

    PubMed

    Foulon, Karine; Rochette, Jacques; Cadet, Estelle

    2007-01-01

    We have identified and characterized a novel beta-thalassemic mutation in a North African adult. The molecular defect consists of a two nucleotide (nt) deletion in the beta-globin gene at codon 76 [beta76 (-GC), c.229-230delGC]. This frameshift mutation generates a TGA stop codon at position 89. The carrier presented with mild microcytic anemia (Hb 12.8 g/dL, MCV 60 fL), no detectable Hb F, an elevated Hb A2 level (5.5%) with no other mutation in the beta-globin gene and none of the more common known deletions in the alpha-globin cluster. No abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) was present in routine electrophoresis or in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. Pathologic inclusions were absent in both mature red cells and in reticulocytes. This observation reinforces the hypothesis that nonsense and frameshift mutations that result in a premature stop codon in exon 1 or exon 2 inherited in the heterozygous state do not generate dominant beta-thalassemia (thal). This is the first example of a premature stop codon at position 89.

  15. Cloning and characterization of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC beta 1).

    PubMed

    Caricasole, A; Sala, C; Roncarati, R; Formenti, E; Terstappen, G C

    2000-12-15

    Phospholipase C-beta (PLC beta) catalyses the generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (IP(2)), a key step in the intracellular transduction of a large number of extracellular signals, including neurotransmitters and hormones modulating diverse developmental and functional aspects of the mammalian central nervous system. Four mammalian isozymes are known (PLC beta 1-4), which differ in their function and expression patterns in vivo. We have characterized the human PLC beta 1 genomic locus (PLC beta 1), cloned two distinct PLC beta 1 cDNAs (PLC beta 1a and b) and analysed their respective expression patterns in a comprehensive panel of human tissues using quantitative TaqMan technology. The two cDNAs derive from transcripts generated through alternative splicing at their 3' end, and are predicted to encode for PLC beta 1 isoforms differing at their carboxy-terminus. The human PLC beta 1 isoforms are co-expressed in the same tissues with a distinctly CNS-specific profile of expression. Quantitative differences in PLC beta 1 isoform expression levels are observed in some tissues. Transient expression of epitope-tagged versions of the two isoforms followed by immunofluorescence revealed localization of the proteins to the cytoplasm and the inner side of the cell membrane. Finally, we characterized the structure of the PLC beta 1 locus and confirmed its mapping to human chromosome 20.

  16. Propagating structure of alzheimer's {beta}-amyloid is parallel {beta}-sheet with residues in exact register.

    SciTech Connect

    Benzinger, T. L. S.; Gregory, D. M.; Burkoth, T. S.; Miller-Auer, H.; Lynn, D. G.; Botto, R. E.; Meredith, S. C.; Chemistry; Univ. of Chicago

    1998-11-10

    The pathognomonic plaques of Alzheimer's disease are composed primarily of the 39- to 43-aa {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) peptide. Crosslinking of A{beta} peptides by tissue transglutaminase (tTg) indicates that Gln15 of one peptide is proximate to Lys16 of another in aggregated A{beta}. Here we report how the fibril structure is resolved by mapping interstrand distances in this core region of the A{beta} peptide chain with solid-state NMR. Isotopic substitution provides the source points for measuring distances in aggregated A{beta}. Peptides containing a single carbonyl 13C label at Gln15, Lys16, Leu17, or Val18 were synthesized and evaluated by NMR dipolar recoupling methods for the measurement of interpeptide distances to a resolution of 0.2 Angstrom. Analysis of these data establish that this central core of A{beta} consists of a parallel {beta}-sheet structure in which identical residues on adjacent chains are aligned directly, i.e., in register. Our data, in conjunction with existing structural data, establish that the A{beta} fibril is a hydrogen-bonded, parallel {beta}-sheet defining the long axis of the A{beta} fibril propagation.

  17. Quantitative expression patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} (PPAR{beta}/{delta}) protein in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Girroir, Elizabeth E.; Hollingshead, Holly E.; He Pengfei; Zhu Bokai; Perdew, Gary H.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2008-07-04

    The expression patterns of PPAR{beta}/{delta} have been described, but the majority of these data are based on mRNA data. To date, there are no reports that have quantitatively examined the expression of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein in mouse tissues. In the present study, a highly specific PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibody was developed, characterized, and used to examine tissue expression patterns of PPAR{beta}/{delta}. As compared to commercially available anti-PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibodies, one of six polyclonal anti-PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibodies developed was significantly more effective for immunoprecipitation of in vitro-translated PPAR{beta}/{delta}. This antibody was used for quantitative Western blot analysis using radioactive detection methods. Expression of PPAR{beta}/{delta} was highest in colon, small intestine, liver, and keratinocytes as compared to other tissues including heart, spleen, skeletal muscle, lung, brain, and thymus. Interestingly, PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression was localized in the nucleus and RXR{alpha} can be co-immunoprecipitated with nuclear PPAR{beta}/{delta}. Results from these studies demonstrate that PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression is highest in intestinal epithelium, liver, and keratinocytes, consistent with significant biological roles in these tissues.

  18. [Development of binding antibodies to interferon-beta during treatment of multiple sclerosis with different types of interferon-beta].

    PubMed

    Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Mitosek-Szewczyk, Krystyna; Belniak, Ewa; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2004-07-01

    Interferon beta (IFN-beta) is generally considered an effective treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). Importance of binding antibodies (BAb), which are created during the treatment of MS by the use of IFN-beta, hasn't been completely explained, however it is generally reckoned that they might be one of the factors diminishing treatment efficacy. The aim of the study was the appreciation of BAb occurrence during the treatment of MS by the use of different types of interferon beta and their impact on clinical efficacy. The study included 47 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Within 24 months 37 patients were given two different preparations of IFN-beta 1-a and 10 patients were given IFN-beta 1-b. Every 6 months clinical parameters and BAb level in serum by EIA method were estimated. All preparations of IFN-beta induced appearance of BAb, but frequency of developing BAb to IFN-beta varied according to the IFN beta given. The high levels of BAb appeared significant frequently in patients treated with IFN-beta 1-b than in patients treated with both preparations of IFN-beta 1-a. After 2 years of treatment greater disability, measured by EDSS scale was encountered in patients with high levels of BAb but differences weren't statistically significant. As well, it wasn't stated significant correlation between exacerbation numbers during the treatment.

  19. The contribution of classical (beta1/2-) and atypical beta-adrenoceptors to the stimulation of human white adipocyte lipolysis and right atrial appendage contraction by novel beta3-adrenoceptor agonists of differing selectivities.

    PubMed

    Sennitt, M V; Kaumann, A J; Molenaar, P; Beeley, L J; Young, P W; Kelly, J; Chapman, H; Henson, S M; Berge, J M; Dean, D K; Kotecha, N R; Morgan, H K; Rami, H K; Ward, R W; Thompson, M; Wilson, S; Smith, S A; Cawthorne, M A; Stock, M J; Arch, J R

    1998-06-01

    The role of beta3- and other putative atypical beta-adrenoceptors in human white adipocytes and right atrial appendage has been investigated using CGP 12177 and novel phenylethanolamine and aryloxypropanolamine beta3-adrenoceptor (beta3AR) agonists with varying intrinsic activities and selectivities for human cloned betaAR subtypes. The ability to demonstrate beta1/2AR antagonist-insensitive (beta3 or other atypical betaAR-mediated) responses to CGP 12177 was critically dependent on the albumin batch used to prepare and incubate the adipocytes. Four aryloxypropanolamine selective beta3AR agonists (SB-226552, SB-229432, SB-236923, SB-246982) consistently elicited beta1/2AR antagonist-insensitive lipolysis. However, a phenylethanolamine (SB-220646) that was a selective full beta3AR agonist elicited full lipolytic and inotropic responses that were sensitive to beta1/2AR antagonism, despite it having very low efficacies at cloned beta1- and beta2ARs. A component of the response to another phenylethanolamine selective beta3AR agonist (SB-215691) was insensitive to beta1/2AR antagonism in some experiments. Because no [corrected] novel aryloxypropanolamine had a beta1/2AR antagonist-insensitive inotropic effect, these results establish more firmly that beta3ARs mediate lipolysis in human white adipocytes, and suggest that putative 'beta4ARs' mediate inotropic responses to CGP 12177. The results also illustrate the difficulty of predicting from studies on cloned betaARs which betaARs will mediate responses to agonists in tissues that have a high number of beta1- and beta2ARs or a low number of beta3ARs.

  20. Mass spectral determination of the configuration of 17[beta]-tetrahydropyranyloxy-19-norandrostan-3[beta]-ol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di-Capua, S.; Jang, H. G.; Barasch, D.; Halperin, G.; Deutsch, J.

    1997-11-01

    The stereochemistry of 17[beta]-tetrahydropyranyloxy-19-norandrostan-3[beta]-ol was determined by mass spectral measurements of the extent of water elimination from the molecular ion under electron impact conditions. The [M - H2O][middle dot]+/[M][middle dot]+ ratio of the 3[beta]-OH isomer was found to be three to four times higher than that of the 3[alpha]-OH isomer. The 3[alpha]-OH isomer produced a crystalline 3[alpha]-benzyloxy derivative; its configuration and stereochemistry of the steroidal rings were determined by X-ray crystallography. The 3[alpha]-OH isomer was obtained by reduction of the corresponding carbonyl group with NaBH4. The 3[beta]-OH isomer was synthesized by Walden inversion of the 3[alpha]-OH isomer. The 3[beta] configuration of 17[beta]-tetrahydropyranyloxy-19-norandrostan-3[beta]-ol was also supported by its ability to bind digitonin.

  1. Beta-blockers and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, John M

    2010-01-01

    The life-time risk of developing HF is about 20% (40% if hypertension present). With increasing longevity in the developed world the burden of HF (hospitalisation) is set to increase over the next 10-20 years. CAD and hypertension are the two main causes of HF; CAD (and obesity) in the case of systolic HF and hypertension in the case of diastolic HF (mainly in the elderly). BB have become the corner-stone (alongside ACE-inhibitors) in the treatment of systolic HF. Bisoprolol, metoprolol and carvedilol (on an ACE-inhibitor background) have reduced all-cause death by 34-5%. The presence of intrinsic sympathomemetic activity (xamoterol, bucindolol, nebivolol) diminishes efficacy in the treatment of systolic HF. First-line bisoprolol has proved "non-inferior" to first-line enalapril in reducing all-cause death and is probably superior in reducing sudden death. The main mode of action of BB in treating systolic HF is inhibition of chronic beta-1 stimulation-induced myocardial apoptosis/necrosis/inflammation. The combination of pure beta-1 blockade (low-dose bisoprolol) and pure beta-2 blockade (clenbuterol) may prove invaluable in the treatment of end-stage systolic HF (thus avoiding cardiac transplantation). The appropriate treatment of diastolic HF has yet to be determined. Beta-blockade is effective in the prevention of HF i) in the post-MI period and ii) as first-line agents in the treatment of young/middle-aged hypertension and as second-line agents (to first-line diuretics) in the treatment of elderly systolic hypertension. BB are highly effective in reversing LVH in young/middle-aged hypertensives (LVH pre-disposes to HF in young/middle-aged hypertension) and are (bisoprolol) at least as good as ACE-inhibitors. Choice of BB is important as benefit is not a class-effect. ISA (xamoterol, bucindolol, nebivolol) markedly diminishes efficacy. The choice is between bisoprolol, metoprolol succinate and carvedilol for optimal efficacy. Adverse reactions are associated

  2. Redefining beta-blocker use in hypertension: selecting the right beta-blocker and the right patient.

    PubMed

    Mann, Samuel J

    2017-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have concluded that the cardiovascular outcome of first-step treatment of hypertension with traditional vasoconstricting beta-blockers is inferior to treatment with other antihypertensive drug classes. Beta-blocker use is also associated with undesirable side effects. Consequently, some recent guidelines consider beta-blockers an inferior option for first-step treatment of hypertension. Despite this, beta-blockers are still widely prescribed, and likely overused, in the management of hypertension. It is the contention of this perspective that beta-blockers do have an important role in treating hypertension, but their use needs to be much better targeted, by better identification of both the right patient and the right beta-blocker. Identifying the right patient involves consideration of underlying mechanisms of hypertension. In the absence of comorbidities for which a beta-blocker is indicated, beta-blockers would not seem to be the preferred treatment for patients with either sodium/volume-mediated hypertension, for which they are usually ineffective, or for those with renin-angiotensin system-mediated hypertension, for which angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers provide equal antihypertensive efficacy with evidence of better outcome and fewer adverse effects. Beta-blockers would instead appear to be best suited for patients with sympathetically driven, that is, neurogenic, hypertension, whether as a first-step drug, such as in patients with hypertension in the acute post-stroke period, in so-called "hyperkinetic" patients, and in patients with labile hypertension, or as an add-on drug in patients with resistant hypertension. In choosing among the beta-blockers, combined alpha/beta-blockade offers advantages over beta-blocker monotherapy and merits greater clinical and research attention. Finally, unreliable bioavailability greatly interferes with the effectiveness of lipophilic, but not

  3. beta Sheet structure in amyloid beta fibrils and vibrational dipolar coupling.

    PubMed

    Paul, Cynthia; Axelsen, Paul H

    2005-04-27

    Fibrils formed by amyloid beta proteins were labeled with 13C at various positions and examined by infrared spectroscopy to detect vibrational dipolar coupling, implying close physical proximity. The results support key features of several recently proposed models for amyloid fibril structure, but they also add some important caveats. For instance, they support the conclusion that the beta structure is parallel; however, the coupling is not as strong as expected when residues are in register. This may be explained by out-of-register alignment of adjacent strands, or nonstandard parallel sheet structure that yields suboptimal alignment of labeled dipole moments. The data also point to a significant structural difference between fibrils formed by the 40-residue amyloid beta protein and fibrils formed by residues 10-35.

