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Sample records for 858-386-6078 krissy bartels

  1. Martin Bartels als Lehrer von Carl Friedrich Gauß.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, W. R.

    The role of the young Martin Bartels (1769 - 1836), later professor of mathematics at Kazan and Dorpat, as a teacher of C. F. Gauß is discussed on the basis of his autobiographic notes and of reminiscences by the astronomer Otto Struve, the son of Bartel's son-in-law Wilhelm Struve.

  2. Solution of the Bartels-Kwiecinski-Praszalowicz equation via Monte Carlo integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachamis, Grigorios; Sabio Vera, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    We present a method of solution of the Bartels-Kwiecinski-Praszalowicz (BKP) equation based on the numerical integration of iterated integrals in transverse momentum and rapidity space. As an application, our procedure, which makes use of Monte Carlo integration techniques, is applied to obtain the gluon Green function in the Odderon case at leading order. The same approach can be used for more complicated scenarios.

  3. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling due to Atmospheric Tides (Julius Bartels Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeffrey M.

    2016-04-01

    Within the last decade, a new realization has arrived on the scene of ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) science: terrestrial weather significantly influences space weather. The aspect of space weather referred to here consists of electron density variability that translates to uncertainties in navigation and communications systems, and neutral density variability that translates to uncertainties in orbital and reentry predictions. In the present context "terrestrial weather" primarily refers to the meteorological conditions that determine the spatial-temporal distribution of tropospheric water vapor and latent heating associated with tropical convection, and the middle atmosphere disturbances associated with sudden stratosphere warmings. The net effect of these processes is a spatially- and temporally-evolving spectrum of waves (gravity waves, tides, planetary waves, Kelvin waves) that grows in amplitude with height and enters the IT system near ~100 km. Some members of the wave spectrum penetrate all the way to the base of the exosphere (ca. 500 km). Along the way, nonlinear interactions between different wave components occur, modifying the interacting waves and giving rise to secondary waves. Finally, the IT wind perturbations carried by the waves can redistribute ionospheric plasma, either through the electric fields generated via the dynamo mechanism between 100 and 150 km, or directly by moving plasma along magnetic field lines at higher levels. Additionally, the signatures of wave-driven dynamo currents are reflected in magnetic perturbations observed at the ground. This is how terrestrial atmospheric variability, through the spectrum of vertically- propagating waves that it produces, can effectively drive IT space weather. The primary objective of this Julius Bartels Lecture is to provide an overview of the global observational evidence for the IT consequences of these upward-propagating waves. In honor of Julius Bartels, who performed much research (including

  4. BarTeL, a Genetically Versatile, Bioluminescent and Granule Neuron Precursor-Targeted Mouse Model for Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Shackleford, Gregory M; Shi, Xiang-He; Swanson, Kimberly S; Mahdi, Min Y; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Moats, Rex A

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor and have been divided into four major molecular subgroups. Animal models that mimic the principal molecular aberrations of these subgroups will be important tools for preclinical studies and allow greater understanding of medulloblastoma biology. We report a new transgenic model of medulloblastoma that possesses a unique combination of desirable characteristics including, among others, the ability to incorporate multiple and variable genes of choice and to produce bioluminescent tumors from a limited number of somatic cells within a normal cellular environment. This model, termed BarTeL, utilizes a Barhl1 homeobox gene promoter to target expression of a bicistronic transgene encoding both the avian retroviral receptor TVA and an eGFP-Luciferase fusion protein to neonatal cerebellar granule neuron precursor (cGNP) cells, which are cells of origin for the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of human medulloblastomas. The Barhl1 promoter-driven transgene is expressed strongly in mammalian cGNPs and weakly or not at all in mature granule neurons. We efficiently induced bioluminescent medulloblastomas expressing eGFP-luciferase in BarTeL mice by infection of a limited number of somatic cGNPs with avian retroviral vectors encoding the active N-terminal fragment of SHH and a stabilized MYCN mutant. Detection and quantification of the increasing bioluminescence of growing tumors in young BarTeL mice was facilitated by the declining bioluminescence of their uninfected maturing cGNPs. Inclusion of eGFP in the transgene allowed enriched sorting of cGNPs from neonatal cerebella. Use of a single bicistronic avian vector simultaneously expressing both Shh and Mycn oncogenes increased the medulloblastoma incidence and aggressiveness compared to mixed virus infections. Bioluminescent tumors could also be produced by ex vivo transduction of neonatal BarTeL cerebellar cells by avian retroviruses and subsequent

  5. BarTeL, a Genetically Versatile, Bioluminescent and Granule Neuron Precursor-Targeted Mouse Model for Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Min Y.; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; D’Apuzzo, Massimo; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Moats, Rex A.

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor and have been divided into four major molecular subgroups. Animal models that mimic the principal molecular aberrations of these subgroups will be important tools for preclinical studies and allow greater understanding of medulloblastoma biology. We report a new transgenic model of medulloblastoma that possesses a unique combination of desirable characteristics including, among others, the ability to incorporate multiple and variable genes of choice and to produce bioluminescent tumors from a limited number of somatic cells within a normal cellular environment. This model, termed BarTeL, utilizes a Barhl1 homeobox gene promoter to target expression of a bicistronic transgene encoding both the avian retroviral receptor TVA and an eGFP-Luciferase fusion protein to neonatal cerebellar granule neuron precursor (cGNP) cells, which are cells of origin for the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of human medulloblastomas. The Barhl1 promoter-driven transgene is expressed strongly in mammalian cGNPs and weakly or not at all in mature granule neurons. We efficiently induced bioluminescent medulloblastomas expressing eGFP-luciferase in BarTeL mice by infection of a limited number of somatic cGNPs with avian retroviral vectors encoding the active N-terminal fragment of SHH and a stabilized MYCN mutant. Detection and quantification of the increasing bioluminescence of growing tumors in young BarTeL mice was facilitated by the declining bioluminescence of their uninfected maturing cGNPs. Inclusion of eGFP in the transgene allowed enriched sorting of cGNPs from neonatal cerebella. Use of a single bicistronic avian vector simultaneously expressing both Shh and Mycn oncogenes increased the medulloblastoma incidence and aggressiveness compared to mixed virus infections. Bioluminescent tumors could also be produced by ex vivo transduction of neonatal BarTeL cerebellar cells by avian retroviruses and subsequent

  6. X-ray computed microtomography of sea ice - comment on "A review of air-ice chemical and physical interactions (AICI): liquids, quasi-liquids, and solids in snow" by Bartels-Rausch et al. (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obbard, R. W.

    2015-07-01

    This comment addresses a statement made in "A review of air-ice chemical and physical interactions (AICI): liquids, quasi-liquids, and solids in snow" by Bartels-Rausch et al. (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1587-1633, doi:10.5194/acp-14-1587-2014, 2014). Here we rebut the assertion that X-ray computed microtomography of sea ice fails to reveal liquid brine inclusions by discussing the phases present at the analysis temperature.

  7. Variations of Solar Activity and Irradiance (Julius Bartels Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Sami K.

    2015-04-01

    Variations in solar activity and its fluctuating irradiance have been invoked as drivers of the Earth's space environment and its climate. Although, such variations and fluctuations have been followed for decades, partly even centuries, a number of important and basic questions surrounding them remain unanswered, or controversial. This also leads to significant uncertainties in the role played by the Sun in, e.g., driving climate change. In this lecture I provide an overview of our present knowledge and understanding of solar variability, covering both, commonly accepted and some of the more controversial aspects.

  8. Wooing the White Working-Class Voter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R.

    2008-01-01

    In his book titled "Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age," Larry M. Bartels wrote that "the familiar image of a party system transformed by Republican gains among working-class cultural conservatives turns out to be largely mythical." According to Bartels, who is director of Princeton's Center for the Study of Democratic…

  9. Multilingualism in an EFL Practicum: Increasing Student Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, María Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Research in second language teacher education has demonstrated that novice teachers have difficulty in using their pedagogical knowledge, which partly results from a heavy focus on theory offered in teacher training programs (e.g., Bartels, 2005, 2009; Tarone & Allwright, 2005). In order to better equip student teachers with the knowledge…

  10. The Long, the Short, and the Unstructured: A Unifying Model of miRNA Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Denzler, Rémy; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-10-01

    In this issue, Fang and Bartel (2015) report the identification of novel sequence and structural features of human pri-miRNAs, which--together with previously identified sequence motifs--define a unifying model of mammalian pri-miRNAs and advances the de novo design of artificial pri-miRNAs. PMID:26431024

  11. Evaluation of new transport medium for detection of herpes simplex virus by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Ogburn, J R; Hoffpauir, J T; Cole, E; Hood, K; Michael, D; Nguyen, T; Raden, S; Raju, B; Reisinger, V; Oefinger, P E

    1994-12-01

    The transport medium Multi-Microbe Media (M4) was evaluated prospectively by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of herpes simplex virus from 473 specimens. In addition, 377 specimens in Bartels Viral Transport Medium were evaluated. By using culture as a "gold standard," the ELISA sensitivity was approximately 85%, while the specificities exceeded 96% for both media.

  12. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program, 1992. China: Tradition and Transformation (Curriculum Projects).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    This collection of papers is from a seminar on China includes the following papers: "Women in China: A Curriculum Unit" (Mary Ann Backiel); "Education in Mainland China" (Deanna D. Bartels; Felicia C. Eppley); "From the Great Wall to the Bamboo Curtain: China The Asian Giant An Integrated Interdisciplinary Unit for Sixth Grade Students" (Chester…

  13. Persistence in recurrent geomagnetic activity and its connection with Space Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego, P.; Storini, M.; Laurenza, M.

    2010-06-01

    Recurrent geomagnetic activity is mainly linked to the passage of interplanetary corotating solar wind structures in the near-Earth space. We studied geomagnetic recurrences for which an enhanced value of the autocorrelation coefficient exists between the data of two adjacent Bartels rotations in aa, Kp, Dst, AE time series, for the period 1954-2007, covering about 5 solar cycles (from cycle 19 to cycle 23). A new index (P), based on autocorrelation analysis, has been introduced to estimate also the duration up to seven Bartels rotations of each solar structure (or group of structures) producing geomagnetic recurrences with high autocorrelation (correlation coefficient ≥ 0.3). We could infer whether recurrent geomagnetic activity is due to successive short-lived (at least 2 Bartels rotations) or to long-lasting corotating structures (up to 7 or more Bartels rotations). Generally, time periods characterized by recurrent geomagnetic activity are longer during the descending phase of even-numbered cycles (20, 22). Nevertheless, we found that recurrences determined by long-lived interplanetary structures are detected mainly in the descending phase of cycles 19 and 23. Finally, we point out that the average levels of the computed indices during the descending phase of each solar cycle show a significant anticorrelation with the sunspot area integrated over the subsequent cycle, giving new insights for Space Climate forecast.

