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Sample records for 83rd phoenix arizona

  1. AEROSOL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS, PHOENIX, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An atmospheric sampling program was carried out in the greater Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area in November, 1975. Objectives of the study were to measure aerosol mass flux through Phoenix and to characterize the aerosol according to particle type and size. The ultimate goal of...

  2. Evening Transition Observations in Phoenix, Arizona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazel, A. J.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hunt, J. C. R.; Selover, N.; Hedquist, B. C.; Pardyjak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Past research has suggested that the evening transition in complex topography typically has several main features, such as (a) continued weak upslope flows persisting 3-5 h after sunset (if the sidewalls of the valley prevent Coriolis-induced turning of winds), thus signifying delayed transition; (b) unsteady local stagnation and vertical mixing within tens of meters above the surface; and (c) transition of stagnation fronts to downslope/downvalley gravity currents during the evening hours, especially at higher-elevation (steeper) slopes, and their arrival at adjoining low-elevation gentle slopes as `slope breezes.' This transition process typically occurs in locales such as Phoenix, Arizona, which has expansive exposure to plains in one direction (to the west and south) and is adjacent to abrupt change in the terrain in other directions (primarily to the north and east). An analysis of wind records from several automated weather stations and a radar wind profiler for selected characteristic periods representing all four seasons and data from a previous major field campaign in the greater Phoenix valley illustrate (i) the shallow nature of transition flows that develop on a year-round basis during frequent clear, calm nights in the desert Southwest and their seasonal sensitivity; (ii) a spatial variation of transition times relative to the only first-order National Weather Service station in the region (Sky Harbor International Airport); (iii) the dependence of transition time (and hence the delay of transition) on the exposure, the elevation, and the magnitude of slope; and (iv) a possible heat-island influence. These observations are quantified using theoretical estimates, and the results are placed in the context of multiscale flows in urban basins.

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Minorities and Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Minorities and Communication Division section of the proceedings contains the following 10 papers: "Gender Stereotypes and Race in Music Videos: Cultivating Unreality" (Helena K. Sarkio); "Copycats, Conspirators and Bigots: Themes in Southern, Northern and Western Newspaper Editorial Portrayals of the Black Church-Burning Crisis" (Sharon…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Graduate Education Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Graduate Education Interest Group section of the proceedings contains the following five papers: "The Press, President, and Presidential Popularity During Ronald Reagan's War on Drugs" (Hyo-Seong Lee); "Malaysia's Broadcasting Industry in Transition: Effect of New Competitions on Traditional Television Channels" (Tee-Tuan Foo); "The…

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Miscellaneous, Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous, part III section of the proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "The Relationship between Health and Fitness Magazine Reading and Eating-Disordered Weight-Loss Methods among High School Girls" (Steven R. Thomsen, Michelle M. Weber, and Lora Beth Brown); "A Practical Exercise for Teaching Ethical Decision Making to…

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Law Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Law Division section of the proceedings contains the following seven papers: "Silencing Foreign Voices: Restrictions on Alien Ownership of Broadcast Stations" (James V. D'Aleo); "The First Amendment & Postmodern Tendencies in Cyberspace" (Justin Brown); "Contracting the News: A Study of Online News User Agreements" (Victoria Smith Ekstrand);…

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Media Ethics Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media Ethics Division section of the proceedings contains the following seven papers: "The Concept of Media Accountability Reconsidered" (Patrick Lee Plaisance); "Of Joint Ventures, Sock Puppets and New Media Synergy: Codes of Ethics and the Emergence of Institutional Conflicts of Interest" (Charles N. Davis and Stephanie Craft);…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Newspaper Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Newspaper Division section of the proceedings contains the following 12 papers: "Diversity Efforts at the 'Los Angeles Times': Are Journalists and the Community on the Same Page?" (Richard Gross, Stephanie Craft, Glen T. Cameron and Michael Antecol); "Setting the News Story Agenda: Candidates and Commentators in News Coverage of a Governor's…

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Miscellaneous, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous, Part II Section of the proceedings contains the following eight papers: "Academic Letters of Recommendation: Perceived Ethical Implications and Harmful Effects of Exaggeration" (David L. Martinson and Michael Ryan); "It's All about the Information Salience Effects on the Perceptions of News Exemplification" (Francesca Dillman…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). International Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Communication Division section of the proceedings contains the following 21 papers: "The European Press and the Euro: Media Agenda-Setting in a Cross-National Environment" (Olaf Werder); "Factors Affecting the Internet Adoption by Thai Journalists: A Diffusion of Innovation Study" (Anucha Thirakanont and Thomas Johnson);…

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). History Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The History Division section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "William G. Brownlow and The Knoxville 'Whig': A Career of Personal Journalism or Partisan Press?" (Alisa White Coleman); "Covering the Century: How Four New York Dailies Reported the End of the 19th Century" (Randall S. Sumpter); "Science, Journalism and the…

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Advertising Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Advertising Division section of the proceedings contains the following 14 papers: "The Effectiveness of Banner Advertisements: Involvement and Click-Through" (Chang-Hoan Cho and John D. Leckenby); "Messages of Hope: Developing Health Campaigns that Address Misperceptions of Breast Cancer Held by Women of Color" (Cynthia M. Frisby);…

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Miscellaneous.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous section of the proceedings contains the following four papers from the Media and Disability Interest Group, Public Relations Division, and the Visual Communication Division: "Technology and the Knowledge Gap: Two Barriers to Distance Education for the Person with a Disability" (Jeffrey Alan John); "Hoddle's Twaddle: Defining…

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Magazine Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Magazine Division section of the proceedings contains the following seven papers: "Farm Magazine Advertisers Turn Up the Heat: An Analysis of Ethical Pressures Faced by Farm Magazine Writers" (Stephen A. Banning and James Evans); "Framing a War: Photographic Coverage of the Kosovo War in Newsweek, Time, and U.S. News & World Report" (Nikolina…

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Science Communication Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Science Communication Interest Group section of the proceedings contains the following five papers: "Accounting for the Complexity of Causal Explanations in the Wake of an Environmental Risk" (LeeAnn Kahlor, Sharon Dunwoody and Robert J. Griffin); "Construction of Technology Crisis and Safety: News Media's Framing the Y2K Issue" (Ju Yong Ha);…

  16. A case study in resort climatology of Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartz, Donna A.; Brazel, Anthony J.; Heisler, Gordon M.

    2006-09-01

    Tourists often use weather data as a factor for determining vacation timing and location. Accuracy and perceptions of weather information may impact these decisions. This study: (a) examines air temperature and dew points from seven exclusive resorts in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compares them with official National Weather Service data for the same period, and (b) utilizes a comfort model called OUTCOMES—OUTdoor COMfort Expert System—in a seasonal appraisal of two resorts, one mesic and one xeric, compared with the urban Sky Harbor International Airport first-order weather station site in the central urban area of Phoenix, Arizona, USA (lat. 33.43°N; long. 112.02°W; elevation at 335 m). Temperature and humidity recording devices were placed within or immediately adjacent to common-use areas of the resorts, the prime recreational sites used by guests on most resort properties. Recorded data were compared with that of the official weather information from the airport station, a station most accessible to potential tourists through media and Web sites, to assess predicted weather for vacation planning. For the most part, Sky Harbor’s recorded air temperatures and often dew points were higher than those recorded at the resorts. We extrapolate our findings to a year-round estimate of human outdoor comfort for weather-station sites typical of resort landscapes and the Sky Harbor location using the OUTCOMES model to refine ideas on timing of comfortable conditions at resorts on a diurnal and seasonal basis.

  17. 78 FR 52759 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 75 Under Alternative Site Framework; Phoenix, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Register (77 FR 74457-74458, 12-14-2012) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act and... ASF to include an additional magnet site, proposed Site 9, within the Phoenix, Arizona U.S. Customs...,000-acre activation limit for the zone, and to a five-year ASF sunset provision for magnet sites...

  18. Hearing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights (Phoenix, Arizona, November 17-18, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held two days of hearings in Phoenix to investigate the civil rights status of Arizona Indian Tribes, to ascertain the nature and extent of their problems, and to try to arrive at a means to rectify those problems. The testimony offered at the public session came from representatives of local, state, Federal and…

  19. Arpaio Doesn't Control Anything: A Summer with El Hormiguero in Phoenix, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrillo, Juan F.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from observations and interview data, this essay examines the role of "hormiguero agency" in nurturing empowered identities amongst Latin@s in Phoenix, Arizona. Specific links are made to how dehumanizing state level policies are resisted in multiple spaces, including schools, activist organizations, and within underground business…

  20. 75 FR 16748 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 75, Phoenix, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... (74 FR 19935-19936, 4/30/09) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act and the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 75, Phoenix, Arizona Pursuant to its...

  1. Vaccination Coverage among Kindergarten Children in Phoenix, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpong, Jemima A.; Rivers, Patrick A.; Bae, Sejong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate school immunization records and document the immunization coverage and compliance level of children enrolled in kindergarten in Phoenix during the 2001-2002 school year. The purpose was to obtain information on: 1) immunization status by age two; 2) under-immunization in kindergarten; 3) administration error; and 4)…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Radio-Television Journalism Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Radio-Television Journalism Division section of the proceedings contains the following six papers: "Local Television News and Viewer Empowerment: Why the Public's Main Source of News Falls Short" (Denise Barkis Richter); "For the Ear to Hear: Conversational Writing on the Network Television News Magazines" (C. A. Tuggle, Suzanne Huffman and…

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Media Management and Economics Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media Management and Economics Division section of the proceedings contains the following nine papers: "Weekly Newspaper Industry: A Baseline Study" (David C. Coulson, Stephen Lacy and Jonathan Wilson); "News Hole Sizing Policies at Nondaily Newspapers" (Ken Smith); "The Influence of Timing of Market Entry on Competition in Local Cellular…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Communication Theory and Method Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Communication Theory and Method Division section of the proceedings contains the following 16 papers: "Profiling TV Ratings Users: Content-Based Advisories and Their Adoption" (Robert Abelman and David Atkin); "It's All About the Information: Salience Effects on the Perceptions of News Exemplification" (Francesca R. Dillman Carpentier,…

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Mass Communication and Society Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Communication and Society Division section of the proceedings contains the following 12 papers: "Retreads: Recycling American Prime Time Television for Fun and Profit" (Chad Dell); "Partisan and Structural Balance of Election Stories on the 1998 Governor's Race in Michigan" (Frederick Fico and William Cote); "Newspaper Letters and…

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Cultural and Critical Studies Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Cultural and Critical Studies Division section of the proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "'Grimm' News Indeed--'Madstones,' Clever Toads, and Killer Tarantulas: Fairy-Tale Briefs in Wild West Newspapers" (Paulette Kilmer); "The First Amendment and the Doctrine of Corporate Personhood: Collapsing the Press-Corporation Distinction"…

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Communication Technology and Policy Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Communication Technology and Policy Division section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Reconceptualizing the Public Sphere: The Differential Role of Media Systems In Enabling Political Elites to set the Public Agenda" (Johnette Hawkins McCrery and John E. Newhagen); "Realizing the Potential Marketplace of Ideas: Utilizing…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Religion and Media Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Religion and Media Interest Group section of the proceedings contains the following nine papers: "The Effect of Age and Background of Religious Broadcasting Executives on Digital Television Implementation" (Brad Schultz); "Environmental Reporting, Religion Reporting, and the Question of Advocacy" (Rick Clifton Moore); "The Rise of the Early…

  9. Design, Simulation, and Analysis of Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Fresart, Edouard Thomas

    Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities to better align incentives and consumers to make more informed decisions prior to purchasing a solar water heater. Daily energy and temperature data were collected in a controlled, closed environment lab. Three mathematical models were designed in TRNSYS 17, a transient system simulation tool. The data from the lab were used to validate the TRNSYS models, and the TRNSYS results were used to project annual cost and energy savings for the solar water heaters. The projected energy savings for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona are 80% when using the SunEarthRTM system with an insulated and glazed flat-plate collector, and 49% when using the FAFCO RTM system with unglazed, non-insulated flat-plate collectors. Utilizing all available federal, state, and utility incentives, a consumer could expect to recoup his or her investment after the fifth year if purchasing a SunEarth RTM system, and after the eighth year if purchasing a FAFCO RTM system. Over the 20-year analysis period, a consumer could expect to save 2,519 with the SunEarthRTM system, and 971 with the FAFCORTM system.

  10. Comparative studies of criteria pollutants in New Delhi and Agra (India), Ambos Nogales (Mexico-Arizona border) and Phoenix (Arizona)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, C.; Goyal, P.; Parmar, S.

    1998-12-31

    In recent years, the levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SPM and other air contaminants over the metropolitan cities of India such as New Delhi and Agra have increased dramatically. The effect of environmental pollution on historical monuments in New Delhi and Agra is a topic of vital concern. Agra is a city of historical importance where the Taj Mahal and other traditional monuments are located. The major contributors of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SPM in Agra are vehicles, domestic fuel consumers, industries railway shunting yards and thermal power plants. The contribution from the Mathura Refinery Complex, located about 40 km upwind of Agra possibly adds to the emissions from local sources. Airborne pollution is blamed for the growing incidence of asthma, bronchitis, tuberculosis, and other ailments that have obvious implications for health care. It is therefore important to estimate SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and SPM concentrations due to local sources in Agra to assist in developing appropriate protection measures. Preliminary monitoring studies have been conducted regarding the criteria pollutants -- SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and PM-10 -- in Ambos Nogales along the Arizona-Mexico border and these results will be compared with those obtained in New Delhi and Agra, India as well as with those found in Phoenix, Arizona.

  11. Soil moisture detection from radar imagery of the Phoenix, Arizona test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.; Mueller, R.

    1975-01-01

    The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) dual-polarization X and L band radar was flown to acquire radar imagery over the Phoenix (Arizona) test site. The site was covered by a north-south pass and an east-west pass. Radar response to soil moisture was investigated. Since the ERIM radar does not have accurately measured antenna patterns, analysis of the L band data was performed separately for each of several strips along the flight line, each corresponding to a narrow angle of incidence. For the NS pass, good correlation between the radar return and mositure content was observed for each of the two nearest (to nadir) angular ranges. At higher angular ranges, no correlation was observed. The above procedure was not applied to the EW pass due to flight path misalignments. The results obtained stress the importance of radar calibration, the digitization process, and the angle of incidence.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of counter radiation variations in an arid urban environment: Phoenix, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Oround, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    Urbanization in the arid environment of Phoenix, Arizona is observed in this study to produce a significant effect on incoming long-wave radiation from the atmosphere. The excess in counter radiation in metropolitan Phoenix is attributed to the strength of the urban heat island as well as to pollution concentration in the urban atmosphere. This study found that about 40% counter radiation excess is due to the urban heat island, while about 60% counter radiation excess is likely produced by air-pollution effects. The influence of urbanization on observed counter radiation varies with the season, reflecting the strength of the urban heat island and moisture stratification in the boundary layer. Counter radiation effects from the urban atmosphere are well defined for the winter and spring periods. The influence of pollution on counter radiation is derived from a simple algorithm that employs the concept of moisture stratification and nocturnal cooling within the first 200 meters of the boundary layer. A one-dimensional numerical simulation model is incorporated in this study.

  13. Evaluation of the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban watersheds in Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding in urban areas routinely causes severe damage to property and often results in loss of life. To investigate the effect of urbanization on the magnitude and frequency of flood peaks, a flood frequency analysis was carried out using data from urbanized streamgaging stations in Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona. Flood peaks at each station were predicted using the log-Pearson Type III distribution, fitted using the expected moments algorithm and the multiple Grubbs-Beck low outlier test. The station estimates were then compared to flood peaks estimated by rural-regression equations for Arizona, and to flood peaks adjusted for urbanization using a previously developed procedure for adjusting U.S. Geological Survey rural regression peak discharges in an urban setting. Only smaller, more common flood peaks at the 50-, 20-, 10-, and 4-percent annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) demonstrate any increase in magnitude as a result of urbanization; the 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent AEP flood estimates are predicted without bias by the rural-regression equations. Percent imperviousness was determined not to account for the difference in estimated flood peaks between stations, either when adjusting the rural-regression equations or when deriving urban-regression equations to predict flood peaks directly from basin characteristics. Comparison with urban adjustment equations indicates that flood peaks are systematically overestimated if the rural-regression-estimated flood peaks are adjusted upward to account for urbanization. At nearly every streamgaging station in the analysis, adjusted rural-regression estimates were greater than the estimates derived using station data. One likely reason for the lack of increase in flood peaks with urbanization is the presence of significant stormwater retention and detention structures within the watershed used in the study.

  14. A large landslide on the urban fringe of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, John; Dorn, Ronald I.; Gootee, Brian

    2005-02-01

    A granitic rock avalanche, one of the largest Quaternary landslides in Arizona outside the Grand Canyon with a volume of approximately 5.25 M m 3 and a width a little under 0.5 km, ran ˜1 km from the eastern McDowell Mountains. With lateral levees and pressure ridges, the rock avalanche deposit displays many features found on classic sturzstroms. Failure occurred along a major joint plane paralleling the slope with a dip of 44°, when a major base level lowering event in the Salt River system would have undermined the base of the failed slope, and probably during a period of more moisture than normally available in the present-day arid climate. Failure at the subsurface weathering front highlights the importance of the dramatic permeability change between grussified regolith and relatively fresh bedrock. Rock varnish microlaminations (VMLs) dating, in concert with other geomorphic evidence, suggests that the rock avalanche deposit is slightly older than ˜500 ka. The rock vanish results also have important implications for sampling strategies designed to use cosmogenic nuclide to date Quaternary landslide deposits. Discovery of a large landslide in close proximity to the extending urban fringe of metropolitan Phoenix argues for a more careful analysis of landslide hazards in the region, especially where rapid development excavates bedrock at the base of steep mountain slopes and where the subsurface weathering front is near the surface.

  15. Boundary-Layer Evolution over Phoenix, Arizona, and the Premature Mixing of Pollutants in the Early Morning

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, William J.; Doran, J C.; Coulter, Richard L.

    2005-02-01

    The 2001 Phoenix Sunrise campaign was a field measurement program to investigate the early-morning chemical and meteorological processes associated with the development of ozone pollution in Phoenix, Arizona. As part of that study, atmospheric structure was measured using wind profiling radars, sodars, and radiosondes at several locations in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Chemical measurements made by other investigators showed that vertical mixing of pollutants began prior to sunrise on a number of occasions. This was surprising, since we expected sustained mixing to occur only after sunrise and the onset of solar heating. We have used the meteorological measurements to identify a density current that commonly arrives in downtown Phoenix in the hour or two before sunrise when conditions are undisturbed. Both winds and cold advection associated with this feature act to destabilize the lower atmosphere, and the resulting mixing continues through the morning transition to convective conditions. Because photochemical production of ozone is non-linearly dependent on the concentrations of precursor species, this early mixing will need to be properly represented in combined meteorological and chemical models if they are to be fully successful in simulating ozone concentrations.

  16. How do variations in Urban Heat Islands in space and time influence household water use? The case of Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Rimjhim M.; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Lathey, Vasudha

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores how urbanization, through its role in the evolution of Urban Heat Island (UHI), affects residential water consumption. Using longitudinal data and drawing on a mesoscale atmospheric model, we examine how variations in surface temperature at the census tract level have affected water use in single family residences in Phoenix, Arizona. Results show that each Fahrenheit rise in nighttime temperature increases water consumption by 1.4%. This temperature effect is found to vary significantly with lot size and pool size. The study provides insights into the links between urban form and water use, through the dynamics of UHI.

  17. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs Phoenix, Arizona, Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-04-05

    The Phoenix, Arizona, Roundtable on Tribal Energy Policy convened at 8:30 a.m., Tuesday, April 5th, at the downtown Phoenix Hyatt. The meeting was hosted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE Office of Indian Energy) and facilitated by the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute). Approximately thirty-eight people attended the meeting, including representatives of ten different tribes, as well as representatives of the Colorado Indian Tribes, the All Indian Pueblo Council and the Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona. Interested state, federal, university, NGO and industry representatives also were present. A full list of attendees is at the end of this summary. DOE representatives were Tracey LeBeau, Directory of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, Pilar Thomas, Deputy Director-Policy of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, and David Conrad, Director of Tribal and Intergovernmental Affairs, DOE Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs.

  18. 78 FR 48413 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Production Activity, Orbital Sciences...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... CFR part 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (79 FR 24158, February..., Orbital Sciences Corporation, (Satellites and Spacecraft Launch Vehicles); Gilbert, Arizona On April...

  19. Change in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000) Quadrangle, Arizona between 1970 and 1973: ERTS as an aid in a nationwide program for mapping general land use. [Phoenix Quadrangle, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in land use between 1970 and 1973 in the Phoenix (1:250,000 scale) Quadrangle in Arizona have been mapped using only the images from ERTS-1, tending to verify the utility of a standard land use classification system proposed for use with ERTS images. Types of changes detected have been: (1) new residential development of former cropland and rangeland; (2) new cropland from the desert; and (3) new reservoir fill-up. The seasonal changing of vegetation patterns in ERTS has complemented air photos in delimiting the boundaries of some land use types. ERTS images, in combination with other sources of information, can assist in mapping the generalized land use of the fifty states by the standard 1:250,000 quadrangles. Several states are already working cooperatively in this type of mapping.

  20. Merged dust climatology in Phoenix, Arizona based on satellite and station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hang; Wang, Julian X. L.; Tong, Daniel Q.; Lee, Pius

    2016-02-01

    In order to construct climate quality long-term dust storm dataset, merged dust storm climatology in Phoenix is developed based on three data sources: regular meteorological records, in situ air quality measurements, and satellite remote sensing observations. The result presented in this paper takes into account the advantages of each dataset and integrates individual analyses demonstrated and presented in previous studies that laid foundation to reconstruct a consistent and continuous time series of dust frequency. A key for the merging procedure is to determine analysis criteria suitable for each individual data source. A practical application to historic records of dust storm activities over the Phoenix area is presented to illustrate detailed steps, advantages, and limitations of the newly developed process. Three datasets are meteorological records from the Sky Harbor station, satellite observed aerosol optical depth data from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System particulate matter data of eight sites surrounding Phoenix. Our purpose is to construct dust climatology over the Phoenix region for the period 1948-2012. Data qualities of the reconstructed dust climatology are assessed based on the availability and quality of the input data. The period during 2000-2012 has the best quality since all datasets are well archived. The reconstructed climatology shows that dust storm activities over the Phoenix region have large interannual variability. However, seasonal variations show a skewed distribution with higher frequency of dust storm activities in July and August and relatively quiet during the rest of months. Combining advantages of all the available datasets, this study presents a merged product that provides a consistent and continuous time series of dust storm activities suitable for climate studies.

  1. The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy Savings in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M.

    2013-12-01

    Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the potential for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its electricity demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate potential water savings, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy savings. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy savings, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy savings to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008

  2. Intercepted photosynthetically active radiation in wheat canopies estimated by spectral reflectance. [Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Asrar, G.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was evaluated relative to greenness and normalized difference (MSS 7-5/7+5) for five planting dates of wheat for 1978-79 and 1979-80 in Phoenix. Intercepted PAR was calculated from a model driven by leaf area index and stage of growth. Linear relationships were found between greenness and normalized difference with a separate model representing growth and senescence of the crop. Normalized difference was a significantly better model and would be easier to apply than the empirically derived greenness parameter. For the leaf area growth portion of the season the model between PAR interception and normalized difference was the same over years, however, for the leaf senescence the models showed more variability due to the lack of data on measured interception in sparse canopies. Normalized difference could be used to estimate PAR interception directly for crop growth models.

  3. Object-based land-cover classification for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, using aerial photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Myint, Soe W.; Zhang, Yujia; Galletti, Chritopher; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Turner, Billie L.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed land-cover mapping is essential for a range of research issues addressed by the sustainability and land system sciences and planning. This study uses an object-based approach to create a 1 m land-cover classification map of the expansive Phoenix metropolitan area through the use of high spatial resolution aerial photography from National Agricultural Imagery Program. It employs an expert knowledge decision rule set and incorporates the cadastral GIS vector layer as auxiliary data. The classification rule was established on a hierarchical image object network, and the properties of parcels in the vector layer were used to establish land cover types. Image segmentations were initially utilized to separate the aerial photos into parcel sized objects, and were further used for detailed land type identification within the parcels. Characteristics of image objects from contextual and geometrical aspects were used in the decision rule set to reduce the spectral limitation of the four-band aerial photography. Classification results include 12 land-cover classes and subclasses that may be assessed from the sub-parcel to the landscape scales, facilitating examination of scale dynamics. The proposed object-based classification method provides robust results, uses minimal and readily available ancillary data, and reduces computational time.

  4. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 1. Surface energy budget changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part 1 of a two-part study that evaluates the climatic effects of recent landscape change for one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. The region's landscape evolution over an approximate 30-year period since the early 1970s is documented on the basis of analyses of Landsat images and land use/land cover (LULC) data sets derived from aerial photography (1973) and Landsat (1992 and 2001). High-resolution, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), simulations (2-km grid spacing) are used in conjunction with consistently defined land cover data sets and associated biophysical parameters for the circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 time periods to quantify the impacts of intensive land use changes on the July surface temperatures and the surface radiation and energy budgets for the Greater Phoenix region. The main findings are as follows: since the early 1970s the region's landscape has been altered by a significant increase in urban/suburban land area, primarily at the expense of decreasing plots of irrigated agriculture and secondarily by the conversion of seminatural shrubland. Mean regional temperatures for the circa 2001 landscape were 0.12??C warmer than the circa 1973 landscape, with maximum temperature differences, located over regions of greatest urbanization, in excess of 1??C. The significant reduction in irrigated agriculture, for the circa 2001 relative to the circa 1973 landscape, resulted in dew point temperature decreases in excess of 1??C. The effect of distinct land use conversion themes (e.g., conversion from irrigated agriculture to urban land) was also examined to evaluate how the most important conversion themes have each contributed to the region's changing climate. The two urbanization themes studied (from an initial landscape of irrigated agriculture and seminatural shrubland) have the greatest positive effect on near-surface temperature, increasing maximum daily

  5. Small and Large-scale Drivers of Denitrification Patterns in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, A. K.; Palta, M. M.; Childers, D. L.; Stromberg, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of microbial conversion of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen (N) gas (denitrification) is important for predicting permanent losses of reactive N from systems. In many landscapes, wetlands serve as hotpots of denitrification by providing optimal condition for denitrifiers (sub-oxic, carbon-rich sediments). Much research on denitrification has occurred in non-urban or highly managed urban wetlands. However, in urban landscapes N-rich stormwater is often discharged into areas not designed or managed to reduce N loads. "Accidental" wetlands forming at these outfalls may have the capacity to remove NO3-; however, these "accidental" urban wetlands can contain novel soils and vegetation, and are subject to unique hydrologic conditions that could create spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification that differ from those predicted in non-urban counterparts. We performed denitrification enzyme assays (measuring denitrification potential, or DP) on soil samples taken from nine wetlands forming at storm drain outfalls in Phoenix, AZ. The wetlands ranged from perennially flooded, to intermittently flooded (~9 months/year), to ephemerally flooded (2-3 weeks/year). To assess spatial variation in carbon availability to denitrifiers, samples were taken from 3-4 dominant vegetation patch types within each wetland. To assess temporal variation in DP, samples were taken across three seasons differing in rainfall pattern. We found small- and large-scale spatiotemporal patterns in DP that have important implications for management of urban wetlands for stormwater quality. DP varied among plant patches and was typically highest in patches of Ludwigia peploides, indicating that plant species type may mediate within-wetland variations in carbon availability, and therefore NO3- removal capacity. We found a range of responses in DP among wetlands to season, which appeared to be driven in part by flood regime: DP in perennially-flooded wetlands was

  6. Phoenix Deploying its Wrist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif shows a series of images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) on Sol 3. It illustrates the actions that Phoenix's Robotic Arm took to deploy its wrist.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Martian Surface Beneath Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an image of the Martian surface beneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The light feature in the middle of the image below the leg is informally called 'Holy Cow.' The dust, shown in the dark foreground, has been blown off of 'Holy Cow' by Phoenix's thruster engines.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Predicting Hospitalization for Heat-Related Illness at the Census-Tract Level: Accuracy of a Generic Heat Vulnerability Index in Phoenix, Arizona (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Gober, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Vulnerability mapping based on vulnerability indices is a pragmatic approach for highlighting the areas in a city where people are at the greatest risk of harm from heat, but the manner in which vulnerability is conceptualized influences the results. Objectives We tested a generic national heat-vulnerability index, based on a 10-variable indicator framework, using data on heat-related hospitalizations in Phoenix, Arizona. We also identified potential local risk factors not included in the generic indicators. Methods To evaluate the accuracy of the generic index in a city-specific context, we used factor scores, derived from a factor analysis using census tract–level characteristics, as independent variables, and heat hospitalizations (with census tracts categorized as zero-, moderate-, or high-incidence) as dependent variables in a multinomial logistic regression model. We also compared the geographical differences between a vulnerability map derived from the generic index and one derived from actual heat-related hospitalizations at the census-tract scale. Results We found that the national-indicator framework correctly classified just over half (54%) of census tracts in Phoenix. Compared with all census tracts, high-vulnerability tracts that were misclassified by the index as zero-vulnerability tracts had higher average income and higher proportions of residents with a duration of residency < 5 years. Conclusion The generic indicators of vulnerability are useful, but they are sensitive to scale, measurement, and context. Decision makers need to consider the characteristics of their cities to determine how closely vulnerability maps based on generic indicators reflect actual risk of harm. Citation Chuang WC, Gober P. 2015. Predicting hospitalization for heat-related illness at the census-tract level: accuracy of a generic heat vulnerability index in Phoenix, Arizona (USA). Environ Health Perspect 123:606–612; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307868

  9. Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early…

  10. Arizona Libraries: Books to Bytes. Contributed Papers Presented at the AzLA Annual Conference (Phoenix, Arizona, November 17-18, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Carol, Ed.

    This document contains three papers presented at the 1995 Arizona Library Association conference. Papers include: (1) "ERLs and URLs: ASU Libraries Database Delivery Through Web Technology" (Dennis Brunning & Philip Konomos), which illustrates how and why the libraries at Arizona State University developed a world wide web server and a home page…

  11. Change in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000) Quadrangle, Arizona between 1970 and 1972: Successful use of proposed land use classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Changes in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000 scale) Quadrangle in Arizona have been mapped using only the images from ERTS-1, tending to verify the utility of a land use classification system proposed for use with ERTS images. The period of change investigated was from November 1970 to late summer or early fall, 1972. Seasonal changes also were studied using successive ERTS images. Types of equipment used to aid interpretation included a color additive viewer, a twenty-power magnifier, a density slicer, and a diazo copy machine for making ERTS color composites in hard copy. Types of changes detected have been: (1) cropland or rangeland developed for new residential areas; (2) rangeland converted to new cropland; and (3) possibly new areas of industrial or commercial development. A map of land use previously compiled from air photos was updated in this manner.