  4. Binding of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-ribopyranoside to beta-D-xylosidase from Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Claeyssens, M; De Bruyne, C K

    1978-03-28

    The determination of the binding parameters of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-ribopyranoside, a fluorescent ligand of beta-D-xylosidase (exo-1,4-beta-xylosidase, EC 3.2.1.37) from Bacillus pumilus, is described. A single binding site per polypeptide chain (60 000 daltons) was found and the homogeneity of the binding sites in the dimeric or tetrameric forms of the enzyme were shown. The association constants, as a function of temperature and ionic strength, were obtained from equilibrium binding experiments and compared to the kinetically determined inhibition constants. The apparent discrepancies are attributed to a temperature, ionic strength and concentration dependent shift in the dimer-tetramer equilibrium of the enzyme and different affinities of the ligand for both oligomeric forms. Sedimentation velocity experiments seem to corroborate this hypothesis.

  5. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  6. A Novel Dimeric Inhibitor Targeting Beta2GPI in Beta2GPI/Antibody Complexes Implicated in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    A Kolyada; C Lee; A De Biasio; N Beglova

    2011-12-31

    {beta}2GPI is a major antigen for autoantibodies associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss. Only the dimeric form of {beta}2GPI generated by anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies is pathologically important, in contrast to monomeric {beta}2GPI which is abundant in plasma. We created a dimeric inhibitor, A1-A1, to selectively target {beta}2GPI in {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes. To make this inhibitor, we isolated the first ligand-binding module from ApoER2 (A1) and connected two A1 modules with a flexible linker. A1-A1 interferes with two pathologically important interactions in APS, the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes with anionic phospholipids and ApoER2. We compared the efficiency of A1-A1 to monomeric A1 for inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes to anionic phospholipids. We tested the inhibition of {beta}2GPI present in human serum, {beta}2GPI purified from human plasma and the individual domain V of {beta}2GPI. We demonstrated that when {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes are formed, A1-A1 is much more effective than A1 in inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin, regardless of the source of {beta}2GPI. Similarly, A1-A1 strongly inhibits the binding of dimerized domain V of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin compared to the monomeric A1 inhibitor. In the absence of anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies, both A1-A1 and A1 only weakly inhibit the binding of pathologically inactive monomeric {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin. Our results suggest that the approach of using a dimeric inhibitor to block {beta}2GPI in the pathological multivalent {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes holds significant promise. The novel inhibitor A1-A1 may be a starting point in the development of an effective therapeutic for antiphospholipid syndrome.

  7. Bioavailabilty of beta-amino acid and C-terminally derived PK/PBAN analogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of linear beta amino-acid-substituted peptides (PK-betaA-1: Ac-YFT[beta3-P]RLa; PK-betaA-2: Ac-Y[beta2-homoF]TPRLa; PK-betaA-3: Ac-Y[beta3-F]TPRLa and PK-betaA-4: Ac-[beta3-F]FT[beta3-P]RLa) and unsubstituted analogs (Ac-YFTPRLa and YFTPRLa) of the pyrokinin(PK)/pheromone biosynthesis-ac...

  8. Ferulic acid destabilizes preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that curcumin (Cur) inhibits fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilizes preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of FA with Cur, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide, as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: Cur > FA > rifampicin = tetracycline. FA could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  9. The role of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Koros, Eliza; Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia

    2007-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta is recognized as a ubiquitous multifunctional enzyme involved in the modulation of many aspects of neuronal function. Inhibitory control of GSK-3beta has been identified to be crucial for the phosphoinositide 3'-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt)-mediated cell survival. Several lines of evidence converge in implicating abnormal GSK-3beta activity in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Preclinical evidence showing that both typical and atypical antipsychotics can indirectly inhibit the activity of GSK-3beta, has pointed to GSK-3beta as a possible therapeutic target for schizophrenia. It is well known that GSK-3beta can be indirectly inhibited via regulation of several intracellular signaling cascades, including the canonical Wnt, Reelin and tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk)-PI3K-Akt. Recently, direct inhibition of GSK-3beta has emerged as a possible option in the pharmacotherapy of several neuropsychiatric disorders. There is, however, a number of issues that need to be considered regarding therapeutic utility of GSK-3beta inhibitors. This article reviews the evidence supporting the possible role of aberrant GSK-3beta in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and thus suggesting GSK-3beta to be a potential therapeutic target for this disorder.

  10. Taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait Beta diversity in South American hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Ben G; Tinoco, Boris; Parra, Juan Luis; Brown, Leone M; McGuire, Jimmy A; Stiles, F Gary; Graham, Catherine H

    2014-08-01

    Comparison of the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait dimensions of beta diversity may uncover the mechanisms that generate and maintain biodiversity, such as geographic isolation, environmental filtering, and convergent adaptation. We developed an approach to predict the relationship between environmental and geographic distance and the dimensions of beta diversity. We tested these predictions using hummingbird assemblages in the northern Andes. We expected taxonomic beta diversity to result from recent geographic barriers limiting dispersal, and we found that cost distance, which includes barriers, was a better predictor than Euclidean distance. We expected phylogenetic beta diversity to result from historical connectivity and found that differences in elevation were the best predictors of phylogenetic beta diversity. We expected high trait beta diversity to result from local adaptation to differing environments and found that differences in elevation were correlated with trait beta diversity. When combining beta diversity dimensions, we observe that high beta diversity in all dimensions results from adaption to different environments between isolated assemblages. Comparisons with high taxonomic, low phylogenetic, and low trait beta diversity occurred among lowland assemblages separated by the Andes, suggesting that geographic barriers have recently isolated lineages in similar environments. We provide insight into mechanisms governing hummingbird biodiversity patterns and provide a framework that is broadly applicable to other taxonomic groups.

  11. beta-Hydroxy fatty acid production by ischemic rabbit heart.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, K H; Koen, A E; Hull, F E

    1982-01-01

    beta-Hydroxymyristate, -palmitate, and -stearate were produced by and accumulated in isolated rabbit heart when perfused ischemically for 2-10 min by the nonrecirculating langendorff technique with 0.75 mM palmitate and 0.16 mM albumin. Tissue fractionation into mitochondria and cytosol showed that by 2 min of ischemia 44% of beta-hydroxypalmitate and 38% beta-hydroxystearate was located in the cytosol; this percentage increased to greater than 50% by 5 min of ischemia. Lipid fractionation studies showed that by 10 min these two beta-hydroxy fatty acids were distributed approximately as 60% acylcarnitine, 20% acyl-coenzyme A (CoA), and 20% free fatty acids. All three chemical forms of beta-hydroxypalmitate were found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol. After 10 min of ischemia beta-hydroxypalmitoyl-CoA and beta-hydroxystearoyl-CoA constituted at least 16% of the incremental long-chain acyl-CoA, whereas beta-hydroxypalmitoylcarnitine and b-hydroxystearoylcarnitine constituted 8% of the incremental long-chain acylcarnitine. These data suggests that myocardial beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA oxidation is limited during ischemia. Substrate accumulates and is transferred to the cytosol where it accumulates primarily as beta-hydroxyacylcarnitine. PMID:6799549

  12. Metabolic Stress and Compromised Identity of Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Swisa, Avital; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    Beta cell failure is a central feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the molecular underpinnings of the process remain only partly understood. It has been suggested that beta cell failure in T2D involves massive cell death. Other studies ascribe beta cell failure to cell exhaustion, due to chronic oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to cellular dysfunction. More recently it was proposed that beta cells in T2D may lose their differentiated identity, possibly even gaining features of other islet cell types. The loss of beta cell identity appears to be driven by glucotoxicity inhibiting the activity of key beta cell transcription factors including Pdx1, Nkx6.1, MafA and Pax6, thereby silencing beta cell genes and derepressing alternative islet cell genes. The loss of beta cell identity is at least partly reversible upon normalization of glycemia, with implications for the reversibility of T2D, although it is not known if beta cell failure reaches eventually a point of no return. In this review we discuss current evidence for metabolism-driven compromised beta cell identity, key knowledge gaps and opportunities for utility in the treatment of T2D. PMID:28270834

  13. The folding of an ``average'' beta trefoil protein.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosavi, Shachi; Jennings, Pat; Onuchic, Jose

    2007-03-01

    The beta-trefoil fold is characterized by twelve beta strands folded into three similar beta-beta-beta-loop-beta (trefoil) units. The overall fold has pseudo-threefold symmetry and consists of a six stranded-barrel, capped by a triangular hairpin triplet. The loops connecting the beta-strands vary in length and structure. It is these loops that give the fold its varied binding capability and the binding sites lie in different parts of the fold. The beta-trefoil proteins have little sequence similarity (sometimes less than 17%) and bind a range of molecules, including other proteins, DNA, membranes and carbohydrates. Protein folding experiments have been performed on four of the beta trefoils, namely, interleukin-1 (IL1B), acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1 and FGF-2) and hisactophilin (HIS). These experiments indicate that the proteins fold by different routes. Folding simulations of the proteins identify the possible folding routes and also show that the shapes of the barriers are different for the different proteins. In this work, we design a model protein which contains only the core fold elements of the beta-trefoil fold. We compare the folding of this ``average'' protein to the folding of His, FGF and IL1B and make some connections with function.

  14. 21beta-Hydroxy-oleanane-type triterpenes from Hippocratea excelsa.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Castillo, David; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Quijano, Leovigildo

    2008-02-01

    Stem bark of Hippocratea excelsa afforded six pentacyclic triterpenes, five oleanane and one ursane types. They were identified as 11beta,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene-3-one (2), 3alpha,11alpha,21beta-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene (3), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-olean-12-ene (4), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-9(11),12-diene (5), 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (6) and 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-urs-12-ene, isolated as its diacetate derivative (7), as well as 3alpha,21beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene (1) previously isolated from the root bark. The known alpha- and beta-amyrin, oleanoic and ursolic acids, trans-polyisoprene, and the ubiquitous beta-sitosterol were also isolated. Structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with literature data. The antigiardial activity of compounds 2-5 was not significant.

  15. IL-1 beta induces dendritic cells to produce IL-12.

    PubMed

    Wesa, A K; Galy, A

    2001-08-01

    The cytokine IL-12, a product of dendritic cells (DC), plays a major role in cellular immunity, notably by inducing lymphocytes to produce IFN-gamma. Microbial products, T cell signals and cytokines induce the production of IL-12. Here, IL-1 beta is identified as a new IL-12-inducing agent, acting conjointly with CD40 ligand (CD40L) on human monocyte-derived DC in vitro. The effects of IL-1 beta were dose dependent, specifically blocked by neutralizing antibodies, and were observed both in immature and mature DC. Immature DC secreted more IL-12 than mature DC, but the effects of IL-1 beta were not due to a block of DC maturation as determined by analysis of DC surface markers. The mechanisms of action of IL-1 beta could be contrasted to that of other inducers of IL-12 such as IFN-gamma and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Either IL-1 beta or IFN-gamma co-induced IL-12 with CD40L but conjointly, IL-1 beta, CD40L and IFN-gamma synergized, inducing very high levels of IL-12. The effects of IL-1 beta differed from those of LPS in that IL-1 beta, unlike LPS, could not induce IL-12 solely after IFN-gamma priming; and when combined with CD40L, IL-1 beta, unlike LPS, induced little IL-10. The mechanism of action of IL-1 beta involves IL-12 alpha mRNA up-regulation, and we show that the combination of CD40L and IL-1 beta induces high levels of IL-12 alpha and IL-12 beta mRNA in DC. Altogether, these results delineate a new mechanism linking adaptive and innate immune responses for the regulation of IL-12 production in DC and for the role of IL-1 beta in the development of cellular immunity.

  16. Prevalence and molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia in Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Ko, T M; Caviles, A P; Hwa, H L; Liu, C W; Hsu, P M; Chung, Y P

    1998-12-01

    Beta-thalassemia (thal) is a common single-gene disease worldwide. However, the prevalence of beta-thal and the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in Filipinos remain unclear. This study sought to answer these two questions. A total of 2954 apparently healthy Filipinos in Taiwan were recruited for a prevalence study. A complete blood count was done in every subject. Those with microcytosis were studied with hemoglobin (Hb) high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the levels of Hb A2 and Hb F. Twenty-seven subjects had elevated levels of Hb A2 (>4.0%). These 27 suspected beta-thal carriers and another 16 beta-thal major patients who were being treated in the Philippines were studied to determine the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations. Gap-PCR was used to detect the Filipino deletion of beta-thal, and direct sequencing was used to detect point or small mutations in the beta-globin gene. All of the 27 suspected beta-thal carriers had one mutation in the beta-globin gene, resulting in an overall prevalence of 0.9%. The spectrum of beta-thal mutations was similar in the carrier and patient groups. Analysis of the pooled identified seven different mutations in the study population. The Filipino deletion was the most common mutation, accounting for 45.8% (27/59) of the alleles, followed by codon 67 (-TG) (16 alleles), and Hb E (11 alleles). These three mutations accounted for 92% of the Filipino beta-thal alleles. Elucidation of the beta-thal mutations in Filipinos is useful for the genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of this disease.

  17. Beta-catenin--a supporting role in the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Case, Natasha; Rubin, Janet

    2010-06-01

    In the last 5 years a role for beta-catenin in the skeleton has been cemented. Beginning with mutations in the Lrp5 receptor that control beta-catenin canonical downstream signals, and progressing to transgenic models with bone-specific alteration of beta-catenin, research has shown that beta-catenin is required for normal bone development. A cell critical to bone in which beta-catenin activity determines function is the marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), where sustained beta-catenin prevents its distribution into adipogenic lineage. beta-Catenin actions are less well understood in mature osteoblasts: while beta-catenin contributes to control of osteoclastic bone resorption via alteration of the osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio, a specific regulatory role during osteoblast bone synthesis has not yet been determined. The proven ability of mechanical factors to prevent beta-catenin degradation and induce nuclear translocation through Lrp-independent mechanisms suggests processes by which exercise might modulate bone mass via control of lineage allocation, in particular, by preventing precursor distribution into the adipocyte pool. Effects resulting from mechanical activation of beta-catenin in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes likely modulate bone resorption, but whether beta-catenin is involved in osteoblast synthetic function remains to be proven for both mechanical and soluble mediators. As beta-catenin appears to support the downstream effects of multiple osteogenic factors, studies clarifying when and where beta-catenin effects occur will be relevant for translational approaches aimed at preventing bone loss and terminal adipogenic conversion.