  14. Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    From 1998-2000, Carol Bartell served as President of the California Council on the Education of Teachers. However, election to office in this organization is generally a six-year commitment, because an individual will serve for two years as President Elect, two years as President, and two more as Past President. In this article, she expresses that…

  15. Delta Pi Epsilon National Conference. Book of Readings (Nashville, Tennessee, November 15-17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Pi Epsilon Society, Little Rock, AR.

    This document contains 23 papers from a conference on promoting excellence in research and teaching for business. The following are among the papers included: "Alternative Licensure/Certification Assessment of State Specialists" (Marilyn Chalupa, Ginny Richerson, Nancy Groneman, Kimberlee Bartel, Randy L. Joyner, Dennis LaBonty); "Assessing Online…

  16. 78 FR 78417 - Forethought Variable Insurance Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... registered open-end management investment companies to acquire shares of other registered open-end management... companies, and (b) permit certain series of registered open- end management investment companies relying on...-6879, or David P Bartels, Branch Chief, at (202) 551-6821 (Division of Investment Management,...

  17. 77 FR 37079 - Versus Capital Multi-Manager Real Estate Income Fund LLC and Versus Capital Advisors; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... management investment companies to issue multiple classes of shares and to impose asset-based distribution...) 551-6812 or David P. Bartels, Branch Chief, at (202) 551-6821 (Division of Investment Management... limited liability company that is registered under the Act as a non-diversified, closed- end...

  18. 78 FR 11909 - Emerging Global Advisors, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... of certain open-end management investment companies to issue shares (``Shares'') redeemable in large... redemption of Creation Units; and (e) certain registered management investment companies and unit investment... P. Bartels, Branch Chief, at (202) 551-6821 (Division of Investment Management, Office of...

  19. Making the Case for the Total STEM Learning Ecosystem: Why Message Matters and Why the Old Ones are Killing Us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, D.

    2015-11-01

    Many have argued that STEM is essential for all students for our national economic competitiveness and security; others for good citizenship. But these traditional frames miss the mark, and actually might do more harm than good. Dr. Bartels presented an alternative perspective and referenced some recent work on STEM communications strategies from the Frameworks Institute in Washington, D.C.

  20. 78 FR 77777 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... W64-224, Washington, DC 20590- 0001. Office hours are from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday... for miscellaneous/multiple reasons: Anthony Bartel Ricky A. Bruens DeAndre Bryan Robert S. Buckwalter... Russel P. Worl The following 12 applicants were denied because they will not be driving...

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). Communication Technology and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Communication Technology and Policy section of the Proceedings contains the following 15 papers: "The Virtual Sphere: The Internet as a Public Sphere" (Zizi Papacharissi); "Toward a Typology of Internet Users and Online Privacy Concerns" (Kim Bartel Sheehan); "Blind Spots of the Communications Decency Act Debate: A Critique of Jeffersonian…

  2. [Effectiveness of cerebrolysin in hypertensive supratentorial intracranial hemorrhages: results of a randomized triple blind placebo-controled study].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, M Iu; Briukhov, V V; Timerbaeva, S L; Kistenev, B A; Rebrova, O Iu; Suslina, Z A

    2009-01-01

    Cerebrolysin was administered to 38 patients with small hypertensive supratentorial intracranial hemorrhages. Cerebrolysin was used intravenous in drops in dosage of 30 ml during 14 days. High effectiveness and good tolerability of the treatment was shown. In the end of treatment, groups receiving cerebrolysin or placebo were statistically significant differed by the total NIHSS score, Bartel index and the Rankin's modified scale. Moreover, a trend to the decrease of intracranial hemorrhage volume was observed in patients treated with cerebrolysin.

  3. Periodic variation in the geomagnetic activity - A study based on the Ap index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1993-01-01

    The monthly and daily samples of the Ap index for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.

  4. Withdrawal from Buprenorphine/Naloxone and Maintenance with a Natural Dopaminergic Agonist: A Cautionary Note

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Femino, John; Waite, Roger L; Benya, Lisa; Giordano, John; Borsten, Joan; Downs, William B; Braverman, Eric R; Loehmann, Raquel; Dushaj, Kristina; Han, David; Simpatico, Thomas; Hauser, Mary; Barh, Debmalya; McLaughlin, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background While numerous studies support the efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the stabilization and maintenance of opioid dependence, clinically significant opioid withdrawal symptoms occur upon tapering and cessation of dosage. Methods We present a case study of a 35 year old Caucasian female (Krissie) who was prescribed increasing dosages of prescription opioids after carpel tunnel surgery secondary to chronic pain from reflex sympathetic dystrophy and fibromyalgia. Over the next 5 years, daily dosage requirements increased to over 80 mg of Methadone and 300 ug/hr Fentanyl transdermal patches, along with combinations of 12–14 1600 mcg Actig lollipop and oral 100 mg Morphine and 30 mg oxycodone 1–2 tabs q4-6hr PRN for breakthrough pain. Total monthly prescription costs including supplemental benzodiazepines, hypnotics and stimulants exceeded $50,000. The patient was subsequently transferred to Suboxone® in 2008, and the dosage was gradually tapered until her admission for inpatient detoxification with KB220Z a natural dopaminergic agonist. We carefully documented her withdrawal symptoms when she precipitously stopped taking buprenorphine/naloxone and during follow-up while taking KB220Z daily. We also genotyped the patient using a reward gene panel including (9 genes 18 alleles): DRD 2,3,4; MOA-A; COMT; DAT1; 5HTTLLR; OPRM1; and GABRA3. Findings At 432 days post Suboxone® withdrawal the patient is being maintained on KB220Z, has been urine tested and is opioid free. Genotyping data revealed a moderate genetic risk for addiction showing a hypodopaminergic trait. This preliminary case data suggest that the daily use of KB220Z could provide a cost effective alternative substitution adjunctive modality for Suboxone®. We encourage double-blind randomized –placebo controlled studies to test the proposition that KB220Z may act as a putative natural opioid substitution maintenance adjunct. PMID:24273683

  5. Climbing Darwin's ladder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G. F.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The work of Bartel and Szostak, in which RNA molecules were selected to enhance the ability to catalyze a reaction similar to a step in protein-catalyzed RNA replication, is discussed. An important aspect of this experiment was the ability to reach a high level of functional organization in ten evolutionary steps. Further steps necessary to obtain an RNA enzyme with RNA replicase activity include performing the reaction with mononucleoside 5'-triphosphates, generalizing the reaction to include a variety of sequences without loss of template-dependent specificity, and overcoming template self-structure that could prevent some regions from being copied efficiently.

  6. A new genus of African tiger moths, with a review of the Amsacta melanogastra Holland species group (Lepidoptera, Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Dubatolov, Vladimir V

    2013-01-01

    The relationships of Afrotropical tiger moths remain relatively poorly analyzed (see Goodger & Watson 1995), despite some noticeable new generic descriptions (see Goodger & Watson 1995, Dubatolov 2006a, 2006b, 2009, 2009, Dubatolov & Haynes 2008). While studying series of tiger moths from the Natural History Museum and Manchester Museum, some specimens of "Diacrisia" epicaste Fawcett, 1915 (synonyms include "Spilosoma" occidentalis Bartel, 1903 and "Amsacta" melanogastra Holland, 1897) were found to have genitalia unlike any known Spilosomina genus, and are transferred to a newly described genus as follows.

  7. Can laboratory data explain field observations: The fluxes of HNO3 and HNO4 from snow in the lab and in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    equilibrium partitioning of HNO3 and HNO4 that one would expect based on selected laboratory data. Both, adsorption to the surface of the snow and uptake to the bulk forming a solid solution are discussed (HNO3 only). Further, I address the question, if the snow holds enough HNO3 and HNO4 at its surface or in its bulk (HNO3 only) to fuel the observed emissions. Thus both equilibrium conditions and molecular flux budgets are discussed. These calculations show that adsorption/desorption can indeed explain the observed mixing ratio in the Antarctic boundary layer. Release from a solid solution seems to be too slow. Jones, A. E., Brough, N., Anderson, P. S., & Wolff, E. W. (2014). HO2NO2 and HNO3 in the coastal Antarctic winter night: a "lab-in-the-field" experiment. Acpd, 14(9), 12771-12796. Interactive comment on "HO2NO2 and HNO3 in the coastal Antarctic winter night: a "lab-in-the-field" experiment" by A. E. Jones et al. , T. Bartels-Rausch thorsten.bartels-rausch@psi.ch Received and published: 11 July 2014 Legrand, M., Preunkert, S., Frey, M., Bartels-Rausch, T., Kukui, A., King, M. D., et al. (2014). Large mixing ratios of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) at Concordia (East Antarctic plateau) in summer: a strong source from surface snow? Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 14(8), 11749-11785. doi:10.5194/acpd-14-11749-2014 Ulrich, T., Ammann, M., Leutwyler, S., & Bartels-Rausch, T. (2012). The adsorption of peroxynitric acid on ice between 230 K and 253 K. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12(4), 1833-1845. doi:10.5194/acp-12-1833-2012

  8. Solar coronal holes as sources of recurrent geomagnetic disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neupert, W. M.; Pizzo, V.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of the solar corona by Oso 7 have been used in a superposed epoch analysis to study the relationships between classes of coronal features and geomagnetic activity. Both bright coronal regions and regions of less than average brightness were investigated. It was found that for the period from January 1972 through January 1973, a significant enhancement in geomagnetic activity occurred 2-3 days after central meridian passage of large coronal holes that extended to within 5 deg of the solar subearth point when they were on the meridian. Large coronal holes appear to satisfy the requirements for 'M regions' which were hypothesized to be responsible for recurrent geomagnetic disturbances (Bartels, 1934). If solar wind high-speed streams originate preferentially in these regions, their velocity at the base of the corona will be substantially higher than that expected from an axisymmetric solar wind model.

  9. The two-component non-perturbative pomeron and the G-Universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolescu, Basarab

    2001-04-01

    In this communication we present a generalization of the Donnachie-Landshoff model inspired by the recent discovery of a 2-component Pomeron in LLA-QCD by Bartels, Lipatov and Vacca. In particular, we explore a new property, not present in the usual Regge theory - the G-Universality - which signifies the independence of one of the Pomeron components on the nature of the initial and final hadrons. The best description of the overlinepp , pp, π ±p, K±p, γγ and γ p forward data is obtained when G-universality is imposed. Moreover, the ℓ n2s behaviour of the hadron amplitude, first established by Heisenberg, is clearly favoured by the data.

