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Sample records for 8b solar neutrinos

  1. Evidence for electron neutrino flavor change through measurement of the (8)B solar neutrino flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Mark Stephen

    2001-11-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water Cerenkov detector designed to study solar neutrinos. Using 1 kiloton of heavy water as the target and detection medium, SNO is able to separately determine the flux of electron neutrinos (νe) and the flux of all active neutrinos from the Sun by measuring the rate of charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) interactions with deuterons. A comparison of these interaction rates allows for direct observation of solar neutrino oscillations. SNO can also search for oscillations by comparing the rate of CC and neutrino- electron elastic scattering (ES) events, since ES has both charged current and neutral current sensitivity. In this thesis, we present measurement of the 8B solar ν e flux of 1.78+0.13-0.14 (stat+syst) × 106cm-2s -1 (35% BP2000 SSM) through measurement of the CC rate over 169.3 days of livetime. We have also measured the 8B flux from the ES reaction to be 2.56+0.48-0.45 (stat+syst), consistent with measurements by previous water Cerenkov experiments. A flavor analysis comparing the CC measured flux with that determined through ES by SuperKamiokande yields a non- νe active neutrino flux from 8B of 3.62+1.06-1.08 × 106cm-2s-1 , providing evidence for νe --> ν μ,τ oscillations as a solution to the solar neutrino problem. This result excludes pure solar νe --> ν s oscillations at greater than the 99.7% C.I. The total active 8B neutrino flux has been measured to be 5.39+1.07-1.09 × 106cm-2s-1 , consistent with BP2000 SSM predictions. First analyses of the CC (NHit) spectrum and hep flux in SNO are presented. The CC spectrum is found to be a good fit to expectations from an undistorted 8B spectrum, and global best fit vacuum oscillation solutions are disfavored over the other solutions by the data. Through observations near the 8B endpoint with consideration of energy systematics, hep flux limits of 4.1 (90% C.I.) and 6.9 (99% C.I.) times SSM expectations are obtained. A statistical fit for the

  2. Measurement of the 8B Solar Neutrino Flux with KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ichimura, K.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Morikawa, T.; Nagai, N.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Narita, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, N.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B.D.; Yabumoto, H.; Yonezawa, E.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, S.; Enomoto, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; McKee, D.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T.I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J.A.; Freedman, S.J.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Han, K.; Kadel, R.; O'Donnell, T.; Steiner, H.M.; Winslow, L.A.; Dwyer, D.A.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R.D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B.E.; Lane, C.E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G.A.; Tang, A.; Downum, K.E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H.J.; Markoff, D.M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K.M.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Decowski, M.P.

    2011-06-04

    We report a measurement of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate from {sup 8}B solar neutrinos based on a 123 kton-day exposure of KamLAND. The background-subtracted electron recoil rate, above a 5.5-MeV analysis threshold is 1.49 {+-} 0.14(stat) {+-} 0.17(syst) events per kton-day. Interpreted as due to a pure electron flavor flux with a {sup 8}B neutrino spectrum, this corresponds to a spectrum integrated flux of 2.77 {+-} 0.26(stat) {+-} 0.32(syst) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis threshold is driven by {sup 208}Tl present in the liquid scintillator, and the main source of systematic uncertainty is due to background from cosmogenic {sup 11}Be. The measured rate is consistent with existing measurements and with standard solar model predictions which include matter-enhanced neutrino oscillation.

  3. DETECTING GRAVITY MODES IN THE SOLAR {sup 8} B NEUTRINO FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2014-09-10

    The detection of gravity modes produced in the solar radiative zone has been a challenge in modern astrophysics for more than 30 yr and their amplitude in the core is not yet determined. In this Letter, we develop a new strategy to look for standing gravity modes through solar neutrino fluxes. We note that due to a resonance effect, the gravity modes of low degree and low order have the largest impact on the {sup 8} B neutrino flux. The strongest effect is expected to occur for the dipole mode with radial order 2, corresponding to periods of about 1.5 hr. These standing gravity waves produce temperature fluctuations that are amplified by a factor of 170 in the boron neutrino flux for the corresponding period, in consonance with the gravity modes. From current neutrino observations, we determine that the maximum temperature variation due to the gravity modes in the Sun's core is smaller than 5.8 × 10{sup –4}. This study clearly shows that due to their high sensitivity to the temperature, the {sup 8} B neutrino flux time series is an excellent tool to determine the properties of gravity modes in the solar core. Moreover, if gravity mode footprints are discovered in the {sup 8} B neutrino flux, this opens a new line of research to probe the physics of the solar core as non-standing gravity waves of higher periods cannot be directly detected by helioseismology but could leave their signature on boron neutrino or on other neutrino fluxes.

  4. Measurement of the total active 8B solar neutrino flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with enhanced neutral current sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S N; Anthony, A E; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Biller, S D; Boger, J; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Bullard, T V; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Doe, P J; Dosanjh, R S; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Fulsom, B G; Gagnon, N; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hall, J C; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A S; Handler, W B; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hemingway, R J; Hime, A; Howe, M A; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Klein, J R; Kos, M S; Krumins, A V; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Labranche, H; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Luoma, S; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; McGregor, G; Mifflin, C; Miknaitis, K K S; Miller, G G; Moffat, B A; Nally, C W; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Oblath, N S; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Ouellet, C; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Rosendahl, S S E; Rusu, V L; Schwendener, M H; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Starinsky, N; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Tafirout, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tesić, G; Thomson, M; Thorman, M; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Waltham, C E; Tseung, H Wan Chan; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2004-05-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has precisely determined the total active (nu(x)) 8B solar neutrino flux without assumptions about the energy dependence of the nu(e) survival probability. The measurements were made with dissolved NaCl in heavy water to enhance the sensitivity and signature for neutral-current interactions. The flux is found to be 5.21 +/- 0.27(stat)+/-0.38(syst) x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of these and other solar and reactor neutrino results yields Deltam(2)=7.1(+1.2)(-0.6) x 10(-5) eV(2) and theta=32.5(+2.4)(-2.3) degrees. Maximal mixing is rejected at the equivalent of 5.4 standard deviations.