  18. Globin synthesis in fractionated Normoblasts of beta-thalassemia heterozygotes.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, W G; Stamatoyannopoulos, G

    1975-01-01

    Globin chain synthesis was examined in erythroid cells of increasing maturity, fractionated from the whole bone marrow of beta-thalassemia heterozygotes by a density gradient centrifugation procedure. In experiments using total cell "globin," a gradient of alpha/beta chain ratios was observed, increasing with erythroid cell maturation from unity in the basophilic cells up to 2.0 in reticulocytes. Gel filtration of the lysates from these marrow fractions revealed the presence of free alpha chains even in the most immature cells, the amount of which increased with erythroid cell age; the total alpha/beta ratio derived from gel filtration experiments showed a gradient similar to that observed in the total globin experiments. However, the alpha/beta ratio of the hemoglobin fraction obtained by gel filtration remained constant throughout maturation at an average of 0.65. This latter finding is incompatible with balanced synthesis at any stage of red cell development and excludes the possibility that total beta chain production is higher in the early cells than in the later cells or that alpha chain production in the early cells is reduced to the level of beta chain synthesis. Furthermore, in a Hb S/beta-thalassemia marrow examined, the beta A/beta S ratio remained constant throughout maturation while the alpha/non-alpha ratio showed an increase like that observed in the simple beta-thalassemia heterozygotes. This argues strongly against increased synthesis from either the thalassemic or nonthalassemic beta chain gene being responsible for the balanced synthesis in the immature cells. These findings lead us to suggest that, in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes, a large alpha chain pool is present throughout erythroid cell maturation and that the observed increase in alpha/beta ratios is a function of the ability of those cells to degrade the excess alpha chains. Images PMID:1167870

  19. Iron(II) binding by cereal beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Faure, Audrey M; Koppenol, Willem H; Nyström, Laura

    2015-01-22

    Beta-glucan is a dietary fiber, which possesses several health benefits, such as cholesterol lowering, however this fiber is easily degraded in the presence of Fenton reagents. In the present study, the iron binding capacity of oat beta-glucan and barley beta-glucan was evaluated by investigating the kinetics of the Fenton reaction at pH 2.7 and 4.7 using stopped flow spectroscopy. The rate constant of the Fenton reaction is not affected by the presence of the beta-glucans in a solution pH 2.7, hence none of the beta-glucans bind iron(II) at this pH. However, at pH 4.7, the kinetics of the Fenton reaction vary between acetate buffer (k=2.8×10(2)M(-1)s(-1)), barley beta-glucan (k=2.2×10(2)M(-1)s(-1)) and oat beta-glucan (k=1.2×10(2)M(-1)s(-1)), which demonstrates that barley beta-glucan and oat beta-glucan form complexes with iron(II). Moreover, oat beta-glucan shows a stronger affinity for iron(II) than barley beta-glucan, and may thereby reduce the formation of hydroxyl radicals and diminish the rate of viscosity loss of the oat beta-glucan solution, as shown by the ESR and rheological data. The results presented in this study suggest that cereal beta-glucans can potentially reduce the bioavailability of iron. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The integrin alpha 6 beta 4 is a laminin receptor

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the putative laminin receptor function of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was assessed. For this purpose, we used a human cell line, referred to as clone A, that was derived from a highly invasive, colon adenocarcinoma. This cell line, which expresses the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, adheres to the E8 and not to the P1 fragment of laminin. The adhesion of clone A cells to laminin is extremely rapid with half- maximal adhesion observed at 5 min after plating. Adhesion to laminin is blocked by GoH3, and alpha 6 specific antibody (60% inhibition), as well as by A9, a beta 4 specific antibody (30% inhibition). Most importantly, we demonstrate that alpha 6 beta 4 binds specifically to laminin-Sepharose columns in the presence of either Mg2+ or Mn2+ and it is eluted from these columns with EDTA but not with NaCl. The alpha 6 beta 4 integrin does not bind to collagen-Sepharose, but the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin does bind. Clone A cells do not express alpha 6 beta 1 as evidenced by the following observations: (a) no beta 1 integrin is detected in beta 1 immunoblots of GoH3 immunoprecipitates; and (b) no alpha 6 beta 1 integrin is seen in GoH3 immunoprecipitates of clone A extracts that had been immunodepleted of all beta 4 containing integrin using the A9 antibody. These data establish that laminin is a ligand for the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin and that this integrin can function as a laminin receptor independently of alpha 6 beta 1. PMID:1533398

  1. Cloning and expression analysis of the murine lymphotoxin beta gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pokholok, D K; Maroulakou, I G; Kuprash, D V; Alimzhanov, M B; Kozlov, S V; Novobrantseva, T I; Turetskaya, R L; Green, J E; Nedospasov, S A

    1995-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble lymphotoxin (LT) (also called LT-alpha or TNF-beta) are cytokines with similar biological activities that are encoded by related and closely linked genes. TNF-alpha, a mediator of the inflammatory response, exists in soluble and transmembrane forms. LT-alpha can be secreted or retained at the cell surface by binding to a 33-kDa transmembrane subunit, LT-beta. The recently cloned human LT-beta gene encodes another TNF family member and is linked to the TNF/LT locus within the major histocompatibility complex locus. The cell surface LT is a heterotrimer consisting of LT-alpha and LT-beta, whose physiological function is not yet clearly defined. We now report the sequence analysis of the genomic region and cDNA of murine LT-beta gene, which is closely associated with the TNF-alpha and LT-alpha genes within the murine major histocompatibility complex locus. Unlike the TNF-alpha, LT-alpha, and human LT-beta genes, which contain four exons, the murine LT-beta contains three exons and encodes a 244-amino acid polypeptide with a 66-amino acid insert that is absent from the human homologue. In situ hybridization demonstrates constitutive expression of LT-beta in lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues. LT-beta transcription is maximal in the thymic medulla and in splenic white pulp. LT-beta mRNA is also detected in the skin and in specific regions of the brain. The LT-beta promoter region contains putative Ets-binding sites, suggesting that the expression of LT-beta may be regulated in part by Ets transcription factors whose pattern of lymphoid expression overlaps that of LT-beta. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7846035

  2. General, robust, and stereocomplementary preparation of alpha,beta-disubstituted alpha,beta-unsaturated esters.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Hidefumi; Nishikado, Hiroshi; Ueno, Kanako; Tanabe, Yoo

    2009-10-01

    An (E)- and (Z)-stereocomplementary preparative method for alpha,beta-disubstituted alpha,beta-unsaturated esters is performed via three general and robust reaction sequences: (i) Ti-Claisen condensation (formylation) of esters to give alpha-formyl esters (12 examples, 60-99%), (ii) (E)- and (Z)-stereocomplementary enol p-toluenesulfonylation (tosylation) using TsCl-N-methylimidazole (NMI)-Et(3)N and LiOH (24 examples, 82-99%), and (iii) stereoretentive Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling (18 examples, 64-96%).

  3. Kinesin accumulation in chick spinal axonal swellings with beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) intoxication.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, I; Kato, K; Sugawara, M; Wada, C; Masamune, O

    1998-06-19

    Kinesin is a major molecular motor responsible for anterograde axonal transport. Chicks were injected with beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to induce axonal swellings in spinal motor neurons and spinal sensory ganglion neurons. Cylindrical swollen axons were found in the anterior horn and anterior funiculus of the spinal cord, anterior root, and spinal ganglia. All of the axonal swellings were heavily stained with two anti-kinesin monoclonal antibodies. The swellings were mildly stained with an anti-cytoplasmic dynein and anti-tubulin antibodies, and weakly stained with an anti-tau antibody. These suggest the isolated disturbance of kinesin transport with neurofilament accumulation in IDPN intoxication.

  4. Mechanism of neurotoxic action of beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN): N-hydroxylation enhances neurotoxic potency.

    PubMed

    Morandi, A; Gambetti, P; Arora, P K; Sayre, L M

    1987-12-22

    The molecular mechanism(s) whereby beta, beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) induces an excitatory behavioral syndrome and a distinct alteration of the axonal cytoskeleton in experimental animals is not known. We demonstrate here that upon intraperitoneal administration to rats, the N-hydroxy analog of IDPN (HOIDPN) induces a parallel spectrum of both neurotoxic effects of IDPN and is approximately 8 times more potent than IDPN in this regard. This is consistent with the involvement of a flavin monooxygenase-mediated N-oxygenation pathway in the toxic activation of IDPN.

  5. Synthesis of 19-oxygenated 4beta,5beta-epoxy derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione as mechanistic and catalytic probes for aromatase reaction.

    PubMed

    Numazawa, M; Yoshimura, A

    2000-09-01

    4Beta,5beta-epoxy derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione (2), one of the natural substrates for aromatase, and its 19-oxygenated compounds 4 and 5 were synthesized as mechanistic and catalytic probes for the enzyme reaction. Treatment of 16alpha-bromoandrostenedione (13) or its 19-hydroxy analog 19 which was prepared from 3beta-hydroxy-19-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy)androst-5-en-17-one (16) in three steps, with H2O2 and NaOH followed by controlled alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH in aqueous pyridine stereospecifically yielded 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha-ol 15 or 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha,19-diol 22, respectively. Oxidation of 16beta-bromo-4beta,5beta-epoxy-19-ol 21 with pyridinium dichromate followed by controlled alkaline hydrolysis produced 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha-hydroxy-19-al 24.

  6. [beta]-Glucan synthesis in the cotton fiber. 1. Identification of [beta]1,4- and [beta]-1,3-glucans synthesized in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, Kazuo; Likun Li; Kudlicka, K.; Kuga, S.; Brown, R.M. Jr. )

    1993-04-01

    In vitro [beta]-glucan products were synthesized by digitonin-solubilized enzyme preparations from plasma membrane-enriched fractions of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells. The reaction mixture favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis included the following effectors: Mg[sup 2+], Ca[sup 2+], cellobiose, cyclic-3[prime]:5[prime]-GMP, and digitonin. The ethanol insoluble fraction from this reaction contained [beta]-1,4-glucan and [beta]-1,3-glucan in an approximate ratio of 25:69. Approximately 16% of the [beta]-1,4-glucan was resistant to the acetic/nitric acid reagent. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the treated product favoring [beta]-1,4-glucan synthesis strongly resembled that of cellulose 2. On the basis of methylation analysis, the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble glucan product was found to be exclusively [beta]-1,4-linked. Enzymic hydrolysis confirmed that the product was hydrolyzed only by cellobiohydrolase 1. Autoradiography proved that the product was synthesized in vitro. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the in vitro product was estimated by nitration and size exclusion chromatography; there were two average DPs of 59 (70%) and 396 (30%) for the [beta]-1,3-glucanase-treated sample, and an average DP of 141 for the acetic/nitric acid reagent-insoluble product. On the basis of product analysis, the positive identification of in vitro-synthesized cellulose was established. 45 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs and proteins in the developing chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Jakowlew, S B; Ciment, G; Tuan, R S; Sporn, M B; Roberts, A B

    1994-01-01

    Specific cDNA probes and antibodies for chicken transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 2 and beta 3 were used to study expression of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs and proteins in the developing chicken embryo. Expression of the mRNAs for both TGF-beta isoforms was detected by day 1.5 of incubation (Hamburger and Hamilton stage 10) by RNA Northern blot analysis and increased with developmental age. Expression of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs was detected in every embryonic tissue examined, with the level of expression of both isoforms being high in heart, brain and muscle and low in kidney and liver. Coordinate unidirectional upregulation of expression of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs occurred in most embryonic tissues with development except the heart, where the steady-state level of expression of TGF-beta 2 mRNA decreased with age, while that of TGF-beta 3 mRNA increased. In situ hybridization analysis detected TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs as early as the definitive primitive streak stage (stage 4). During neurulation (stage 10), TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs were detected in cells of all three germ layers; TGF-beta 3 mRNA was detected in neurectoderm as well. Following neurulation, TGF-beta 3 mRNA was detected in the neural tube, notochord, ectoderm, endoderm, sclerotome and dermomyotome at stage 16; expression of TGF-beta 2 mRNA was not as prominent as TGF-beta 3 mRNA in these structures. By stage 29, both TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs were localized in several tissues including heart, lung, gizzard and feathers. Immunohistochemical staining analysis detected immunoreactive TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 proteins in all three germ layers of stage 4 embryos. Staining for TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 proteins was detected in several cell types and tissues in the early developing embryo frequently in the same locations as TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs, with staining for TGF-beta 2 being less intense than TGF-beta 3. However, in some cases, localization of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 proteins was

  8. Interactions between TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 and their role in medial edge epithelium cell death and palatal fusion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Jorge; Maldonado, Estela; Barrio, Maria Carmen; Del Río, Aurora; López, Yamila; Martínez-Sanz, Elena; González, Ignacio; Martín, Concepción; Casado, Inmaculada; Martínez-Alvarez, Concepción

    2009-02-01

    In recent decades, studies have shown that both TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) play an important role in the induction of medial edge epithelium (MEE) cell death and palatal fusion. Many of these experiments involved the addition or blockage of one of these growth factors in wild-type (WT) mouse palate cultures, where both TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) are present. Few studies have addressed the existence of interactions between TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3), which could modify their individual roles in MEE cell death during palatal fusion. We carried out several experiments to test this possibility, and to investigate how this could influence TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) actions on MEE cell death and palatal shelf fusion. We double-immunolabelled developing mouse palates with anti-TGF-beta(1) or anti-TGF-beta(3) antibodies and TUNEL, added rhTGF-beta(1) or rhTGF-beta(3) or blocked the TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) action at different concentrations to WT or Tgf-beta(3) null mutant palate cultures, performed in situ hybridizations with Tgf-beta(1) or Tgf-beta(3) riboprobes, and measured the presence of TUNEL-positive midline epithelial seam (MES) cells and MES disappearance (palatal shelf fusion) in the different in vitro conditions. By combining all these experiments, we demonstrate great interaction between TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) in the developing palate and confirm that TGF-beta(3) has a more active role in MES cell death than TGF-beta(1), although both are major inductors of MES disappearance. Finally, the co-localization of TGF-beta(1), but not TGF-beta(3), with TUNEL in the MES allows us to suggest a possible role for TGF-beta(1) in MES apoptotic clearance.

