Science.gov

Sample records for 85-gallon drum payload

  1. Payload Specific Evaluation for Concrete Lined Drums in the Standard Waste Box

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, P.G.

    2002-07-11

    Building 327 uses concrete-lined drums for handling waste generated from deactivation activities. This payload-specific evaluation assesses the shipment of these concrete-lined drums, as well as future drums, in the Standard Waste Box, certified Type A.

  2. Payloads

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses what is classified as a payload and describes the different categories of payloads. The video discusses the use of altimeters and accelerometers in recovery events and differen...

  3. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed.

  4. Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.

    2013-07-01

    Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THE BLANTON CLAMSHELL CLOSUREFOR USE ON RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P

    2007-10-18

    This paper provides a brief history of the U.S. Type B 6M specification container, its introduction into U.S. Code of federal regulations and its scheduled elimination three decades later. The paper also presents development, testing and deployment by the Department of Energy (DOE) of an enhanced drum closure called the 'Blanton Clamshell' (patent pending) that was designed to replace the standard open-head C-ring closure for the 55- and 85-gallon drums described in the 6M specification to extend their safe use. Nuclear Filter Technology has the Exclusive License for Clamshell production. Drum packages utilizing the standard C-ring closure have been a main-stay for over a half of a century in the national and international nuclear industry for shipping radioactive materials and will remain so in the foreseeable future. Drum package use in the U.S. increased heavily in the 1950's with development of the Weapons Complex and subsequently the commercial nuclear reactor industry.

  6. Waste drum refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-10-18

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

  7. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  8. Expert System for Building TRU Waste Payloads - 13554

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Heather; Slater, Bryant

    2013-07-01

    The process for grouping TRU waste drums into payloads for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal is a very complex process. Transportation and regulatory requirements must be met, along with striving for the goals of shipment efficiency: maximize the number of waste drums in a shipment and minimize the use of empty drums which take up precious underground storage space. The restrictions on payloads range from weight restrictions, to limitations on flammable gas in the headspace, to minimum TRU alpha activity concentration requirements. The Overpack and Payload Assistant Tool (OPAT) has been developed as a mixed-initiative intelligent system within the WIPP Waste Data System (WDS) to guide the construction of multiple acceptable payloads. OPAT saves the user time while at the same time maximizes the efficiency of shipments for the given drum population. The tool provides the user with the flexibility to tune critical factors that guide OPAT's operation based on real-time feedback concerning the results of the execution. This feedback complements the user's external knowledge of the drum population (such as location of drums, known challenges, internal shipment goals). This work demonstrates how software can be utilized to complement the unique domain knowledge of the users. The mixed-initiative approach combines the insight and intuition of the human expert with the proficiency of automated computational algorithms. The result is the ability to thoroughly and efficiently explore the search space of possible solutions and derive the best waste management decision. (authors)

  9. Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cissom, R. D.; Melton, T. L.; Schneider, M. P.; Lapenta, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide the future ISS scientist and/or engineer a sense of what ISS payload operations are expected to be. This paper uses a real-time operations scenario to convey this message. The real-time operations scenario begins at the initiation of payload operations and runs through post run experiment analysis. In developing this scenario, it is assumed that the ISS payload operations flight and ground capabilities are fully available for use by the payload user community. Emphasis is placed on telescience operations whose main objective is to enable researchers to utilize experiment hardware onboard the International Space Station as if it were located in their terrestrial laboratory. An overview of the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) systems and user ground system options is included to provide an understanding of the systems and interfaces users will utilize to perform payload operations. Detailed information regarding POIC capabilities can be found in the POIC Capabilities Document, SSP 50304.

  10. Drum lid removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Pella, Bernard M.; Smith, Philip D.

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  11. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  12. Payload safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheller, J.

    1979-01-01

    Space Shuttle payload safety requirements are summarized. Consideration is given to NASA objectives on STS payloads, payload safety documents, STS payload safety management, safety implementation possibilities, the hazard control procedure, and significant technical requirements.

  13. Rotating drum filter

    DOEpatents

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  14. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  15. Drum cutter mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

    1980-02-19

    A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

  16. Superior Barrel & Drum, Elk Township, New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Superior Barrel and Drum Superfund site is a 5.5-acre property located in Elk Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Superior Barrel and Drum is listed as a drum reconditioning business. These facilities typically clean and recondition metal

  17. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  18. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  19. Payload accommodations: Avionics payload support architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology issues/trade studies; candidate programs; key contacts/facilities: milestones; accomplishments; and major objectives of the payload accommodation are outlined. Topics covered include: avionics payload support architecture; satellite serving; P/L deploy systems and advanced manipulators; advanced telemetry systems; and on-board abort planning. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  20. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  1. Payload transportation system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A standard size set of shuttle payload transportation equipment was defined that will substantially reduce the cost of payload transportation and accommodate a wide range of payloads with minimum impact on payload design. The system was designed to accommodate payload shipments between the level 4 payload integration sites and the launch site during the calendar years 1979-1982. In addition to defining transportation multi-use mission support equipment (T-MMSE) the mode of travel, prime movers, and ancillary equipment required in the transportation process were also considered. Consistent with the STS goals of low cost and the use of standardized interfaces, the transportation system was designed to commercial grade standards and uses the payload flight mounting interfaces for transportation. The technical, cost, and programmatic data required to permit selection of a baseline system of MMSE for intersite movement of shuttle payloads were developed.

  2. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, F.B.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-02-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation.

  3. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, H.E.

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  4. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Harvey E.

    1984-01-01

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  5. Payload accommodations. Avionics payload support architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creasy, Susan L.; Levy, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    Concepts for vehicle and payload avionics architectures for future NASA programs, including the Assured Shuttle Access program, Space Station Freedom (SSF), Shuttle-C, Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), and the Lunar/Mars programs are discussed. Emphasis is on the potential available to increase payload services which will be required in the future, while decreasing the operational cost/complexity by utilizing state of the art advanced avionics systems and a distributed processing architecture. Also addressed are the trade studies required to determine the optimal degree of vehicle (NASA) to payload (customer) separation and the ramifications of these decisions.

  6. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  7. Streamlining Payload Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lufkin, Susan N.

    2010-01-01

    Payload integration onto space transport vehicles and the International Space Station (ISS) is a complex process. Yet, cargo transport is the sole reason for any space mission, be it for ferrying humans, science, or hardware. As the largest such effort in history, the ISS offers a wide variety of payload experience. However, for any payload to reach the Space Station under the current process, Payload Developers face a list of daunting tasks that go well beyond just designing the payload to the constraints of the transport vehicle and its stowage topology. Payload customers are required to prove their payload s functionality, structural integrity, and safe integration - including under less than nominal situations. They must also plan for or provide training, procedures, hardware labeling, ground support, and communications. In addition, they must deal with negotiating shared consumables, integrating software, obtaining video, and coordinating the return of data and hardware. All the while, they must meet export laws, launch schedules, budget limits, and the consensus of more than 12 panel and board reviews. Despite the cost and infrastructure overhead, payload proposals have increased. Just in the span from FY08 to FY09, the NASA Payload Space Station Support Office budget rose from $78M to $96M in attempt to manage the growing manifest, but the potential number of payloads still exceeds available Payload Integration Management manpower. The growth has also increased management difficulties due to the fact that payloads are more frequently added to a flight schedule late in the flow. The current standard ISS template for payload integration from concept to payload turn-over is 36 months, or 18 months if the payload already has a preliminary design. Customers are increasingly requiring a turn-around of 3 to 6-months to meet market needs. The following paper suggests options for streamlining the current payload integration process in order to meet customer schedule

  8. Stacked Buoyant Payload Launcher

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-14

    reserved for undersea launched missiles. Underwater deployment of smaller payloads has been limited to ejection from torpedo tubes, the trash disposal...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stacked Buoyant Payload Launcher 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...1 of 11 STACKED BUOYANT PAYLOAD LAUNCHER STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and

  9. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  10. Hand-Drumming to Build Community: The Story of the Whittier Drum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares the story of the Whittier Drum Project and how it succeeded. The Whittier Drum Project has brought the community together through the talents of youth and their dedication to drumming, and has used drumming to link professionals to their own communities. The author adapted the model to meet the therapeutic needs…

  11. STS-112 Payloads in Atlantis' payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The payload for mission STS-112 rests inside the payload bay of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The Shuttle is carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, plus the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. Launch of Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2 with a crew of six. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks.

  12. STS-112 Payloads in Atlantis' payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- -- The payload for mission STS-112 rests inside the payload bay of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The Shuttle is carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, plus the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. Launch of Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2 with a crew of six. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks.

  13. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  14. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  15. Outside users payload model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The outside users payload model which is a continuation of documents and replaces and supersedes the July 1984 edition is presented. The time period covered by this model is 1985 through 2000. The following sections are included: (1) definition of the scope of the model; (2) discussion of the methodology used; (3) overview of total demand; (4) summary of the estimated market segmentation by launch vehicle; (5) summary of the estimated market segmentation by user type; (6) details of the STS market forecast; (7) summary of transponder trends; (8) model overview by mission category; and (9) detailed mission models. All known non-NASA, non-DOD reimbursable payloads forecast to be flown by non-Soviet-block countries are included in this model with the exception of Spacelab payloads and small self contained payloads. Certain DOD-sponsored or cosponsored payloads are included if they are reimbursable launches.

  16. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  17. Kennedy Space Center Payload Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Ronnie; Engler, Tom; Colloredo, Scott; Zide, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the payload processing functions at Kennedy Space Center. It details some of the payloads processed at KSC, the typical processing tasks, the facilities available for processing payloads, and the capabilities and customer services that are available.

  18. Elevated drum testing Phase 1 test plan

    SciTech Connect

    McBeath, R.S.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1994-09-01

    An important part of the Hanford environmental mission is the packaging, transportation, and storage of solid radioactive wastes in metal drums. Presently storage drums are placed four to a wooden pallet with the drums banded to each other. Palletized drums are stacked three units high in pre-engineered steel structures in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. Permitted storage space is expensive to construct, maintain, and operate. Storage capacity is increased if additional drum can be stacked within existing facilities and a cost savings over new construction realized. The purpose of this plan is to outline the testing required to provide the safety criteria for elevated (i.e., tiers of four high) drum storage. The major safety concern with elevated drum storage is the danger of a significant fire in the storage facility. The major fire load within the storage facilities is combustible material contained in the drums. If a seismic event, fork lift accident, or other credible incident were to cause drum failure or lid separation, combustible material could be available for fuel. To increase the initial burn in the facilities, the drums must spill their combustible contents, making them free for ignition. If it can be shown that there is not sufficient damage to the drums to allow for release of their solid contents, then the data used for safety documentation will be re-examined. Preliminary tests conducted in the configurations detailed in this test plan have shown that drums maintain their integrity; that is the drum covers remain attached and the drums do not breach. These tests will be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Equipment Development organization, who is the designated DOE Center of Excellence to conduct drop tests for Department of Transportation (DOT) certification of DOE designed packages and containers.

  19. Economy of middeck payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Huffstetler, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    The utilization of the middeck, designed as the crew quarters, for experiments is examined. The dimensions of the middeck's standard lockers, double lockers, adapter plates, and the galley, which are applicable for experiments, are described. The utilities available for middeck payloads include ac and dc electrical power supply, active and passive cooling, vacuum/vent line connections, and data handling, and four basic payload configurations are possible. The development of a middeck accommodations rack to make payload space more flexible and to enable an optimum number and variety of experiments to be flown is proposed. Diagrams of the orbiter's middeck and experimental designs are provided.

  20. Payload Launch Lock Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A payload launch lock mechanism includes a base, a preload clamp, a fastener, and a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator. The preload clamp is configured to releasibly restrain a payload. The fastener extends, along an axis, through the preload clamp and into the base, and supplies a force to the preload clamp sufficient to restrain the payload. The SMA actuator is disposed between the base and the clamp. The SMA actuator is adapted to receive electrical current and is configured, upon receipt of the electrical current, to supply a force that causes the fastener to elongate without fracturing. The preload clamp, in response to the fastener elongation, either rotates or pivots to thereby release the payload.

  1. Payload training methodology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The results of the Payload Training Methodology Study (PTMS) are documented. Methods and procedures are defined for the development of payload training programs to be conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center Payload Training Complex (PCT) for the Space Station Freedom program. The study outlines the overall training program concept as well as the six methodologies associated with the program implementation. The program concept outlines the entire payload training program from initial identification of training requirements to the development of detailed design specifications for simulators and instructional material. The following six methodologies are defined: (1) The Training and Simulation Needs Assessment Methodology; (2) The Simulation Approach Methodology; (3) The Simulation Definition Analysis Methodology; (4) The Simulator Requirements Standardization Methodology; (5) The Simulator Development Verification Methodology; and (6) The Simulator Validation Methodology.

  2. Quo Vadis Payload Safety?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodroci, Michael P.; Schwartz, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    As we complete the preparations for the fourth Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission, we note an anniversary approaching: it was 30 years ago in July that the first HST payload safety review panel meeting was held. This, in turn, was just over a year after the very first payload safety review, a Phase 0 review for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite and its Inertial Upper Stage, held in June of 1977. In adapting a process that had been used in the review and certification of earlier Skylab payloads, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineers sought to preserve the lessons learned in the development of technical payload safety requirements, while creating a new process that would serve the very different needs of the new space shuttle program. Their success in this undertaking is substantiated by the fact that this process and these requirements have proven to be remarkably robust, flexible, and adaptable. Furthermore, the payload safety process has, to date, served us well in the critical mission of safeguarding our astronauts, cosmonauts, and spaceflight participants. Both the technical requirements and their interpretation, as well as the associated process requirements have grown, evolved, been streamlined, and have been adapted to fit multiple programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) program, the Shuttle/Mir program, and most recently the United States Constellation program. From its earliest days, it was anticipated that the payload safety process would be international in scope, and so it has been. European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), German Space Agency (DLR), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Russian Space Agency (RSA), and many additional countries have flown payloads on both the space shuttle and on the ISS. Our close cooperation and long-term working relationships have culminated in the franchising of the payload safety review process itself to our partners in ESA, which in

  3. Fort Drum Miscellaneous Building Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    ER D C/ CE R L SR -0 8 -2 Fort Drum Miscellaneous Building Survey Adam Smith and Sunny Stone February 2008 C on st ru ct io n E n...Miscellaneous Building Survey Adam Smith and Sunny Stone Construction Engineering Research Laboratory United States Army Engineer Research and...CERL). The CERL Project Manager was Mr. Adam Smith . Dr. Christopher White is Chief, CEERD-CN-C, and Dr. John Bandy is Chief, CEERD-CN. The Director

  4. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a fiber drum is 1G. (b) Construction requirements for fiber drums are as follows: (1) The body of the drum...

  5. Payload Operations Support Team Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, Bill; Barry, Matthew; Burrows, Gary; Casey, Mike; Charles, Joe; Downing, Nicholas; Jain, Monika; Leopold, Rebecca; Luty, Roger; McDill, David; Mermelstein, Scott; Morsics, Jon; Osborne, Richard; Owens, Cindy; Price, Thomas; Quaddumi, Ayman; Thompson, Jim; Walter, Patrick; Vail, Melanie; Campbell, Richard; Kelly, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Payload Operations Support Team Tools is a software system that assists in (1) development and testing of software for payloads to be flown aboard the space shuttles and (2) training of payload customers, flight controllers, and flight crews in payload operations

  6. FIDO science payload simulating the Athena Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldemann, Albert F. C.; Baumgartner, Eric T.; Bearman, Gregory H.; Blaney, Diana L.; Brown, David I.; Dolgin, Benjamin P.; Dorsky, Leonard I.; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Ksendzov, Alexander; Mahoney, J. Colin; McKelvey, Mark J.; Pavri, Betina E.; Post, Gabriel A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Snider, Nathaniel O.; Squyres, Steven W.; Gorevan, Stephen; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Bernhardt, Bodo; Gellert, Ralf

    2002-10-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Field Integrated Development and Operations rover (FIDO) emulates and tests operational rover capabilities for advanced Mars rover missions, such as those originally planned for the Mars Surveyor 2001 Rover and currently planned for the Athena Payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers scheduled for launch in 2003. This paper describes FIDO's science instrument payload, which is fully integrated with rover hardware and software. Remote science teams visualize instrument suite data and generate FIDO commands using the Web Interface for Telescience. FIDO's instrument suite has been used in terrestrial laboratory and field tests to simulate Mars operations, to train Mars scientists, and to improve Mars rover mission science operations protocols. The payload includes a deck-mounted, stowable mast that is deployed for acquisition of stereo imaging and spectral reflectance data. The mast head houses Pancam, Navcam (the navigation camera stereo pair), and the Infrared Point Spectrometer (IPS). Pancam is a three-band, false-color infrared (0.65, 0.74, 0.855 μm) stereo imaging system. The three wavelengths were chosen to yield information on the ferric nature of observed minerals. IPS acquires spectral radiance information over the wavelengths from 1.3 to 2.5 μm (spectral resolution ~13 cm-1). A 4-degree-of-freedom arm is included on the front of FIDO. The arm end effector is the mounting point for a Color Microscopic Imager and an 57Fe Mössbauer Spectrometer. FIDO also carries a MiniCorer, which is an Athena prototype rock drill that can acquire 0.5-cm-diameter by up to 1.7-cm-long cores.

  7. Shuttle payload integration - Contamination aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, S.; Leger, L. J.; Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the development of the Space Shuttle, a payload integration system has been established. This integration system or process encompasses several technical disciplines, one of which is concerned with the control of molecular and particulate contamination. Specific integration procedures and documentation have evolved that reflect the incorporation of payload/Space Transportation System contamination requirements and capabilities. Of the 38 payloads in the payload integration system currently, about 20% are considered sensitive to contamination in that special precautions must be taken to ensure that contamination from the Space Shuttle Orbiter does not impair payload function. Most of these payload requirements have been satisfied by the incorporation of controlled ground operations discipline and installation of a payload bay liner, which isolates the payload from the Orbiter systems. Some payloads, however, provide covers for sensitive payload instrumentation.

  8. Universal Payload Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Ralph B.

    2003-01-01

    As the overall manager and integrator of International Space Station (ISS) science payloads, the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at Marshall Space Flight Center has a critical need to provide an information management system for exchange and control of ISS payload files as well as to coordinate ISS payload related operational changes. The POIC's information management system has a fundamental requirement to provide secure operational access not only to users physically located at the POIC, but also to remote experimenters and International Partners physically located in different parts of the world. The Payload Information Management System (PIMS) is a ground-based electronic document configuration management and collaborative workflow system that was built to service the POIC's information management needs. This paper discusses the application components that comprise the PIMS system, the challenges that influenced its design and architecture, and the selected technologies it employs. This paper will also touch on the advantages of the architecture, details of the user interface, and lessons learned along the way to a successful deployment. With PIMS, a sophisticated software solution has been built that is not only universally accessible for POIC customer s information management needs, but also universally adaptable in implementation and application as a generalized information management system.

  9. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  15. 13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  16. Payload software technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A software analysis was performed of known STS sortie payload elements and their associated experiments. This provided basic data for STS payload software characteristics and sizes. A set of technology drivers was identified based on a survey of future technology needs and an assessment of current software technology. The results will be used to evolve a planned approach to software technology development. The purpose of this plan is to ensure that software technology is advanced at a pace and a depth sufficient to fulfill the identified future needs.

  17. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  18. Basic Hitchhiker Payload Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    This document lists the requirements for the NMSU Hitchhiker experiment payload that were developed as part of the EE 498/499 Capstone Design class during the 1999-2000 academic year. This document is used to describe the system needs as described in the mission document. The requirements listed here are those primarily used to generate the basic electronic and data processing requirements developed in the class design document. The needs of the experiment components are more fully described in the draft NASA hitchhiker customer requirements document. Many of the details for the overall payload are given in full detail in the NASA hitchhiker documentation.

  19. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  20. Hand-drumming to build community: the story of the Whittier Drum Project.

    PubMed

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    Over the years, the author participated in drum circles and classes in Denver, Fort Collins, and Boulder, Colorado. He noticed that drumming made him feel grounded and at peace. Drumming is very accessible, not like playing the piano or violin. Simple rhythms can be taught to people with no drumming experience very quickly and an ensemble rhythm created with a group in one sitting. Drumming turned out to be a highly effective way to engage with young people not only to address their individual spirits but to join with others to create a community.

  1. Drum plug piercing and sampling device and method

    DOEpatents

    Counts, Kevin T.

    2011-04-26

    An apparatus and method for piercing a drum plug of a drum in order to sample and/or vent gases that may accumulate in a space of the drum is provided. The drum is not damaged and can be reused since the pierced drum plug can be subsequently replaced. The apparatus includes a frame that is configured for engagement with the drum. A cylinder actuated by a fluid is mounted to the frame. A piercer is placed into communication with the cylinder so that actuation of the cylinder causes the piercer to move in a linear direction so that the piercer may puncture the drum plug of the drum.

  2. Comparison of Conventional Sprocket Drum and Sprocket Drum with Modified Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Seats in conventional sprocket drums are symmetrical. Due to the set general direction of sprocket drum revolutions resulting from the direction of rock transport, the wear of the seat bottoms and teeth flanks may be reduced by introducing the asymmetry of the profile of the sprocket drum seats. The proposed modification of sprocket drum seats' profile consists of inclining the seat bottom towards the expected direction of the basic drum revolutions. The work compares the loads on the seats and teeth of a conventional drum with its profile conforming to the standard to a modified drum with an asymmetric profile of seats. For the general direction of sprocket drum revolutions, the maximum values of all forces are higher for a standard drum than for a modified drum. The profile asymmetry substantially shortens the friction path of the horizontal link front torus on the seat bottom and relative total friction work on the seat bottom and lessens the occurrence probability of the slide of the horizontal link rear torus on the tooth flank. The modification of the profile causes also the asymmetric wear of link joints. The total relative friction work is considerably reduced in the front joint as compared to a conventional drum, and the total relative friction work in the rear joint is increasing at the same time.

  3. Launch site payload test configurations for Space Shuttle scientific payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuiling, Roelof L.; Mayer, Maynette S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the test configurations which are utilized in prelaunch testing at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for those scientific payloads which are flown in the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle. A generalized view of the payload prelaunch processing is provided and the major types of payload configurations are described. The majority of the prelaunch test activity involves the verification of experiment functions, compatibility of experiment-to-carrier interfaces and payload-to-orbiter interfaces. The Shuttle's avionics system is presented as it relates to payloads. The testing of Spacelab experiments and the experiment-to-Spacelab compatibility verification is described as is the test activity for partial payloads and their experiments. Test operations which involve simulated orbiter interface verification and actual payload-to-orbiter testing are discussed. An overview of the Space Station payload processing concept is presented.

  4. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  5. One-trip drum operating instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-10-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant.

  6. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  7. The LEAN Payload Integration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Lee P.; Young, Yancy; Rice, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    It is recognized that payload development and integration with the International Space Station (ISS) can be complex. This streamlined integration approach is a first step toward simplifying payload integration; making it easier to fly payloads on ISS, thereby increasing feasibility and interest for more research and commercial organizations to sponsor ISS payloads and take advantage of the ISS as a National Laboratory asset. The streamlined integration approach was addressed from the perspective of highly likely initial payload types to evolve from the National Lab Pathfinder program. Payloads to be accommodated by the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) Racks and Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) pressurized facilities have been addressed. It is hoped that the streamlined principles applied to these types of payloads will be analyzed and implemented in the future for other host facilities as well as unpressurized payloads to be accommodated by the EXPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC). Further, a payload does not have to be classified as a National Lab payload in order to be processed according to the lean payload integration process; any payload that meets certain criteria can follow the lean payload integration process.

  8. Environmental policy -- A leaking drum?

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1995-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the US had virtually no overall environmental policy. Since then, one has evolved as a result of accumulated legislation, much of which was crafted in reaction to specific events, typically real or potential disasters. The familiar names of Love Canal, Times Beach, Bhopal and others are the symbolic anchor points of that evolution, which yielded Superfund, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, and other environmental statutes. The laws in each case were developed in response to particular environmental and health issues--clean water for drinking and recreation, unpolluted air, safe production of chemicals and chemical-based products. The result was a growing body of environmental legislation that eventually became an accumulate of requirements lacking internal consistency or coherence. Because policymaking followed, rather than guided, legislative actions, the policy itself became inconsistent and sometimes illogical. Like a drum that gradually and indiscriminately is filled with a mixture of mutually reactive chemicals, environmental policy increasingly became a volatile source of concern for those industries in whose midst it had been placed. Lately, there is growing consensus that the drum not only has been overfilled, it also is leaking.

  9. Resource Prospector: The RESOLVE Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; J., Captain; Paz, A.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R.; Zacny, K.

    2015-10-01

    NASA has been developing a lunar volatiles exploration payload named RESOLVE. Now the primary science payload on-board the Resource Prospector (RP) mission, RESOLVE, consists of several instruments that evaluate lunar volatiles.

  10. Cell Science-02 Payload Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Sarah Diane

    2014-01-01

    The presentation provides an general overview of the Cell Science-02 science and payload operations to the NASA Payload Operations Integrated Working Group. The overview includes a description of the science objectives and specific aims, manifest status, and operations concept.

  11. Payload operation television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The TV system assembled is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The TV system assembled for this program is a black and white, monocular, high performance system. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator. One pan/tilt unit provides control of the pointing of the camera, the other similarly controls the position of a simulated payload.

  12. Payload operation television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Payload Operation Television System is a high performance closed-circuit TV system designed to determine the feasibility of using TV to augment purely visual monitoring of operations, and to establish optimum system design of an operating unit which can ultimately be used to assist the operator of a remotely manipulated space-borne cargo loading device. The TV system assembled on this program is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator.

  13. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  14. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  15. Energy expenditure in rock/pop drumming.

    PubMed

    De La Rue, S E; Draper, S B; Potter, C R; Smith, M S

    2013-10-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean±SD; age 27±8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate). During live concert performance heart rate was continuously measured and used to estimate energy expenditure (from the energy expenditure vs. heart rate data derived from the drumming test). During concert performance, estimated energy expenditure (mean±SD) was 623±168 kcal.h⁻¹ (8.1±2.2 METs) during performances of 38.6±15.6 min, and drummers achieved a peak heart rate of 186±16 b.min⁻¹. During the drumming test participants attained 78.7±8.3% of the cycle ergometer peak oxygen uptake. Rock/pop drumming represents a relatively high-intensity form of physical activity and as such involves significant energy expenditure. Rock/pop drumming should be considered as a viable alternative to more traditional forms of physical activity.

  16. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily...

  17. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2...

  18. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  19. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  20. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  1. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  2. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a fiber drum is 1G. (b) Construction requirements for fiber drums are as follows: (1)...

  3. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  4. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  5. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  6. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  7. 52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A FRENIER PUMP. THE CHARCOAL HOUSE IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND THE DRUM LEANING AGAINST THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL ANNEX. NOTE THE WELDS IN THE DRUM, THEY DELINEATE THE SPIRAL LEADING TO THE CENTER OF THE DRUM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  8. Space Shuttle Payload Information Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Payload Information Source Compact Disk (CD) is a joint NASA and USA project to introduce Space Shuttle capabilities, payload services and accommodations, and the payload integration process. The CD will be given to new payload customers or to organizations outside of NASA considering using the Space Shuttle as a launch vehicle. The information is high-level in a visually attractive format with a voice over. The format is in a presentation style plus 360 degree views, videos, and animation. Hyperlinks are provided to connect to the Internet for updates and more detailed information on how payloads are integrated into the Space Shuttle.