  10. Aquatic tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, U.S.A., with the description of a new species of Thulinius (Tardigrada, Isohypsibiidae).

    PubMed

    Bertolani, Roberto; Bartels, Paul J; Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Nelson, Diane R

    2014-02-05

    As part of the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.dlia.org), an extensive survey of tardigrades has been conducted in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) in Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A., by Bartels and Nelson. Freshwater tardigrades include three species in the aquatic genus Thulinius (Eutardigrada, Isohypsibiidae). A new species, Thulinius romanoi, described from stream sediment, is distinguished from all other congeners by having a sculptured cuticle. In addition, the presence of Thulinius augusti (Murray, 1907) was verified by combined morphological and molecular analysis, and nine specimens of a third species, Thulinius cf. saltursus, were also found. Thulinius augusti is a new record for the United States. Thulinius saltursus (Schuster, Toftner & Grigarick, 1978) was previously recorded in California and Ohio, but our specimens vary slightly in morphology. The list of tardigrades from streams in the GSMNP was updated to a total of 44 species, 22 of which were predominantly or exclusively aquatic.

  11. Helicity evolution at small-x

    DOE PAGES

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D.

    2016-01-13

    We construct small-x evolution equations which can be used to calculate quark and anti-quark helicity TMDs and PDFs, along with the g1 structure function. These evolution equations resum powers of αs ln2(1/x) in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the powers of αs ln(1/x) in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation efects. The equations are written in an operator form in terms of polarization-dependent Wilson line-like operators. While the equations do not close in general, they become closed and self-contained systems of non-linear equations in the large-Nc and large-Nc & Nf limits. As a cross-check, in the ladder approximation, our equationsmore » map onto the same ladder limit of the infrared evolution equations for g1 structure function derived previously by Bartels, Ermolaev and Ryskin.« less

  12. Monte Carlo study of the honeycomb structure of anthraquinone molecules on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-06-01

    Using Monte Carlo calculations of the two-dimensional (2D) triangular lattice gas model, we demonstrate a mechanism for the spontaneous formation of honeycomb structure of anthraquinone (AQ) molecules on a Cu(111) plane. In our model long-range attractions play an important role, in addition to the long-range repulsions and short-range attractions proposed by Pawin, Wong, Kwon, and Bartels [ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1129309 313, 961 (2006)]. We provide a global account of the possible combinations of long-range attractive coupling constants which lead to a honeycomb superstructure. We also provide the critical temperature of disruption of the honeycomb structure and compare the critical local coverage rate of AQ’s where the honeycomb structure starts to form with the experimental observations.

  13. Aquatic tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, U.S.A., with the description of a new species of Thulinius (Tardigrada, Isohypsibiidae).

    PubMed

    Bertolani, Roberto; Bartels, Paul J; Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Nelson, Diane R

    2014-01-01

    As part of the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.dlia.org), an extensive survey of tardigrades has been conducted in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) in Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A., by Bartels and Nelson. Freshwater tardigrades include three species in the aquatic genus Thulinius (Eutardigrada, Isohypsibiidae). A new species, Thulinius romanoi, described from stream sediment, is distinguished from all other congeners by having a sculptured cuticle. In addition, the presence of Thulinius augusti (Murray, 1907) was verified by combined morphological and molecular analysis, and nine specimens of a third species, Thulinius cf. saltursus, were also found. Thulinius augusti is a new record for the United States. Thulinius saltursus (Schuster, Toftner & Grigarick, 1978) was previously recorded in California and Ohio, but our specimens vary slightly in morphology. The list of tardigrades from streams in the GSMNP was updated to a total of 44 species, 22 of which were predominantly or exclusively aquatic. PMID:24870654

  14. Seasonal and diurnal variations in AMPERE observations of the Birkeland currents compared to modeled results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, J. C.; Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2016-05-01

    We reduce measurements made by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) to give the total Birkeland (field-aligned) current flowing in both hemispheres in monthly and hourly bins. We analyze these totals using 6 years of data (2010-2015) to examine solar zenith angle-driven variations in the total Birkeland current flowing in both hemispheres, simultaneously, for the first time. A diurnal variation is identified in the total Birkeland current flowing, consistent with variations in the solar zenith angle. A seasonal variation is also identified, with more current flowing in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere during Bartels rotations in northern (southern) summer. For months close to equinox, more current is found to flow in the Northern Hemisphere, contrary to our expectations. We also conduct the first test of the Milan (2013) model for estimating Birkeland current magnitudes, with modifications made to account for solar contributions to ionospheric conductance based on the observed variation of the Birkeland currents with season and time of day. The modified model, using the value of ΦD averaged by Bartels rotation (scaled by 1.7), is found to agree with the observed AMPERE currents, with a correlation of 0.87 in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.86 in the Southern Hemisphere. The improvement over the correlation with dayside reconnection rate is demonstrated to be a significant improvement to the model. The correlation of the residuals is found to be consistent with more current flowing in the Northern Hemisphere. This new observation of systematically larger current flowing in the Northern Hemisphere is discussed in the context of previous results which suggest that the Northern Hemisphere may react more strongly to dayside reconnection than the Southern Hemisphere.

  15. Pseudopotential SCF-MO studies of hypervalent compounds. II. XeF+5 and XeF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, Michael J.; Bartell, Lawrence S.; Ewig, Carl S.; Van Wazer, John R.

    1980-07-01

    New evidence bearing upon the anomalous properties of xenon hexafluoride has been obtained via the ab initio molecular orbital approach applied successfully to the di- and tetrafluorides in paper I. Structures of both XeF+5 and XeF6 are governed by a stereochemically active lone pair. In the case of the square-pyramidal cation the Fax-Xe-Feq angle calculated for the bare ion is within 2° of the value observed in the crystalline complex. For the hexafluoride, however, the calculated deformation from Oh symmetry is appreciably greater than that deduced from electron diffraction intensities. Nevertheless, the results of calculations are in sufficient conformity with the Bartell-Gavin, Pitzer-Bernstein interpretation and at variance with the ''electronic-isomers'' interpretation to leave little doubt about the answer. With increasing fluorination in the XeFn series the HOMO-LUMO energy difference decreases and the second-order Jahn-Teller effect is enhanced. Increasing fluorination (and increased positive charge on Xe) also shortens bond lengths; calculated shortenings parallel observed shortenings. The deformation of XeF6 from Oh is along t1u bend and stretch coordinates to a C3v structure with long bonds adjacent to the lone pair, as expected according to the valence-shell-electron-pair-repulsion model. Pure t2g deformations are destabilizing but anharmonic t1u-t2g coupling significantly stabilizes the deformation. Steric aspects of the structure and force field are diagnosed and found to be minor. Values for the force constants f44, f55, f¯4444, f¯444'4', and f¯445 are derived and found to be of the magnitude forecast in the Bartell-Gavin and Pitzer-Bernstein treatments except that the calculations do not reproduce the delicate balances believed to lead to almost free pseudorotation in XeF6.

  16. Radio Telescopes Reveal Youngest Stellar Corpse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers using a global combination of radio telescopes to study a stellar explosion some 30 million light-years from Earth have likely discovered either the youngest black hole or the youngest neutron star known in the Universe. Their discovery also marks the first time that a black hole or neutron star has been found associated with a supernova that has been seen to explode since the invention of the telescope nearly 400 years ago. M51 An artist's impression of Supernova 1986J. The newly discovered nebula around the black hole or neutron star in the center is shown in blue, and is in the center of the expanding, fragmented shell of material thrown off in the supernova explosion, which is shown in red. CREDIT: Norbert Bartel and Michael F. Bietenholz, York University; Artist: G. Arguner (Click on image for larger version) Image Files Artist's Conception (above image, 836K) Galaxy and Supernova (47K) A VLA image (left) of the galaxy NGC 891, showing the bright supernova explosion below the galaxy's center. At right, a closer view of the supernova, made with a global array of radio telescopes. CREDIT: Miguel A. Perez-Torres, Antxon Alberdi and Lucas Lara, Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia - CSIC, Spain, Jon Marcaide and Jose C. Guirado, Universidad de Valencia, Spain Franco Mantovani, IRA-CNR, Italy, Eduardo Ros, MPIfR, Germany, and Kurt W. Weiler, Naval Research Laboratory, USA Multi-Frequency Closeup View (201K) Blue and white area shows the nebula surrounding the black hole or neutron star lurking in the center of the supernova. This nebula is apparent at a higher radio frequency (15 GHz). The red and also the contours show the distorted, expanding shell of material thrown off in the supernova explosion. This shell is seen at a lower radio frequency (5 GHz). CREDIT: Michael F. Bietenholz and Norbert Bartel, York University, Michael Rupen, NRAO, NRAO/AUI/NSF A supernova is the explosion of a massive star after it exhausts its supply of nuclear fuel and

  17. Genetic counselor perceptions of genetic counseling session goals: a validation study of the reciprocal-engagement model.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Julianne E; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; MacFarlane, Ian M; LeRoy, Bonnie S

    2015-04-01

    Although some researchers have attempted to define genetic counseling practice goals, no study has obtained consensus about the goals from a large sample of genetic counselors. The Reciprocal-Engagement Model (REM; McCarthy Veach, Bartels & LeRoy, 2007) articulates 17 goals of genetic counseling practice. The present study investigated whether these goals could be generalized as a model of practice, as determined by a larger group of clinical genetic counselors. Accordingly, 194 genetic counselors were surveyed regarding their opinions about the importance of each goal and their perceptions of how frequently they achieve each goal. Mean importance ratings suggest they viewed every goal as important. Factor analysis of the 17 goals yielded four factors: Understanding and Appreciation, Support and Guidance, Facilitative Decision-Making, and Patient-Centered Education. Patient-Centered Education and Facilitative Decision-Making goals received the highest mean importance ratings. Mean frequency ratings were consistently lower than importance ratings, suggesting genetic counseling goals may be difficult to achieve and/or not applicable in all situations. A number of respondents provided comments about the REM goals that offer insight into factors related to implementing the goals in clinical practice. This study presents preliminary evidence concerning the validity of the goals component of the REM.