  9. Phylogenetic tree and sequence similarity of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, H

    1993-06-01

    beta-Lactamases are the main cause of beta-lactam resistance in many pathogenic bacteria. These enzymes can be detected in a variety of pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic bacteria. The cyanobacteria are also known to produce a beta-lactamase. Recently, the amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional structures of some of these beta-lactamases have been clarified. On the basis of the amino acid sequences of 47 beta-lactamases and the computer-aided analysis, a phylogenetic tree is proposed in this paper. According to the tree, beta-lactamases are classified into six groups. Group 1 beta-lactamases are mainly composed of plasmid-mediated enzymes from gram-negative bacteria. However, chromosome-derived beta-lactamases from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata take part in this group. Group 2 enzymes consist of a part of the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from Streptomyces, and chromosome-mediated enzymes from Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter diversus, and Klebsiella oxytoca. Chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from gram-negative bacteria form group 3. Group 4 is composed of metalloenzymes, whereas group 5 consists of OXA type beta-lactamases. Chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from gram-positive bacteria form group 6. Comparison of the amino acid sequences among these groups confirmed the phylogenetic tree and the classification: the beta-lactamases in each group have its particular conserved amino acid sequences. In addition, the tree provides more detailed classification and time-scale mutual relationships and predicts new types of beta-lactamases that may be found. Furthermore, the classification deduced from the tree is generally in accord with the one based on the amino acid sequences reported previously. However, the class A beta-lactamases are clearly divided into three groups: groups 1, 2, and 6. RDF2 analysis shows that some combinations between beta-lactamases and beta-lactam-interacting proteins as well as eukaryotic proteins

  10. GIPC interacts with the beta1-adrenergic receptor and regulates beta1-adrenergic receptor-mediated ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liaoyuan A; Chen, Wei; Martin, Negin P; Whalen, Erin J; Premont, Richard T; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2003-07-11

    Beta1-adrenergic receptors, expressed at high levels in the human heart, have a carboxyl-terminal ESKV motif that can directly interact with PDZ domain-containing proteins. Using the beta1-adrenergic receptor carboxyl terminus as bait, we identified the novel beta1-adrenergic receptor-binding partner GIPC in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart cDNA library. Here we demonstrate that the PDZ domain-containing protein, GIPC, co-immunoprecipitates with the beta1-adrenergic receptor in COS-7 cells. Essential for this interaction is the Ser residue of the beta1-adrenergic receptor carboxyl-terminal ESKV motif. Our data also demonstrate that beta1-adrenergic receptor stimulation activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK1/2. beta1-adrenergic receptor-mediated ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by pertussis toxin, implicating Gi, and was substantially decreased by the expression of GIPC. Expression of GIPC had no observable effect on beta1-adrenergic receptor sequestration or receptor-mediated cAMP accumulation. This GIPC effect was specific for the beta1-adrenergic receptor and was dependent on an intact PDZ binding motif. These data suggest that GIPC can regulate beta1-adrenergic receptor-stimulated, Gi-mediated, ERK activation while having no effect on receptor internalization or Gs-mediated cAMP signaling.

  11. Tyrosine residues 654 and 670 in {beta}-cat enin are crucial in regulation of Met-{beta}-catenin interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Gang; Apte, Udayan; Micsenyi, Amanda; Bell, Aaron; Monga, Satdarshan P.S. . E-mail: smonga@pitt.edu

    2006-11-01

    {beta}-catenin, a key component of the canonical Wnt pathway, is also regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation that regulates its association to E-cadherin. Previously, we reported its association with the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor Met at the membrane. HGF induced Met-{beta}-catenin dissociation and nuclear translocation of {beta}-catenin, which was tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent. Here, we further investigate the Met-{beta}-catenin interaction by selectively mutating several tyrosine residues, alone or in combination, in {beta}-catenin. The mutants were subcloned into FLAG-CMV vector and stably transfected into rat hepatoma cells, which were treated with HGF. All single or double-mutant-transfected cells continued to show HGF-induced nuclear translocation of FLAG-{beta}-catenin except the mutations affecting 654 and 670 simultaneously (Y654/670F), which coincided with the lack of formation of {beta}-catenin-TCF complex and DNA synthesis, in response to the HGF treatment. In addition, the Y654/670F-transfected cells also showed no phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin or dissociation from Met in response to HGF. Thus, intact 654 and 670 tyrosine residues in {beta}-catenin are crucial in HGF-mediated {beta}-catenin translocation, activation and mitogenesis.

  12. Sodium channel from rat brain: role of the. beta. 1 and. beta. 2 subunits in saxitoxin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    Procedures are described for the selective removal of the ..beta..1 or the ..beta..2 subunits from the detergent-solubilized channel from rat brain, and the functional integrity of the resulting protein complex is examined. Treatment of the channel with 1.0 M MgCl/sub 2/ followed by sedimentation through sucrose gradients results in complete separation of ..beta..1 from the ..cap alpha..-..beta..2 complex and complete loss of (/sup 3/H)saxitoxin (STX) binding activity. At intermediate MgCl/sub 2/ concentrations, the loss of ..beta..1 and the loss of (/sup 3/H)STX binding activity are closely correlated. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) quantitatively stabilizes the solubilized complex against both the loss of ..beta..1 and the loss of (/sup 3/H)STX binding activity. This indicates that association of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta..1 subunits is required to maintain the STX/TTX binding site in a conformation with high affinity for STX and TTX in the detergent-solubilized state. Treatment of the solubilized sodium channel with dithiothreitol in the presence of TTX causes specific release of the ..beta..2 subunit, without significantly removing ..beta..1. There is little or no correlation between the amount of ..beta..2 in the sodium channel complex and the ability of the preparation to bind (/sup 3/H)STX.

  13. Beta blockade and physical training in rats.

    PubMed

    Harri, M

    1982-01-01

    Beta adrenergic blocking agents are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. Recent findings indicate that long-term physical training also could reduce elevated blood pressure and many physicians therefore recommend their patients to include physical training in their everyday program. However, it is not known whether a combination of beta blockade and physical training influences the responses of an organism to physical training. This problem was investigated using laboratory rats as an experimental animal model. Both swimming and running training were used, and a group of animals was trained without any medication while the other group performed their daily training session under the influence of 10 mg/kg of propranolol. Some of the effects produced by swimming training, such as hypertrophy of brown adipose tissue and heart muscle, resting bradycardia, increased tachycardic and tail skin temperature responses to isoprenaline, increased calorigenic response to noradrenaline and delayed cooling rate in cold water were similar to those produced by cold acclimation or repeated noradrenaline injections. It is thus tempting to conclude that the training-induced release of noradrenaline was responsible for the changes mentioned. Propranolol, when associated with the training, effectively hampered these changes. Running training increased the activity of oxidative enzymes in the skeletal muscle much more than did swimming training or repeated noradrenaline injections. Furthermore, running training neither induced hypertrophy of the brown fat nor enhanced calorigenic response to noradrenaline; it even led to enhanced rate of body cooling in cold water. Therefore the adaptive changes caused by running training most probably are not due to cold acclimation effects in spite of that propranolol, when associated with the running sessions, antagonized the development of running-induced changes, too. Some of these changes, such as cardiomegaly, training bradycardia and

  14. Developmental expression patterns of Beta-ig (betaIG-H3) and its function as a cell adhesion protein.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jill W; Mikesh, Michelle F; Wheeler, Esther F; LeBaron, Richard G

    2003-08-01

    Beta-ig is a secretory protein embodied by fasciclin I-like repeats containing sequences that might bind integrins and glycosaminoglycans in vivo. Expression of Beta-ig is responsive to Transforming Growth Factor-beta and the protein is found to be associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, implicating Beta-ig as an ECM adhesive protein of developmental processes. The spatiotemporal distribution of Beta-ig during various stages of murine development was examined and its ability to support adhesion of various cell types assessed. In situ hybridization of mouse embryos (E12.5-E18.5) indicated a prominent, distinct expression pattern for Beta-ig message in connective tissue. Beta-ig transcripts were abundantly expressed during mesenchymal cell condensation in areas of axial, craniofacial and appendicular primordial cartilage from E12.5-E14.5. Beginning at E15.5, Beta-ig transcripts appeared in collagen-rich tissues, including dura mater and corneal stroma. During E16.5-E18.5, Beta-ig transcripts were observed in proliferating chondrocytes and areas of endochondral ossification in joint and articular cartilage formation. Connective tissues expressed Beta-ig transcripts within the nasal septum and surrounding cartilage primordia, and in the pericardium, optic cup, kidney, ovary, esophagus, diaphragm, bronchi, trachea and corneal epithelium, and during cardiac valve formation. These patterns of expression indicate that Beta-ig may be involved in tissue morphogenesis. Cells derived from mesenchyme attached onto a substratum comprised of purified recombinant Beta-ig. Taken together, the results indicate that Beta-ig is expressed principally in collagen-rich tissues where it may interact with cells and ECM molecules, perhaps playing a role in tissue morphogenesis.

  15. Enzymes involved in the formation of 3 beta, 7 beta-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5 beta-cholanic acid from dehydrocholic acid by Ruminococcus sp. obtained from human intestine.

    PubMed

    Akao, T; Akao, T; Hattori, M; Namba, T; Kobashi, K

    1987-09-25

    Ruminococcus sp. PO1-3 from human intestinal flora reduced dehydrocholic acid to 3 beta-hydroxy-7,12-dioxo-5 beta-cholanic acid by means of the enzyme 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Akao, T., Akao, T., Hattori, M., Namba, T. and Kobashi, K. (1986) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 99, 1425-1431). This bacterium and its crude extract gave rise to another product, showing a lower RF value on TLC, from dehydrocholic acid. The product was identified as 3 beta, 7 beta-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5 beta-cholanic acid. The crude extract reduced 7-ketolithocholic acid and its methyl ester, but not 6-ketolithocholic acid and 12-ketochenodeoxycholic acid, in the presence of NADPH, and oxidized ursodeoxycholic acid and beta-muricholic acid, but not cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid and hydrocholic acid, in the presence of NADP+. Therefore, besides 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was shown to be present in this bacterium. The two dehydrogenases were clearly separated from each other by butyl-Toyopearl 650 M column chromatography. From dehydrocholic acid, 7 beta-hydroxy-3,12-dioxo-5 beta-cholanic acid was produced by 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3 beta, 7 beta-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5 beta-cholanic acid was produced by combination of two enzymes, 7 beta- and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

  16. Improved Synthesis Of Potassium Beta' '-Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Ryan, Margaret A.; O'Connor, Dennis E.; Kisor, Adam; Underwood, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Improved formulations of precursor materials synthesize nearly-phase-pure potassium beta' '-alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) powder. Materials are microhomogeneous powders (or, alternatively, gels) containing K(+,) Mg(2+), and Al(3+). K-BASE powder produced used in potassium-working-fluid alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (K-AMTEC), in which heat-input and heat-rejection temperatures lower than sodium-working-fluid AMTEC (Na-AMTEC). Additional potential use lies in purification of pottassium by removal of sodium and calcium.

  17. Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate

    DOEpatents

    Shen, M.S.; Chen, J.M.; Yang, R.T.

    1980-02-28

    This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica, and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850 to 1000/sup 0/C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

  18. Intercalation of water into lithium. beta. -alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N J; Bates, J B; Wang, J C; Brown, G M; Larson, B C; Engstrom, H

    1981-01-01

    Infrared absorption, neutron diffraction and weight loss techniques have been used to investigate the hydration of single crystals of Li ..beta..-alumina. The hydration is a reversible intercalation reaction. Up to approximately two water molecules per formula unit can penetrate the conduction plane. Other protonated species are formed from the dissociation of the molecular water. The rate of hydration is controlled by the diffusion of water in the conduction plane. A likely diffusion mechanism requires dissociation of the water and an interstitialcy motion of the oxygen.

  19. Numerical simulation of the Beta II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shumaker, D.E.; Boyd, J.K.; McNamara, B.; Turner, W.C.

    1981-10-01

    The transport code FRT which is a 1-1/2-D transport-equilibrium code for an axisymmetric plasma was used to simulate the decay of the plasma and magnetic fields of the Beta II experiment. A comparison is made between the experimentally determined decay times for the magnetic fields and particle confinement times and the computed decay times. It is found that 1% oxygen impurity is enough to clamp the electron temperature below the radiation barrier, which is in agreement with the experiment.