  12. Twenty-five years later--an address prepared for delivery at the Solar Jubilee Dinner June 4, 1980, at Phoenix, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Yellott, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    The world-wide scientific organization which is known today as the International Solar Energy Society had its beginning in Phoenix 25 years ago, less than a mile from the hall in which the Solar Jubilee Banquet will be held. The Arizona civic leaders who founded the predecessor organization named it The Association for Applied Solar Energy and, as a Christmas present to the entire world, they incorporated it on December 24, 1954. Its aims were three-fold: to gather, compile, and disseminate information relating to solar energy; to foster research and education in fields related to solar energy; and to encourage the expansion and development of the applications of solar energy. An objective of this address is to show how the founders set out to accomplish these objectives and to let the hearers and readers of this address determine for themselves how effectively they have reached their goals.

  13. Diurnal patterns of wheat spectral reflectances and their importance in the assessment of canopy parameters from remotely sensed observations. [Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinter, P. J.; Jackson, R. D.; Idso, S. B.; Reginato, R. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Spectral reflectances of Produra wheat were measured at 13 different times of the day at Phoenix, Arizona, during April 1979 using a nadir-oriented hand-held 4-band radiometer which had bandpass characteristics similar to those on LANDSAT satellites. Different Sun altitude and azimuth angles caused significant diurnal changes in radiant return in both visible and near-IR regions of the spectrum and in several vegetation indices derived from them. The magnitude of these changes were related to different canopy architecture, percent cover and green leaf area conditions. Spectral measurements taken at each time period were well correlated with green leaf area index but the nature of the relationship changed significantly with time of day. Thus, a significant bias in the estimation of the green leaf area index from remotely sensed spectral data could occur if sun angles are not properly accounted for.

  14. Vulnerability of Water Systems to the Effects of Climate Change and Urbanization: A Comparison of Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kelli L.; Polsky, Colin; Gober, Patricia; Chang, Heejun; Shandas, Vivek

    2013-07-01

    The coupled processes of climate change and urbanization pose challenges for water resource management in cities worldwide. Comparing the vulnerabilities of water systems in Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon, this paper examines (1) exposures to these stressors, (2) sensitivities to the associated impacts, and (3) adaptive capacities for responding to realized or anticipated impacts. Based on a case study and survey-based approach, common points of vulnerability include: rising exposures to drier, warmer summers, and suburban growth; increasing sensitivities based on demand hardening; and limited capacities due to institutional and pro-growth pressures. Yet each region also exhibits unique vulnerabilities. Comparatively, Portland shows: amplified exposures to seasonal climatic extremes, heightened sensitivity based on less diversified municipal water sources and policies that favor more trees and other irrigated vegetation, and diminished adaptive capacities because of limited attention to demand management and climate planning for water resources. Phoenix exhibits elevated exposure from rapid growth, heightened sensitivities due to high water demands and widespread increases in residential and commercial uses, and limited adaptive capacities due to weak land use planning and "smart growth" strategies. Unique points of vulnerability suggest pathways for adapting to urban-environmental change, whether through water management or land planning. Greater coordination between the land and water sectors would substantially reduce vulnerabilities in the study regions and beyond.

  15. Vulnerability of water systems to the effects of climate change and urbanization: a comparison of Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon (USA).

    PubMed

    Larson, Kelli L; Polsky, Colin; Gober, Patricia; Chang, Heejun; Shandas, Vivek

    2013-07-01

    The coupled processes of climate change and urbanization pose challenges for water resource management in cities worldwide. Comparing the vulnerabilities of water systems in Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon, this paper examines (1) exposures to these stressors, (2) sensitivities to the associated impacts, and (3) adaptive capacities for responding to realized or anticipated impacts. Based on a case study and survey-based approach, common points of vulnerability include: rising exposures to drier, warmer summers, and suburban growth; increasing sensitivities based on demand hardening; and limited capacities due to institutional and pro-growth pressures. Yet each region also exhibits unique vulnerabilities. Comparatively, Portland shows: amplified exposures to seasonal climatic extremes, heightened sensitivity based on less diversified municipal water sources and policies that favor more trees and other irrigated vegetation, and diminished adaptive capacities because of limited attention to demand management and climate planning for water resources. Phoenix exhibits elevated exposure from rapid growth, heightened sensitivities due to high water demands and widespread increases in residential and commercial uses, and limited adaptive capacities due to weak land use planning and "smart growth" strategies. Unique points of vulnerability suggest pathways for adapting to urban-environmental change, whether through water management or land planning. Greater coordination between the land and water sectors would substantially reduce vulnerabilities in the study regions and beyond. PMID:23694972

  16. Phoenix Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair

    This image is a stereo, panoramic view of various trenches dug by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The images that make up this panorama were taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager at about 4 p.m., local solar time at the landing site, on the 131st, Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008).

    In figure 1, the trenches are labeled in orange and other features are labeled in blue. Figures 2 and 3 are the left- and right-eye members of a stereo pair.

    For scale, the 'Pet Donkey' trench just to the right of center is approximately 38 centimeters (15 inches) long and 31 to 34 centimeters (12 to 13 inches) wide. In addition, the rock in front of it, 'Headless,' is about 11.5 by 8.5 centimeters (4.5 by 3.3 inches), and about 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows thermal and electrical conductivity probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Phoenix Site Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) camera that were taken on sols 1 and 3. The top images, highlighted in yellow at the beginning of the movie, have been stretched eight times to show details of features in the background. Phoenix's parachute, backshell, heatshield, and impact site can also be seen.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Phoenix Site Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) camera that were taken on sols 1 and 3. The top portion has been stretched eight fold to show details of features in the background. Phoenix's parachute, backshell, heatshield, and impact site can also be seen.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Silverstein, Rustin

    This report describes seven categories of violent crime in Phoenix, Arizona, and provides causes, facts, preventative programs, and lessons learned pertaining to each category of violence. The categories are: (1) prenatal and early childhood; (2) families; (3) individual youth; (4) schools; (5) neighborhood and community; (6) workplace; and (7)…

  3. Phoenix Color Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. 4. VIEW SHOWING EXCAVATION IN ARIZONA CANAL, 8 MILES NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING EXCAVATION IN ARIZONA CANAL, 8 MILES NORTHEAST OF PHOENIX. NOTE MEN DRILLING AND EXCAVATING IN OPERATION; CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IN THE DISTANCE Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. Remote Sensing of the Surface Urban Heat Island and Land Architecture in Phoenix, Arizona: Combined Effects of Land Composition and Configuration and Cadastral-Demographic-Economic Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middel, A. C.; LI, X.

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to determine the role of land architecture—the composition and configuration of land cover—as well as cadastral-demographic-economic factors on land surface temperature (LST) and the surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect of Phoenix, Arizona. It employs 1 m National Agricultural Imagery Program data of land-cover with 120 m Landsat-derived land surface temperature decomposed to 30m, a new measure of configuration, the normalized moment of inertia, and U.S. Census data to address the question for two randomly selected samples comprising 523 and 545 residential neighborhoods (census blocks) in the city. The results indicate that, contrary to most other studies, land configuration maintains as strong a role in LST as does land composition. In addition, land architecture combined with cadastral, demographic and economic data, captures a significant amount of explained variance in LST. The results indicate that attention to land architecture in the development of or reshaping of neighborhoods may ameliorate the summer extremes in LST.

  6. Comparing the capitalisation benefits of light-rail transit and overlay zoning for single-family houses and condos by neighbourhood type in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Atkinson-Palombo, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Light rail transit (LRT) is increasingly accompanied by overlay zoning which specifies the density and type of future development to encourage landscapes conducive to transit use. Neighbourhood type (based on land use mix) is used to partition data and investigate how pre-existing land use, treatment with a park-and-ride (PAR) versus walk-and-ride (WAR) station and overlay zoning interrelate. Hedonic models estimate capitalisation effects of LRT-related accessibility and overlay zoning on single-family houses and condos in different neighbourhoods for the system in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Impacts differ by housing and neighbourhood type. Amenity-dominated mixed-use neighbourhoods-predominantly WAR communities-experience premiums of 6 per cent for single-family houses and over 20 per cent for condos, the latter boosted an additional 37 per cent by overlay zoning. Residential neighbourhoods-predominantly PAR communities-experience no capitalisation benefits for single-family houses and a discount for condos. The results suggest that land use mix is an important variable to select comparable neighbourhoods. PMID:20857563

  7. Pseudovertical Temperature Profiles and the Urban Heat Island Measured by a Temperature Datalogger Network in Phoenix, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Torcolini, Joel C.; Redman, Randy

    2005-01-01

    As part an air quality field campaign conducted in Phoenix during the summer of 2001, a network of temperature dataloggers and surface meteorological stations were deployed across the metropolitan area for a 61-day period. The majority of the dataloggers were deployed along two intersecting lines across the city to quantify characteristics of the urban heat island (UHI). To obtain pseudo-vertical temperature profiles, some of the instrumentation was also deployed along a mountain slope that rose to 480 m above the valley floor. The instrumentation along the mountain slope provided a reasonable approximation of the vertical temperature profile of the free atmosphere over the valley center during the night and a few hours after sunrise. Mean differences of 0.63 and 0.92o K and standard deviations of 1.33 and 1.45o K were obtained when compared with the in situ radiosonde and remote radio acoustic sounding system measurements, respectively. The vertical temperature gradients associated with temperature inversions within 200 m of the surface during the morning were also close to those obtained from the radiosondes. The average UHI during the measurement period was between 2.5 and 3.5oC; however, there was significant day-to-day variability and it was as large as 10oC during one evening. The peak UHI usually occurred around midnight; however, a strong UHI was frequently observed 2-3 hours after sunrise that coincided with the persistence of strong temperature inversions obtained from the radiosonde and the pseudo-vertical temperature profiles. The nocturnal horizontal temperature gradient was somewhat different than reported for other large cities and the UHI did not decrease with increasing wind speeds until the wind speeds exceeded 7 m s-1.

  8. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix Lander Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm work area with an overlay. The pink area is available for digging, the green area is reserved for placing the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) instrument. Soil can be dumped in the violet area.

    Images were displayed using NASA Ames 'Viz' visualization software.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Aquifers Using InSAR Time Series and Time-dependent Poroelastic Modeling in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. M.; Shirzaei, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alluvial basins in Phoenix experience surface deformation due to large volumes of fluid withdrawn and added to aquifers. The spatiotemporal pattern of deformation is controlled by pumping and recharge rates, hydraulic boundaries, and properties such as diffusivity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity. Land subsidence can cause damages to structures, earth fissures, and a permanent loss of aquifer storage; effects are often apparent after the onset of sustained events. Improving our understanding of the source and mechanisms of deformation is important for risk management and future planning. Monitoring subsidence and uplift using InSAR allows for detailed, dense spatial coverage with less than one cm measurement precision. Envisat data acquired from 2003-11 includes 38 ascending and 53 descending SAR images forming 239 and 423 coherent interferograms respectively. Displacement is separated into vertical and horizontal components by accounting for the satellite look angle and combining ascending and descending line of sight (LOS) data. Vertical velocity from Envisat reveals subsidence reaching -1.84 cm/yr and 0.60 cm/yr uplift. ERS 1&2 satellites delivered useful data from 1992-97, comprised of 6 ascending and 12 descending SAR images. Ascending images form 7 interferograms with LOS velocity from -1.23 to 1.65 cm/yr; descending images produce 25 interferograms with LOS velocity rates from -1.40 to 0.75 cm/yr. InSAR time series are compared with hydraulic head levels from 33 observation wells. Wavelet decomposition is used to separate the long-term, inelastic components from cyclic, elastic signals in InSAR and well level data. The specific storage coefficient, a parameter used in poroelastic models, is estimated as the ratio of cyclic vertical deformation to the equivalent component of the well level time series. Poroelastic theory assumes that pore pressure and fluid mass within the aquifer change during fluid withdrawal, while the relatively impermeable

  12. Animation of Phoenix's Wrist Unlatching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation shows what happened underneath Phoenix's Robotic Arm wrist on Sol 3. The pin that goes through the loop is what holds the wrist in place. The rotation of the wrist pops the pin free.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Map of Phoenix Digging Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop has started digging, and the next areas planned for digging. The majority of the area to the right of the current trench is being preserved for future digging.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Soil on Phoenix Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) of NASA's Phoenix Lander, shows Martian soil piled on top of the spacecraft's deck and some of its instruments. Visible in the upper-left portion of the image are several wet chemistry cells of the lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The instrument on the lower right of the image is the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer. The excess sample delivered to the MECA's sample stage can be seen on the deck in the lower left portion of the image.

    This image was taken on Martian day, or sol, 142, on Saturday, Oct. 19, 2008. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix Without its Parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will be in free fall after it separates from its back shell and parachute, but not for long. Thrusters will begin firing half a second later and will increase their thrusts three seconds after Phoenix sets itself free from the parachute.

    The spacecraft will have slowed to about 56 meters per second (125 miles per hour) by the time it separates from the parachute, about a kilometer (six-tenths of a mile) above the ground.

    This illustration is part of the animation featured above.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Phoenix rising

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-08-15

    Phoenix Coal currently operates 3 surface coal mines in Western Kentucky and have recently obtained the permits to construct their first underground mine. The expansion of the Phoenix Coal company since its formation in July 2004 is described. 4 photos.

  17. Soil Fills Phoenix Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four of the eight cells in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. TEGA's ovens, located underneath the cells, heat soil samples so the released gases can be analyzed.

    Left to right, the cells are numbered 7, 6, 5 and 4. Phoenix's Robotic Arm delivered soil most recently to cell 6 on the 137th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 13, 2008).

    Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera took this image at 3:03 p.m. local solar time on Sol 138 (Oct. 14, 2008).

    Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Phoenix Sol 2 Northwestern Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of a camera going through the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on the Phoenix lander. At the end of the animation is an approximate color mosaic taken by Phoenix's SSI camera. The view is toward the northwest, showing polygonal terrain near the lander and out to the horizon.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. City of Phoenix - Energize Phoenix Program

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, Dimitrios J.

    2014-09-29

    Energize Phoenix (EPHX) was designed as an ambitious, large-scale, three-year pilot program to provide energy efficiency upgrades in buildings, along Phoenix’s new Light Rail Corridor – part of a federal effort to reduce energy consumption and stimulate job growth, while simultaneously reducing the country’s carbon footprint and promoting a shift towards a green economy. The program was created through a 2010 competitive grant awarded to the City of Phoenix who managed the program in partnership with Arizona State University (ASU), the state’s largest university, and Arizona Public Service (APS), the state’s largest electricity provider. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 provided $25M in funding for the EPHX program. The Light Rail Corridor runs through the heart of downtown Phoenix, making most high-rise and smaller commercial buildings eligible to participate in the EPHX program, along with a diverse mix of single and multi-family residential buildings. To ensure maximum impact and deeper market penetration, Energize Phoenix was subdivided into three unique parts: i. commercial rebate program, ii. commercial financing program, and iii. residential program Each component was managed by the City of Phoenix in partnership with APS. Phoenix was fortunate to partner with APS, which already operated robust commercial and residential rebate programs within its service territory. Phoenix tapped into the existing utility contractor network, provided specific training to over 100 contracting firms, and leveraged the APS rebate program structure (energy efficiency funding) to launch the EPHX commercial and residential rebate programs. The commercial finance program was coordinated and managed through a contract with National Bank of Arizona, NBAZ, which also provided project capital leveraging EPHX finance funds. Working in unison, approved contractors

  20. Soil on Phoenix's MECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows soil delivery to NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The image was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008).

    At the bottom of the image is the chute for delivering samples to MECA's microscopes. It is relatively clean due to the Phoenix team using methods such as sprinkling to minimize cross-contamination of samples. However, the cumulative effect of several sample deliveries can be seen in the soil piles on either side of the chute.

    On the right side are the four chemistry cells with soil residue piled up on exposed surfaces. The farthest cell has a large pile of material from an area of the Phoenix workspace called 'Stone Soup.' This area is deep in the trough at a polygon boundary, and its soil was so sticky it wouldn't even go through the funnel.

    One of Phoenix's solar panels is shown in the background of this image.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Phoenix Lander on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this artist's depiction of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Rasp Tool on Phoenix Robotic Arm Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This close-up photograph taken at the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, shows the motorized rasp protruding from the bottom of the scoop on the engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm.

    The rasp will be placed against the hard Martian surface to cut into the hard material and acquire an icy soil sample for analysis by Phoenix's scientific instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Discovering Diversity Downtown: Questioning Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmage, Craig A.; Dombrowski, Rosemarie; Pstross, Mikulas; Peterson, C. Bjørn; Knopf, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Applied community learning experiences for university students are promising endeavors in downtown urban environments. Past research is applied to help better comprehend a community engagement initiative conducted in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. The initiative aimed to illuminate the socio-cultural diversity of the downtown area utilizing…

  4. Phoenix Robotic Arm connects with `Alice'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm comes into contact with a rock informally named 'Alice' near the 'Snow White' trench.

    This image was acquired by Phoenix's NASA's Surface Stereo Imager on July 13 during the 48th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed.

    For scale, the width of the scoop at the end of the arm is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Images from Phoenix's MECA Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The image on the upper left is from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope after a sample informally called 'Sorceress' was delivered to its silicon substrate on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

    A 3D representation of the same sample is on the right, as seen by Phoenix's Atomic Force Microscope. This is 100 times greater magnification than the view from the Optical Microscope, and the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world.

    The Optical Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument.

    The Atomic Force Microscope was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. How Phoenix Looks Under Itself

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander reaching with its Robotic Arm and taking a picture of the surface underneath the lander. The image at the conclusion of the animation was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The light feature in the middle of the image below the leg is informally called 'Holy Cow.' The dust, shown in the dark foreground, has been blown off of 'Holy Cow' by Phoenix's thruster engines.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Phoenix's New Neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The center of the red circle on this map shows where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander eased down to the surface of Mars, at approximately 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude. Before Phoenix landed, engineers had predicted it would land within the blue ellipse.

    Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis.

    The map shows a color-coded interpretation of geomorphic units categories based on the surface textures and contours. The geomorphic mapping is overlaid on a shaded relief map based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission.

    Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Phoenix's Workplace Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the spacecraft's recent activity site as of the 23rd Martian day of the mission, or Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), after the spacecraft touched down on the Red Planet's northern polar plains. The mosaic was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Phoenix's solar panels are seen in the foreground.

    The trench informally called 'Snow White' was dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been nicknamed 'Wonderland.'

    Snow White, seen here in an SSI image from Sol 22 (June 16, 2008) is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. As of Sol 24 (June 18, 2008), the trench is 5 centimeters (2 inches deep) and the trench has been renamed 'Snow White 1,' as a second trench has been dug to its right and nicknamed 'Snow White 2.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix Telltale Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of a camera pushing through NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI). At the conclusion of the animation is a set of SSI images of the telltale taken on the first, second, and third days of the mission, or sols 1, 2, and 3 (May 26, 27, and 28, 2008). The last set of images were taken one minute apart and shows the telltale moving in the wind.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Phoenix's La Mancha Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This false color image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, was taken on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). The image shows color variations of the trench, informally named 'La Mancha,' and reveals the ice layer beneath the soil surface. The trench's depth is about 5 centimeters deep.

    The color outline of the shadow at the bottom of the image is a result of sun movement with the combined use of infrared, green, and blue filters.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Underneath the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this image on Oct. 18, 2008, during the 142nd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The flat patch in the center of the image has the informal name 'Holy Cow,' based on researchers' reaction when they saw the initial image of it only a few days after the May 25, 2008 landing. Researchers first saw this flat patch in an image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on May 30, the fifth Martian day of the mission.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Soil Delivery to Phoenix Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows a view from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Stereo Surface Imager's left eye after delivery of soil to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA), taken on the 12th Martian day after landing (Sol 12, June $6, 2008).

    Soil is visible on both sides of the open doors of TEGA's #4 oven. Sensors inside the device indicate no soil passed through the screen and into the oven.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Flyover Animation of Phoenix Workspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animated 'flyover' of the workspace of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's was created from images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), or the 14th Martian day after landing.

    The visualization uses both of the camera's 'eyes' to provide depth perception and ranging. The camera is looking north over the workspace.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix Stretches its Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to begin raising its robotic arm up and out of its stowed configuration on the third Martian day, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008) of the mission. This artist's animation, based on engineering models, shows how Phoenix will accomplish this task. First, its wrist actuator will rotate, releasing its launch-restraint pin. Next, the forearm moves up, releasing the elbow launch-restraint pin. The elbow will then move up and over in small steps, a process referred to as 'staircasing.' This ensures that the arm's protective biobarrier wrap, now unpeeled and lying to the side of the arm, will not get in the way of the arm's deployment.

    The arm is scheduled to straighten all the way out on Sol 4 (May 29, 2008), after engineers have reviewed images and telemetry data from the spacecraft showing that the biobarrier material has been cleared.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Phoenix Opens its Eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, one of the first captured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, shows the vast plains of the northern polar region of Mars. The flat landscape is strewn with tiny pebbles and shows polygonal cracking, a pattern seen widely in Martian high latitudes and also observed in permafrost terrains on Earth. The polygonal cracking is believed to have resulted from seasonal contraction and expansion of surface ice.

    Phoenix touched down on the Red Planet at 4:53 p.m. Pacific Time (7:53 p.m. Eastern Time), May 25, 2008, in an arctic region called Vastitas Borealis, at 68 degrees north latitude, 234 degrees east longitude.

    This is an approximate-color image taken shortly after landing by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager, inferred from two color filters, a violet, 450-nanometer filter and an infrared, 750-nanometer filter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. How Phoenix Measures Wind Speed and Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows how NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander can measure wind speed and direction by imaging the Telltale with the Stereo Surface Imager (SSI).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Flyover Video of Phoenix Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This video shows an overhead view of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander and the work area of the Robotic Arm.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. The Ground Beneath Phoenix's Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view of a portion of the spacecraft deck and one of the footpads of NASA's three-legged Phoenix Mars Lander shows a solid surface at the spacecraft's landing site. As the legs touched down on the surface of Mars, they kicked up some loose material on top of the footpad, but overall, the surface is unperturbed.

    Each footpad is about the size of a large dinner plate, measuring 11.5 inches from rim to rim. The base of the footpad is shaped like the bottom of a shallow bowl to provide stability.

    This image was taken by the Phoenix spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager shortly after landing on Mars.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Phoenix's Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars lander's robotic-arm camera took this image of the spacecraft's thermal and electrical-conductivity probe (TECP) inserted into Martian soil on day 149 of the mission. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008, landing.

    The robotic-arm camera acquired this image at 16:02:41 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation -72.6986 degrees and azimuth 2.1093 degrees.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. False Color Terrain Model of Phoenix Workspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a terrain model of Phoenix's Robotic Arm workspace. It has been color coded by depth with a lander model for context. The model has been derived using images from the depth perception feature from Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Red indicates low-lying areas that appear to be troughs. Blue indicates higher areas that appear to be polygons.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Martian Surface as Seen by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This colorglyph, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 8, the eighth Martian day of the mission (June 2, 2008), shows a stereoscopic 3D view of the Martian surface near the lander. This area is part of Phoenix's workplace and is informally called 'Wonderland.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. 7. VIEW OF ARIZONA CANAL ABOVE EVERGREEN, SHOWING LACK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF ARIZONA CANAL ABOVE EVERGREEN, SHOWING LACK OF SILT. OLD TOOTH MARKS OF DRAGLINE BUCKET MADE IN 1909 CALICHE BOTTOM WERE STILL VISIBLE Photographer: unknown. February 1938 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW SHOWING SITE OF ARIZONA FALL POWER PLANT, LOOKING EAST. CURRENT LOCATION OF THE REAL-TIME WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATION Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 52. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESS DIAGRAMS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  7. 51. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESS DIAGRAMS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  8. 54. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). FLOOR SYSTEM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  9. 62. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ERECTION DIAGRAM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  10. 49. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). GENERAL LAYOUT. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  11. 61. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). HANDRAIL DESIGN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  12. 56. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). APPROACH SPANS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  13. 55. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). APPROACH SPANS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  14. 53. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). FOUNDATIONS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  15. 47. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). TITLE PAGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  16. Phoenix Lander on Mars (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this stereo illustration of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars. The image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-green stereo glasses.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California

  17. Phoenix model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phoenix (formerly referred to as the Second Generation Model or SGM) is a global general equilibrium model designed to analyze energy-economy-climate related questions and policy implications in the medium- to long-term. This model disaggregates the global economy into 26 industr...

  18. Urban Heat Island Connections to Neighborhood Microclimates in Phoenix, Arizona: Defining the Influences of Land Use and Social Variables on Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashad, L. C.; Stefanov, W. L.; Brazel, A.; Harlan, S.

    2003-12-01

    Phoenix, AZ is known to have an urban heat island that significantly increases minimum and maximum temperatures, which continue to climb as the city grows and becomes denser. We present a study that investigates "neighborhood" scale (1 square km) microclimate and its potential connections to the regional heat island. The purpose of our study is to: 1) identify social factors/ behaviors that influence temperature on a neighborhood scale and relate fluctuations to the overall heat island; 2) determine the effect of land use on temperature at the neighborhood and regional scales; 3) evaluate a range of thermal infrared (TIR) remotely sensed (RS) data and compare the RS surface temperatures to air temperature. Neighborhoods in both the urban core and fringe were delineated within Phoenix for our study. The neighborhoods represent a range of income levels and ethnicities. Daytime TIR data from Landsat sensors (TM, ETM+) and the airborne MASTER sensor were used to obtain surface temperatures for the neighborhoods. Nighttime surface temperature data were obtained from the ASTER sensor. Vegetation indices (SAVI) were created from Landsat and MASTER imagery. Climate monitors installed in each neighborhood recorded air temperature and dew point readings every 5 minutes. Land use was obtained from an expert systems classification of Landsat imagery and from aerial photos. Our results indicate surface temperatures correlate strongly with air temperatures. The 12.5m/pixel MASTER and 30m/pixel Landsat thermal data can highlight surface temperature gradients within a neighborhood while nighttime ASTER data provides better mean surface temperature discrimination between neighborhoods, and allows for quantification of local diurnal temperature variation. Neighborhoods with a low mean income, high percentage of Hispanics, and low educational attainment are significantly hotter than their high-income, non-Hispanic, highly educated counterparts. Urban core neighborhoods with high

  19. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Martian Surface after Phoenix's Conductivity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera took this image on Sol 71 (August 6, 2008), the 71st Martian day after landing. The shadow shows the outline of Phoenix's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe, or TECP. The holes seen in the Martian surface were made by this instrument to measure the soil's conductivity. A fork-like probe inserted into the soil checks how well heat and electricity move through the soil from one prong to another.

    The measurements completed Wednesday ran from the afternoon of Phoenix's 70th Martian day, or sol, to the morning of Sol 71.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Phoenix Telltale Movie with Clouds, Sol 103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale catches a breeze as clouds move over the landing site on Sol 103 (Sept. 7, 2008), the 103rd Martian day since landing.

    Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took this series of images during daily telltale monitoring around 3 p.m. local solar time and captured the clouds moving over the landing site.

    Phoenix can measure wind speed and direction by imaging the telltale, which is about about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The telltale was built by the University of Aarhus, Denmark.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Field guide to sedimentary structures in the Navajo and Entrada sandstones in southern Utah and northern Arizona: Chapter in Field-trip guidebook, 100th annual meeting, The Geological Society of America, Phoenix, Arizona, October 26-29, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Hunter, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    This field-trip guide describes the common sedimentary structures that occur in eolian sands. The outcrops that are described occur in the Navajo and Entiaia Sandstones between the areas of Page, Arizona and St. George, Utah (figure I), but the sedimentary structures of these two sandstones are typical of most eolian deposits. The main part of the guide discusses the geologic setting and the origin of the various structures, and the road log discusses which structures are best displayed at selected outcrops.

  3. Phoenix Mars Lander in Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Comparing Baltimore and Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 'zoom lens' aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft acquired these views of two U.S. cities: Baltimore, Maryland (left), and Phoenix, Arizona (right). Acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), red in these false-colored images indicates vegetation. The turquoise pixels show paved areas while darker greens and browns show bare earth and rock surfaces. The 'true' constructed nature of these cities is not easy to see. Ecologists now accept human beings and our activities as a significant factor in studying the Earth's ecology. ASTER data are being used to better understand urban ecology, in particular how humans build their cities and affect the surrounding environment. At the recent American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting in Boston, Will Stefanov of Arizona State University presented the first set of ASTER images of the urban 'skeletons' of the amount of built structures in twelve cities around the world. He also discussed the Urban Environmental Monitoring project, in which scientists are examining 100 urban centers to look for common features (or lack of them) in global city structure as well as to monitor their changes over time.

  5. Phoenix Risen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In 1974, John G. Sperling left a tenured position at San Jose State University with $26,000 in savings to start an academic program for working adults. In the beginning, he ran the operation out of his house. The program soon outgrew the house, Sperling relocated to Arizona, and the program adopted the name of that state's capital. Now the…

  6. 76 FR 51461 - Notice of Release From Quitclaim Deed and Federal Grant Assurance Obligations for Phoenix-Mesa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Obligations for Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION... airport property at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway, Mesa, Arizona, from all conditions contained in the Quitclaim... Road, Mesa, Arizona 85212, Telephone: (480) 988-7709. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In accordance with...

  7. Color view to Northwest of Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers) view was obtained on sol 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The view is toward the northwest, showing polygonal terrain near the lander and out to the horizon.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix Makes an Impression on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the first impression dubbed Yeti and looking like a wide footprint -- made on the Martian soil by the Robotic Arm scoop on Sol 6, the sixth Martian day of the mission, (May 31, 2008).

    Touching the ground is the first step toward scooping up soil and ice and delivering the samples to the lander's experiments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Phoenix Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab delivery funnel on Sol 29, the 29th Martian day after landing, or June 24, 2008. The soil will be delivered to the instrument on Sol 30.

    This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Martian Soil Inside Phoenix's Robotic Arm Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) shows material from the Martian surface captured by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop during its first test dig and dump on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The test sample shown was taken from the digging area informally known as 'Knave of Hearts.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Phoenix's Lay of the Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the spacecraft's recent activity site as of the 23rd Martian day of the mission, or Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), after the spacecraft touched down on the Red Planet's northern polar plains. The mosaic was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Parts of Phoenix can be seen in the foreground.

    The first two trenches dug by the lander's Robotic Arm, called 'Dodo' and 'Goldilocks,' were enlarged on the 19th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 18 (June 12, 2008), to form one trench, dubbed 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' Scoops of material taken from those trenches are informally called 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear.' Baby Bear was carried to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, instrument for analysis, while Mama Bear was delivered to Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA, for a closer look.