  18. Activation of the prefrontal cortex in the human visual aesthetic perception

    PubMed Central

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; Marty, Gisèle; Maestú, Fernando; Ortiz, Tomás; Munar, Enric; Fernández, Alberto; Roca, Miquel; Rosselló, Jaume; Quesney, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    Visual aesthetic perception (“aesthetics”) or the capacity to visually perceive a particular attribute added to other features of objects, such as form, color, and movement, was fixed during human evolutionary lineage as a trait not shared with any great ape. Although prefrontal brain expansion is mentioned as responsible for the appearance of such human trait, no current knowledge exists on the role of prefrontal areas in the aesthetic perception. The visual brain consists of “several parallel multistage processing systems, each specialized in a given task such as, color or motion” [Bartels, A. & Zeki, S. (1999) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 265, 2327–2332]. Here we report the results of an experiment carried out with magnetoencephalography which shows that the prefrontal area is selectively activated in humans during the perception of objects qualified as “beautiful” by the participants. Therefore, aesthetics can be hypothetically considered as an attribute perceived by means of a particular brain processing system, in which the prefrontal cortex seems to play a key role. PMID:15079079

  19. Seismic Holography of the Solar Interior near the Maximum and Minimum of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Alfaro, M.; Pérez Hernández, F.; González Hernández, I.; Hartlep, T.

    2016-05-01

    The base of the convection zone and the tachocline play a major role in the study of the dynamics of the Sun, especially in the solar dynamo. Here, we present a phase-sensitive helioseismic holography method to infer changes in the sound-speed profile of the solar interior. We test the technique using numerically simulated data by Zhao et al. ( Astrophys. J. 702, 1150, 2009) with sound-speed perturbations at 0.7 R_{⊙}. The technique adequately recovers the perturbed sound-speed profile and is seen to be capable of detecting changes in the sound speed as low as 0.05 %. We apply the method to two GONG solar time series of approximately one year, each comprising 13 Bartels rotations, BR2295-BR2307 and BR2387-BR2399, near the maximum and at a minimum of solar activity, respectively. We successfully recover a sound-speed variation with respect to a standard solar model, consistent with previous results. However, we fail to recover a realistic sound-speed variation between maximum and minimum.

  20. Explicit simulation of a midlatitude Mesoscale Convective System

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, G.D.; Cotton, W.R.

    1996-04-01

    We have explicitly simulated the mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed on 23-24 June 1985 during PRE-STORM, the Preliminary Regional Experiment for the Stormscale Operational and Research and Meterology Program. Stensrud and Maddox (1988), Johnson and Bartels (1992), and Bernstein and Johnson (1994) are among the researchers who have investigated various aspects of this MCS event. We have performed this MCS simulation (and a similar one of a tropical MCS; Alexander and Cotton 1994) in the spirit of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud Systems Study (GCSS), in which cloud-resolving models are used to assist in the formulation and testing of cloud parameterization schemes for larger-scale models. In this paper, we describe (1) the nature of our 23-24 June MCS dimulation and (2) our efforts to date in using our explicit MCS simulations to assist in the development of a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches. The paper is organized as follows. First, we discuss the synoptic situation surrounding the 23-24 June PRE-STORM MCS followed by a discussion of the model setup and results of our simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulations in developing a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches and summarize our results.

  1. Level architecture in genetic regulatory networks and the role of microRNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that genes that code for proteins regulate the expression of each other through protein-mediated interactions. With the discovery of microRNAs^1 (miRNAs), it has been conjectured that there are many such regulatory miRNAs in the cell that are never transcribed into proteins but are important for regulation and, hence, could explain the nature of the non-coding (or junk) DNA.^2 Furthermore, miRNAs are highly conserved molecules. So, just as genes that code for proteins form regulatory networks, we conjecture that miRNAs form a higher-level regulatory network amongst themselves as mediated by the genes-coding-for-proteins regulatory network to form a complex organism. We investigate this conjecture within the framework of random Boolean networks where the two-level architecture is modelled via two coupled random Boolean networks with one network taking precedence over the other for various input/output values. Aspects of the evolution of the lower-level network will also be addressed. ^1 D. P. Bartel, Cell 116, 281 (2004). ^2 J. S. Mattick, Sci. Amer. 291, 60 (2004).

  2. Geomagnetic activity during 10 - 11 solar cycles that has been observed by old Russian observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyn, Tomasz; Wysokinski, Arkadiusz; Kobylinski, Zbigniew; Bialy, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    A good knowledge of solar-terrestrial relations during past solar activity cycles could give the appropriate tools for a correct space weather forecast. The paper focuses on the analysis of the historical collections of the ground based magnetic observations and their operational indices from the period of two sunspot solar cycles 10 - 11, period 1856 - 1878 (Bartels rotations 324 - 635). We use hourly observations of H and D geomagnetic field components registered at Russian stations: St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk, Barnaul, Ekaterinburg, Nertshinsk, Sitka, and compare them to the data obtained from the Helsinki observatory. We compare directly these records and also calculated from the data of the every above mentioned station IHV indices introduced by Svalgaard (2003), which have been used for further comparisons in epochs of assumed different polarity of the heliospheric magnetic field. We used also local index C9 derived by Zosimovich (1981) from St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk data. Solar activity is represented by sunspot numbers. The correlative and continuous wavelet analyses are applied for estimation of the correctness of records from different magnetic stations. We have specially regard to magnetic storms in the investigated period and the special Carrington event of 1-2 Sep 1859. Generally studied magnetic time series correctly show variability of the geomagnetic activity. Geomagnetic activity presents some delay in relation to solar one as it is seen especially during descending and minimum phase of the even 11-year cycle. This pattern looks similarly in the case of 16 - 17 solar cycles.

  3. Fitting of asymmetric spectral lines as diagnostics for HID-lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Martin; Peters, Silke; Schneidenbach, Hartmut; Kettlitz, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Fitting of optically thick side-on spectra is a valuable alternative to the Bartels' method and the Abel inversion for the determination of partial pressures and radial temperature profiles in HID lamps. We investigate a standard 150 W type HID lamp filled with Hg and NaI during dimming from 150 to 60 W. The model includes LTE plasma chemistry, asymmetric line profiles according to Al-Saqabi and Peach [1]. Van der Waals and Stark broadening constants are determined from spectra of a pure Hg lamp. Broadening constants for the Na D lines are taken from literature. We use the spectra at several side-on positions in order to derive pressures and temperature profiles in the Hg/NaI lamp. The results from fitting show with decreasing electrical power a constriction of the radial temperature profile, a linear decrease of the total pressure and a rapid decrease of the sodium content. Temperatures and total pressures are in good agreement with the experiment. [1] Al-Saqabi B N I, Peach G (1984) J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 20 1175--1191.

  4. Reciprocal Space Mapping of Macromolecular Crystals in the Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Edward H.; Boggon, T. J.; Fewster, P. F.; Siddons, D. P.; Stojanof, V.; Pusey, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    The technique of reciprocal space mapping applied to the physical measurement of macromolecular crystals will be described. This technique uses a triple axis diffractometer setup whereby the monochromator is the first crystal, the sample is the second and the third crystal (of the same material as the monochromator) analyzes the diffracted beam. The geometry is such that it is possible to separate mosaic volume effects from lattice strain effects. The deconvolution of the instrument parameters will also be addressed. Results from measurements at Brookhaven National Synchrotron Radiation Source carried out on microgravity and ground-grown crystals will be presented. The required beam characteristics for reciprocal space mapping are also ideal for topographic studies and the first topographs ever recorded from microgravity protein crystal samples will be shown. We are now working on a system which will enable reciprocal space mapping, mosaicity and topography studies to be carried out in the home laboratory. This system uses a rotating anode X-ray source to provide an intense beam then a Bartels double crystal, four reflection monochromator to provide the spectral and geometric beam conditioning necessary such that the instrument characteristics do not mask the measurement. This is coupled to a high precision diffractometer and sensitive detector. Commissioning data and first results from the system will be presented.

  5. Benzene on Cu(111): II. Molecular assembly due to Lateral van der Waals and Surface-State-Mediated Indirect Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyldgaard, Per; Berland, Kristian; Einstein, T. L.

    2010-03-01

    Experiments show that benzene condenses into two different structural phases: a compact and a sparse phase, both of approximately hexagonal symmetry. The vdW-DF calculations demonstrate that the denser benzene-overlayer phase, with lattice constant 6.74 ,s due to direct benzene-benzene vdW attraction. The structure of the second, sparser phase, with lattice spacing 10.24 ,s attributed to the indirect electronic interactions mediated by the well-known metallic surface state on Cu(111). To support this claim, we use a formal Harris-functional approach to evaluate nonperturbatively the asymptotic form of this indirect interaction. Our extended vdW-DF scheme---which combines calculations of molecular physisorption, of direct intermolecular vdW coupling, and of indirect electronic interactions between the molecular adsorbates---accounts well for the structural phases of benzene on Cu(111). Our preliminary vdW-DF study of acene and quinone interactions provides building blocks for modeling of anthraquinone assembly on Cu(111).footnotetextG. Pawin, , L. Bartels, Science 313 (2006) 961

  6. Monte Carlo Study of the Diffusion of CO Molecules inside Anthraquinone Hexagons on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Einstein, T. L.; Wyrick, Jon; Bartels, Ludwig

    2010-03-01

    Using Monte Carlo calculations of the two-di-men-sion-al (2D) lattice gas model, we study the diffusion of CO molecules inside anthraquinone (AQ) hexagons on a Cu(111) plane. We use experimentally-derived CO-CO interactionsfootnotetextK.L. Wong, , L. Bartels, J. Chem.Phys.123, 201102 (2005) and the analytic expression for the long-range surface-state- mediated interactionsfootnotetextK. Berland, TLE, and P. Hyldgaard, Phys.Rev. B 80, 155431 (2009) to describe the CO-AQ interactions. We assume that the CO-CO interactions are not affected by the presence of AQ's and that the CO-AQ interactions can be controlled by varying the intra-surface-state (ISS) reflectance r and the ISS phase shift δ of the indirect-electronic adsorbate-pair interactions. Comparing our results with experimental observations, we find that not only pair but also surface-state-mediated trio interactionsfootnotetextP. Hyldgaard and T.L. Einstein, EPL 59, 265 (2002) are needed to understand the data.