  20. Beta2-adrenoceptor agonists for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Fedorowicz, Zbys; Nasser, Mona; Jagannath, Vanitha A; Beaman, Jessica H; Ejaz, Kiran; van Zuuren, Esther J

    2012-05-16

    Dysmenorrhoea is a common gynaecological complaint that can affect as many as 50% of premenopausal women, 10% of whom suffer severely enough to be rendered incapacitated for one to three days during each menstrual cycle. Primary dysmenorrhoea is where women suffer from menstrual pain but lack any pathology in their pelvic anatomy. Beta2-adrenoceptor agonists have been used in the treatment of women with primary dysmenorrhoea but their effects are unclear. To determine the effectiveness and safety of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register; CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 8); MEDLINE; EMBASE; PsycINFO and the EBM Reviews databases. The last search was on 22 August 2011. Randomised controlled trials comparing beta2-adrenoceptor agonists with placebo or no treatment, each other or any other conventional treatment in women of reproductive age with primary dysmenorrhoea. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Five trials involving 187 women with an age range of 15 to 40 years were included. Oral isoxsuprine was compared with placebo in two trials; terbutaline oral spray, ritodrine chloride and oral hydroxyphenyl-orciprenalin were compared with placebo in a further three trials. Clinical diversity in the studies in terms of the interventions being evaluated, assessments at different time points and the use of different assessment tools mitigated against pooling of outcome data across studies in order to provide a summary estimate of effect for any of the comparisons. Only one study, with unclear risk of bias, reported pain relief with a combination of isoxsuprine, acetaminophen and caffeine. None of the other studies reported any significant clinical difference in effectiveness between the intervention and placebo. Adverse effects were reported with all of these medications in up to a quarter of the

  1. Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate

    DOEpatents

    Shen, Ming-Shing; Chen, James M.; Yang, Ralph T.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850.degree.-1000.degree. C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

  2. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovskiy, Igor; O'Sullivan, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    We review current experimental efforts to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ). A description of the selected leading experiments is given and the strongest recent results are compared in terms of achieved background indexes (BI) and limits on effective Majorana mass. A combined limit is also shown. The second part of the review covers next generation experiments, highlighting the challenges and new technologies that may be necessary to achieve a justifiable discovery potential. A potential synergy with direct dark matter searches, which could be an especially prudent strategy in case the axial vector coupling constant is quenched in 0νββ decay, is emphasized.

  3. Spiky strings, giant magnons, and {beta} deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Bobev, N. P.; Rashkov, R. C.

    2007-08-15

    We study rigid string solutions rotating on the S{sup 3} subspace of the {beta}-deformed AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} background found by Lunin and Maldacena. For particular values of the parameters of the solutions we find the known giant magnon and single spike strings. We present a single spike string solution on the deformed S{sup 3} and find how the deformation affects the dispersion relation. The possible relation of this string solution to spin chains and the connection of the solutions on the undeformed S{sup 3} to the sine-Gordon model are briefly discussed.

  4. Trivalent Ion Exchange in Beta’ Alumina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-06

    halide salt. required higher aticmp I We hew fotat t bet ain synthesis tempratures then wm usned for the are apale f mqporingtrivlen caion divalent...s a dni Table I . Trivalent, Zen Exchngeondiion ion Halt Coqoition ToW (OC) time(h) lexcdwmge Gd3 Gda1 615 5 100 Nd3+ dr 2 . 95 i1d3 45 MM /AS umcl...properties The fluorescence spectra of kUd’* exchanged Ita mtdctivity for Gd3 + beta" aluina Wben" alumina are ganerally similar to that of was masurd

  5. Contact Noise in Sodium Beta Alumina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    AD-Al~i 128 CONTACT NOISE IN SODIUM BETA ALUMINA(U) UTANHUNIV SALT i/i LAKE CITY DEPT OF PHYSICS C K KUD ET AL MAY 87 UN SLR55IF IED FG 1,b2 NL UN...by Chu Kun Kuo* and James J. Brophy Physics Department University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 ABSTRACT/ Contact noise in sodium 0alumina cells...ZIPCo*I) UNIVERSITY OF UTAH UNIVERISTY OF NEW MEXICO SALT LAKE CITY UT 84112 Bandelier Hall West Alhkq..u u. m (1 71-11 so NAME of FUNDING /SPONSORING Sb

  6. Noise in Sodium Beta Alumina Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Washington, D.C. 20375 .I- 7. 7- NOISE INI SODIUM r ALUMINA SINGLE CRYSTALS James J. Brophy and Steven W. Smith University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112...RD-Ai56 025 NOISE IN SODiUN BETA ALUMINA CRYSTALS(U) UTAH UNIV SALT II LAKE CITY DEPT OF PHYSICS J J BROPHY ET AL. SEP 85 TR-7 N88814-82-K-e603...h.0- "bf’ ; -28242 ’ITLE (andSubsist&) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED L Noise in Sodium B" Alumina Crystals Technical Report #7 CJ S. PERFORMING

  7. Progress of High-Beta Experiments in Stellarator/Heliotron

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kiyomasa Y.; Weller, Arthur; Sakakibara, Satoru; Narushima, Yoshiro; Ohdachi, Satoshi; Narihara, Kazumichi; Tanaka, Kenji; Ida, Katsumi; Toi, Kazuo; Yamada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kaneko, Osamu

    2004-07-15

    Recently, dramatic progress has been achieved in the study of helical systems with high-beta experiments. Discharges with more than 3% beta plasmas have been achieved in Large Helical Device (LHD) and Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS). Although magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities affect local pressure gradients, the global transport property does not seem to limit the achieved beta value in either device. We summarize the LHD high-beta properties in MHD stability, equilibrium, and transport, and we show the relationship between the experimentally achieved parameters and theoretical predictions. We contrast the LHD results with the W7-AS high-beta properties. In both devices, stationary discharges in the definitely MHD unstable region have not been observed. We mention the key issue for achievement of the beta values >5%.

  8. Beta-lactamase inactivation by mechanism-based reagents.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Belasco, J G; Charnas, R L; Khosla, S; Knowles, J R

    1980-05-16

    The mechanistic pathway followed by the E. coli RTEM beta-lactamase has been studied with a view to clarifying the mode of action of a number of recently discovered inactivators of the enzyme. There is clear evidence that the beta-lactamase-catalysed hydrolysis of the 7-alpha-methoxycephem, cefoxitin, proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. An analysis of the inactivation reactions of all the known beta-lactam derivatives that result in irreversible loss of enzyme activity permits the identification of three structural features required for a beta-lactamase inactivator. The application of these principles suggests a new group of mechanism-based inactivators of the enzyme: the sulphones of N-acyl derivatives of 6-beta-aminopenicillanic acid that are themselves poor substrates for the enzyme. These sulphones are powerful inactivators of the beta-lactamase.

  9. Purification and properties of beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Pedregosa, A M; de Lucas, J R; Torralba, S; Monistrol, I F; Laborda, F

    1996-12-01

    Beta-Galactosidase from mycelial extract of Aspergillus nidulans has been purified by substrate affinity chromatography and used to obtain anti-beta-galactosidase polyclonal antibodies. A. nidulans growing in lactose as carbon source synthesizes one active form of beta-galactosidase which seems to be a multimeric enzyme of 450 kDa composed of monomers with 120 and 97 kDa. Although the enzyme was not released to the culture medium, some enzymatic activity was detected in a cell-wall extract, thus suggesting that it can be an extracellular enzyme. Beta-Galactosidase of A. nidulans is a very unstable enzyme with an optimum pH value of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. It was only active against beta-galactoside substrates like lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (PNPG).

  10. Chlamydia pneumoniae promotes dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Annette R; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Witt, Colleen M; Yu, Jieh-Juen; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Chambers, James P; Perry, George; Guentzel, M Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2015-06-01

    The human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae has been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases including type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we designed a study to evaluate pancreatic beta cells and mast cells during chlamydial infection. Our study revealed that C. pneumoniae infected mast cells significantly (p<0.005) decreased beta cell ATP and insulin production, in contrast to uninfected mast cells co-cultured with beta cells. Infected mast cells exhibited pyknotic nuclei and active caspase-3 and caspase-1 expression. Additionally, ex vivo analyses of tissues collected from C. pneumoniae infected mice showed increased interleukin-1β production in splenocytes and pancreatic tissues as was observed with in vitro mast cell-beta cell co-cultures during C. pneumoniae infection. Notably, infected mast cells promoted beta cell destruction. Our findings reveal the negative effect of C. pneumoniae on mast cells, and the consequential impact on pancreatic beta cell function and viability.

  11. Divalent beta aluminas: High conductivity solid electrolytes for divalent cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, G. C.; Dunn, B.

    1982-10-01

    The Na(+) content of beta alumina can be replaced by a variety of divalent cations in simple ion exchange reactions. The resulting divalent beta' aluminas are the first family of high conductivity solid electrolytes for divalent cations. Divalent beta' aluminas which have been prepared so far include conductors of Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Mn(2+). Most have conductivities of about 0.1/(ohm-cm) at 300-400 C. However, the conductivity of Pb(++) beta alumina is 0.0046/(ohm-cm) at 40 C, nearly equal to that of Na(+) beta alumina. Preliminary structure studies indicate that order-disorder reactions among the divalent cations and vacancies in the conduction region of beta alumina critically influence conductivity in the structure.

  12. Hydrolysis of soybean isoflavonoid glycosides by Dalbergia beta-glucosidases.

    PubMed

    Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Rimlumduan, Thipwarin; Svasti, Jisnuson; Cairns, James R Ketudat

    2007-03-21

    Two beta-glucosidases from the legumes Dalbergia cochinchinensis and Dalbergia nigrescens were compared for their ability to hydrolyze isoflavonoid glycosides from soybean. Both D. nigrescens and D. cochinchinensis beta-glucosidases could hydrolyze conjugated soybean glycosides, but D. nigrescens beta-glucosidase hydrolyzed both conjugated and nonconjugated glycosides in crude soybean extract more rapidly. The kinetic properties Km, kcat, and kcat/Km of the Dalbergia beta-glucosidases toward conjugated isoflavonoid glycosides, determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, confirmed the higher efficiency of the D. nigrescens beta-glucosidase in hydrolyzing these substrates. The D. nigrescens beta-glucosidase could also efficiently hydrolyze isoflavone glycosides in soy flour suspensions, suggesting its application to increase free isoflavones in soy products.

  13. beta. -Sulfopyruvate: chemical and enzymatic syntheses and enzymatic assay

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, C.L.; Griffith, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    BETA-Sulfopyruvic acid (2-carboxy-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid) is prepared in greater than 90% yield by reaction of bromopyruvic acid with sodium sulfite. ..beta..-(/sup 35/S)Sulfopyruvate is prepared by transamination between (/sup 35/)cysteinesulfonate (cysteate) and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate using mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase isolated from rat liver. Following either chemical or enzymatic synthesis the crude reaction product is conveniently purified by chromatography on Dowex 1; ..beta..-sulfopyruvate is isolated as the stable, water-soluble dilithium salt. ..beta..-Sulfopyruvate is shown to be an alternative substrate of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase; in the presence of 0.25 mM NADH, ..beta..-sulfopyruvate is reduced with an apparent K/sub m/ of 6.3 mM and a V/sub max/ equal to about 40% of that observed with oxaloacetate. This finding forms the basis of a convenient spectrophotometric assay of ..beta..-sulfopyruvate.

  14. Coexistence of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the rabbit heart: quantitative analysis of the regional distribution by (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol binding

    SciTech Connect

    Brodde, O.E.; Leifert, F.J.; Krehl, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    We determined the amount of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in right and left atria and ventricles of rabbits. For this purpose inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol ((-)-/sup 3/H-DHA) binding (5 nM) by beta 1-selective (practolol, metoprolol) and beta 2-selective (zinterol, IPS 339) adrenergic drugs was determined and analyzed by pseudo-Scatchard (Hofstee) plots. For both atria, inhibition of binding by the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs resulted in non-linear Hofstee plots, suggesting the coexistence of both beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. From these plots we calculated a beta 1:beta 2-adrenoceptor ratio of 72:28 for the right atrium and of 82:18 for the left. In contrast, only a very small amount of beta 2-adrenoceptors (approximately 5-7% of the total beta-adrenoceptor population) could be detected in the ventricles. For comparison we analyzed the inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-DHA binding in tissues with homogeneous population of beta-adrenoceptors (beta 1:guinea pig left ventricle; beta 2: cerebellum of mature rats). For both tissues the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs showed linear Hofstee plots, demonstrating that in tissues with homogeneous beta-receptor population interaction of each drug with the receptor followed simple mass-action kinetics. We conclude that beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors coexist in rabbit atria while the ventricles are predominantly endowed the beta 1-adrenoceptors.

  15. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on beta measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    Participants discussed current practices, efforts to upgrade the quality of beta measurements, and initiatives necessary to improve the measurement and control of beta doses. This proceedings includes papers presented at the workshop, transcripts of panel and open discussions, and documentation of question and answer sessions. The information exchange resulting from this meeting is expected to provide a clearer focus on the problems of beta measurements.

  16. The nucleotide sequence of the human beta-globin gene.

    PubMed

    Lawn, R M; Efstratiadis, A; O'Connell, C; Maniatis, T

    1980-10-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequence of the human beta-globin gene. The purpose of this study is to obtain information necessary to study the evolutionary relationships between members of the human beta-like globin gene family and to provide the basis for comparing normal beta-globin genes with those obtained from the DNA of individuals with genetic defects in hemoglobin expression.

  17. Neutrinoless double beta decay search with the NEMO 3 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nasteva, Irina

    2008-11-23

    The NEMO 3 experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta decay and makes precision measurements of two-neutrino double beta decay in seven isotopes. The latest two-neutrino half-life results are presented, together with the limits on neutrinoless half-lives and the corresponding effective Majorana neutrino masses. Also given are the limits obtained on neutrinoless double beta decay mediated by R{sub p}-violating SUSY, right-hand currents and different Majoron emission modes.