    The color inset picture of the Dodo-Goldilocks trench, also taken with Phoenix's SSI, reveals white material thought to be ice.

    More recently, on Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), Phoenix's Robotic Arm began digging a trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been nicknamed 'Wonderland.'

    The Snow White trench, seen here in an SSI image from Sol 22 (June 16, 2008) is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. As of Sol 25 (June 19, 2008), the trench is 5 centimeters (2 inches deep) and the trench has been renamed 'Snow White 1,' as a second trench has been dug to its right and nicknamed 'Snow White 2.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems

  13. 76 FR 18777 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Phoenix... State Director's update on BLM programs and issues; updates on the Arizona Water Strategy,...

  14. 76 FR 67206 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Phoenix... issues; updates on the Arizona Water Strategy, land use planning and public involvement, renewable...

  15. 76 FR 44602 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Phoenix...; BLM State Director's update on BLM programs and issues; updates on the Arizona Water Strategy,...

  16. Work on Phoenix Science Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems technicians Jim Young (left) and Jack Farmerie (right) work on the science deck of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The spacecraft was built in a 100,000-class clean room near Denver under NASA's planetary protection practices to keep organics from being taken to Mars. The lander's robotic arm, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, is seen at the top of the picture. The color and grey dots will be used to calibrate the spacecraft's Surface Stereoscopic Imager camera once the spacecraft has landed on the red planet.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. View of Phoenix's Surroundings as of Sol 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a cylindrical mosaic of all data, as of the end of sol 2, from the right eye of the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) instrument on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Color Image of Phoenix Heat Shield and Bounce Mark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This shows a color image from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera. It shows the Phoenix heat shield and bounce mark on the Mars surface.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Dust Storm Moving Near Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This series of images show the movement of several dust storms near NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These images were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on the 137th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 13, 2008).

    These images were taken about 50 seconds apart, showing the formation and movement of dust storms for nearly an hour. Phoenix scientists are still figuring out the exact distances these dust storms occurred from the lander, but they estimate them to be about 1 to 2 kilometers (.6 or 1.2 miles) away.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Phoenix Lowered into Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander was lowered into a thermal vacuum chamber at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in December 2006.

    The spacecraft was folded in its aeroshell and underwent environmental testing that simulated the extreme conditions the spacecraft will see during its nine-and-a-half-month cruse to Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Martian Dust Collected by Phoenix's Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Lander's Optical Microscope shows particles of Martian dust lying on the microscope's silicon substrate. The Robotic Arm sprinkled a sample of the soil from the Snow White trench onto the microscope on July 2, 2008, the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission after landing.

    Subsequently, the Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM, zoomed in one of the fine particles, creating the first-ever image of a particle of Mars' ubiquitous fine dust, the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world.

    The Atomic Force Microscope was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Doors Fully Open on Phoenix's Next Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The double doors on the right are wide open in this image of four pairs of oven doors on Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA).

    This pair of doors goes to TEGA's oven number zero, the third of the instrument's three ovens to be opened and the first for which both doors have opened fully. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this photo on July 19, 2008, during the 53rd Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed.

    The doors are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Doors Fully Open on Phoenix's Next Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The double doors on the right are wide open in this image of four pairs of oven doors on Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA).

    This pair of doors is for TEGA's oven number zero, the third of the instrument's ovens to be opened and the first for which both doors have opened fully. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this photo on July 18, 2008, during the 53rd Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed. The image has been brightened to show the fine mesh.

    The doors are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Images from Phoenix's MECA Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The image on the upper left is from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope after a sample informally called 'Sorceress' was delivered to its silicon substrate on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

    A 3D representation of the same sample is on the right, as seen by Phoenix's Atomic Force Microscope. This is 200 times greater magnification than the view from the Optical Microscope, and the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world.

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The Optical Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Ground truth report 1975 Phoenix microwave experiment. [Joint Soil Moisture Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Direct measurements of soil moisture obtained in conjunction with aircraft data flights near Phoenix, Arizona in March, 1975 are summarized. The data were collected for the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment.

  6. Arizona TeleMedicine Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Coll. of Medicine.

    Designed to provide health services for American Indians living on rurally isolated reservations, the Arizona TeleMedicine Project proposes to link Phoenix and Tucson medical centers, via a statewide telecommunications system, with the Hopi, San Carlos Apache, Papago, Navajo, and White Mountain Apache reservations. Advisory boards are being…

  7. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. 28. Site Plan, Arizona Canal at Old Crosscut, September 1972. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Site Plan, Arizona Canal at Old Crosscut, September 1972. See photograph AZ-21-8 for view of the completed structure. Source: Salt River Project. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 3. Photocopy of handcolored postcard original postcard located at Arizona ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of hand-colored postcard original postcard located at Arizona Historical Foundation, Tempe, Arizona. Photographer unknown, circa 1905 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM TEMPE BUTTE, SHOWING MARICOPA AND PHOENIX RAILROAD BRIDGE IN THE BACKGROUND; PHOENIX AND EASTERN RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND. THE ASH AVENUE BRIDGE WOULD BE BUILT MIDWAY BETWEEN THE RAILROAD BRIDGES IN 1911-1913 - Ash Avenue Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Foot of Ash Avenue, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  12. On Track with Phoenix Early Head Start. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Linda; Heffernon, Rick

    The Phoenix, Arizona, Early Head Start (EHS) program is for first-time teen parents and their families. The end of 1999-2000 marked the fifth and final year of a research and demonstration grant for EHS and concluded the fourth full year of program implementation. This report provides a five-year perspective on program process and outcomes for…

  13. Zeroing In on Phoenix's Final Destination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the latest estimate, marked by a green crosshair, of the location of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Radio communications between Phoenix and spacecraft flying overhead have allowed engineers to narrow the lander's location to an area about 300 meters (984) long by 100 meters (328 feet) across, or about three football fields long and one football field wide.

    During landing, Phoenix traveled across the field of view shown here from the upper left to the lower right. The area outlined in blue represents the area where Phoenix was predicted to land before arriving on Mars. During Phoenix's descent through the Martian atmosphere to the surface of the Red Planet, continuous measurements of the distance the spacecraft traveled enabled engineers to narrow its location further to the circular area outlined in red.

    Using radio signals to home in on Phoenix's final location is sort of like trying to find a kitten by listening to the sound of its meows. As NASA's Odyssey spacecraft passes overhead, it receives radio transmissions from the lander. When Odyssey passes overhead again along a slightly different path, it receives new radio signals. With each successive pass, it is able to 'fix' the location of Phoenix a little more precisely.

    Meanwhile, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has taken actual images of the spacecraft on the surface, enabling scientists to match the lander's location to geologic features seen from orbit.

    The large crater to the right is 'Heimdall crater,' the slopes of which are visible in images of the parachute that lowered Phoenix to the surface, taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The map shown here is made up of topography data taken by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. It shows exaggerated differences in the height of the terrain.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the

  14. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.'

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This series of six images from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander records the first time that the four spikes of the lander's thermal and electrical conductivity probe were inserted into Martian soil.

    The images were taken on July 8, 2008, during the Phoenix mission's 43rd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The insertion visible from the shadows cast on the ground on that sol was a validation test of the procedure. The spikes on the probe are about 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long.

    The science team will use the probe tool to assess how easily heat and electricity move through the soil from one spike to another. Such measurements can provide information about frozen or unfrozen water in the soil. The probe is mounted on the 'knuckle' of Phoenix's Robotic Arm. It has already been used for assessing water vapor in the atmosphere when it is held above the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Phoenix Mars Lander with Solar Arrays Open

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Phoenix Conductivity Probe with Shadow and Toothmark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 after the probe was lifted away from the soil. The imprint left by the insertion is visible below the probe, and a shadow showing the probe's four needles is cast on a rock to the left.

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Influence of Noise Barriers on Near-Road and On-Road Air Quality: Results from Phoenix

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation describes field study results quantifying the impact of roadside barriers under real-world conditions in Phoenix, Arizona. Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has ...

  19. How Phoenix Creates Color Images (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This simple animation shows how a color image is made from images taken by Phoenix.

    The Surface Stereo Imager captures the same scene with three different filters. The images are sent to Earth in black and white and the color is added by mission scientists.

    By contrast, consumer digital cameras and cell phones have filters built in and do all of the color processing within the camera itself.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Phoenix's Laser Beam in Action on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog. The brighter area at the top of the beam is due to enhanced scattering of the laser light in a cloud. The Canadian-built lidar instrument emits pulses of laser light and records what is scattered back.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix Robotic Arm Scoop with Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This drawing shows a side view of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's scoop with various tools for acquiring soil, icy soil and ice samples.

    The front blade, at left, is for scraping. A secondary blade can scrape hard materials.

    The motorized rasp, protruding at the bottom on the image, can penetrate the hard icy soil and acquire the cuttings produced through the rear chamber of the scoop. The rasp is a tungsten carbide cutting bit mounted within a pivoting housing that allows the bit to protrude during sample acquisition.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Phoenix Robotic Arm's Workspace After 90 Sols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide.

    The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Stereo View of Phoenix Test Sample Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This anaglyph image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows a stereoscopic 3D view of the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Overnight Changes Recorded by Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This graph presents simplified data from overnight measurements by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander from noon of the mission's 70th Martian day, or sol, to noon the following sol (Aug. 5 to Aug. 6, 2008).

    The graph shows that water disappeared from the atmosphere overnight, at the same time that electrical measurements detected changes consistent with addition of water to the soil.

    Water in soil appears to increase overnight, when water in the atmosphere disappears.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. 76 FR 51462 - Notice of Release of an Easement Restriction at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Release of an Easement Restriction at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request to... acres of property abutting Phoenix-Mesa Gateway, Mesa, Arizona, from all conditions contained in a...

  7. 17. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). 37'7' U ABUTMENT FOR 4 GIRDER DECK OF THE HASSAYAMPA BRIDGE. - Hassayampa Bridge, Spanning Hassayampa River at old U.S. Highway 80, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 16. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). LAYOUT MAP; PROFILE & PIER DETAILS. - Hassayampa Bridge, Spanning Hassayampa River at old U.S. Highway 80, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 18. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). DETAILS OF 45'8' - 4 GIRDER DECK, 24 FT. ROADWAY OF THE HASSAYAMPA BRIDGE. - Hassayampa Bridge, Spanning Hassayampa River at old U.S. Highway 80, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. Arizona State Capitol Museum. Teacher Resource Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    Information about Arizona's history, government, and state capitol is organized into two sections. The first section presents a timeline of Arizona history from the prehistoric era to 1992. Brief descriptions of the state's entrance into the Union and the city of Phoenix as the selection for the State Capitol are discussed. Details are given about…

  11. 62. VIEW SHOWING END OF THE ARIZONA CANAL AT SKUNK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. VIEW SHOWING END OF THE ARIZONA CANAL AT SKUNK CREEK, LOOKING WEST. DEMOSSING STATION IS LEFT OF CENTER AND DRAIN GATES ARE RIGHT OF CENTER Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    This annual report describes the goals and activities of the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs for fiscal year 1990-91. The commission is made up of seven tribal representatives, two non-Indians, and six ex-officio members from state government. In October 1990, the commission held a 2-day Indian Town Hall in Phoenix (Arizona) on the future of…

  13. 78 FR 16865 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Phoenix, Arizona, as indicated below. DATES: The RAC will meet on April 30 for the Recreation and Communities... issues; updates on the Kaibab Vermilion Cliffs Heritage Alliance Archeological Program; Introduction...

  14. 6. Photocopy of photograph original print located at Arizona Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph original print located at Arizona Photographic Associates, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona. Photographer: Herb McLaughlin, circa. 1965 AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARD TEMPE BUTTE, SHOWING, FROM TOP, MILL AVENUE BRIDGE, ASH AVENUE BRIDGE, AND SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE - Ash Avenue Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Foot of Ash Avenue, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 77 FR 11566 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Phoenix, Arizona, as indicated...

  16. 60. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). U9 - U11. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  17. 57. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ARCH DETAIL, U0 - U2. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  18. 58. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ARCH DETAIL, U3 - U5. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 50. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESSES AND SECTIONS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  20. 48. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). PLAN AND PROFILE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  1. 59. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). U6 - U8. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  2. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... described lands were officially filed in the Arizona State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Phoenix... Group 1119, Arizona. This plat was prepared at the request of the Bureau of......

  3. Testing Phoenix Mars Lander Parachute in Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Lander, Spirit, and Opportunity, ensuring that lessons learned from past programs were incorporated into the Phoenix system.

    During the first 25 seconds of the three-minute period when Phoenix descends on its parachute, the spacecraft will cast away its heat shield and extend its three legs. About 43 seconds before reaching the surface of Mars, the lander will shed the parachute by separating from the backshell. The lander will begin firing its descent thrusters half a second after the separation from the backshell and continue using them until touchdown.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. More Soil Delivered to Phoenix Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, documents the delivery of a soil sample from the 'Snow White' trench to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory. A small pile of soil is visible on the lower edge of the second cell from the top.This deck-mounted lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA).

    The delivery was made on Sept. 12, 2008, which was Sol 107 (the 107th Martian day) of the mission, which landed on May 25, 2008.

    The Wet Chemistry Laboratory mixes Martian soil with an aqueous solution from Earth as part of a process to identify soluble nutrients and other chemicals in the soil. Preliminary analysis of this soil confirms that it is alkaline, and composed of salts and other chemicals such as perchlorate, sodium, magnesium, chloride and potassium. This data validates prior results from that same location, said JPL's Michael Hecht, the lead scientist for MECA.

    In the coming days, the Phoenix team will also fill the final four of eight single-use ovens on another soil-analysis instrument, the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The team's strategy is to deliver as many samples as possible before the power produced by Phoenix's solar panels declines due to the end of the Martian summer.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Martian Arctic Dust Devil, Phoenix Sol 104

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008.

    Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104.

    Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado.

    The dust devil visible in the center of this image just below the horizon is estimated to be about 400 meters (about 1,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 meters (13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those.

    The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Geomorphic Map of Region Around Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This map shows shows a color-coded interpretation of geomorphic units categories based on surface textures and contours in the region where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has studied an arctic Martian plain. It covers an area about 65 kilometers by 65 kilometers (40 miles by 40 miles).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Arizona TeleMedicine Network: Segment Specifications--Tuba City via Mt. Elden, Phoenix; Keams Canyon, Second Mesa, Low Mountain; Phoenix, San Carlos, Bylas; Keams Canyon via Ganado Mesa, Ft. Defiance; Tuba City via Black Mesa, Ft. Defiance; and Budgetary Cost Information--Pinal Peak via San Xavier, Tucson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    The communication links of five different segments of the Arizona TeleMedicine Network (a telecommunication system designed to provide health services for American Indians in rurally isolated areas) and budgetary cost information for Pinal Peak via San Xavier and Tucson are described in this document. The five communication links are identified…

  8. Metal-bearing Aerosols of Industrial Origin from Multiple Sources in South Phoenix, Arizona: Separating Similar Particle Types with Minor Element Differences Using Automated SEM Analysis of Large Populations of Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Hua, X.

    2009-12-01

    Particulate pollution, especially PM10, in the Greater Phoenix (Maricopa County) airshed is a long-standing problem. While much of the PM10 can be ascribed to soil dust entrained by human activity (e.g., sand and gravel mining and other construction-support activities both directly and indirectly), south-central and southwest Phoenix have a significant number of industrial sources of metal-bearing particles. Many of these particles are dominated compositionally by Fe but have minor elements such as Cu, Ba, Mn, Cr, Ni and others which can be statistically mutually exclusive when large populations are looked at with automated Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Bulk aerosol chemical analysis of high-volume samples shows the presence of these elements, including the dominance of Fe at times, but there are far more potential sources than can ever by deduced by principal component analysis of the bulk sample data. Because of the potential toxic nature of these industrial particles, about which there is considerable community concern, identifying the multiple sources is a key step in mitigating the pollution. Also present in these industrial aerosols are mostly submicron particles containing Sr, Sb, V, Cd, and other elements in various combinations. While analyzing the minor element content of submicron particles, some of which are beam-sensitive, pushes the limits of automated SEM techniques, this is the only way to examine large, statistically significant particle populations in many samples on an individual-particle basis. The elemental associations in these unusual metal-bearing particles tend to be the key to source identification. Particle morphology is also important in separating particle types from different sources in these populations. For instance, one of major sources of Fe-dominant particles in southwest Phoenix is a scrap metal operation that uses a “mega-shredder”. This mega-shredder generates enough heat to melt some of the metal and produce roughly

  9. Zenith Movie showing Phoenix's Lidar Beam (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    A laser beam from the Canadian-built lidar instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander can be seen in this contrast-enhanced sequence of 10 images taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager on July 26, 2008, during early Martian morning hours of the mission's 61st Martian day after landing.

    The view is almost straight up and includes about 1.5 kilometer (about 1 mile) of the length of the beam. The camera, from its position close to the lidar on the lander deck, took the images through a green filter centered on light with wavelength 532 nanometers, the same wavelength of the laser beam. The movie has been artificially colored to to approximately match the color that would be seen looking through this filter on Mars. Contrast is enhanced to make the beam more visible.

    The lidar beam can be seen extending from the lower right to the upper right, near the zenith, as it reflects off particles suspended in the atmosphere. Particles that scatter the beam directly into the camera can be seen to produce brief sparkles of light. In the background, dust can be seen drifting across the sky pushed by winds aloft.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix Checks out its Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows a mosaic of images of the workspace reachable by the scoop on the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, along with some measurements of rock sizes.

    Phoenix was able to determine the size of the rocks based on three-dimensional views from stereoscopic images taken by the lander's 7-foot mast camera, called the Surface Stereo Imager. The stereo pair of images enable depth perception, much the way a pair of human eyes enable people to gauge the distance to nearby objects.

    The rock measurements were made by a visualization tool known as Viz, developed at NASA's Ames Research Laboratory. The shadow cast by the camera on the Martian surface appears somewhat disjointed because the camera took the images in the mosaic at different times of day.

    Scientists do not yet know the origin or composition of the flat, light-colored rocks on the surface in front of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Digging Movie from Phoenix's Sol 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander recorded the images combined into this movie of the lander's Robotic Arm enlarging and combining the two trenches informally named 'Dodo' (left) and 'Goldilocks.'

    The 21 images in this sequence were taken over a period of about 2 hours during Phoenix's Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or the 18th Martian day since landing.

    The main purpose of the Sol 18 dig was to dig deeper for learning the depth of a hard underlying layer. A bright layer, possibly ice, was increasingly exposed as the digging progressed. Further digging and scraping in the combined Dodo-Goldilocks trench was planned for subsequent sols.

    The combined trench is about 20 centimeters (about 8 inches) wide. The depth at the end of the Sol 18 digging is 5 to 6 centimeters (about 2 inches).

    The Goldilocks trench was the source of soil samples 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear,' which were collected on earlier sols and delivered to instruments on the lander deck. The Dodo trench was originally dug for practice in collecting and depositing soil samples.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Phoenix's view of Mars as of the end of Sol 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows a polar projection mosaic of all data received as of the end of sol 2 from the right eye of the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) instrument on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix's Solar Panel and Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of panorama images of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's solar panel and the lander's Robotic Arm with a sample in the scoop. The image was taken just before the sample was delivered to the Optical Microscope.

    The images making up this animation were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager looking west during Phoenix's Sol 16 (June 10, 2008), or the 16th Martian day after landing. This view is a part of the 'mission success' panorama that will show the whole landing site in color.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Team Huddle Before Lifting Phoenix into Test Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft specialists huddle to discuss the critical lift of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander into a thermal vacuum chamber.

    In December 2006, the spacecraft was in a cruise configuration prior to going into environmental testing at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems facility near Denver. At all stages of assembly and testing, the spacecraft is handled with extreme care and refinement.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. SPRINGS AND WATER TANKS ON GILA RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  16. SPRINGS AND WATER TANKS ON THE COLORADO RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Colorado River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  17. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  18. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity.

    In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below.

    For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across.

    Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Wind-Related Topography in Phoenix's Region of Mars (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie shifts from a global zoom indicating the Phoenix landing area on Mars to a topographical map indicating relative elevations in the landing region. The elevations could affect wind patterns at the site.

    In particular, Phoenix is in a broad, shallow valley. The edge of the valley, about 150 meters (500 feet) above the floor, may provide enough of a slope to the east of Phoenix to explain winds coming from the east during nights at the site. Cooler, denser air could be sinking down the slope and toward the lander.

    Atmospheric scientists on the Phoenix team are analyzing wind patterns to distiguish effects of nearby topography from larger-scale movement of the atmosphere in the polar region.

    The elevation information for this topographical mapping comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. The blue-coded area is the valley floor. Orange and yellow indicate relatively higher elevations.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. JPL managed the Mars Global Surveyor mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  20. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  1. Martian Dust Devil Movie, Phoenix Sol 104

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west of the lander in four frames shot about 50 seconds apart from each other between 11:53 a.m. and 11:56 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008.

    Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104.

    Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado.

    The dust devil visible in this sequence was about 1,000 meters (about 3,300 feet) from the lander when the first frame was taken, and had moved to about 1,700 meters (about 5,600 feet) away by the time the last frame was taken about two and a half minutes later. The dust devil was moving westward at an estimated speed of 5 meters per second (11 miles per hour), which is similar to typical late-morning wind speed and direction indicated by the telltale wind gauge on Phoenix.

    This dust devil is about 5 meters (16 feet) in diameter. This is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those..

    The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see. Some of the frame-to-frame differences in the appearance of foreground rocks is because each frame was taken through a different color filter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix Robotic Arm Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H. U.; Goetz, W.; Hartwig, H.; Hviid, S. F.; Kramm, R.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Reynolds, R.; Shinohara, C.; Smith, P.; Tanner, R.; Woida, P.; Woida, R.; Bos, B. J.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2008-10-01

    The Phoenix Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is a variable-focus color camera mounted to the Robotic Arm (RA) of the Phoenix Mars Lander. It is designed to acquire both close-up images of the Martian surface and microscopic images (down to a scale of 23 μm/pixel) of material collected in the RA scoop. The mounting position at the end of the Robotic Arm allows the RAC to be actively positioned for imaging of targets not easily seen by the Stereo Surface Imager (SSI), such as excavated trench walls and targets under the Lander structure. Color information is acquired by illuminating the target with red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes. Digital terrain models (DTM) can be generated from RAC images acquired from different view points. This can provide high-resolution stereo information about fine details of the trench walls. The large stereo baseline possible with the arm can also provide a far-field DTM. The primary science objectives of the RAC are the search for subsurface soil/ice layering at the landing site and the characterization of scoop samples prior to delivery to other instruments on board Phoenix. The RAC shall also provide low-resolution panoramas in support of SSI activities and acquire images of the Lander deck for instrument and Lander check out. The camera design was inherited from the unsuccessful Mars Polar Lander mission (1999) and further developed for the (canceled) Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander (MSL01). Extensive testing and partial recalibration qualified the MSL01 RAC flight model for integration into the Phoenix science payload.

  3. Ethnographic Evaluation of the MESA Program at a South-Central Phoenix High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James A.

    MESA (Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement) is a program designed to increase the number of underrepresented ethnic groups in professions related to mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences. This paper describes and evaluates the MESA program at Jarama High School, Phoenix (Arizona), using informal interviews and…

  4. On Track with Phoenix Early Head Start. 1998-99 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Linda; Heffernon, Rick

    The Phoenix, Arizona Early Head Start (EHS) program is for first-time teen parents and their families. The 1998-99 project year marked the fourth year of a 5-year research and demonstration grant for EHS and concluded the third full year of program implementation. This report analyzes Year Four program services and outcomes for children, families,…

  5. Linking Ready Kids to Ready Schools through P-20 Councils: A View from Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report is an overview and summary of the Arizona Governor's Forum: Linking Ready Kids to Ready Schools. The forum, supported by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation and the Education Commission of the States, was held on May 30, 2008 in Phoenix, Arizona. Six dozen educators, education experts and advocates gathered during the one-day forum to map out…

  6. Early Childhood Teacher Preparation and Technology Integration: The Arizona State University West Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael; Wetzel, Keith; Padgett, Helen; Williams, Mia Kim; Odom, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, Arizona State University West (ASU West), located in Phoenix, Arizona, has developed an Early Childhood program that features curricula based on the National Education Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS-T; International Society for Technology in Education [ISTE], 2000), National Technology Standards for Students…

  7. 36. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, June 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ) COMPLETION OF SOUTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  8. 35. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, June 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ELEVENTH (LAST) PANEL OF SOUTH ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING ERECTION TRAVELER. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  9. 37. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. July 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). CONSTRUCTION ON THIRD PANEL OF NORTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  10. 39. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. July 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ASSEMBLY OF TRAVELER ON NORTH ARM, SHOWING TEMPORARY TIEBACKS AND ANCHORAGE ARMS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  11. 38. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. July 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). VIEW FROM CANYON OF THIRD PANEL OF NORTH ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  12. 33. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. May 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). CONSTRUCTION OF SOUTH ARM, SHOWING ERECTION TRAVELER. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  13. 32. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, April 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). CONSTRUCTION OF SOUTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  14. 34. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. May 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). CONSTRUCTION ON EIGHT PANEL OF SOUTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  15. 31. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, April 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). INITIAL CONSTRUCTION ON SOUTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  16. 41. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, 12 September 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). INSERTION OF CENTER PIN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  17. 40. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of photograph, R.A. Hoffman, Bridge Engineer, Arizona Highway Department, photographer, ca. July 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). CONSTRUCTION OF NORTH ARM, FROM SOUTH ARM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  18. Schematic Animation of Phoenix's Microscope Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation shows the workings of the microscope station of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    Samples are delivered to the horizontal portion of the sample wheel (yellow) that pokes outside an opening in the box enclosure. The wheel rotates to present the sample to the microscopes. The Optical Microscope (red) can see particles a little smaller than one-tenth the diameter of a human hair. The Atomic Force Microscope (pink) can see particles forty time smaller. The samples are on a variety of substrate surfaces, the small circles on the beveled edge of the sample wheel. For scale, the diameter of the wheel is about 14 centimeters (5.5 inches). Each substrate is a circle 3 millimeters (0.1 inch) in diameter.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Martian Arctic Dust Devil and Phoenix Meteorology Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008.

    Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104.

    Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado.

    The vertical post near the left edge of this image is the mast of the Meteorological Station on Phoenix. The dust devil visible at the horizon just to the right of the mast is estimated to be 600 to 700 meters (about 2,000 to 2,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 to 5 meters (10 to 13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those.

    The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Read Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…

  1. Maricopa County, Arizona, Modifies Sanitation Course for Food Service Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Richard L.

    1972-01-01

    Description of new educational program developed by the Maricopa County Health Department, in Phoenix, Arizona, for the training of food service workers in sanitary practices. Impact of course is yet to be objectively measured, but persons attending have shown much greater participation and interest. (LK)

  2. 1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, no date. Note that caption is incorrect: in relation to Camelback Mountain (rear), this can only be the Old Crosscut. Source: reprinted from the 13th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1893. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. Solar Panel Buffeted by Wind at Phoenix Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Winds were strong enough to cause about a half a centimeter (.19 inch) of motion of a solar panel on NASA's Phoenix Mars lander when the lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture on Aug. 31, 2008, during the 96th Martian day since landing.

    The lander's telltale wind gauge has been indicating wind speeds of about 4 meters per second (9 miles per hour) during late mornings at the site.

    These conditions were anticipated and the wind is not expected to do any harm to the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Mark Left by First Dig at Phoenix Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The hole in the ground produced by the first Robotic Arm dig at the landing site of NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission appears to the right of the three largest rocks near the center of this image.

    The hole is the width of the scoop on the end of the arm, about 9 centimeters (3.5 inches). It resulted from a practice dig during the mission's seventh Martian day, or sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image later that sol. The image is in approximately true color, produced by combining exposures taken through different filters. The green band at upper left is a portion where imaging data was incomplete in for one of the filters.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Phoenix Again Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab Cell 1 delivery funnel on Sol 41, the 42nd Martian day after landing, or July 6, 2008, after a soil sample was delivered to the instrument.

    The instrument's Cell 1 is second one from the foreground of the image. The first cell, Cell 0, received a soil sample two weeks earlier.

    This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Dark Skies and Clouds Move in at Phoenix site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Clouds of dust and ice swirl past the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander in a series of images taken on the 132nd Martian day of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). The images show the increase in storm activity and potential for snowfall.

    The solar powered spacecraft was disabled by decreased light from heavy dust storms in the area a few weeks later. The last communication heard from the lander occurred on Nov. 2, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Avian Hosts of West Nile Virus in Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A.; Young, Ginger R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Levy, Craig E.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in Phoenix, Arizona. To identify amplifying hosts of WNV in the Phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the East Valley of metropolitan Phoenix during summer, 2010. House sparrow (Passer domesticus), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) accounted for most WNV infections among locally resident birds. These species roost communally after early summer breeding. In September 2010, Culex vector-avian host contact was 3-fold greater at communal bird roosts compared with control sites, as determined by densities of resting mosquitoes with previous vertebrate contact (i.e., blood-engorged or gravid mosquitoes). Because of the low competence of mourning doves, these were considered weak amplifiers but potentially effective free-ranging sentinels. Highly competent sparrows, finches, and grackles were predicted to be key amplifying hosts for WNV in suburban Phoenix. PMID:23857022

  8. The Phoenix Scout Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.

    2003-12-01

    Phoenix will restore the 2001 lander to flight condition and select a scientic payload from instruments flown on Mars Polar Lander and delivered for the 2001 lander. Landing in May 2008 at the beginning of northern Summer, Phoenix will explore the subsurface ice layers discovered by Odyssey scientists at about 70 N latitude. Descent and panoramic imaging will reveal the small scale geology of this ice-rich region and a robotic arm will dig layer by layer beneath the surface. A German-supplied camera on the arm will examine the trench walls for stratigraphic clues to the origin of the region. Two instruments on the deck will receive samples taken from various depths from the surface to an impermeable ice layer. A thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA) will accept samples in one of eight ovens, heating the samples to 1000C will performing differential scanning calorimetry on them. The gases are piped to a mass spectrometer and all species between 1 and 140 Da are identified. Altered minerals (clays, carbonates,etc.) and organics materials can be clearly identified by the multi-dimensional nature (mass, temperature, and depth) of this experiment. Isotopic ratios for hydrogen, neon, argon, carbon, and nitrogen will give clues to the history of the soils and ices. The MECA instrument performs microscopy, electro-chemistry, and conductivity measurments on samples. Bringing water from Earth and mixing it in a sealed cell with samples creates the same conditions as when the ice melts beneath the surface and allows us to determine the acqueous chemistry of the soils. Acidity, redox potential, and salt content are all acquired giving us the first idea of what the biological potential of this habitat might be. Microscopes examine the grain structures and the thermal and electrical conductivity of the soil is examined with a special probe on the scoop. A Canadian MET station uses a lidar to measure the depth of the boundary layer and also pressure and temperature throughout

  9. American Flag and Mini-DVD Attached to Deck of Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, released on Memorial Day, May 26, 2008, shows the American flag and a mini-DVD on the Phoenix's deck, which is about 3 ft. above the Martian surface. The mini-DVD from the Planetary Society contains a message to future Martian explorers, science fiction stories and art inspired by the Red Planet, and the names of more than a quarter million earthlings.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Animation of the Phoenix Cluster

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows how large numbers of stars form in the Phoenix Cluster. It begins by showing several galaxies in the cluster and hot gas (in red). This hot gas contains more normal matter than...