  9. Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

    2009-07-10

    Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

  10. Titan II secondary payload capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, Aubrey J.; Nance, Milo; Odle, Roger C.

    Small satellite programs are often faced with the prospect of flying as a secondary payload because of size or funding considerations. This paper discusses a concept for flying such payloads on flights already scheduled on the Titan II SLV program over the next decade. The Titan II has the capability of inserting over 4200 lbs into LEO and larger payloads on ballistic trajectories from which higher orbits can be achieved when kick motors are used. Orbit changes are possible depending on the specific altitudes and payloads involved. Of the existing 13 remaining missions currently scheduled to fly on the Titan II SLV, excess performance is available on several missions that could be used to insert secondary payloads of up to 3000 lbs into their final orbit. This paper outlines an approach that would implement a secondary payload mission and allow small satellites to schedule a launch at a predetermined date through the year 2000.

  11. Applications of Payload Directed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Yeh, Yoo Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aviation flight control concepts require autonomous and intelligent control system architectures that close control loops directly around payload sensors in manner more integrated and cohesive that in traditional autopilot designs. Research into payload directed flight control at NASA Ames Research Center is investigating new and novel architectures that can satisfy the requirements for next generation control and automation concepts for aviation. Tighter integration between sensor and machine requires definition of specific sensor-directed control modes to tie the sensor data directly into a vehicle control structures throughout the entire control architecture, from low-level stability- and control loops, to higher level mission planning and scheduling reasoning systems. Payload directed flight systems can thus provide guidance, navigation, and control for vehicle platforms hosting a suite of onboard payload sensors. This paper outlines related research into the field of payload directed flight; and outlines requirements and operating concepts for payload directed flight systems based on identified needs from the scientific literature.'

  12. Future payload technology requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology advances needed for an overall mission model standpoint as well as those for individual shuttle payloads are defined. The technology advances relate to the mission scientific equipment, spacecraft subsystems that functionally support this equipment, and other payload-related equipment, software, and environment necessary to meet broad program objectives. In the interest of obtaining commonality of requirements, the study was structured according to technology categories rather than in terms of individual payloads.

  13. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a full scale payload integration method which reduces the cost of a load cycle and is capable of land long very large systems is discussed. The method solves the coupled booster/payload system equations and does not involve additional approximations as compared to the standard transient analysis. The method is cost effective and directly applicable to the shuttle payload design case.

  14. Payload vehicle aerodynamic reentry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Donald

    An approach for analyzing the dynamic behavior of a cone-cylinder payload vehicle during reentry to insure proper deployment of the parachute system and recovery of the payload is presented. This analysis includes the study of an aerodynamic device that is useful in extending vehicle axial rotation through the maximum dynamic pressure region. Attention is given to vehicle configuration and reentry trajectory, the derivation of pitch static aerodynamics, the derivation of the pitch damping coefficient, pitching moment modeling, aerodynamic roll device modeling, and payload vehicle reentry dynamics. It is shown that the vehicle dynamics at parachute deployment are well within the design limit of the recovery system, thus ensuring successful payload recovery.

  15. Data Requirement (DR) MA-03: Payload missions integration. [Spacelab payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Project management and payload integration requirements definition activities are reported. Mission peculiar equipment; systems integration; ground operations analysis and requirement definition; safety and quality assurance; and support systems development are examined for payloads planned for the following missions: EOM-1; SL-2; Sl-3 Astro-1; MSL-2; EASE/ACCESS; MPESS; and the middeck ADSF flight.

  16. 1999 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daelemans, Gerard (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Space Experiment Module (SEM), and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  17. Fuzzy control of a boiler steam drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.; Crockett, W.K.

    1995-10-01

    The authors controlled the inlet water flow to a dynamic model of a steam drum using fuzzy logic. The drum level varied little with step inputs in steam flow. The fuzzy logic controller performed at least as well as a well-tuned traditional PI (which is notoriously difficult to tune). Using plant data in the model provided further evidence that fuzzy logic control gave excellent results. The drum level is a function of inlet water, steam production, and blowdown. To compensate for upsets caused by steam production, independent variables used in the fuzzy controller were drum level and change in drum level. The dependent variable was the change required in the inlet flow. By modeling a 175,000 lb/hr Riley-Stoker boiler, they determined the universe of discourse for each of the three variables. Three triangular and two trapezoidal membership functions characterize each of these universes. The knowledge of experts provided the fuzzy associative memory (FAM) for the variables. The authors modeled the complete dynamic system using Tutsim (Tutsim Products, 200 California Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94306).

  18. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-06-17

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives.

  19. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  20. 6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM AT THE STEWARD MINE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST DRUM WAS UNDER SHOT, THE WEST OVERSHOT - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  1. Nondestructive testing of waste drum integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.N. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Nondestructive techniques have been investigated to evaluate the structural integrity of low-level transuranic waste drums that have been buried in the ground for up to 15 years. Measurements of artificially corroded samples evaluated suitability, accuracy and rapidity with which commercially available instruments and transducers could perform the examination. Several available instruments have thickness measuring capability and probably could be tailored with a relatively minor amount of effort for precise measurement of the relatively thin wall thickness of a drum or bin. The ultrasonic method was shown capable of providing precise measurement of wall thickness for most critical areas of a drum. Some data were lost due to dents, rust, seams and labels. However, this work characterized the capability of the technique, and it can now be assessed against the need as repository requirements are more completely identified.

  2. TRU Drum Headspace Gas Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.

    1998-10-27

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has approximately 10,000 Transuranic (TRU) waste drums whose final disposition is the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Each drum, prior to shipment to WIPP, must be inspected and tested to certify that is meets the WIPP requirements for acceptance. One, of many requirements, is the analysis of the TRU drum vapor space for hydrogen, methane, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DOE Carlsbad Area Office has published two documents specifying the analytical methodologies and the quality assurance requirements for analyzing TRU drum vapor space.The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was contracted by the Solid Waste Division of SRS to specify, assemble, and test a system that would satisfy the WIPP requirements for drum headspace gas analysis. Since no single vendor supplies a complete system, analytical instrumentation and supporting components were integrated into a configuration that performed that required analyses. This required both software and hardware design and modifications. The major goal of the design team was to integrate commercially available instrumentation and equipment into a seamless production process. The final output of the process is an analytical report formatted to the specifications outlined in the WIPP Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). SRTC has assembled the necessary analytical instrumentation and installed it in a mobile trailer to perform the TRU drum vapor space analyses. This mobile trailer had previously housed instrumentation for reactor tank inspections. As a cost savings it was decided to renovate and install the instrumentation in this trailer to eliminate the need of building or modifying permanent structures. This also allows for portability to meet future analytical needs on or off site.This task was divided into three sub tasks: headspace gas sampling, gas analysis and system component integration, and sample canister cleaning. The following sections

  3. Orbiter Camera Payload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Components for an orbiting camera payload system (OCPS) include the large format camera (LFC), a gas supply assembly, and ground test, handling, and calibration hardware. The LFC, a high resolution large format photogrammetric camera for use in the cargo bay of the space transport system, is also adaptable to use on an RB-57 aircraft or on a free flyer satellite. Carrying 4000 feet of film, the LFC is usable over the visible to near IR, at V/h rates of from 11 to 41 milliradians per second, overlap of 10, 60, 70 or 80 percent and exposure times of from 4 to 32 milliseconds. With a 12 inch focal length it produces a 9 by 18 inch format (long dimension in line of flight) with full format low contrast resolution of 88 lines per millimeter (AWAR), full format distortion of less than 14 microns and a complement of 45 Reseau marks and 12 fiducial marks. Weight of the OCPS as supplied, fully loaded is 944 pounds and power dissipation is 273 watts average when in operation, 95 watts in standby. The LFC contains an internal exposure sensor, or will respond to external command. It is able to photograph starfields for inflight calibration upon command.

  4. Basic space payload fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, J. M.; Gorevan, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    A new basic space fastener has been developed and tested by the GSFC. The purposes of this fastener are to permit assembly and servicing in space by astronauts and/or robots and to facilitate qualification of payloads on Earth prior to launch by saving time and money during the systems integration and component testing and qualification processes. The space fastener is a rework of the basic machine screw such that crossthreading is impossible; it is self-locking and will not work its way out during launch (vibration proof); it will not wear out despite repeated use; it occupies a small foot print which is comparable to its machine screw equivalent, and it provides force and exhibits strength comparable to its machine screw equivalent. Construction is ultra-simple and cost effective and the principle is applicable across the full range of screw sizes ranging from a #10 screw to 2.5 cm (1 in) or more. In this paper, the fastener principles of operation will be discussed along with test results and construction details. The new fastener also has considerable potential in the commercial sector. A few promising applications will be presented.

  5. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  6. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  9. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  13. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  14. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  16. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  5. Unsteady-state VOC transport in vented waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-08-01

    A model of unsteady-state volatile organic compound (VOC) transport in a vented waste drum has been developed. Model predictions of the VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement and the drum headspace are compared to measurements in lab-scale simulated waste drums.

  6. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum...

  7. Changing Safety Priorities from Payload Development to Onboard Payload Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreimer, J.; Biemann, W.; Festa, F.

    2012-01-01

    Safety Analyses for Payload development phases are typically based o n well defined fixed configurations. From safety point of view the main focus during the development phase is on t he design features that will ensure inherent safe launch, on-board installation and usage of the payload in the planned configuration. The complete payload verification including the safety verification and the flight certification is based on that expected scenario. Once the payload is launched and installed on-orbit the focus moves to safe operations in constantly changing configurations over the life-time due t o upgrades, preventive, and corrective maintenance activities. A broader assessment and preparation for recovery procedures would help to streamline this aspect. It would also support the new extended ISS utilization scenario and the changes of the logistic fleet available to the ISS. The challenge to move the safety focus from payload development and design safety features to permanently modified configurations, different upload capabilities and extending life-cycles/time during the operations phase of the payloads can be supported by early definition of operational envelops and resulting safety approval of wider operational flexibility.

  8. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  9. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  10. Payload IVA training and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monsees, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a training program for the intravehicular operation of space shuttle payloads is discussed. The priorities for the program are compliance with established training standards, and accommodating changes. Simulation devices are also reviewed.

  11. Payload holddown and release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Dale; Visconti, Mark; Edwards, Michael; Moran, Tom

    1994-01-01

    A payload holddown and release mechanism, designated the Model 1172, was designed and built at G&H Technology during the winter of 1992/1993. The mechanism is able to restrain and release a 45-pound payload with minimal tipoff. The payload is held in place by a stainless steel band and released using electrically triggered non-explosive actuators. These actuators provide reliable operation with negligible shock and no special handling requirements. The performance of the mechanism was demonstrated in two flight tests. Data showed pitch and yaw tipoff rates of less than 0.07 radian (4 degree) per second. The Model 1172 design is an efficient replacement for conventional payload deployment devices, especially where low transmitted shock is required.

  12. Partial-Payload Support Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R.; Freeman, M.

    1984-01-01

    Partial-payload support structure (PPSS) is modular, bridge like structure supporting experiments weighing up to 2 tons. PPSS handles such experiments more economically than standard Spacelab pallet system.

  13. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  14. THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR WSB DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-06-26

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum.

  15. The MESSENGER science payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Robert E.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Solomon, Sean C.; MESSENGER Team

    2003-11-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft will orbit Mercury and gather data for one Earth year with a miniaturized scientific payload. The MESSENGER project is in the integration and test phase in mid 2003. Seven assembled and calibrated instruments are mounted on the spacecraft. The Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer has a Gamma-Ray Spectrometer to measure atomic composition with a high-purity germanium detector and a Neutron Spectrometer that uses lithium-glass and boron-loaded plastic scintillators for sensing thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. The X-Ray Spectrometer measures Mercury surface elemental abundances by examining solar-flare-induced X-ray fluorescence lines. Three gas-filled proportional counters detect the X-ray fluorescence lines from the planet's surface, and a solid-state solar monitor measures the X-ray input to the planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) has both wide-field and narrow-field cameras to map the surface of the planet. MDIS is also multi-spectral, with a 12-position filter wheel for the wide-field camera. The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measures both surface spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared and exospheric emission lines in the ultraviolet and visible. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) determines the range to the planet with a resolution of 0.3 m. MLA will be combined with the radio-science investigation to map the gravitational field of the planet and determine the obliquity and physical libration amplitude. A magnetometer, mounted on a 3.6-m boom, will map the internal and external magnetic field. The Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer will measure particles accelerated in the magnetosphere and the interactions of the magnetosphere with the solar wind. MDIS has its own pivot platform. All of the other instruments are fixed to the spacecraft. Pointing is accomplished by steering the entire spacecraft. All of the instruments are designed to deal with the extreme thermal

  16. MESSENGER: Science payload status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R.; Solomon, S.; Gold, R.

    2003-04-01

    MESSENGER is a NASA Discovery mission to reach Mercury and orbit that planet for an Earth year, gathering data with a miniaturized scientific payload. The MESSENGER project is now entering the integration and test phase as the spacecraft is assembled and the instruments are calibrated and delivered to the spacecraft. The Gamma-Ray and Neutron spectrometer (GRNS) and X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) experienced detector changes in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (based upon more experience with similar instrumentation on the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, NEAR-Shoemaker, mission and on Mars Odyssey). The gamma-ray portion of GRNS uses a high-purity germanium crystal cooled to ˜90K and surrounded by an active shield to detect characteristic gamma-rays from the planet. The neutron spectrometer uses Li-glass and plastic scintillators to detect and separate thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. The XRS spectrometer uses three gas-filled proportional counters looking at the planet and a solar monitor to measure X-ray fluorescence lines from the planet's surface. These instruments thus provide information on elemental abundances. The optical remote-sensing instruments map the planet in several spectral bands (Mercury Dual Imaging System -- MDIS), measure surface spectral reflectance in the visible and infra-red and exospheric emission lines in the ultraviolet and visible (Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer -- MASCS), and measure surface topography (Mercury Laser Altimeter -- MLA). The combination of altimetry with MLA and radio-science (RS) measurements will allow maps of the gravitational field of the planet and inference of the planet's obliquity and physical amplitude. The combination of boom-mounted magnetometer (MAG) and combined Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) allows internal and external sources of magnetic field to be separated, providing knowledge of both Mercury's internal structure and its magnetosphere and

  17. Shuttle payload vibroacoustic test plan evaluation. Free flyer payload applications and sortie payload parametric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of vibroacoustic test plan optimization for free flyer STS payloads is presented and the effects on alternate test plans for Spacelab sortie payloads number of missions are also examined. The component vibration failure probability and the number of components in the housekeeping subassemblies are provided. Decision models are used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of seven alternate test plans using protoflight hardware.

  18. Space transportation system payload safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This handbook provides the payload developer with a uniform description and interpretation of the potential hazards which may be caused by or associated with a payload element, operation, or interface with other payloads or with the STS. It also includes guidelines describing design or operational safety measures which suggest means of alleviating a particular hazard or group of hazards, thereby improving payload safety.

  19. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.; Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Harapin, D.; Hertl, B.

    2006-07-01

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  20. Payload retention fittings for space shuttle payload ground handling mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassisi, V.

    1983-01-01

    New ground fittings for Space Shuttle payload handling were designed, built, and tested by Government and contractor personnel at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, from May 1981 through November 1982. Design evolution of the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload retention fittings, which contained a load-sensitive split bushing in a pillow-block housing, created an incompatibility between the interfacing ground and airborne equipment. New fittings were designed and successfully used beginning with the fifth Space Shuttle flight, STS-5. An active hydraulic spring system containing a gas accumulator in the hydraulic system provided the load relief required to protect the Orbiter bushing from damage.

  1. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayley, Elizabeth; Curley, Su; Walsh, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the ORION Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the ORION vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6-person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload the swingbed unit itself launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open-loop ORION application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  2. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  3. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  4. Potential VOC Deflagrations in a Vented TRU Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mukesh, GUPTA

    2005-04-07

    The objective of the analysis is to examine the potential for lid ejection from a vented transuranic (TRU) waste drum due to pressure buildup caused by the deflagration of hydrogen and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside the drum. In this analysis, the AICC pressure for a stoichiometric mixture of VOCs is calculated and then compared against the experimental peak pressure of stoichiometric combustion of propane and hexane in a combustion chamber. The experimental peak pressures of propane and hexane are about 12 percent lower than the calculated AICC pressure. Additional losses in the drum are calculated due to venting of the gases, drum bulging, waste compaction, and heat losses from the presence of waste in the drum. After accounting for these losses, the final pressures are compared to the minimum observed pressure that ejects the lid from a TRU drum. The ejection pressure of 105 psig is derived from data that was recorded for a series of tests where hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited inside sealed TRU drums. Since the calculated pressures are below the minimum lid ejection pressure, none of the VOCs and the hydrogen (up to 4 percent) mixtures present in the TRU waste drum is expected to cause lid ejection if ignited. The analysis of potential VOC deflagrations in a vented TRU drum can be applied across the DOE-Complex since TRU waste is stored in drums throughout the complex.

  5. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This

  6. Electrodynamics payloads for small rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Mccarthy, S. P.; Goodnow, K. J.; Li, C.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Totally integrated design facilitates electrical cleanliness and light weight, which are necessary in subsonic parachute-borne payloads for electrodynamics investigations. 'Blunt' probes measure ion conductivity, as do Gerdien condensers. Recent finite-element computer analyses combining flow and electrodynamics have resolved problems in determining ion densities and mobilities from Gerdien data. Three-axis electric fields are measured with deployable boom-mounted electrodes from dc through VLF. Splitting the cylindrical payload with an insulator and measuring the current between halves has provided a vertical Maxwell current detector mechanically rigid enough to measure, at ELF, energy related to coupling. A nose tip 'Smith' probe turbulence measurement is usually performed on ascent. Other instrumentation, such as photo-ionization sources and X-ray detectors, can also be included. These electrodynamic measurement payloads are about one meter in length and have a mass of about 9 kg. They can be launched with an Orion-class or smaller vehicle.

  7. Size limitation on zebra mussels consumed by freshwater drum may preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Love, Joy G.

    1995-01-01

    The septa lengths of bivalve shells were used to estimate shell lengths of the largest zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) crushed and consumed by freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) to determine if size limitation could preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller of the zebra mussel. We examined gut samples of drum (273 to 542 mm long) collected from western Lake Erie in 1991, found the largest mussel (shell length = 21.4 mm) in the 11th largest drum (TL = 405 mm), and observed a reduction of mussel size in larger drum. The lack of a relationship between mussel size and drum size for larger specimens suggests that either drum prefer smaller mussels or the gape between the upper and lower pharyngeal teeth restricts drum feeding to zebra mussels of limited size. Although drum may reduce zebra mussel populations, because of the apparent size limitation of prey it is unlikely that drum would be fully effective as a biological controller; thus, this fish should not be introduced beyond its native range for that purpose.

  8. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  9. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Present analytical techniques by which design loads are predicted are very costly and time consuming. Chapter I presents the standard techniques used to analyze payload/booster systems. They are full scale methods in the sense that they all require the solution of the coupled equations of motion of the payload/booster system. Chapter II identifies several short cut methodologies. These already existing techniques do not require the solution of the coupled system equations. The potentials and shortcomings of each of these methods are discussed. Chapter III covers the favored methods accompanied by recommendations for further development, refinement, and demonstrations. An outline of a new approach is also included.

  10. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  11. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition.

  12. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  13. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  14. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  15. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  16. International Space Station Payload Training Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Deborah B.; Noneman, Steven R.; Sanchez, Julie N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes payload crew training-related activities performed by NASA and the U.S. Payload Developer (PD) community for the International Space Station (ISS) Program. It describes how payloads will be trained and the overall training planning and integration process. The overall concept, definition, and template for payload training are described. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, organizations, and groups involved are discussed. The facilities utilized during payload training and the primary processes and activities performed to plan, develop, implement, and administer payload training for ISS crews are briefly described. Areas of improvement to crew training processes that have been achieved or are currently being worked are identified.

  17. International Space Station payload accommodations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Daniel W.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a low Earth orbiting facility for conducting research in life science, microgravity, Earth observations, and Engineering Research and Technology. Assembled on-orbit at a nominal altitude of 220 nautical miles, it will provide a shirt-sleeve environment for conducting research in six laboratories: the US Laboratory (US Lab), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), the European Columbus Orbiting Facility (COF), the Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM), and the Russian Research Modules. Supplies will be replenished using the Multi-Purpose Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM), a conditioned pressurized transport carrier which will also return passive and perishable payload cargo to earth. External Earth observations can be performed by utilizing the payload attachment points on the truss, the Russian Science Power Platform, the JEM Exposed Facility (EF), and the COF backporch. The pressurized and external locations are equipped with a variety of electrical, avionics, fluids, and gas interfaces to support the experiments. ISS solar arrays, thermal radiators, communication system, propulsion, environmental control, and robotic devices provide the infrastructure to support sustained research. This paper, which reflects the design maturity of payload accommodations at the time of its submittal (10/20/98), is primarily based on the assembly complete configuration of the station. As the design matures, ISS Payload Accommodations will be updated to reflect qualification tests of components and associated analyses of the integrated performance.

  18. Payload Specialist Gregory T. Linteris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Payload Specialist Gregory T. Linteris chats with white room closeout crew members as he prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A. Closeout crew workers Max Kandler (second from right) and Bob Saulnier wait to assist Linteris with his ascent/reentry suit.

  19. Space Shuttle payload flight manifest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented covering (1) scheduled launch month and orbiter vehicle, (2) the inclination of the orbit and the altitude in nautical miles, (3) the number of crew members and the duration of the mission, (4) the payload, and (5) the carrier.

  20. Frequent Questions About EPA's Mercury Lamp Drum-Top Crusher Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Frequent Questions such as Why did we do the Mercury Lamp Drum-Top Crusher Study?, Should drum-top crushers (DTCs) be used in the management of fluorescent lamps?, Are drum-top crushers (DTCs) safe to use?

  1. Reference drums used in calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in a 4π counting geometry.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, two kinds of reference drums were developed. One type was constructed with nine layers of large-area sources filled with different materials having five different densities. The other type of reference drums was constructed with nine rod sources filled with the same materials of different densities. The efficiency calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in 4π counting geometry using these two kinds of drums showed that rod-source drums resulted in higher counting efficiency than layered source drums. The counting rates obtained from rod-source drums were closer to those obtained from a standard drum with water solution than counting rates from drums with layered sources. The results of this study recommend to use reference drums with rod-sources to compensate the drawbacks of standard drums with water solution of not being able to adjust the density of material. The proposed reference drums improve the accuracy of radioactivity analysis for waste drums of different densities.

  2. Small Astronomy Payloads for Spacelab. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, R. C. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The workshop to define feasible concepts in the UV-optical 1R area for Astronomy Spacelab Payloads is reported. Payloads proposed include: high resolution spectrograph, Schmidt camera spectrograph, UV telescope, and small infrared cryogenic telescope.

  3. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  4. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  5. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  6. Exploration Missions to Host Small Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirtain, Jonathan; Pelfrey, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation heavy launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS), will provide the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the exploration mission trajectory. We will describe the payload mission concept of operations, the payload capacity for the SLS, and the payload requirements. Exploration Mission 1, currently planned for launch in December 2017, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS.

  7. 14 CFR 1214.807 - Exceptional payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exceptional payloads. 1214.807 Section 1214.807 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.807 Exceptional payloads. Customers whose payloads qualify under the...

  8. 14 CFR 1214.812 - Payload specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payload specialists. 1214.812 Section 1214.812 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for... that a customer-selected payload specialist be flown with the customer's payload....

  9. 14 CFR 1214.812 - Payload specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload specialists. 1214.812 Section 1214.812 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for... that a customer-selected payload specialist be flown with the customer's payload....

  10. 14 CFR 1214.807 - Exceptional payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Exceptional payloads. 1214.807 Section 1214.807 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.807 Exceptional payloads. Customers whose payloads qualify under the...

  11. 14 CFR 1214.807 - Exceptional payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptional payloads. 1214.807 Section 1214.807 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.807 Exceptional payloads. Customers whose payloads qualify under the...

  12. 14 CFR 1214.812 - Payload specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Payload specialists. 1214.812 Section 1214.812 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for... that a customer-selected payload specialist be flown with the customer's payload....

  13. 14 CFR 1214.812 - Payload specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payload specialists. 1214.812 Section 1214.812 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for... that a customer-selected payload specialist be flown with the customer's payload....

  14. 14 CFR 1214.807 - Exceptional payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exceptional payloads. 1214.807 Section 1214.807 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.807 Exceptional payloads. Customers whose payloads qualify under the...

  15. 14 CFR 415.7 - Payload determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payload determination. 415.7 Section 415.7 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.7 Payload determination. A payload determination...

  16. 14 CFR 415.7 - Payload determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload determination. 415.7 Section 415.7 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.7 Payload determination. A payload determination...

  17. 14 CFR 415.7 - Payload determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payload determination. 415.7 Section 415.7 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.7 Payload determination. A payload determination...

  18. 14 CFR 415.7 - Payload determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payload determination. 415.7 Section 415.7 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.7 Payload determination. A payload determination...

  19. 14 CFR 415.7 - Payload determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payload determination. 415.7 Section 415.7 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.7 Payload determination. A payload determination...

  20. The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Hitchhiker, and Complex Autonomous Payloads (CAP) programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  1. Small Payload Flight Systems (SPFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Small Payload Flight System (SPFS) provides a simple and cost-effective approach to carrying small size experiments on the space shuttle. The system uses a bridge-like structure which spans the orbiter cargo bay but is only 3 feet in length. The structure can carry up to 4300 lb of payload weight and can be positioned at any location along the length of the cargo bay. In addition to the structural support, the SPFS provides avionics services to experiments. These include electrical power distribution and control, command and telemetry for control of the experiments and subsystem health monitoring, and software computations. The avionics system includes a flight qualified electrical power branching distributor, and a system control unit based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor. Data can be recorded on magnetic tape or transmitted to the ground. Finally, a Freon pump and cold plate system provides environmental control for both the avionics hardware and the experiments as necessary.

  2. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used where they are subject to open flame, hot metal, or other sources of artificial heat. (d) Unless pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic...

  3. Mobile drum crusher prevents pollution, cuts disposal costs

    SciTech Connect

    Vasseur, J.C. )

    1994-12-01

    Sfanid Renov' Cuves, of Goussainville, France, has developed an alternative to stockpiling potentially dangerous used drums. Quick Futs (''quick barrels'') is a mobile unit that neutralizes metal drums and packaging materials. The onsite treatment system saves customers money on drum processing and transportation costs. The per-ton cost of delivering drums containing chemical residues to a disposal center is substantially higher than the cost of delivering only the residues in bulk or tank trucks, and takes more time. The Quick Futs system cleans drums under high pressure, crushes them, and pumps out and recovers residual chemicals and rinse water before shipping the drums to an approved center for final destruction. As a stationary unit, the Quick Futs system can be used to process empty drums daily, avoiding the need to store used drums in an area that could be used for a more productive purpose. Quick Futs is designed to meet safety requirements for explosion-proof equipment in refineries. As a mobile unit, Quick Futs offers the advantages of the stationary unit and provides added peace of mind for those who see the unit on a customer's premises. The process is especially valuable for companies whose packaging materials cannot be reused.