  7. Comparison of the hammerhead cleavage reactions stimulated by monovalent and divalent cations.

    PubMed Central

    O'Rear, J L; Wang, S; Feig, A L; Beigelman, L; Uhlenbeck, O C; Herschlag, D

    2001-01-01

    Although the hammerhead reaction proceeds most efficiently in divalent cations, cleavage in 4 M LiCl is only approximately 10-fold slower than under standard conditions of 10 mM MgCl2 (Murray et al., Chem Biol, 1998, 5:587-595; Curtis & Bartel, RNA, 2001, this issue, pp. 546-552). To determine if the catalytic mechanism with high concentrations of monovalent cations is similar to that with divalent cations, we compared the activities of a series of modified hammerhead ribozymes in the two ionic conditions. Nearly all of the modifications have similar deleterious effects under both reaction conditions, suggesting that the hammerhead adopts the same general catalytic structure with both monovalent and divalent cations. However, modification of three ligands previously implicated in the binding of a functional divalent metal ion have substantially smaller effects on the cleavage rate in Li+ than in Mg2+. This result suggests that an interaction analogous to the interaction made by this divalent metal ion is absent in the monovalent reaction. Although the contribution of this divalent metal ion to the overall reaction rate is relatively modest, its presence is needed to achieve the full catalytic rate. The role of this ion appears to be in facilitating formation of the active structure, and any direct chemical role of metal ions in hammerhead catalysis is small. PMID:11345432

  8. Observed Properties of the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    2008-11-01

    The earliest measurements of the solar wind fully supported Gene Parker's theory. The wind was persistent and nearly radial, its speed was hundreds of km/s, the density was as predicted, and, on average, the interplanetary magnetic field was consistent with an Archimedian spiral. The fastest wind, with speed >700 km/s, traced back to Bartel's unipolar M regions rather than to the hotter active regions, and the highest densities could be explained by compression where the fast wind plowed into the slower wind in its path. But, even in the early data, there were mysteries, some of which are not yet completely resolved. Understanding the alpha particles has been a challenge. Their abundance is highly variable, in the fast wind their temperature is generally > 4 times the proton temperature, and, despite their greater mass, they flow away from the Sun faster than the protons. To complicate the picture further, the protons, alphas, and electrons all have complex, anisotropic distribution functions, often with double peaks. The expanding wind cools more slowly than adiabatically, suggesting a zoo of wave-particle interactions probably responsible for marginal stabilities of the particle distributions. The study of interplanetary waves and turbulence is an active field of research. Recent decades have also seen the study of ions heavier than alphas, including particles in the wind that did not originate at the Sun. Fifty years after Parker's landmark paper, solar-wind physics is still an active area of research.

  9. Chapman and Alfvén: A Rigorous Mathematical Physicist Versus an Inspirational Experimental Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, Syun

    Modern magnetospheric physics owes its initial development to two great pioneers' Sydney Chapman and Hannes Alfvén, who took very different and contrasting approaches for their research activities; Figure 1. This caused one of the most memorable controversies in space physics during the 20th century. The controversy was initiated formally by Alfvén (1951) when he criticized a paper by D.F. Martyn entitled, ``The Theory of Magnetic Storms and Auroras,'' published in Nature in 1951. Alfvén stated: ``Dr. Martyn's treatment is founded on Chapman-Ferraro's theory of magnetic storms. It is not my intention to review here the objections to this theory, objections which I believe to be fatal- nor is it worthwhile to discuss the curious super structure which Dr. Martyn tried to erect on this weak ground.'' Alfvén's objections will be described after briefly providing the background on which the Chapman-Ferraro theory was constructed. It may be mentioned at the outset that Chapman, together with T.G. Cowling, was well recognized by his publication of a classical treatise ``The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases'' in 1953 and also, with J. Bartels, of ``Geomagnetism'' in 1940, while Alfvén established himself by the publication of an inspirational book ``Cosmical Electrodynamics'' in 1950.

  10. Data-based modelling of the Earth's dynamic magnetosphere: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganenko, N. A.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the main advances in the area of data-based modelling of the Earth's distant magnetic field achieved during the last two decades. The essence and the principal goal of the approach is to extract maximum information from available data, using physically realistic and flexible mathematical structures, parameterized by the most relevant and routinely accessible observables. Accordingly, the paper concentrates on three aspects of the modelling: (i) mathematical methods to develop a computational "skeleton" of a model, (ii) spacecraft databases, and (iii) parameterization of the magnetospheric models by the solar wind drivers and/or ground-based indices. The review is followed by a discussion of the main issues concerning further progress in the area, in particular, methods to assess the models' performance and the accuracy of the field line mapping. The material presented in the paper is organized along the lines of the author Julius-Bartels' Medal Lecture during the General Assembly 2013 of the European Geosciences Union.

  11. Development of a toolbox of organic synthetic reactions that can be induced on individual molecules by STM

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig Bartels

    2003-09-25

    OAK B262 Final Report DOE Grant No.: DE-FG03-01ER15263 ''Development of a toolbox of organic synthetic reactions that can be induced on individual molecules by STM'' Abstract Bommisetty V. Rao, Ki-Young Kwon, Robert Perry, Luke Nysen, Gregory Pavin, Qibin Zhang, Casey Dugger and Ludwig Bartels University of California at Riverside, Pierce Hall, Riverside, CA92521, email: Ludwig.Bartels@ucr.edu The key scientific objective of this project is the development of a set of reliable techniques for the addressal of specific bonds of individual molecules in order to assemble functional molecules on a metal surface at single-atom precision. Success in this direction will open up a conceptually novel route to single molecule chemistry, which can provide its products at any desired surface location without involving any lithographic steps at all. In the course of this project a number of halo-substituted aryls and alkyls where investigated with special concern to two properties: clean deposition of the reactants from the gas phase on metallic surfaces and STM-based addressability of individual substituents of them. In order to prevent contamination of the sample by deposition of solvent residue, a special depositions source was developed that uses a skimmed molecular beam. Exemplary substances studied were 1,3-iodobromobenzene (IBB), 3 bromopropionitrile (BPN) and 4,4'-dibromobiphenyl (DBB). In STM-induced reactions, IBB shows concerted activation of both halogens, which does not allow the individual addressal of one bond at a time. The concept of individual addressabilities of bonds in bi-substituted molecule was confirmed by use of BPN. This reactant is, however, strongly bound to the substrate and, hence, not very suitable for the assembly of larger aggregates, even if the nitrile group could be activated. We found individual activation of one of the bromines of DBB. This molecule lies flat on the surface and it is a promising candidate for the assembly of larger molecular

  12. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories and now a

  13. [For the Introduction of a Conceptual Perspective in Mathematics: Dedekind, Noether, van der Waerden].

    PubMed

    Koreuber, Mechthild

    2015-09-01

    ,,She [Noether] then appeared as the creator of a new direction in algebra and became the leader, the most consistent and brilliant representative, of a particular mathematical doctrine - of all that is characterized by the term ‚Begriffliche Mathematik‘.“ The aim of this paper is to illuminate this "new direction", which can be characterized as a conceptual [begriffliche] perspective in mathematics, and to comprehend its roots and trace its establishment. Field, ring, ideal, the core concepts of this new direction in mathematical images of knowledge, were conceptualized by Richard Dedekind (1831-1916) within the scope of his number theory research and associated with an understanding of a formation of concepts as a "free creation of the human spirit". They thus stand for an abstract perspective of mathematics in their entirety, described as 'modern algebra' in the 1920s and 1930s, leading to an understanding of mathematics as structural sciences. The establishment of this approach to mathematics, which is based on "general mathematical concepts" [allgemein-mathematische Begriffe], was the success of a cultural movement whose most important protagonists included Emmy Noether (1882-1935) and her pupil Bartel L. van der Waerden (1903-1996). With the use of the term 'conceptual', a perspective is taken in the analysis which allows for developing connections between the thinking of Dedekind, the "working and conceptual methods" [Arbeits- und Auffassungsmethoden] of Noether as well as the methodological approach, represented through the thought space of the Noether School as presented under the term "conceptual world" [Begriffswelt] in the Moderne Algebra of van der Waerden. This essay thus makes a contribution to the history of the introduction of a structural perspective in mathematics, a perspective that is inseparable from the mathematical impact of Noether, her reception of the work of Dedekind and the creative strength of the Noether School.

  14. Quantitative electron microscopy of InN-GaN alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, T.; Jinschek, J. R.; Freitag, B.; Specht, P.; Kisielowski, C.

    2006-01-01

    The local element distribution in quantum wells largely affects physical properties of devices made from such materials. In the past, quantitative electron microscopy was developed to access the stoichiometry on an atomic scale as shown on the cover page of this issue's Editor's Choice [1] for the GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN and the GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs system by the application of QUANTITEM and Chemical Imaging, respectively. In case of GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN local strain mapping allows for extracting similar data and an unusual large indium fluctuation can be observed if compared with the aluminum distribution in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum well structures. However, radiation damage, sample preparation and microscope stability affect the data analyses and it is of essence to monitor and control such effects as outlined in the related paper.The first author Til Bartel is a PhD candidate in physics at the Technical University of Berlin, currently visiting LBNL in California to apply transmission electron microscopy to III-nitride semiconductors. Christian Kisielowski is Staff Scientist and Principle Investigator at the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM) and is responsible for the development and application of high resolution electron microscopy.The present special issue of physica status solidi (a) is a compilation of presentations from the recent symposium on Indium Nitride and Indium Rich Related Alloys at the E-MRS 2005 Fall Meeting in Warsaw.

  15. Low LET radiolysis escape yields for reducing radicals and H2 in pressurized high temperature water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterniczuk, Marcin; Yakabuskie, Pamela A.; Wren, J. Clara; Jacob, Jasmine A.; Bartels, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiolysis escape yields (G values) are reported for the sum (G(radH)+G(e-)aq) and for G(H2) in subcritical water up to 350 °C. The scavenger system 1-10 mM acetate/0.001 M hydroxide/0.00048 M N2O was used with simultaneous mass spectroscopic detection of H2 and N2 product. Temperature-dependent measurements were carried out with 2.5 MeV electrons from a van de Graaff accelerator, while room temperature calibration measurements were done with a 60Co gamma source. The concentrations and dose range were carefully chosen so that initial spur chemistry is not perturbed and the N2 product yield corresponds to those reducing radicals that escape recombination in pure water. In comparison with a recent review recommendation of Elliot and Bartels (AECL report 153-127160-450-001, 2009), the measured reducing radical yield is seven percent smaller at room temperature but in fairly good agreement above 150 °C. The H2 escape yield is in good agreement throughout the temperature range with several previous studies that used much larger radical scavenging rates. Previous analysis of earlier high temperature measurements of Gesc(radOH) is shown to be flawed, although the actual G values may be nearly correct. The methodology used in the present report greatly reduces the range of possible error and puts the high temperature escape yields for low-LET radiation on a much firmer quantitative foundation than was previously available.

  16. [Effect of antioxidant therapy on neurotrophins and processes of rehabilitation after stroke].