  11. View from Above of Phoenix's Stowed Robotic Arm Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This artist's animation of an imaginary camera zooming in from above shows the location of the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander as it acquires an image of the scoop at the end of the arm. Located just beneath the Robotic Arm Camera lens, the scoop is folded in the stowed position, with its open end facing the Robotic Arm Camera.

    The last frame in the animation shows the first image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera, one day after Phoenix landed on Mars. In the center of the image is the robotic scoop the lander will use to dig into the surface, collect samples and touch water ice on Mars for the first time. The scoop is in the stowed position, awaiting deployment of the robotic arm.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. The PHOENIX Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Takahashi, H.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Slovik, G.C.; Horak, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    A proposed means of transmuting key long-lived radioactive isotopes, primarily the so-called minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm), using a hybrid proton-accelerator-sub-critical lattice, is described. It is argued that by partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, that some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. If spent fuel partitioning and transmutation were fully implemented, the time required to reduce the waste stream toxicity below that of uranium ore would be reduced from more than 10,000 years to approximately 30 years. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and much of the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW{sub e}. 14 refs., 29 figs.

  13. Phoenix Telemetry Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Phxtelemproc is a C/C++ based telemetry processing program that processes SFDU telemetry packets from the Telemetry Data System (TDS). It generates Experiment Data Records (EDRs) for several instruments including surface stereo imager (SSI); robotic arm camera (RAC); robotic arm (RA); microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer (MECA); and the optical microscope (OM). It processes both uncompressed and compressed telemetry, and incorporates unique subroutines for the following compression algorithms: JPEG Arithmetic, JPEG Huffman, Rice, LUT3, RA, and SX4. This program was in the critical path for the daily command cycle of the Phoenix mission. The products generated by this program were part of the RA commanding process, as well as the SSI, RAC, OM, and MECA image and science analysis process. Its output products were used to advance science of the near polar regions of Mars, and were used to prove that water is found in abundance there. Phxtelemproc is part of the MIPL (Multi-mission Image Processing Laboratory) system. This software produced Level 1 products used to analyze images returned by in situ spacecraft. It ultimately assisted in operations, planning, commanding, science, and outreach.

  14. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground in the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. North is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible just north of the lander.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a vertical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Arizona Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... the second largest fire in Arizona history. More than 2,000 people are working to contain the fire, which is being driven by high winds and ... bright desert background. The areas with no data (shown in black and present at the oblique angles) are locations where the variable ...

  17. Storage opportunities in Arizona bedded evaporites

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Rauzi, S.L.

    1996-10-01

    Arizona is endowed with incredibly diverse natural beauty, and has also been blessed with at least seven discrete deposits of bedded salt. These deposits are dispersed around the state and cover some 2, 500 square miles; they currently contain 14 LPG storage caverns, with preliminary plans for more in the future. The areal extent and thickness of the deposits creates the opportunity for greatly expanded storage of LPG, natural gas, and compressed air energy storage (CAES). The location of salt deposits near Tucson and Phoenix may make CAES an attractive prospect in the future. The diversity of both locations and evaporate characteristics allows for much tailoring of individual operations to meet specific requirements.

  18. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system in the…

  19. STREAMS (POLYGON FEATURES) FOR THE FORT MCDOWELL INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streams (polygon features) coverage showing some double line rivers and river islands on the Fort McDowell Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  20. STREAMS (POLYGON FEATURES) COVERAGE FOR THE FORT MOJAVE INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streams (polygon features) coverage showing some double line rivers and river islands on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  1. Declining Sunshine for Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The yellow line on this graphic indicates the number of hours of sunlight each sol, or Martian day, at the Phoenix landing site's far-northern latitude, beginning with the entire Martian day (about 24 hours and 40 minutes) for the first 90 sols, then declining to no sunlight by about sol 300. The blue tick mark indicates that on Sol 124 (Sept. 29, 2008), the sun is above the horizon for about 20 hours.

    The brown vertical bar represents the period from Nov. 18 to Dec. 24, 2008, around the 'solar conjunction,' when the sun is close to the line between Mars and Earth, affecting communications.

    The green vertical rectangle represents the period from February to November 2009 when the Phoenix lander is expected to be encased in carbon-dioxide ice.

  2. Stakeholder Views on the Roles, Challenges, and Future Prospects of Korean and Chinese Heritage Language-Community Language Schools in Phoenix: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun; Liu, Na

    2011-01-01

    This study examines stakeholders' perspectives on Korean and Chinese heritage language and community language (HL-CL) schools and education in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, Arizona. It investigates and compares the roles, major challenges, and future prospects of Korean and Chinese HL-CL schools as viewed by principals, teachers, and parents. To…

  3. Phoenix Lander Self Portrait on Mars, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines hundreds of exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm appears cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench.

    The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench.

    This image is presented in approximately true color.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. After Rasping by Phoenix in 'Snow White' Trench, Sol 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used the motorized rasp on the back of its robotic arm scoop during the mission's 60th Martian day, or sol, (July 26, 2008) to penetrate a hard layer at the bottom of a trench informally called 'Snow White.' This view, taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager and presented in approximately true color, shows the trench later the same sol.

    Most of the 16 holes left by a four-by-four array of rasp placements are visible in the central area of the image.

    A total 3 cubic centimeters, or about half a teaspoon, of material was collected in the scoop. Material in the scoop was collected both by the turning rasp, which threw material into the scoop through an opening at the back of the scoop, and by the scoop's front blade, which was run over the rasped area to pick up more shavings.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Martian Sunrise at Phoenix Landing Site, Sol 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This sequence of nine images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the sun rising on the morning of the lander's 101st Martian day after landing.

    The images were taken on Sept. 5, 2008. The local solar times at the landing site for the nine images were between 1:23 a.m. and 1:41 a.m.

    The landing site is on far-northern Mars, and the mission started in late northern spring. For nearly the entire first 90 Martian days of the mission, the sun never set below the horizon. As the amount of sunshine each day declined steadily after that, so has the amount of electricity available for the solar-powered spacecraft.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Martian Soil Delivery to Analytical Instrument on Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander released a sample of Martian soil onto a screened opening of the lander's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) during the 12th Martian day, or sol, since landing (June 6, 2008). TEGA did not confirm that any of the sample had passed through the screen.

    The Robotic Arm Camera took this image on Sol 12. Soil from the sample delivery is visible on the sloped surface of TEGA, which has a series of parallel doors. The two doors for the targeted cell of TEGA are the one positioned vertically, at far right, and the one partially open just to the left of that one. The soil between those two doors is resting on a screen designed to let fine particles through while keeping bigger ones Efrom clogging the interior of the instrument. Each door is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix Conductivity Probe after Extraction from Martian Soil on Sol 99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 after the probe was lifted away from the soil. This imaging served as a check of whether soil had stuck to the needles.

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Results from the Phoenix Urban Heat Island (UHI) experiment: effects at the local, neighbourhood and urban scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sabatino, S.; Leo, L. S.; Hedquist, B. C.; Carter, W.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2009-04-01

    in terms of local buoyancy fluxes and possible wind flow modifications by such thermally driven flows will be elucidated. The results are of consequence for understanding microclimate of large cities in order to derive urbanizations schemes for numerical models and to set-up suitable heat mitigation strategies. REFERENCES Brazel, AJ, Gober, P., Lee, S., Grossman-Clarke, S., Zehnder, J., Hedquist, B. and Comparri, E 2007: Dynamics and determinants of urban heat island change (1990-2004) with Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Climate Research 33, 171-182. Di Sabatino S, Hedquist BC, Carter W, Leo LS, Fernando HJS. 2009. Phoenix urban heat island experiment: effects of built elements. Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium on the Urban Environment, Phoenix, Arizona. Emmanuel, R. and Fernando HJS 2007: Effects of urban form and thermal properties in urban heat island mitigation in hot humid and hot arid climates: The cases of Colombo, Sri Lanka and Phoenix, USA. Climate Research 34, 241-251. Golden JS. 2004. The built environment induced urban heat island in rapidly urbanizing arid regions: a sustainable urban engineering complexity. Environmental Sciences 1(4):321-349. Hedquist, BC, Brazel, AJ, Di Sabatino, S., Carter, W. and Fernando, HJS 2009: Phoenix urban heat island experiment: micrometeorological aspects. Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium on the Urban Environment, Phoenix, Arizona.

  10. Closing the Classroom Door and the Achievement Gap: Teach for America Alumni Teachers' Appropriation of Arizona Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineke, Amy J.; Cameron, Quanna

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored Teach for America (TFA) alumni teachers' discourse on Arizona language policy, conducted with eight teachers in the Phoenix metropolitan area who received their professional teacher preparation from TFA, a national organization that uses alternative paths to certification to place teachers in low-income schools.…

  11. 20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. This adobe building, housing the Phoenix Herald in 1879, stood on the site later occupied by the Stroud Building. The Salt River Herald, Phoenix's first newspaper, was founded in 1878; in 1879, it became the Phoenix Herald. Prior to 1879, the adobe building served as the office for a stagecoach line operating between Maricopa and Prescott via Phoenix. Credit PPL. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Phoenix - The First Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. On May 25, 2008 Phoenix conducted the first successful powered decent on Mars in over 30 years. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2008 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as performance through cruise, landing at the north pole of Mars and some of the preliminary results of the surface mission.

  13. Innovative science experiments using Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. P. Ajith; Satyanarayana, V. V. V.; Singh, Kundan; Singh, Parmanand

    2009-09-01

    A simple, flexible and very low cost hardware plus software framework for developing computer-interfaced science experiments is presented. It can be used for developing computer-interfaced science experiments without getting into the details of electronics or computer programming. For developing experiments this is a middle path between push-button systems and the develop-from-scratch approach. Emphasis is on leveraging the power of personal computers for experiment control, data acquisition and the mathematical analysis of data. The language 'Python' is chosen for data acquisition and analysis. This article explains the architecture of Phoenix (Physics with Home-made Equipment and Innovative Experiments) along with some sample experiments. The hardware design is open and the project is totally based on free software.

  14. Astronaut Alvin Drew Speaks With Phoenix Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA astronaut Alvin Drew participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Monterey Park in Phoenix. The DLN c...

  15. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Vertical Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above.

    The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The height of the lander's meteorology mast, extending toward the southwest, appears exaggerated because that mast is taller than the camera mast.

    This view in approximately true color covers an area about 30 meters by 30 meters (about 100 feet by 100 feet). The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Lander Deck and Landing Site on Northern Mars, Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    This view combines more than 500 images taken after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    This movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image including the landscape and the spacecraft's science deck.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Polar Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. South is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the lower half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a polar projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Mission Success Pan Click on image to view the movie

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars.

    The movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image.

    The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama.

    This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ) to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1) SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2) AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3) SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated) to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8) [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10-30% relative to Control experiments). [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone) near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern California

  1. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of Southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem control simulations, based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2005 National Emissions Inventories (NEI05), are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOX, and wind fields, the control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are comparable with the previous studies in this region. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ) to ozone exceedances within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1) SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2) AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3) SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated) to account only for Biogenic emissions and lateral boundary inflow (BILB). Based on the USEPA NEI05, results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8) [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10-30 % relative to Control experiments). [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BILB contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone) near the Southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the Southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass

  2. Application of remote sensing techniques for identification of irrigated crop lands in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    Satellite imagery was used in a project developed to demonstrate remote sensing methods of determining irrigated acreage in Arizona. The Maricopa water district, west of Phoenix, was chosen as the test area. Band rationing and unsupervised categorization were used to perform the inventory. For both techniques the irrigation district boundaries and section lines were digitized and calculated and displayed by section. Both estimation techniques were quite accurate in estimating irrigated acreage in the 1979 growing season.

  3. Abell 1033: birth of a radio phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gasperin, F.; Ogrean, G. A.; van Weeren, R. J.; Dawson, W. A.; Brüggen, M.; Bonafede, A.; Simionescu, A.

    2015-04-01

    Extended steep-spectrum radio emission in a galaxy cluster is usually associated with a recent merger. However, given the complex scenario of galaxy cluster mergers, many of the discovered sources hardly fit into the strict boundaries of a precise taxonomy. This is especially true for radio phoenixes that do not have very well defined observational criteria. Radio phoenixes are aged radio galaxy lobes whose emission is reactivated by compression or other mechanisms. Here, we present the detection of a radio phoenix close to the moment of its formation. The source is located in Abell 1033, a peculiar galaxy cluster which underwent a recent merger. To support our claim, we present unpublished Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and Chandra observations together with archival data from the Very Large Array and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We discover the presence of two subclusters displaced along the N-S direction. The two subclusters probably underwent a recent merger which is the cause of a moderately perturbed X-ray brightness distribution. A steep-spectrum extended radio source very close to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is proposed to be a newly born radio phoenix: the AGN lobes have been displaced/compressed by shocks formed during the merger event. This scenario explains the source location, morphology, spectral index, and brightness. Finally, we show evidence of a density discontinuity close to the radio phoenix and discuss the consequences of its presence.

  4. Arizona Adult Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Adult education standards are the cornerstone for quality teaching, quality learning, and quality lives. The Arizona Adult Education Standards Initiative (Standards Initiative) represents a proactive effort by Arizona's adult education community to ensure rigor and consistency in program content and student outcomes for adult learners throughout…

  5. Arizona Charter Schools Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This handbook provides information and materials to assist applicants in preparing an application to establish a charter school in Arizona. The topics discussed reflect the technical requirements of Arizona's charter-school legislation. It does not necessarily reflect the selection requirements or the policies of the State Board of Education, the…

  6. Urban effects on regional climate: a case study in the Phoenix and Tucson ‘sun’ corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao Yang; Francina Dominguez; Hoshin Gupta; Xubin Zeng; Norman, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) due to urban expansion alter the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban regions is different from that of natural surfaces. To evaluate the changes in regional climate that could arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, Arizona, we applied the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM (which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme) to this region. Land cover changes were represented using land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050, and historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data were used to specify the lateral boundary conditions. Results suggest that temperature changes will be well defined, reflecting the urban heat island (UHI) effect within areas experiencing LULCC. Changes in precipitation are less robust, but seem to indicate reductions in precipitation over the mountainous regions northeast of Phoenix and decreased evening precipitation over the newly-urbanized area.

  7. Pima Central School and Blackwater School, Sacaton, Arizona. The National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 22. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christine; Havighurst, Robert J.

    As part of the Final Report of the National Study of American Indian Education, this background study provides information on the Pima Central and Blackwater schools on the Gila River reservation south of Phoenix, Arizona. Socioeconomic and community background data are given on location and climate, transportation, government, housing, and…

  8. Sulfur Mineralogy at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R.V.; Golden, D.C.; Sutter, B.; Clark, B.C.; Boynton, W.V.; Hecht, M.H.; Kounaves, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout mission landed at the northernmost location (approx.68deg N) of any lander or rover on the martian surface. This paper compares the S mineralogy at the Phoenix landing site with S mineralogy of soils studied by previous Mars landers. S-bearing phases were not directly detected by the payload onboard the Phoenix spacecraft. Our objective is to derive the possible mineralogy of S-bearing phases at the Phoenix landing site based upon Phoenix measurements in combination with orbital measurements, terrestrial analog and Martian meteorite studies, and telescopic observations.

  9. Phoenix Award Winners: Books Worth Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Kathy

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Phoenix Award, which honors children's books which did not receive an award at publication (20 years in the past), but have withstood the test of time. Presents an annotated bibliography of winning titles under the categories of: Fantasy/Science Fiction; Historical Fiction (British, Depression Era, World War II, Other Wars, Other…

  10. Phoenix College Institutional Effectiveness, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Coll., AZ.

    This report presents Phoenix College's (PC's) 1999-2000 institutional effectiveness annual report. The 1998-99 academic year was most notable for an important upswing in enrollment, the opening of the Fannin Library, and a continued increase in the diversity of students. Enrollment increases were noted in both fall and spring semesters, with a…

  11. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  12. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative, Phase II Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Kornreich, Toby; Klym, Mark; Leland, Karen

    In 1996, drawing from religious, educational, social services, media, neighborhoods, nonprofits, and health-providing sectors of the community, the Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative (PVPI) was conceived. During Phase One of the initiative, the following seven points regarding prevention and prevention design strategies were assembled: (1)…

  13. ARIZONA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Arizona. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. A...

  14. Replacing Arizona's Roofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Arizona statewide mandate to spend $500 million to repair or replace roofs in its public school system. Data from the state's evaluation process are provided, including how the state will fund the project. (GR)

  15. Clayheads in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Thorne Erwin

    1990-01-01

    Describes how junior high school students in Arizona combine what they have learned in ceramic history class with ceramic production skills to create their own personal ceramic heads in their images. (KM)

  16. Floods of November 1978 to March 1979 in Arizona and west-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, B.N.; Hales, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Widespread rainfall of 3 to 9 inches in the mountains area of Arizona and West-Central New Mexico during December 17-20, 1978, caused maximum known discharges on the Gila River in New Mexico and on several streams in Arizona. At Phoenix, the Salt River was the highest since 1920 but was only slightly higher than the flood in March 1978. The Agua Fria River was the highest since 1919. The floods caused 12 deaths and more than $150 million in damage. Damage of $51.8 million occurred in Maricopa County, Arizona. Ten counties in Arizona and three counties in New Mexico wer declared disaster areas. Unusually high volumes of runoff occurred on the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers upstream from reservoirs. Overflow from the reservoir systems caused flooding downstream. Storage in the reservoirs on the Salt and Verde River reduced the peak discharge of the Salt River at Phoenix from a potential of about 234,000 cubic feet per second to 126,00 cubic feet per second and greatly reduced the duration of the flood. (USGS)

  17. Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    The Phoenix mission's key objective was to search for a habitable zone. The Phoenix lander carried a robotic arm with digging scoop to collect soil and icy material for analysis with an instrument payload that included volatile mineral and organic analysis(3) and soil ionic chemistry analysis (4). Results from Phoenix along with theoretical modeling and other previous mission results were used to evaluate the habitability of the landing site by considering four factors that characterize the environments ability to support life as we know it: the presence of liquid water, the presence of an energy source to support metabolism, the presence of nutrients containing the fundamental building blocks of life, and the absence of environmental conditions that are toxic to or preclude life. Phoenix observational evidence for the presence of liquid water (past or present) includes clean segregated ice, chemical etching of soil grains, calcite minerals in the soil and variable concentrations of soluble salts5. The maximum surface temperature measured was 260K so unfrozen water can form only in adsorbed films or saline brines but warmer climates occur cyclically on geologically short time scales due to variations in orbital parameters. During high obliquity periods, temperatures allowing metabolism extend nearly a meter into the subsurface. Phoenix discovered 1%w/w perchlorate salt in the soil, a chemical energy source utilized by a wide range of microbes. Nutrient sources including C, H, N, O, P and S compounds are supplied by known atmospheric sources or global dust. Environmental conditions are within growth tolerance for terrestrial microbes. Summer daytime temperatures are sufficient for metabolic activity, the pH is 7.8 and is well buffered and the projected water activity of a wet soil will allow growth. In summary, martian permafrost in the north polar region is a viable location for modern life. Stoker et al. presented a formalism for comparing the habitability of

  18. Phoenix - the First Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2006 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as activities, challenges and problems encountered on the way to the launch pad. Phoenix Follows the water responding directly to the recently published data from Dr. William Boynton, PI (and Phoenix co-I) of the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). GRS data indicate extremely large quantities of water ice (up to 50% by mass) within the upper 50 cm of the northern polar regolith. Phoenix will land within the north polar region at 68.2 N, 233.4 W identified by GRS to harbor near surface water ice and provide in-situ confirmation of this extraordinary find. Our mission will investigate water in all its phases, and will investigate the history of water as evidenced in the soil characteristics that will be carefully examined by the powerful suite of onboard instrumentation. Access to the critical subsurface region expected to contain this information is made possible by a third generation robotic arm capable of excavating the expected Martian regolith to a depth of 1m. Phoenix has four primary science objectives: 1) Determine the polar climate and weather, interaction with the surface, and composition of the lower atmosphere around 70 N for at least 90 sols focusing on water, ice, dust, noble gases, and CO2. Determine the atmospheric characteristics during descent through the atmosphere. 2) Characterize the geomorphology and active processes shaping the northern plains and the physical properties of the near surface regolith focusing on the role of water. 3) Determine the aqueous mineralogy and chemistry as well as the adsorbed gases and organic content of the regolith. Verify the Odyssey

  19. Astronomical research at the Hopkins PHOENIX Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J. L.

    1985-09-01

    After trying astrophotography and radio astronomy it was decided that the best way to do meaningful astronomical research at a small private observatory was by doing photoelectric photometry. Having the observatory located in the back yard of a private residence affors the luxury of observing any time the sky conditions permit. Also modest equipment is all that is needed to do accurate UBV photometry of stars 8th magnitude and brighter. Since beginning in 1980 the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has published papers on several RS CVn star systems, 31 Cygni, 22 Vul, 18 Tau Per, and has followed the 1982-1984 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae from its start to the present with over 1000 UBV measurements. In addition the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has developed several pieces of photometry equipment including the HPO PEPH-101 photometer head and photon counting electronics.

  20. Phoenix--the first Mars Scout mission.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the first of a new series of missions to augment the current Mars Program. In addition to the systematic series of planned, directed missions currently comprising the Mars Program plan, NASA has started a series of Mars Scout missions that are low cost, price fixed, Principal [correction of Principle] Investigator-led projects. These missions are intended to provide an avenue for rapid response to discoveries made as a result of the primary Mars missions, as well as allow more risky technologies and approaches to be applied in the investigation of Mars. The first in this new series is the Phoenix mission which was selected as part of a highly competitive process. Phoenix will use the Mars 2001 Lander that was discontinued in 2000 and apply a new set of science objectives and mission objectives and will validate this soft lander architecture for future applications. This paper will provide an overview of both the Program and the Project. PMID:16010756

  1. Trace-Gas Mixing in Isolated Urban Boundary Layers: Results from the 2001 Phoenix Sunrise Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Doran, J C.; Shaw, William J.; Springston, Stephen R.; Spicer, Chet W.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements made from surface sites, from the 50-m and 140-m levels (the 16th and 39th floors) of a skyscraper and from an instrumented aircraft are used to characterize early morning profiles of CO, NOy and O3 within the mid-morning summertime convective atmospheric boundary layer (CABL) over Phoenix, Arizona. Although mixing was anticipated to produce uniform values of these species throughout the CABL, this was found not to be the case. Background air advected into the upper levels of the boundary layer and entrained air from above appears to be the most likely cause for the lack of well-mixed trace gases. The results show that surface measurements may provide only limited information on concentrations of trace gas species higher in the boundary layer.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolism in field collected fish from the Gila River, Arizona, USA--levels, possible sources, and patterns.

    PubMed

    Echols, Kathy R; Peterman, Paul H; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Orazio, Carl E

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in fish collected from the Gila River, Arizona, a tributary of the Colorado River in the lower part of the Colorado River Basin. Fish samples were collected at sites on the Gila River downstream from Hayden, Phoenix, and Arlington, Arizona in late summer 2003. The Gila River is ephemeral upstream of the Phoenix urban area due to dams and irrigation projects and has limited perennial flow downstream of Phoenix due to wastewater and irrigation return flows. Fifty PBDE congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry using labeled surrogate standards in composite samples of male and female common carp (Cyrpinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The predominant PBDE congeners detected and quantified were 47, 100, 153, 49, 28, and 17. Concentrations of total PBDEs in these fish ranged from 1.4 to 12700 ng g(-1) wet weight, which are some of the highest concentrations reported in fish from the United States. Differences in metabolism of several PBDE congeners by carp is clear at the Phoenix site; congeners with at least one ring of 2,4,5-substitution are preferentially metabolized as are congeners with 2,3,4-substitution. PMID:22939514

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolism in field collected fish from the Gila River, Arizona, USA-Levels, possible sources, and patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Peterman, Paul H.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Orazio, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in fish collected from the Gila River, Arizona, a tributary of the Colorado River in the lower part of the Colorado River Basin. Fish samples were collected at sites on the Gila River downstream from Hayden, Phoenix, and Arlington, Arizona in late summer 2003. The Gila River is ephemeral upstream of the Phoenix urban area due to dams and irrigation projects and has limited perennial flow downstream of Phoenix due to wastewater and irrigation return flows. Fifty PBDE congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry using labeled surrogate standards in composite samples of male and female common carp (Cyrpinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The predominant PBDE congeners detected and quantified were 47, 100, 153, 49, 28, and 17. Concentrations of total PBDEs in these fish ranged from 1.4 to 12700 ng g-1 wet weight, which are some of the highest concentrations reported in fish from the United States. Differences in metabolism of several PBDE congeners by carp is clear at the Phoenix site; congeners with at least one ring of 2,4,5-substitution are preferentially metabolized as are congeners with 2,3,4-substitution.

  4. Maps Showing Ground-Water Conditions in the San Francisco Peaks Area, Coconino County, Arizona - 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appel, Cynthia L.; Bills, Donald J.

    1981-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The San Francisco Peaks area includes about 2,300 mi2, of which about 500 mi2 is in the Navajo Indian Reservation, in north-central Arizona. Ground-water development has been slight except for the public-supply wells for Flagstaff and domestic wells in Fort Valley, Pitman Valley, and the area west of Elden Mountain. The public water supply for Flagstaff is primarily from Upper Lake Mary but is supplemented by ground water from wells near Woody Mountain and Lower Lake Mary and from wells and springs in the Inner Basin. In 1978 about 2,000 acre-ft of ground water was withdrawn for public, industrial, domestic, and stock supplies in the San Francisco Peaks area. The hydrologic data on which these maps are based are available, for the most part, in computer-printout form and may be consulted at the Arizona Department of Water Resources, 99 East Virginia, Phoenix, and at U.S. Geological Survey offices in: Federal Building, 301 West Congress Street, Tucson; Valley Center, Suite 1880, Phoenix; and 2255 North Gemini Drive, Building 3, Flagstaff. Material from which copies can be made at private expense is available at the Tucson, Phoenix, and Flagstaff offices of the U.S. Geological Survey. Only the springs for which discharge data are available are shown on the maps, and only selected wells are shown in areas of high well density.

  5. A biometeorology study of climate and heat-related morbidity in Phoenix from 2001 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Jay S.; Hartz, Donna; Brazel, Anthony; Luber, George; Phelan, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    Heat waves kill more people in the United States than hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods combined. Recently, international attention focused on the linkages and impacts of human health vulnerability to urban climate when Western Europe experienced over 30,000 excess deaths during the heat waves of the summer of 2003—surpassing the 1995 heat wave in Chicago, Illinois, that killed 739. While Europe dealt with heat waves, in the United States, Phoenix, Arizona, established a new all-time high minimum temperature for the region on July 15, 2003. The low temperature of 35.5°C (96°F) was recorded, breaking the previous all-time high minimum temperature record of 33.8°C (93°F). While an extensive literature on heat-related mortality exists, greater understanding of influences of heat-related morbidity is required due to climate change and rapid urbanization influences. We undertook an analysis of 6 years (2001 2006) of heat-related dispatches through the Phoenix Fire Department regional dispatch center to examine temporal, climatic and other non-spatial influences contributing to high-heat-related medical dispatch events. The findings identified that there were no significant variations in day-of-week dispatch events. The greatest incidence of heat-related medical dispatches occurred between the times of peak solar irradiance and maximum diurnal temperature, and during times of elevated human comfort indices (combined temperature and relative humidity).

  6. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench.

    The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench.

    This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost.

    The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Lessons Learned from the Arizona Galileoscope Star Party Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, R. T.; Dugan, C.; Walker, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory has joined together multiple audiences in various communities to conduct outreach using Galileoscopes. The audience consists of 5th grade students and teachers, their families and friends, and anyone else who wants to attend a special star party led by students using Galileoscopes. However, across one community there are many subcultures that one should be responsive to in the program design. The program model, which has been independently evaluated, combines professional development and classroom visits by NOAO education practitioners with the goal of a community star party. We have conducted the program in several mid-sized Arizona cities after an initial prototype star party held near the state capitol building in Phoenix. In this program, with Galileoscopes purchased with funding from Science Foundation Arizona, we have now held Galileoscope star parties in Flagstaff, Safford, and Globe, with two programs in Yuma, Arizona. We will discuss planning efforts, professional development plans and lessons learned, and specific logistical issues that have arisen in the program. Although the professional development component for teachers is rather traditional, the overall lessons learned are applicable to many astronomy programs for non-traditional audiences.

  8. Arizona's Community Colleges in 2010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Don

    This report provides a vision of what community colleges in Arizona, and elsewhere, may look like in 2010. The observations are based on the results of a meeting held by the Committee on the Future of Arizona Community Colleges, on reading and conversations related to the work of Arizona Learning Systems, and the paper's general observations of…

  9. Flight Testing and Test Instrumentation of PHOENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janovsky, R.; Behr, R.