  4. Impact of drum storage on criticality accident alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Finfrock, S.; Watson, T.; Byrd, J.; Miles, B.; Wilkinson, A.

    1997-12-01

    The changing mission from production to decommissioning that is taking place at many U.S. Department of Energy sites is producing an ever-increasing inventory of waste drums. These drums typically contain low-level radioactive waste and, in some cases, significant amounts of fissile materials. Such drums must be handled with all of the care necessary for radioactive materials and, where fissile materials are present, criticality safety controls. As the number of drums increases, the question inevitably arises as to where to store them. Old process buildings present one solution to that question. These buildings are typically large, designed to handle radioactive and fissile materials, and largely unused under the current mission and, as such, would seem ideal candidates for at least short-term storage of waste drums. When undergoing such a major change in mission, however, the building`s nuclear safety systems need to be reevaluated to ensure that they are appropriate for the new activity. One such system that must be evaluated is the building`s criticality accident alarm system (AAS). This system is designed to detect criticality accidents and is generally required anywhere that a criticality accident is credible. If drums are to be stored in a facility where a CAAS is required (either because of other activities in the building or because of the contents of the drums themselves), then those drums must be shown not to prevent the CAAS from functioning as designed.

  5. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a...

  6. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a...

  7. Thermal sensing for characterizing the contents of waste storage drums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W. D.; Philipson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the feasibility to employ remote sensing for the characterization of the contents of liquid chemical waste storage drums. Philipson et al. (1981) had found that, when the air temperature is changing rapidly, differences in the thermal inertia of the drum contents can lead to detectable differences in the skin temperature of the drums. Thus, postsunset, airborne thermal remote sensing could potentially provide some level of discrimination among chemical storage drums. Discrimination should be possible among steel drums filled largely with: (1) aqueous solvents, (2) organic solvents, or (3) clay packing materials. The response of a drum filled with clay packing materials should be similar to that of an empty drum. The reported study had the objective to verify the theoretical findings, taking into account the use of a hand-held infrared radiometer. It was found that under the proper conditions the temperature differences among drums with the three different types of contents will be significant and consistent.

  8. Integrated Payload Data Handling Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGeorge, T.; Wishart, A.; Hann, M.; Phan, N.; Carr, C. M.; Cupido, E.; Fox, P.; Oddy, T.; McGregor, A.; Marshall, A.; Waltham, N.

    2013-09-01

    An integrated Payload Data Handling System (IPDHS) is one in which multiple instruments share a central payload processor for their on-board data processing tasks. This offers a number of advantages over the conventional decentralised architecture. Savings in payload mass and power can be realised because the total processing resource is matched to the requirement, as opposed to the decentralised architecture where the processing resource is in effect the sum of all the applications. Overall development cost can be reduced using a common processor. At individual instrument level the potential benefits include a standardised application development environment, and the opportunity to run the instrument data handling application on a fully redundant and more powerful processor. This paper describes a joint programme by Astrium Ltd, SCISYS UK Limited, Imperial College London and RAL Space to implement a realistic demonstration of an I-PDHS using engineering models of flight instruments (a magnetometer and a camera) and a laboratory demonstrator of a central payload processor which is functionally representative of a flight design. The objective is to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the centralised data processing technique by addressing the key areas of task partitioning to prevent fault propagation and the use of a common development process for the instrument applications. The project is supported by a UK Space Agency grant awarded under the National Space Technology Programme SpaceCITI scheme. The demonstration system is set up at the UK Space Agency's International Space Innovation Centre (ISIC) at Harwell and makes use of the ISIC Concurrent Design Facility (CDF).

  9. Communications payloads for geostationary platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Trends in communication satellites show increasing reuse of the frequency spectrum through multiple spot beams and orthogonal polarization, as well as consortia operation. Current reliance on orbital arc separation for frequency reuse may be inadequate for the projected traffic growth and the orbital slotting proposals before the ITU. This paper notes that cost advantages can accrue through common use of spacecraft subsystems and multiple users' platforms aboard a common geostationary platform. The rationale for such platforms is described and potential payloads are suggested.

  10. Skylab payload shroud jettison tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daye, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    The separation concept of the skylab payload shroud is presented, and its behavior in three full-scale jettison tests in vacuum is described. The shroud petal arresting mechanism is explained, as well as the primary and secondary data acquisition systems. The first two tests demonstrated the need for some structural design modifications although the separation process was satisfactory in each test. The third test, incorporating these design modifications, was satisfactory in all aspects of shroud performance.

  11. Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory (EVAL). Dedicated payload, standard test rack payload, sensor modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary analysis of strawman earth-viewing shuttle sortie payloads begun with the partial spacelab payload was analyzed. The payloads analyzed represent the two extremes of shuttle sortie application payloads: a full shuttle sortie payload dedicated to earth-viewing applications, and a small structure payload which can fly on a space available basis with another primary shuttle payload such as a free flying satellite. The intent of the dedicated mission analysis was to configure an ambitious, but feasible, payload; which, while rich in scientific return, would also stress the system and reveal any deficiences or problem areas in mission planning, support equipment, and operations. Conversely, the intent of the small structure payload was to demonstrate the ease with which a small, simple, flexible payload can be accommodated on shuttle flights.

  12. The CODEX sounding rocket payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiger, B.; Shipley, A.; Cash, W.; Rogers, T.; Schultz, T.; McEntaffer, R.; Kaiser, M.

    2011-05-01

    We present the CODEX sounding rocket payload, a soft x-ray (0.1-1.0 keV) spectrometer designed to observe diffuse high-surface brightness astronomical sources. The payload is composed of two modules, each with a 3.25° x 3.25° field of view defined by a stack of wire grids that block light not coming to a 3.0 m focus and admit only nearly-collimated light onto an array of 67 diffraction gratings in an off-plane mount. After a 2.0 m throw, the spectrum is detected by offset large-format gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. CODEX will target the Vela supernova remnant later this year to measure the temperature and abundances and to determine the contributions of various soft x-ray emission mechanisms to the remnant's energy budget; resulting spectra will have resolution (E/▵E) ranging from 50 to 100 across the band. CODEX is the third-generation of similar payloads from the University of Colorado, with an increased bandpass, higher throughput, and a more robust mechanical structure than its predecessors.

  13. The OGRESS Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Thomas; Zeiger, B.; McEntaffer, R. L.; Schultz, T.; Oakley, P.; Cash, W. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of the Off-plane Grating Rocket for Extended Source Spectroscopy (OGRESS) sounding rocket payload based at the University of Iowa and University of Colorado, Boulder. The payload has been launched three times before under the names CyXESS, EXOS, and CODEX and is scheduled to fly again in February 2014. The payload is designed to observe large diffuse soft X-ray sources between ~100 - 1000 eV. OGRESS will observe the Vela supernova remnant and achieve the highest spectral resolution ever taken of this object in our bandpass. OGRESS does not use the standard optical design of a grazing incidence Wolter telescope. Instead, OGRESS uses a wire-grid collimator to remove any nonconverging light. This optical design leads to poor sensitivity to point sources, but works very well for large extended sources, for which the telescope beam is fully illuminated. The light is dispersed by an array of off-plane parallel-groove sinusoidal gratings and focused onto Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors.

  14. Communications platform payload definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clopp, H. W.; Hawkes, T. A.; Bertles, C. R.; Pontano, B. A.; Kao, T.

    1986-01-01

    Large geostationary communications platforms were investigated in a number of studies since 1974 as a possible means to more effectively utilize the geostationary arc and electromagnetic spectrum and to reduce overall satellite communications system costs. The commercial feasibility of various communications platform payload concepts circa 1998 was addressed. Promising payload concepts were defined, recurring costs were estimated, and critical technologies needed to enable eventual commercialization were identified. Ten communications service aggregation scenarios describing potential groupings of service were developed for a range of conditions. Payload concepts were defined for four of these scenarios: (1) Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) meets 100% of Contiguous United States (CONUS) plus Canada demand with a single platform; (2) Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) (trunking + Customer Premises Service (CPS)), meet 20% of CONUS demand;(3) FSS (trunking + CPS + video distribution), 10 to 13% of CONUS demand; and (4) FSS (20% of demand) + Inter Satellite Links (ISL) + Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)/Tracking and Data Acquisition System (TDAS) Data Distribution.

  15. Communications payload concepts for geostationary facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poley, William A.; Lekan, Jack

    1987-01-01

    Summarized and compared are the major results of two NASA sponsored studies that defined potential communication payload concepts to meet the satellite traffic forecast for the turn of the century for the continental US and Region 2 of the International Telecommunications Union. The studies were performed by the Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation and RCA Astro-Electronics (now GE-RCA Astro-Space Division). Future scenarios of aggregations of communications services are presented. Payload concepts are developed and defined in detail for nine of the scenarios. Payload costs and critical technologies per payload are also presented. Finally the payload concepts are compared and the findings of the reports are discussed.

  16. Drum ring removal/installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Andrade, William Andrew

    2006-11-14

    A handheld tool, or a pair of such tools, such as for use in removing/installing a bolt-type clamping ring on a container barrel/drum, where the clamping ring has a pair of clamping ends each with a throughbore. Each tool has an elongated handle and an elongated lever arm transversely connected to one end of the handle. The lever arm is capable of being inserted into the throughbore of a selected clamping end and leveraged with the handle to exert a first moment on the selected clamping end. Each tool also has a second lever arm, such as a socket with an open-ended slot, which is suspended alongside the first lever arm. The second lever arm is capable of engaging the selected clamping end and being leveraged with the handle to exert a second moment which is orthogonal to the first moment. In this manner, the first and second moments operate to hold the selected clamping end fixed relative to the tool so that the selected clamping end may be controlled with the handle. The pair of clamping ends may also be simultaneously and independently controlled with the use of two handles/tools so as to contort the geometry of the drum clamping ring and enable its removal/installation.

  17. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  18. Modular Countermine Payload for Small Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Herman Herman; Doug Few; Roelof Versteeg; Jean-Sebastien Valois; Jeff McMahill; Michael Licitra; Edward Henciak

    2010-04-01

    Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multi-mission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

  19. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium

  20. Drum dispersion equation for Littrow-type prism spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Sidran, M; Stalzer, H J; Hauptman, M H

    1966-07-01

    A simple analytic procedure has been developed for calibrating the wavelength drum of a Littrow-type prism spectrometer. Only three measured drum readings are required to specify the drum calibration over a broad wavelength range (uv to ir) with an accuracy of the order of the instrumental accuracy. This procedure can be applied to different prism materials for which measurements of refractive index have been performed. It is based on an approximate expression, derived from geometrical optics, relating the drum reading D(lambda) to the calculated refractive index n(lambda): D= A - B(a(2) - n(2))((1/2)). The index n(lambda) is calculated from the appropriate parametric equation. The temperature for the n(lambda) values need not be exactly that of the prism temperature during measurements. This expression was investigated for wavelengths in the range 0.3 micro to 2.25 micro using a sodium chloride prism. Computed drum positions D agreed with measured drum positions to within experimental error. Unknown wavelengths were computed from their measured drum positions to within the accuracy of the measurements.

  1. Telemetry Options for LDB Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, Bryan D.; Field, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility provides Telemetry and Command systems necessary for balloon operations and science support. There are various Line-Of-Sight (LOS) and Over-The-Horizon (OTH) systems and interfaces that provide communications to and from a science payload. This presentation will discuss the current data throughput options available and future capabilities that may be incorporated in the LDB Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) such as doubling the TDRSS data rate. We will also explore some new technologies that could potentially expand the data throughput of OTH communications.

  2. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  3. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  4. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  5. International Space Station Payload Operations Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanske, Elizabeth Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Payload Operations Integrator (POINT) plays an integral part in the Certification of Flight Readiness process for the Mission Operations Laboratory and the Payload Operations Integration Function that supports International Space Station Payload operations. The POINTs operate in support of the POIF Payload Operations Manager to bring together and integrate the Certification of Flight Readiness inputs from various MOL teams through maintaining an open work tracking log. The POINTs create monthly metrics for current and future payloads that the Payload Operations Integration Function supports. With these tools, the POINTs assemble the Certification of Flight Readiness package before a given flight, stating that the Mission Operations Laboratory is prepared to support it. I have prepared metrics for Increment 29/30, maintained the Open Work Tracking Logs for Flights ULF6 (STS-134) and ULF7 (STS-135), and submitted the Mission Operations Laboratory Certification of Flight Readiness package for Flight 44P to the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD/OZ).

  6. Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) Payload Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, S.C.; Brock, B.C.; Bullington, D.M.; Byrd, D.A.; Claassen, P.J.; Decker, M.L.; Henson, T.D.; Kay, R.R.; Kidner, R.E.; Lanes, C.E.; Little, C.; Marbach, K.D.; Rackley, N.G.; Rienstra, J.L.; Smith, B.W.; Taplin, R.B.; Weber, P.G.

    1999-07-07

    MTI is a comprehensive research and development project that includes up-front modeling and analysis, satellite system design, fabrication, assembly and testing, on-orbit operations, and experimentation and data analysis. The satellite is designed to collect radiometrically calibrated, medium resolution imagery in 15 spectral bands ranging from 0.45 to 10.70 pm. The payload portion of the satellite includes the imaging system components, associated electronics boxes, and payload support structure. The imaging system includes a three-mirror anastigmatic off-axis telescope, a single cryogenically cooled focal plane assembly, a mechanical cooler, and an onboard calibration system. Payload electronic subsystems include image digitizers, real-time image compressors, a solid state recorder, calibration source drivers, and cooler temperature and vibration controllers. The payload support structure mechanically integrates all payload components and provides a simple four point interface to the spacecraft bus. All payload components have been fabricated and tested, and integrated.

  7. EVAL system concept definition. Partial spacelab payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design of an earth-viewing spacelab payload, with accommodations shared by both NASA and ESA is addressed. Mission parameters for this flight include a launch date of September 1981, an inclination of 57 deg, and an orbital altitude of 325 km. A seven-day mission is planned. The NASA portion of this payload is assigned to the EVAL (Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory) program. The ESA complement is designed as a multiuser payload.

  8. The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.R.; Mosier, F.L.

    1993-10-01

    The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Hitchhiker, and Complex Autonomous Payloads (CAP) programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  9. Evaluation philosophy for shuttle launched payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Some approaches to space-shuttle payload evaluation are examined. Issues considered include subsystem replacement in low-cost modular spacecraft (LCMS), validation of spacelab payloads, the use of standard components in shuttle-era spacecraft, effects of shuttle-induced environments on payloads, and crew safety. The LCMS is described, and goals are discussed for its evaluation program. Concepts regarding how the evaluation should proceed are considered.

  10. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  11. Payload Operations and Telescience on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cissom, Rickey D.; Cobb, Barbara J.; Ramage, Kristi S.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide future International Space Station (ISS) scientists and/or engineers with an overview of the ISS payload operations and integration process. This process begins with the payload being manifested on the ISS and continued through the integration and operations process. Emphasis is placed on the interfaces and tools that the payload will utilize when going through the process. For each of the Data Sets, the Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC) provides a Data Set Manager to work with the PD's.

  12. Field refurbishment of recoverable sounding rocket payloads.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needleman, H. C.; Tackett, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Sounding rocket payload field refurbishment has been shown to be an effective means for obtaining additional scientific data with substantial time and monetary savings. In a recent campaign three successful missions were flown using two payloads. Field refurbished hardware from two previously flown and recovered payloads were field integrated to form a third payload. Although this operational method may result in compromises in the refurbished system, it allows for quick turn around when the mission requires it. This paper describes the recent success of this approach with the Dudley Observatory Nike-Apache micrometeorite collection experiments launched from Kiruna, Sweden, in October 1972.

  13. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... laminated together and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil... paper, metal foil, plastic material, or similar material. (3) The body and heads of the drum and...

  14. View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  15. The Play as Novel: Reappropriating Brecht's "Drums in the Night."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Della

    1988-01-01

    Applies Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of the novel to Bertolt Brecht's "Drums in the Night" to illuminate the play's dialogic structure and alienation value, and reappropriate its prerevolutionary dimensions for contemporary use. (MM)

  16. Slit Logs and Sacred Cows: The History of the Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the drum is presented in both pictures and prose, from its beginning in Africa and the Far Eastern world to its introduction to the Western world where it is now fully accepted as a serious instrument. (KC)

  17. 49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORROLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORR-OLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN THE FILTER CAKE HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....507 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR... effectiveness of the drum for the purpose intended. A material other than plywood, of at least...

  19. 4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  20. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non..., with their grains crosswise. (3) The body and heads of the drum and their joints must be of a...

  1. View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference. (5) Maximum capacity of drum:...

  3. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference. (5) Maximum capacity of drum:...

  4. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference. (5) Maximum capacity of drum:...

  5. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES AND BRAKE HANDLE, LOOKING NORTH - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  6. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, BRAKE HANDLE, AND REDUCTION GEARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  7. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.; DeRosa, D.C.; Demiter, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Hanford site is one of several U.S. Department of Energy locations that has transuranic radioactive Waste in storage, resulting from nuclear weapons material production. Transuranic waste has extremely long-lived radionuclides requiring great care in management; such waste is slated for eventual disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Most of this waste is stored in 208-{ell} (55-gal) drums below ground. At the Hanford site 37 641 drums are stored in several trenches. The drums were stacked up to five high with plywood sheeting between the layers and on top of the stacks. Plastic tarps were used to cover the drums and the plywood, with several feet of earth backfilled on top of the plastic. A fraction of the drums ({approximately}20%) were covered only with earth, not with plywood and plastic. The drums are either painted low-carbon steel or galvanized low-carbon steel. They have been placed in storage from 1970 to 1988, resulting in between 7 and 25 yr of storage. The environment is either soil or air atmosphere. The air atmosphere environment also includes, for some drum surfaces, contact with the underside of the tarp. The temperature of the air atmosphere is relatively uniform. Year-round measurements have not been taken, but available data suggest that the temperature span should be from {approximately} 10 to 30{degrees}C (50 to 86{degrees}F). Humidity in underground storage module mock-ups has been measured at nearly 90% during testing in the summer months. Subsequent tests have shown that the humidity probably drops to 50 to 60% during other seasons. This report describes results of a project to inspect the condition of the waste drums.

  8. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects - Fort Drum, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-21

    Army Corps of Engineers Figure 2. Solar Walls Installed on a Maintenance Shop at Fort Drum Source: IEA Energy Conservation in Buildings and...a $1.6 million Energy Conservation Investment Program project to rehabilitate and install solar walls in Fort Drum maintenance shops. What We...contracted for, and began execution of Recovery Act projects for constructing a child development center and rehabilitating and installing solar

  9. Passive cryocooler for microsatellite payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Mayes; Thomas, Paul J.; Harron, John W.; Duggan, Philip; Sinclair, Peter M.; Khanna, Shyam M.

    1998-11-01

    A passive cryocooler has been developed for the cooling of small payloads to temperatures as low as 145 K. Although designed for a specific electronics experiment on the STRV-1d microsatellite, the device is suitable for a wide range of applications. The cryocooler uses coated surfaces for tailored radiative cooling. Mechanical support between components is provided by fiberglass struts. The measured end temperature reached is 151 K in a liquid nitrogen dewar which extrapolates to an end temperature of lower than 145 K in space. Thermal vacuum testing and random vibration testing at levels consistent with an Ariane 5 launch have been performed as part of formal qualification for the STRV mission. In this paper, details of the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of the passive cryocooler are presented.

  10. Life sciences payloads for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Life Sciences Program for utilization of the Shuttle in the 1980's is presented. Requirements for life sciences research experiments in space flight are discussed along with study results of designs to meet these requirements. The span of life sciences interests in biomedicine, biology, man system integration, bioinstrumentation and life support/protective systems is described with a listing of the research areas encompassed in these descriptions. This is followed by a description of the approach used to derive from the life sciences disciplines, the research functions and instrumentation required for an orbital research program. Space Shuttle design options for life sciences experiments are identified and described. Details are presented for Spacelab laboratories for dedicated missions, mini-labs with carry on characteristics and carry on experiments for shared payload missions and free flying satellites to be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle.

  11. Application of Shuttle EVA Systems to Payloads. Volume 2: Payload EVA Task Completion Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Candidate payload tasks for EVA application were identified and selected, based on an analysis of four representative space shuttle payloads, and typical EVA scenarios with supporting crew timelines and procedures were developed. The EVA preparations and post EVA operations, as well as the timelines emphasizing concurrent payload support functions, were also summarized.

  12. SMART-1 Payload First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Science Technology Working Team

    We present first results from SMART-1's science and technology payload, with a total mass of some 19 kg, featuring many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of rocky planets, and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. The SMART-1 observations will be coordinated with Japanese missions Lunar-A and SELENE, to answer open questions about comparative planetology, the origin of the Earth --Moon system, the early evolution of life, the planetary environment and the existence of in-situ resources necessary to support human presence (e.g. water, oxygen). With their science and technology results, these missions can be considered as preparatory missions for future robotic and human exploration of the solar system.

  13. The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a continuation of the Get Away Special Symposium convened from 1984 through 1988, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  14. The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Frann (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS) and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  15. Payload Technologies for Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Matching the capabilities of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) to the needs of users defines the direction of future investment. These user needs and advances in payload capabilities are driving the evolution of a commercially viable RPA aerospace industry. New perspectives are needed to realize the potential of RPAs. Advances in payload technologies and the impact on RPA design and operations will be explored.

  16. Payload Technologies For Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steve; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Matching the capabilities of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) to the needs of users defines the direction of future investment. These user needs and advances in payload capabilities are driving the evolution of a commercially viable RPA aerospace industry. New perspectives are needed to realize the potential of RPAs. Advances in payload technologies and the impact on RPA design and operations will be explored.

  17. Orbiter/payload contamination control assessment support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R. O.; Strange, D. A.; Hetrick, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The development and integration of 16 payload bay liner filters into the existing shuttle/payload contamination evaluation (SPACE) computer program is discussed as well as an initial mission profile model. As part of the mission profile model, a thermal conversion program, a temperature cycling routine, a flexible plot routine and a mission simulation of orbital flight test 3 are presented.

  18. An Integrated Approach To Payload System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M.; Swartz, R. L., Jr.; Teng, A.; Weidner, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a payload system simulation implemented at JPL as part of a comprehensive mission simulation facility. The flight software function includes communication with other process modules, instrument control, and data management. The payload system simulation software consists of: a camera subsystem, a virtual world, and a mission visualization toolset.

  19. 14 CFR 1214.119 - Spacelab payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... development for the Command and Data Management Subsystem (CDMS) onboard computer, configuration of the...) The customer will bear the cost of the following typical Spacelab-payload mission management functions... dedicated-pallet flights may perform the Spacelab-payload mission management functions defined in...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.119 - Spacelab payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... development for the Command and Data Management Subsystem (CDMS) onboard computer, configuration of the...) The customer will bear the cost of the following typical Spacelab-payload mission management functions... dedicated-pallet flights may perform the Spacelab-payload mission management functions defined in...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.119 - Spacelab payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... development for the Command and Data Management Subsystem (CDMS) onboard computer, configuration of the...) The customer will bear the cost of the following typical Spacelab-payload mission management functions... dedicated-pallet flights may perform the Spacelab-payload mission management functions defined in...

  2. 14 CFR 1214.119 - Spacelab payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... development for the Command and Data Management Subsystem (CDMS) onboard computer, configuration of the...) The customer will bear the cost of the following typical Spacelab-payload mission management functions... dedicated-pallet flights may perform the Spacelab-payload mission management functions defined in...

  3. Spacelab payload accommodation handbook. Preliminary issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The main characteristics of the Spacelab system are described. Sufficient information on Spacelab capabilities is provided to enable individual experimenters or payload planning groups to determine how their payload equipment can be accomodated by Spacelab topics discussed include major spacelab/experiment interfaces; Spacelab payload support systems and requirements the experiments must comply with to allow experiment design; and development and integration up to a level where a group of individual experiments are integrated into a complete Spacelab payload using Spacelab racks/floors and pallet segments. Integration of a complete Spacelab payload with Spacelab subsystems, primary module structure etc., integration of Spacelab with the Orbiter and basic operational aspects are also covered in this preliminary edition of the handbook which reflects the current Spacelab baseline design and is for information only.

  4. Remote Advanced Payload Test Rig (RAPTR) Portable Payload Test System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De La Cruz, Melinda; Henderson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The RAPTR was developed to test ISS payloads for NASA. RAPTR is a simulation of the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) interfaces of the ISS (MIL-STD1553B, Ethernet and TAXI) and is designed for rapid testing and deployment of payload experiments to the ISS. The ISS's goal is to reduce the amount of time it takes for a payload developer to build, test and fly a payload, including payload software. The RAPTR meets this need with its user oriented, visually rich interface.

  5. Criticality evaluation for the storage of converter plates in drums

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.P.; Rorer, D.C.; Liu, H.B.

    1993-12-31

    A criticality safety evaluation was performed to support the temporary storage of 20%-enriched uranium converter plates for future use in the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). A total of twelve such plates each containing approximately one kilogram of the {sup 235}U will be stored in DOT-certified 6M-drums, which have the same dimensions as standard 55-gallon drums except that they are twice as high (178.5cm). Each drum contains a Celotex liner surrounding a central 12.7cm-dia steel pipe. The plates have a nominal size of 0.3cm{times}l0.5cm{times}l25.7cm and fit inside the steel pipe, which extends 130cm in the axial direction. Because the accommodation of twelve plates in one drum is physically possible and more economical, this option for plate storage would be recommended provided that the criticality safety limit is not exceeded. In this paper, the neutron multiplication K{sub eff} in drums is calculated using the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport code (MCNP). For conservatism, several different configurations which could result.in the most reactive conditions for K{sub eff} have been examined. As part of the effort to optimize the arrangement of plates in drums, a second group of the MCNP calculations is performed using twelve plates evenly contained within two drums placed immediately adjacent to each other model again simulates the most reactive conditions for K{sub eff} estimations.

  6. Colorado Hydrogen Imaging Rocket Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgh, Eric B.; France, K.

    2009-01-01

    We present the design for a rocket-borne narrow-band far-ultraviolet imaging telescope. It will measure the spatial distribution of photo-excited molecular hydrogen emission nearby hot stars by utilizing multi-layer reflection coatings, similar to those used in previous NASA experiments, to obtain two images during a flight: one with a narrow-band filter that captures the 1575/1608A emission features (the "on-band" filter), and a second one that measures the dust-scattered stellar continuum at 1800A (the "off-band" filter). The difference image will then isolate the molecular hydrogen emission by subtracting the underlying scattered-light background. This would be a large improvement over existing studies at ultraviolet wavelengths for which many individual pointings with spectroscopic apertures are required to map the region of interest. These data will complete the picture, combined with far-ultraviolet spectra and near-infrared observations of vibrational emission that we will obtain from ground-based instrumentation, of the physical conditions in sites of recent and on-going star formation. A sounding rocket payload such as this provides the opportunity to perform niche science that other facilities cannot as well as advances the readiness of junior researchers to assume leadership roles on future NASA space flight missions.