  5. Measurement of the {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux with the KamLAND liquid scintillator detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Ichimura, K.; Ikeda, H.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Morikawa, T.; Nagai, N.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, M.; Narita, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.

    2011-09-15

    We report a measurement of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate from {sup 8}B solar neutrinos based on a 123 kton-day exposure of KamLAND. The background-subtracted electron recoil rate, above a 5.5-MeV analysis threshold is 1.49 {+-} 0.14(stat) {+-} 0.17(syst) events per kton-day. Interpreted as due to a pure electron flavor flux with a {sup 8}B neutrino spectrum, this corresponds to a spectrum integrated flux of 2.77 {+-} 0.26(stat) {+-} 0.32(syst) x10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis threshold is driven by {sup 208}Tl present in the liquid scintillator, and the main source of systematic uncertainty is due to background from cosmogenic {sup 11}Be. The measured rate is consistent with existing measurements and with standard solar model predictions which include matter-enhanced neutrino oscillation.

  6. Measurement of the νe and total 8B solar neutrino fluxes with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory phase-III data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Anaya, J. M.; Anthony, A. E.; Banar, J.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chauhan, D.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J. A.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J. TM.; Graham, K.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamian, A. A.; Harper, G. C.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Klein, J. R.; Kormos, L. L.; Kos, M.; Krüger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Loach, J. C.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S. R.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, G. G.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A. W.; Nickel, B. G.; Noble, A. J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Oblath, N. S.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner, S. D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tešić, G.; Thornewell, P. M.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Tunnell, C. D.; Van Wechel, T.; Van Berg, R.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Wall, B. L.; Waller, D.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper details the solar neutrino analysis of the 385.17-day phase-III data set acquired by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). An array of 3He proportional counters was installed in the heavy-water target to measure precisely the rate of neutrino-deuteron neutral-current interactions. This technique to determine the total active 8B solar neutrino flux was largely independent of the methods employed in previous phases. The total flux of active neutrinos was measured to be 5.54-0.31+0.33(stat.)-0.34+0.36(syst.)×106 cm-2 s-1, consistent with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino mixing parameters yielded the best-fit values of Δm2=7.59-0.21+0.19×10-5eV2 and θ=34.4-1.2+1.3degrees.

  7. Measurement of the rate of nu(e) + d --> p + p + e(-) interactions produced by (8)B solar neutrinos at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Q R; Allen, R C; Andersen, T C; Anglin, J D; Bühler, G; Barton, J C; Beier, E W; Bercovitch, M; Bigu, J; Biller, S; Black, R A; Blevis, I; Boardman, R J; Boger, J; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Burritt, T H; Cameron, K; Cameron, J; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, H H; Chen, X; Chon, M C; Cleveland, B T; Clifford, E T; Cowan, J H; Cowen, D F; Cox, G A; Dai, Y; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Davidson, W F; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunmore, J; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ferraris, A P; Ford, R J; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Germani, J V; Gil, S; Goldschmidt, A; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A; Hamian, A A; Haq, R U; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heaton, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hepburn, J D; Heron, H; Hewett, J; Hime, A; Howe, M; Hykawy, J G; Isaac, M C; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jonkmans, G; Karn, J; Keener, P T; Kirch, K; Klein, J R; Knox, A B; Komar, R J; Kouzes, R; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lay, M; Lee, H W; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Locke, W; Lowry, M M; Luoma, S; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McDonald, D S; McFarlane, K; McGregor, G; McLatchie, W; Meijer Drees, R; Mes, H; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Milton, G; Moffat, B A; Moorhead, M; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Ng, H S; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Omori, M; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Poon, A W; Radcliffe, T J; Roberge, A; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G; Rowley, J K; Rusu, V L; Saettler, E; Schaffer, K K; Schuelke, A; Schwendener, M H; Seifert, H; Shatkay, M; Simpson, J J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W; Starinsky, N; Steiger, T D; Stokstad, R G; Storey, R S; Sur, B; Tafirout, R; Tagg, N; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Thornewell, P; Trent, P T; Tserkovnyak, Y I; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Waltham, C E; Wang, J X; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M

    2001-08-13

    Solar neutrinos from (8)B decay have been detected at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory via the charged current (CC) reaction on deuterium and the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. The flux of nu(e)'s is measured by the CC reaction rate to be straight phi(CC)(nu(e)) = 1.75 +/- 0.07(stat)(+0.12)(-0.11)(syst) +/- 0.05(theor) x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1). Comparison of straight phi(CC)(nu(e)) to the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration's precision value of the flux inferred from the ES reaction yields a 3.3 sigma difference, assuming the systematic uncertainties are normally distributed, providing evidence of an active non- nu(e) component in the solar flux. The total flux of active 8B neutrinos is determined to be 5.44+/-0.99 x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1).