    2005-02-01

    Within the frame of the German national ASTRA program, the need for in-flight experimentation as a key element in the development of the next generation launcher was addressed by the Phoenix project. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle was designed to demonstrate the un-powered horizontal landing of a representative, winged RLV configuration. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle is downscaled from the reference RLV shape "Hopper", with the dimensions of 7.8m overall length, 3.8m span, and 1200kg mass. In order to be representative of a full scale RLV, the scaling method preserves all features challenging the automatic landing from the flight control point of view. These are in particular the poor flying qualities of the static unstable vehicle and the high landing velocity of 71m/s, which is same as for the full scale vehicle. The landing demonstration scenario comprises a drop from the helicopter approximately 6km ahead of the runway threshold at 2.4km above runway level. The subsequent free flight includes an accelerating dive to merge with a steep final approach path representative of an RLV, followed by a long flare, touch down on the runway, and rollout to standstill. Besides its mandatory avionics system, the vehicle is also equipped with an additional flight test instrumentation to identify local aerodynamic flow and structural stress. This FTI system is designed to collect data by recording about 130 sensor signals during flight. This test instrumentation system was operated during a test campaign dedicated to verify the aerodynamic data base of Phoenix in the Dutch-German Wind-tunnel (DNW) in August 2003 and during three automatic landing flight tests after helicopter drop in May 2004. Post flight analysis of these data allows to validate the design models and the development tools in order to establish a flight validated data base for future work. This paper gives an overview on the Phoenix system including the flight test instrumentation, the test program and

  10. Overview of the Arizona Quiet Pavement Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donavan, Paul; Scofield, Larry

    2005-09-01

    The Arizona Quiet Pavement Pilot Program (QP3) was initially implemented to reduce highway related traffic noise by overlaying most of the Phoenix metropolitan area Portland cement concrete pavement with a one inch thick asphalt rubber friction coarse. With FHWA support, this program represents the first time that pavement surface type has been allowed as a noise mitigation strategy on federally funded projects. As a condition of using pavement type as a noise mitigation strategy, ADOT developed a ten-year, $3.8 million research program to evaluate the noise reduction performance over time. Historically, pavement surface type was not considered a permanent solution. As a result, the research program was designed to specifically address this issue. Noise performance is being evaluated through three means: (1) conventional roadside testing within the roadway corridor (e.g., far field measurements within the right-of-way) (2) the use of near field measurements, both close proximity (CPX) and sound intensity (SI); and (3) far field measurements obtained beyond the noise barriers within the surrounding neighborhoods. This paper provides an overview of the program development, presents the research conducted to support the decision to overlay the urban freeway, and the status of current research.

  11. Arizona's Application Service Provider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Darla

    2002-01-01

    Describes the U.S.'s first statewide K-12 application service provider (ASP). The ASP, implemented by the Arizona School Facilities Board, provides access to productivity, communications, and education software programs from any Internet-enabled device, whether in the classroom or home. (EV)

  12. Arizona State University. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory R.

    This report discusses how the Arizona Board of Regents, which has governing authority over the state's three public universities, dealt with the inability of the universities to respond to new societal needs in a timely manner; a major impediment was felt to be tenure. After a series of meetings of administrators and faculty leaders, the Board…

  13. Arizona's School Asbestos Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Mike L.

    1982-01-01

    The state of Arizona Department of Education operates a successful program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from schools, drawing from the expertise of the Department of Health Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation, Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school officials. Includes an asbestos…

  14. Workforce Brief: Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In Arizona, one of the country's fastest growing states, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2013, healthcare occupations will see growth of 50 percent. Almost 1,800 dentists will need to be hired to fill new posts and to cover retirement, for example. Teachers will be…

  15. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Pima, Papago, Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Cocopah, Havasupai, Hualapai, Yavapai, and Paiute Indian tribes of Arizona are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, housing, employment, and economic development taking place on the…

  16. Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);…

  17. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

  18. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  19. Phosphorus in Phoenix: a budget and spatial representation of phosphorus in an urban ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Hale, Rebecca L; Iwaniec, David M; Cook, Elizabeth M; Corman, Jessica R; Galletti, Christopher S; Childers, Daniel L

    2012-03-01

    As urban environments dominate the landscape, we need to examine how limiting nutrients such as phosphorus (P) cycle in these novel ecosystems. Sustainable management of P resources is necessary to ensure global food security and to minimize freshwater pollution. We used a spatially explicit budget to quantify the pools and fluxes of P in the Greater Phoenix Area in Arizona, USA, using the boundaries of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research site. Inputs were dominated by direct imports of food and fertilizer for local agriculture, while most outputs were small, including water, crops, and material destined for recycling. Internally, fluxes were dominated by transfers of food and feed from local agriculture and the recycling of human and animal excretion. Spatial correction of P dynamics across the city showed that human density and associated infrastructure, especially asphalt, dominated the distribution of P pools across the landscape. Phosphorus fluxes were dominated by agricultural production, with agricultural soils accumulating P. Human features (infrastructure, technology, and waste management decisions) and biophysical characteristics (soil properties, water fluxes, and storage) mediated P dynamics in Phoenix. P cycling was most notably affected by water management practices that conserve and recycle water, preventing the loss of waterborne P from the ecosystem. P is not intentionally managed, and as a result, changes in land use and demographics, particularly increased urbanization and declining agriculture, may lead to increased losses of P from this system. We suggest that city managers should minimize cross-boundary fluxes of P to the city. Reduced P fluxes may be accomplished through more efficient recycling of waste, therefore decreasing dependence on external nonrenewable P resources and minimizing aquatic pollution. Our spatial approach and consideration of both pools and fluxes across a heterogeneous urban ecosystem increases the

  20. Program Description for the Phoenix Reception and Assessment Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datema, Thea; And Others

    Phoenix Reception and Assessment Center (PRAC) is a non-secure detention and assessment center for up to 15 Wayne County delinquent, adolescent males who have been committed to the Michigan Department of Social Services for care, treatment and supervision. Adolescents, ages 12 through 18, are eligible for placement at Phoenix according to the…

  1. University of Phoenix Lets Students Find Answers Virtually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about a software designed by the University of Phoenix for its business, information-technology, education, and health-care courses. Through the university's "virtual organizations"--online teaching tools designed to simulate the experience of working at a typical corporation, school, or government agency, Phoenix students can…

  2. Winds at the Phoenix landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Merrison, J. P.; Bean, K. M.; Cantor, B. A.; Davis, J. A.; Davy, R.; Drake, N. B.; Ellehoj, M. D.; Goetz, W.; Hviid, S. F.; Lange, C. F.; Larsen, S. E.; Lemmon, M. T.; Madsen, M. B.; Malin, M.; Moores, J. E.; Nørnberg, P.; Smith, P.; Tamppari, L. K.; Taylor, P. A.

    2010-05-01

    Wind speeds and directions were measured on the Phoenix Lander by a mechanical anemometer, the so-called Telltale wind indicator. Analysis of images of the instrument taken with the onboard imager allowed for evaluation of wind speeds and directions. Daily characteristics of the wind data are highly turbulent behavior during midday due to daytime turbulence with more stable conditions during nighttime. From Ls ˜77°-123° winds were generally ˜4 m s-1 from the east, with 360° rotation during midday. From Ls ˜123°-148° daytime wind speeds increased to an average of 6-10 m s-1 and were generally from the west. The highest wind speed recorded was 16 m s-1 seen on Ls ˜147°. Estimates of the surface roughness height are calculated from the smearing of the Kapton part of the Telltale during image exposure due to a 3 Hz turbulence and nighttime wind variability. These estimates yield 6 ± 3 mm and 5 ± 3 mm, respectively. The Telltale wind data are used to suggest that Heimdal crater is a source of nighttime temperature fluctuations. Deviations between temperatures measured at various heights are explained as being due to winds passing over the Phoenix Lander. Events concerning sample delivery and frost formation are described and discussed. Two different mechanisms of dust lifting affecting the Phoenix site are proposed based on observations made with Mars Color Imager on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Telltale. The first is related to evaporation of the seasonal CO2 ice and is observed up to Ls ˜95°. These events are not associated with increased wind speeds. The second mechanism is observed after Ls ˜111° and is related to the passing of weather systems characterized by condensate clouds in orbital images and higher wind speeds as measured with the Telltale.

  3. Chemistry Lab for Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The science payload of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander includes a multi-tool instrument named the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The instrument's wet chemistry laboratory, prominent in this photograph, will measure a range of chemical properties of Martian soil samples, such as the presence of dissolved salts and the level of acidity or alkalinity. Other tools that are parts of the instrument are microscopes that will examine samples' mineral grains and a probe that will check the soil's thermal and electrical properties.

  4. Microscopes for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    One part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer instrument for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is a pair of telescopes with a special wheel (on the right in this photograph) for presenting samples to be inspected with the microscopes. A horizontally mounted optical microscope (on the left in this photograph) and an atomic force microscope will examine soil particles and possibly ice particles.

    The shapes and the size distributions of soil particles may tell scientists about environmental conditions the material has experienced. Tumbling rounds the edges. Repeated wetting and freezing causes cracking. Clay minerals formed during long exposure to water have distinctive, platy particles shapes.

  5. The Virtual Arizona Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Davis, R.; Conway, F. M.; Bellasai, R.

    2012-12-01

    To commemorate the once-in-a-lifetime event of Arizona's hundredth birthday, the Centennial Commission and the Governor of Arizona envisioned a museum and companion website that would capture the state's history, celebrate its people, and embrace its future. Working with world-renowned museum designers, the state began to seek ideas from across Arizona to create plans for a journey of discovery through science and the humanities. The museum would introduce visitors to some of the people who nurtured the state through its early years and others who are innovating its tomorrows. Showcases would include the resources and experiences that shaped the state's history and are transforming its present day, highlighting the ingenuity that tamed the wild frontier and is envisioning Arizona's next frontiers through science and technology. The Arizona Experience (www.arizonaexperience.org) was initially intended to serve as the web presence for the physical museum, but as delays occurred with the physical museum, the site has quickly developed an identify of its own as an interactive, multimedia experience, reaching a wider audience with functions that would be difficult or expensive to produce in a museum. As leaders in scientific and technological innovation in the state, the Arizona Geological Survey was tasked with designing and creating the Arizona Experience site. The general themes remain the same; however, the site has added content and applications that are better suited to the online environment in order to create a rich, dynamic supplement to a physical museum experience. The website offers the features and displays of the future museum with the interactive nature and learning environment of the web. This provides an encyclopedic overview of the State of Arizona by subject matter experts in a manner that is free and open to the public and erases socio-economic, political, and physical boundaries. Over the Centennial Year of 2012 the site will release a new theme and

  6. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  7. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  8. PUSCH RIDGE WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Pusch Ridge Wilderness, located at the northern boundary of the city of Tucson, Arizona, offers little or no promise for the occurrence of energy resources. Only one area contains a probable potential for small, isolated contact-metamorphic deposits containing copper, molybdenum, tungsten, lead, and zinc. This area is located around the southwestern end of Pusch Ridge, adjacent to a residential area.

  9. RATTLESNAKE ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlstrom, Thor N.V.; McColly, Robert

    1984-01-01

    There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Arizona, as judged from field studies. Significant concentrations of minerals within the roadless area are not indicated by geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, or aeromagnetic studies. Basalt, volcanic cinders, sand and gravel, and sandstone that may be suitable for construction materials occur in the area, but are more readily accessible outside the roadless area boundary.

  10. Regional-scale influences on urban air quality : a field study in Phoenix, Arizona.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.

    1998-10-12

    Regional air quality can play an important role in determining whether urban ozone or PM-2.5 standards are exceeded. Background levels of nitrogen oxide species (NO{sub x}) and their interactions with natural organics can generate secondary aerosol products via formation of nitric acid and its subsequent reaction with ammonia to form ammonium nitrate. Natural organics and reactive anthropogenic organic compounds, particularly aromatic species and monoterpenes, can also lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols, contributing to the formation of PM-2.5. Long-range transport and chemical transformation of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} via both photochemical reactions and nighttime chemistry can yield significant regional levels of ozone and other oxidants, such as peroxyacyl nitrates (R-C=O-O-O-NO{sub 2}; PANs). The PANs are key species in determining the apparent age of an air parcel (Gaffney et al., 1989, 1993, 1997). The most common member of the family is peroxyacetyl nitrate (R=CH3-; PAN), which typically accounts for more than 85% of the PANs found in an urban or rural site. The PANs are in equilibrium with NO{sub 2}. Peroxyacyl radicals (R-C=O-O-O) are typically produced by the photooxidation reactions of organics, particularly those of aldehyde oxidation products with OH radical during the daytime (photochemically active) periods. Proposed mechanisms for nighttime formation of PANs (Gaffney et al., 1989) include abstraction reactions of nitrate radical (NO{sub 3}) and the initiation of OH chemistry by olefin-ozone reactions.

  11. 78 FR 24158 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 75-Phoenix, Arizona; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Production Activity; Orbital Sciences Corporation (Satellites and Spacecraft Launch Vehicles); Gilbert... satellites and spacecraft launch vehicles. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be limited to the... procedures that applies to satellites and spacecraft launch vehicles (free) for the foreign status...

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Mandalay Homes, Phoenix, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This builder built fourteen homes in the Gordon Estates subdivision that achieved Challenge Home certification with HERS 38–58 on an affordable budget for homeowners. Every Mandalay home in the development also met the National Green Building Standard gold level. The Gordon Estates subdivision is also serving as a showcase of energy efficiency, and Mandalay is hosting education workshops for realtors, state and local officials, other builders, students, potential homeowners, and the public. The builder won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the affordable builder category.

  13. 75 FR 17692 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75 -- Phoenix, Arizona, Application for Reorganization under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... alternative site framework (ASF) adopted by the Board (74 FR 1170, 1/12/09; correction 74 FR 3987, 1/22/09... Order 185, 47 FR 14931, 04/07/82), and was expanded on July 2, 1993 (Board Order 647, 58 FR 37907, 07/14/93), on February 27, 2008 (Board Order 1545, 73 FR 13531, 03/13/08), and on March 23, 2010...

  14. A School-Based Clinic for Elementary Schools in Phoenix, Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Mark

    1996-01-01

    A hospital, school district, and pediatrician collaboration ensured all elementary students access to health care. School nurses referred students without health insurance needing health care to hospital-provided nurse practitioners for primary care. The hospital provided pharmacy, radiology, laboratory, and emergency services. The pediatrician…

  15. 78 FR 27951 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 75-Phoenix, Arizona; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... card assemblies; ceramic capacitors; capacitors; aluminum electrolytic capacitors; ceramic, surface-mounted capacitors; mica capacitors; resistors; fixed-film resistors; linear variable- resistor...

  16. In situ spectroradiometric quantification of ERTS data. [Prescott and Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analyses of ERTS-1 photographic data were made to quantitatively relate ground reflectance measurements to photometric characteristics of the images. Digital image processing of photographic data resulted in a nomograph to correct for atmospheric effects over arid terrain. Optimum processing techniques to derive maximum geologic information from desert areas were established. Additive color techniques to provide quantitative measurements of surface water between different orbits were developed which were accepted as the standard flood mapping techniques using ERTS.

  17. 78 FR 56859 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Honeywell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... comment (78 FR 27951-27952, 05-13-2013). Based on the FTZ Board's determination in this proceeding, the... privileged foreign status (19 CFR 146.41) of the unwrought titanium-alloy input proposed for the...

  18. Phoenix: automatic science processing of ESO-VLT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuschik, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    ESO has implemented a process to automatically create science-grade data products and offer them to the scientific community, ready for scientific analysis. This process, called 'phoenix', is built on two main concepts: 1. a certification procedure for pipelines which includes a code review and, if necessary, upgrade; and 2. a certification procedure for calibrations which are processed into master calibrations, scored and trended. These master calibrations contain all information about the intrinsic instrumental variations and instabilities inevitable for ground-based telescopes. The phoenix process then automatically processes all science data using the certified pipeline and the certified master calibrations. Phoenix currently focuses on spectroscopic data. The first phoenix project has been the processing of all science data from UVES, ESO's high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the VLT. More than 100,000 Echelle spectra of point sources, from begin of operations (March 2000) until now, have been reduced and are available to the public from the ESO archive, http://archive.eso.org/cms/eso-data/eso-data-products.html. The phoenix process will also feed future UVES data into the archive. The second project has been X-SHOOTER slit spectroscopy which currently has more than 30,000 Echelle spectra from the UV to the infrared (up to 2.5μm). The phoenix process will be extended to other, mostly spectroscopic, instruments with certified pipelines, like FLAMES. Also, all future VLT instruments will be supported by phoenix.

  19. The 2001 Phoenix Sunrise experiment: vertical mixing and chemistry during the morning transition in Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, J. C.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Coulter, R. L.; Shaw, W. J.; Spicer, C. W.

    A field experiment was carried out in Phoenix during June 2001 to examine the role of vertical mixing on the O 3 chemistry of the boundary layer during the morning transition from stable to unstable atmospheric conditions. Surface instruments, instruments located on two floors of a 39 story building in downtown Phoenix, and an instrumented airplane were used to characterize the evolving chemistry in the lowest 650 m of the atmosphere. Remote sensing and in situ platforms were used to obtain detailed profiles of winds and temperatures during the early morning hours and for several hours after sunrise. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on vertical profiles of CO, O 3, and NO/NO y measured on the building and their relationship to the morning boundary layer evolution over Phoenix. Some features of these profiles were found that are consistent with a simple conceptual picture of nighttime trapping of pollutants in a stable surface layer and a subsequent release the following morning. On some days, however, evidence of significant vertical mixing was found during the early morning hours well before the times expected for the development of convective mixing after sunrise. Possible causes include advection, street canyon turbulence, and large-scale convergence, but a satisfactory explanation for the observed evolution of the chemical profiles has not yet been found.

  20. Shaping Arizona's Future: Head Start in Arizona. Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Ami; Walker, Laura

    The Arizona Head Start Association is a federation of public and private organizations that provide Head Start programs and work to improve the conditions of children in the state. This annual report describes the operation of the Head Start program in Arizona for 2000-2001. Beginning with an introductory letter from the president of the Arizona…

  1. Water at the Phoenix landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter Hollingsworth

    The Phoenix mission investigated patterned ground and climate in the northern arctic region of Mars for 5 months starting May 25, 2008. A shallow ice table was uncovered by the robotic arm in a nearby polygon's edge and center at depths of 5-15 cm. In late summer snowfall and frost blanket the surface at night; water ice and vapor constantly interact with the soil. Analysis reveals an alkaline Ph with CaCO 3 , aqueous minerals, and salts making up several wt% of the soil; liquid water is implicated as having been important in creating these components. In combination with the oxidant perchlorate (~1 wt%), an energy source for terrestrial microbes, and a prior epoch of higher temperatures and humidity, this region may have been a habitable zone.

  2. Working End of Robotic Arm on Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This illustration shows some of the components on and near the end of the robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Primary and secondary blades on the scoop will aid in the collection of soil samples. A powered rasp will allow the arm to sample an icy layer expected to be about as hard as concrete. The thermal and electrical conductivity probe, which is one part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, will assess how heat and electrons move through the soil from one spike to another of a four-spike electronic fork that will be pushed into the soil at different stages of digging by the arm.

  3. Arizona in Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choncoff, Mary, Comp.

    The bibliography of approximately 550 entries is a sample of those available on Arizona for elementary school students. Topics include Arizona history and culture, Mexican lore, and information about Navajo Indians. Although some of the titles are too difficult for the reading level of elementary school students, they are included because no other…

  4. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  5. Tuition in Arizona Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puyear, Don

    This document's purpose was to provide a broader context for State Board members as they considered the tuition rate requests for Arizona community college in April of 1997. Arizona's State Constitution calls for public higher education to be as nearly free as possible, yet tuition has become an increasingly important source of revenue for the…

  6. 15. Detail, typical 'PHOENIX' rolling mark on intermediate post of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, typical 'PHOENIX' rolling mark on intermediate post of downstream truss, view to east, 210mm lens. - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 310.58, Milepost 310.58, Sims, Shasta County, CA

  7. Arch construction at south end, looking east with Phoenix Iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch construction at south end, looking east with Phoenix Iron Company foundry in background. - Gay Street Bridge, Spanning French Creek at Gay Street (State Route 113), Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  8. FOURTH FLOOR, NORTH HALF. VIEW NORTH SHOWING LINE OF PHOENIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOURTH FLOOR, NORTH HALF. VIEW NORTH SHOWING LINE OF PHOENIX COLUMNS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  9. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Thomas, Reid C.; Varghese, Phil; Signori, Gina; Schmitz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  10. Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed (PMHT): System Concept Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of the Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed (PMHT) is shown. The contents include: 1) Need and Goals; 2) Phoenix Missile Hypersonic Testbed; 3) PMHT Concept; 4) Development Objectives; 5) Possible Research Payloads; 6) Possible Research Program Participants; 7) PMHT Configuration; 8) AIM-54 Internal Hardware Schematic; 9) PMHT Configuration; 10) New Guidance and Armament Section Profiles; 11) Nomenclature; 12) PMHT Stack; 13) Systems Concept; 14) PMHT Preflight Activities; 15) Notional Ground Path; and 16) Sample Theoretical Trajectories.

  11. Arizona land use experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winikka, C. C.; Schumann, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Utilization of new sources of statewide remote sensing data, taken from high-altitude aircraft and from spacecraft is discussed along with incorporation of information extracted from these sources into on-going land and resources management programs in Arizona. Statewide cartographic applications of remote sensor data taken by NASA high-altitude aircraft include the development of a statewide semi-analytic control network, the production of nearly 1900 orthophotoquads (image maps) that are coincident in scale and area with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7. 5 minute topographic quadrangle map series, and satellite image maps of Arizona produced from LANDSAt multispectral scanner imagery. These cartographic products are utilized for a wide variety of experimental and operational earth resources applications. Applications of the imagery, image maps, and derived information discussed include: soils and geologic mapping projects, water resources investigations, land use inventories, environmental impact studies, highway route locations and mapping, vegetation cover mapping, wildlife habitat studies, power plant siting studies, statewide delineation of irrigation cropland, position determination of drilling sites, pictorial geographic bases for thematic mapping, and court exhibits.

  12. Ecoregions of Arizona (poster)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Johnson, Colleen Burch; Turner, Dale S.

    2014-01-01

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources; they are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The Arizona ecoregion map was compiled at a scale of 1:250,000. It revises and subdivides an earlier national ecoregion map that was originally compiled at a smaller scale. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity. These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions. At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions. Level IV is a further subdivision of level III ecoregions. Arizona contains arid deserts and canyonlands, semiarid shrub- and grass-covered plains, woodland- and shrubland-covered hills, lava fields and volcanic plateaus, forested mountains, glaciated

  13. Arizona's Youth--Arizona's Jobs. An Introduction to School-to-Work Transitions in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandegrift, Judith A.; And Others

    This report provides a formative analysis of youth demographics and employment and training issues in the state of Arizona. The report clarifies issues of workforce supply and demand--as they pertain specifically to Arizona's youth--and explores the match between work force demand and training programs. It is based on information gathered and…

  14. Technology Transfer and Economic Development in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, James

    The status of Arizona's effort to encourage the creation and expansion of high technology based on the discoveries and new knowledge developed at its research universities is discussed. The study of the University of Arizona and Arizona State University was recommended by the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and…

  15. Monitoring surface-water quality in Arizona: the fixed-station network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tadayon, Saeid

    2000-01-01

    Arizona is an arid State in which economic development is influenced largely by the quantity and quality of water and the location of adequate water supplies. In 1995, surface water supplied about 58 percent of total withdrawals in Arizona. Of the total amount of surface water used in 1995, about 89 percent was for agriculture, 10 percent for public supply, and 1 percent for industrial supply (including mining and thermoelectric; Solley and others, 1998). As a result of rapid population growth in Arizona, historic agricultural lands in the Phoenix (Maricopa County) and Tucson (Pima County) areas are now being developed for residential and commercial use; thus, the amount of water used for public supply is increasing. The Clean Water Act was established by U.S. Congress (1972) in response to public concern about water-pollution control. The act defines a process by which the United States Congress and the citizens are informed of the Nation’s progress in restoring and maintaining the quality of our waters. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) is the State-designated agency for this process and, as a result, has developed a monitoring program to assess water quality in Arizona. The ADEQ is required to submit a water-quality assessment report to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) every 2 years. The USEPA summarizes the reports from each State and submits a report to the Congress characterizing water quality in the United States. These reports serve to inform Congress and the public of the Nation’s progress toward the restoration and maintenance of water quality in the United States (Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 1998).

  16. SUPERSTITION WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Donald W.; Jinks, Jimmie E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic studies and mineral evaluations most of the Superstition Wilderness and adjoining areas are judged to have little promise for occurrence of mineral resources. However, two areas in an east-trending zone near the southern margin of the area, marked by spotty occurrences of mineralized rock, prospect pits, and a band of geochemical anomalies that coincides with aligned magnetic anomalies, are considered to have probable mineral-resource potential. This zone lies within about 6 mi of two productive mines in Arizona's great copper belt, and the trend of the zone is parallel to many of the significant mineralized structures of this belt. A small isolated uranium anomaly was found in the northeastern part of the wilderness, but no evidence of other energy resources, such as petroleum, coal, or geothermal, was found.

  17. Superstition Wilderness, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.W.; Jinks, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic studies and mineral evaluations made between 1973 and 1977, most of the Superstition Wilderness and adjoining areas are judged to have little promise for occurrence of mineral resources. However, two areas in an east-trending zone near the southern margin of the area, marked by spotty occurrences of mineralized rock, prospect pits, and a band of geochemical anomalies that coincides with alined magnetic anomalies, are considered to have probable mineral-resource potential. This zone lies within about 6 mi of two productive mines in Arizona's great copper belt, and the trend of the zone is parallel to many of the significant mineralized structures of this belt. A small isolated uranium anomaly was found in the northeastern part of the wilderness, but no evidence of other energy resources, such as petroleum, coal, or geothermal, was found.

  18. Arizona Forest Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These ASTER images cover an area of 11 x 14 km on the north rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, and were acquired May 12, 2000. The left image displays bands 3,2,1 in RGB, displaying vegetation as red. The large dark area is burned forest, and small smoke plumes can be seen at the edges where active fires are burning. The right display substitutes SWIR band 8 for band 3. The bright red spots are the active fires, visible because the SWIR wavelength region has the capability to penetrate through the smoke. This image is located at 35.9 degrees north latitude and 113.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  20. Power flow and PRS optimization on Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Robert E.; Cochran, Frederick L.

    1994-03-01

    The DNA Phoenix program has investigated the power flow in the front end magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) and PRS load assembly, to identify any losses, and model them, and the optimum injection angle and mass loading for a specific puff gas nozzle assembly. An optimum PRS mass loading can convert about 10-15% of the energy delivered to the front end into load kinetic energy over a range of 4.65 - 5.7 nH of initial PRS loading inductance. Specific kinetic energy per ion tends to fall off monotonically as the PRS length exceeds 4.5 cm. The gas puff optimization investigated nozzle designs which could optimize the uniformity of the implosion through high Mach number and tilting. The best yields for Argon were found at 12 deg for a Mach 4 nozzle, and 7.5 deg for a Mach 5 nozzle. The yield at the optimum tilt angle does not vary strongly with Mach number.

  1. Project PHOENIX SETI Observations at Parkes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, P. R.

    1995-12-01

    For sixteen weeks (February to June of 1995), Project Phoenix had the exclusive use of the 64 m Parkes radio telescope in New South Wales, Australia, as well as another element of the Australian Telescope National Facility (ATNF), the 22 m Mopra telescope, 200 km to the north at Coonabarabran. With these two telescopes, we conducted a targeted search of nearly two hundred solar-type stars covering the frequency range from 1.2 to 3 GHz. The signal detection system was optimized to detect narrowband signals (presumed to be transmitted by another technological civilization) originating in the vicinity of these targets. The system was sensitive to signals that were continuously present, or pulsed regularly, even if their frequencies drifted, or changed slowly in time. Many signals of precisely this nature were detected, but all were coming from our own technology! All manner of transmitters, from microwave ovens to satellite downlinks, are rapidly making this naturally quiet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum extremely noisy. The use of the two widely separated telescopes as a pseudo-interferometer was essential to discriminate against signals of terrestrial origin. The architecture and performance of the system and the results of the observing campaign are presented in this paper.

  2. The Phoenix search results at Parkes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, Peter R.

    For 16 weeks (February to June of 1995), Project Phoenix had the exclusive use of the 64 m Parkes radio telescope in New South Wales, Australia, as well as another element of the Australian Telescope National Facility (ATNF), the 22 m Mopra telescope, 200 km to the north at Coonabarabran. With these two telescopes, we conducted a targeted search of nearly two hundred solar-type stars covering the frequency range from 1.2-3 GHz. The signal detection system described in the paper by Dreher [1]was optimized to detect narrowband signals (presumed to be transmitted by another technological civilization) originating in the vicinity of these targets. The system was sensitive to signals that were continuously present, or pulsed regularly, even if their frequencies drifted, or changed slowly in time. Many signals of precisely this nature were detected—coming from our own technology! All manner of transmitters, from microwave ovens to satellite downlinks, are rapidly making this naturally quiet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum extremely noisy. The use of the two widely separated telescopes as a pseudo-interferometer was essential to discriminate against signals of terrestrial origin. The performance of the system and the results of the observing campaign are presented in this paper, while the cooperative science observations that were undertaken with Australian PIs are described in a companion paper.

  3. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) is a federal interagency research effort coordinated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development (ORD). The objective of the NHEXAS Phase I Arizona study was to determine the distribution...

  4. Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance of the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Prince, Jill L.; Wueen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander successfully landed on the northern arctic plains of Mars. An overview of a preliminary reconstruction analysis performed on each entry, descent, and landing phase to assess the performance of Phoenix as it descended is presented and a comparison to pre-entry predictions is provided. The landing occurred 21 km further downrange than the predicted landing location. Analysis of the flight data revealed that the primary cause of Phoenix s downrange landing was a higher trim total angle of attack during the hypersonic phase of the entry, which resulted in Phoenix flying a slightly lifting trajectory. The cause of this higher trim attitude is not known at this time. Parachute deployment was 6.4 s later than prediction. This later deployment time was within the variations expected and is consistent with a lifting trajectory. The parachute deployment and inflation process occurred as expected with no anomalies identified. The subsequent parachute descent and powered terminal landing also behaved as expected. A preliminary reconstruction of the landing day atmospheric density profile was found to be lower than the best apriori prediction, ranging from a few percent less to a maximum of 8%. A comparison of the flight reconstructed trajectory parameters shows that the actual Phoenix entry, descent, and landing was close to pre-entry predictions. This reconstruction investigation is currently ongoing and the results to date are in the process of being refined.

  5. Relationship between particulate matter and childhood asthma - basis of a future warning system for central Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, R.; Lurponglukana, N.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Runger, G. C.; Hyde, P.; Hedquist, B. C.; Anderson, J.; Bannister, W.; Johnson, W.

    2012-03-01

    Statistically significant correlations between increase of asthma attacks in children and elevated concentrations of particulate matter of diameter 10 microns and less (PM10) were determined for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Interpolated concentrations from a five-site network provided spatial distribution of PM10 that was mapped onto census tracts with population health records. The case-crossover statistical method was applied to determine the relationship between PM10 concentration and asthma attacks. For children ages 5-17, a significant relationship was discovered between the two, while children ages 0-4 exhibited virtually no relationship. The risk of adverse health effects was expressed as a function of the change from the 25th to 75th percentiles of mean level PM10 (36 μg m-3). This increase in concentration was associated with a 12.6% (95% CI: 5.8%, 19.4%) increase in the log odds of asthma attacks among children ages 5-17. Neither gender nor other demographic variables were significant. The results are being used to develop an asthma early warning system for the study area.

  6. Relationship between particulate matter and childhood asthma - basis of a future warning system for Central Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, R.; Lurponglukana, N.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Runger, G. C.; Hyde, P.; Hedquist, B. C.; Anderson, J.; Bannister, W.; Johnson, W.