  7. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  8. Payload accommodations. Satellite servicing support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Roscoe

    1990-01-01

    The proposed technology studies discussed at the Space Transportation Avionics Symposium in Williamsburg, VA on 7 to 9 November 1989, are discussed. The discussions and findings of the Payload Accommodations Subpanel are also summarized. The major objective of the proposed focused technology development is to develop and demonstrate (ground and flight) autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking/berthing capabilities to support satellite servicing. It is expected that autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR and D) capabilities will benefit both the users (e.g., satellite developers and operators) and the transportation system developers and operators. AR and D will provide increased availability of rendezvous and docking services by reducing the operational constraints associated with current capabilities. These constraints include specific lighting conditions, continuous space-to-ground communications, and lengthy ground tracking periods. AR and D will provide increased cost efficiency with the potential for reduced propellant expenditures and workloads (flight and/or ground crews). The AR and D operations will be more consistent, allowing more flexibility in the design of the satellite control system and docking/berthing mechanisms.

  9. EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskett, Scott A.; Weis, Steven C.; Doggrell, Leslie J.; Sciulli, Dino; Meink, Troy E.; Ganley, Jeff T.; Maly, Joseph R.; Jurisson, Karl

    2000-11-01

    Despite growing international interest in small satellites, high dedicated expendable launch vehicle costs and the lack of secondary launch opportunities continue to hinder the full exploitation of small satellite technology. In the United States, the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, other government agencies, commercial companies, and many universities use small satellites to perform space experiments, demonstrate new technology, and test operational prototype hardware. In addition, the DoD continues to study the role of small satellites in fulfilling operational mission requirements. However, the US lacks sufficient small satellite launch capacity. Furthermore, US government agencies are restricted to the use of US launch vehicles, which eliminates many affordable launch opportunities. In an effort to increase the number of space experiments that can be flown with a small, fixed budget, the DoD Space Test Program (STP) has teamed with the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/VS) to develop a low-cost solution for the small satellite launch program. Our solution, which can be implemented on both Boeing and Lockheed-Martin Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle-Medium (EELV-M) boosters, is called the EELV Secondary Payload Adaptor (ESPA). ESPA will increase the number of launch opportunities for 180kg-class (or smaller) satellites at prices highly competitive with other secondary launch services worldwide.

  10. Payload vibration isolation in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Many in-space research experiments require the microgravity environment attainable near the center of mass of the Space Station. Disturbances to the structure surrounding an experiment may lead to vibration levels that will degrade the microgravity environment and undermine the experiment's validity. In-flight disturbances will include vibration transmission from nearby equipment and excitation from crew activity. Isolation of these vibration-sensitive experiments is required. Analytical and experimental work accomplished to develop a payload (experiment) isolation system for use in space is described. The isolation scheme allows the payload to float freely within a prescribed boundary while being kept centered with forces generated by small jets of air. The vibration criterion was a maximum payload acceleration of 10 micro-g's (9.81x10(exp -5)m/s(exp 2), independent of frequency. An experimental setup, composed of a cart supported by air bearings on a flat granite slab, was designed and constructed to simulate the microgravity environment in the horizontal plane. Experimental results demonstrate that the air jet control system can effectively manage payload oscillatory response. An analytical model was developed and verified by comparing predicted and measured payload response. The mathematical model, which includes payload dynamics, control logic, and air jet forces, is used to investigate payload response to disturbances likely to be present in the Space Station.

  11. Retrieval techniques: LVLH and inertially stabilized payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yglesias, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques are discussed for retrieving payloads that are inertially or local vertical/local horizontal (LVLH) stabilized. Selection of the retrieval profile to be used depends on several factors: (1) control authority of the payload, (2) payload sensitivity to primary reaction control system (PRCS) plumes, (3) whether the payload is inertially or LVLH stabilized, (4) location of the grapple fixture, and (5) orbiter propellant consumption. The general retrieval profiles recommended are a V-bar approach for payloads that are LVLH or gravity-gradient stabilized, and the V-bar approach with one or two phase flyaround for inertially stabilized payloads. Once the general type of profile has been selected, the detailed retrieval profile and timeline should consider the various guidelines, groundrules, and constraints associated with a particular payload or flight. Reaction control system (RCS) propellant requirements for the recommended profiles range from 200 to 1500 pounds, depending on such factors as braking techniques, flyaround maneuvers (if necessary), and stationkeeping operations. The time required to perform a retrieval (starting from 1000 feet) varies from 20 to 130 minutes, depending on the complexity of the profile. The goals of this project are to develop a profile which ensures mission success; to make the retrieval profiles simple; and to keep the pilot workload to a minimum by making use of the automatic features of the orbiter flight software whenever possible.

  12. Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  13. International Space Station Capabilities and Payload Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugler, Justin; Jones, Rod; Edeen, Marybeth

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research facilities and capabilities of the International Space Station. The station can give unique views of the Earth, as it provides coverage of 85% of the Earth's surface and 95% of the populated landmass every 1-3 days. The various science rack facilities are a resource for scientific research. There are also external research accom0dations. The addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo) will extend the science capability for both external payloads and internal payload rack locations. There are also slides reviewing the post shuttle capabilities for payload delivery.

  14. Balloonborne lidar payloads for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.; Reidy, W. P.; Rieder, R. J.; Bedo, D. E.; Swirbalus, R. A.

    1994-02-01

    A series of lidar experiments has been conducted using the Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment payload (ABLE). These experiments included the measurement of atmospheric Rayleigh and Mie backscatter from near space (approximately 30 km) and Raman backscatter measurements of atmospheric constituents as a function of altitude. The ABLE payload consisted of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser transmitter, a 50 cm receiver telescope, and filtered photodetectors in various focal plane configurations. The payload for lidar pointing, thermal control, data handling, and remote control of the lidar system. Comparison of ABLE performance with that of a space lidar shows significant performance advantages and cost effectiveness for balloonborne lidar systems.

  15. Inorganic chemical precipitate formation payload design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, Craig

    1988-01-01

    The Get Away Special payload to investigate the formation of inorganic precipitates (G-405) utilizes six transparent chemical reaction chambers to actively mix a dry powder with a liquid solution. At predetermined intervals the progress of the precipitate formation is photographed and stored as data. The precipitate particles will also be subject to post-flight analysis. The various tasks performed during the 14 hour duration of the experiment are initiated and monitored by a custom-built digital controller. The payload is currently scheduled as a backup payload for STS-29 with a possible launch date of January, 1989.

  16. Lightning Effects in the Payload Changeout Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Garland L.; Fisher, Franklin A.; Collier, Richard S.; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical and empirical studies have been performed to provide better understanding of the electromagnetic environment inside the Payload Changeout Room and Orbiter payload bay resulting from lightning strikes to the launch pad lightning protection system. The analytical studies consisted of physical and mathematical modeling of the pad structure and the Payload Changeout Room. Empirical testing was performed using a lightning simulator to simulate controlled (8 kA) lightning strikes to the catenary wire lightning protection system. In addition to the analyses and testing listed above, an analysis of the configuration with the vehicle present was conducted, in lieu of testing, by the Finite Difference, Time Domain method.

  17. Nuclear criticality safety for drums at Babcock and Wilcox

    SciTech Connect

    Alcorn, F.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B&W) operates a nuclear fuel facility in Lynchburg, Virginia, processing uranium over the full range of possible enrichments (depleted to 97.65 wt% {sup 235}U). Nuclear fuel is produced for defense programs and for various research and test reactors worldwide. The facility has a uranium recovery operation that handles scrap produced at B&W as well as scrap from other U.S. Department of Energy sites. B&W also has a down-blending operation that is currently completing the down-blending of the fully enriched Project Sapphire Uranium to commercial-grade fuel (4 Wt% {sup 235}U). The facility generates approximately two hundred 55-gal drums of radioactive waste each month. Just a few years ago the number of waste drums on-site stood at {approximately}5000; however, through an aggressive waste reduction program, this number has been reduced to {approximately}2000. B&W strives to avoid storing uranium scrap in 55-gal drums; however, there are approximately sixty-four 55-gal drums of scrap on-site. Scrap is that material from which the uranium is recovered because of financial, contractual, or regulatory considerations; waste is that material destined for disposal. Whether waste or scrap, nuclear criticality safety is of paramount concern in the handling, processing, and storing of uranium-bearing drums at B&W. Any shipment complies with applicable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and U.S. Department of Transportation regulations.

  18. Shuttle payload interface verification equipment study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary design analysis of a stand alone payload integration device (IVE) is provided that is capable of verifying payload compatibility in form, fit and function with the shuttle orbiter prior to on-line payload/orbiter operations. The IVE is a high fidelity replica of the orbiter payload accommodations capable of supporting payload functional checkout and mission simulation. A top level payload integration analysis developed detailed functional flow block diagrams of the payload integration process for the broad spectrum of P/L's and identified degree of orbiter data required by the payload user and potential applications of the IVE.

  19. NASA ELV Payload Safety Program Information Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staubus, Cal; Palo, Tom; Dook, Mike; Donovan, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This presentation details the Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Program in its development and plan for implementation. It is an overview of the program's policies, process and requirements.

  20. Coupled Facility-Payload Vibration Modeling Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kaiser, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    A major phase of aerospace hardware verification is vibration testing. The standard approach for such testing is to use a shaker to induce loads into the payload. In preparation for vibration testing at National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center an analysis is performed to assess the responses of the payload. A new method of modeling the test is presented that takes into account dynamic interactions between the facility and the payload. This dynamic interaction has affected testing in the past, but been ignored or adjusted for during testing. By modeling the combined dynamics of the facility and test article (payload) it is possible to improve the prediction of hardware responses. Many aerospace test facilities work in similar way to those at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Lessons learned here should be applicable to other test facilities with similar setups.

  1. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  2. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  3. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  4. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  5. Payload Processing for Mice Drawer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Experimental payloads flown to the International Space Station provide us with valuable research conducted in a microgravity environment not attainable on earth. The Mice Drawer System is an experiment designed by Thales Alenia Space Italia to study the effects of microgravity on mice. It is designed to fly to orbit on the Space Shuttle Utilization Logistics Flight 2 in October 2008, remain onboard the International Space Station for approximately 100 days and then return to earth on a following Shuttle flight. The experiment apparatus will be housed inside a Double Payload Carrier. An engineering model of the Double Payload Carrier was sent to Kennedy Space Center for a fit check inside both Shuttles, and the rack that it will be installed in aboard the International Space Station. The Double Payload Carrier showed a good fit quality inside each vehicle, and Thales Alenia Space Italia will now construct the actual flight model and continue to prepare the Mice Drawer System experiment for launch.

  6. Orbiter ECLSS support of Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaax, J. R.; Morris, D. W.; Prince, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    The orbiter ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) provides the functions of atmosphere revitalization, crew life support, and active thermal control. This paper describes these functions as they relate to the support of Shuttle payloads, including automated spacecraft, Spacelab and Department of Defense missions. Functional and performance requirements for the orbiter ECLSS which affect payload support are presented for the atmosphere revitalization subsystem, the food, water and waste subsystem, and the active thermal control subsystem. Schematics for these subsystems are also described. Finally, based on the selected orbiter configuration, preliminary design and off-design thermodynamic data are presented to quantify the baseline orbiter capability; to quantify the payload chargeable penalties for increasing this support; and to identify the significant limits of orbiter ECLSS support available to Shuttle payloads.

  7. Spline-Screw Payload-Fastening System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Payload handed off securely between robot and vehicle or structure. Spline-screw payload-fastening system includes mating female and male connector mechanisms. Clockwise (or counter-clockwise) rotation of splined male driver on robotic end effector causes connection between robot and payload to tighten (or loosen) and simultaneously causes connection between payload and structure to loosen (or tighten). Includes mechanisms like those described in "Tool-Changing Mechanism for Robot" (GSC-13435) and "Self-Aligning Mechanical and Electrical Coupling" (GSC-13430). Designed for use in outer space, also useful on Earth in applications needed for secure handling and secure mounting of equipment modules during storage, transport, and/or operation. Particularly useful in machine or robotic applications.

  8. Spaceflight payload design flight experience G-408

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgin, William W.; Looft, Fred J.; Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Thompson, Robert; Dixon, Anthony G.; Roberti, Dino; Labonte, Robert; Moschini, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute's first payload of spaceflight experiments flew aboard Columbia, STS-40, during June of 1991 and culminated eight years of work by students and faculty. The Get Away Special (GAS) payload was installed on the GAS bridge assembly at the aft end of the cargo bay behind the Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) laboratory. The Experiments were turned on by astronaut signal after reaching orbit and then functioned for 72 hours. Environmental and experimental measurements were recorded on three cassette tapes which, together with zeolite crystals grown on orbit, formed the basis of subsequent analyses. The experiments were developed over a number of years by undergraduate students meeting their project requirements for graduation. The experiments included zeolite crystal growth, fluid behavior, and microgravity acceleration measurement in addition to environmental data acquisition. Preparation also included structural design, thermal design, payload integration, and experiment control. All of the experiments functioned on orbit and the payload system performed within design estimates.

  9. Coupled Facility/Payload Vibration Modeling Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kaiser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A major phase of aerospace hardware verification is vibration testing. The standard approach for such testing is to use a shaker to induce loads into the payload. In preparation for vibration testing at NASA/GSFC there is an analysis to assess the responses of the payload. A new method of modeling the test is presented that takes into account dynamic interactions between the facility and the payload. This dynamic interaction has affected testing in the past, but been ignored or adjusted for during testing. By modeling the combination of the facility and test article (payload) it is possible to improve the prediction of hardware responses. Many aerospace test facilities work in similar way to those at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Lessons learned here should be applicable to other test facilities with similar setups.

  10. NASA Now: International Space Station Payload Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll hear Katie Presson of the Payload Operations Integration team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., discuss investigations being conducte...

  11. 77 FR 24200 - American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ...-04- 2012-3770 or Site name American Drum & Pallet Superfund Site by one of the following methods: www... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet Superfund...

  12. Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus mortalities associated with Streptococcus iniae infection.

    PubMed

    Eldar, A; Perl, S; Frelier, P F; Bercovier, H

    1999-05-12

    We isolated for the first time Streptococcus iniae strains associated with diseased marine fish. Diseased red drum Sciaenops ocellatus were lethargic, and presented external signs (exophthalmia and loss of orientation) resembling those of freshwater fish infected by S. iniae. Skin lesions, extending to a necrotizing myositis, were typical of S. iniae infection of red drum. Histopathological findings indicate that S. iniae infection in red drum produces a chronic disease with systemic involvement characterized by multiple necrotic foci. Molecular epidemiology (RFLP [restriction fragment length polymorphism] ribotyping) revealed that 2 different ribotypes were involved in a single outbreak. The first is the EcoRI 'Israeli' trout and tilapine ribotype (Hind III type a strains), while the second is the EcoRI 'American' ribotype (Hind III type b strains), typical of tilapines farmed in Texas and Idaho.

  13. Tread drum for animals. [having an electrical shock station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A device for exercising animals such as primates is described, which includes a cylindrical housing mounted for rotation about a horizontal axis of revolution and has a cylindrical treadway portion on which the animal treads while the drum is rotated by means of a motorized drive. The treadway portion of the drum includes an electrode structure with sectors being independently energizable by means of a commutator and source of potential so that an electrical shock station is created behind a running-in-place station on the moving treadway. In this manner, if the animal should fall behind its running-in-place station, it may be shocked by treading on the energized electrode structure. One end of the tread drum comprises a transparent wall for unobstructed viewing of the animal being exercised.

  14. IUS/payload communication system simulator configuration definition study. [payload simulator for pcm telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udalov, S.; Springett, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements and specifications for a general purpose payload communications system simulator to be used to emulate those communications system portions of NASA and DOD payloads/spacecraft that will in the future be carried into earth orbit by the shuttle are discussed. For the purpose of on-orbit checkout, the shuttle is required to communicate with the payloads while they are physically located within the shuttle bay (attached) and within a range of 20 miles from the shuttle after they have been deployed (detached). Many of the payloads are also under development (and many have yet to be defined), actual payload communication hardware will not be available within the time frame during which the avionic hardware tests will be conducted. Thus, a flexible payload communication system simulator is required.

  15. Chemical Release Payloads: Stratospheric Wind Measurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-31

    report covers work performed on a series of chemical payload launches on sounding rockets, which were launched from Punto Lobos, Peru during October...d~ INTRODUCTION This report covers work performed on a series of chemical payload launches on sounding rockets, which were launched from Punto Lobos...Battery Consideration 3 G . Appendix 11 A , -1- PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The experiment consists of the local measurement of the turbulent transport properties

  16. Chapter IV - Safety During Payload Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul; Dollberg, John; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical hazards that can be expected to be encountered when processing payloads on the ground. Also described are some of the more common controls for these hazards. Many of these controls are based on hard requirements but they are also based on specific lessons learned. This chapter uses the term Flight Hardware (F/H) for all payloads regardless of size.

  17. Small Payload Integration and Testing Project Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, Tait R.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has mainly focused on large payloads for space flight beginning with the Apollo program to the assembly and resupply of the International Space Station using the Space Shuttle. NASA KSC is currently working on contracting manned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to commercial providers, developing Space Launch System, the Orion program, deep space manned programs which could reach Mars, and providing technical expertise for the Launch Services Program for science mission payloads/satellites. KSC has always supported secondary payloads and smaller satellites as the launch provider; however, they are beginning to take a more active role in integrating and testing secondary payloads into future flight opportunities. A new line of business, the Small Payload Integration and Testing Services (SPLITS), has been established to provide a one stop shop that can integrate and test payloads. SPLITS will assist high schools, universities, companies and consortiums interested in testing or launching small payloads. The goal of SPLITS is to simplify and facilitate access to KSC's expertise and capabilities for small payloads integration and testing and to help grow the space industry. An effort exists at Kennedy Space Center to improve the external KSC website. External services has partnered with SPLITS as a content test bed for attracting prospective customers. SPLITS is an emerging effort that coincides with the relaunch of the website and has a goal of attracting external partnerships. This website will be a "front door" access point for all potential partners as it will contain an overview of KSC's services, expertise and includes the pertinent contact information.

  18. The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.R.; Mosier, F.L.

    1992-10-01

    The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a continuation of the Get Away Special Symposium convened from 1984 through 1988, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  19. The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, F.; Mosier, F.L.

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS) and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been submitted for contributions to this report.

  20. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Gatlin, D M

    1996-06-01

    A 6-wk feeding experiment was conducted to determine the maximal dietary choline requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Diets were formulated to provide 35 g crude protein/ 100 g dry weight from solvent-extracted lyophilized red drum muscle and an amino acid premix. This premix provided methionine precisely at the minimum requirement determined for red drum so that potential synthesis of choline from methionine would be limited. Menhaden oil and dextrin were added to all diets to provide 13.8 kJ metabolizable energy/g diet as estimated by physiological fuel values. The diets were supplemented with choline chloride to provide 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 mg choline/kg diet. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of red drum initially averaging 5.5 g/fish in a closed, recirculating system consisting of 110-L glass aquaria. Dietary choline concentration significantly (P < 0.05) affected weight gain, feed efficiency, total lipid in liver and plasma, as well as plasma cholesterol ester, triglyceride, cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine concentrations. Least-squares regression of these responses yielded requirements ranging from 330 to 676 mg choline/kg diet. Based on weight gain data, a maximal requirement estimate (+/- SEM) of 588 (+/- 35) mg choline/kg diet was established. Red drum appear to differ from other animals in regard to the response of total lipid in liver because fish fed choline-deficient diets had reduced liver lipid rather than lipid accumulation. Cultured red drum normally store high levels of lipid in the liver.

  1. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  2. On-Board Training for US Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Benjamin; Meacham, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) crew follows a training rotation schedule that puts them in the United States about every three months for a three-month training window. While in the US, the crew receives training on both ISS systems and payloads. Crew time is limited, and system training takes priority over payload training. For most flights, there is sufficient time to train all systems and payloads. As more payloads are flown, training time becomes a more precious resource. Less training time requires payload developers (PDs) to develop alternatives to traditional ground training. To ensure their payloads have sufficient training to achieve their scientific goals, some PDs have developed on-board trainers (OBTs). These OBTs are used to train the crew when no or limited ground time is available. These lessons are also available on-orbit to refresh the crew about their ground training, if it was available. There are many types of OBT media, such as on-board computer based training (OCBT), video/photo lessons, or hardware simulators. The On-Board Training Working Group (OBTWG) and Courseware Development Working Group (CDWG) are responsible for developing the requirements for the different types of media.

  3. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes.

  4. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  5. STS-98 payload U.S. Lab Destiny is moved into Atlantis' payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Technicians in the Payload Changeout Room oversee the transfer of the U.S. Lab Destiny to the orbiter'''s payload bay. The PCR is the enclosed, environmentally controlled portion of the rotating service structure that supports payload delivery at the launch pad and vertical installation in the orbiter payload bay. Destiny, a key element in the construction of the International Space Station is designed for space science experiments and already has five system racks installed inside. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the ISS. Launch of STS-98 is scheduled for Jan. 19 at 2:11 a.m. EST.

  6. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  7. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  8. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  9. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  10. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1...

  11. The Oral Tradition in the Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble is a Ghanaian drum and dance ensemble that focusses on music in the Ewe tradition. It is based in an elementary school in the Greater Toronto Area and consists of students in Grade 4 through Grade 8. Students in the ensemble study Ghanaian traditional Ewe drumming and dancing in the oral tradition. Nine students…

  12. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, C.F.,; Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R.,

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  13. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.506 Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums...

  14. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.506 Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums...

  15. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  16. 14 CFR § 1214.305 - Payload specialist responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... commander, payload specialists may operate payload support systems which have an extensive interface with... FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space Transportation System (STS) Missions § 1214.305 Payload specialist... responsible for knowing how to operate certain Obiter systems, such as hatches, food, and hygiene systems,...

  17. 14 CFR 1214.305 - Payload specialist responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... commander, payload specialists may operate payload support systems which have an extensive interface with... Payload Specialists for Space Transportation System (STS) Missions § 1214.305 Payload specialist... responsible for knowing how to operate certain Obiter systems, such as hatches, food, and hygiene systems,...

  18. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55 GALLON DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-04

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG&G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air).

  19. Nondestructive assay of curium-contaminated transuranic waste drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Lynn A.

    1999-01-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste drums containing non-actinide scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of 244Cm prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of 244Cm. To discrimination between the plutonium and curium materials in the matrix, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A californium shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration, which is relatively insensitive to the 244Cm contamination. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  20. The Way of the Drum: When Earth Becomes Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Grafton; Turchetti, Lois Provost

    Two Native people describe their respective journeys to healing, journeys that involved the rediscovery of language and culture. In Part I, "Healing the Tears of Yesterday by the Drum Today: The Oneida Language Is a Healing Medicine" (Grafton Antone), the first narrator taught the Oneida language to adult students at a community center.…

  1. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  2. Dynamics of Axial Separation in Long Rotating Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I.S.; Tsimring, L.S.

    1999-06-01

    We propose a continuum description for the axial separation of granular materials in a long rotating drum. The model, operating with two local variables, concentration difference and the dynamic angle of repose, describes both initial transient traveling wave dynamics and long-term segregation of the binary mixture. Segregation proceeds through ultraslow logarithmic coarsening. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... located within easy reach of the operator's station. (3) Electric motor operated hoists shall be provided... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... located within easy reach of the operator's station. (3) Electric motor operated hoists shall be provided... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  6. Flow Straightener for a Rotating-Drum Liquid Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Coin, James R.; Converse, David G.; Rethke, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    A flow straightener has been incorporated into a rotary liquid separator that originally comprised an inlet tube, a shroud plate, an impeller, an inner drum, an outer drum, a housing, a pitot tube, and a hollow shaft motor. As a consequence of the original geometry of the impeller, shroud, inner drum, and hollow shaft, swirl was created in the airflow inside the hollow shaft during operation. The swirl speed was large enough to cause a significant pressure drop. The flow straightener consists of vanes on the back side of the shroud plate. These vanes compartmentalize the inside of the inner drum in such a way as to break up the flow path and thereby stop the air from swirling; as a result, the air enters the hollow shaft with a predominantly axial velocity instead of a swirl. Tests of the rotary liquid separator at an airflow rate of 10 cu ft/min (0.0047 cu m/s) revealed that the dynamic pressure drop was 8 in. of water (approx.=2 kPa) in the absence of the flow straightener and was reduced to 1 in. of water (approx.=0.25 kPa) in the presence of the flow straightener.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Cherenkov Light Detectors in an Oil Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niduaza, Rexavalmar; Wedel, Zachary; Castro, Juan; Zavala, Favian; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) has been used in a number of research development in astro-particle physics and particle physics. In an effort to further implement the MPPC detector, we constructed a modular experimental setup using a 16-inch tall acrylic cylinder filled with distilled water as the light producing medium to determine its feasibility as a possible detector for weak Cherenkov light. We have since progressed towards utilizing an oil drum (approximately 30 gallons) as our light-tight container replacing our prototype. In this talk, we would discuss the results regarding our investigation utilizing 1-inch and 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) in an oil drum as we did for our prototype. We would also present our experimental findings comparing our prototype and our oil drum setup using PMTs in coincidence with the MPPC coupled with wavelength-shifting fibers that are submerged in distilled water inside the oil drum vessel. Department of Education grant nymber P031S90007.

  8. Middle School Drum Ensemble: An Unlikely Experience in Classroom Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbre, James

    2013-01-01

    Though music has a long and successful history within education, it is often one of the first sacrificial lambs when school budgets tighten. Over the course of an academic year, a documentary film sought to tell the story of an American middle school drum ensemble. The context of this group provided an ideal way to examine the nature of student…

  9. Non-Destructive Assay of Curium Contaminated Transuranic Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, L.A.

    1998-11-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste (TRU) drums containing non-plutonium scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of Cm-244 prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of Cm-244. To discriminate between the plutonium and curium materials present, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A Cf shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  10. 4. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF SOUTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF SOUTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM, ONE BULL SHAFT AND GEARS, BULL RING AND ROLLERS, AND TOP OF PIER III. WILLBRIDGE AND PORTLAND WEST HILLS IN BACKGROUND. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 14. BULL SHAFT, BULL RING AND PINION, AND DRUM. TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BULL SHAFT, BULL RING AND PINION, AND DRUM. TOP OF PIER III, GRANITE COPING, AND PLAIN CONCRETE PIER BELOW. DETAILS OF WEST PIER PROTECTION FRAMING AT PIER. WILLBRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  14. Development of Interpersonal Coordination between Peers during a Drumming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Ramenzoni, Veronica C. O.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their drumming with a peer. Results showed that all children…

  15. Velocity Profiles in a Rotating Drum: The Effects of Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewster, Robert C.; Silbert, Leonardo E.; Grest, Gary S.; Levine, Alex J.

    2007-03-01

    The dynamics of granular media in a rotating drum is important in a wide range of applications in industry associated with mixing granular materials. The rotating drum also serves as a standard experimental geometry to observe continuous avalanching in the laboratory. We study the effect of interparticle cohesion on the velocity field of the rotating drum using large scale granular dynamics simulations. Such cohesion is easily introduced in the system by a wetting fluid that forms menisci at interparticle contacts. Previously, we have examined the effect of interparticle cohesion in gravity driven chute flows, and have shown that the cohesion has a dramatic effect on the granular rheology. For strong enough cohesion, these forces generate a coherently moving plug at the free surface. In this talk, we examine the velocity profile in the rotating drum geometry in this plug-flow regime. We compare our results for angle of the pile in the continuous flow regime to the experiments of Nowak et al. [Nature Physics, 1 (2005)] and we examine the stress and velocity profile within the pile as well.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  19. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 2: Payload data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A format developed for Space Transportation System payload data collection and a process for collecting the data are described along with payload volumes and a data deck to be used as input for the Marshall Interactive Planning System. Summary matrices of the data generated are included.