    PubMed

    Karakulova, Yu V; Selyanina, N V; Zhelnin, A V; Filimonova, T A; Tsepilov, S V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the effect of the inclusion in the scheme cytoflavin patient care during the recovery period of ischemic stroke in the neuropsychological changes in the status and content of neurotrophins in serum. For this purpose we surveyed 52 patients who underwent a first ischemic stroke (29 women and 23 men) aged 52-74 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups: primary (25 patients) received in addition to basic therapy cytoflavin: intravenously at 20 ml per 400 ml of 5% glucose solution, 1 time a day for 10 days, then into 2 tablets 2 times a day for half an hour before food for a month, and the comparison group (27 patients) who received standard treatment. The control group consisted of 12 healthy people. In addition to standard clinical and laboratory tests were carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological study and evaluation of the data on the scale NIHSS, Bartell, Beck, Spielberger-Hanin, test «frontal dysfunction of the battery» and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Furthermore, determination carried neurotrophic factors: nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor brain (BDNF). The study was conducted in the dynamics: before treatment and 2 months after treatment. Patients in the recovery period of the first ischemic stroke revealed moderate manifestations of neuropsychological disorders status and reduction of neurotrophic factors. Inclusion in cytoflavin scheme increased the efficiency of the treatment, which was manifested in a more pronounced when compared with the results of basic therapy, positive dynamics of neurological symptoms and improved cognitive function, accompanied by an increase in BDNF levels. The data on the efficacy and safety allow us to recommend its inclusion in the scheme of treatment of patients in the recovery period after the first carotid ischemic stroke.

  17. Laboratory studies in search of the critical hydrogen concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjana, Kotchaphan; Haygarth, Kyle S.; Wu, Weiqiang; Bartels, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Addition of H2 to primary coolant water is widely used in the nuclear reactor industry to suppress water radiolysis and lower the corrosion potential. The critical hydrogen concentration (CHC) - the minimum concentration of excess H2 that can completely suppress O2, H2O2, and H2 formation from water radiolysis - is an important quantity for the management of reactor water chemistry. For the design of future supercritical water cooled reactors, we have investigated whether water radiolysis can be suppressed with a reasonable overpressure of H2. Experiments were carried out using 2.5-2.8 MeV electrons from a van de Graaff accelerator, which can easily produce dose rates on the order of one kilogray/second, typical of power reactors. Radiolytic H2 and O2 production was measured as a function of excess dissolved H2. The results indicate that net radiolysis of water can be suppressed in supercritical water. Anomalous high H2 concentrations were obtained using metal (hastelloy or titanium) irradiation tubing rather than sapphire or silica. We ascribe these results to a radiation-stimulated corrosion process at high temperature. Throughout the subcritical temperature regime, almost no oxygen is measured, even though kinetic modeling suggests there should be concentrations well above our detection threshold. To explain this result we recommend that unmeasured rate constants for •H+O2- and (e-)aq+O2- should be considered completely diffusion-limited. At 300 °C, the (high dose rate) steady state H2 concentration in pure water is almost completely determined by the equilibrium H2+•OH⇔•H+H2O. The measured steady-state H2 is in good agreement with the recent equilibrium constant estimate of Bartels (Radiation Physics and Chemistry 78(3): 191-194, (2009)).

  18. Sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field in the second half of the 19th century inferred from ground-based magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokhmyanin, M.; Ponyavin, D. I.

    2012-12-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarities can be inferred in the pre-satellite era using Svalgaard-Mansurov effect, according to which different IMF directions lead to different geomagnetic variations at polar stations. Basing on this effect we propose a method to derive a sector structure of the IMF when only ground based data are available. Details of the method and results have been presented in our recent paper: Vokhmyanin, M. V., and D. I. Ponyavin (2012), Inferring interplanetary magnetic field polarities from geomagnetic variations, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A06102, doi:10.1029/2011JA017060. Using data from eight stations: Sitka, Sodankyla, Godhavn, Lerwick, Thule, Baker Lake, Vostok and Mirny, we reconstructed sector structure back to 1905. The quality of inferring from 1965 to 2005 ranges between 78% and 90% depending on the used set of stations. Our results show both high success rate and good agreement with the well-known Russell-McPherron and Rosenberg-Coleman effects. In the current study we applied the technique to historical data of Helsinki observatory where digital versions of hourly geomagnetic components are available from 1844 to 1897. Helsinki station stopped operates at the beginning of 20th century. Thus, to create a model describing the local Svalgaard-Mansurov effect we analyzed data from Nurmijarvi station located near the same region. The success rate of reconstruction from 1965 to 2005 is around 82%. So we assume that the IMF polarities obtained for the period 1869-1889 have sufficient quality. Inferred sector structure at this time consists of two sectors typically for all declining phases of solar activity cycle. Catalogue of IMF proxies seem to be important in analyzing structure and dynamics of solar magnetic fields in the past.; Left: Bartels diagram of IMF sector structure inferred from Helsinki data. Right: sunspot number indicating solar cycles.

  19. [Effect of antioxidant therapy on neurotrophins and processes of rehabilitation after stroke].

    PubMed

    Karakulova, Yu V; Selyanina, N V; Zhelnin, A V; Filimonova, T A; Tsepilov, S V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the effect of the inclusion in the scheme cytoflavin patient care during the recovery period of ischemic stroke in the neuropsychological changes in the status and content of neurotrophins in serum. For this purpose we surveyed 52 patients who underwent a first ischemic stroke (29 women and 23 men) aged 52-74 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups: primary (25 patients) received in addition to basic therapy cytoflavin: intravenously at 20 ml per 400 ml of 5% glucose solution, 1 time a day for 10 days, then into 2 tablets 2 times a day for half an hour before food for a month, and the comparison group (27 patients) who received standard treatment. The control group consisted of 12 healthy people. In addition to standard clinical and laboratory tests were carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological study and evaluation of the data on the scale NIHSS, Bartell, Beck, Spielberger-Hanin, test «frontal dysfunction of the battery» and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Furthermore, determination carried neurotrophic factors: nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor brain (BDNF). The study was conducted in the dynamics: before treatment and 2 months after treatment. Patients in the recovery period of the first ischemic stroke revealed moderate manifestations of neuropsychological disorders status and reduction of neurotrophic factors. Inclusion in cytoflavin scheme increased the efficiency of the treatment, which was manifested in a more pronounced when compared with the results of basic therapy, positive dynamics of neurological symptoms and improved cognitive function, accompanied by an increase in BDNF levels. The data on the efficacy and safety allow us to recommend its inclusion in the scheme of treatment of patients in the recovery period after the first carotid ischemic stroke. PMID:27635609

  20. Long periods (1 -10 mHz) geomagnetic pulsations variation with solar cycle in South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon Silva, Willian; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Guimarães Dutra, Severino Luiz; Babulal Trivedi, Nalin; Claudir da Silva, Andirlei; Souza Savian, Fernando; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; de Siqueira, Josemar; Espindola Antunes, Cassio

    The occurrence and intensity of the geomagnetic pulsations Pc-5 (2-7 mHz) and its relationship with the solar cycle in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly -SAMA is presented. The study of geomagnetic pulsations is important to help the understanding of the physical processes that occurs in the magnetosphere region and help to predict geomagnetic storms. The fluxgate mag-netometers H, D and Z, three axis geomagnetic field data from the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, São Martinho da Serra (29.42° S, 53.87° W, 480m a.s.l.), RS, Brasil, a were analyzed and correlated with the solar wind parameters (speed, density and temperature) from the ACE and SOHO satellites. A digital filtering to enhance the 2-7 mHz geomagnetic pulsations was used. Five quiet days and five perturbed days in the solar minimum and in the solar maximum were selected for this analysis. The days were chosen based on the IAGA definition and on the Bartels Musical Diagrams (Kp index) for 2001 (solar maximum) and 2008 (solar minimum). The biggest Pc-5 amplitude averages differences between the H-component is 78,35 nT for the perturbed days and 1,60nT for the quiet days during the solar maximum. For perturbed days the average amplitude during the solar minimum is 8,32 nT, confirming a direct solar cycle influence in the geomagnetic pulsations intensity for long periods.

  1. Theory and case studies on solar induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Gerald; Freund, Friedemann; Kosovichev, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Huge electric current vortices are continuously generated in the Earth's lithosphere through electromagnetic induction from powerful ionospheric electric vortex currents that arise from ionization on the sun-lit side of the Earth (Chapman S. and Bartels J., 1940). The circular telluric currents in the Earth's lithosphere interact with the Earth's main magnetic field (H), building up a magnetic moment (M). According to T = [M x H] a mechanic torque (T) results from this interaction that can reach values as high as 5x10exp13 Nm (Duma G. and Ruzhin Y., 2003). We present evidence that this ionospherically induced telluric torque, which reaches deep into the lithosphere, influences the diurnal seismicity patterns in major earthquake zones as documented by earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 6.0. Our results confirm observations of distinct time-of-day patterns of seismic activity reported for over a century (Omori F., 1902; Conrad V., 1932 ; Shimshoni M., 1971; Duma G. and Vilardo G., 1998; Schekotov A.Yu., Molchanov O.A. and Hayakawa M., 2005) and even much earlier by Pliny the Elder, 79 A.D. A solar influence on earthquake frequency is apparent not only in diurnal patterns, but also in seasonal (e.g. Lipovics T., 2005) and decadal patterns. The effect can be validated by data recorded continuously at geomagnetic observatories, the INTERMAGNET stations (http://www.intermagnet.org), operating on all continents. The observatories continuously record magnetic variations which arise from the telluric currents in the Earth's lithosphere. Theory and model are presented, starting from the primary source for the effect, which is the varying solar wind speed as measured by satellites. The data are provided by the OMNI 2 directory (NASA, http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov). We offer 7 case studies that deal with seismic activity patterns in the diurnal, seasonal and long term time domains for seismic zones in Asia (Japan, Taiwan, Sumatra), N-America (California), the Mid Atlantic Ridge

  2. Attitudes to biotechnology: estimating the opinions of a better-informed public.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Patrick; Cooper, Helen; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2005-04-01

    (Bartels, 1996; Althaus, 1998; Sturgis, 2003). Controlling for a range of socio-demographic characteristics, we provide estimates of what collective and individual opinion would look like if everyone were as knowledgeable as the currently best-informed members of the general public on the knowledge domains in question. Our findings demonstrate that scientific knowledge does appear to have an important role in determining individual and group attitudes to genetic science. However, we find no support for a simple 'deficit model' of public understanding, as the nature of the relationship itself depends on the application of biotechnology in question and the social location of the individual. PMID:16552916

  3. A Statewide Nested Case–Control Study of Preterm Birth and Air Pollution by Source and Composition: California, 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Olivier; Hu, Jianlin; Li, Lianfa; Kleeman, Michael J.; Bartell, Scott M.; Cockburn, Myles; Escobedo, Loraine; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    to both primary and secondary pollutants were associated with an increase in PTB. Citation: Laurent O, Hu J, Li L, Kleeman MJ, Bartell SM, Cockburn M, Escobedo L, Wu J. 2016. A statewide nested case–control study of preterm birth and air pollution by source and composition: California, 2001–2008. Environ Health Perspect 124:1479–1486; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510133 PMID:26895492

  4. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  5. Attitudes to biotechnology: estimating the opinions of a better-informed public.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Patrick; Cooper, Helen; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2005-04-01

    (Bartels, 1996; Althaus, 1998; Sturgis, 2003). Controlling for a range of socio-demographic characteristics, we provide estimates of what collective and individual opinion would look like if everyone were as knowledgeable as the currently best-informed members of the general public on the knowledge domains in question. Our findings demonstrate that scientific knowledge does appear to have an important role in determining individual and group attitudes to genetic science. However, we find no support for a simple 'deficit model' of public understanding, as the nature of the relationship itself depends on the application of biotechnology in question and the social location of the individual.