    2011-10-01

    Statistically significant correlations between increase of asthma attacks in children and elevated concentrations of particulate matter of diameter 10 microns and less (PM10) were determined for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Interpolated concentrations from a five-site network provided spatial distribution of PM10 that was mapped onto census tracts with population health records. The case-crossover statistical method was applied to determine the relationship between PM10 concentration and asthma attacks. For children ages 5-17, a significant relationship was discovered between the two, while children ages 0-4 exhibited virtually no relationship. The risk of adverse health effects was expressed as a function of the change from the 25th to 75th percentiles of mean level PM10 (36 μg m-3). This increase in concentration was associated with a 12.6% (95% CI: 5.8%, 19.4%) increase in the log odds of asthma attacks among children ages 5-17. Neither gender nor other demographic variables were significant. The results are being used to develop an asthma early warning system for the study area.

  7. Urban effects on regional climate: A case study in the Phoenix-Tucson Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Dominguez, F.; Gupta, H. V.

    2014-12-01

    Human activity in urban environments impacts climate from the local to the global scale by changing the atmospheric composition and impacting components of the water and energy cycles. Specifically land use and land cover change due to urban expansion changes the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban region is different from that of natural surfaces. In this research, we apply the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM, which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme, to evaluate the changes in regional climate that would arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, in Arizona. We use the land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050 (for areas north to Tucson from Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG) using the Red Dot Algorithm (RDA), and for areas around Tucson and South is from SLEUTH model) with historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data as the lateral boundary condition. Result shows that temperature changes are well defined and reflect the urban heat island (UHI) effect within the areas experiencing LULCC. The heat index is also examined, the magnitude of change is similar to that of temperature change. The timing of the maximum and minimum temperature is delayed by approximately one hour. Precipitation was analyzed according to both the occurrence of rainfall and according to flow regime, however no clear evidence of changes in precipitation amount or occurrence was found due to urbanization.

  8. A provider-based water planning and management model--WaterSim 4.0--for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Sampson, D A; Escobar, V; Tschudi, M K; Lant, T; Gober, P

    2011-10-01

    Uncertainty in future water supplies for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (Phoenix) are exacerbated by the near certainty of increased, future water demands; water demand may increase eightfold or more by 2030 for some communities. We developed a provider-based water management and planning model for Phoenix termed WaterSim 4.0. The model combines a FORTRAN library with Microsoft C# to simulate the spatial and temporal dynamics of current and projected future water supply and demand as influenced by population demographics, climatic uncertainty, and groundwater availability. This paper describes model development and rationale. Water providers receive surface water, groundwater, or both depending on their portfolio. Runoff from two riverine systems supplies surface water to Phoenix while three alluvial layers that underlie the area provide groundwater. Water demand was estimated using two approaches. One approach used residential density, population projections, water duties, and acreage. A second approach used per capita water consumption and separate population growth estimates. Simulated estimates of initial groundwater for each provider were obtained as outputs from the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) Salt River Valley groundwater flow model (GFM). We compared simulated estimates of water storage with empirical estimates for modeled reservoirs as a test of model performance. In simulations we modified runoff by 80%-110% of the historical estimates, in 5% intervals, to examine provider-specific responses to altered surface water availability for 33 large water providers over a 25-year period (2010-2035). Two metrics were used to differentiate their response: (1) we examined groundwater reliance (GWR; that proportion of a providers' portfolio dependent upon groundwater) from the runoff sensitivity analysis, and (2) we used 100% of the historical runoff simulations to examine the cumulative groundwater withdrawals for each provider. Four groups of water

  9. Introduction to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments, Mission Overviews, and Expected Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.; Tamppari, L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Boynton, W.; Carswell, A.; Catling, D.; Clark, B.; Duck, T.; DeJong, E.; Fisher, D.; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, P.; Hecht, M.; Hipkin, V.; Hoffman, J.; Hviid, S.; Keller, H.; Kounaves, S.; Lange, C. F.; Lemmon, M.; Madsen, M.; Malin, M.; Markiewicz, W.; Marshall, J.; McKay, C.; Mellon, M.; Michelangeli, D.; Ming, D.; Morris, R.; Renno, N.; Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Stoker, C.; Taylor, P.; Whiteway, J.; Young, S.; Zent, A.

    2008-10-01

    Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission, capitalizes on the large NASA investments in the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Surveyor 2001 missions. On 4 August 2007, Phoenix was launched to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a Delta 2 launch vehicle. The heritage derived from the canceled 2001 lander with a science payload inherited from MPL and 2001 instruments gives significant advantages. To manage, build, and test the spacecraft and its instruments, a partnership has been forged between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of Arizona (home institution of principal investigator P. H. Smith), and Lockheed Martin in Denver; instrument and scientific contributions from Canada and Europe have augmented the mission. The science mission focuses on providing the ground truth for the 2002 Odyssey discovery of massive ice deposits hidden under surface soils in the circumpolar regions. The science objectives, the instrument suite, and the measurements needed to meet the objectives are briefly described here with reference made to more complete instrument papers included in this special section. The choice of a landing site in the vicinity of 68°N and 233°E balances scientific value and landing safety. Phoenix will land on 25 May 2008 during a complex entry, descent, and landing sequence using pulsed thrusters as the final braking strategy. After a safe landing, twin fan-like solar panels are unfurled and provide the energy needed for the mission. Throughout the 90-sol primary mission, activities are planned on a tactical basis by the science team; their requests are passed to an uplink team of sequencing engineers for translation to spacecraft commands. Commands are transmitted each Martian morning through the Deep Space Network by way of a Mars orbiter to the spacecraft. Data are returned at the end of the Martian day by the same path. Satisfying the mission's goals requires digging and providing samples of interesting layers to three on-deck instruments. By

  10. The RR Lyrae variable population in the Phoenix dwarf galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ordoñez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata; Yang, Soung-Chul E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu

    2014-05-10

    We present the first detailed study of the RR Lyrae variable population in the Local Group dSph/dIrr transition galaxy, Phoenix, using previously obtained HST/WFPC2 observations of the galaxy. We utilize template light curve fitting routines to obtain best fit light curves for RR Lyrae variables in Phoenix. Our technique has identified 78 highly probable RR Lyrae stars (54 ab-type; 24 c-type) with about 40 additional candidates. We find mean periods for the two populations of (P {sub ab}) = 0.60 ± 0.03 days and (P{sub c} ) = 0.353 ± 0.002 days. We use the properties of these light curves to extract, among other things, a metallicity distribution function for ab-type RR Lyrae. Our analysis yields a mean metallicity of ([Fe/H]) = –1.68 ± 0.06 dex for the RRab stars. From the mean period and metallicity calculated from the ab-type RR Lyrae, we conclude that Phoenix is more likely of intermediate Oosterhoff type; however the morphology of the Bailey diagram for Phoenix RR Lyraes appears similar to that of an Oosterhoff type I system. Using the RRab stars, we also study the chemical enrichment law for Phoenix. We find that our metallicity distribution is reasonably well fitted by a closed-box model. The parameters of this model are compatible with the findings of Hidalgo et al., further supporting the idea that Phoenix appears to have been chemically enriched as a closed-box-like system during the early stage of its formation and evolution.

  11. Orbit Determination for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryne, Mark S.; Graat, Eric; Haw, Robert; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Lau, Eunice; Martin-Mur, Tomas; McElrath, Timothy; Nandi, Sumita; Portock, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix mission is designed to study the arctic region of Mars. To achieve this goal, the spacecraft must be delivered to a narrow corridor at the top of the Martian atmosphere, which is approximately 20 km wide. This paper will discuss the details of the Phoenix orbit determination process and the effort to reduce errors below the level necessary to achieve successful atmospheric entry at Mars. Emphasis will be placed on properly modeling forces that perturb the spacecraft trajectory and the errors and uncertainties associated with those forces. Orbit determination covariance analysis strongly influenced mission operations scenarios, which were chosen to minimize errors and associated uncertainties.

  12. Thermal Design Validation of the Mars Scout Phoenix Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Lee, Chern-Jiin

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the validation of the thermal design for the Mars Scout Phoenix Payload. It includes a description of the Phoenix Mission, the science objectives, the timeline, and the flight system and payloads that were on the lander. The initial responsibility for the development and validation the thermal design was with the developers. This process lacked overall system engineering, there was a difference of thermal expertise, and the number of institutions involved complicated the interactions. The revised approach for payload thermal design validation is described.

  13. Land subsidence and earth fissures in south-central and southern Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Brian D.

    2016-05-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona (USA) since the 1940s. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in the early 1950s near Picacho. In some areas of the state, groundwater-level declines of more than 150 m have resulted in extensive land subsidence and earth fissuring. Land subsidence in excess of 5.7 m has been documented in both western metropolitan Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence since 2002 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and since 1998 using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The ADWR InSAR program has identified more than 25 individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 7,300 km2. Using InSAR data in conjunction with groundwater-level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor land subsidence areas as well as identify areas that may require additional monitoring. One area of particular concern is the Willcox groundwater basin in southeastern Arizona, which is the focus of this paper. The area is experiencing rapid groundwater declines, as much as 32.1 m during 2005-2014 (the largest land subsidence rate in Arizona State—up to 12 cm/year), and a large number of earth fissures. The declining groundwater levels in Arizona are a challenge for both future groundwater availability and mitigating land subsidence associated with these declines. ADWR's InSAR program will continue to be a critical tool for monitoring land subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal.

  14. Parent Attitudes about Education in Arizona: 2006 [and] Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, David R.; Molnar, Alex; Merrill, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    "Parent Attitudes about Education in Arizona: 2006" is the third-annual study of the opinion of Arizona parents on the issues facing public schools. The study is conducted by the Arizona Education Policy Initiative (AEPI), a collaboration of Arizona State University, Northern Arizona University, and the University of Arizona, and it is a…

  15. Articulation: Arizona Guidebook Can Lick Transfer "Sting."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Arizona "Course Equivalency Guide," a combined listing of courses at Arizona community colleges and universities, which enables students to evaluate whether and in what way each course is accepted for transfer at the universities.

  16. Early Proterozoic geology of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Clay M.; Karlstrom, Karl E.

    The Early Proterozoic geology of Arizona and adjoining regions was the topic of a workshop convened by Clay M. Conway (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Flagstaff, Ariz.), Karl E. Karlstrom (Northern Arizona University (NAU), Flagstaff), and Leon T. Silver (California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena) in Flagstaff, October 3-5, 1985. The meeting, sponsored by USGS, NAU, Caltech, and the Arizona Geological Survey, was attended by 73 geologists from industry, academia, and governmental agencies. The workshop brought together for the first time workers in a variety of disciplines who have been studying facets of Early Proterozoic crustal evolution in the southwest. From responses during and following the workshop, we judge that the meeting successfully accomplished its objective of furthering communication, cooperation, and collaboration. The meeting encouraged contributions, including progress reports, from all participants and concentrated on specific problems of stratigraphy, structure, petrology, geochemistry, and ore formation, with a view toward understanding overall orogenic evolution and continental accretion.

  17. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Kristen L; Pena, Sandra A; Yaglom, Hayley D; Layton, Brent J; Moors, Amanda; Loftis, Amanda D; Condit, Marah E; Singleton, Joseph; Kato, Cecilia Y; Denison, Amy M; Ng, Dianna; Mertins, James W; Paddock, Christopher D

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, all previously reported cases of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis have been linked to transmission by the Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). Here we describe 1 confirmed and 1 probable case of R. parkeri rickettsiosis acquired in a mountainous region of southern Arizona, well beyond the recognized geographic range of A. maculatum ticks. The likely vector for these 2 infections was identified as the Amblyomma triste tick, a Neotropical species only recently recognized in the United States. Identification of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in southern Arizona demonstrates a need for local ecologic and epidemiologic assessments to better understand geographic distribution and define public health risk. Education and outreach aimed at persons recreating or working in this region of southern Arizona would improve awareness and promote prevention of tickborne rickettsioses. PMID:27089251

  18. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Arizona, USA

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Kristen L.; Pena, Sandra A.; Yaglom, Hayley D.; Layton, Brent J.; Moors, Amanda; Loftis, Amanda D.; Condit, Marah E.; Singleton, Joseph; Kato, Cecilia Y.; Denison, Amy M.; Ng, Dianna; Mertins, James W.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, all previously reported cases of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis have been linked to transmission by the Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). Here we describe 1 confirmed and 1 probable case of R. parkeri rickettsiosis acquired in a mountainous region of southern Arizona, well beyond the recognized geographic range of A. maculatum ticks. The likely vector for these 2 infections was identified as the Amblyomma triste tick, a Neotropical species only recently recognized in the United States. Identification of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in southern Arizona demonstrates a need for local ecologic and epidemiologic assessments to better understand geographic distribution and define public health risk. Education and outreach aimed at persons recreating or working in this region of southern Arizona would improve awareness and promote prevention of tickborne rickettsioses. PMID:27089251

  19. The occurrence of Naegleria fowleri in recreational waters in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes, Laura Y; Choate, Brittany L; Gerba, Charles P; Bright, Kelly R

    2014-09-19

    Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in waters in warmer regions that causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a rare but almost universally fatal disease. The goal of this project was to assess the occurrence of N. fowleri and other thermophilic amoebae in 33 recreational surface waters across Arizona to determine if their presence could be correlated with seasonal or other environmental factors. First, 1-L grab samples were collected over two years and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and amoebae viability. Seasonality was observed, with N. fowleri and thermophilic amoebae (20% and 30%, respectively) being detected more often in the winter and spring combined than in the summer and fall combined (7.9% and 9.5%, respectively). The spring and fall both had an average temperature of 18°C, yet had different occurrence data (18.2% versus 5.9% for N. fowleri, respectively; 27.3% versus 0% for viable amoebae, respectively). These results are in stark contrast to previous studies in which N. fowleri has been found almost exclusively during warmer months. Over the two-year study, N. fowleri was detected in six and thermophilic amoebae in eight of the 33 recreational water bodies. Five of these were lakes near Phoenix that tested positive for N. fowleri and thermophilic amoebae over multiple seasons. These lakes differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the other 28 surface waters, with a lower average temperature in the spring, a higher temperature in the fall, a higher pH and turbidity in the summer, and a lower electro-conductivity in the spring. They also had lower Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria levels during colder months. Future N. fowleri monitoring in Arizona should focus on these five lakes to further elucidate the factors that contribute to the low occurrence of this amoeba in the summer or which might explain why these lakes appear to be reservoirs for the organism. PMID:24967566

  20. The Arizona Sun Corridor: Quantifying climatic implications of megapolitan development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Moustaoui, M.; Mahalov, A.

    2010-12-01

    The local and regional-scale hydro-climatic impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC) that result from urbanization require attention in light of future urban growth projections and related concerns for environmental sustainability. This is an especially serious issue over the southwestern U.S. where mounting pressure on the area’s natural desert environment and increasingly limited resources (e.g. water) exists, and is likely to worsen, due to unrelenting sprawl and associated urbanization. While previous modeling results have shown the degree to which the built environment has contributed to the region’s warming summertime climate, we use projections of future landscape change over the rapidly urbanizing Arizona Sun Corridor - an anticipated stretch of urban expanse that includes current metro Phoenix and Tucson - as surface boundary conditions to conduct high-resolution (order of 1-km) numerical simulations, over the seasonal timescale, to quantify the climatic effect of this relentlessly growing and increasingly vulnerable region. We use the latest version of the WRF modeling system to take advantage of several new capabilities, including a newly implemented nesting method used to refine the vertical mesh, and a comprehensive multi-story urban canopy scheme. We quantify the impact of projected (circa 2050) Sun Corridor megapolitan area on further development of the urban heat island (UHI), assess changes in the surface energy budget, with important implications for the near surface temperature and stability, and discuss modeled impacts on regional rainfall. Lastly, simulated effects are compared with projected warming due to increasing greenhouse gases (the GCMs from which these results are obtained currently do not take into account effects of urbanizing regions) and quantify the degree to which LULCC over the Arizona Sun Corridor will exacerbate regional anthropogenic climate change. A number of potential mitigation strategies are discussed

  1. Preliminary assessment report for Florence Military Reservation, Installation 04080, Florence, Arizona. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Arizona Army National Guard property near Florence, Arizona. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. Florence Military Reservation is a 5,655-acre site located in the southern portion of Arizona, about 65 mi southeast of Phoenix, in the county of Pinal. Florence Military Reservation includes Unit Training Equipment Site (UTES) 1, an artillery firing range, and ammunition storage. The subject of this PA is the UTES. The environmentally significant operations associated with the UTES property are (1) vehicle maintenance and refueling, (2) supply/storage of materials, and (3) the vehicle washrack.

  2. Phoenix Indian School: The Second Half-Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dorothy R.

    This book recounts the Phoenix Indian School's history from 1935 to its closing in 1990. In the 1930s, the Bureau of Indian Affairs' philosophy of assimilation declined in importance, as evidenced by termination of the boarding school's militaristic discipline, greater recognition of tribal traditions, and early experimentation in bilingual…

  3. Genetic erosion of Phoenix dactylifera L.: Perceptible, probable or possible?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity of date palm (Phoenix dactylefera L.) encompasses genetic differences among and within species, subspecies, populations, cultivars, and individual clones in traditional oases and plantations. Components of this diversity can be estimated, throughout the tree’s ontogeny, at the phen...

  4. The Flight of the Phoenix: Interpersonal Aspects of Project Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Brian J.; Kilian, Claire McCarty

    2012-01-01

    Although many classroom exercises use movies to focus on management and organizational behavior issues, none of those do so in the context of project management. This article presents such an exercise using "The Flight of the Phoenix", an incredibly rich story for any management class, which provides clear examples of organizational behavior…

  5. Phoenix project at the University of Michigan, 1945-60

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, L.M.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1997-12-01

    Several years before the formal U.S. Atoms for Peace program in the mid-1950s, the University of Michigan (UM) developed a comprehensive and continuing program of research on the peaceful applications of nuclear science known as the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project, which was supported by individual, corporate, and government sponsorship.

  6. Arizona Minority Student Success Report, Spring 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Tonya M.; Forester, Christine A.

    The Arizona Minority Education Policy Analysis Center (AMEPAC) is a policy center of the Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education. AMEPAC's mission is to stimulate, through studies, statewide discussion, and debate, constructive improvement of Arizona minority students' early awareness, access, and achievement throughout all sectors of…

  7. The Uneven Performance of Arizona's Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Arizona enrolls a larger share of its students in charter schools than any other state in the country, but no comprehensive examination exists of the impact of those schools on student achievement. Using student-level data covering all Arizona students from 2006 to 2012, we find that the performance of charter schools in Arizona in improving…

  8. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Burnside, Christopher G.; Bruno, Cy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program, specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. As originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single boost. For both the small

  9. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Bruno, Cy

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the decommissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single

  10. The Effect of Arizona Language Policies on Arizona Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Mary Carol; Nicholas, Sheilah E.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of Arizona's language policies on school districts serving Native American students. Although these policies were designed to restrict the access of Spanish-speaking immigrant and citizen students to bilingual education programs, their reach has extended into schools and school districts serving Native Americans.…

  11. AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

  12. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111

  13. The Phoenix Mission and its Current Landing Site options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, LK; Smith, P.; Arvidson, RE; Phoenix Team

    2005-08-01

    Phoenix is the 2007 Mars Scout program mission that will send a lander and suite of instruments to study the north polar region on Mars. Central goals for the Phoenix mission are to study the recent history of water as written into the high latitude soils and to search for habitable zones. In order to do this, Phoenix carries a comprehensive suite of seven instruments. This suite includes 3 cameras, an optical microscope and an atomic-force microscope, allowing imaging at spatial scales ranging from kms, for large scale geomorphological studies, to microns, for examining single grain sizes and shapes. Phoenix also has a meteorology suite, which includes atmospheric temperature measurements at 3 levels, atmospheric pressure, and an upward-looking lidar, for dust and water-ice cloud detection. A robotic arm will dig a trench into the surface near the lander to collect and deliver samples to on-board chemistry and mineralogy experiments. These experiments will allow the detection of the mineral makeup of the soil as well as its water content, pH, salt content, and organic content. An important aspect of this exciting mission is the selection of the landing site, within the 65-72 deg N latitude band. Both science and safety concerns will play into this selection. Work is ongoing to determine the most favorable location, with consideration focusing on the best ice/soil ratio, the shallowest slopes and fewest large rocks. Current sites under consideration will be discussed. Selected in 2003, Phoenix was recently confirmed to proceed into Phase C/D of spacecraft development. This research was funded by a NASA Grant and carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  14. Simulating the Phoenix Lander meteorological conditions with a Mars GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daerden, F.; Neary, L.; Whiteway, J.; Dickinson, C.; Komguem, L.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    An updated version of the GEM-Mars Global Circulation Model [1] is applied for the simulation of the meteorological conditions at the Phoenix lander site for the time period of the surface operations (Ls=76-150). The simulation results for pressure and temperature at the surface are compared to data from the Phoenix Meteorological Station (MET). The vertical profiles of dust and temperature are compared to Phoenix LIDAR measurements and data from orbit (CRISM and MCS on MRO). The simulated conditions in the PBL are compared to those obtained in a dedicated PBL-Aeolian dust model [2] which was successfully applied to drive a detailed microphysical model [3] for the interpretation of clouds and precipitation observed by the LIDAR on Phoenix [4,5]. [1] Moudden, Y. and J.C. McConnell (2005): A new model for multiscale modeling of the Martian atmosphere, GM3, J. Geophys. Res. 110, E04001, doi:10.1029/2004JE002354 [2] Davy, R., P. A. Taylor, W. Weng, and P.-Y. Li (2009), A model of dust in the Martian lower atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D04108, doi:10.1029/2008JD010481. [3] Daerden, F., J.A. Whiteway, R. Davy, C. Verhoeven, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, P. A. Taylor, and N. Larsen (2010), Simulating Observed Boundary Layer Clouds on Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L04203, doi:10.1029/2009GL041523 [4] Whiteway, J., M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook (2008), Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A08, doi:10.1029/2007JE003002. [5] Whiteway, J., et al. (2009), Mars water ice clouds and precipitation, Science, 325, 68 - 70.

  15. Libraries in Arizona: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Center Health Sciences Library 1400 South Dobson Road Mesa, AZ 85202 480-412-3024 Mesa Community ... Children's Hospital The Emily Center 1919 East Thomas Road Phoenix, AZ 85016 602-546-1000 http://www. ...

  16. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA..., EPA (or the State with the approval of EPA) shall implement a monitoring program to assess...

  17. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA..., EPA (or the State with the approval of EPA) shall implement a monitoring program to assess...

  18. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA..., EPA (or the State with the approval of EPA) shall implement a monitoring program to assess...

  19. Organic Components and Elemental Carbon in Soils and Ambient Particles near Phoenix, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M. P.; Jia, Y.; Clements, A.

    2008-12-01

    In the desert southwest, fugitive dust emissions contribute significantly to ambient aerosol concentrations. Wind erosion from the arid land is a primary contributor to ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations but, in regions including Central Arizona, desert lands have been converted for agriculture use and thus agriculture processes constitute another contributor. As the metropolitan Phoenix region expands into these agricultural lands, urban sources and construction also contributes to the ambient PM load. In an effort to identify and access relative contribution of these and other major PM sources in the region, a series of ambient PM samples and soil samples were collected near Higley, AZ, a suburb of Phoenix which has seen rapid urbanization onto agricultural lands between January and May 2008. The soil samples collected were resuspended and samples of resuspended dust were collected to represent particles smaller than 2.5 microns and 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5 and PM10 respectively). The size segregated soil and ambient PM samples were analyzed for bulk mass, elemental and organic carbon content, and a number of specific compounds including ions, metals, alkanes, organic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and saccharides. The saccharide contribution to soil organic carbon has been studied to elucidate key factors in the soil carbon balance and markers have been developed for tracing fungal metabolites, plant growth and budding and organic matter decay. Using organic markers, the contribution of various sources to PM10 and PM2.5 levels have been determined by positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the ambient aerosol marker concentrations quantified from PM samples. Subsequently, samples of local soil from native and agricultural fields and local roadways wers size- segregated and analyzed in an effort to create a source profile for the dust in the area. A chemical mass balance model has been used to compare with the PMF results

  20. Ecosystem services and urban heat riskscape moderation: water, green spaces, and social inequality in Phoenix, USA.

    PubMed

    Jenerette, G Darrel; Harlan, Sharon L; Stefanov, William L; Martin, Chris A

    2011-10-01

    Urban ecosystems are subjected to high temperatures--extreme heat events, chronically hot weather, or both-through interactions between local and global climate processes. Urban vegetation may provide a cooling ecosystem service, although many knowledge gaps exist in the biophysical and social dynamics of using this service to reduce climate extremes. To better understand patterns of urban vegetated cooling, the potential water requirements to supply these services, and differential access to these services between residential neighborhoods, we evaluated three decades (1970-2000) of land surface characteristics and residential segregation by income in the Phoenix, Arizona, USA metropolitan region. We developed an ecosystem service trade-offs approach to assess the urban heat riskscape, defined as the spatial variation in risk exposure and potential human vulnerability to extreme heat. In this region, vegetation provided nearly a 25 degrees C surface cooling compared to bare soil on low-humidity summer days; the magnitude of this service was strongly coupled to air temperature and vapor pressure deficits. To estimate the water loss associated with land-surface cooling, we applied a surface energy balance model. Our initial estimates suggest 2.7 mm/d of water may be used in supplying cooling ecosystem services in the Phoenix region on a summer day. The availability and corresponding resource use requirements of these ecosystem services had a strongly positive relationship with neighborhood income in the year 2000. However, economic stratification in access to services is a recent development: no vegetation-income relationship was observed in 1970, and a clear trend of increasing correlation was evident through 2000. To alleviate neighborhood inequality in risks from extreme heat through increased vegetation and evaporative cooling, large increases in regional water use would be required. Together, these results suggest the need for a systems evaluation of the

  1. Assessment of selected inorganic constituents in streams in the Central Arizona Basins Study Area, Arizona and northern Mexico, through 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.

    2003-01-01

    streamflow, season, water management, stream permanence, and land and water use. Dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, pH, and nutrient concentrations were dependent on stream regulation, stream permanence, and upstream disposal of wastewater. Seasonality and correlation with streamflow were dependant on stream regulation, stream permanence, and upstream disposal of wastewater. Temporal trends in streamflow, stream properties, and water-chemistry constituent concentrations were common in streams in the Central Arizona Basins study area. Temporal trends in the streamflow of unregulated perennial reaches in the Central Highlands tended to be higher from 1900 through the 1930s, lower from the 1940s through the 1970s, and high again after the 1970s. This is similar to the pattern observed for the mean annual precipitation for the Southwestern United States and indicates long-term trends in flow of streams draining the Central Highlands were driven by long-term trends in climate. Streamflow increased over the period of record at stations on effluent-dependent reaches as a result of the increase in the urban population and associated wastewater returns to the Salt and Gila Rivers in the Phoenix metropolitan area and the Santa Cruz River in the Tucson metropolitan area. Concentrations of dissolved solids decreased in the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam and in the Verde River below Bartlett Dam. This decrease represents an improvement in the water quality and resulted from a concurrent increase in the amount of runoff entering the reservoirs. Stream loads of water-chemistry constituents were compared at different locations along the streams with one another, and stream loads were compared to upstream inputs of the constituent from natural and anthropogenic sources to determine the relative importance of different sources and to determine the fate of the water-chemistry constituent. Of the dissolved solids transported into the Basin and Range Lowlands each year

  2. CE Footprints on Arizona Highways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Dorothy J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A statewide mobilized continuing education effort for hospital nurses in rural Arizona was intended to upgrade emergency care knowledge and skills. Instructors travelled to rural sites in a specially equipped van to teach a 36-hour course and work with emergency room staff. (SK)

  3. Argumentation in Miranda v. Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the argumentation advanced in briefs, oral arguments, and the Supreme Court's opinion in the case of Miranda versus Arizona. Considers the background of the case, analyzes the argumentation and its influences on the court, and stresses the importance of viewing the Supreme Court as an active participant in the decision-making process.…

  4. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (2) Comprehensive Health Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4) Reading…

  5. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 1. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (2) Comprehensive Health Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  6. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  7. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  8. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  9. Turbidity trends at tucson, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Heidel, K

    1972-09-01

    Variations in atmospheric turbidity at Tucson, Arizona, since 1956 are similar to those at Mauna Loa in Hawaii, especially before January 1970. The turbidity at both locations increased markedly in 1963 after the Bali eruption. Since January 1970, the turbidity has returned to its pre-1963 level at Mauna Loa, but has remained relatively high at Tucson. PMID:17780987

  10. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  11. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  12. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  13. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  14. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);(3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  15. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  16. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  17. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  18. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  19. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  1. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' updated academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  2. Remote Sensing of Arizona Monsoons: Application of GOES Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Cerveny, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Large, violent thunder and dust storms occur in the Phoenix area during monsoon season. Currently, the best ways to predict these dangerous and potentially damaging storms are not very accurate. The primary goal of this investigation is to attempt to develop a new technique to identify and predict these storms before they reach Phoenix. In order to address this question, two data sets (remote sensing satellite imagery and ground-based weather information) will be analyzed and compared against one another using time as a corresponding variable. The goal is to discern any correlations between data sets which be used as an indicator of imminent large monsoons. The moisture needed for the storms is carried to Arizona by events known as gulf surges (from the California Gulf); these will be the target of investigation. These chutes of moisture surge through Arizona, primarily up through Yuma in a northeasterly direction towards central/south central Arizona. The main goal is to identify if satellite imagery can be used as an accurate identifier of moisture movements preceding a storm in areas where ground measurements are not available. Presently, ground measurements of dew points are the primary technique by which these moisture surges are identified. However, while these measurements do have a fairly high temporal resolution (once an hour) they cover an awfully poor spacial range. Furthermore, it is suspected that because of interference to the instruments, the ground point data may not be as accurate as is preferred. On the other hand, satellite imagery such as GOES - the instrument used in this investigation - has both a remarkably high temporal resolution and spacial coverage. If a correlation can be demonstrated, then the high temporal resolution of the remote sensing data could be used as an identifier of oncoming monsoon storms. In order to proceed in this research, a software package known as Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS) for

  3. Monitoring Land Subsidence in Arizona Due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Land subsidence due to excess groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona since the1940's. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in 1946 near Picacho, Arizona. In some areas of the State, groundwater declines of more than 400 feet have resulted in extensive earth fissuring and widespread land subsidence; land subsidence of more than 19 feet has been documented near Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence throughout Arizona since 1997 using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data and Global Navigation Satellite System Data. The ADWR InSAR program has proven to be a critical resource in monitoring land subsidence throughout Arizona, resulting in the identification of more than twenty-five individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 1,200 square miles. The majority of these land subsidence features are a direct result of groundwater declines attributed to groundwater overdraft. Using InSAR data in conjunction with both automated and manual groundwater level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor active land subsidence areas as well as identify other areas that may require additional InSAR monitoring. InSAR data have also proven to be extremely useful in monitoring land surface uplift associated with rising groundwater levels near groundwater recharge facilities. InSAR data can show the impact of the recharged groundwater as the area of uplift extends down gradient from the recharge facility. Some highlights of recent InSAR results include the identification of a new land subsidence feature in the eastern portion of Metropolitan Phoenix where groundwater levels have recently declined; the identification of changes to a floodplain that may be exacerbating recent flooding; seasonal land subsidence and uplift related to seasonal groundwater demands; and the identification of uplift

  4. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Sue, Lucia I.; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A.; Walker, Douglas G.; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E.; Dugger, Brittany N.; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C.; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Davis, Kathryn J.; Belden, Christine M.; Long, Kathy E.; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J.; Gale, Lisa D.; Nicholson, Lisa R.; Caselli, Richard J.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Rapscak, Steven Z.; Ahern, Geoffrey L.; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D.; Reiman, Eric M.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.