  8. Independent measurement of the total active 8B solar neutrino flux using an array of 3He proportional counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    PubMed

    Aharmim, B; Ahmed, S N; Amsbaugh, J F; Anthony, A E; Banar, J; Barros, N; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Beltran, B; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boudjemline, K; Boulay, M G; Bowles, T J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Burritt, T H; Cai, B; Chan, Y D; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Cleveland, B T; Cox-Mobrand, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Detwiler, J; DiMarco, M; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Drouin, P-L; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Goldschmidt, A; Goon, J T M; Graham, K; Guillian, E; Habib, S; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamian, A A; Harper, G C; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Henning, R; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jamieson, B; Jelley, N A; Keeter, K J; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M; Krüger, A; Kraus, C; Krauss, C B; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Loach, J C; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Martin, R; McBryde, K; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Miller, M L; Monreal, B; Monroe, J; Morissette, B; Myers, A; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Oblath, N S; O'Keeffe, H M; Ollerhead, R W; Gann, G D Orebi; Oser, S M; Ott, R A; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Reitzner, S D; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Schwendener, M H; Secrest, J A; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sinclair, L; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Steiger, T D; Stonehill, L C; Tesić, G; Thornewell, P M; Tolich, N; Tsui, T; Tunnell, C D; Van Wechel, T; Van Berg, R; VanDevender, B A; Virtue, C J; Walker, T J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Tseung, H Wan Chan; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zhang, F; Zuber, K

    2008-09-12

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of 3He proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active (nu_x) 8B solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54_-0.31;+0.33(stat)-0.34+0.36(syst)x10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields Deltam2=7.59_-0.21;+0.19x10(-5) eV2 and theta=34.4_-1.2;+1.3 degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO's previous results.

  9. Independent measurement of the total active 8B solar neutrino flux using an array of 3He proportional counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    PubMed

    Aharmim, B; Ahmed, S N; Amsbaugh, J F; Anthony, A E; Banar, J; Barros, N; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Beltran, B; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boudjemline, K; Boulay, M G; Bowles, T J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Burritt, T H; Cai, B; Chan, Y D; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Cleveland, B T; Cox-Mobrand, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Detwiler, J; DiMarco, M; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Drouin, P-L; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Goldschmidt, A; Goon, J T M; Graham, K; Guillian, E; Habib, S; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamian, A A; Harper, G C; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Henning, R; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jamieson, B; Jelley, N A; Keeter, K J; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M; Krüger, A; Kraus, C; Krauss, C B; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Loach, J C; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Martin, R; McBryde, K; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Miller, M L; Monreal, B; Monroe, J; Morissette, B; Myers, A; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Oblath, N S; O'Keeffe, H M; Ollerhead, R W; Gann, G D Orebi; Oser, S M; Ott, R A; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Reitzner, S D; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Schwendener, M H; Secrest, J A; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sinclair, L; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Steiger, T D; Stonehill, L C; Tesić, G; Thornewell, P M; Tolich, N; Tsui, T; Tunnell, C D; Van Wechel, T; Van Berg, R; VanDevender, B A; Virtue, C J; Walker, T J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Tseung, H Wan Chan; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zhang, F; Zuber, K

    2008-09-12

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of 3He proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active (nu_x) 8B solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54_-0.31;+0.33(stat)-0.34+0.36(syst)x10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields Deltam2=7.59_-0.21;+0.19x10(-5) eV2 and theta=34.4_-1.2;+1.3 degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO's previous results. PMID:18851271

  10. Measurement of the nue and Total 8B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with theSudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmad, Q.R.; Ahmed, S.N.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen,T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Buehler, G.; Barton, J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch,M.; Bergevin, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler, M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Deng, H.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon,N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Henning, R.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime,A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar,R.J.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Kouzes, R.; Krueger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss,C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,A.B.; McDonald, D.S.; McFarlane, K.; McGee, S.; McGregor, G.; MeijerDrees, R.; Mes, H.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Milton,G.; Moffat, B.A.; Monreal, B.; Moorhead, M.; Morrissette, B.; Nally,C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; et al.

    2007-02-01

    This article provides the complete description of resultsfrom the Phase I data set of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). ThePhase I data set is based on a 0.65 kt-year exposure of heavy water tothe solar 8B neutrino flux. Included here are details of the SNO physicsand detector model, evaluations of systematic uncertainties, andestimates of backgrounds. Also discussed are SNO's approach tostatistical extraction of the signals from the three neutrino reactions(charged current, neutral current, and elastic scattering) and theresults of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the ?e flux. Under theassumption that the 8B spectrum is undistorted, the measurements fromthis phase yield a solar ?e flux of ?(?e) =1.76+0.05?0.05(stat.)+0.09?0.09 (syst.) x 106 cm?2 s?1, and a non-?ecomponent ?(? mu) = 3.41+0.45?0.45(stat.)+0.48?0.45 (syst.) x 106 cm?2s?1. The sum of these components provides a total flux in excellentagreement with the predictions of Standard Solar Models. The day-nightasymmetry in the ?e flux is found to be Ae = 7.0 +- 4.9 (stat.)+1.3?1.2percent (sys.), when the asymmetry in the total flux is constrained to bezero.

  11. An Independent Measurement of the Total Active 8B Solar Neutrino Flux Using an Array of 3He Proportional Counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    SNO Colla

    2008-06-05

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active ({nu}{sub x}) {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54{sub -0.31}{sup +0.33}(stat){sub -0.34}{sup +0.36}(syst) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields {Delta}m{sup 2} = 7.94{sub -0.26}{sup +0.42} x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2} and {theta} = 33.8{sub -1.3}{sup +1.4} degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO's previous results.