  20. A Stream lined Approach for the Payload Customer in Identifying Payload Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ladonna J.; Schneider, Walter F.; Johnson, Dexer E.; Roe, Lesa B.

    2001-01-01

    NASA payload developers from across various disciplines were asked to identify areas where process changes would simplify their task of developing and flying flight hardware. Responses to this query included a central location for consistent hardware design requirements for middeck payloads. The multidisciplinary team assigned to review the numerous payload interface design documents is assessing the Space Shuttle middeck, the SPACEHAB Inc. locker, as well as the MultiPurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) rack design requirements for the payloads. They are comparing the multiple carriers and platform requirements and developing a matrix which illustrates the individual requirements, and where possible, the envelope that encompasses all of the possibilities. The matrix will be expanded to form an overall envelope that the payload developers will have the option to utilize when designing their payload's hardware. This will optimize the flexibility for payload hardware and ancillary items to be manifested on multiple carriers and platforms with minimal impact to the payload developer.

  1. NASA payload data book: Payload analysis for space shuttle applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Data describing the individual NASA payloads for the space shuttle are presented. The document represents a complete issue of the original payload data book. The subjects discussed are: (1) astronomy, (2) space physics, (3) planetary exploration, (4) earth observations (earth and ocean physics), (5) communications and navigation, (6) life sciences, (7) international rendezvous and docking, and (8) lunar exploration.

  2. Automated Space Processing Payloads Study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is described which examined the extent to which the experiment hardware and operational requirements can be met by automatic control and material handling devices; payload and system concepts are defined which make extensive use of automation technology. Topics covered include experiment requirements and hardware data, capabilities and characteristics of industrial automation equipment and controls, payload grouping, automated payload conceptual design, space processing payload preliminary design, automated space processing payloads for early shuttle missions, and cost and scheduling.

  3. The Potential for Hosted Payloads at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andraschko, Mark; Antol, Jeffrey; Baize, Rosemary; Horan, Stephen; Neil, Doreen; Rinsland, Pamela; Zaiceva, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 National Space Policy encourages federal agencies to actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including...hosting government capabilities on commercial spacecraft. NASA's Science Mission Directorate has taken an important step towards this goal by adding an option for hosted payload responses to its recent Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for Earth Venture-2 missions. Since NASA selects a significant portion of its science missions through a competitive process, it is useful to understand the implications that this process has on the feasibility of successfully proposing a commercially hosted payload mission. This paper describes some of the impediments associated with proposing a hosted payload mission to NASA, and offers suggestions on how these impediments might be addressed. Commercially hosted payloads provide a novel way to serve the needs of the science and technology demonstration communities at a fraction of the cost of a traditional Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) mission. The commercial communications industry launches over 20 satellites to GEO each year. By exercising this repeatable commercial paradigm of privately financed access to space with proven vendors, NASA can achieve science goals at a significantly lower cost than the current dedicated spacecraft and launch vehicle approach affords. Commercial hosting could open up a new realm of opportunities for NASA science missions to make measurements from GEO. This paper also briefly describes two GEO missions recommended by the National Academies of Science Earth Science Decadal Survey, the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission and the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission. Hosted payload missions recently selected for implementation by the Office of the Chief Technologist are also discussed. Finally, there are

  4. Occupational hygiene in a Finnish drum composting plant.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Outi; Nykänen, Jenni; Nivukoski, Ulla; Himanen, Marina; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2005-01-01

    Bioaerosols (microbes, dust and endotoxins) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined in the working air of a drum composting plant treating source-separated catering waste. Different composting activities at the Oulu drum composting plant take place in their own units separated by modular design and constructions. Important implication of this is that the control room is a relatively clean working environment and the risk of exposure to harmful factors is low. However, the number of viable airborne microbes was high both in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The concentration (geometric average) of total microbes was 21.8 million pcs/m3 in the biowaste receiving hall, 13.9 million pcs/m3 in the drum composting hall, and just 1.4 million pcs/m3 in the control room. Endotoxin concentrations were high in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The average (arithmetic) endotoxin concentration was over the threshold value of 200 EU/m3 in both measurement locations. In all working areas, the average (arithmetic) dust concentrations were in a low range of 0.6-0.7 mg/m3, being below the Finnish threshold value of 5 mg/m3. In the receiving hall and drum composting hall, the concentrations of airborne microbes and endotoxins may rise to levels hazardous to health during prolonged exposure. It is advisable to use a respirator mask (class P3) in these areas. Detected volatile organic compounds were typical compounds of composting plants: carboxylic acids and their esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes. Concentrations of VOCs were much lower than the Finnish threshold limit values (Finnish TLVs), many of the quantified compounds exceeded their threshold odour concentrations (TOCs). Primary health effects due VOCs were not presumable at these concentrations but unpleasant odours may cause secondary symptoms such as nausea and hypersensitivity reactions. This situation is typical of composting plants where

  5. MCNP Modeling Results for Location of Buried TRU Waste Drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D. K.; Schweitzer, J. S.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1960's, fifty-five gallon drums of TRU waste were buried in shallow pits on remote U.S. Government facilities such as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (now split into the Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Completion Project [ICP]). Subsequently, it was decided to remove the drums and the material that was in them from the burial pits and send the material to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Several technologies have been tried to locate the drums non-intrusively with enough precision to minimize the chance for material to be spread into the environment. One of these technologies is the placement of steel probe holes in the pits into which wireline logging probes can be lowered to measure properties and concentrations of material surrounding the probe holes for evidence of TRU material. There is also a concern that large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are also present that would contaminate the environment during removal. In 2001, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) built two pulsed neutron wireline logging tools to measure TRU and VOC around the probe holes. The tools are the Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) and the Pulsed Neutron Gamma (PNG), respectively. They were tested experimentally in surrogate test holes in 2003. The work reported here estimates the performance of the tools using Monte-Carlo modelling prior to field deployment. A MCNP model was constructed by INEEL personnel. It was modified by the authors to assess the ability of the tools to predict quantitatively the position and concentration of TRU and VOC materials disposed around the probe holes. The model was used to simulate the tools scanning the probe holes vertically in five centimetre increments. A drum was included in the model that could be placed near the probe hole and at other locations out to forty-five centimetres from the probe-hole in five centimetre increments. Scans were performed with no chlorine in the

  6. A Cubesat Payload for Exoplanet Detection

    PubMed Central

    Iuzzolino, Marcella; Accardo, Domenico; Rufino, Giancarlo; Oliva, Ernesto; Tozzi, Andrea; Schipani, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to ~0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images. The innovative concept is the use of a small and cheap platform for a relevant astronomical mission. The faintest observable target star has V-magnitude equal to 3.38. Despite missions aimed at ultra-precise photometry from microsatellites (e.g., MOST, BRITE), the transit of exoplanets orbiting very bright stars has not yet been surveyed photometrically from space, since any observation from a small/medium sized (30 cm optical aperture) telescope would saturate the detector. This cubesat mission can provide these missing measurements. This work is set up as a demonstrative project to verify the feasibility of the payload concept. PMID:28257111

  7. ISS truss attached payload accommodations overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youmans, Janella S.; Olson, Michael F.; Foster, Mark A.; Watkins, Barbara S.

    1999-01-01

    One of the defining features of the International Space Station (ISS) is its capacity to accommodate long-term science in the external environment of space. The large truss structure spanning the vehicle is designed to support core system equipment such as solar arrays, thermal radiators, and the pressurized module structures. In addition to supporting core systems, the truss structure also accommodates four attached payload facilities and two logistics carriers. This paper focuses on the capabilities of the ISS in accommodating externally attached science payloads, defines the locations where experiments can be conducted, explains the environment wherein typical experiments will be performed, and identifies the payload interfaces and access to resources such as power and data. The paper will also summarize the robotic accommodations which will support attached payloads and describes typical procedures for installation of the payloads onto the sites. Finally, the paper will provide a summary description of the attach sites on the NASDA Exposed Facility and the potential for use of alternative attach sites on the ISS.

  8. The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muri, Paul; Runco, Susan; Fontanot, Carlos; Getteau, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) payload enables long-term experimentation of four, commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) high definition video, cameras mounted on the exterior of the International Space Station. The payload enables testing of cameras in the space environment. The HDEV cameras transmit imagery continuously to an encoder that then sends the video signal via Ethernet through the space station for downlink. The encoder, cameras, and other electronics are enclosed in a box pressurized to approximately one atmosphere, containing dry nitrogen, to provide a level of protection to the electronics from the space environment. The encoded video format supports streaming live video of Earth for viewing online. Camera sensor types include charge-coupled device and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. Received imagery data is analyzed on the ground to evaluate camera sensor performance. Since payload deployment, minimal degradation to imagery quality has been observed. The HDEV payload continues to operate by live streaming and analyzing imagery. Results from the experiment reduce risk in the selection of cameras that could be considered for future use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. This paper discusses the payload development, end-to- end architecture, experiment operation, resulting image analysis, and future work.

  9. Integration and Test for Small Shuttle Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael R.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recommended approaches for shuttle small payload integration and test (I&T) are presented. The paper is intended for consideration by developers of small shuttle payloads, including I&T managers, project managers, and system engineers. Examples and lessons learned are presented based on the extensive history of the NASA's Hitchhiker project. All aspects of I&T are presented, including: (1) I&T team responsibilities, coordination, and communication; (2) Flight hardware handling practices; (3) Documentation and configuration management; (4) I&T considerations for payload development; (5) I&T at the development facility; (6) Prelaunch operations, transfer, orbiter integration, and interface testing; and (7) Postflight operations. This paper is of special interest to those payload projects which have small budgets and few resources: That is, the truly 'faster, cheaper, better' projects. All shuttle small payload developers are strongly encouraged to apply these guidelines during I&T planning and ground operations to take full advantage of today's limited resources and to help ensure mission success.

  10. Integration and Test of Shuttle Small Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Recommended approaches for space shuttle small payload integration and test (I&T) are presented. The paper is intended for consideration by developers of shuttle small payloads, including I&T managers, project managers, and system engineers. Examples and lessons learned are presented based on the extensive history of NASA's Hitchhiker project. All aspects of I&T are presented, including: (1) I&T team responsibilities, coordination, and communication; (2) Flight hardware handling practices; (3) Documentation and configuration management; (4) I&T considerations for payload development; (5) I&T at the development facility; (6) Prelaunch operations, transfer, orbiter integration and interface testing; (7) Postflight operations. This paper is of special interest to those payload projects that have small budgets and few resources: that is, the truly faster, cheaper, better projects. All shuttle small payload developers are strongly encouraged to apply these guidelines during I&T planning and ground operations to take full advantage of today's limited resources and to help ensure mission success.

  11. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  12. A Cubesat Payload for Exoplanet Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuzzolino, M.; Accardo, D.; Rufino, G.; Oliva, E.; Tozzi, A.; Schipani, P.

    2017-03-01

    The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to 0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images. The innovative concept is the use of a small and cheap platform for a relevant astronomical mission. The faintest observable target star has V-magnitude equal to 3.38. Despite missions aimed at ultra-precise photometry from microsatellites (e.g., MOST, BRITE), the transit of exoplanets orbiting very bright stars has not yet been surveyed photometrically from space, since any observation from a small/medium sized (30 cm optical aperture) telescope would saturate the detector. This cubesat mission can provide these missing measurements. This work is set up as a demonstrative project to verify the feasibility of the payload concept.

  13. Payload deployment systems and advanced manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The results of discussions on future development of avionics to support payload deployment systems and advanced manipulators are discussed. The discussions summarized here were held during the Space Transportation Avionics Technology Symposium in Williamsburg, Virginia on November 7 to 9, 1989. Symposium participants agreed that this subpanel would have benefitted from more participation by users. It was suggested that inputs from Shuttle payload users should be incorporated, either by direct discussions with users or by incorporating comments from users as kept by Payload Accommodations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Goddard, and Langley, as builders of payloads, and the Space Station Utilization Office could also provide useful inputs. Other potential users for future systems should also be identified as early as possible to determine what they anticipate their needs to be. Symposium participants also recognized that payload deployment is normally not a safety critical area, and as such, is vulnerable to budget cuts that defer costs from development to operations. This does give opportunities for upgrades of operational systems, but these must be very cost effective to compete with vehicle requirements that enhance safety or increase lifetime.

  14. Amine Swingbed Payload Testing on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA/Johnson Space Center's test articles of the amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent system known as the CO2 And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed, or CAMRAS, was incorporated into a payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The intent of the payload is to demonstrate the spacecraft-environment viability of the core atmosphere revitalization technology baselined for the new Orion vehicle. In addition to the air blower, vacuum connection, and controls needed to run the CAMRAS itself, the payload incorporates a suite of sensors for scientific data gathering, a water save function, and an air save function. The water save function minimizes the atmospheric water vapor reaching the CAMRAS unit, thereby reducing ISS water losses that are otherwise acceptable, and even desirable, in the Orion environment. The air save function captures about half of the ullage air that would normally be vented overboard every time the cabin air-adsorbing and space vacuum-desorbing CAMRAS beds swap functions. The JSC team conducted 1000 hours of on-orbit Amine Swingbed Payload testing in 2013. This paper presents the basics of the payload's design and history, as well as a summary of the test results, including comparisons with prelaunch testing.

  15. Amine Swingbed Payload Testing on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy B.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA Johnson Space Center's test articles of the amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent system known as the CO2 And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed, or CAMRAS, was incorporated into a payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The intent of the payload is to demonstrate the spacecraft-environment viability of the core atmosphere revitalization technology baselined for the new Orion vehicle. In addition to the air blower, vacuum connection, and controls needed to run the CAMRAS, the payload incorporates a suite of sensors for scientific data gathering, a water save function, and an air save function. The water save function minimizes the atmospheric water vapor reaching the CAMRAS unit, thereby reducing ISS water losses that are otherwise acceptable, and even desirable, in the Orion environment. The air save function captures about half of the ullage air that would normally be vented overboard every time the cabin air-adsorbing and space vacuum-desorbing CAMRAS beds swap functions. The JSC team conducted 1000 hours of on-orbit Amine Swingbed Payload testing in 2013 and early 2014. This paper presents the basics of the payload's design and history, as well as a summary of the test results, including comparisons with prelaunch testing.

  16. A Cubesat Payload for Exoplanet Detection.

    PubMed

    Iuzzolino, Marcella; Accardo, Domenico; Rufino, Giancarlo; Oliva, Ernesto; Tozzi, Andrea; Schipani, Pietro

    2017-03-02

    The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to ~0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images. The innovative concept is the use of a small and cheap platform for a relevant astronomical mission. The faintest observable target star has V-magnitude equal to 3.38. Despite missions aimed at ultra-precise photometry from microsatellites (e.g., MOST, BRITE), the transit of exoplanets orbiting very bright stars has not yet been surveyed photometrically from space, since any observation from a small/medium sized (30 cm optical aperture) telescope would saturate the detector. This cubesat mission can provide these missing measurements. This work is set up as a demonstrative project to verify the feasibility of the payload concept.

  17. Adaptive control for payload launch vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosh, Julian R.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Karahalis, Gregory G.

    2001-07-01

    The Department of Defense has identified launch vibration isolation as a major research interest. Reducing the loads a satellite experiences during launch will greatly enhance the reliability and lifetime and decrease the payload structural mass. DoD space programs stand to benefit significantly from advances in vibration isolation technology. This study explores potential hybrid vibration isolation using adaptive control with a passive isolator. Lyapunov analysis is used to develop the structural adaptive control scheme. Simulink and Matlab simulations investigate these control methodologies on a lumped mass dynamic model of a satellite and its representative launch vehicle. The results are compared to Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control and skyhook damper active control methods. The results of the modeling indicate adaptive control achieves up to a 90 percent reduction in loads on the payload when compared to the conventional active control methods. The adaptive controller compensated for the loads being transmitted to the payload from the rest of the launch vehicle. The current adaptive controller was not able to effectively control the motion of a vibrating subcomponent within the payload or the subcomponent's effect on the overall payload itself.

  18. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  19. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  20. 7 CFR 160.201 - Fees generally for field inspection and certification of naval stores and drum containers of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and incidental certification as to class, condition and weight). (i) In drums (see Note 1) per drum—$1... certified at any plant during any calendar month is equivalent to a total of 2,400 or more drums (counting five bags as equivalent to one drum), the fee shall be computed at the rate of $1.01 per drum and...

  1. Space transportation system payload interface verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everline, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers STS payload-interface verification requirements and the capability provided by STS to support verification. The intent is to standardize as many interfaces as possible, not only through the design, development, test and evaluation (DDT and E) phase of the major payload carriers but also into the operational phase. The verification process is discussed in terms of its various elements, such as the Space Shuttle DDT and E (including the orbital flight test program) and the major payload carriers DDT and E (including the first flights). Five tools derived from the Space Shuttle DDT and E are available to support the verification process: mathematical (structural and thermal) models, the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory, the Shuttle Manipulator Development Facility, and interface-verification equipment (cargo-integration test equipment).

  2. Flight trajectory simulation of fluid payload projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, H. R.; Wolfe, W. P.; Oberkampf, W. L.

    A flight trajectory simulation method has been developed for calculating the six degree-of-freedom motion of fluid filled projectiles. Numerically calculated internal fluid moments and experimentally known aerodynamic forces and moments are coupled to the projectile motion. Comparisons of predicted results with flight test data of an M483 155mm artillery projectile with a highly viscous payload confirm the accuracy of the simulation. This simulation clearly shows that the flight instability is due to the growth of the nutation component of angular motion caused by the viscous effects of the fluid payload. This simulation procedure, when used in conjunction with the previously developed method for calculating internal fluid moments, allows the designer to examine the effects of various liquid payloads and container geometries on the dynamic behavior of flight vehicles.

  3. Communications platform payload definition study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clopp, H. W.; Hawkes, T. A.; Bertles, C. R.; Pontano, B. A.; Kao, T.

    1986-01-01

    Large geostationary communications platforms have been investigated in a number of studies since 1974 as a possible means to more effectively utilize the geostationary orbital arc and electromagnetic spectrum and to reduce overall satellite communications system costs. This NASA Lewis sponsored study addresses the commercial feasibility of various communications platform payload concepts circa 1998. It defines promising payload concepts, estimates recurring costs and identifies critical technologies needed to permit eventual commercialization. Ten communications service aggregation scenarios describing potential groupings of services were developed for a range of conditions. Payload concepts were defined for four of these scenarios: (1) Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS), meet 100% of CONUS plus Canada demand with a single platform; (2) Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) (Trunking + Customer Premises Service (CPS), meet 20% of CONUS demands; (3) FSS (Trunking + video distribution), 10 to 13% of CONUS demand; and (4) FSS (20% of demand) + Inter Satellite Links (ISL) + TDRSS/TDAS Data Distribution.

  4. Outgassing of ISS payload pointing devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobascio, Cesare; Rampini, Riccardo

    2003-09-01

    Hexapod and the Coarse Pointing Device (CPD) are specific devices currently planned for utilization on the International Space Station (ISS) external payload facilities, with the scope of pointing scientific payload instrumentation. During the design and development phases, the devices have been extensively analyzed for their outgassing characteristics, as relevant for the potential adverse contamination effects on sensitive instrumentation surfaces. Outgassing kinetics characteristics of selected materials in dedicated test facilities have been determined as per guidelines established in ASTM-E-1559, and ESTEC VBQC method. An analysis of molecular emissions and depositions from the integrated devices has been conducted. Outgassing rates (OGRs) on representative targets enveloping the complete payloads have been calculated. Generally, the outgassing emissions comply with the imposed requirements. In case of potential requirement violations, and for the protection of sensitive surfaces, countermeasures have been devised, such as vacuum bake-out and directional venting.

  5. Approach to Spacelab Payload mission management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H. G.; Lester, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus of the approach to Spacelab Payload mission management is the establishment of a single point of authority for the entire payload on a given mission. This single point mission manager will serve as a 'broker' between the individual experiments and the STS, negotiating agreements by two-part interaction. The payload mission manager, along with a small support team, will represent the users in negotiating use of STS accommodations. He will provide the support needed by each individual experimenter to meet the scientific, technological, and applications objectives of the mission with minimum cost and maximum efficiency. The investigator will assume complete responsibility for his experiment hardware definition and development and will take an active role in the integration and operation of his experiment.

  6. Assembling Structures in the Payload Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn C. Thornton (foreground) releases a strut from the Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) strut dispenser during Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity Methods (ASEM) procedures in Endeavour's payload bay. MS Thomas D. Akers, positioned on the opposite side of the MPESS, waits for Thornton to hand him the final strut. The two astronauts are building the ASEM structure during the mission's fourth EVA. The ASEM structure, locked in at four corners to payload retention latch assemblies (PRLAs), rises above the payload bay. In the background are the Intelsat cradle, the vertical tail, and the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods. The pale blue and white Earth is visible below.

  7. Shuttle payload S-band communications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springett, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The work to identify, evaluate, and make recommendations concerning the functions and interfaces of those orbiter avionic subsystems which are dedicated to, or play some part in, handling communication signals (telemetry and command) to/from payloads (spacecraft) that will be carried into orbit by the shuttle is reported. Some principal directions of the research are: (1) analysis of the ability of the various avionic equipment to interface with and appropriately process payload signals; (2) development of criteria which will foster equipment compatibility with diverse types of payloads and signals; (3) study of operational procedures, especially those affecting signal acquisition; (4) trade-off analysis for end-to-end data link performance optimization; (5) identification of possible hardware design weakness which might degrade signal processing performance.

  8. Large Payload Transportation and Test Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Pope, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Ironically, the limiting factor to a national heavy lift strategy may not be the rocket technology needed to throw a heavy payload, but rather the terrestrial infrastructure - roads, bridges, airframes, and buildings - necessary to transport, acceptance test, and process large spacecraft. Failure to carefully consider how large spacecraft are designed, and where they are manufactured, tested, or launched, could result in unforeseen cost to modify/develop infrastructure, or incur additional risk due to increased handling or elimination of key verifications. During test and verification planning for the Altair project, a number of transportation and test issues related to the large payload diameter were identified. Although the entire Constellation Program - including Altair - was canceled in the 2011 NASA budget, issues identified by the Altair project serve as important lessons learned for future payloads that may be developed to support national "heavy lift" strategies. A feasibility study performed by the Constellation Ground Operations (CxGO) project found that neither the Altair Ascent nor Descent Stage would fit inside available transportation aircraft. Ground transportation of a payload this large over extended distances is generally not permitted by most states, so overland transportation alone would not have been an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be permitted, but water transportation could take as long as 66 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary

  9. Ares V: New Opportunities for Scientific Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    What if scientists and payload planners had access to three to five times the volume and five to nine times the mass provided by today's launch vehicles? This simple question can lead to numerous exciting possibilities, all involving NASA's new Ares V cargo launch vehicle now on the drawing board. Multiple scientific fields and payload designers have that opportunity with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, being developed at NASA as the heavy-lift component of the U.S. Space Exploration Policy. When the Ares V begins flying late next decade, its capabilities will significantly exceed the 1960s-era Saturn V or the current Space Shuttle, while it benefits from their engineering, manufacturing, and infrastructure heritage. It will send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than Apollo and provide ongoing support to a permanent lunar outpost. Moreover, it will restore a strategic heavy-lift U.S. asset, which can support human and robotic exploration and scientific ventures for decades to come. Assessment of astronomy payload requirements since Spring 2008 has indicated that Ares V has the potential to support a range of payloads and missions. Some of these missions were impossible in the absence of Ares V's capabilities. Collaborative design/architecture inputs, exchanges, and analyses have already begun between scientists and payload developers. A 2008 study by a National Research Council (NRC) panel, as well as analyses presented by astronomers and planetary scientists at two weekend conferences in 2008, support the position that Ares V has benefit to a broad range of planetary and astronomy missions. This early dialogue with Ares V engineers is permitting the greatest opportunity for payload/transportation/mission synergy and the least financial impact to Ares V development. In addition, independent analyses suggest that Ares V has the opportunity to enable more cost-effective mission design.

  10. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  11. Italian payload development status for Columbus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria, A.; Mirra, C.

    1992-07-01

    Starting from a brief historical background, ideas and concepts for Italian payloads development for Columbus are reported. Ongoing efforts on precursor missions proposals analysis and future activities are also briefly depicted. These include a microgravity program to define the first steps necessary for future payload building. The following facilities are outlined: boiling; two phase; combustion; fluidized bed. The expectation for the future is to continue in the development of the instruments and facilities depicted in order to be able to allocate part of them for the beginning of the Columbus space station operations.

  12. Emerging technologies for communication satellite payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüceer, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments in payload designs will allow more flexible and efficient use of telecommunication satellites. Important modifications in repeater designs, antenna structures and spectrum policies open up exciting opportunities for GEO satellites to support a variety of emerging applications, ranging from telemedicine to real-time data transfer between LEO satellite and ground station. This study gives information about the emerging technologies in the design of communication satellites' transceiver subsystem and demonstrates the feasibility of using fiber optic links for the local oscillator distribution in future satellite payloads together with the optical inter-satellite link.

  13. Payload crew training scheduler (PACTS) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of the payload specialist training scheduler (PACTS) is discussed in this user's manual which is used to schedule payload specialists for mission training on the Spacelab experiments. The PACTS program is a fully automated interactive, computerized scheduling program equipped with tutorial displays. The tutorial displays are sufficiently detailed for use by a program analyst having no computer experience. The PACTS program is designed to operate on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system, and has the capability to load output into a PDP 11/45 Interactive Graphics Display System for printing schedules. The program has the capacity to handle up to three overlapping Spacelab missions.

  14. Essential fatty acid requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Lochmann, R T; Gatlin, D M

    1993-10-01

    Feeding experiments and laboratory analyses were conducted to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirement of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Juvenile red drum were maintained in aquaria containing brackish water (5 ± 2‰ total dissolved solids) for two 6-week experiments. Semipurified diets contained a total of 70% lipid consisting of different combinations of tristearin [predominantly 18:0] and the following fatty acid ethyl esters: oleate, linoleate, linolenate, and a mixture of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) containing approximately 60% eicosapentaenoate plus docosahexaenoate. EFA-deficient diets (containing only tristearin or oleate) rapidly reduced fish growth and feed efficiency, and increased mortality. Fin erosion and a "shock syndrome" also occurred in association with EFA deficiency. Of the diets containing fatty acid ethyl esters, those with 0.5-1% (n-3) HUFA (0.3-0.6% eicosapentaenoate plus docosahexaenoate) promoted the best growth, survival, and feed efficiency; however, the control diet containing 7% menhaden fish oil provided the best performance. Excess (n-3) HUFA suppressed fish weight gain; suppression became evident at 1.5% (n-3) HUFA, and was pronounced at 2.5%. Fatty acid compositions of whole-body, muscle and liver tissues from red drum fed the various diets generally reflected dietary fatty acids, but modifications of these patterns also were evident. Levels of saturated fatty acids appeared to be regulated independent of diet. In fish fed EFA-deficient diets (containing only tristearin or oleate), monoenes increased and (n-3) HUFA were preferentially conserved in polar lipid fractions. Eicosatrienoic acid [20:3(n-9)] was not elevated in EFA-deficient red drum, apparently due to their limited ability to transform fatty acids. Red drum exhibited some limited ability to elongate and desaturate linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)]; however, metabolism of 18:3(n-3) did not generally result in increased

  15. Sounding rocket thermal analysis techniques applied to GAS payloads. [Get Away Special payloads (STS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Simplified analytical techniques of sounding rocket programs are suggested as a means of bringing the cost of thermal analysis of the Get Away Special (GAS) payloads within acceptable bounds. Particular attention is given to two methods adapted from sounding rocket technology - a method in which the container and payload are assumed to be divided in half vertically by a thermal plane of symmetry, and a method which considers the container and its payload to be an analogous one-dimensional unit having the real or correct container top surface area for radiative heat transfer and a fictitious mass and geometry which model the average thermal effects.