    2015-01-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer’s Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median postmortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than

  5. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program.

    PubMed

    Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Sue, Lucia I; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A; Walker, Douglas G; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E; Dugger, Brittany N; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N; Hentz, Joseph G; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A; Davis, Kathryn J; Belden, Christine M; Long, Kathy E; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Gale, Lisa D; Nicholson, Lisa R; Caselli, Richard J; Woodruff, Bryan K; Rapscak, Steven Z; Ahern, Geoffrey L; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D; Reiman, Eric M; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2015-08-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer's Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median post-mortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than 200

  6. Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.

  7. Phoenix: Preliminary design of a high speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Joseph; Davis, Steven; Jett, Brian; Ringo, Leslie; Stob, John; Wood, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Phoenix Design Project was to develop a second generation high speed civil transport (HSCT) that will meet the needs of the traveler and airline industry beginning in the 21st century. The primary emphasis of the HSCT is to take advantage of the growing needs of the Pacific Basin and the passengers who are involved in that growth. A passenger load of 150 persons, a mission range of 5150 nautical miles, and a cruise speed of Mach 2.5 constitutes the primary design points of this HSCT. The design concept is made possible with the use of a well designed double delta wing and four mixed flow engines. Passenger comfort, compatibility with existing airport infrastructure, and cost competitive with current subsonic aircraft make the Phoenix a viable aircraft for the future.

  8. Bringing the Universe to the Valley of the Sun: Astronomy Outreach at Arizona State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Knierman, K. A.; Taylor, W. L.; Rutkowski, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The focal point of astronomy outreach at ASU is Astronomy Open House, which has run for more than 3 decades. It is a free event for the local community and provides an opportunity for night sky viewings with telescopes, interactions with scientist, and discussion of contemporary topics. Typically each Open House will also offer a planetarium show, activities for kids, and displays on meteorites, the Moon, and geology. During the 2010-2011 academic year approximately 900 people attended the 6 Open Houses. This was a record attendance and was in part due to targeted advertisement to K-12 student groups. To accommodate this growth we recruited additional undergraduate student volunteers, including those from both science and non-science academic backgrounds. We present here a summary of traditional Open House activities and new partnerships developed as a result of the increased volunteer pool. Through Open House we were able to partner with other programs at ASU and in the Phoenix area and the expanded community presence developed into new events at local schools and museums (e.g., Arizona Science Center, Phoenix Zoo). Additionally, in conjunction with the International Year of Astronomy, we hosted two events for local, traditionally under-served students in which the students learned about Galileo and built their own Galileoscopes for free. In June 2011, we visited the Tsaile Public School on the Navajo Reservation to present a series of hands-on astronomy activities including a guided program inside a portable STARLAB planetarium to over 60 Navajo students. T. Ashcraft is supported by an Arizona NASA Space Grant Fellowship. Open House is partially supported by ASU USG. Funding for Galileoscopes provided by ASU GPSA. NASA Summer of Innovation program supports events in Tsaile, AZ.

  9. Environmental Assurance Program for the Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin F.; Natour, Maher C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars mission involves delivering a stationary science lander on to the surface of Mars in the polar region within the latitude band 65 deg N to 72 deg N. Its primary objective is to perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. The Phoenix spacecraft was launched on August 4, 2007 and will arrive at Mars in May 2008. The lander includes a suite of seven (7) science instruments. This mission is baselined for up to 90 sols (Martian days) of digging, sampling, and analysis. Operating at the Mars polar region creates a challenging environment for the Phoenix landed subsystems and instruments with Mars surface temperature extremes between -120 deg C to 25 deg C and diurnal thermal cycling in excess of 145 deg C. Some engineering and science hardware inside the lander were qualification tested up to 80 deg C to account for self heating. Furthermore, many of the hardware for this mission were inherited from earlier missions: the lander from the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 (MSP'01) and instruments from the MSP'01 and the Mars Polar Lander. Ensuring all the hardware was properly qualified and flight acceptance tested to meet the environments for this mission required defining and implementing an environmental assurance program that included a detailed heritage review coupled with tailored flight acceptance testing. A heritage review process with defined acceptance success criteria was developed and is presented in this paper together with the lessons learned in its implementation. This paper also provides a detailed description of the environmental assurance program of the Phoenix Mars mission. This program includes assembly/subsystem and system level testing in the areas of dynamics, thermal, and electromagnetic compatibility, as well as venting/pressure, dust, radiation, and meteoroid analyses to meet the challenging environment of this mission.

  10. Parent Attitudes about Education in Arizona: 2004 [and] Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Merrill, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The Arizona Education Policy Initiative (AEPI), a collaboration of Arizona State University, Northern Arizona University, and the University of Arizona, conducted a statewide telephone survey to get parents' perspectives on the condition of education in the state. From March 17 to March 27, 2004, a statewide random sample of 400 Arizona parents…

  11. UHF Relay Antenna Measurements on Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilott, Peter; Harrel, Jefferson; Arnold, Bradford; Bliznyuk, Natalia; Nielsen, Rick; Dawson, David; McGee, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, a NASA Discovery mission which lands on Mars in the spring of 2008, will rely entirely on UHF relay links between it and Mars orbiting assets, (Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)), to communicate with the Earth. As with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) relay system, non directional antennas will be used to provide roughly emispherical coverage of the Martian sky. Phoenix lander deck object pattern interference and obscuration are significant, and needed to be quantified to answer system level design and operations questions. This paper describes the measurement campaign carried out at the SPAWAR (Space and Naval Warfare Research) Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD) hemispherical antenna range, using a Phoenix deck mockup and engineering model antennas. One goal of the measurements was to evaluate two analysis tools, the time domain CST, and the moment method WIPL-D software packages. These would subsequently be used to provide pattern analysis for configurations that would be difficult and expensive to model and test on Earth.

  12. Phoenix Mars Scout UHF Relay-Only Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, Christopher A.; Krajewski, Joel; Ilott, Peter; Dates, Jason

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Scout Lander will launch in August 2007 and land on the northern plains of Mars in May of 2008. In a departure from traditional planetary surface mission operations, it will have no direct-to-Earth communications capability and will rely entirely on Mars-orbiting relays in order to facilitate command and control as well as the return of science and engineering data. The Mars Exploration Rover missions have demonstrated the robust data-return capability using this architecture, and also have demonstrated the capability of using this method for command and control. The Phoenix mission will take the next step and incorporate this as the sole communications link. Operations for 90 Sols will need to work within the constraints of Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter communications availability, anomalies must be diagnosed and responded to through an intermediary and on-board fault responses must be tolerant to loss of a relay. These and other issues pose interesting challenges and changes in paradigm for traditional space operations and spacecraft architecture, and the approach proposed for the Phoenix mission is detailed herein.

  13. Initial CRISM Observations of the Candidate 2007 Phoenix Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Murchie, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F. P.

    2006-12-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will acquire multispectral and targeted hyperspectral visible and near infrared data of the candidate Phoenix landing sites during the first few months of primary mission operations (beginning early November). Three 150 x 75 km candidate Phoenix landing sites are located in the high northern plains of Mars within a region from 65-72° N and 120-140° E. Geomorphologic characterization of this region indicates a relatively homogeneous terrain primarily composed of multiple kilometer-scale polygonal plains with superposed degraded craters. At decameter spatial scales, the area is ubiquitously covered by patterned ground in the form of basketball terrain, stripes, and small polygons. Spectral variation of these different types of landforms and materials that are detected by CRISM at 100- or 200-meter scales (multispectral) or ~20-meter scales (targeted hyperspectral) will be analyzed and initial results presented. Implications for Phoenix landing site selection and in situ measurements will also be discussed. CRISM observations along with other MRO data will be critical to the selection of the final landing site prior to launch in August of 2007.

  14. Geothermal resource data base: Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a compilation of geothermal well and spring information in Arizona up to 1993. This report and data base are a part of a larger congressionally-funded national effort to encourage and assist geothermal direct-use. In 1991, the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) began a Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program. Phase 1 of this program includes updating the inventory of wells and springs of ten western states and placing these data into a digital format that is universally accessible to the PC. The Oregon Institute of Technology GeoHeat Center (OIT) administers the program and the University of Utah Earth Sciences and Resources Institute (ESRI) provides technical direction. In recent years, the primary growth in geothermal use in Arizona has occurred in aquaculture. Other uses include minor space heating and supply of warm mineral waters for health spas.

  15. WET BEAVER ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, George E.; Bielski, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of field studies there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the Wet Beaver Roadless Area, Arizona. No significant concentrations of metals were indicated by geochemical sampling or aeromagnetic data within the area. Basaltic cinders and sandstone have been quarried for construction materials near the area but are readily available and more accessible outside the precipitous canyons of Wet Beaver Creek and its tributaries.

  16. Photometric Properties of Soils at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Preliminary Analysis from CRISM EPF Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, S. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F.; Wolff, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    Using data from CRISM's Emission Phase Function observations, we attempt to constrain Phoenix soil scattering properties, including soil grain size, single-scattering albedo, and surface phase function.

  17. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arizona Border Study, which measured levels of metals, pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Arizona counties bordering Mexico, is an extension of the Arizona National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase...

  18. The Impact of Forest Thinning on the Reliability of Water Supply in Central Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Simonit, Silvio; Connors, John P.; Yoo, James; Kinzig, Ann; Perrings, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in Central Arizona, as in other semiarid systems characterized by low and variable rainfall, has historically depended on the effectiveness of strategies to manage water supply risks. Traditionally, the management of supply risks includes three elements: hard infrastructures, landscape management within the watershed, and a supporting set of institutions of which water markets are frequently the most important. In this paper we model the interactions between these elements. A forest restoration initiative in Central Arizona (the Four Forest Restoration Initiative, or 4FRI) will result in thinning of ponderosa pine forests in the upper watershed, with potential implications for both sedimentation rates and water delivery to reservoirs. Specifically, we model the net effect of ponderosa pine forest thinning across the Salt and Verde River watersheds on the reliability and cost of water supply to the Phoenix metropolitan area. We conclude that the sediment impacts of forest thinning (up to 50% of canopy cover) are unlikely to compromise the reliability of the reservoir system while thinning has the potential to increase annual water supply by 8%. This represents an estimated net present value of surface water storage of $104 million, considering both water consumption and hydropower generation. PMID:25835003

  19. Water farms and transfer conflicts in Arizona, USA: A proposed resolution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntire, Joanne

    1989-05-01

    Water is a relatively scarce resource in Arizona, especially since the recent urban growth booms of Phoenix and Tucson. Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Management Act was the precursor to current water-transfer conflicts between urban buyers, rural farmers, and third parties. Water farms are bought with the intention to transfer their appurtenant groundwater to the two major metropolitan areas. As water markets have emerged, differing values and public interest issues have become apparent, while the state legislature attempts to resolve inequities. Site-specific transfer disputes, as well as policy-making conflicts, offer suitable situations for a mediation process. Equity- and efficiency-based criteria are suggested as the basis for resolving water-transfer conflicts, and a mediation process is proposed. However, third parties must develop an agenda, and a balance of power should be attained before mediation can effectively forge an agreement on water-transfer policies. The attainment of statewide policies generated through a mediated process has the potential to expand long-range regional water planning and management.

  20. The impact of forest thinning on the reliability of water supply in central Arizona.

    PubMed

    Simonit, Silvio; Connors, John P; Yoo, James; Kinzig, Ann; Perrings, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in Central Arizona, as in other semiarid systems characterized by low and variable rainfall, has historically depended on the effectiveness of strategies to manage water supply risks. Traditionally, the management of supply risks includes three elements: hard infrastructures, landscape management within the watershed, and a supporting set of institutions of which water markets are frequently the most important. In this paper we model the interactions between these elements. A forest restoration initiative in Central Arizona (the Four Forest Restoration Initiative, or 4FRI) will result in thinning of ponderosa pine forests in the upper watershed, with potential implications for both sedimentation rates and water delivery to reservoirs. Specifically, we model the net effect of ponderosa pine forest thinning across the Salt and Verde River watersheds on the reliability and cost of water supply to the Phoenix metropolitan area. We conclude that the sediment impacts of forest thinning (up to 50% of canopy cover) are unlikely to compromise the reliability of the reservoir system while thinning has the potential to increase annual water supply by 8%. This represents an estimated net present value of surface water storage of $104 million, considering both water consumption and hydropower generation. PMID:25835003

  1. New Waddell-Westwing 230-kV transmission project, Maricopa County, Arizona: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct a new 230 kilovolt (kV) transmission line in Maricopa County, Arizona, that would extend from the New Waddell Dam on the Agua Fria River, to the Westwing Substation, about 10.5 miles southwest of the dam. The project area is roughly 45 miles northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Western will complete the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) process for the line. A final environmental impact statement (EIS) was prepared by BuRec to describe the environmental impacts associated with alternatives for the construction and operation of the Regulatory Storage Division of the Central Arizona Project (CAP). The EIS was supported by 23 technical reports that covered planning, design, public involvement, social and environmental impact assessment, economics, and hydrological analysis. Since the proposed transmission system differs only slightly from that described in the EIS, Western incorporates by reference the EIS and its 23 supporting technical reports into this environmental assessment (EA). In August 1985, BuRec completed an EA on modifications to the New Waddell Dam Project design plans and issued a FONSI on these modifications; the EA did not cover the transmission line. The purpose of this EA is to document the potential environmental effects of the proposed construction of the transmission line and switchyards in order to determine if an EIS is needed or if a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) is indicated. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. KANAB CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Kanab Creek Roadless Area in north-central Arizona has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium and copper in four small areas around five collapse structures. Gypsum is abundant in layers along the canyon rim of Snake Gulch, but it is a fairly common mineral in the region outside the roadless area. There is little promise for the occurence of fossil fuels in the area. Studies of collapse structures in surrounding adjacent areas might reveal significant mineralization at depth, such as the recent discovery of the uranium ore body at depth in the Pigeon Pipe.

  3. Electromagnetics at Arizona State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.

    1993-02-01

    The theoretical and experimental issues addressed by the faculty, research analysts, and graduate students working in the area of antennas, propagation, and scattering at the Telecommunications Research Center and related engineering departments of the Arizona State University (ASU) are discussed. The particular areas of research in this area include the following: slotted waveguide antennas, microstrip antennas, phased array antennas, conformal antenna arrays, broadband antennas, radar cross section (RCS) of scatterers, optical characterization of surface microfeatures, inverse SAR, materials for antenna and RCS pattern control, antennas on complex structures, and antenna and RCS measurements. Some of the problems that were investigated by the ASU are illustrated by representative examples.

  4. ARNOLD MESA ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.; McColly, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic geochemical, and aeromagnetic investigations and a survey of mines and prospects in the Arnold Mesa Roadless Area, Arizona, provide little evidence for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Buried Proterozoic basement rocks are possible hosts of porphyry-type copper and massive sulfide deposits but the thick cover of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and upper Cenozoic volcanic rocks precluded assessment of this possibility. Chemistry and temperature of spring and well waters suggest that a geothermal resource may exist near the eastern margin of the roadless area, but the anomaly has not been tested by drilling and this resource remains unverified. No other energy resources were identified.

  5. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  6. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  7. Spatiotemporal characterization of land subsidence and uplift in Phoenix using InSAR time series and wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Megan Marie; Shirzaei, Manoochehr

    2015-08-01

    The effects of land subsidence pose a significant hazard to the environment and infrastructure in the arid, alluvial basins of Phoenix, Arizona. Improving our understanding of the source and mechanisms of subsidence is important for planning and risk management. Here we employ multitemporal interferometric analysis of large synthetic aperture radar data sets acquired by ERS and Envisat satellites to investigate ground deformation. The ERS data sets from 1992 to 1996 and Envisat, 2003-2010, are used to generate line of sight (LOS) time series and velocities in both the ascending and descending tracks. The general deformation pattern is consistent among data sets and is characterized by three zones of subsidence and a broad zone of uplift. The multitrack Envisat LOS time series of surface deformation are inverted to obtain spatiotemporal maps of the vertical and horizontal deformation fields. We use observation wells to provide an in situ, independent data set of hydraulic head levels. Then we analyze vertical interferometric synthetic aperture radar and hydraulic head level time series using continuous wavelet transform to separate periodic signal components and the long-term trend. The isolated signal components are used to estimate the elastic storage coefficient, the inelastic skeletal storage coefficient, and compaction time constants. Together these parameters describe the storage response of an aquifer system to changes in hydraulic head and surface elevation. Understanding aquifer parameters is useful for the ongoing management of groundwater resources.

  8. Carpological analysis of Phoenix (Arecaceae): contributions to the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main purpose of this study was, first, to analyze the morphology of seeds of Phoenix spp. and relevant cultivars and to assess the taxonomic value of the information generated as a means of studying the systematics and evolutionary history of the genus Phoenix. We then analyzed seed morphologica...

  9. 21 CFR 808.53 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arizona. 808.53 Section 808.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.53 Arizona....

  10. Arizona Women in Poverty Hearings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coudroglou, Aliki

    Prepared at the request of Arizona Governor Bruce Babbit, this report documents the state of poverty among women in Arizona and recommends an action plan that will alleviate their poor economic status. Discussion focuses on three factors identified as influencing conditions of poverty experienced by women: changing family structure, the labor…

  11. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Arizona. 131.31 Section 131.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.31 Arizona. (a) (b) The following waters have, in addition to the uses designated by the...

  12. The Arizona Report, 1999-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Report, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the seven issues of "The Arizona Report" published in 1999-2002. A newsletter of the Mexican American Studies & Research Center (MASRC) at the University of Arizona, this publication reports on social, educational, health, and economic research on Mexican Americans and opportunities in higher education and professional…

  13. Arizona School Construction Costs: Sample Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the current Arizona Construction practices and costs in order to provide quantitative and qualitative information to the Arizona Department of Education that will assist in making recommendations and projections for school facilities statewide. The data were taken from an in-depth study of new schools under…

  14. Meeting Northern Arizona's Supported Employment Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William E., Jr.; And Others

    In 1989 Northern Arizona University established a Supported Employment Training Center (SETC) to increase the number of trained job coaches in northern Arizona and provide knowledge and skills in supported employment to personnel from cooperating schools and agencies. First-year SETC activities focused on assessment of the training needs of…

  15. Future Changes: Implications for Arizona's Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Roger L.

    One of the working papers in the final report of the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and Competitiveness, this document focuses (in Part I) on the summary, conclusions, and recommendations of future changes and their relationship to the Arizona Universities; and, (in Part II) provides background materials for…

  16. 77 FR 74457 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona Application for Expansion (New Magnet Site) Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... (Board Order 185, 47 FR 14931, 04/07/82), and was expanded on July 2, 1993 (Board Order 647, 58 FR 37907, 07/14/93), on February 27, 2008 (Board Order 1545, 73 FR 13531, 03/13/08), and on March 23, 2010 (Board Order 1672). FTZ 75 was reorganized under the ASF on October 7, 2010 (Board Order 1716, 75...

  17. Instructional (I). Papers Presented at the Association for Educational Data Systems Annual Convention (Phoenix, Arizona, May 3-7, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    Sixteen articles and two abstracts on the use of computers and electronic equipment in instruction presented at the Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) 1976 convention are included here. Uses of the computer to generate and solve mathematical models, to generate examinations, and to facilitate concept learning are examined. Six…

  18. National College Physical Education Association for Men. Proceedings of Annual Meeting (78th, Phoenix, Arizona, January 9-12, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedvilas, Leo L., Ed.

    In addition to the presidential address and the general session address (concerning barriers to communication and how they relate the physical education), the proceedings contain speeches in the areas of (1) research, (2) sport and leisure, and (3) professional preparation. Some of these include presentations on (1) contributions to thought on…

  19. NECC '91: Proceedings of the Annual National Educational Computing Conference (12th, Phoenix, Arizona, June 16-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Susan, Ed.

    The theme of this annual conference was "Solutions," and referred to both human and electronic solutions. The proceedings are organized by conference day and contain the following: (1) Tuesday--presentations on multicultural and multimedia education, telecommunications, hypermedia, problem solving, mathematics instruction, language arts, social…

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

  1. 77 FR 26039 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Phoenix Copper Leach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Phoenix Copper Leach... prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Phoenix Copper Leach Project and by this... notice in the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the FEIS for the Phoenix Copper Leach Project...

  2. Atmospheric Condensation in the Mars Phoenix TECP and MET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    A new calibration function for the humidity sensor in the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) on the Phoenix Mars mission has been developed. The data is now cast in terms of Frost Point (T(sub f)) and some flight data, taken when the atmosphere is independently known to be saturated, is included in the calibration data set. Combined with data from the Meteorology Mast air temperature sensors, a very sensitive detection of atmospheric saturation becomes possible (Figure 1).

  3. Far-Northern Destination for Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The planned landing site for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander lies at a latitude on Mars equivalent to northern Alaska on Earth. It is within the region designated 'D' on this global image.

    This is an orthographic projection with color-coded elevation contours and shaded relief based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Total vertical relief is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) from the top of the highest volcano (red) to the northern lowlands (blue). North pole is where the longitude lines converge.

  4. Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mapping of generalized land use (level 1) from ERTS 1 images was shown to be feasible with better than 95% accuracy in the Phoenix quadrangle. The accuracy of level 2 mapping in urban areas is still a problem. Updating existing maps also proved to be feasible, especially in water categories and agricultural uses; however, expanding urban growth has presented with accuracy. ERTS 1 film images indicated where areas of change were occurring, thus aiding focusing-in for more detailed investigation. ERTS color composite transparencies provided a cost effective source of information for land use mapping of very large regions at small map scales.

  5. Analysis of Effectiveness of Phoenix Entry Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Glass, Christopher E.; Desai, Prasun, N.; VanNorman, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between the external flowfield and the reaction control system (RCS) thruster plumes of the Phoenix capsule during entry has been investigated. The analysis covered rarefied, transitional, hypersonic and supersonic flight regimes. Performance of pitch, yaw and roll control authority channels was evaluated, with specific emphasis on the yaw channel due to its low nominal yaw control authority. Because Phoenix had already been constructed and its RCS could not be modified before flight, an assessment of RCS efficacy along the trajectory was needed to determine possible issues and to make necessary software changes. Effectiveness of the system at various regimes was evaluated using a hybrid DSMC-CFD technique, based on DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) code and General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), the LAURA (Langley Aerothermal Upwind Relaxation Algorithm) code, and the FUN3D (Fully Unstructured 3D) code. Results of the analysis at hypersonic and supersonic conditions suggest a significant aero-RCS interference which reduced the efficacy of the thrusters and could likely produce control reversal. Very little aero-RCS interference was predicted in rarefied and transitional regimes. A recommendation was made to the project to widen controller system deadbands to minimize (if not eliminate) the use of RCS thrusters through hypersonic and supersonic flight regimes, where their performance would be uncertain.

  6. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Campbell, Gaylon S.; Campbell, Colin S.; Cardell, Greg; Foote, Marc C.; Wood, Stephen E.; Mehta, Manish

    2009-03-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) is a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) payload on the Phoenix Lander. TECP will measure the temperature, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity of the regolith. It will also detect and quantify the population of mobile H2O molecules in the regolith, if any, throughout the polar summer, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the regolith as well as the dielectric permittivity. In the vapor phase, TECP is capable of measuring the atmospheric H2O vapor abundance as well as augmenting the wind velocity measurements from the meteorology instrumentation. TECP is mounted near the end of the 2.3 m Robotic Arm and can be placed either in the regolith material or held aloft in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development and calibration of the TECP. In addition, substantial characterization of the instrument has been conducted to identify behavioral characteristics that might affect landed surface operations. The greatest potential issue identified in characterization tests is the extraordinary sensitivity of the TECP to placement. Small gaps alter the contact between the TECP and regolith, complicating data interpretation. Testing with the Phoenix Robotic Arm identified mitigation techniques that will be implemented during flight. A flight model of the instrument was also field tested in the Antarctic Dry Valleys during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year.

  7. Vulnerability assessment of climate-induced water shortage in Phoenix

    PubMed Central

    Gober, Patricia; Kirkwood, Craig W.

    2010-01-01

    Global warming has profound consequences for the climate of the American Southwest and its overallocated water supplies. This paper uses simulation modeling and the principles of decision making under uncertainty to translate climate information into tools for vulnerability assessment and urban climate adaptation. A dynamic simulation model, WaterSim, is used to explore future water-shortage conditions in Phoenix. Results indicate that policy action will be needed to attain water sustainability in 2030, even without reductions in river flows caused by climate change. Challenging but feasible changes in lifestyle and slower rates of population growth would allow the region to avoid shortage conditions and achieve groundwater sustainability under all but the most dire climate scenarios. Changes in lifestyle involve more native desert landscaping and fewer pools in addition to slower growth and higher urban densities. There is not a single most likely or optimal future for Phoenix. Urban climate adaptation involves using science-based models to anticipate water shortage and manage climate risk. PMID:21149729

  8. Dispersion of an urban photochemical plume in Phoenix metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Mi; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality simulations were conducted using MM5/CMAQ modeling platform to study the intricacies introduced by photochemical reactions during the dispersion of urban pollution plume of Phoenix metropolis. The simulation days included the sole ozone episode recorded during 1996-2005, which violated the previous 1-h ozone standard (0.12 ppm). The modeling results suggest that the Phoenix urban plume can be described in terms of “inert passive dispersion” and “chemically active dispersion”. The former is exemplified by the CO distribution and takes the form of a Gaussian-like plume, for which the source is located at the ground level of the urban core or a freeway. The passive dispersion, nevertheless, is directly subjected to heterogeneities of topography and flow patterns, and hence cannot be strictly Gaussian. The case of active dispersion is much more complicated, and leads to a different plume shape, depending on the chemical reactivity of pollutant species. Secondary pollutants such as ozone and its precursors cause the plume core to have its maximum concentration far downwind of the urban area. Chemical species such as VOCs, which are directly emitted from a source as well as transformed by other primary pollutants, form a plume that qualitatively resembles a transition from an inert plume (CO) to a highly reactive plume (NOx).

  9. The Thermal Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Campbell, Gaylon S.; Campbell, Colin S.; Cardell, Greg; Foote, Marc C.; Wood, Stephen E.; Mehta, Manish

    2009-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) is a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) payload on the Phoenix Lander. TECP will measure the temperature, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the regolith. It will also detect and quantify the population of mobile H2O molecules in the regolith, if any, throughout the polar summer, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the regolith, as well as the dielectric permittivity. In the vapor phase, TECP is capable of measuring the atmospheric H2O vapor abundance, as well as augment the wind velocity measurements from the meteorology instrumentation. TECP is mounted near the end of the 2.3 m Robotic Arm, and can be placed either in the regolith material or held aloft in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development and calibration of the TECP. In addition, substantial characterization of the instrument has been conducted to identify behavioral characteristics that might affect landed surface operations. The greatest potential issue identified in characterization tests is the extraordinary sensitivity of the TECP to placement. Small gaps alter the contact between the TECP and regolith, complicating data interpretation. Testing with the Phoenix Robotic Arm identified mitigation techniques that will be implemented during flight. A flight model of the instrument was also field tested in the Antarctic Dry Valleys during the 2007-2008 International Polar year. 2

  10. Parent Attitudes about Education in Arizona: 2005 [and] Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, David R.; Molnar, Alex; Merrill, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 the Arizona Education Policy Initiative (AEPI), a collaboration of Arizona State University, Northern Arizona University, and the University of Arizona, conducted its first-annual survey of parents in a systematic effort to capture parent opinion and establish a framework for tracking parent views over time. Assessing parent opinion is…

  11. Geothermal resources in Arizona: a bibliography. Circular 23

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography references all reports and maps generated by the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology and the Arizona Geothermal Commercialization Team of the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arizona. To provide a more comprehensive listing of geothermal energy in Arizona, all available geothermal papers from other sources have been included. A total of 224 references are presented. (MHR)

  12. Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis cerberus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    The Arizona black rattlesnake makes its home at higher elevations in Arizona and far western New Mexico. The snake's use of high-altitude habitat and its black coloration as an adult distinguishes it from other subspecies of the western rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis), which prefer lower elevations and range from tan to reddish in color as adults. These physical and habitat differences are also reflected in genetic differences that suggest that the Arizona black rattlesnake may be a new species of rattlesnake. Despite the species's limited range, basic biological information needed to make management decisions is lacking for most Arizona black rattlesnake populations. To address this need, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists conducted research on the species in Arizona national park units from 2003 to 2005. The research examined relative population abundance, movement patterns, range requirements, dietary habits, and winter and summer habitat. Research in Arizona national parks was made possible through the support of the Western National Parks Association, Tonto National Monument, and the USGS Science Internships for Workforce Diversity Program. Importantly, the park-based research was used to augment a long-term mark-recapture study of the species that has been conducted by USGS biologists at sites near Flagstaff, Arizona, since 1999. USGS researchers were the first to conduct extensive studies of this species in the wild.

  13. Disturbances in the Arizona Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gall, Robert; Herman, Benjamin; Reagan, John

    1989-01-01

    Numerical modeling simulations of tropical squall lines were begun to determine the role of large scale terrain features over Arizona and Mexico in their initiation and propagation. Installation was completed for a short-base, high resolution lightning location and detection network in and around Tucson. Data from a Doppler wind profiler is being analyzed to determine the role of large scale heating over the inter-mountain plateau region in governing local diurnal wind variations and possible relationships to the monsoon flow. The portable solar photometer for determining high temporal resolution values of the local precipitable water vapor was completed and calibrated. The assembly is nearly completed for a multi-channel microwave passive radiometer to determine local temperature and water vapor profiles.

  14. Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, E.W.; Light, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in 1980 in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas.