  12. Searches for high frequency variations in the 8-B neutrino flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Rielage, Keith; Seibert, Stanley R; Hime, Andrew; Elliott, Steven R; Stonehill, L C; Wouters, J M; Aharmim, B; Ahmed, S N; Anthony, A E; Barros, N; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Belttran, B; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boudjemline, K; Burritt, T H; Cai, B; Chan, Y D; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Cleveland, B T; Cox - Mobrand, G A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Detwiler, J; Dimarco, M; Doe, P J; Drouin, P - L; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Earle, E D; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Ford, R J; Formaggilo, J A; Gagnon, N; Goon, J Tm; Guillian, E; Habib, S; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jamieson, B; Jelley, N A; Keeter, K J; Klein, J R; Kos, M; Kraus, C; Krauss, C B; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Loach, J C; Maclellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Martin, R; Mccauley, N; Mc Donald, A B; Mcgee, S; Miffin, C; Miller, M L; Monreal, B; Monroe, J; Morissette, B; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; O' Keeffe, H M; Oblath, N S; Orebi Gann, G D; Oser, S M; Ott, R A; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Reitzner, S D; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Schwendener, M H; Secrest, J A; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Sinclair, D; Sinclair, L; Skensved, P; Sonley, T J; Tesic, G; Tolich, N; Tsui, T; Tunnell, C D; Van Berg, R; Van Devender, B A; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Wan Chan Tseung, H; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zhang, F; Zuber, K

    2009-01-01

    We have peformed three searches for high-frequency signals in the solar neutrino flux measured by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), motivated by the possibility that solar g-mode oscillations could affect the production or propagation of solar {sup 8}B neutrinos. The first search looked for any significant peak in the frequency range l/day to 144/day, with a sensitivity to sinusoidal signals with amplitudes of 12% or greater. The second search focused on regions in which g-mode signals have been claimed by experiments aboard the SoHO satellite, and was sensitive to signals with amplitudes of 10% or greater. The third search looked for extra power across the entire frequency band. No statistically significant signal was detected in any of the three searches.

  13. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  14. Solar Neutrino Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Esch, E.-I.; Fowler, M.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; McGirt, F.; Miller, G.G.; Thornewell, P.M.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wouters, J.M.

    1999-07-15

    With its heavy water target, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) offers the unique opportunity to measure both the 8B flux of electron neutrinos from the Sun and, independently, the flux of all active neutrino species reaching the Earth. A model-independent test of the hypothesis that neutrino oscillations are responsible for the observed solar neutrino deficit can be made by comparing the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) rates. This LDRD proposal supported the research and development necessary for an assessment of backgrounds and performance of the SNO detector and the ability to extract the NC/CC-Ratio. Particular emphasis is put upon the criteria for deployment and signal extraction from a discrete NC detector array based upon ultra-low background 3He proportional counters.

  15. SEARCH FOR GLOBAL f-MODES AND p-MODES IN THE {sup 8}B NEUTRINO FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2013-11-01

    The impact of global acoustic modes on the {sup 8}B neutrino flux time series is computed for the first time. It is shown that the time fluctuations of the {sup 8}B neutrino flux depend on the amplitude of acoustic eigenfunctions in the region where the {sup 8}B neutrino flux is produced: modes with low n (or order) that have eigenfunctions with a relatively large amplitude in the Sun's core strongly affect the neutrino flux; conversely, modes with high n that have eigenfunctions with a minimal amplitude in the Sun's core have a very small impact on the neutrino flux. It was found that the global modes with a larger impact on the {sup 8}B neutrino flux have a frequency of oscillation in the interval 250 μHz to 500 μHz (or a period in the interval 30 minutes to 70 minutes), such as the f-modes (n = 0) for the low degrees, radial modes of order n ≤ 3, and the dipole mode of order n = 1. Their corresponding neutrino eigenfunctions are very sensitive to the solar inner core and are unaffected by the variability of the external layers of the solar surface. If time variability of neutrinos is observed for these modes, it will lead to new ways of improving the sound speed profile inversion in the central region of the Sun.

  16. Solar Neutrino Problem

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J. C.; Cleveland, B. T.

    1978-04-28

    A summary of the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment is given and discussed in relation to solar model calculations. A review is given of the merits of various new solar neutrino detectors that were proposed.

  17. First measurement of the flux of solar neutrinos from the sun at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittich, Peter

    2000-12-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation solar neutrino detector. SNO is the first experiment that is able to measure both the electron neutrino flux and a flavor-blind flux of all active neutrino types, allowing a model-independent determination if the deficit of solar neutrinos known as the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillation. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory started taking production data in November, 1999. A measurement of the charged current rate will be the first indication if SNO too sees a suppression of the solar neutrino signal relative to the theoretical predictions. Such a confirmation is the first step in SNO's ambitious science program. In this thesis, we present evidence that SNO is seeing solar neutrinos and a preliminary ratio of the measured vs predicted rate of electrons as induced by 8B neutrinos in the νe, + d --> p + p + e charged-current (CC) reaction.

  18. Solar neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-04-30

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  19. Neutrino decay and solar neutrino seasonal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoreti, R.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.; Peres, O. L. G.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the possibility of solar neutrino decay as a sub-leading effect on their propagation between production and detection. Using current oscillation data, we set a new lower bound to the ν2 neutrino lifetime at τ2 /m2 ≥ 7.2 ×10-4s .eV-1 at 99% C.L. Also, we show how seasonal variations in the solar neutrino data can give interesting additional information about neutrino lifetime.

  20. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    NAKAHATA, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the “solar neutrino problem”. Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. PMID:21558758

  1. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Nakahata, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the "solar neutrino problem". Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. (Communicated by Toshimitsu Yamazaki, M.J.A.).