  16. A survey of load methodologies for shuttle orbiter payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.; Salama, M.; Trubert, M.

    1981-01-01

    Loads methods currently being used to design planetary spacecraft to be launched on the shuttle orbiter are summarized. Experiences gained from expendable launch vehicle payloads are used to develop methodologies for the space shuttle orbiter payloads. The objectives for the development of a new methodology for the shuttle payloads are to reduce the cost and schedule for the payload load analysis by decoupling the payload analysis from the launch vehicle to the maximum extent possible. Methods are described for payload member load estimation or obtaining upper bounds for dynamic loads, as well as load prediction or calculating actual transient member load time histories.

  17. 14 CFR 415.57 - Payload review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or foreign policy interests, or international obligations of the United States. (1) The FAA consults.... foreign policy interests or international obligations. (3) The FAA consults with other federal agencies... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payload review. 415.57 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 415.57 - Payload review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or foreign policy interests, or international obligations of the United States. (1) The FAA consults.... foreign policy interests or international obligations. (3) The FAA consults with other federal agencies... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payload review. 415.57 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 415.57 - Payload review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or foreign policy interests, or international obligations of the United States. (1) The FAA consults.... foreign policy interests or international obligations. (3) The FAA consults with other federal agencies... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payload review. 415.57 Section...

  20. 14 CFR 415.57 - Payload review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or foreign policy interests, or international obligations of the United States. (1) The FAA consults.... foreign policy interests or international obligations. (3) The FAA consults with other federal agencies... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload review. 415.57 Section...

  1. Payload Isolation System for Launch Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    Payload Isolation System for Launch Vehicles Paul S. Wilke, Conor D. Johnson CSA Engineering Palo Alto, CA Eugene R. Fosness Air Force Phillips ... Laboratory , PL/VTVD Kirkland AFB, NM Spie Smart Structures and Materials San Diego, CA March 1997 Copyright 1997 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation

  2. Catalog of lunar and Mars science payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budden, Nancy Ann (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This catalog collects and describes science payloads considered for future robotic and human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. The science disciplines included are geosciences, meteorology, space physics, astronomy and astrophysics, life sciences, in-situ resource utilization, and robotic science. Science payload data is helpful for mission scientists and engineers developing reference architectures and detailed descriptions of mission organizations. One early step in advanced planning is formulating the science questions for each mission and identifying the instrumentation required to address these questions. The next critical element is to establish and quantify the supporting infrastructure required to deliver, emplace, operate, and maintain the science experiments with human crews or robots. This requires a comprehensive collection of up-to-date science payload information--hence the birth of this catalog. Divided into lunar and Mars sections, the catalog describes the physical characteristics of science instruments in terms of mass, volume, power and data requirements, mode of deployment and operation, maintenance needs, and technological readiness. It includes descriptions of science payloads for specific missions that have been studied in the last two years: the Scout Program, the Artemis Program, the First Lunar Outpost, and the Mars Exploration Program.

  3. Mission payloads subsystem description, revision 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Mission Payloads Subsystem (MPLS) which utilizes a simplified trajectory model to generate a list of missions for the Scheduling Algorithm for Mission Planning and Logistics Evaluation (SAMPLE) program is described. The MPLS is the mechanism that forms the basis of input for the other subsystems of SAMPLE and various post processors.

  4. Smart and intelligent sensor payload project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Engineers working on the smart and intelligent sensor payload project include (l to r): Ed Conley (NASA), Mark Mitchell (Jacobs Technology), Luke Richards (NASA), Robert Drackett (Jacobs Technology), Mark Turowski (Jacobs Technology) , Richard Franzl (seated, Jacobs Technology), Greg McVay (Jacobs Technology), Brianne Guillot (Jacobs Technology), Jon Morris (Jacobs Technology), Stephen Rawls (NASA), John Schmalzel (NASA) and Andrew Bracey (NASA).

  5. Payload specialists Patrick Baudry conducts equilibrium experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialists Patrick Baudry participates in an experiment involving equilibrium and vertigo. He is anchored to the orbiter floor by foot restraints and is wearing a device over his eyes to measure angular head movement and up and down eye movement.

  6. The Case for GEO Hosted SSA Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, C.; Armand, B.; Repp, M.; Robinson, A.

    2014-09-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) in the geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) belt presents unique challenges, and given the national importance and high value of GEO satellites, is increasingly critical as space becomes more congested and contested. Space situational awareness capabilities can serve as an effective deterrent against potential adversaries if they provide accurate, timely, and persistent information and are resilient to the threat environment. This paper will demonstrate how simple optical SSA payloads hosted on GEO commercial and government satellites can complement the SSA mission and data provided by Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) and the Geosynchronous Space Situational Awareness Program (GSSAP). GSSAP is built by Orbital Sciences Corporation and launched on July 28, 2014. Analysis performed for this paper will show how GEO hosted SSA payloads, working in combination with SBSS and GSSAP, can increase persistence and timely coverage of high value assets in the GEO belt. The potential to further increase GEO object identification and tracking accuracy by integrating SSA data from multiple sources across different viewing angles including GEO hosted SSA sources will be addressed. Hosting SSA payloads on GEO platforms also increases SSA mission architecture resiliency as the sensors are by distributed across multiple platforms including commercial platforms. This distributed architecture presents a challenging target for an adversary to attempt to degrade or disable. We will present a viable concept of operations to show how data from hosted SSA sensors could be integrated with SBSS and GSSAP data to present a comprehensive and more accurate data set to users. Lastly, we will present an acquisition approach using commercial practices and building on lessons learned from the Commercially Hosted Infra Red Payload CHIRP to demonstrate the affordability of GEO hosted SSA payloads.

  7. Kennedy Space Center processing of Shuttle small payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Michael E.

    1993-10-01

    There are many steps involved in preparing a payload for a mission into space on the Space Shuttle. Operations at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the last of those steps for the hardware before the payload is launched. To assure a successful and efficient KSC processing flow, a great deal of planning between the Robert H. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and KSC personnel is required before the payload arrives at KSC. After arrival, pre-flight operations occur between payload personnel, GSFC personnel, and KSC personnel for integration of the payload into its carrier (if required), in preparation for installation into a Orbiter. Once installed into an Orbiter, final test(s), checkout, and close-out of the payload is performed by GSFC and KSC personnel before launch. Mission support varies depending on the payload flying, but once the mission is complete and the Orbiter has returned to KSC, post-flight operations begin. This usually involves a reverse flow of the pre-flight operations. KSC operations conclude when the payload, its ground support equipment (GSE), and personnel depart KSC. A list of lessons learned is generated at the end of each payload flow, to avoid repeating the same mistakes (if any) for the next payload or for multiple repeat flights of the same payload. Always monitored are planned changes that may affect the payloads, GSE, KSC facilities, payload personnel, GSFC personnel, and/or KSC personnel.

  8. Gill morphometry of the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Don Stevens, E

    1992-08-01

    The structure and morphometry of the gills of the marine teleost, red drum, have been studied. The present analysis of gas exchange area of fish gills is one of the most intensive and the results are compared to less intense averaging methods. Based on the gill area estimates, red drum falls into the category of a fish of intermediate activity. Its gill clearly has an exchange area less than that of the tunas, but is slightly greater than that of trout or bass. The three components that contribute to total exchange area (filament length, lamellar density, and area of individual lamellae) are not all greater in species with a greater total exchange area. The best correlate is total filament length.

  9. Design and fabrication of 55-gallon drum shuffler standards

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.M.; Hsue, F.; Hoth, C.; Fernandez, R.; Bjork, C.; Sprinkle, J.

    1994-08-01

    To analyze waste with varying levels of nuclear material, suitable standards are needed to calibrate analytical instrumentation. At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, the authors have designed and fabricated a single drum standard for a passive-active neutron counter (shuffler). The standard is modified simply by adding or subtracting plutonium of uranium cylinders to adapt to a range of nuclear material. The plutonium or uranium oxide was placed into small cylindrical containers (1-in. diameter by 5-in. long) and diluted with diatomaceous earth. The cylinders were welded closed and removed from the glove box environment without any external contamination. The containers were leak tested and then placed on a segmented gamma scanner to assure homogeneous distribution of the nuclear material. The cylinders are now placed into the drum to achieve the needed ranges for calibration of the instruments.

  10. Low tension graphene drums for electromechanical pressure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Raj N.; Mathew, John P.; Borah, Abhinandan; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a process to fabricate electromechanical pressure sensors using multilayer graphene in a sealed drum geometry. The drum resonators are fabricated on insulating sapphire substrates with a local back gate for direct radio frequency ({\\text{}}{{rf}}) actuation and detection of the mechanical modes. Using this scheme, we show the detection and electrostatic tuning of multiple resonant modes of the membrane up to 200 MHz. The geometry of the device also helps in attaining low tensile stress in the membrane, thereby giving high gate tunability (∼1 MHz/V) of the resonator modes. We study the resonant frequency shifts in the presence of helium gas and demonstrate a sensing capability of 1 Torr pressure in a cryogenic environment.

  11. STS-98 payload U.S. Lab Destiny is moved into Atlantis' payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Technicians in the Payload Changeout Room work to secure the U.S. Lab Destiny in the orbiter'''s payload bay. The PCR is the enclosed, environmentally controlled portion of the rotating service structure that supports payload delivery at the launch pad and vertical installation in the orbiter payload bay. Destiny, a key element in the construction of the International Space Station, is 28 feet long and weighs 16 tons. This research and command-and- control center is the most sophisticated and versatile space laboratory ever built. It will ultimately house a total of 23 experiment racks for crew support and scientific research. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the ISS. Launch of STS-98 is scheduled for Jan. 19 at 2:11 a.m. EST.

  12. Payload crew activity planning integration. Task 2: Inflight operations and training for payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitz, F. R.

    1976-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Payload Crew Activity Planning Integration task were to: (1) Determine feasible, cost-effective payload crew activity planning integration methods. (2) Develop an implementation plan and guidelines for payload crew activity plan (CAP) integration between the JSC Orbiter planners and the Payload Centers. Subtask objectives and study activities were defined as: (1) Determine Crew Activity Planning Interfaces. (2) Determine Crew Activity Plan Type and Content. (3) Evaluate Automated Scheduling Tools. (4) Develop a draft Implementation Plan for Crew Activity Planning Integration. The basic guidelines were to develop a plan applicable to the Shuttle operations timeframe, utilize existing center resources and expertise as much as possible, and minimize unnecessary data exchange not directly productive in the development of the end-product timelines.

  13. A MODULAR STORE FOR DRUMS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.; Holden, G.

    2003-02-27

    Currently, the United Kingdom has no facility for the disposal of any waste above the low level category, indicating that all intermediate and high level waste, apart from spent fuel, has to be stored on the site of origin. To meet this storage requirement, nuclear sites are resorting to converting existing buildings or contemplating the construction of dedicated facilities, resulting in considerable cost implications. These financing aspects not only concern the construction strategy but also impinge on the ultimate decommissioning costs associated with each particular nuclear site. This paper reports on an investigation to apply the commercially available interlocking hollow block system to the design of a store for drums of radioactive waste. This block system can be quickly, and cost effectively, erected and filled with a choice of dense material. Later, the store can be dismantled with a minimum of disposable radioactive waste and the complete facility re - erected at another location if required, considerably reducing both capital construction and decommissioning costs. The investigation also encompassed a detailed review of the equipment required to place the drums of waste into the store, resulting in a scheme for a remotely operated vehicle that did not rely on umbilical control cables. The drum handler design included for 100% redundancy of all functions, meaning that whichever component failed, the handler was always recoverable to effect the necessary repair. The ultimate aim of the waste drum store review was to produce a facility that was as safe as a conventionally constructed unit, but at a lower overall building and decommissioning cost.

  14. 26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting on fixed turntable upon masonry center pier. Swing drive shaft (vertical) is turned by level gear of horizontal shaft (protruding through machine room wall), which turns pinion gear toothed to fixed turntable rack below rollers. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  15. Gas generation results and venting study for transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Arnold, P.M.; Simmons, W.C.; D'Amico, E.L.

    1985-09-23

    Sixteen waste drums, containing six categories of plutonium-contaminated waste, were monitored for venting and gas generation for six months. The venting devices tested appeared adequate to relieve pressure and prevent hydrogen accumulation. Most of the gas generation, primarily H2 and CO2, was due to radiolytic decomposition of the hydrogenous wastes. Comparison of the gas yields with those obtained previously in laboratory tests showed very reasonable agreement with few exceptions.

  16. Astrobotic: Commercial Service for Lunar Resource Payload Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, J.; Huber, S.; Peterson, K.; Hendrickson, D.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes how commercial delivery is enabling access to the Moon for resource payloads. Topics addressed: impediments to resource development, commercial approaches to delivering resource payloads, and traction seen with the market.

  17. Shuttle orbiter S-band payload communications equipment design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springett, J. C.; Maronde, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of the design, and the performance assessment of the Orbiter S-band communication equipment are reported. The equipment considered include: network transponder, network signal processor, FM transmitter, FM signal processor, payload interrogator, and payload signal processor.

  18. Payload Invariant Control via Neural Networks: Development and Experimental Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    control is proposed and experimentally evaluated. An Adaptive Model-Based Neural Network Controller (AMBNNC) uses multilayer perceptron artificial neural ... networks to estimate the payload during high speed manipulator motion. The payload estimate adapts the feedforward compensator to unmodeled system

  19. A survey of load methodologies for shuttle orbiter payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.; Salama, M.; Trubert, M.

    1980-01-01

    Loads methods currently being used to design shuttle orbiter payloads are summarized. Methods used for the design of payloads launched by expendable launch vehicles are described in historical perspective. Experiences gained from expendable launch vehicle payloads are used to develop methodologies for the space shuttle orbiter payloads. The objectives for the development of a new methodology for the shuttle payloads are to reduce the cost and schedule for the payload load analysis by decoupling the payload analysis from the launch vehicle to the maximum extent possible. Methods are described for payload member load estimation or obtaining upper bounds for dynamic loads, as well as load prediction or calculating actual transient member load time histories.

  20. Commercially Hosted Government Payloads: Lessons from Recent Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andraschko, Mark A.; Antol, Jeffrey; Horan, Stephen; Neil, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In a commercially hosted operational mode, a scientific instrument or operational device is attached to a spacecraft but operates independently from the spacecraft s primary mission. Despite the expected benefits of this arrangement, there are few examples of hosted payload programs actually being executed by government organizations. The lack of hosted payload programs is largely driven by programmatic challenges, both real and perceived, rather than by technical challenges. Partly for these reasons, NASA has not sponsored a hosted payload program, in spite of the benefits and visible community interest in doing so. In the interest of increasing the use of hosted payloads across the space community, this paper seeks to alleviate concerns about hosted payloads by identifying these programmatic challenges and presenting ways in which they can be avoided or mitigated. Despite the challenges, several recent hosted payload programs have been successfully completed or are currently in progress. This paper presents an assessment of these programs, with a focus on acquisition, costs, schedules, risks, and other programmatic aspects. The hosted payloads included in this study are the Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) payloads, United States Coast Guard's Automatic Identification System (AIS) demonstration payload, Department of Defense's IP Router In Space (IRIS) demonstration payload, the United States Air Force's Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload (CHIRP), and the Australian Defence Force's Ultra High Frequency (UHF) payload. General descriptions of each of these programs are presented along with issues that have been encountered and lessons learned from those experiences. A set of recommended approaches for future hosted payload programs is presented, with a focus on addressing risks or potential problem areas through smart and flexible contracting up front. This set of lessons and recommendations is broadly applicable to future

  1. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described.

  2. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

  3. Ares V: Shifting the Payload Design Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve; Cockrell, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V heavy-lift cargo launch vehicle to send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than the 1960s-era Saturn V and to provide ongoing support for a permanent lunar outpost. This uncrewed cargo vehicle is designed to operate together with the Ares I crew vehicle (Figure 1). In addition to this role, however, its unmatched mass and volume capability represent a national asset for exploration, science, and commerce. The Ares V also enables or significantly enhances a large class of space missions not thought possible by scientists and engineers since the Saturn V program ended over 30 years ago. Compared to current systems, it will offer approximately five times the mass and volume to most orbits and locations. This should allow prospective mission planners to build robust payloads with margins that are three to five times the industry norm. The space inside the planned payload shroud has enough usable volume to launch the volumetric equivalent of approximately 10 Apollo Lunar Modules or approximately five equivalent Hubble Space Telescopes. This mass and volume capability to low-Earth orbit (LEO) enables a host of new scientific and observation platforms, such as telescopes, satellites, planetary and solar missions, as well as being able to provide the lift for future large in-space infrastructure missions, such as space based solar power and mining, Earth asteroid defense, propellant depots, etc. In addition, payload designers may also have the option of simplifying their designs or employing Ares V s payload as dumb mass to reduce technical and operational risk. The Ares V team is engaging the potential payload community now, two to three years before System Requirements Review (SRR), in order to better understand the additional requirements from the payload community that could be accommodated in the Ares V design in its conceptual phase. This paper will discuss the Ares V reference mission and capability, as well as its

  4. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    During test and verification planning for the Altair lunar lander project, a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) study team identified several ground transportation and test issues related to the large payload diameter. Although the entire Constellation Program-including Altair-has since been canceled, issues identified by the Altair project serve as important lessons learned for payloads greater than 7 m diameter being considered for NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS). A transportation feasibility study found that Altair's 8.97 m diameter Descent Module would not fit inside available aircraft. Although the Ascent Module cabin was only 2.35 m diameter, the long reaction control system booms extended nearly to the Descent Module diameter, making it equally unsuitable for air transportation without removing the booms and invalidating assembly workmanship screens or acceptance testing that had already been performed. Ground transportation of very large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted by most states, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 66 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA's Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  5. 14 CFR § 1214.807 - Exceptional payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptional payloads. § 1214.807 Section § 1214.807 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.807 Exceptional payloads. Customers whose payloads qualify under the...

  6. 14 CFR 1214.305 - Payload specialist responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload specialist responsibilities. 1214.305 Section 1214.305 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space Transportation System (STS) Missions § 1214.305 Payload...

  7. 14 CFR 1214.305 - Payload specialist responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Payload specialist responsibilities. 1214.305 Section 1214.305 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space Transportation System (STS) Missions § 1214.305 Payload...

  8. 14 CFR § 1214.812 - Payload specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payload specialists. § 1214.812 Section § 1214.812 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement... that a customer-selected payload specialist be flown with the customer's payload....

  9. 14 CFR 1214.305 - Payload specialist responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payload specialist responsibilities. 1214.305 Section 1214.305 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space Transportation System (STS) Missions § 1214.305 Payload...

  10. Contamination assessment for OSSA space station IOC payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1987-01-01

    An assessment is made of NASA/OSSA space station IOC payloads. The report has two main objectives, i.e., to provide realistic contamination requirements for space station attached payloads, serviced payloads and platforms, and to determine unknowns or major impacts requiring further assessment.

  11. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1995-08-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  13. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  14. TRUPACT-II residue pipe payload container

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, R.; Gregory, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the project to develop, test and certify a new payload container for the TRUPACT-II, a Type B packaging for the shipment of transuranic waste. The new payload container will provide segregation of plutonium waste materials within the TRUPACT-II. This segregation of fissile contents will support a new criticality safety analysis that may allow an increase in the TRUPACT-II Pu-239 Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) limit from 325 grams to 2800 grams. The need for this project was brought about by the end of the Cold War and the resulting shift in value of plutonium residues from providing recoverable Defense Program material to being considered disposable waste. This paper will not cover many of the details of the project but will instead aim to provide a general picture of all the project activities.

  15. Robotic-Movement Payload Lifter and Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R. (Inventor); King, Bruce D. (Inventor); Collins, Timothy J. (Inventor); Dorsey, John T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A payload lifter/manipulator module includes a rotatable joint supporting spreader arms angularly spaced with respect to one another. A rigid arm is fixedly coupled to the joint and extends out therefrom to a tip. A tension arm has a first end and a second end with the first end being fixedly coupled to the tip of the rigid arm. The tension arm incorporates pivots along the length thereof. Each pivot can be engaged by or disengaged from the outboard end of a spreader arm based on a position of the spreader arm. A hoist, positioned remotely with respect to the module and coupled to the second end of the tension arm, controls the position of the spreader arms to thereby control the position of the rigid arm's tip. Payload lifter/manipulator assemblies can be constructed with one or more of the modules.

  16. CALIPSO Mission Status Update: Payload Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhappen, Ron; Borchardt, Robert; MacDonnell, David; Cisewski, Mike

    2007-01-01

    The CALIPSO mission payload status update is presented. The contents include: 1) Wide Field Camera Overview; 2) WFC Temperatures; 3) WFC Voltages; 4) Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) Health; 5) IIR Voltages; 6) Payload Control (PLC) Voltages; 7) PLC Temperatures; 8) Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) (CALOPS0025N); 9) PLC Radiation Effects; 10) SDS Status (CALOPS0020N); 11) CALIOP LIDAR; 12) Laser Energy Trends; 13) Laser Energy Zoom; 14) Laser Management Approach; 15) Green / Red Ratio; 16) Pedestal @ SHG Temperature Trends; 17) LOM Heater Duty Cycle Trends; 18) LOM Pressure Trends; 19) Boresight Trend; 20) 1064 Dark Noise Trend; 21) 532 SNR Trend; 22) Spike Trends; 23) LIDAR Highlights; 24) Backup Laser Status; and 25) Future Plans.

  17. Globalstar communications payload for global mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Ming; Monte, Paul; Tyner, Randy; Rouffet, Denis; Gilhousen, Klein S.

    1992-03-01

    The Globalstar LEO satellite-based mobile-communications system is evaluated with respect to its potential for global digital communications and for radio-determination satellite service. The significant novel attributes of the Globalsat payload are examined including code-division multiple-access technologies, beam-hopping and time-domain-duplexing (TDD) capabilities, and six elliptical spot-beam L/S-band antennas. The antennas are designed to address the 'near-far' problem associated with mobile systems through the use of the Isoflux design. The Isoflux beams provide gain contours that compensate for differences in the spacecraft/earth slant range and that provide low spillover illumination. Two candidate payloads are presented - one which incorporates TDD and beam hopping - and found to provide efficient global mobile-communications services for the Globalstar system. A single satellite can provide up to 2800 full-duplex voice channels, and TDD allows uplink and downlink signals to share the same frequency.

  18. Payload/orbiter contamination control requirement study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, L. E.; Ress, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a contamination impact analysis upon the spacelab carrier and the spacelab carrier upon some of its potential payloads are presented. These results are based upon contamination computer modeling techniques developed to predict the induced environment for spacelab and to provide the basis for evaluation of the predicted environment against the current on orbit contamination control criteria as specified for payloads. Those spacelab carrier contamination sources evaluated against the stated contamination control criteria were outgassing/offgassing of the major nonmetallic thermal control coating of the spacelab carriers, spacelab core and experiment module and tunnel cabin atmosphere leakage, avionics bay vent, spacelab condensate vent, random particulate sloughing, and the return flux of the molecular content of these sources from the gas-gas interactions with the ambient orbital environment. It is indicated that the spacelab carrier can meet the intent of the contamination control criteria through incorporating known contamination control practices.

  19. Mechanical Design of the Merlin Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, Stefano; Weimer, Peter; Wuehrer, Christian; Leone, Arturo; Olympio, Raymond; Cucciarre, Francesca; Natusch, Andreas; Bode, Markus

    2014-06-01

    Merlin (Methane Remote Sensing LIDAR Mission) is a joint CNES/DLR mission aimed at achieving a better understanding of the global methane cycle and of the processes that control the changes of atmospheric methane by exchange of methane between biosphere and atmosphere.Airbus Defence and Space has been selected by DLR as the prime contractor for the payload, which is based on the use of an IPDA LIDAR instrument.The paper shows the mechanical architecture of the payload, whose core consists of a CFRP optical bank supporting the laser source as well as two telescopes for transmission and reception of the LIDAR signal. It also provides an overview of how the mechanical design copes with the challenges posed by accommodation, thermo-elastic and environmental requirements.

  20. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  1. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG&G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured.

  2. EVALUATION OF RADIOLYSIS INDUCED HYDROGEN GENERATION IN DOT 6M DRUMS FROM INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D

    2007-06-18

    Three DOT 6M 30-gallon drums are scheduled to be shipped from the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to L-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These three drums contain radioactive materials that resulted from the material recovery effort following a small explosion that had occurred in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) hot chemistry laboratory (HCL). In support of the shipment and subsequent storage of the three DOT 6M drums, an evaluation of the potential for molecular hydrogen production in the drums has been completed and documented herein. The potential sources of hydrogen evaluated in the current report include radiolytic decomposition of polymeric materials in the DOT 6M drums No.3031 and No.3598 and the radiolytic decomposition of water in drum No.20102. No other potential sources have been identified based upon reported drum contents and packaging configuration. A parametric approach was used to evaluate the maximum quantity of molecular hydrogen that can be expected to evolve in two DOT 6M 30-gallon drums in support of receipt and subsequent interim storage prior to canyon processing. These drums are two of three drums scheduled for shipment from INTEC to SRS as part of the decommissioning effort of the INTEC facility. The three DOT 6M drums will be received at L-Area in SRS and stored for up to 13-years prior to final disposition at HB-Line in 2020. Results of the current analysis do not include parametric analysis of drum No.20102 containing 114/133 SAL (salvage) which contains UO{sub 3} powder. This drum has not been identified as containing polymeric materials and a conservative calculation indicates that the maximum gross molecular hydrogen production due to the radiolysis of adsorbed moisture would yield a production rate of 5.1-cm{sup 3}/yr, driven primarily by the large surface are to volume ratio of the oxide powder. The remaining two drums, No.3031 and No.3598 contain polymer

  3. Magnetic properties of unrusted steel drums from laboratory and field-magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ravat, D.

    1996-09-01

    Detection and precise location of buried ferromagnetic objects and estimation of the type and quantity of the objects are becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations worldwide. If laboratory-derived magnetizations were used to model steel drums, the models would under-estimate the resulting magnetic anomalies considerably and, in turn, would overestimate the number of buried drums at an environmental investigation site. Apparent bulk magnetization values for unrusted vertically oriented 55 and 30 gallon drums have been calculated (i.e., the values corrected for the effect of shape demagnetization of the drums). These range from {approximately}90 to {approximately}125 SI units for volume susceptibility and from {approximately} 325 to {approximately} 2,750 A/m for remanent magnetization (based on eight 55 gallon and four 30 gallon drums). Further deviations in these values could arise from the and thickness of the steel and variations in manufacturing conditions affecting magnetizations. From the point of view of modeling the drums, at most source-to-observation distances applicable to environmental investigations, the equivalent source method is able to approximate the observed anomalies of steel drums better than the 3-D modeling method. With two years of rusting, magnetic anomalies of some of the drums have reduced, while in other drums they have slightly increased. The overall magnetic changes caused by rusting appear to be more complex than anticipated, at least in the initial phase of rusting.

  4. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF NGS CONCENTRATE DRUM SAMPLES [Next Generation Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Williams, M.