  18. Diabetes mellitus in children suffering from beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    el-Hazmi, M A; al-Swailem, A; al-Fawaz, I; Warsey, A S; al-Swailem, A

    1994-10-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a frequent complication in patients with beta-thalassaemia major. It is believed to be a consequence of the damage inflicted by iron overload to the pancreatic beta-cell. Liver disorders and genetic influences seem to be additional predisposing factors to diabetes mellitus in patients with beta-thalassaemia. Ethnic variations are frequently reported on prevalence and complications of diabetes mellitus in the beta-thalassaemia patients. We investigated 50 Saudi children (< 15 years) with beta-thalassaemia major and 50 beta-thalassaemia minor, and age- and sex-matched controls for the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and its relation to hitherto claimed predisposing factors. Fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin level, liver function tests, plasma ferritin, iron, and transferrin were assessed in each patient and glucose tolerance was evaluated. Results in patients with beta-thalassaemia major were compared with those obtained for beta-thalassaemia minor and the controls. The results showed moderate elevation of ferritin level in the majority of the beta-thalassaemia major despite desferroxamine therapy. Either hyperinsulinaemia or hypoinsulinaemia was encountered in the majority of these patients. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 6 per cent compared to 2 per cent in the beta-thalassaemia minor and normal children. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) occurred at a significantly higher (24 per cent) frequency in the beta-thalassaemia major compared to 2 and 0 per cent in the beta-thalassaemia minor patients and normal controls, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly lower in the Saudi thalassaemic patients compared to the results obtained from patients of other ethnic groups reported in literature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Beta2-adrenergic receptor signaling mediates corneal epithelial wound repair.

    PubMed

    Ghoghawala, Shahed Y; Mannis, Mark J; Pullar, Christine E; Rosenblatt, Mark I; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2008-05-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists are frequently prescribed ophthalmic drugs, yet previous investigations into how catecholamines affect corneal wound healing have yielded conflicting With the use of an integrated pharmacologic and genetic approach, the authors investigated how the beta-AR impacts corneal epithelial healing. Migratory rates of cultured adult murine corneal epithelial (AMCE) cells and in vivo corneal wound healing were examined in beta2-AR(+/+) and beta2-AR(-/-) mice. Signaling pathways were evaluated by immunoblotting. results. The beta-AR agonist isoproterenol decreased AMCE cell migratory speed to 70% of untreated controls, and this was correlated with a 0.60-fold decrease in levels of activated phospho-ERK (P-ERK). Treatment with the beta-AR antagonist (timolol) increased speed 33% and increased P-ERK 2.4-fold (P < 0.05). The same treatment protocols had no effect on AMCE cells derived from beta2-AR(-/-) mice; all treatment groups showed statistically equivalent migratory speeds and ERK phosphorylation. In beta2-AR(+/+) animals, the beta-AR agonist (isoproterenol) delayed the rate of in vivo corneal wound healing by 79%, whereas beta-AR antagonist (timolol) treatment increased the rate of healing by 16% (P < 0.05) compared with saline-treated controls. In contrast, in the beta2-AR(-/-) mice, all treatment groups demonstrated equivalent rates of wound healing. Additionally, murine corneal epithelial cell expressed the catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase and detectable levels of epinephrine (184.5 pg/mg protein). The authors provide evidence of an endogenous autocrine catecholamine signaling pathway dependent on an intact beta2-AR for the modulation of corneal epithelial wound repair.

  20. Beta 2-microglobulin clearance in neonates: index of tubular maturation.

    PubMed

    Assadi, F K; John, E G; Justice, P; Fornell, L

    1985-08-01

    Serum and urinary beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) were studied by enzyme immunoassay in 28 normal neonates at day 1 and day 4 of life in relation to gestational age (GA) and postnatal age (PNA). The infants were grouped according to GA; 10 with GA ranging from 32 to 35 weeks (mean 33.5 weeks) and 18 with GA ranging from 36 to 41 weeks (mean 38.3 weeks). Serum beta 2M varied directly with both GA and PNA. When values for serum beta 2M were related to conceptional age (CA), a significant positive correlation was present for all the infants studied (r = 0.68, P less than 0.01). Fractional excretion of beta 2M (FE beta 2M) decreased as a function of both GA and PNA. When a comparison of FE beta 2M was made in infants of all CA, a significant inverse correlation was noted for infants with CA less than or equal to 35 weeks (r = -0.89, P less than 0.001). The fall in FE beta 2M reached a plateau by 36 weeks. The highest FE beta 2M (33%) was observed in infants of 32 weeks CA who had the lowest filtered beta 2M (F beta 2M). No statistically significant relationship between changes in FE beta 2M and fractional urine flow rate was observed within each of the CA categories (infants less than or equal to 35 weeks, r = 0.21, P = 0.28; infants greater than or equal to 36 weeks, r = 0.25, P = 0.18).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Search for {beta}-delayed fission of {sup 228}Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yanbing; Ding Huajie; Yuan Shuanggui; Yang Weifan; Niu Yanning; Li Yingjun; Xiao Yonghou; Zhang Shengdong; Lu Xiting

    2006-10-15

    Radium was radiochemically separated from natural thorium. Thin {sup 228}Ra{yields}{beta}{sup -228}Ac sources were prepared and exposed to mica fission track detectors, and measured by an HPGe {gamma}-ray detector. The {beta}-delayed fission events of {sup 228}Ac were observed and its {beta}-delayed fission probability was found to be (5{+-}2)x10{sup -12}.

  2. Ocular beta-blockers in glaucoma management. Clinical pharmacological aspects.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A M; Gillies, W E

    1992-01-01

    Topical beta-blockers reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) by blockade of sympathetic nerve endings in the ciliary epithelium causing a fall in aqueous humour production. Two types of topical beta-blockers are available for use in glaucoma: nonselective, which block both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors; and cardioselective, which block only beta 1-receptors. Of the beta-Blockers commercially available, timolol, levobunolol, metipranolol and carteolol are nonselective, and betaxolol is cardioselective. Twice-daily timolol is probably the most effective agent in lowering IOP, although levobunolol is equally effective and can be used once daily with little difference in effect. Carteolol is used twice daily and any theoretical advantage in diminished side effects conferred by its partial beta-agonist activity compared with timolol has not been fully substantiated. Metipranolol is effective twice daily and does not have partial beta-agonist activity. Betaxolol has an effect comparable to timolol in lowering IOP, but is less effective in some patients. beta-Blockers can be used with other antiglaucoma medications, but their combined action with epinephrine (adrenaline) is suspect, particularly in the case of the nonselective beta-blockers, and the effect should be assessed in patients on an individual basis. Local stinging can be a problem in some patients with betaxolol. The most serious side effects of beta-blockers are the exacerbation of chronic obstructive airways disease with nonselective agents and the precipitation of bronchospasm in some patients. Betaxolol seems relatively free of adverse respiratory effects, although this may be dose-related and extreme caution should still be exercised in patients with any history of respiratory illness. Because of the lower risk of precipitating side effects, betaxolol is probably the beta-blocker of first choice for use in glaucoma; timolol or levobunolol are reserved for patients who do not respond satisfactorily to

  3. Distribution of beta-glucanases within the genus Bacillus.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D F; Priest, F G; Todd, C; Goodfellow, M

    1980-01-01

    Representative strains (368) from 36 species in the genus Bacillus were screened for the secretion of beta-glucanases. (1 leads to 6)-beta-glucanases active on pustulan were produced by a minority of the organisms studied (4%), but (1 leads to 3)-beta-glucanases which hydrolyzed laminarin and pachyman were more widespread and were secreted by 56 and 44% of the strains, respectively. PMID:7458311

  4. Reprogramming of human exocrine pancreas cells to beta cells.

    PubMed

    Staels, Willem; Heremans, Yves; Heimberg, Harry

    2015-12-01

    One of the key promises of regenerative medicine is providing a cure for diabetes. Cell-based therapies are proving their safety and efficiency, but donor beta cell shortages and immunological issues remain major hurdles. Reprogramming of human pancreatic exocrine cells towards beta cells would offer a major advantage by providing an abundant and autologous source of beta cells. Over the past decade our understanding of transdifferentiation processes greatly increased allowing us to design reprogramming protocols that fairly aim for clinical trials.

  5. HgI sub 2 low energy beta particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, K.S.; Squillante, M.R.; Entine, G. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper reports on a HgI{sub 2} device structure designed and tested which allows HgI{sub 2} to be used to make low energy beta particle detectors. The devices detected tritium beta particles with about a 25% efficiency. In addition, an encapsulation scheme was identified which has the potential to protect the devices while permitting most of the beta particles to reach the active region.

  6. Beta adrenoreceptor subtype cross regulation in the human heart.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Ferro, A; Dickerson, J E; Brown, M J

    1993-04-01

    To find out in a prospective study whether beta 1 blocker treatment causes selective beta 2 adrenoreceptor sensitisation, and to find whether such sensitisation is confined to the heart. A placebo controlled cross over study of two weeks of selective beta 1 blocker treatment with 10 mg of bisoprolol daily. Six healthy volunteers. Three days after stopping the 10 mg of bisoprolol or placebo, subjects underwent treadmill exercise (to measure cardiac beta 1 receptor responsiveness) and were given salbutamol injections (to measure cardiac beta 2 receptor responsiveness). Secondary end points were the responses of serum potassium, glucose, and insulin to beta 2 stimulation. There was no difference in exercise induced increases in heart rate, but after treatment with bisoprolol the dose of salbutamol required to increase heart rate by 40 beats/min was 1.9 micrograms/kg compared with 2.9 micrograms/kg after placebo (p < 0.005). The fall in diastolic blood pressure was not significantly different on the two occasions. Hypokalaemia induced by salbutamol, but not hyperglycaemia or hyperinsulinaemia, was enhanced after bisoprolol. This study shows that treatment with a beta 1 blocker in vivo leads to sensitisation of cardiac beta 2 adrenoreceptors but not cardiac beta 1 adrenoreceptors or vascular beta 2 receptors. This previously unrecognised form of receptor cross sensitisation in the heart may noticeably diminish the efficacy of selective beta 1 blockade in preventing arrhythmias in patients with ischaemic heart disease. These findings reopen the question of which type of beta blocker is more appropriate for such patients.

  7. Tolerance of Beta Blocked Hypertensives during Orthostatic and Altitude Stresses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Words 18. Distribution Statement Hypertension, Beta - blockers , Document is available to the public through Orthostatic Tolerance, Hypoxia, the National...Extrapolating to other dosages of atenolol and to tion-specific stress environment permits quantitative other beta - blockers can only be effected...Correspondingly, at ment, while 12 were observed with placebo tratment. altitude 40 runs were done on beta - blockers and 40 on The effect of altitude was

  8. Labeled ALPHA4BETA2 ligands and methods therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Pichika, Ramaiah; Potkin, Steven; Leslie, Frances; Chattopadhyay, Sankha

    2013-02-19

    Contemplated compositions and methods are employed to bind in vitro and in vivo to an .alpha.4.beta.2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a highly selective manner. Where such compounds are labeled, compositions and methods employing such compounds can be used for PET and SPECT analysis. Alternatively, and/or additionally contemplated compounds can be used as antagonists, partial agonists or agonists in the treatment of diseases or conditions associated with .alpha.4.beta..beta.2 dysfunction.

  9. Amyloid Beta as a Modulator of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Mordhwaj S; Brewer, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is associated with synapse loss, memory dysfunction and pathological accumulation of amyloid beta in plaques. However, an exclusively pathological role for amyloid beta is being challenged by new evidence for an essential function of amyloid beta at the synapse. Amyloid beta protein exists in different assembly states in the central nervous system and plays distinct roles ranging from synapse and memory formation to memory loss and neuronal cell death. Amyloid beta is present in the brain of symptom-free people where it likely performs important physiological roles. New evidence indicates that synaptic activity directly evokes the release of amyloid beta at the synapse. At physiological levels, amyloid beta is a normal, soluble product of neuronal metabolism that regulates synaptic function beginning early in life. Monomeric amyloid beta 40 and 42 are the predominant forms required for synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. With age, some assemblies of amyloid beta are associated with synaptic failure and Alzheimer’s disease pathology, possibly targeting the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor through the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), mitochondrial amyloid-β alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) and cyclophilin D. But emerging data suggests a distinction between age effects on the target response in contrast to the assembly state or the accumulation of the peptide. Both aging and beta amyloid independently decrease neuronal plasticity. Our laboratory has reported that amyloid beta, glutamate and lactic acid are each increasingly toxic with neuron age. The basis of the age-related toxicity partly resides in age-related mitochondrial dysfunction and an oxidative shift in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic redox potential. In turn, signaling through phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (pERK) is affected along with an age-independent increase in phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p

  10. Method for preparing Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, Eric E.

    1986-01-01

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic from Na-.beta."-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  11. Pharmacological characterization of beta2-adrenoceptor in PGT-beta mouse pineal gland tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, B C; Chae, H D; Chung, J H; Kim, K T

    1999-01-01

    1. The adrenoceptor in a mouse pineal gland tumour cell line (PGT-beta) was identified and characterized using pharmacological and physiological approaches. 2. Adrenaline and noradrenaline, adrenoceptor agonists, stimulated cyclic AMP generation in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. Adrenaline was a more potent activator of cyclic AMP generation than noradrenaline, with half maximal-effective concentrations (EC50) seen at 175+/-22 nM and 18+/-2 microM for adrenaline and noradrenaline, respectively. 3. The addition of forskolin synergistically stimulated the adrenaline-mediated cyclic AMP generation in a concentration-dependent manner. 4. The pA2 value for the specific beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118,551 (8.7+/-0.4) as an antagonist of the adrenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP generation were 3 units higher than the value for the betaI-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol (5.6+/-0.3). 5. Treatment of the cells with adrenaline and forskolin evoked a 3 fold increase in the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase with the peak occurring 6 h after stimulation. 6. These results suggest the presence of beta2-adrenoceptors in mouse pineal cells and a functional relationship between the adenylyl cyclase system and the regulation of N-acetyltransferase expression.