  6. A Long-term Ring Current Measure Created by Using the VMO MANGO Service Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.; King, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO (Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geomagnetic Observatories) is utilized to calculate a new measure of magnetic storm activity for the years 1932 to the near present. The MANGO routines are part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The community can utilize MANGO to derive value-added data products and images suitable for publication via the VMO web site. MANGO routines will be demonstrated through their application to study magnetic storms, a field of research that began in 1828 when von Humboldt launched an investigation of observations taken simultaneously from magnetic field stations spread around the Earth. The defining signature of magnetic storms is a worldwide decrease of the horizontal component of the magnetic field caused by fluctuations in the strength of the ring current. In the 1940's, Bartel pushed for deriving an index to measure the strength of magnetic storms. Progress intensified during the International Geophysical Year leading to the definition of the Dst index. The definitive Dst index is calculated at WDC-C2 for Geomagnetism in Kyoto by using a derivation scheme certified by Division V of IAGA. The Dst index time series spans the years 1957 to present with a cadence equal to 1-hr. The new data set we will present is a magnetic storm measure that is similar to the Dst index though it is calculated by using MANGO and a method that differs slightly from the official scheme. The MANGO data service package is based on a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of the magnetic field station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"- style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to

  7. Temperature dependence of the Fricke dosimeter and spur expansion time in the low-LET high-temperature radiolysis of water up to 350 °C: a Monte-Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sanguanmith, Sunuchakan; Muroya, Yusa; Tippayamontri, Thititip; Meesungnoen, Jintana; Lin, Mingzhang; Katsumura, Yosuke; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul

    2011-06-14

    radiolysis database of Elliot (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) and Bartels (University of Notre Dame) that contains all the best currently available information on the rate constants, reaction mechanisms, and g-values in the range 20 to 350 °C.

  8. The Derer´s biological - cosmic week and the Halberg´s circaseptan chronome.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, M; Mikulecky, M

    2014-01-01

    There are three common periodic intervals in the life of each human being from time immemorial: the day, the week and the year. The first one is given by the Earth´s rotation, the latter one by its revolution around the Sun. These both do have clear biomedical counterparts. The 7-day week, basically linguistically "period of change" (or a similar period, e.g.10 days in Egypt or 8 days in Etrutria) was obviously originally considered mainly as a product of a societal agreement. Two groups of Czechoslovak clinicians-scientists, however, noted in forties of the XXth century an approximately week period in human laboratory data, after similar attempts abroad a few years earlier. In fifties, L.Dérer, respecting the mathematical and biological principles in medicine and supported by the mathematician A.Huťa, demonstrated the presence of the "6-day" rhythm in blood leukocyte counts in patients with leukemia, treated by cytostatics. Posing the question "Where is it from?", he considered also cosmic influences but was unable to study this issue more deeply due to his premature decease. Two decades later, the "Dérer´s circaseptans" found wide confirmation not only in human medicine but also in biology. The pioneering role here belongs to Franz Halberg, USA, the godfather of the "circadians" (originally "Halberg´s paranoia") since the fifties. The possible geocosmic roots of circaseptans are supposed in the geomagnetic activity from interplanetary space, generating under the influence of the Sun rotation the periods around 6-7 days. This is presently documented, surprisingly, also by analysing the Dérer´s original data using more advanced, inferentially statistical method - the Halberg cosinor regression. Thus, the optimal approximation has been achieved for the period of 6.75 days - the 4th harmonics of the Bartels solar rotation cycle. Accordingly, the week can be now, after Dérer and Halberg, understood also - same as day and year - as a biological - geocosmic

  9. Modeled Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposure and Liver Function in a Mid-Ohio Valley Community

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Groth, Alyx C.; Winquist, Andrea; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Bartell, Scott M.; Steenland, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    diagnosed liver disease. Citation: Darrow LA, Groth AC, Winquist A, Shin HM, Bartell SM, Steenland K. 2016. Modeled perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure and liver function in a Mid-Ohio Valley community. Environ Health Perspect 124:1227–1233; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510391 PMID:26978841

  10. The Derer´s biological - cosmic week and the Halberg´s circaseptan chronome.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, M; Mikulecky, M

    2014-01-01

    There are three common periodic intervals in the life of each human being from time immemorial: the day, the week and the year. The first one is given by the Earth´s rotation, the latter one by its revolution around the Sun. These both do have clear biomedical counterparts. The 7-day week, basically linguistically "period of change" (or a similar period, e.g.10 days in Egypt or 8 days in Etrutria) was obviously originally considered mainly as a product of a societal agreement. Two groups of Czechoslovak clinicians-scientists, however, noted in forties of the XXth century an approximately week period in human laboratory data, after similar attempts abroad a few years earlier. In fifties, L.Dérer, respecting the mathematical and biological principles in medicine and supported by the mathematician A.Huťa, demonstrated the presence of the "6-day" rhythm in blood leukocyte counts in patients with leukemia, treated by cytostatics. Posing the question "Where is it from?", he considered also cosmic influences but was unable to study this issue more deeply due to his premature decease. Two decades later, the "Dérer´s circaseptans" found wide confirmation not only in human medicine but also in biology. The pioneering role here belongs to Franz Halberg, USA, the godfather of the "circadians" (originally "Halberg´s paranoia") since the fifties. The possible geocosmic roots of circaseptans are supposed in the geomagnetic activity from interplanetary space, generating under the influence of the Sun rotation the periods around 6-7 days. This is presently documented, surprisingly, also by analysing the Dérer´s original data using more advanced, inferentially statistical method - the Halberg cosinor regression. Thus, the optimal approximation has been achieved for the period of 6.75 days - the 4th harmonics of the Bartels solar rotation cycle. Accordingly, the week can be now, after Dérer and Halberg, understood also - same as day and year - as a biological - geocosmic

  11. Temperature dependence of the Fricke dosimeter and spur expansion time in the low-LET high-temperature radiolysis of water up to 350 °C: a Monte-Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sanguanmith, Sunuchakan; Muroya, Yusa; Tippayamontri, Thititip; Meesungnoen, Jintana; Lin, Mingzhang; Katsumura, Yosuke; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul

    2011-06-14

    radiolysis database of Elliot (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) and Bartels (University of Notre Dame) that contains all the best currently available information on the rate constants, reaction mechanisms, and g-values in the range 20 to 350 °C. PMID:21552602

  12. An assessment of aquatic ecosystem health in a temperate watershed using the index of biological integrity.

    PubMed

    An, Kwang-Guk; Choi, Shin-Sok

    2003-06-01

    The health effect of an aquatic ecosystem on habitat modifications were evaluated in the Keum river watershed, Korea during 1977-1996 using the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) based on fish assemblages. Values of IBI, based on overall sites, averaged 35 (range: 26-45, n = 38) before dam construction, indicating a "fair health condition" based on the modified criteria of Karr and Chu (Karr, J.R.; Chu, E.W. Restoring Life in Running Waters: Better Biological Monitoring; Inland Press: Washington, DC, 1999; 206 pp.), while the values averaged 33 (range: 18-48, n = 15) after dam construction, indicating a similar ecosystem health condition in the IBI between the two periods. Marked modifications in the IBI, however, were partially observed along the longitudinal gradients from the headwaters to downstream along with variations of trophic compositions and habitat guilds. Annual mean of IBI showed significant decreases (p < 0.001, t = 10.03) in the mid-reach of 100-240 km location after the construction along with >20% decreases of insectivores and >25% increases of omnivores. Comparisons of habitat guilds indicated that the proportion of riffle benthic species declined linearly from 1977 to 1996 and had inverse relations (r = -0.78, p < 0.01) with that of water column species. Such variations were explained by serial discontinuity concept that was developed by Ward and Stanford (Ward, J.V.; Stanford, J.A. The serial discontinuity concept of lotic ecosystems. In Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems; Fontaine, J.V., Bartell, S.M., Eds.; Ann Arbor Science: Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, 1983; 29-42). Chemical data of long-term BOD5 and COD5 indicated that chemical impacts after the dam construction were minor compared to the condition before the construction. Overall variation of IBI was highly accounted (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.91, n = 38) by the Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI), suggesting that the ecosystem health was mainly affected by the habitat modifications.