    2013-09-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared two drums (50 gallons each in Drum#2 and Drum#4) of NGS-MCU (Next Generation Solvent-Modular CSSX Unit) concentrate for future use at MCU in downblending the BOBCalixC6 based solvent to produce NGS-MCU solvent. Samples of each drum were sent for analysis. The results of all the analyses indicate that the blend concentrate is of the correct composition and should produce a blended solvent at MCU of the desired formulation.

  5. Commerce Lab: Mission analysis. Payload integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the commerce lab mission analysis and payload integration study are discussed. A mission model which accommodates commercial users and provides a basic data base for future mission planning is described. The data bases developed under this study include: (1) user requirements; (2) apparatus capabilities and availabilities; and (3) carrier capabilities. These data bases are synthesized in a trades and analysis phase along with the STS flight opportunities. Optimum missions are identified.

  6. Design criteria for payload workstation accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, H. H.; Stokes, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated shuttle sortie payload man-system design criteria needs are investigated. Man-system interactions for the scientific disciplines are listed and the extent is assessed to which documented Skylab experience is expected to provide system design guidance for each of the identified interactions. Where the analysis revealed that the reduced Skylab data does not answer the anticipated needs candidate criteria, based on unreduced Skylab data, available prior research, original analysis, or related requirements derived from previous space programs, are provided.

  7. Geostationary payload concepts for personal satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedicto, J.; Rinous, P.; Roberts, I.; Roederer, A.; Stojkovic, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews candidate satellite payload architectures for systems providing world-wide communication services to mobile users equipped with hand-held terminals based on large geostationary satellites. There are a number of problems related to the payload architecture, on-board routing and beamforming, and the design of the S-band Tx and L-band Rx antenna and front ends. A number of solutions are outlined, based on trade-offs with respect to the most significant performance parameters such as capacity, G/T, flexibility of routing traffic to beams and re-configuration of the spot-beam coverage, and payload mass and power. Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular direct radiating arrays, arrays magnified by a reflector and active focused reflectors with overlapping feed clusters for both transmit (multimax) and receive (beam synthesis). Regarding the on-board routing and beamforming sub-systems, analog techniques based on banks of SAW filters, FET or CMOS switches and cross-bar fixed and variable beamforming are compared with a hybrid analog/digital approach based on Chirp Fourier Transform (CFT) demultiplexer combined with digital beamforming or a fully digital processor implementation, also based on CFT demultiplexing.

  8. Payload Pevelopment for Ionospheric Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, D.; Gramlich, M.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2009 a senior-level design project has been developed at WVU introducing STEM majors to space engineering and payload development. The students design and construct a payload which is submitted to NASA's RockSat program and, if approved, is launched on a suborbital vehicle from Wallops Flight Facility with an apogee of 125 km (above the daytime E region peak). In order to encourage participation by students from different majors and develop an interdisciplinary team, the project advisors have designed a classroom course on the fundamentals of aerospace systems engineering which complements the lab-based construction project. In the fall semester, the student team must prepare a payload design and present it to RockSat management in several design reviews. Through the academic year students need to document the development in technical reports and present them in teleconferences with RockSat and other college teams. At the end of the spring semester, the student team participates in testing and integration at Wallops and the launch is followed by data analysis and preparation of a final report. We present the educational goals, discuss the course and lab practices, and briefly go over the various experiments conducted. Finally we discuss the lessons learnt and positive outcomes of this activity for students, participating faculty, and other stakeholders.

  9. Geostationary payload concepts for personal satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedicto, J.; Rinous, P.; Roberts, I.; Roederer, A.; Stojkovic, I.

    This paper reviews candidate satellite payload architectures for systems providing world-wide communication services to mobile users equipped with hand-held terminals based on large geostationary satellites. There are a number of problems related to the payload architecture, on-board routing and beamforming, and the design of the S-band Tx and L-band Rx antenna and front ends. A number of solutions are outlined, based on trade-offs with respect to the most significant performance parameters such as capacity, G/T, flexibility of routing traffic to beams and re-configuration of the spot-beam coverage, and payload mass and power. Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular direct radiating arrays, arrays magnified by a reflector and active focused reflectors with overlapping feed clusters for both transmit (multimax) and receive (beam synthesis). Regarding the on-board routing and beamforming sub-systems, analog techniques based on banks of SAW filters, FET or CMOS switches and cross-bar fixed and variable beamforming are compared with a hybrid analog/digital approach based on Chirp Fourier Transform (CFT) demultiplexer combined with digital beamforming or a fully digital processor implementation, also based on CFT demultiplexing.

  10. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, E. M.; Driggers, T.; Jorasch, R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 2 (Technical Report) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  11. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 3: Addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, E. M.; Driggers, T.; Jorasch, R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 3 (Addendum) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study Program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  12. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 1 (Executive Summary) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  13. The Implementation of Payload Safety in an Operational Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cissom, R. D.; Horvath, Tim J.; Watson, Kristi S.; Rogers, Mark N. (Technical Monitor); Vanhooser, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define the safety life-cycle process for a payload beginning with the output of the Payload Safety Review Panel and continuing through the life of the payload on-orbit. It focuses on the processes and products of the operations safety implementation through the increment preparations and real-time operations processes. In addition, the paper addresses the role of the Payload Operations and Integration Center and the interfaces to the International Partner Payload Control Centers.

  14. International Space Station Columbus Payload SoLACES Degradation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, William A.; Schmidl, William D.; Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Erhardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    SOLAR is a European Space Agency (ESA) payload deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) and located on the Columbus Laboratory. It is located on the Columbus External Payload Facility in a zenith location. The objective of the SOLAR payload is to study the Sun. The SOLAR payload consists of three instruments that allow for measurement of virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum (17 nm to 2900 nm). The three payload instruments are SOVIM (SOlar Variable and Irradiance Monitor), SOLSPEC (SOLar SPECctral Irradiance measurements), and SolACES (SOLar Auto-Calibrating Extreme UV/UV Spectrophotometers).

  15. PIMS-Universal Payload Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Ralph; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the overall manager and integrator of International Space Station (ISS) science payloads and experiments, the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at Marshall Space Flight Center had a critical need to provide an information management system for exchange and management of ISS payload files as well as to coordinate ISS payload related operational changes. The POIC's information management system has a fundamental requirement to provide secure operational access not only to users physically located at the POIC, but also to provide collaborative access to remote experimenters and International Partners. The Payload Information Management System (PIMS) is a ground based electronic document configuration management and workflow system that was built to service that need. Functionally, PIMS provides the following document management related capabilities: 1. File access control, storage and retrieval from a central repository vault. 2. Collect supplemental data about files in the vault. 3. File exchange with a PMS GUI client, or any FTP connection. 4. Files placement into an FTP accessible dropbox for pickup by interfacing facilities, included files transmitted for spacecraft uplink. 5. Transmission of email messages to users notifying them of new version availability. 6. Polling of intermediate facility dropboxes for files that will automatically be processed by PIMS. 7. Provide an API that allows other POIC applications to access PIMS information. Functionally, PIMS provides the following Change Request processing capabilities: 1. Ability to create, view, manipulate, and query information about Operations Change Requests (OCRs). 2. Provides an adaptable workflow approval of OCRs with routing through developers, facility leads, POIC leads, reviewers, and implementers. Email messages can be sent to users either involving them in the workflow process or simply notifying them of OCR approval progress. All PIMS document management and OCR workflow controls are

  16. A Trajectory Generation Approach for Payload Directed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey A.; Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    Presently, flight systems designed to perform payload-centric maneuvers require preconstructed procedures and special hand-tuned guidance modes. To enable intelligent maneuvering via strong coupling between the goals of payload-directed flight and the autopilot functions, there exists a need to rethink traditional autopilot design and function. Research into payload directed flight examines sensor and payload-centric autopilot modes, architectures, and algorithms that provide layers of intelligent guidance, navigation and control for flight vehicles to achieve mission goals related to the payload sensors, taking into account various constraints such as the performance limitations of the aircraft, target tracking and estimation, obstacle avoidance, and constraint satisfaction. Payload directed flight requires a methodology for accurate trajectory planning that lets the system anticipate expected return from a suite of onboard sensors. This paper presents an extension to the existing techniques used in the literature to quickly and accurately plan flight trajectories that predict and optimize the expected return of onboard payload sensors.

  17. Payload/cargo processing at the launch site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Payload processing at Kennedy Space Center is described, with emphasis on payload contamination control. Support requirements are established after documentation of the payload. The processing facilities feature enclosed, environmentally controlled conditions, with account taken of the weather conditions, door openings, accessing the payload, industrial activities, and energy conservation. Apparatus are also available for purges after Orbiter landing. The payloads are divided into horizontal, vertical, mixed, and life sciences and Getaway Special categories, which determines the processing route through the facilities. A canister/transport system features sealed containers for moving payloads from one facility building to another. All payloads are exposed to complete Orbiter bay interface checkouts in a simulator before actually being mounted in the bay.

  18. ISS Remote User Payload Operations Training and Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Karl

    2012-01-01

    For more than ten years hundreds of payloads have been, and are currently being, successfully operated onboard the ISS. These payloads are operated by a diverse set of users all over the world. Due to the current international economic environment payload operations are being streamlined, in more and more cases, by using the payload investigators and scientists to also fill the role of operators. Taking this into consideration, increasingly, we have payload operators that are new to space operations and practices, therefore ground systems training and support have become a more critical aspect in ensuring a successful payload mission. The ISS ground systems payload interface is the Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC), located at Marshall Space Flight Center. ISS ground systems training for all remote ISS payload operators, as well as the ISS POIC CADRE, are centralized at this facility. The POIC is the starting point for a remote payload operator to learn how to integrate, and operate their payload, successfully onboard the ISS. Additionally, the CADRE that supports the payload user community are trained and operate from this facility. This paper will give an overview of the ISS ground systems at the POIC, as it relates to the payload user/operator and CADRE community. The entire training process from initial contact with the POIC to in-flight operations will be reviewed and improvements to this process will be presented. More importantly we will present current training methods and proposed methodology whereby the user community will be trained more efficiently and thoroughly. Also, we will discuss how we can more effectively support users in their operations concept to programmatically conduct certain aspects of payload operations to reduce costs.

  19. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  20. Spacelab Level 4 Programmatic Implementation Assessment Study. Volume 1: Representative payload definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Four types of Spacelab payloads were analyzed; these were considered to be representative of the Spacelab traffic model. The payloads were: (1) space processing - a single pallet payload; (2) combined astronomy - a five pallet payload; (3) life sciences - a long module payload; and (4) advanced technology lab - a short module plus train payload.

  1. A Mini-Atlas of Ear-drum Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Michael; Kwok, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The authors provide a number of ear-drum pictures and identify and discuss diseases affecting the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane and middle ear. They also deal with the removal of foreign bodies from the external canal, perforation of the tympanic membrane, and the use of an artificial ventilation tube. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:21263886

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and juvenile red drum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, Jack

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.

  3. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site.

  4. Color image digitization and analysis for drum inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.C.; Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-05-01

    A rust inspection system that uses color analysis to find rust spots on drums has been developed. The system is composed of high-resolution color video equipment that permits the inspection of rust spots on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1-in.) in diameter. Because of the modular nature of the system design, the use of open systems software (X11, etc.), the inspection system can be easily integrated into other environmental restoration and waste management programs. The inspection system represents an excellent platform for the integration of other color inspection and color image processing algorithms.

  5. Astronaut Susan J. Helms, payload commander, and payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronaut Susan J. Helms, payload commander, and payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), insert a test container into the Bubble Drop Particle Unit (BDPU) in the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) Science Module aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The fluid in the chamber is heated and the fluid processes are observed by use of three internal cameras mounted inside the BDPU. Investigations in this facility will help characterize interfacial processes involving either bubbles, drops, liquid columns or liquid layers.

  6. STS-110 payload S0 Truss is moved to payload canister in O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, an overhead crane carries the Integrated Truss Structure S0 to the payload canister which will transport it to the launch pad for mission STS-110. Seen below the truss is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Donatello, currently not in use. The S0 truss will be part of the payload on Space Shuttle Atlantis. The S0 truss will be attached to the U.S. Lab, 'Destiny,' on the 11-day mission, becoming the backbone of the orbiting International Space Station (ISS). Launch is scheduled for April 4.

  7. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    torque orientation and other experimental activities will occur continually, both inside and outside the station. Since all vibration sources cannot be controlled, the task of attenuating the disturbances is the only realistic alternative. Several groups have independently developed technology to isolate payloads from the space environment. Since 1970, Honeywell's Satellite Systems Division has designed several payload isolation systems and vibration attenuators. From 1987 to 1992, NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) performed research on isolation technology and developed a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) isolator and tested the system during 70 low gravity aircraft flight trajectories. Beginning in early 1995, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) jointly developed the STABLE (Suppression of Transient Accelerations By Levitation Evaluation) isolation system. This 5 month accelerated effort produced the first flight of an active microgravity vibration isolation system on STS-73/USML-02 in late October 1995. The Canadian Space Agency developed the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) for isolating microgravity payloads and this system began operating on the Russian Mir Space Station in May 1996. The Boeing Defense & Space Group, Missiles & Space Division developed the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for isolating payloads in a standard payload rack. ARIS was tested in September 1996 during the STS-79 mission to Mir. Although these isolation systems differ in their technological approach, the objective is to isolate payloads from disturbances. The following sections describe the technologies behind these systems and the different types of hardware used to perform isolation. The purpose of these descriptions is not to detail the inner workings of the hardware but to give the reader an idea of the technology and uses of the hardware components. Also included in the component descriptions is a paragraph detailing some of the

  8. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    SciTech Connect

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  9. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.

    1996-05-07

    In situ inspections were performed on tarp-covered 55-gallon drums of transuranic (TRU) waste stored underground at the Hanford Site. These inspections were part of a task to characterize TRU drums for extent of corrosion degradation and uncertainty in TRU designation (inaccuracy in earlier assay determinations may have led to drums that actually were low-level waste to be termed TRU), and to attempt to correlate accuracy of existing records with actual drum contents. Two separate storage trench sites were investigated; a total of 90 drums were inspected with ultrasonic techniques and 104 additional drums were visually inspected. A high-humidity environment in the underground storage trenches had been reported in earlier investigations and was expected to result in substantial corrosion degradation. However, corrosion was much less than expected. Only a small percentage of drums had significant corrosion (with one breach) and the maximum rate was estimated at 0.051 mm/yr (2 mils/yr). The corrosion time of underground exposure was 14 to 15 years. These inspection results should be applicable to other similar environments (this applicability should be restricted to arid climates such as the Hanford Site) where drums are stored underground but shielded from direct soil contact by a tarp or other means. Soil contact would lead to more rapid corrosion.

  10. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Demiter, J.A.; DeRosa, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    In situ inspections were performed on tarp-covered 55-gallon drums of transuranic (TRU) waste stored underground at the Hanford Site. These inspections were part of a task to characterize TRU drums for extent of corrosion degradation and uncertainty in TRU designation (inaccuracy in earlier assay determinations may have led to drums that actually were low-level waste to be termed TRU), and to attempt to correlate accuracy of existing records with actual drum contents. Two separate storage trench sites were investigated; a total of 90 drums were inspected with ultrasonic techniques and 104 additional drums were visually inspected. A high-humidity environment in the underground storage trenches had been reported in earlier investigations and was expected to result in substantial corrosion degradation. However, corrosion was much less than expected. Only a small percentage of drums had significant corrosion (with one breach) and the maximum rate was estimated at 0.051 mm/yr (2 mils/yr). The corrosion time of underground exposure was 14 to 15 years. These inspection results should be applicable to other similar environments (this applicability should be restricted to arid climates such as the Hanford Site) where drums are stored underground but shielded from direct soil contact by a tarp or other means. Soil contact would lead to more rapid corrosion.

  11. Multi-Cultural Awareness Project, the Organization and Implementation of a "World Steel Drum Ensemble".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Stanley G.

    This proposal describes the organization and implementation of a "World Steel Drum Ensemble" as a strategy to solve the problems of low minority academic achievement, high minority discipline incidents, and minority isolationism. The drum ensemble studied and performed music from Caribbean, Hispanic, and African heritages in a middle…

  12. Nondestructive Analysis of MET-5 Drum at TA35 Building 2 A-Wing Vault.

    SciTech Connect

    Desimone, David J.; Vo, Duc Ta

    2016-11-03

    Measurements using a mechanically cooled portable high purity germanium HPGe Ortec detective were taken of a type B drum Serial number R-1157 to determine if any radioactive material was inside. The Drum, R-1157, spectrum was analyzed using PeakEasy 4.84 and a visual look at the spectrum showed background radiation.

  13. Improvement of Algorithms for Pressure Maintenance Systems in Drum-Separators of RBMK-1000 Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksakov, A. N. Yankovskiy, K. I.; Dunaev, V. I.; Kushbasov, A. N.

    2015-05-15

    The main tasks and challenges for pressure regulation in the drum-separators of RBMK-1000 reactors are described. New approaches to constructing algorithms for pressure control in drum-separators by electro-hydraulic turbine control systems are discussed. Results are provided from tests of the operation of modernized pressure regulators during fast transients with reductions in reactor power.

  14. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  15. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  16. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  17. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  18. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  19. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  20. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  1. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement...

  2. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement...

  3. Monkey drumming reveals common networks for perceiving vocal and nonvocal communication sounds.

    PubMed

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2009-10-20

    Salient sounds such as those created by drumming can serve as means of nonvocal acoustic communication in addition to vocal sounds. Despite the ubiquity of drumming across human cultures, its origins and the brain regions specialized in processing such signals remain unexplored. Here, we report that an important animal model for vocal communication, the macaque monkey, also displays drumming behavior, and we exploit this finding to show that vocal and nonvocal communication sounds are represented by overlapping networks in the brain's temporal lobe. Observing social macaque groups, we found that these animals use artificial objects to produce salient periodic sounds, similar to acoustic gestures. Behavioral tests confirmed that these drumming sounds attract the attention of listening monkeys similarly as conspecific vocalizations. Furthermore, in a preferential looking experiment, drumming sounds influenced the way monkeys viewed their conspecifics, suggesting that drumming serves as a multimodal signal of social dominance. Finally, by using high-resolution functional imaging we identified those brain regions preferentially activated by drumming sounds or by vocalizations and found that the representations of both these communication sounds overlap in caudal auditory cortex and the amygdala. The similar behavioral responses to drumming and vocal sounds, and their shared neural representation, suggest a common origin of primate vocal and nonvocal communication systems and support the notion of a gestural origin of speech and music.

  4. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  5. Sunsat-2004 satellite and synoptic VLF payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Gw; Hughes, A.; Mostert, S.; Steyn, Wh

    Sunsat 2004 is a second satellite from the University of Stellenbosch, with intended suns-synchronous launch in late 2005. The first satellite, Sunsat, was launched in February 1999, and was Africa's first satellite The three-axis stabilised bus will normally point its main solar panel at the sun, but will rotate for imaging. The attitude determination and control system will use coarse sun sensors, magnetometers, rate gyros, and a star mapper, and use reaction wheels and torquer rods for actuation. The payloads include a multispectral pushbroom imager with less than 5m GSD, TV cameras, an Amateur Radio communications payload, and science experiments. The main South African science experiment is a VLF receiver. In the magnetosphere VLF waves play an important role in energy exchange processes with energetic particles. The wave-particle interactions can lead to particle precipitation into the atmosphere or introduce additional energy into particle populations in the magnetosphere. The former is important due to its effect on terrestrial communications while the latter is of interest, as it affects the environment in which satellites operate. A full understanding, of the magnetosphere and phenomena such as the aurora, airglow and particle precipitation, depends on comprehensive wave and particle models together with models of the background plasma density The energetic particle populations and background plasma densities have been extensively modelled using data from a large number of satellite, rocket and ground-based experiments but no comprehensive model of the wave environment exist. The proposed synoptic VLF experiment will start to address this need by locating and tracking the morphology of regions in the magnetosphere where waves are generated. The experiment would consist of a nine channel VLF receiver with a loop antenna. The data would be recorded on board and transmitted to ground stations at appropriate times. A number of additional science payloads are

  6. Payload requirements for the Solar Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsch, E.; Roux, A.

    The scientific goals and objectives for a Solar Probe determine the requirements for a model payload and concepts for the instruments. To accomplish the main aim, which is to make in-situ measurements of particles and fields in the solar corona and wind, the strawman payload must include a magnetometer and plasma wave instrument, fast three-dimensional plasma anlyzers to measure ions and electrons, and detectors for suprathermal and solar energetic particles. In addition a light-weight dust detector is required to probe the dust environment in the outer corona. Tight constraints are to be placed on all instruments concerning mass, power and telemetry in order to keep the expected costs and complexity to a bare minimum. This will require further developments of existing instruments or innovative concepts, allowing the objectives to be met with a payload of only 20 to 25 kg. All instruments have to be acommodated on a three-axis stabilized probe and should be capable of measuring particle fluxes that might vary by many orders of magnitude. The plasma experiments are central to the mission and very demanding because of the wide dynamic ranges required for the spatial, temporal, and particle-species energy, mass and charge state measurements. Furthermore, ion velocity distributions are expected to range from subsonic to supersonic in the Sun's frame of reference and are to be measured from a spacecraft with speed of about 300 km/s near perihelion at 4 R_solar. Also shapes and heat flux tails of the distributions must be resolved, as they carry information crucial to the determination of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration mechanisms. The wave experiments must identify the wave modes and spectral intensities, which are essential for quantifying the wave effects on particles and their energization.

  7. International Space Station Alpha user payload operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Crysel, William B.; Duncan, Elaine F.; Rider, James W.

    1994-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will accommodate a variety of user payloads investigating diverse scientific and technology disciplines on behalf of five international partners: Canada, Europe, Japan, Russia, and the United States. A combination of crew, automated systems, and ground operations teams will control payload operations that require complementary on-board and ground systems. This paper presents the current planning for the ISSA U.S. user payload operations concept and the functional architecture supporting the concept. It describes various NASA payload operations facilities, their interfaces, user facility flight support, the payload planning system, the onboard and ground data management system, and payload operations crew and ground personnel training. This paper summarizes the payload operations infrastructure and architecture developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to prepare and conduct ISSA on-orbit payload operations from the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC), and from various user operations locations. The authors pay particular attention to user data management, which includes interfaces with both the onboard data management system and the ground data system. Discussion covers the functional disciplines that define and support POIC payload operations: Planning, Operations Control, Data Management, and Training. The paper describes potential interfaces between users and the POIC disciplines, from the U.S. user perspective.

  8. Mission Peculiar Equipment (MPE) For Spacelab Mission 1 Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, John H.; Dodeck, Hauke

    1982-02-01

    Spacelab interfaces and services for payloads are advertised in the Spacelab Payload Accommodations Handbook (SPAH). These accommodations are available to the total payload and must be managed and apportioned by a payload integrator. A major part of the integration task is satisfying all instruments/facilities servicing requirements which vary with each item of payload equipment and, when totalled, sometimes exceed the capabilities as defined in SPAH. Such a determination is an output of the integrated payload design and integration effort which consists of analytical assessments based on individual payload equipment requirements inputs, STS and Spacelab available accommodations and constraints, and programmatic considerations. This systems engineering activity spans all engineering disciplines, assesses the module and pallet layouts and simultaneous operation of instrument/facility combinations, and requires a detailed knowledge of the Spacelab design. Introduction of a broad range of payload integrator-provided Mission Peculiar Equipment (MPE) into the Spacelab Mission 1 payload complement was necessary to be added to the Spacelab provisions in order to satisfy the interface and service requirements for each payload developer. This paper provides insight into various aspects of this MPE; including why it is needed, driving design considerations, design and development problems, and conclusions and recommendations for the future. MPE identified for Spacelab Mission 1 begins an inventory that will continue to expand as other mission requirements are identified and the Spacelab flight frequency increases.

  9. Payload/orbiter contamination control assessment support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R. O.; Ress, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    The development and use is described of a basic contamination mathematical model of the shuttle orbiter which incorporates specific shuttle orbiter configurations and contamination sources. These configurations and sources were evaluated with respect to known shuttle orbiter operational surface characteristics and specific lines-of-sight which encompass the majority of viewing requirements for shuttle payloads. The results of these evaluations are presented as summary tables for each major source. In addition, contamination minimization studies were conducted and recommendations are made, where applicable, to support the shuttle orbiter design and operational planning for those sources which were identified to present a significant contamination threat.

  10. The Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Study: Executive volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The progress of the Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is reported. Astronomical research in space, using the Spacelab in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, is described. The various fields of solar astronomy or solar physics, ultraviolet and optical astronomy, and high energy astrophysics are among the topics discussed. These fields include scientific studies of the sun and its dynamical processes, of the stars in wavelength regions not accessible to ground based observations, and the exciting new fields of X-ray, gamma ray, and particle astronomy.

  11. Validation of automated payload experiment tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Provancha, Anna; Chattam, David

    1995-01-01

    The System Management and Production Laboratory, Research Institute, The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), was tasked by the Microgravity Experiment Projects (MEP) Office of the Payload projects Office (PPO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to conduct research in the current methods of written documentation control and retrieval. The goals of this research were to determine the logical interrelationships within selected NASA documentation, and to expand on a previously developed prototype system to deliver a distributable, electronic knowledge-based system. This computer application would then be used to provide a 'paperless' interface between the appropriate parties for the required NASA documentation.

  12. Automated payload experiment tool feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Clark, James; Delugach, Harry; Hammons, Charles; Logan, Julie; Provancha, Anna

    1991-01-01

    To achieve an environment less dependent on the flow of paper, automated techniques of data storage and retrieval must be utilized. The prototype under development seeks to demonstrate the ability of a knowledge-based, hypertext computer system. This prototype is concerned with the logical links between two primary NASA support documents, the Science Requirements Document (SRD) and the Engineering Requirements Document (ERD). Once developed, the final system should have the ability to guide a principal investigator through the documentation process in a more timely and efficient manner, while supplying more accurate information to the NASA payload developer.

  13. Optical Payload for the STARE Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, L; Riot, V; De Vries, W; Olivier, S S; Pertica, A; Bauman, B J; Phillion, D; Nikolaev, S

    2011-03-13

    Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) is a nano-sat based mission designed to better determine the trajectory of satellites and space debris in orbit around earth. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the mission and its place in the larger context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). We then describe the details of the central optical payload, touching on the optical design and characterization of the on-board image sensor used in our Cubesat based prototype. Finally, we discuss the on-board star and satellite track detection algorithm central to the success of the mission.

  14. Automation of Space Processing Applications Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosmer, W. E.; Neau, O. T.; Poe, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Processing Applications Program is examining the effect of weightlessness on key industrial materials processes, such as crystal growth, fine-grain casting of metals, and production of unique and ultra-pure glasses. Because of safety and in order to obtain optimum performance, some of these processes lend themselves to automation. Automation can increase the number of potential Space Shuttle flight opportunities and increase the overall productivity of the program. Five automated facility design concepts and overall payload combinations incorporating these facilities are presented.