  2. Solar Neutrinos. II. Experimental

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1964-01-01

    A method is described for observing solar neutrinos from the reaction Cl{sup 37}(nu,e{sup -})Ar{sup 37} in C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}. Two 5 00-gal tanks of C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} were placed in a limestone mine (1800 m.w.e.) and the resulting Ar{sup 37} activity induced by cosmic mesons( mu ) was measured to determine the necessary conditions for solar neutrino observations. (R.E.U.)

  3. Experimental data on solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludhova, Livia

    2016-04-01

    Neutrino physics continues to be a very active research field, full of opened fundamental questions reaching even beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles and towards a possible new physics. Solar neutrinos have played a fundamental historical role in the discovery of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations and thus non-zero neutrino mass. Even today, the study of solar neutrinos provides an important insight both into the neutrino as well as into the stellar and solar physics. In this section we give an overview of the most important solar-neutrino measurements from the historical ones up to the most recent ones. We cover the results from the experiments using radio-chemic (Homestake, SAGE, GNO, GALLEX), water Cherenkov (Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO), and the liquid-scintillator (Borexino, KamLAND) detection techniques.

  4. Report of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H.; Bahcall, J.N.; Bernabeu, J.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowles, T.; Calaprice, F.; Champagne, A.; Freedman, S.; Gai, M.; Galbiati, C.; Gallagher, H.; Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Hahn, R.L.; Heeger, K.M.; Hime, A.; Jung, C.K.; Klein, J.R.; Koike, M.; Lanou, R.; Learned, J.G.; Lesko, K.T.; Losecco, J.; Maltoni, M.; Mann, A.; McKinsey, D.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Pena-Garay, C.; Petcov, S.T.; Piepke, A.; Pitt, M.; Raghavan, R.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Scholberg, K.; Sobel, H.W.; Takeuchi, T.; Vogelaar, R.; Wolfenstein, L.

    2004-10-22

    The highest priority of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Experiment Working Group is the development of a real-time, precision experiment that measures the pp solar neutrino flux. A measurement of the pp solar neutrino flux, in comparison with the existing precision measurements of the high energy {sup 8}B neutrino flux, will demonstrate the transition between vacuum and matter-dominated oscillations, thereby quantitatively testing a fundamental prediction of the standard scenario of neutrino flavor transformation. The initial solar neutrino beam is pure {nu}{sub e}, which also permits sensitive tests for sterile neutrinos. The pp experiment will also permit a significantly improved determination of {theta}{sub 12} and, together with other solar neutrino measurements, either a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} or a constraint a factor of two lower than existing bounds. In combination with the essential pre-requisite experiments that will measure the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux with a precision of 5%, a measurement of the pp solar neutrino flux will constitute a sensitive test for non-standard energy generation mechanisms within the Sun. The Standard Solar Model predicts that the pp and {sup 7}Be neutrinos together constitute more than 98% of the solar neutrino flux. The comparison of the solar luminosity measured via neutrinos to that measured via photons will test for any unknown energy generation mechanisms within the nearest star. A precise measurement of the pp neutrino flux (predicted to be 92% of the total flux) will also test stringently the theory of stellar evolution since the Standard Solar Model predicts the pp flux with a theoretical uncertainty of 1%. We also find that an atmospheric neutrino experiment capable of resolving the mass hierarchy is a high priority. Atmospheric neutrino experiments may be the only alternative to very long baseline accelerator experiments as a way of resolving this fundamental question. Such an experiment could be a very

  5. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory: Observation of Flavor Change for Solar Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector was developed by an international scientific collaboration (Canada, US, UK) to use 1000 tonnes of heavy water 2 km underground in ultra-clean conditions to observe flavor change for solar neutrinos from 8B decay in the sun. A clear observation of neutrino change was obtained by comparing two neutrino reactions on deuterium, one sensitive only to electron flavor neutrinos and one sensitive equally to all active neutrino types. The design and construction and the operation and data analysis for the three separate phases of the experiment will be described. The initial phase with pure heavy water provided conclusive evidence for flavor change and hence finite mass for neutrinos. Subsequent phases within added NaCl and with an array of neutron detectors provided improved accuracy for the measurements of oscillation parameters. The observed total flux of 8B solar electron neutrinos is in excellent agreement with and more accurate than solar models. Modification of the SNO detector to create SNO + and expansion of the laboratory to create a long-term international underground laboratory, SNOLAB, will be briefly described.

  6. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P. D.

    2006-11-01

    The Sun is a source of high-energy neutrinos (E(greater-or-similar sign)10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged vacuum oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle {theta}{sub 23})

  7. The impact of Borexino on the solar and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Gianpaolo

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino detector is characterized by a very low background level due to an unprecedented radio-purity, which allows to study the entire spectrum of solar neutrinos from very low energies (∼150 keV). The solar neutrino rates from pp, 7Be, pep, 8B (with a threshold down to 3 MeV) and a stringent limit of the CNO cycle rate have been already measured. In addition evidences of a null day/night asymmetry and of the solar neutrino flux seasonal variation have been reached. The contribution provided until now by Borexino in understanding the neutrino oscillation phenomenon concerns the first evidence of the oscillation in vacuum and the determination of the νe survival probability in vacuum: these results validate the paradigmatic MSW model in the vacuum regime. The Borexino results are also in good agreement with the Standard Solar Model predictions, but the metallicity puzzle is still unsolved. In addition the pp flux measured by Borexino shows a good agreement with the Solar luminosity. Evidence of geo-neutrinos has been also obtained at the level of 5.9σ C.L. Borexino is still taking data in order to: upgrade the precision of the solar neutrino rates already measured, increase the sensitivity to the neutrino flux from the CNO cycle and hopefully measure it (very challenging), and test the existence of very short base-line neutrino oscillations.