  12. Beta globin gene cluster haplotypes of the beta thalassemia mutations observed in Denizli province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bahadır, Anzel; Öztürk, Onur; Atalay, Ayfer; Atalay, Erol Ömer

    2009-09-05

    Our aim is to identify the beta globin gene cluster haplotypes for the beta thalassemia mutations in Turkey at regional basis. Beta thalassemia mutations included in this study were IVS-I-110 (G>A), FSC 8/9 (+G), IVS-II-1 (G>A), IVS-I-5 (G>C), IVS-I-1 (G>A), IVS-I-6 (T>C) and FSC 8 (-AA). We studied 22 unrelated patients with β-thalassemia major and 72 unrelated healthy subjects from our Department's DNA bank. Haplotype analysis was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction enzyme digestion for the beta globin gene cluster of the following polymorphic restriction sites: Hinc II 5' to ε, Hind III 5' to Gγ, Hind III in the IVS-II 5' to Aγ, Hinc II in pseudo β, Hinc II 3' to pseudo β, Ava II in β, Hinf I 3' to β. Associated haplotypes for the normal control samples (72 individuals, 144 chromosomes) were determined by Arlequin 3.1 software with unknown gametic phase. According to the results obtained, the most frequent beta globin gene cluster haplotypes in the normal population are (+----++), (+----+-), (-+-++++), (+-----+) with the frequencies of 28.6 %, 17.2 %, 9.8 % and 8.3 % respectively. IVS-I-110 mutation is linked with the haplotypes (+----++) and (+-----+). Observed haplotypes are (+----++) for FSC 8/9 (+G), (-+-+++-) for IVS-II-1 (G>A), (-+-++-+ and -+-++++) for IVS-I-5 (G>C), (+----+- and +------) for IVS-I-1 (G>A), (-++---+) for IVS-I-6 (T>C) and (+-----+) for FSC 8 (-AA). In conclusion, our region shows the Mediterranean character for the beta thalassemia mutations. According to the obtained results, IVS-I-110 (G>A) mutation linked with haplotype VII (+-----+), IVS-I-5 (G>C) mutation with haplotype IV (-+-++-+), codon 8/9 (+G) linked with haplotype I (+----++) were shown for the first time in Turkish population. The linkage of haplotype (+------) with the IVS-I-1 (G>A) mutation is reported for the first time in the published literature. In Denizli province of Turkey, beta globin gene cluster haplotypes of the normal population are

  13. The aCORN backscatter-suppressed beta spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. T.; Bateman, F.; Collett, B.; Darius, G.; DeAngelis, C.; Dewey, M. S.; Jones, G. L.; Komives, A.; Laptev, A.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Nico, J. S.; Noid, G.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stern, I.; Trull, C.; Wietfeldt, F. E.

    2017-09-01

    Backscatter of electrons from a beta detector, with incomplete energy deposition, can lead to undesirable effects in many types of experiments. We present and discuss the design and operation of a backscatter-suppressed beta spectrometer that was developed as part of a program to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation coefficient in neutron beta decay (aCORN). An array of backscatter veto detectors surrounds a plastic scintillator beta energy detector. The spectrometer contains an axial magnetic field gradient, so electrons are efficiently admitted but have a low probability for escaping back through the entrance after backscattering. The design, construction, calibration, and performance of the spectrometer are discussed.

  14. Beta Absorption Mass Monitoring of Particulates - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienfeld, Pedro

    1971-01-01

    The theory and application of beta-radiation absorption for the measurement and monitoring of airborne particulates are discussed. The use of this technique, both for source testing and for ambient air quality monitoring is reviewed. Various particle collection methods used in conjunction with beta absorption sensing configurations are considered. State of the art and current developments of instrumentation approaches for the automated measurement of mass concentration and size distribution of aerosols by beta absorption are discussed. Methods for electronic signal processing and recording are presented. The Beta absorption technique appears as a powerful tool for the unattended measurement of the mass of particulate pollution, compatible with telemetry and central data processing methods.

  15. Latency and activation in the control of TGF-beta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The biological activity of the transforming growth factor-beta's (TGF-beta)3 is tightly controlled by their persistence in the extracellular compartment as latent complexes. Each of the three mammalian isoform genes encodes a product that is cleaved intracellularly to form two polypeptides, each of which dimerizes. Mature TGF-beta, a 24 kD homodimer, is noncovalently associated with the 80 kD latency-associated peptide (LAP). LAP is a fundamental component of TGF-beta that is required for its efficient secretion, prevents it from binding to ubiquitous cell surface receptors, and maintains its availability in a large extracellular reservoir that is readily accessed by activation. This latent TGF-beta complex (LTGF-beta) is secreted by all cells and is abundant both in circulating forms and bound to the extracellular matrix. Activation describes the collective events leading to the release of TGF-beta. Despite the importance of TGF-beta regulation of growth and differentiation in physiological and malignant tissue processes, remarkably little is known about the mechanisms of activation in situ. Recent studies of irradiated mammary gland reveal certain features of TGF-beta 1 activation that may shed light on its regulation and potential roles in the normal and neoplastic mammary gland.

  16. Beta fields and measurement practices at DOE facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinth, K. L.; Rathbun, L. A.; Brackenbush, L. W.

    1985-09-01

    As part of a larger program, the beta measurement problem at DOE facilities was assessed through the use of a questionnaire and field visits to selected facilities. At 35% the facilities beta-emitting radionuclides can contribute enough to the radiation exposures that they must be considered in establishing protection requirements. Measurements were made in several facilities using scintillators, a surface barrier detector plus various dosimeters and survey instruments. Beta dose rates of several hundred mrad/hr were not unusual and beta:gamma ratios of greater than 30:1 were frequently observed. The agreement between the various measurement techniques was frequently unacceptable.

  17. Autoradiographic localization of beta-adrenoceptors in asthmatic human lung

    SciTech Connect

    Spina, D.; Rigby, P.J.; Paterson, J.W.; Goldie, R.G. )

    1989-11-01

    The autoradiographic distribution and density of beta-adrenoceptors in human non-diseased and asthmatic bronchi were investigated using (125I)iodocyanopindolol (I-CYP). Analysis of the effects of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on I-CYP binding demonstrated that betaxolol (20 nM, beta 1-selective) had no significant effect on specific grain density in either nonasthmatic or asthmatic human bronchus, whereas ICI-118551 (20 nM, beta 2-selective) inhibited I-CYP binding by 85 +/- 9% and 89 +/- 3%, respectively. Thus, homogeneous populations of beta 2-adrenoceptors existed in bronchi from both sources. Large populations of beta-adrenoceptors were localized to the bronchial epithelium, submucosal glands, and airway smooth muscle. Asthmatic bronchial tissue featured epithelial damage with exfoliated cells associated with luminal mucus plugs. A thickened basement membrane and airway smooth muscle hyperplasia were also evident. High levels of specific I-CYP binding were also detected over asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle, as assessed by autoradiography and quantitation of specific grain densities. Isoproterenol and fenoterol were 10- and 13-fold less potent, respectively, in bronchi from asthmatic lung than in those from nonasthmatic lung. However, this attenuated responsiveness to beta-adrenoceptor agonists was not caused by reduced beta-adrenoceptor density in asthmatic airways. A defect may exist in the coupling between beta-adrenoceptors and postreceptor mechanisms in severely asthmatic lung.

  18. Latency and activation in the control of TGF-beta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The biological activity of the transforming growth factor-beta's (TGF-beta)3 is tightly controlled by their persistence in the extracellular compartment as latent complexes. Each of the three mammalian isoform genes encodes a product that is cleaved intracellularly to form two polypeptides, each of which dimerizes. Mature TGF-beta, a 24 kD homodimer, is noncovalently associated with the 80 kD latency-associated peptide (LAP). LAP is a fundamental component of TGF-beta that is required for its efficient secretion, prevents it from binding to ubiquitous cell surface receptors, and maintains its availability in a large extracellular reservoir that is readily accessed by activation. This latent TGF-beta complex (LTGF-beta) is secreted by all cells and is abundant both in circulating forms and bound to the extracellular matrix. Activation describes the collective events leading to the release of TGF-beta. Despite the importance of TGF-beta regulation of growth and differentiation in physiological and malignant tissue processes, remarkably little is known about the mechanisms of activation in situ. Recent studies of irradiated mammary gland reveal certain features of TGF-beta 1 activation that may shed light on its regulation and potential roles in the normal and neoplastic mammary gland.

  19. Tac-beta1 inhibits FAK activation and Src signaling.

    PubMed

    Berrier, Allison L; Jones, Christopher W; LaFlamme, Susan E

    2008-03-28

    The binding of integrins to extracellular matrix triggers signals that promote cell spreading. We previously demonstrated that expression of the integrin beta1 cytoplasmic domain in the context of a chimeric transmembrane receptor with the Tac subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (Tac-beta1) inhibits cell spreading. To study the mechanism whereby Tac-beta1 inhibits cell spreading, we examined the effect of Tac-beta1 on early signaling events following integrin engagement namely FAK and Src signaling. We infected primary fibroblasts with adenoviruses expressing Tac or Tac-beta1 and found that Tac-beta1 prevented FAK activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397. In contrast, Src activation was maintained, as phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-419 and Tyr-530 were not responsive to expression of Tac-beta1. Importantly, adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Src substrates p130Cas and paxillin was inhibited, indicating that Src signaling was blocked by Tac-beta1. These Src-dependent signaling events were found to require FAK signaling. Our results suggest that Tac-beta1 inhibits cell spreading, at least in part, by preventing the phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397 and the assembly of signaling complexes necessary for phosphorylation of p130Cas and other downstream effectors.

  20. Beta2-adrenergic receptor activation delays wound healing.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Christine E; Grahn, Jennifer C; Liu, Wei; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2006-01-01

    Keratinocytes migrate directionally into the wound bed to initiate re-epithelialization, necessary for wound closure and restoration of barrier function. They solely express the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) subtype of beta-ARs and can also synthesize beta-AR agonists generating a hormonal mediator network in the skin. Emerging studies from our laboratory demonstrate that beta-AR agonists decrease keratinocyte migration via a protein phosphatase (PP) 2A-dependent mechanism. Here we have extended our investigations to observe the effects of beta2-AR activation on keratinocyte polarization, migration, and ERK phosphorylation at the wound edge, cytoskeletal organization, phospho-ERK intracellular localization, proliferation, human skin wound re-epithelialization, wound-induced ERK phosphorylation, and murine skin wound healing. We demonstrate that in keratinocytes, beta2-AR activation is anti-motogenic and anti-mitogenic with both mechanisms being PP2A dependent. beta2-AR activation dramatically alters the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and prevents localization of phospho-ERK to the lamellipodial edge and its colocalization with vinculin. Finally, we demonstrate a beta2-AR-mediated delay in re-epithelialization and decrease in wound-induced epidermal ERK phosphorylation in human skin wounds and a delay in re-epithelialization in murine tail-clip wounds. Our work uncovers novel keratinocyte biology and a previously unrecognized role for the adrenergic hormonal mediator network in the wound repair process.

  1. Continental rifting and the origin of Beta Regio, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, G. E.; Steenstrup, S. J.; Barton, C.; Ford, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Topographic maps based on Pioneer Venus altimetry suggest that Beta Regio, an elevated feature centered at 27 deg N, 282 deg E, is analogous to domes associated with continental rift systems on earth. This interpretation is consistent with the commonly quoted analogy between the East African rift system and the topography of the region from Beta Regio southward to Phoebe Regio. If Beta Regio is a dome, major structural uplift of the crust of Venus is implied, suggesting a more dynamic upper mantle than would be the case if Beta Regio were simply a large volcanic construct.

  2. A new ultrasensitive bioluminogenic enzyme substrate for beta-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Geiger, R; Schneider, E; Wallenfels, K; Miska, W

    1992-12-01

    A derivative of D-luciferin, D-luciferin-O-beta-galactoside, was synthesized and used as highly sensitive substrate for beta-galactosidase. The substrate was physicochemically characterized. Enzymatic cleavage of the new compound by beta-galactosidase was demonstrated and kinetic constants Km, Vmax, kcat and kcat/Km have been determined. The compound has been proved to be a highly sensitive substrate for beta-galactosidase, permitting a limit of detection of 3.7 x 10(-19) mol of enzyme per assay.

  3. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Detection of alpha radiation in a beta radiation field

    DOEpatents

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Reese, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting alpha particles in the presence of high activities of beta particles utilizing an alpha spectrometer. The apparatus of the present invention utilizes a magnetic field applied around the sample in an alpha spectrometer to deflect the beta particles from the sample prior to reaching the detector, thus permitting detection of low concentrations of alpha particles. In the method of the invention, the strength of magnetic field required to adequately deflect the beta particles and permit alpha particle detection is given by an algorithm that controls the field strength as a function of sample beta energy and the distance of the sample to the detector.

  5. Pramipexole prevents neurotoxicity induced by oligomers of beta-amyloid.

    PubMed

    Uberti, Daniela; Bianchi, Irene; Olivari, Luca; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Canonico, PierLuigi; Memo, Maurizio

    2007-08-27

    Here we demonstrate that pramipexole, an antiparkinsonian dopamine receptor agonist drug, exerts neuroprotective effects against beta-amyloid neurotoxicity. Using a specific protocol to test individually oligomers, fibrils, or unaggregated amyloid beta-peptide, we found pramipexole able to protect cells against oligomers and fibrils. Unaggregated amyloid beta-peptide was found unable to cause cell death. Fibrils and oligomers were also found to produce elevated amount of free radicals, and this effect was prevented by pramipexole. We propose pramipexole may become in the future a coadjuvant in the treatment of neuropathologies, besides Parkinson's disease, where amyloid beta-peptide-mediated oxidative injury exerts a relevant role.