  15. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The main idea behind the MetNet landing vehicles is to use a state-of-the-art inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized and more mass and volume resources are spared for the science payload. The vehicle decelerates its entry speed using the inflatable structure and final landing sequence includes a cone headed body penetrating the Martian soil. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - Pressure device (MetBaro): mass 100g, measurement range 0..1015 hPa. - Humidity device (MetHumi): mass 15g, measurement range 0..100%RH. - Temperature sensors (MetTemp): mass 2g each, measurement range -110C..+30C. Optical devices: - Panoramic camera (PanCam): mass 100g, FOV 4 lenses mounted at 90 deg - Solar irradiance sensor (MetSIS) with optical wireless system (OWLS) for data transfer: mass 115g (MetSIS) and 7g (OWLS module), wavelength range 190..1100nm. MetSIS equipped with 28 optical detectors, two temperature sensors and two solar incidence angle detectors. - Dust sensor (DS): mass 42g, resolution: 10 particles / cm3. Composition and structure device: - Magnetometer (MOURA): mass 80g, measurement range: ±30uT. MetNet Mission payload instruments are specially designed to operate in very low power conditions. MNL flexible solar panels provides a total of

  16. The effect of zebra mussel consumption on growth of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.

    1996-01-01

    We examined food habits and scale annuli of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie to determine whether increasing predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) had affected growth of freshwater drum. The volume of zebra mussels in drum guts was greater in older fish. Growth of age classes 3–4, which consumed few zebra mussels, was greater in the most productive year for zebra mussels, July 1990–August 1991, than in three prior years. The total lengths of 5-year-old drum changed little. The mean total length of 6-year-old females has declined since the zebra mussel invaded Lake Erie, even through mussels comprised more than two-thirds of gut samples in these fish. These studies suggest that zebra mussels may not benefit freshwater drum when serving as a staple in the diet. PDF

  17. Metal loss characterization in 55-gallon drum steel by the magnetic flux leakage method

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, R.; Riechers, D.; Duncan, D.

    1995-12-31

    A technique, using Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL), has been developed for imaging corrosion damage in real-time on the inner surface of sealed 55-gallon drums. An experimental study and theoretical background are presented showing the sensitivity of an MFL technique for detecting and imaging both general and localized corrosion on the inner surface of sealed 55-gallon drums, inspected from the outer surface. Measurements resulting from studies on natural corrosion and machined defects in 55-gallon drum steel will be discussed. Image processing techniques applied to scan data show metal loss in 2-D gray scale images. This work suggests an approach to designing a real-time, full-coverage, 55-gallon drum inspection system to characterize drum wall thickness for comparison over time to determine corrosion rate.

  18. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The granular mixing in a slurry rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.

    2010-03-01

    The mixing dynamics of granular materials immersed in a liquid was experimentally studied in a quasi-2D rotating drum. A DV (SONY DCR-TRV900 NTSC) motion corder analyzer was used to record the motions of granular materials. The effects of interstitial fluid viscosity and filling degree on the mixing index, mixing rate constant, and dynamic repose angle in the rotating drum were investigated and discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the interstitial fluid viscosity has almost not influence on the final stable mixing index but has significantly effects on the mixing rate constant and dynamic repose angle in slurry granular flows. The results show that the mixing rate and dynamic repose angle increase with increasing the interstitial fluid viscosity. The results also indicate that the filling degree plays an important role in mixing dynamics in slurry granular flows. The mixing rate constant is demonstrated to be decreased with increasing the filling degree. The dynamic repose angle is not altered by the filling degree. Finally, we find that the dynamic repose angle and the mixing rate constant increase slightly at high Stokes number and increase dramatically at low Stokes number with decreasing Stokes number.

  20. Rotary drum composting of vegetable waste and tree leaves.

    PubMed

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Singh, Yatish K; Ali, Muntjeer; Khwairakpam, Meena; Kazmi, A A

    2009-12-01

    High rate composting studies on institutional waste, i.e. vegetable wastes, tree leaves, etc., were conducted on a demonstration-scale (3.5 m(3)) rotary drum composter by evaluating changes in some physico-chemical and biological parameters. During composting, higher temperature (60-70 degrees C) at inlet zone and (50-60 degrees C) at middle zone were achieved which resulted in high degradation in the drum. As a result, all parameters including TOC, C/N ratio, CO(2) evolution and coliforms were decreased significantly within few days of composting. Within a week period, quality compost with total nitrogen (2.6%) and final total phosphorus (6 g/kg) was achieved; but relatively higher final values of fecal coliforms and CO(2) evolution, suggested further maturation. Thus, two conventional composting methods namely windrow (M1) and vermicomposting (M2) tried for maturation of primary stabilized compost. By examining these methods, it was suggested that M2 was found suitable in delivering fine grained, better quality matured compost within 20 days of maturation period.

  1. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.D.; Rahimi, R.S.; Edling, D.

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    SciTech Connect

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-11-17

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods.

  3. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    .... Submit your comments by Site name Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site by one of the following...] Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning the Callaway and son Drum Service Superfund Site located in Lake Alfred, Polk County, Florida...

  4. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  5. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  6. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  7. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  8. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  9. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  10. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  11. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  12. Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

  13. An intelligent, onboard signal processing payload concept

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, P. M.; Harikumar, J.; Briles, S. C.; Gokhale, M.

    2003-01-01

    Our approach to onboard processing will enable a quicker return and improved quality of processed data from small, remote-sensing satellites. We describe an intelligent payload concept which processes RF lightning signal data onboard the spacecraft in a power-aware manner. Presently, onboard processing is severely curtailed due to the conventional management of limited resources and power-unaware payload designs. Delays of days to weeks are commonly experienced before raw data is received, processed into a human-usable format, and finally transmitted to the end-user. We enable this resource-critical technology of onboard processing through the concept of Algorithm Power Modulation (APM). APM is a decision process used to execute a specific software algorithm, from a suite of possible algorithms, to make the best use of the available power. The suite of software algorithms chosen for our application is intended to reduce the probability of false alarms through postprocessing. Each algorithm however also has a cost in energy usage. A heuristic decision tree procedure is used which selects an algorithm based on the available power, time allocated, algorithm priority, and algorithm performance. We demonstrate our approach to power-aware onboard processing through a preliminary software simulation.

  14. Payload Planning for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Tameka J.

    1995-01-01

    A review of the evolution of the International Space Station (ISS) was performed for the purpose of understanding the project objectives. It was requested than an analysis of the current Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) Partnership Utilization Plan (PUP) traffic model be completed to monitor the process through which the scientific experiments called payloads are manifested for flight to the ISS. A viewing analysis of the ISS was also proposed to identify the capability to observe the United States Laboratory (US LAB) during the assembly sequence. Observations of the Drop-Tower experiment and nondestructive testing procedures were also performed to maximize the intern's technical experience. Contributions were made to the meeting in which the 1996 OSAT or Code X PUP traffic model was generated using the software tool, Filemaker Pro. The current OSAT traffic model satisfies the requirement for manifesting and delivering the proposed payloads to station. The current viewing capability of station provides the ability to view the US LAB during station assembly sequence. The Drop Tower experiment successfully simulates the effect of microgravity and conveniently documents the results for later use. The non-destructive test proved effective in determining stress in various components tested.

  15. Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an STS-66 mission onboard photo of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis showing the payload of the third Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission. During the ATLAS missions, international teams of scientists representing many disciplines combined their expertise to seek answers to complex questions about the atmospheric and solar conditions that sustain life on Earth. The ATLAS program specifically investigated how Earth's middle and upper atmospheres and climate are affected by by the sun and by products of industrial and agricultural activities on Earth. Thirteen ATLAS instruments supported experiments in atmospheric sciences, solar physics, space plasma physics, and astronomy. The instruments were mounted on two Spacelab pallets in the Space Shuttle payload bay. The ATLAS-3 mission continued a variety of atmospheric and solar studies to improve understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and its energy input from the sun. A key scientific objective was to refine existing data on variations in the fragile ozone layer of the atmosphere. The Orbiter Atlantis was launched on November 3, 1994 for the ATLAS-3 mission (STS-66).

  16. Cost effective dynamic design and test requirements for Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. V.; Gongloff, H. R.; Bangs, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study examining current spacecraft dynamic design and test requirements for the cost effective design and development of Shuttle payloads are presented. Dynamic environments, payload configurations, design/test requirements, test levels, assembly level of testing, simulation methods, prototype role, load limiting, test facilities, and flight measurements are discussed as they relate to the development of a cost effective design and test philosophy for Shuttle Spacelab payloads. It is concluded that changes to current design/test practices will minimize long range payload costs. However, changes to current practices need be quantitatively evaluated before an orderly progression to more cost effective methods can be achieved without undue risk of mission failures. Of major importance is optimization of test levels and plans for payloads and payload subsystems which will result in minimum project costs.

  17. Ensuring Payload Safety in Missions with Special Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staubus, Calvert A.; Willenbring, Rachel C.; Blankenship, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) payload space flight missions involve cooperative work between NASA and partners including spacecraft (or payload) contractors, universities, nonprofit research centers, Agency payload organization, Range Safety organization, Agency launch service organizations, and launch vehicle contractors. The role of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) Directorate is typically fairly straightforward, but when a mission's partnerships become more complex, to realize cost and science benefits (e.g., multi-agency payload(s) or cooperative international missions), the task of ensuring payload safety becomes much more challenging. This paper discusses lessons learned from NASA safety professionals working multiple-agency missions and offers suggestions to help fellow safety professionals working multiple-agency missions.

  18. Noctilucent cloud sampling by a multi-experiment payload.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallgren, D. S.; Schmalberger, D. C.; Hemenway, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    Two multi-experiment payloads were launched into noctilucent cloud displays above Kiruna, Sweden, on the nights of July 31 and Aug. 1, 1971. The payloads were part of the continuing Pandora II cosmic dust collection series and included: (1) Pandora 2 dust collection with in-flight shadowing photoelectric polarimeters to measure scattered light at 4100 and 5400 A, a plasma detector and an ion probe, and piezoelectric microphones. These payloads attempted to investigate noctilucent clouds by four simultaneous and independent techniques. The photometric data indicate that the first payload passed through a cloud, while the second payload did not. These results are confirmed by the particle collection experiment which indicates a higher collection on the first payload. Analysis of the chemical composition of the collected particles indicates an unusual amount of high atomic number elements.

  19. All optical labeling scheme with vestigial sideband payload.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Dai, Yitang; Xie, Shizhong; Zhou, Bingkun

    2005-04-04

    A novel scheme based on 40Gb/s vestigial sideband modulation for optical payload and label multiplex and separation in all optical label switching (AOLS) networks is firstly proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The payload is combined and separated with wavelength labels by optical filters. The experiment results show that after label separation, the power penalties of payload and label are both very little. The influence of the wavelength difference between label and payload is also discussed. The power penalty of payload can be less than 1dB as long as the wavelength difference is larger than 0.1nm. This scheme highly reduces the channel bandwidth of payload and label and is proposing to be used in future optical Internet.

  20. Shuttle/payload communications and data systems interface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1980-01-01

    The payload/orbiter functional command signal flow and telemetry signal flow are discussed. Functional descriptions of the various orbiter communication/avionic equipment involved in processing a command to a payload either from the ground through the orbiter by the payload specialist on the orbiter are included. Functional descriptions of the various orbiter communication/avionic equipment involved in processing telemetry data by the orbiter and transmitting the processed data to the ground are presented. The results of the attached payload/orbiter single processing and data handling system evaluation are described. The causes of the majority of attached payload/orbiter interface problems are delineated. A refined set of required flux density values for a detached payload to communicate with the orbiter is presented.

  1. SMOS Payload In-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Neira, Manuel; Corbella, I.; Torres, F.; Duffo, N.; Gonzalez, V.; Closa, J.; Benito, J.; Borges, A.; Rautiainen, K.; Kainulainen, J.; Gutierrez, A.; Barbosa, J.; Catarino, N.; Castro, R.; Freitas, S.; Candeias, H.; Freitas, J.; Cabot, F.; Anterrieu, E.; Zundo, M.; Brown, M.; McMullan, K.; Martín-Porqueras, F.; Oliva, R.; Wright, N.; Caprolicchio, R.

    2010-05-01

    SMOS is ESA's second Earth Explorer mission with the objective of producing global maps of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity over the Earth. It carries a single payload on-board, MIRAS, the first-ever spaceborne L-band Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis in two dimensions. The performance requirements of MIRAS are demanding in terms of spatial resolution, accuracy, stability and precision, all critical to fulfil its scientific objectives. SMOS was launched 2 November 2009. Following its launch, a six month commissioning phase started consisting of four phases. The first 2.5 weeks were devoted to the Launch and Early Operation Phase (LEOP) where the commissioning of PROTEUS, the service module, was carried out. After this phase came 4.5 weeks of Switch-On and Data Acquisition Phase (SODAP), where the satellite-ground links and the ground segment in charge of the mission control, commanding and data processing, were brought up into full operation. This subsequent period, which is the current phase in January 2010 and the subject of this presentation, consists of 6 weeks of Payload Commissioning, which will be followed by 13.5 weeks of a Pseudo-operational phase which will precede the operational one. Within the five Payload Commissioning weeks, several activities are dedicated to verify that the payload is in good working conditions and to characterise its performance. The first week is dedicated to test the thermal and electrical stability of the instrument and to acquire the Flat Target Response of the instrument. All physical temperatures of the instrument were expected and later verified to be within a range of 6°C peak to peak around a set point temperature of 22°C. During the electrical stability, internal calibration signals are injected and several instrument parameters are derived such as the gain, offset and equivalent noise temperature of all receivers of MIRAS. The calibration signals are first referenced to two standards, one being a

  2. Adjunct payload for ISS high-rate communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, W. Carl; Cleave, Robert; Ford, David

    1999-01-01

    An adjunct payload on commercial geosynchronous satellites is developed for ISS and similar high-rate communications. The technical parameters of this payload are set forth and bounds on user fees are established. Depending on the financial arrangements-e.g., development funds, long-term lease agreement, other value offered, commercial subscriptions-the adjunct payload can be a viable option for ISS communications service.

  3. Strawman payload data for science and applications space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The need for a free flying science and applications space platform to host compatible long duration experiment groupings in Earth orbit is discussed. Experiment level information on strawman payload models is presented which serves to identify and quantify the requirements for the space platform system. A description data base on the strawman payload model is presented along with experiment level and group level summaries. Payloads identified in the strawman model include the disciplines of resources observations and environmental observations.

  4. Spacelab payload accommodation handbook. Appendix B: Structure interface definition module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The mechanical interfaces between Spacelab and its payload are defined. The envelopes available for mounting payload hardware are specified together with the standard structural attachment interfaces. Overall load capabilities and the local load capabilities for individual attachment interfaces are defined for the standard mounting locations. The mechanical environment is defined and the mechanical interfaces between the payload and the EPDS, CDMS and ECS are included.

  5. A Human Factors Framework for Payload Display Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Mariea C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1998-01-01

    During missions to space, one charge of the astronaut crew is to conduct research experiments. These experiments, referred to as payloads, typically are controlled by computers. Crewmembers interact with payload computers by using visual interfaces or displays. To enhance the safety, productivity, and efficiency of crewmember interaction with payload displays, particular attention must be paid to the usability of these displays. Enhancing display usability requires adoption of a design process that incorporates human factors engineering principles at each stage. This paper presents a proposed framework for incorporating human factors engineering principles into the payload display design process.

  6. Guidelines for structural verification and fracture control of Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lifer, C. E.; Lou, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    The procedures followed by the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer in developing the guidelines concerning the structures, materials, and fracture control of the Space Shuttle payloads are described. Factors controlling the payload launch safety, such as crew and passenger safety, reusability, and mixes of payloads in a single launch are emphasized. Special consideration is given to the STS design and testing approaches, materials considerations, safety criticality review processes, nondestructive evaluation inspection for STS payload fracture control, fracture mechanics screening procedures, and components of special concern (e.g., pressurized vessels, fasteners, and composite structures).

  7. International Space Station Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijames, Gayleen N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives and Goals: Maintain and operate the POIC and support integrated Space Station command and control functions. Provide software and hardware systems to support ISS payloads and Shuttle for the POIF cadre, Payload Developers and International Partners. Provide design, development, independent verification &validation, configuration, operational product/system deliveries and maintenance of those systems for telemetry, commanding, database and planning. Provide Backup Control Center for MCC-H in case of shutdown. Provide certified personnel and systems to support 24x7 facility operations per ISS Program. Payloads CoFR Implementation Plan (SSP 52054) and MSFC Payload Operations CoFR Implementation Plan (POIF-1006).

  8. NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

  9. Cryogenic performance of the space infrared optical payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dawei; Tan, Fanjiao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Mingdong; Wang, Haipeng

    2016-10-01

    A model as well as the methodology is proposed to analyze the cryogenic performance of space infrared optical payload. And the model is established from two aspects: imaging quality and background radiation. On the basis of finite element analysis, the deformation of optical surface in cryogenic environment is characterized by Zernike polynomials, and then, the varying pattern of MTF of space cryogenic optical payload could be concluded accordingly. Then from the theory of thermal radiative transfer, the temperature distribution and the deformation of the optical payload under the action of inertial load and thermal load are analyzed based on the finite element method, and the spontaneous radiation and scattering properties of the optical surface and shielding factors between the opto-mechanical structure are considered to establish the radiation calculation model. Furthermore, the cryogenic radiation characteristics of the space infrared optical payload are obtained by the radiation calculation model. Finally, experiments are conducted using an actual off-axis TMA space infrared optical payload. And the results indicate that the background radiation of the space infrared optical payload is decreased by 79% while 33% for MTF at the thermal control temperature of 240K. In this circumstance, the system background radiation is effectively suppressed and the detection sensitivity of the optical payload is improved as well, while the imaging quality is acceptable. The model proposed in this paper can be applied to the analyzing cryogenic properties of space infrared optical payload, and providing theoretical guidance for the design and application of the space cryogenic optical payload.

  10. Integration Process for Payloads in the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Nall, Marsha M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is an ISS research facility located in the United States Laboratory (US Lab), Destiny. The FCF is a multi-discipline facility that performs microgravity research primarily in fluids physics science and combustion science. This facility remains on-orbit and provides accommodations to multi-user and Principal investigator (PI) unique hardware. The FCF is designed to accommodate 15 PI's per year. In order to allow for this number of payloads per year, the FCF has developed an end-to-end analytical and physical integration process. The process includes provision of integration tools, products and interface management throughout the life of the payload. The payload is provided with a single point of contact from the facility and works with that interface from PI selection through post flight processing. The process utilizes electronic tools for creation of interface documents/agreements, storage of payload data and rollup for facility submittals to ISS. Additionally, the process provides integration to and testing with flight-like simulators prior to payload delivery to KSC. These simulators allow the payload to test in the flight configuration and perform final facility interface and science verifications. The process also provides for support to the payload from the FCF through the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP). Finally, the process includes support in the development of operational products and the operation of the payload on-orbit.

  11. Selection of shuttle payload data processing drivers for the data system new technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of all payloads in the IBM disciplines and the selection of driver payloads within each discipline are described. The driver payloads were selected on the basis of their data processing requirements. These requirements are measured by a weighting scheme. The total requirements for each discipline are estimated by use of the technology payload model. The driver selection process which was both a payload by payload comparison and a comparison of expected groupings of payloads was examined.

  12. Granular flow in a rotating drum: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Li, L.; Smith, B.; Grinspun, E.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion at the base of a debris flow fundamentally controls how large the flow will become and how far it will travel. Experimental observations of this important phenomenon are rather limited, and this lack has led theoretical treatments to making ad hoc assumptions about the basal process. In light of this, we carried out a combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis of granular flow in a rotating drum, a canonical example of steady grain motion in which entrainment rates can be precisely controlled. Our main result is that basal sediment is entrained as the velocity profile adjusts to imbalance in the flow of kinetic energy.Our experimental apparatus consisted of a 40cm-diameter drum, 4cm-deep, half-filled with 2.3mm grains. Rotation rates varied from 1-70 rpm. We varied the effective scale by varying effective gravity from 1g to 70g on a geotechnical centrifuge. The field of grain motion was recorded using high-speed video and mapped using particle tracking velocimetry. In tandem we developed a depth-averaged theory using balance equations for mass, momentum and kinetic energy. We assumed a linearized GDR Midi granular rheology [da Cruz, 2005] and a Coulomb friction law along the sidewalls [Jop et al., 2005]. A scaling analysis of our equations yields a dimensionless "entrainment number" En, which neatly parametrizes the flow geometry in the drum for a wide range of variables, e.g., rotation rate and effective gravity. At low En, the flow profile is planar and kinetic energy is balanced locally in the flow layer. At high En, the flow profile is sigmoidal (yin-yang shaped) and the kinetic energy is dominated by longitudinal, streamwise transfer. We observe different scaling behavior under each of these flow regimes, e.g., between En and kinetic energy, surface slope and flow depth. Our theory correctly predicts their scaling exponents and the value of En at which the regime transition takes place. We are also able to make corrections for

  13. Ares V: Shifting the Payload Design Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summrall, Phil; Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Ares V heavy-lift cargo launch vehicle is being designed send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than the 1960s-era Apollo program and provide ongoing support to a permanent lunar outpost. In addition to that role, however, its unmatched mass and volume capability represent a global asset for exploration, science, and commerce. The Ares V also is an enabler of a large class of space missions not thought possible by scientists and engineers since the Saturn V program ended over 30 years ago. Compared to current systems, it will offer approximately 5 times the mass and volume to most orbits and locations. This should allow prospective mission planners to build robust payloads with margins that are 3 to 5 times the industry norm. The space inside the planned payload shroud has enough usable volume to launch the volumetric equivalent of approximately 10 Apollo Lunar Excursion Modules or approximately 5 equivalent Hubble Space Telescopes. This mass and volume capability to Low Earth Orbit enables a host of new scientific and observation platforms, such as telescopes, satellites, planetary and solar missions, as well as being able to provide the lift for future large in-space infrastructure missions, such as space based power and mining, Earth asteroid defense, propellant depots, etc. The Ares V team is engaging the potential payload community now, 2-3 years before System Requirements Review, in order to better understand the potential limitations and or additional requirements that could be added to the Ares V from the mission planning community. If a viable mission is determined and added to the Ares V as a design case, tradeoffs will be conducted to determine if other mission design requirements can be included in the system. Multiple shroud options for the Ares V have been analyzed to identify their impact on performance. Ares V is in a conceptual design stage prior to a formal design phase. The initial concept for the cargo launch vehicle

  14. Planck payload module design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riti, Jean-Bernard; Dubruel, Denis; Nadarassin, Madivanane; Martin, Philippe P.; Gavila, Emmanuel; Lasic, Thierry; de Chambure, Daniel; Guillaume, Bernard

    2003-03-01

    Planck associated to Herschel is one of the next ESA scientific missions. Both satellites will be launched in 2007 on a single ARIANE V launcher to the 2nd Lagrange libration point L2. Planck is a Principal Investigator Survey mission and the Planck spacecraft will provide the environment for two full sky surveys in the frequency range from 30 to 857 GHz. Planck aims to image the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) over the whole sky with a sensitivity of ΔT/T = 2 .10-6 and an angular resolution of 10 arc-minutes. This will be obtained thanks to a wide wavelength range telescope associated to a cryogenic Payload Module. The Planck mission leads to very stringent requirements (straylight, thermal stability) that can only be achieved by designing the spacecraft at system level, combining optical, radio frequency and thermal engineering. The PLANCK Payload Module (PPLM) is composed of a cryo-structure supporting and a 1.5 m aperture off-axis telescope equipped of two scientific instruments HFI (High Frequency Instrument) and LFI (Low Frequency Instrument). The LFI detectors are based on HETM amplifier technology and need to be cooled down to 20 K. The detectors for the HFI are bolometers operating at 0.1 K. These temperature levels are obtained using 3 different active coolers, a 20K sorption cooler stage, which need pre-cooling stages for normal operation (the coldest one is around 60 K). Finally, the telescope temperature must be lower than 60 K. To meet those requirements, a specific cryo-structure accommodating a multi-stages cryogenic passive radiator has been developed. The design of this high efficiency radiator is basically a black painted open honeycomb surface radiatively insulated from the warm spacecraft by a set of angled shields opened towards cold space, also called "V-grooves". The coldest stage offers a ~1.5 W net cooling capacity around 55 K. Specific design are implemented to guarantee the straylight performance. The

  15. Variation in movement patterns of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) inferred from conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Burdick, S.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    We used 25 years of conventional tagging data (n=6173 recoveries) and 3 years of ultrasonic telemetry data (n=105 transmitters deployed) to examine movement rates and directional preferences of four age classes of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in estuarine and coastal waters of North Carolina. Movement rates of conventionally tagged red drum were dependent on the age, region, and season of tagging. Age-1 and age-2 red drum tagged along the coast generally moved along the coast, whereas fish tagged in oligohaline waters far from the coast were primarily recovered in coastal regions in fall months. Adult (age-4+) red drum moved from overwintering grounds on the continental shelf through inlets into Pamlico Sound in spring and summer months and departed in fall. Few tagged red drum were recovered in adjacent states (0.6% of all recoveries); however, some adult red drum migrated seasonally from overwintering grounds in coastal North Carolina northward to Virginia in spring, returning in fall. Age-2 transmittertracked red drum displayed seasonal emigration from a small tributary, but upstream and downstream movements within the tributary were correlated with fluctuating salinity regimes and not season. Large-scale conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry programs can provide valuable insights into the complex movement patterns of estuarine fish.

  16. Payload crew interface design criteria and techniques. Task 1: Inflight operations and training for payloads. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmean, W. D.; Hitz, F. R.

    1976-01-01

    Guidelines are developed for use in control and display panel design for payload operations performed on the aft flight deck of the orbiter. Preliminary payload procedures are defined. Crew operational concepts are developed. Payloads selected for operational simulations were the shuttle UV optical telescope (SUOT), the deep sky UV survey telescope (DUST), and the shuttle UV stellar spectrograph (SUSS). The advanced technology laboratory payload consisting of 11 experiments was selected for a detailed evaluation because of the availability of operational data and its operational complexity.

  17. ESA'S Biomass Mission System And Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcioni, M.; Bensi, P.; Fois, F.; Gabriele, A.; Heliere, F.; Lin, C. C.; Massotti, L.; Scipal, K.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Explorers are the backbone of the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, providing an important contribution to the understanding of the Earth system. Following the User Consultation Meeting held in Graz, Austria on 5-6 March 2013, the Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has recommended implementing Biomass as the 7th Earth Explorer Mission within the frame of the ESA Earth Observation Envelope Programme. This paper will give an overview of the satellite system and its payload. The system technical description presented here is based on the results of the work performed during parallel Phase A system studies by two industrial consortia led by EADS Astrium Ltd. and Thales Alenia Space Italy. Two implementation concepts (respectively A and B) are described and provide viable options capable of meeting the mission requirements.

  18. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, John F.; Lind, Randall F.

    2003-01-01

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  19. Exploring Mars: The Ares Payload Service (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-08-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the

  20. Helpful hints to painless payload processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terhune, Terry; Carson, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    The helpful hints herein describe, from a system perspective, the functional flow of hardware and software. The flow will begin at the experiment development stage and continue through build-up, test, verification, delivery, launch and deintegration of the experiment. An effort will be made to identify those interfaces and transfer functions of processing that can be improved upon in the new world of 'Faster, Better, and Cheaper.' The documentation necessary to ensure configuration and processing requirements satisfaction will also be discussed. Hints and suggestions for improvements to enhance each phase of the flow will be derived from extensive experience and documented lessons learned. Charts will be utilized to define the functional flow and a list of 'lessons learned' will be addressed to show applicability. In conclusion, specific improvements for several areas of hardware processing, procedure development and quality assurance, that are generic to all Small Payloads, will be identified.