  8. Solar Neutrinos, SNO and SNOLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, A. B.

    2007-06-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has completed operation in its third phase with an array of neutron detectors in 1000 tonnes of heavy water and Cherenkov light detection 2 km underground in INCO's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Data from the third phase is now being analyzed. In the first two phases of the project reported previously, the neutral current reaction on deuterium was used to determine the total flux of active neutrinos and the charged current reaction on deuterium provided a measure of the flux and energy spectrum of solar electron neutrinos. The flux of electron neutrinos was found to be only about one third of the total flux, providing clear evidence of neutrino flavour change. The total flux of active neutrinos was found to be in agreement with solar model calculations. The underground laboratory is being expanded to create an international facility known as SNOLAB that will be completed at the end of 2007. Proposed future experiments for the detection of lower energy solar neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, dark matter and double beta decay are described.

  9. Report on solar neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. Jr.; Cleveland, B.T.; Rowley, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is given of the status of solar neutrino research that includes results of the Brookhaven chlorine detector, a discussion of the development of the gallium, bromine, and lithium radiochemical detectors, and some proposals for direct counting detectors. The gallium and bromine radiochemical detectors are developed and are capable of giving critical information of interest about neutrino physics and the fusion reactions in the interior of the sun. A plan for building these detectors is outlined and a rough cost estimate is given. A review is given of the plans in the Soviet Union in solar neutrino research.

  10. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Bœhm, Céline

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle sin2 θ W to date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neutrinos, and use these estimates to quantify errors on future measurements of the neutrino fluxes, weak mixing angle and solar observables, as well as to constrain new physics in the neutrino sector. Our analysis shows that the combined rates of solar neutrino events in second generation experiments (SuperCDMS and LZ) can yield a measurement of the pp flux to 2.5% accuracy via electron recoil, and slightly improve the 8B flux determination. Assuming a low-mass argon phase, projected tonne-scale experiments like DARWIN can reduce the uncertainty on both the pp and boron-8 neutrino fluxes to below 1%. Finally, we use current results from LUX, SuperCDMS and CDMSlite to set bounds on new interactions between neutrinos and electrons or nuclei, and show that future direct detection experiments can be used to set complementary constraints on the parameter space associated with light mediators.

  11. Status of solar neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.; Davis, R. Jr.; Kim, S.B. . Dept. of Physics); Elliott, S.R. ); Jelley, N. )

    1990-01-01

    A summary of the status of four solar neutrino experiments is presented. The Homestake {sup 37}Cl data are presented and the possible time dependence of the data is addressed. Data from 1040 days of operation of the Kamiokande II detector are presented next. The status of the {sup 71}Ga experiment in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, which has operated for a short time, is discussed. The summary concludes with a discussion of the status of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, which has been under construction since the beginning of 1990. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Barger, V; Huber, Patrick; Marfatia, Danny

    2005-11-18

    We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric neutrino and K2K data and with reactor antineutrino data at short and long baselines (from CHOOZ and KamLAND). We find that the survival probability of solar MaVaNs is independent of how the suppression of neutrino mass caused by the acceleron-matter couplings varies with density. Measurements of MeV and lower energy solar neutrinos will provide a rigorous test of the idea.

  13. Solar photons, phonons and neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitre, S. M.

    1998-06-01

    The inside of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to construct a reasonable picture of its interior with the help of the theory of stellar structure along with the input physics describing a multitude of processes occurring inside the Sun. In order to check the validity of these theoretical models there have been valiant attempts to measure the flux of neutrinos generated in the Sun's energy-generating core. The solar neutrino event rates reported by all the experiments to date have been consistently lower than those predicted by standard solar models. There is now a complementary probe, furnished by the accurately measured helioseismic data which provides stringent constraints on the physical conditions prevailing inside the Sun. It turns out that the helioseismically inferred density and sound speed profiles throughout the Sun's internal layers are close to those obtained with a standard solar model. A cooler solar core is, therefore, not a viable solution to account for the deficit in the measured neutrino fluxes. This leads one to the unavoidable conclusion that the solution to the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

  14. Solar neutrino measurements in Super-Kamiokande-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Marti, Ll.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Sonoda, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Takenaga, Y.; Tasaka, S.; Tomura, T.; Ueno, K.; Yokozawa, T.; Akutsu, R.; Irvine, T.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Lee, K. P.; Nishimura, Y.; McLachlan, T.; Okumura, K.; Richard, E.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Bays, K.; Carminati, G.; Griskevich, N. J.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Weatherly, P.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Park, R. G.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; O'Sullivan, E.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Nakamura, T.; Jang, J. S.; Choi, K.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Nakano, Y.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Cao, S. V.; Hayashino, T.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Jiang, M.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Patel, N. D.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Wendell, R. A.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Muto, F.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Santucci, G.; Taylor, I.; Vilela, C.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Fukuda, D.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Takeuchi, J.; Yamaguchi, R.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Ito, K.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Suda, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Calland, R. G.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Obayashi, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Nantais, C. M.; Martin, J. F.; de Perio, P.; Tanaka, H. A.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Sui, H.; Wan, L.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Connolly, K.; Dziomba, M.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as ˜3.5 MeV . Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308 ±0.020 (stat)-0.040 +0.039(syst ))×1 06/(cm2 sec ) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6 ±1.6 (stat )±0.6 (syst ))% . The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2θ12=0.327-0.031+0.026 , all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SK-IV) measures this angle to be sin2θ12=0.334-0.023+0.027 , the determined mass-squared splitting is Δ m212=4.8-0.8+1.5×10-5 eV2 .