  6. BetaHCG secretion by a pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer in a 43-year-old woman with a history of smoking. The tumor secreted human chorionic gonadotropin and its beta subunit (BetaHCG). The patient presented with amenorrhea, a positive pregnancy test and chest pain. A physical examination and investigations revealed no pregnancy, and it was determined that a paraneoplastic syndrome stemming from a pulmonary tumor was responsible for the secretion of BetaHCG. This secretion decreased with tumor response to chemotherapy. Only a few reports of paraneoplastic BetaHCG secretion can be found in the literature for several different cancers. PMID:24034807

  7. Designed beta-hairpin peptides with defined tight turn stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Das, C; Naganagowda, G A; Karle, I L; Balaram, P

    2001-03-01

    The conformational analysis of two synthetic octapeptides, Boc-Leu-Val-Val-D-Pro-L-Ala-Leu-Val-Val-OMe (1) and Boc-Leu-Val-Val-D-Pro-D-Ala-Leu-Val-Val-OMe (2) has been carried out in order to investigate the effect of beta-turn stereochemistry on designed beta-hairpin structures. Five hundred megahertz (1)H NMR studies establish that both peptides 1 and 2 adopt predominantly beta-hairpin conformations in methanol solution. Specific nuclear Overhauser effects provide evidence for a type II' beta-turn conformation for the D-Pro-L-Ala segment in 1, while the NMR data suggest that the type I' D-Pro-D-Ala beta-turn conformation predominates in peptide 2. Evidence for a minor conformation in peptide 2, in slow exchange on the NMR time scale, is also presented. Interstrand registry is demonstrated in both peptides 1 and 2. The crystal structure of 1 reveals two independent molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit, both of which adopt beta-hairpin conformations nucleated by D-Pro-L-Ala type II' beta-turns and are stabilized by three cross-strand hydrogen bonds. CD spectra for peptides 1 and 2 show marked differences, presumably as a consequence of the superposition of spectral bands arising from both beta-turn and beta-strand conformations. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Management of pregnancy in a patient with beta thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Butwick, A; Findley, I; Wonke, B

    2005-10-01

    beta thalassaemia is one of the world's most wide-spread monogenetic disorders. Advances in the management of beta thalassaemia major by extensive blood transfusions and chelation therapy have improved survival of patients into adult life. Due to the prolonged life expectancy and improvements in quality of life, pregnancy has now become an important issue for patients and clinicians. We report a case of a pregnant patient with beta thalassaemia major who underwent a successful caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. The multidisciplinary approach to management of beta thalassaemia major and pregnancy is discussed.

  9. PDGFR-{beta} expression in small cell lung cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Eric T.; Gonzalez, Adriana; Massion, Pierre P.; Olson, Sandra J.; Albert, Jeffrey M.; Shyr, Yu; Carbone, David P.; Johnson, David H.; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Lu Bo . E-mail: bo.lu@vanderbilt.edu

    2007-02-01

    Background: Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGFR-{beta} are expressed and have been found to have prognostic value in several human cancers. Data in non-small-cell cancer cell lines have suggested that PDGFR is a therapeutic target for drug development. In the current study PDGFR-{beta} expression and prognostic value in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was investigated. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 53 patients with limited and extensive stage SCLC were obtained for immunohistochemical staining. Tumors from each patient were sampled 3 times and stained with PDGFR-{beta} specific antibody. Patients were divided into low and high staining groups based on intensity. Results: There was high intensity PDGFR-{beta} staining in 20 patients with SCLC. Another 29 expressed low intensity PDGFR-{beta} staining, with only 4 patients showing no PDGFR-{beta} staining. There was no statistically significant difference in 5 year overall survival between patients with low levels of PDGFR-{beta} staining vs. those with high level staining SCLC tumors (p = 0.538). Conclusions: The present study found that the majority of SCLC patients express, at least, a low level of PDGF-{beta}. However, the level of PDGFR-{beta} expression was not a statistically significant predictor of 5 year overall survival in SCLC.

  10. {beta}-decay study of {sup 77}Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Patronis, N.; De Witte, H.; Gorska, M.; Huyse, M.; Kruglov, K.; Pauwels, D.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Van Roosbroeck, J.; Thomas, J.-C.; Materna, T.; Mathieu, L.; Serot, O.

    2009-09-15

    A {beta}-decay study of {sup 77}Cu has been performed at the ISOLDE mass separator with the aim to deduce its {beta}-decay properties and to obtain spectroscopic information on {sup 77}Zn. Neutron-rich copper isotopes were produced by means of proton- or neutron-induced fission reactions on {sup 238}U. After the production, {sup 77}Cu was selectively laser ionized, mass separated, and sent to different detection systems where {beta}-{gamma} and {beta}-n coincidence data were collected. We report on the deduced half-live, decay scheme, and possible spin assignment of {sup 77}Cu.

  11. International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R; Wilborn, Colin D; Sale, Craig; Kreider, Richard B; Jäger, Ralf; Earnest, Conrad P; Bannock, Laurent; Campbell, Bill; Kalman, Douglas; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Antonio, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of beta-alanine supplementation. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: 1) Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation (4-6 g daily) significantly augments muscle carnosine concentrations, thereby acting as an intracellular pH buffer; 2) Beta-alanine supplementation currently appears to be safe in healthy populations at recommended doses; 3) The only reported side effect is paraesthesia (tingling), but studies indicate this can be attenuated by using divided lower doses (1.6 g) or using a sustained-release formula; 4) Daily supplementation with 4 to 6 g of beta-alanine for at least 2 to 4 weeks has been shown to improve exercise performance, with more pronounced effects in open end-point tasks/time trials lasting 1 to 4 min in duration; 5) Beta-alanine attenuates neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects, and preliminary evidence indicates that beta-alanine may improve tactical performance; 6) Combining beta-alanine with other single or multi-ingredient supplements may be advantageous when supplementation of beta-alanine is high enough (4-6 g daily) and long enough (minimum 4 weeks); 7) More research is needed to determine the effects of beta-alanine on strength, endurance performance beyond 25 min in duration, and other health-related benefits associated with carnosine.

  12. Homologous beta-adrenergic desensitization in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Michel, B

    1987-01-01

    Hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats have a marked beta-adrenergic responsiveness. Preincubation of these hepatocytes with isoprenaline induced a time-dependent and concentration-dependent desensitization of the beta-adrenergic responsiveness without altering that to glucagon (homologous desensitization). The desensitization was evidenced both in the cyclic AMP accumulation and in the stimulation of ureagenesis induced by the beta-adrenergic agonists. Under the same conditions, preincubation with glucagon induced no desensitization. Propranolol was also unable to induce desensitization, but blocked that induced by isoprenaline. Pertussis-toxin treatment did not alter the homologous beta-adrenergic desensitization induced by isoprenaline. PMID:2825633

  13. Mini-. beta. insertion and luminosity for the RHIC lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Dell, G.F.; Hahn, H.; Parzen, G.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Requirement and implication of the mini-..beta.. insertion, where a pair of common quadrupoles are inserted between the interaction point and the frist beam crossing dipole, in RHIC lattice is studied. For the heavy ion operation, we find that ..beta.. = 1m can be achieved with a +-5m free space for experimental setup and /cflx /beta// = 500m. The beam size limitation is located at the second beam crossing dipole BC2, where 8cm coil i.d. is considered. When the machine is operating at the proton-heavy ion collision mode, these common quadrupoles should be removed physically in order to let both beams crossing the center line at 3.4 mrad. These mini-..beta.. insertion can increase the luminosity by a factor of 2 /approximately/ 3. For the proton-proton collision mode, we find that ..beta.. = 0.5m is also operable without the mini-..beta.. quadrupoles due to smaller emittance for the proton beam. The corresponding /cflx /beta// is 2400m. When the mini-..beta.. quads are used, ..beta.. = 0.25m can be achieved. The ultimate luminosity for the proton-proton collision is of the order of 10/sup 33//cm/sup 2/ sec, which may be useful in the quest of the B physics studies. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Beta-Blockers: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ogrodowczyk, Magdalena; Dettlaff, Katarzyna; Jelinska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    It has been over half a century since propranolol, the first beta-blocker, was developed for medical treatment. Since that time a large number of compounds from this group have been synthesised and many are now in clinical use. The structure, function, pharmacokinetics, and mechanism of beta-blockers have been established. The possibilities for their use in treating different conditions continue to evolve. Since the discovery of later generation beta-blockers, such as carvedilol and nebivolol, the search for new compounds continues, and may include known substances with beta-blocking properties which could extend their therapeutic potential.

  15. Beta-glucan recognition by the innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, Helen S; Wolf, Andrea J; Underhill, David M

    2009-07-01

    Beta-glucans are recognized by the innate immune system. This recognition plays important roles in host defense and presents specific opportunities for clinical modulation of the host immune response. Neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells among others express several receptors capable of recognizing beta-glucan in its various forms. This review explores what is currently known about beta-glucan recognition and how this recognition stimulates immune responses. Special emphasis is placed on Dectin-1, as we know the most about how this key beta-glucan receptor translates recognition into intracellular signaling, stimulates cellular responses, and participates in orchestrating the adaptive immune response.

  16. Uncovering Factors Related to Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Aoife M.; Ryan, Miriam F.; Drummond, Elaine; Gibney, Eileen R.; Gibney, Michael J.; Roche, Helen M.; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Aim The incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly on a global scale. Beta-cell dysfunction contributes to the overall pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, factors contributing to beta-cell function are not clear. The aims of this study were (i) to identify factors related to pancreatic beta-cell function and (ii) to perform mechanistic studies in vitro. Methods Three specific measures of beta-cell function were assessed for 110 participants who completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of the Metabolic Challenge Study. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed as potential modulators of beta-cell function. Subsequent in vitro experiments were performed using the BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta-cell line. Validation of findings were performed in a second human cohort. Results Waist-to-hip ratio was the strongest anthropometric modulator of beta-cell function, with beta-coefficients of -0.33 (p = 0.001) and -0.30 (p = 0.002) for beta-cell function/homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and disposition index respectively. Additionally, the resistin-to-adiponectin ratio (RA index) emerged as being strongly associated with beta-cell function, with beta-coefficients of -0.24 (p = 0.038) and -0.25 (p = 0.028) for beta-cell function/HOMA-IR, and disposition index respectively. Similar results were obtained using a third measure for beta-cell function. In vitro experiments revealed that the RA index was a potent regulator of acute insulin secretion where a high RA index (20ng ml-1 resistin, 5nmol l-1 g-adiponectin) significantly decreased insulin secretion whereas a low RA index (10ng ml-1 resistin, 10nmol l-1 g-adiponectin) significantly increased insulin secretion. The RA index was successfully validated in a second human cohort with beta-coefficients of -0.40 (p = 0.006) and -0.38 (p = 0.008) for beta-cell function/ HOMA-IR, and disposition index respectively. Conclusions Waist-to-hip ratio and RA index were identified

  17. Cellular interactions uncouple beta-adrenergic receptors from adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ciment, G; de Vellis, J

    1978-11-17

    C6 glioma cells and B104 neuroblastoma cells both possess adenylate cyclase activity, but only C6 cells have beta-adrenergic receptors. However, when cocultured with B104 cells, C6 cells show a marked decrease in their ability to accumulate adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate upon stimulation with beta receptor agonists. Since both beta receptors and cholera toxin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities are present in C6/B104 cocultures, we conclude that the beta receptor/adenylate cyclase transduction mechanism in cocultured C6 cells is uncoupled.

  18. Analysis of beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Chen, X; Hu, Z; Li, Q; Chen, Q; Li, Z

    1999-10-01

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus (LS; grass pea). A new Na2B4O7-Na2SO4 run buffer was used and the pH was 9.20, contents of beta-ODAP and homoarginine in crude extracts of LS plant material were determined with this method, the RSDs of peak areas of beta-ODAP and homoarginine were 2.62% and 3.61%, respectively. It was found that the equilibrium concentration ratio of alpha- and beta-ODAP decreased from 34.5/65.5 to 28.6/71.4 when the pH of the solution increased from pH 3.0 to pH 11.0.

  19. The genomic structure of the gene encoding the human transforming growth factor {beta} type II receptor (TGF-{beta} RII)

    SciTech Connect

    Takenoshita, Seiichi; Hagiwara, Koichi; Nagashima, Makoto; Gemma, Akihiko

    1996-09-01

    The genomic structure of the human transforming growth factor-{beta} type II receptor gene (TGF-{beta} RII) was determined by two PCR-based methods, the {open_quotes}long distance sequencer{close_quotes} method and the {open_quotes}promoter finder{close_quotes} method. Genomic fragments containing exons and adjacent introns were amplified by PCR, and the nucleotide sequences were determined by direct sequencing and subcloning sequencing. The TGF-{beta} RII protein is encoded by 567 codons in 7 exons. This is the first report about the genomic structure of a gene that belongs to the serine/threonine kinase type II receptor subfamily. Knowledge of the genomic structure of the TGF-{beta} RII gene will facilitate investigation of the TGF-{beta} RII gene will facilitate investigation of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in normal human cells and of the aberrations occurring during carcinogenesis. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Soymorphins, novel mu opioid peptides derived from soy beta-conglycinin beta-subunit, have anxiolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Ohinata, Kousaku; Agui, Shun; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2007-10-01

    Based on the amino acid sequence YPFV found in the soy beta-conglycinin beta-subunit, which is common to an opioid peptide human beta-casomorphin-4, peptides YPFVV, YPFVVN, and YPFVVNA were synthesized according to their primary structure. On guinea pig ileum (GPI) assay, they showed opioid activity (IC50 = 6.0, 9.2 and 13 microM respectively) more potent than human beta-casomorphins, and were named soymorphins-5, -6, and -7, respectively. Their opioid activities on mouse vas deferens (MVD) assay were less potent than on GPI assay, suggesting that they are selective for the mu opioid receptor. Human beta-casomorphin-4 and soymorphin-5 were released from the soy 7S fraction (beta-conglycinin) by the action of gastrointestinal proteases. Soymorphins-5, -6, and -7 had anxiolytic activities after oral administration at doses of 10-30 mg/kg in the elevated plus-maze test in mice.