  15. Evolving Graduate Programs in Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, C. D.

    2002-12-01

    At the University of Arizona, as in many other top-ranked research institutions, there is a tension between the desire to give student broad enough skills for the workplace with the demands of the specific academic discipline. 2/3 of the Astronomy graduate students at Steward Observatory go on to permanent jobs at universities or observatories, but some of our most successful graduates take more diverse career paths. We do not wish to sacrifice academic rigor in astrophysics or the primary goal of training students in research. However, we are creating opportunities for (a) students to take M.Sc. and eventually Ph.D. degrees with a specialization in education, and (b) students with technical skills to have Ph.D. minors in optics, applied physics, or ECE. This second initiative is the subject of a pending NSF/IGERT proposal, with the science theme "Search for other Worlds."

  16. STRAWBERRY CRATER ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas. 9 refs.

  17. FOSSIL SPRINGS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L.S.; Ellis, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Based on field studies, the Fossil Springs Roadless Area in central Arizona is concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Rocks in the Supai Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) near the central part of the roadless area contain widespread but spotty copper mineralization and trace amounts of uranium. Analyses obtained during the study define geochemical anomalies in two portions of the area that remain unexplained. The suites of anomalous metals suggest the possibility of hydrothermal veins and the presence of ultramafic rocks; neither were found in the field. Although there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, studies to identify the source of the geochemical anomalies could have valuable implications for regional studies and mineral exploration in the surrounding area.

  18. Education Priorities for the 83rd Texas Legislature: Policy Recommendations for Public Education and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Business Leadership Council, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Texas' ability to create an education system that delivers on workforce and post-secondary readiness for all students is crucial to our long-term prosperity. We must fully transform our state's education system to meet the challenges and opportunities so clearly evident today. Yet, according to a report commissioned by the Houston Endowment from…

  19. NASA's MISR Instrument Sees Arizona Wildfires Burn

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation from NASA’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra spacecraft show the Wallow and Horseshoe 2 Fires burning in Arizona mid-morning (local time) on Jun...

  20. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  1. Optomechanical engineering education at University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burge, James H.; Parks, Robert

    2009-08-01

    The College of Optical Sciences at University of Arizona has established excellent programs for training BS, MS, and Ph.D. students in optical sciences and engineering. Research activities at the University of Arizona have also been closely coupled to developments in the field of optomechanical engineering. In response to request from the optics industry, we have recently expanded the educational opportunities for BS and MS students to follow engineering curricula that provide the right mix of optics and mechanical engineering.

  2. Dust events in Arizona: Long-term satellite and surface observations, and the National Air Quality Forecasting Capability CMAQ simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Tong, D.; Lee, P.; Pan, L.; Tang, Y.; Stajner, I.; Pierce, R. B.; McQueen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Dust events in Arizona: An analysis integrating satellite and surface weather and aerosol measurements, and National Air Quality Forecasting Capability CMAQ simulations Dust records in Arizona during 2005-2013 are developed using multiple observation datasets, including level 2 deep blue aerosol product by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the in-situ measurements at the surface Air Quality System (AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites in Phoenix. The satellite and surface aerosol observations were anti-correlated with three drought indicators (i.e., MODIS vegetation index, a European satellite soil moisture dataset, and Palmer Drought Severity Index). During the dusty year of 2007, we show that the dust events were stronger and more frequent in the afternoon hours than in the morning due to faster winds and drier soil, and the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts were important dust source regions during identified dust events in Phoenix as indicated by NOAA's Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model calculations. Based on these findings, we suggested a potential for use of satellite soil moisture and vegetation index products to interpret and predict dust activity. We also emphasized the importance of using hourly observations for better capturing dust events, and expect the hourly geostationary satellite observations in the future to well complement the current surface PM and meteorological observations considering their broader spatial coverage. Additionally, the performance of the National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC) 12 km CMAQ model simulation is evaluated during a recent strong dust event in the western US accompanied by stratospheric ozone intrusion. The current modeling system well captured the temporal variability and the magnitude of aerosol concentrations during this event. Directions of integrating satellite weather and vegetation observations

  3. Chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments and implications for environmental management, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.T.C.; Fossum, K.D.; Ingersoll, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly growing Phoenix metropolitan area of Maricopa County, Arizona, showed that the inorganic component of these sediments generally reflects geologic background values. Some concentrations of metals were above background values, especially cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these elements to the sediment chemistry. Concentrations, however, were not at levels that would require soil remediation according to guidelines of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic concentrations generally were above recommended values for remediation at a few sites, but these concentrations seem to reflect geologic rather than anthropogenic factors. Several organochlorine compounds no longer in use were ubiquitous in the Phoenix area, although concentrations generally were low. Chlordane, DDT and its decay products DDE and DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and PCBs were found at almost all sites sampled, although some of the pesticides in which these compounds are found have been banned for almost 30 years. A few sites showed exceptionally high concentrations of organochlorine compounds. On the basis of published guidelines, urban stormwater sediments do not appear to constitute a major regional environmental problem with respect to the chemical characteristics investigated here. At individual sites, high concentrations of organic compounds - chlordane, dieldrin, PCBs, and toxaphene - may require some attention. The possible environmental hazard presented by low-level organochlorine contamination is not addressed in this paper; however, high levels of toxicity in urban sediments are difficult to explain. Sediment toxicity varied significantly with time, which indicates that these tests should be evaluated carefully before they are used for management decisions.Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly

  4. The water cycle at the Phoenix landing site, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Selby

    2010-01-01

    The water cycle is critically important to understanding Mars system science, especially interactions between water and surface minerals or possible biological systems. In this thesis, the water cycle is examined at the Mars Phoenix landing site (68.22°N, 125.70°W), using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), the Phoenix Lander Surface Stereo Imager (SSI), and employing non-linear spectral mixing models. The landing site is covered for part of the year by the seasonal ice cap, a layer of CO2 and H2O ice that is deposited in mid-fall and sublimates in mid-spring. During the mid-summer, H2O ice is deposited on the surface at the Phoenix landing site. CO2 ice forms at the site during fall. The onset date of seasonal ices varies annually, perhaps due to variable levels of atmospheric dust. During fall and winter, the CO2 ice layer thickens and sinters into a slab of ice, ˜30 cm thick. After the spring equinox, the CO2 slab breaks into smaller grains as it sublimates. Long before all of the CO2 ice is gone, H2O ice dominates the near-infrared spectra of the surface. Additional H2O ice is cold-trapped onto the surface of the CO2 ice deposit during this time. Sublimation during the spring is not uniform, and depends on the thermal inertia properties of the surface, including depth of ground ice. All of the seasonal ices have sublimated by mid-spring; however, a few permanent ice deposits remain throughout the summer. These are small water ice deposits on the north-facing slopes of Heimdal Crater and adjacent plateaus, and a small patch of mobile water ices that chases shadows in a small crater near the landing site. During the late spring and early summer, the site is free of surface ice. During this time, the water cycle is dominated by vapor exchange between the subsurface water ice deposits and the atmosphere. Two types of subsurface ice were found at the Phoenix landing site

  5. Phoenix Mars Lander's Chemistry Lab in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The wet chemistry laboratory on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has four teacup-size beakers. This photograph shows one of them. The laboratory is part of the spacecraft's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer.

    Each beaker will be used only once, for assessing soluble chemicals in a sample of Martian soil by mixing water with the sample to a soupy consistency and keeping it warm enough to remain liquid during the analysis.

    On the inner surface of the beaker are 26 sensors, mostly electrodes behind selectively permeable membranes or gels. Some sensors will give information about the acidity or alkalinity of the soil sample. Others will gauge concentrations of such ions as chlorides, bromides, magnesium, calcium and potassium. Comparisons of the concentrations of water-soluble ions in soil samples from different depths below the surface of the landing site may provide clues to the history of the water in the soil.

  6. Phoenix Mars Scout Parachute Flight Behavior and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Douglas S.; Witkowski, Allen; Kandis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The data returned from the successful Phoenix Mars Scout mission are analyzed in order to determine characteristics and behaviors of the supersonic parachute that was used to slow the entry body during its descent to the surface. At least one significant drag reduction event was observed when the vehicle was traveling at Mach 1.6; this is consistent with previously reported terrestrial high altitude testing and is likely associated with an area oscillation of the parachute. The parachute is shown to possess some lateral instability relative to the anti-velocity vector that is also at a level that is consistent with the same historic data. Ramifications of the lateral instability and, in particular, the unsteadiness in the parachute drag are discussed as energizing elements of the entry body wrist mode. The apparent coefficient of drag for the parachute is calculated and shown to have relatively small variations on an average basis over the supersonic portion of flight.

  7. Genome sequence of the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Xiaowei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Wanfei; Tan, Jun; Yu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jiucheng; Pan, Linlin; Zhang, Tongwu; Yin, Yuxin; Xin, Chengqi; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Guangyu; Ba Abdullah, Mohammed M.; Huang, Dawei; Fang, Yongjun; Alnakhli, Yasser O.; Jia, Shangang; Yin, An; Alhuzimi, Eman M.; Alsaihati, Burair A.; Al-Owayyed, Saad A.; Zhao, Duojun; Zhang, Sun; Al-Otaibi, Noha A.; Sun, Gaoyuan; Majrashi, Majed A.; Li, Fusen; Tala; Wang, Jixiang; Yun, Quanzheng; Alnassar, Nafla A.; Wang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Al-Jelaify, Rasha F.; Liu, Kan; Gao, Shenghan; Chen, Kaifu; Alkhaldi, Samiyah R.; Liu, Guiming; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Haiyan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a cultivated woody plant species with agricultural and economic importance. Here we report a genome assembly for an elite variety (Khalas), which is 605.4 Mb in size and covers >90% of the genome (~671 Mb) and >96% of its genes (~41,660 genes). Genomic sequence analysis demonstrates that P. dactylifera experienced a clear genome-wide duplication after either ancient whole genome duplications or massive segmental duplications. Genetic diversity analysis indicates that its stress resistance and sugar metabolism-related genes tend to be enriched in the chromosomal regions where the density of single-nucleotide polymorphisms is relatively low. Using transcriptomic data, we also illustrate the date palm’s unique sugar metabolism that underlies fruit development and ripening. Our large-scale genomic and transcriptomic data pave the way for further genomic studies not only on P. dactylifera but also other Arecaceae plants. PMID:23917264

  8. Vegetative community control of freshwater availability: Phoenix Islands case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, M.; Heinse, R.

    2014-12-01

    On small low islands with limited freshwater resources, terrestrial plant communities play a large role in moderating freshwater availability. Freshwater demands of vegetative communities are variable depending on the composition of the community. Hence, changes to community structure from production crop introductions, non-native species invasions, and climate change, may have significant implications for freshwater availability. Understanding how vegetative community changes impact freshwater availability will allow for better management and forecasting of limited freshwater supplies. To better understand these dynamics, we investigated three small tropical atolls in the Phoenix Island Protected Area, Kiribati. Despite their close proximity, these islands receive varying amounts of rainfall, are host to different plant communities and two of the islands have abandoned coconut plantations. Using electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, soil samples, climate and satellite data, we present preliminary estimates of vegetative water demand for different tropical plant communities.

  9. Regional Land Use Mapping: the Phoenix Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Place, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    The Phoenix Pilot Program has been designed to make effective use of past experience in making land use maps and collecting land use information. Conclusions reached from the project are: (1) Land use maps and accompanying statistical information of reasonable accuracy and quality can be compiled at a scale of 1:250,000 from orbital imagery. (2) Orbital imagery used in conjunction with other sources of information when available can significantly enhance the collection and analysis of land use information. (3) Orbital imagery combined with modern computer technology will help resolve the problem of obtaining land use data quickly and on a regular basis, which will greatly enhance the usefulness of such data in regional planning, land management, and other applied programs. (4) Agreement on a framework or scheme of land use classification for use with orbital imagery will be necessary for effective use of land use data.

  10. H2O at the Phoenix landing site.

    PubMed

    Smith, P H; Tamppari, L K; Arvidson, R E; Bass, D; Blaney, D; Boynton, W V; Carswell, A; Catling, D C; Clark, B C; Duck, T; Dejong, E; Fisher, D; Goetz, W; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Hecht, M H; Hipkin, V; Hoffman, J; Hviid, S F; Keller, H U; Kounaves, S P; Lange, C F; Lemmon, M T; Madsen, M B; Markiewicz, W J; Marshall, J; McKay, C P; Mellon, M T; Ming, D W; Morris, R V; Pike, W T; Renno, N; Staufer, U; Stoker, C; Taylor, P; Whiteway, J A; Zent, A P

    2009-07-01

    The Phoenix mission investigated patterned ground and weather in the northern arctic region of Mars for 5 months starting 25 May 2008 (solar longitude between 76.5 degrees and 148 degrees ). A shallow ice table was uncovered by the robotic arm in the center and edge of a nearby polygon at depths of 5 to 18 centimeters. In late summer, snowfall and frost blanketed the surface at night; H(2)O ice and vapor constantly interacted with the soil. The soil was alkaline (pH = 7.7) and contained CaCO(3), aqueous minerals, and salts up to several weight percent in the indurated surface soil. Their formation likely required the presence of water. PMID:19574383

  11. Mission Design Overview for the Phoenix Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Mark D.; Fujii, Kenneth K.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix mission "follows the water" by landing in a region where NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter has discovered evidence of ice-rich soil very near the Martian surface. For three months after landing, the fixed Lander will perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, sub-surface, and atmosphere, and will identify potential provenance of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics and any accessible water ice. The Lander will employ a robotic arm to dig to the ice layer, and will analyze the acquired samples using a suite of deck-mounted, science instruments. The development of the baseline strategy to achieve the objectives of this mission involves the integration of a variety of elements into a coherent mission plan.

  12. In Brief: NASA's Phoenix spacecraft lands on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Kumar, Mohi

    2008-06-01

    After a 9.5-month, 679-million-kilometer flight from Florida, NASA's Phoenix spacecraft made a soft landing in Vastitas Borealis in Mars's northern polar region on 25 May. The lander, whose camera already has returned some spectacular images, is on a 3-month mission to examine the area and dig into the soil of this site-chosen for its likelihood of having frozen water near the surface-and analyze samples. In addition to a robotic arm and robotic arm camera, the lander's instruments include a surface stereo imager; thermal and evolved-gas analyzer; microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer; and a meteorological station that is tracking daily weather and seasonal changes.

  13. Photoelastic stress analysis on a Phoenix 7. 9-meter blade

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W D; Jenks, M D; Osgood, R M; Johnson, J A

    1991-10-01

    Photoelastic tests were conducted on the Phoenix 7.9-meter blade to develop the basic methodology for locating critical strain areas on full-scale composite structures. Under relatively low elastic loading the strain fields over various regions on the blade planform were documented with 35mm photographs under different loading conditions at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Structural Test Facility (STF). Strain concentrations were easily located and quantified. Principal strain magnitudes and directions were determined at the highest strain areas using separator gages. Results were compared to measured operating loads. This experiment demonstrated the value of experimental stress analysis using the photoelastic technique for the evaluation of composite blade designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Evidence for Calcium Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.; Sutter, B.; Arvidson, R. E.; Hoffman, J.; Niles, P. B.; Smith, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix mission has recently finished its study of the north polar environment of Mars with the aim to help understand both the current climate and to put constraints on past climate. An important part of understanding the past climate is the study of secondary minerals, those formed by reaction with volatile compounds such as H2O and CO2. This work describes observations made by the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) on the Phoenix Lander related to carbonate minerals. Carbonates are generally considered to be products of aqueous processes. A wet and warmer climate during the early history of Mars coupled with a much denser CO2 atmosphere are ideal conditions for the aqueous alteration of basaltic materials and the subsequent formation of carbonates. Carbonates (Mg- and Ca-rich) are predicted to be thermodynamically stable minerals in the present martian environment, however, there have been only a few indications of carbonates on the surface by a host of orbiting and landed missions to Mars. Carbonates (Mg-rich) have been suggested to be a component (2-5 wt %) of the martian global dust based upon orbital thermal emission spectroscopy. The identifications, based on the presence of a 1480 cm-1 absorption feature, are consistent with Mgcarbonates. A similar feature is observed in brighter, undisturbed soils by Mini-TES on the Gusev plains. Recently, Mg-rich carbonates have been identified in the Nili Fossae region by the CRISM instrument onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Carbonates have also been confirmed as aqueous alteration phases in martian meteorites so it is puzzling why there have not been more discoveries of carbonates by landers, rovers, and orbiters. Carbonates may hold important clues about the history of liquid water and aqueous processes on the surface of Mars.

  15. Developing Carbon Budgets for Cities: Phoenix as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, M. R.; Baker, L. A.; Koerner, B. A.; Grimm, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have shown that cities can alter regional carbon dynamics through changing ecosystem productivity, overall carbon cycling rate, and total carbon storage in vegetation and soils. Furthermore, people in urban regions import a large amount of carbon in food and fuel, as well as release an exceptional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify some sources and sinks of carbon in urban areas, although a complete carbon budget for a city that accounts for total inputs, outputs, and storage within the ecosystem has yet to be fully accomplished. One challenge is associated with attaining the data necessary to accurately account for all carbon dynamics in these heterogeneous and complex ecosystems. Our goal was to estimate a budget for the Phoenix metropolitan area while developing methodology to calculate carbon dynamics in urban systems that can be applied to cities across the US. Only with comparable carbon budgets for multiple cities will we finally begin to understand the influence of urbanization on carbon dynamics. Our analysis shows when calculating certain variables like transportation emissions, results can vary radically (up to 250%) depending on the data source and methodology implemented (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down). A common assumption is that productivity and carbon storage will increase with urbanization in arid systems due to water and nutrient inputs, as well as changes in vegetation structure; however, our results indicated that this may not actually be the case in Phoenix where a large number of residents design landscapes to conserve water. Even if all urban expansion was dedicated to landscapes designed for carbon sequestration and storage, vegetation and soils will unlikely have a large effect on the C budget without significant changes in transportation and lifestyle choices.

  16. Ground Ice at the Phoenix Landing Site: A Preflight Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellon, M. T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F.; Tamppari, L. K.; Boynton, W. V.; Smith, P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Mars Scout mission, Phoenix, is to characterize the present state of water in the martian environment, in a location where water may play a significant role in the present and past habitability of Mars. Given the generally dry and cold climate of Mars today any substantial amount of water is expected to occur in the form of ground ice (subsurface ice) within the regolith. The Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer has indicated abundant subsurface hydrogen and inferred ground ice at high latitudes. Therefore, the Phoenix mission will be targeted to land in the northern high latitudes (approximately 65 degrees N - 75 degrees N) where ground ice is expected to be abundantly available for analysis. The lander will be capable of excavating, sampling, and analyzing, dry and water-rich/icy soils. The location and depth of excavation necessary to achieve the goals of sampling and analysis of icy material become important parameters to assess. In the present work we ask two key questions: 1) At what depth within the regolith do we expect to find ice? 2) How might this depth vary over the region of potential landing sites? Numerous lines of evidence can be employed to provide an indication of the presence or absence of shallow ground ice at the potential landing sites. For example geomorphology, neutrons, gamma rays, and theory each contribute clues to an overall understanding of the distribution of ice. Orbital observations provide information on a variety of spatial scales, typically 10 s of meters (patterned ground) to 100 s of kilometers (gamma rays). While information on all of these scales are important, of particular interest is how the presence and depth of ground ice might vary on spatial scales comparable to the lander and its work area. While ground ice may be stable (and present) on a regional scale, local-scale slopes and changes in the physical characteristics of soils can result in significant variations in the distribution of ice.

  17. Chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments and implications for environmental management, Maricopa County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.T.C.; Fossum, K.D.; Ingersoll, T.L.

    2000-07-01

    Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly growing Phoenix metropolitan area of Maricopa County, Arizona, showed that the inorganic component of these sediments generally reflects geologic background values. Some concentrations of metals were above background values, especially cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these elements to the sediment chemistry. Concentrations, however, were not at levels that would require soil remediation according to guidelines of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic concentrations generally were above recommended values for remediation at a few sites, but these concentrations seem to reflect geologic rather than anthropogenic factors. Several organochlorine compounds no longer in use were ubiquitous in the Phoenix area, although concentrations generally were low. Chlordane, DDT and its decay products DDE and DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and PCBs were found at almost all sites sampled, although some of the pesticides in which these compounds are found have been banned for almost 30 years. A few sites showed exceptionally high concentrations of organochlorine compounds. On the basis of published guidelines, urban stormwater sediments do not appear to constitute a major regional environmental problem with respect to the chemical characteristics investigated here. At individual sites, high concentrations of organic compounds--chlordane, dieldrin, PCBs, and toxaphene--may require some attention. The possible environmental hazard presented by low-level organochlorine contamination is not addresses in this paper; however, high levels of toxicity in urban sediments are difficult to explain. Sediment toxicity varied significantly with time, which indicates that these tests should be evaluated carefully before they are used for management decisions.

  18. Phoenix Landing Site Geomorphology: Surface Stability and Implications for the Martian Latitude-dependent Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J. S.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    Geomorphological observations of the Phoenix landing site suggest a history for local permafrost recently dominated by excess ice removal through sublimation, ongoing thermal contraction cracking, and limited cryoturbation by wet or dry processes.

  19. Landing Site Dispersion Analysis and Statistical Assessment for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Adams, Douglas; Craig, Lynn; Spencer, David A.; Strauss, William; Seelos, Frank P.; Seelos, Kimberly D.; Arvidson, Ray; Heet, Tabatha

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander launched on August 4, 2007 and successfully landed on Mars 10 months later on May 25, 2008. Landing ellipse predicts and hazard maps were key in selecting safe surface targets for Phoenix. Hazard maps were based on terrain slopes, geomorphology maps and automated rock counts of MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. The expected landing dispersion which led to the selection of Phoenix's surface target is discussed as well as the actual landing dispersion predicts determined during operations in the weeks, days, and hours before landing. A statistical assessment of these dispersions is performed, comparing the actual landing-safety probabilities to criteria levied by the project. Also discussed are applications for this statistical analysis which were used by the Phoenix project. These include using the statistical analysis used to verify the effectiveness of a pre-planned maneuver menu and calculating the probability of future maneuvers.

  20. 75 FR 67454 - First Arizona Savings, FSB, Scottsdale, Arizona; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision First Arizona Savings, FSB, Scottsdale, Arizona; Notice of Appointment of... Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance... 22, 2010. Dated: October 26, 2010. By the Office of Thrift Supervision. Sandra E. Evans,...

  1. Arizona Counselors' Perceptions of School to Work: Baseline Results. Arizona School to Work Briefing Paper #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandegrift, Judith A.; Wright, Joel

    A baseline study of Arizona public school counselors ascertained the amount of time they spent individually with students and the nature of the counseling provided; it also measured their opinions and attitudes toward school-to-work (STW). Surveys were mailed to every Arizona high school and junior high/middle school, a random sample of elementary…

  2. Five Shoes Waiting To Drop on Arizona's Future. Arizona Policy Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Morrison Inst. for Public Policy.

    This fourth annual publication looks at five trends that threaten Arizona's future: (1) a talent shakeup where well-educated young professional and highly skilled immigrants leave the states; (2) the Latino education dilemma, manifest by the fact that only half of Arizona Latinos obtain a high-school diploma; (3) a fuzzy economic identity…

  3. 78 FR 13889 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... no. 19765a). In 1943, L.F. Brady donated three Hopi prayer sticks (cat nos. E-1787-1789) to the Arizona State Museum. In 1958, Father Victor Stoner donated a Snake Dance kilt (cat no. E-3606) to the... part of an exchange. In 1965, the Arizona State Museum purchased a polychrome medicine bowl (cat no....

  4. COMPARISONS OF PESTICIDE LEVELS AND EXPOSURES IN NHEXAS ARIZONA AND ARIZONA-MEXICO BORDER POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distributions of organophosphate (OP) insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon in exposure matrices such as indoor air, house dust, food, and water have been determined for 416 homes in the general Arizona population, and for 87 homes along the Arizona-Mexico border. The con...

  5. 76 FR 28079 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... worked stick object, 2 wooden awls, 89 glass beads, 1 lot of blue pigment, and 1 stick pin. The five... Arizona State Museum in 1943. In 1954, Mr. Joel Shiner collected 89 glass beads and 1 lot of blue pigment... the pigment were donated to the Arizona State Museum in 1955. There is no indication that...

  6. History of the Phoenix VTOL SSTO and recent developments in single-stage launch systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Gary C.

    The history of the VTOL SSTO (single stage to orbit) concept and the Phoenix designs is reviewed. The role the Phoenix concept played in stimulating consideration of the SSTO approach by the U.S. Government in ongoing SSTO concept studies is also discussed. It is pointed out that these studies are currently expected to lead to prototype hardware development aimed at demonstrating the SSTO approach by 1995-1997 in the form of the McDonnell-Douglas DC-Y.

  7. Early Proterozoic ophiolite, central Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Dann, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The 1.73 Ga Payson ophiolite is a pseudostratigraphic sequence of mafic plutons, dike swarms, sheeted dikes, and submarine basalts that intruded and erupted upon a 1.75-1.76 Ga magmatic-arc complex. The composition of the sheeted dikes is tholeiitic basalt (minor andesite) with island-arc affinities. The submarine basalts are overlain by dacitic breccias and a thick section of turbidites with ca. 1.72 Ga ash beds. The entire sequence was deformed, intruded by ca. 1.70 Ga granites, and unconformably overlain by fluvial to shallow-shelf sediments. Although most of the 1.8-1.6 Ga juvenile crust of Arizona consists of magmatic-arc rocks, the Payson ophiolite is unique and is interpreted to have formed the floor of an intra-arc basin. The ophiolite developed in situ on the older arc basement, as opposed to being thrust over it. The basin was accreted to the continent by ca. 1.70 Ga.

  8. Floods of November 1978 to March 1979 in Arizona and west-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, Byron Neil; Hales, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    , during the floods of November 1978 to January 1979 was stored in San Carlos Reservoir, and major flooding was averted along the Gila River between Coolidge Dam and Salt River. Minor flooding occurred along the Gila River downstream from San Pedro River. Floods in central and western Maricopa Count, Arizona, were caused by the release of water from full reservoirs on the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers, but peak discharges and duration of the floods were much less than would have occurred if the reservoirs had not been in place. Flow continued in the Salt River through Phoenix until May 1979. Floodwater was stored in the flood-control reservoir above Painted Rock Dam on the Gila River in order to prevent major damage along the Gila and Colorado Rivers. Water was released from Painted Rock Dam until January 1980. The prolonged flows and reduction in ground-water pumping caused ground-water levels to rise appreciably in many areas.

  9. Phoenix Indian School. Oversight Hearings on Phoenix Indian School before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Phoenix, AZ, February 13, 1987; Washington, DC, July 30, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    Since 1891, Phoenix Indian High School has served as a boarding school for Indian students. In February 1987, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) recommended that the school be closed, and that students be transferred to Sherman Indian School in Riverside, California. Congressional hearings in February and July 1987 received testimony on this…

  10. The Condition of Pre-K-12 Education in Arizona: 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Education Policy Initiative, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper, the second annual report by the Arizona Education Policy Initiative (AEPI), is a collection of policy briefs on key issues in Arizona education. The authors of these briefs are on the faculty of Arizona's three public universities: Arizona State University (ASU), Northern Arizona University (NAU), and the University of Arizona (UA).…

  11. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  12. AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN NEW YORK CITY NEAR BROOKLYN BRIDGE ON HER WAY TO SEA TRIALS. NOTE THE BIRD CAGE TOWERS, 1918. - USS Arizona, Submerged off Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 75 FR 60066 - Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...The Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Tucson, Arizona. The purpose of the meeting is for the committee members to discuss committee protocols, operating guidelines, and project proposal...

  14. Decision 2000: Moving Beyond Boundaries. Contributed Papers Presented at the Joint Conference of the Arizona State Library Association and the Arizona Educational Media Association (Phoenix, Arizona, November 13-17, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Carol, Ed.

    Five of the seven papers in this collection focus on the use of technology for information retrieval and resource sharing: (1) "Teaching Students How To Search Bibliographic Retrieval Systems: The Unit Record Approach" (George Bell); (2) "The Online Catalog and Bibliographic Databases as Shared Resources: The Impact and Issues of Networking a…

  15. Kaleidoscope: Joint Conference of the Arizona State Library Association, Mountain Plains Library Association and Arizona Education Media Association. Proceedings of the Research Forum (Phoenix, Arizona, October 29-November 2, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Carol, Ed.

    The six papers in this collection address as many different topics. In "Circulation Desk Staff Amiability and Patron Satisfaction," Laureen Cardon and Nathan M. Smith describe a study at Brigham Young University which demonstrated that interpersonal relations training for circulation desk staff could improve patron satisfaction. Anna L. DeMiller…

  16. The Domestication Syndrome in Phoenix dactylifera Seeds: Toward the Identification of Wild Date Palm Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Newton, Claire; Ivorra, Sarah; Pierre, Marie-Hélène; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Investigating crop origins is a priority to understand the evolution of plants under domestication, develop strategies for conservation and valorization of agrobiodiversity and acquire fundamental knowledge for cultivar improvement. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) belongs to the genus Phoenix, which comprises 14 species morphologically very close, sometimes hardly distinguishable. It has been cultivated for millennia in the Middle East and in North Africa and constitutes the keystone of oasis agriculture. Yet, its origins remain poorly understood as no wild populations are identified. Uncultivated populations have been described but they might represent feral, i.e. formerly cultivated, abandoned forms rather than truly wild populations. In this context, this study based on morphometrics applied to 1625 Phoenix seeds aims to (1) differentiate Phoenix species and (2) depict the domestication syndrome observed in cultivated date palm seeds using other Phoenix species as a “wild” reference. This will help discriminate truly wild from feral forms, thus providing new insights into the evolutionary history of this species. Seed size was evaluated using four parameters: length, width, thickness and dorsal view surface. Seed shape was quantified using outline analyses based on the Elliptic Fourier Transform method. The size and shape of seeds allowed an accurate differentiation of Phoenix species. The cultivated date palm shows distinctive size and shape features, compared to other Phoenix species: seeds are longer and elongated. This morphological shift may be interpreted as a domestication syndrome, resulting from the long-term history of cultivation, selection and human-mediated dispersion. Based on seed attributes, some uncultivated date palms from Oman may be identified as wild. This opens new prospects regarding the possible existence and characterization of relict wild populations and consequently for the understanding of the date palm origins. Finally, we

  17. Arizona Pupil Achievement Testing Statewide Report, June 1988 [and] Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    1988 is the eighth year of the Arizona Pupil Achievement Testing Program which is administered to fulfill the requirements of Arizona Revised Statutes Section 15-741 through Section 15-744. This legislation mandates that a nationally standardized norm-referenced achievement test be administered during April to all pupils enrolled in Arizona public…

  18. 75 FR 28649 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Arizona Resource Advisory Council meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource...

  19. 75 FR 51840 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Arizona Resource Advisory Council meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource...

  20. 75 FR 7518 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Arizona Resource...