  15. Precision Solar Neutrino Measurements with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Oblath, Noah

    2007-10-26

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is the first experiment to measure the total flux of active, high-energy neutrinos from the sun. Results from SNO have solved the long-standing 'Solar Neutrino Problem' by demonstrating that neutrinos change flavor. SNO measured the total neutrino flux with the neutral-current interaction of solar neutrinos with 1000 tonnes of D{sub 2}O. In the first two phases of the experiment we detected the neutron from that interaction by capture on deuterium and capture on chlorine, respectively. In the third phase an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters was deployed in the detector. This allows a measurement of the neutral-current neutrons that is independent of the Cherenkov light detected by the PMT array. We are currently developing a unique, detailed simulation of the current pulses from the proportional-counter array that will be used to help distinguish signal and background pulses.

  16. Variations in the Solar Neutrino Flux

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Cleveland, B. T.; Rowley, J. K.

    1987-08-02

    Observations are reported from the chlorine solar neutrino detector in the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota, USA. They extend from 1970 to 1985 and yield an average neutrino capture rate of 2.1 +- 0.3 SNU. The results from 1977 to 1985 show an anti-correlation with the solar activity cycle, and an apparent increased rate during large solar flares.

  17. Update of GALLEX solar neutrino results and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsten, T.

    1995-01-01

    The galliumchloride detector operated by the GALLEX-collaboration in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory responds primarily to pp-neutrinos. They are produced in the primary fusion reaction of hydrogen into deuterium and directly coupled to the solar luminosity. Standard Solar Models predict ca. 58% of the total signal expected in GALLEX (123-132 SNU) to be due to pp-neutrinos. The relative pp-neutrino dominance becomes even larger if the deficit of higher energy neutrinos (as observed in the Homestake- and Kamiokande experiments) is considered. During the first data taking period, 15 solar runs had been performed within the exposure period 14.5.1991 - 29.4.1992. The result, 81 {+-} 17 {+-} 9 SNU provided the first experimental evidence for pp-neutrinos from the Sun. At the same time, it confirmed the depression of higher energy neutrino fluxes relative to the model predictions. Here the authors report the results of 15 more solar neutrino runs, covering the period 19.8.92 - 13.10.93. They obtain 78 {+-} 13 {+-} 5 SNU. Evaluated together, the result for all 30 runs is 79 {+-} 10 {+-} 6 SNU. While the SNU rate of GALLEX I is well reproduced the statistical error has been reduced so substantially that a value of signal +2{sigma} is required to accommodate not only pp-and pep- but also the {sup 7}Be-neutrino induced {sup 71}Ge-production. Contrary, the fate of {sup 8}B-neutrinos has only little discernible effect on the GALLEX data. In conclusion, with the present errors GALLEX constitutes a 2.5 {sigma} problem for {sup 7}Be neutrinos within the frame of {open_quotes}astrophysical{close_quotes} solutions. Alternatively, the particle physics solution (MSW-effect) can consistently explain all available solar neutrino results, leading to a most probable mass scale with the muon-neutrino at approximately 3 meV (milli-eV). However, since the GALLEX result allows the presence of pp and pep neutrinos at full strength. the latter explanation of the data is not forced.

  18. John Bahcall and the Solar Neutrino Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, Neta

    2016-03-01

    ``I feel like dancing'', cheered John Bahcall upon hearing the exciting news from the SNO experiment in 2001. The results confirmed, with remarkable accuracy, John's 40-year effort to predict the rate of neutrinos from the Sun based on sophisticated Solar models. What began in 1962 by John Bahcall and Ray Davis as a pioneering project to test and confirm how the Sun shines, quickly turned into a four-decade-long mystery of the `Solar Neutrino Problem': John's models predicted a higher rate of neutrinos than detected by Davis and follow-up experiments. Was the theory of the Sun wrong? Were John's calculations in error? Were the neutrino experiments wrong? John worked tirelessly to understand the physics behind the Solar Neutrino Problem; he led the efforts to greatly increase the accurately of the solar model, to understand its seismology and neutrino fluxes, to use the neutrino fluxes as a test for new physics, and to advocate for important new experiments. It slowly became clear that none of the then discussed possibilities --- error in the Solar model or neutrino experiments --- was the culprit. The SNO results revealed that John's calculations, and hence the theory of the Solar model, have been correct all along. Comparison of the data with John's theory demanded new physics --- neutrino oscillations. The Solar Neutrino saga is one of the most amazing scientific stories of the century: exploring a simple question of `How the Sun Shines?' led to the discovery of new physics. John's theoretical calculations are an integral part of this journey; they provide the foundation for the Solar Neutrino Problem, for confirming how the Sun shines, and for the need of neutrino oscillations. His tenacious persistence, dedication, enthusiasm and love for the project, and his leadership and advocacy of neutrino physics over many decades are a remarkable story of scientific triumph. I know John is smiling today.

  19. Solar neutrino with Borexino: Results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Fiorentini, G.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Mantovani, F.; Marcocci, S.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Ricci, B.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-03-01

    Borexino is a unique detector able to perform measurement of solar neutrinos fluxes in the energy region around 1 MeV or below due to its low level of radioactive background. It was constructed at the LNGS underground laboratory with a goal of solar 7Be neutrino flux measurement with 5% precision. The goal has been successfully achieved marking the end of the first stage of the experiment. A number of other important measurements of solar neutrino fluxes have been performed during the first stage. Recently the collaboration conducted successful liquid scintillator repurification campaign aiming to reduce main contaminants in the sub-MeV energy range. With the new levels of radiopurity Borexino can improve existing and challenge a number of new measurements including: improvement of the results on the Solar and terrestrial neutrino fluxes measurements; measurement of pp and CNO solar neutrino fluxes; search for non-standard interactions of neutrino; study of the neutrino oscillations on the short baseline with an artificial neutrino source (search for sterile neutrino) in context of SOX project.