  13. Integration of EEG source imaging and fMRI during continuous viewing of natural movies.

    PubMed

    Whittingstall, Kevin; Bartels, Andreas; Singh, Vanessa; Kwon, Soyoung; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2010-10-01

    estimate of the current density at every time point. We then carried out a correlation between the time series of visual contrast changes in the movie with that of EEG voxels. We found the most significant correlations in visual area V1, just as seen in previous fMRI studies (Bartels A, Zeki, S, Logothetis NK. Natural vision reveals regional specialization to local motion and to contrast-invariant, global flow in the human brain. Cereb Cortex 2008;18(3):705-717), but on the time scale of milliseconds rather than of seconds. To obtain an estimate of how the EEG signal relates to the BOLD signal, we calculated the IRF between the BOLD signal and the estimated current density in area V1. We found that this IRF was very similar to that observed using combined intracortical recordings and fMRI experiments in nonhuman primates. Taken together, these findings open a new approach to noninvasive mapping of the brain. It allows, firstly, the localization of feature-selective brain areas during natural viewing conditions with the temporal resolution of EEG. Secondly, it provides a tool to assess EEG/BOLD transfer functions during processing of more natural stimuli. This is especially useful in combined EEG/fMRI experiments, where one can now potentially study neural-hemodynamic relationships across the whole brain volume in a noninvasive manner. PMID:20579829

  14. Reconstruction of Geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, Mike; Nevanlinna, Heikki; Barnard, Luke; Owens, Mat; Harrison, Giles; Rouillard, Alexis; Scott, Chris; Vokhmyanin, Mikhail; Ponyavin, Dmitri; Sokolov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Records of geomagnetic activity have previously been used to reconstruct the conditions in near-Earth space, such as the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind speed (Vsw) and open solar flux (OSF). Reliable geomagnetic activity records exist back until the mid-1800's, and these data provide one of the few means of inferring variations in the conditions in near-Earth space before the advent of the space age. However, there are challenges in using geomagnetic activity records to reconstruct interplanetary conditions. In particular it is necessary to ensure, as best as is possible, the homogeneity and reliability of any geomagnetic indices used. This becomes increasingly difficult further back in history, as both the quality of the data and the number of observing stations decreases. A new geomagnetic activity index, the IDV(1D) index, is presented, which is designed to be as homogeneous in its construction as possible (Lockwood et al. 2013a). This is achieved by only combining data that, by virtue of the locations of the source observatories used, have similar responses to solar wind and IMF variations. IDV(1d) employs many of the principles of the IDV index (Svalgaard and Cliver (2010)), inspired by the u index of Bartels (1932). The index uses interdiurnal variation data from Helsinki for 1845- 1890 and 1893-1896 and from Eskdalemuir from 1911 to the present. The gaps are filled using data from the Potsdam (1891-1892 and 1897-1907) and the nearby Seddin observatories (1908-1910) and intercalibration achieved using the Potsdam-Seddin sequence. The index is compared with independent, early data from European-sector stations, as well as the composite u index and the IDV index. Agreement is found to be extremely good in most cases. IDV(1D) does not suffer from the poor homogeneity of the IDV index, and is more highly correlated with the IMF, consequently it yields a more reliable reconstruction (Lockwood et al 2013b). For completeness, we use 4 different

  15. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvits, L. I.; Frey, S.; Rawlings, S.

    than 30 contributed papers from that symposium have been published recently in Baltic Astronomy (2005, Vol. 14, No. 3). This book contains a set of invited review presentations given at the symposium. They cover a range of scientific topics in extragalactic and galactic radio astronomy studies as well as recent developments in radio astronomy techniques aimed at the next generation radio astronomy facilities. On behalf of the organisers and participants of the symposium, we express our gratitude to the sponsors of the event and this publication: the European Astronomical Society, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, Konkoly Observatory, Eötvös Loránd Physical Society, Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (ASTRON), Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Hungarian Scientific Research Fund, EC FP5 Infrastructure Cooperation Network RadioNET and EC FP6 Integrated Infrastructure Initiative RadioNet. We are grateful to the members of the Scientific Organising Committee of the Symposium. Ken Kellermann made very useful remarks on several papers. Ellen Bouton and Pat Smiley helped to include in this book several photos from the AUI-NRAO archive. Mark Bentum designed the cover picture of the book, visual components for which were kindly supplied by W.A. Baan, M.F. Bietenholz, R. Boomsma, R. Braun, N. Bartel, M.A. Garrett, J.M. van der Hulst, H.R. Klockner, NASA/WMAP Science Team, T.A. Oosterloo, M.P. Rupen, R. Sancisi, B. Stappers, R.G. Strom, D.A. Thilker, and R.A.M. Walterbos. Most of all, we are grateful to all the authors of this book for their efforts in the increasingly old-fashioned art of writing papers for a real “paper” publication as opposed to putting powerpoint files on a web site. We do hope that their nice work will be appreciated by the readers. Leonid Gurvits, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands Sándor Frey, Budapest, Hungary Steve Rawlings, Oxford, UK

  16. EDITORIAL: From reciprocal space to real space in surface science From reciprocal space to real space in surface science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Ludwig; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2012-09-01

    Triest.let's finish—aus basta Some move atoms around to hear how they sound.Karl-Heinz Rieder, Erice, 6 April 1998 From reciprocal space to real space in surface science contents From reciprocal space to real space in surface scienceLudwig Bartels and Karl-Heinz Ernst Karl-Heinz Reider: the quiet pioneerGiorgio Benedek Scattering of CO and N2 molecules by a graphite surfaceJunepyo Oh, Takahiro Kondo, Keitaro Arakawa, Yoshihiko Saito, Junji Nakamura, W W Hayes and J R Manson Helium, neon and argon diffraction from Ru(0001)M Minniti, C Díaz, J L Fernández Cuñado, A Politano, D Maccariello, F Martín, D Farías and R Miranda Enhanced charge transfer in a monolayer of the organic charge transfer complex TTF-TNAP on Au(111)T R Umbach, I Fernandez-Torrente, J N Ladenthin, J I Pascual and K J Franke Extended pattern recognition scheme for self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo simulationsSyed Islamuddin Shah, Giridhar Nandipati, Abdelkader Kara and Talat S Rahman Acetylene on Cu(111): imaging a molecular surface arrangement with a constantly rearranging tipYeming Zhu, Jonathan Wyrick, Kamelia D Cohen, Katie Marie Magnone, Connor Holzke, Daniel Salib, Quan Ma, Dezheng Sun and Ludwig Bartels Coulomb attraction during the carpet growth mode of NaClFriederike Matthaei, Sarah Heidorn, Konrad Boom, Cord Bertram, Ali Safiei, Jörg Henzl and Karina Morgenstern Molecular self-assembly on an insulating surface: interplay between substrate templating and intermolecular interactionsMarkus Kittelmann, Philipp Rahe and Angelika Kühnle Vertical manipulation of native adatoms on the InAs(111)A surfaceJ Yang, C Nacci, J Martínez-Blanco, K Kanisawa and S Fölsch Charge transfer between isomer domains on n+-doped Si(111)-2 × 1: energetic stabilizationR M Feenstra, G Bussetti, B Bonanni, A Violante, C Goletti, P Chiaradia, M G Betti and C Mariani Probing the properties of metal-oxide interfaces: silica films on Mo and Ru supportsLeonid Lichtenstein, Markus Heyde, Stefan Ulrich, Niklas Nilius

  17. Powerful Nearby Supernova Caught By Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    previously thought, but it also teaches us more about the tremendous upheavals that massive stars can undergo during their lifetime," said co-author Vikram Dwarkadas of the University of Chicago. SN 1996cr, at a distance of about 12 million light years, will be a compelling target for future work because it is nearby and so much brighter than a typical supernova. These results will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other co-authors on this paper include Niel Brandt (Penn State), Stefan Immler (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), Norbert Bartel (York University, Canada), and Michael Bietenholz (York University and Hartebeesthoek Radio Observatory, South Africa). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass.

  18. Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, Minas; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.

    2006-11-01

    Foreword; Acknowledgements; Workshop participants; 1. Images and spectrograms of Sanduleak - 69º202, the SN 1987a progenitor N. R. Walborn; 2. The progenitor of SN 1987A G. Sonneborn; 3. Another supernova with a blue progenitor C. M. Gaskell and W. C. Keel; 4. Optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory M. M. Phillips; 5. SN 1987A: observational results obtained at ESO I. J. Danziger, P. Bouchet, R. A. E. Fosbury, C. Gouiffes, L. B. Lucy, A. F. M. Moorwood, E. Oliva and F. Rufener; 6. Observations of SN 1987A at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) M. W. Feast; 7. Observations of SN 1987A at the Anglo-Australian Telescope W. J. Couch; 8. Linear polarimetric study of SN 1987A A. Clocchiatti, M. Méndez, O. Benvenuto, C. Feinstein, H. Marraco, B. García and N. Morrell; 9. Infrared spectroscopy of SN 1987A from the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory H. P. Larson, S. Drapatz, M. J. Mumma and H. A. Weaver; 10. Radio observations of SN 1987A N. Bartel et al.; 11. Ultraviolet observations of SN 1987A: clues to mass loss R. P. Kirshner; 12. On the energetics of SN 1987A N. Panagia; 13. On the nature and apparent uniqueness of SN 1987A A. V. Filippenko; 14. A comparison of the SN 1987A light curve with other type II supernovae, and the detectability of similar supernovae M. F. Schmitz and C. M. Gaskell; 15. P-Cygni features and photospheric velocities L. Bildsten and J. C. L. Wang; 16. The Neutrino burst from SN 1987A detected in the Mont Blanc LSD experiment M. Aglietta et al.; 17. Toward observational neutrino astrophysics M. Koshiba; 18. The discovery of neutrinos from SN 1987A with the IMB detector J. Matthews; 19. Peering into the abyss: the neutrinos from SN 1987A A. Burrows; 20. Phenomenological analysis of neutrino emission from SN 1987A J. N. Bahcall, D. N. Spergel and W. H. Press; 21. Mass determination of neutrinos H. Y. Chiu; 22. Neutrino transport in a type II supernova D. C. Ellison, P. M. Giovanoni

  19. NARRATIVE: A short history of my life in science A short history of my life in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Joseph R.

    2010-08-01

    bicycle rides taken with these colleagues and many others through the streets of Göttingen and the surrounding countryside of Niedersachsen. The long series of visits to Göttingen were interrupted by three summers beginning in 1988 at the Institut für Grenzflachenforschung and Vakuumphysik at the Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany working with George Comsa and his group. I had met Comsa in the late 1970s at a scientific meeting in France and we had continued our scientific correspondence ever since, which eventually led to the invitation to visit his lab for an extended stay. Among the very large range of surface-related experiments being carried out in the Comsa group were machines, operated by Bene Poelsema and Rudolf David and the then graduate students Klaus Kern and Peter Zeppenfeld, devoted to He atom scattering from metal and adsorbate-covered surfaces. Once again, it was a great privilege to carry out scientific research in such a stimulating environment. In 1998, with a three-month summer visit, I began a collaboration with Professor Karl-Heinz Rieder at the Institut für Experimentalphysik of the Freie Universität Berlin in Germany. Rieder was a pioneer in the field of surface scattering experiments using helium and other rare gas atomic beams as projectiles and after he moved to the Freie Universität from the IBM Zürich laboratories he continued this work as well as becoming a world leader in the field of single molecule manipulation on surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). This collaboration resulted in visits to Berlin every summer through 2006 during which we collaborated on several projects involving both atom-surface scattering and STM. The work during this period included interesting collaborative work with many members of the Rieder group including Ludwig Bartels, Daniel Farías, Gerhard Meyer and Saw Hla. It was a great experience to be able to pursue science in such favorable surroundings, and to have, in addition, all the