  20. Calibration of the solar neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccianiga, Barbara; Re, Alessandra Carlotta

    2016-04-01

    Calibrations have been crucial for the success of solar neutrino experiments. In this contribution we review the calibration strategies adopted by different solar neutrino experiments. In particular, we will emphasize their common critical aspects and their main differences. In order to do so, we will schematically divide the solar neutrino experiments in two groups: those based on radiochemical techniques, i.e. Homestake, Gallex/GNO, SAGE and those based on real-time techniques i.e. Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO, Borexino and KamLAND.

  1. The status of the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1993-12-01

    Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution. The next generation of solar experiments promise to finally resolve the source of the ``solar neutrino problem`` by the end of this decade.

  2. SAGE: Solar Neutrino Data from SAGE, the Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment

    DOE Data Explorer

    SAGE Collaboration

    SAGE is a solar neutrino experiment based on the reaction 71Ga + n goes to 71Ge + e-. The 71Ge atoms are chemically extracted from a 50-metric ton target of Ga metal and concentrated in a sample of germane gas mixed with xenon. The atoms are then individually counted by observing their decay back to 71Ga in a small proportional counter. The distinguishing feature of the experiment is its ability to detect the low-energy neutrinos from proton-proton fusion. These neutrinos, which are made in the primary reaction that provides the Sun's energy, are the major component of the solar neutrino flux and have not been observed in any other way. To shield the experiment from cosmic rays, it is located deep underground in a specially built facility at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia. Nearly 100 measurements of the solar neutrino flux have been made during 1990-2000, and their combined result is a neutrino capture rate that is well below the prediction of the Standard Solar Model. The significant suppression of the solar neutrino flux that SAGE and other solar neutrino experiments have observed gives a strong indication for the existence of neutrino oscillations. [copied from the SAGE homepage at http://ewi.npl.washington.edu/SAGE/SAGE.html

  3. Proton decay and solar neutrino experiment with a liquid argon Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.H.; Doe, P.J.; Mahler, H.I.

    1983-01-01

    Recent progress in development of the liquid argon Time Projection Chamber is reviewed. Application of this technique to a search for proton decay and /sup 8/B solar neutrinos with directional sensitivity is considered. The steps necessary for a large scale application of this technique deep underground are described.

  4. Solar oscillation frequency and solar neutrino predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1990-07-05

    The light and velocity variations of the Sun and solar-like stars are unique among intrinsic variable stars. Unlike all other standard classes, such as Cepheids, B stars, and white dwarfs, the pulsation driving is caused by coupling with the acoustic noise in the upper convection zone. Each global pulsation mode is just another degree of freedom for the turbulent convection, and energy is shared equally between these g{sup {minus}}-modes and the solar oscillation modes. This driving and damping, together with the normal stellar pulsation mechanisms produce extremely low amplitude solar oscillations. Actually, the surface layer radiative damping is strong, and the varying oscillation mode amplitudes manifest the stochastic convection driving and the steady damping. Thus stability calculations for solar-like pulsations are difficult and mostly inconclusive, but calculations of pulsation periods are as straightforward as for all the other classes of intrinsic variable stars. The issue that is important for the Sun is its internal structure, because the mass, radius, and luminosity are extremely well known. Conventionally, we need the pulsation constants for each of millions of modes. Unknown parameters for constructing solar models are the composition and its material pressure, energy, and opacity, as well as the convection mixing length. We treat the nuclear energy and neutrino production formulas as sufficiently well known. The presence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) orbiting the solar center affects the predicted oscillation frequencies so that they do not agree with observations as well as those for models without WIMPs. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Solar core homology, solar neutrinos and helioseismology

    SciTech Connect

    Bludman, S.A.; Kennedy, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Precise numerical standard solar models (SSMs) now agree with one another and with helioseismological observations in the convective and outer radiative zones. Nevertheless these models obscure how luminosity, neutrino production and g-mode core helioseismology depend on such inputs as opacity and nuclear cross sections. Although the Sun is not homologous, its inner core by itself is chemically evolved and almost homologous, because of its compactness, radiative energy transport, and ppI-dominated luminosity production. We apply luminosity-fixed homology transformations to the core to estimate theoretical uncertainties in the SSM and to obtain a broad class of non-SSMs, parameterized by central temperature and density and purely radiative energy transport in the core. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Solar neutrinos: Near-far asymmetry and just-so oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Faied, B.; Fogli, G.L.; Montanino, D.

    1997-02-01

    We propose to study possible signals of just-so oscillations in new-generation solar neutrino experiments by separating the events detected when the Earth is nearest to the Sun (perihelion {plus_minus} 3 months) from those detected when the Earth is farthest from the Sun (aphelion {plus_minus} 3 months). We introduce a solar-model-independent near-far asymmetry, which is nonzero if just-so oscillations occur. We apply our calculations to the kinetic energy spectra of electrons induced by {sup 8}B solar neutrino interactions in the SuperKamiokande and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiments. We show that the sensitivity to the neutrino oscillation parameters can be increased by probing the near-far asymmetry in selected parts of the electron energy spectra. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Solar neutrinos, solar flares, solar activity cycle and the proton decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raychaudhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that there may be a correlation between the galactic cosmic rays and the solar neutrino data, but it appears that the neutrino flux which may be generated during the large solar cosmic ray events cannot in any way effect the solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. Only initial stage of mixing between the solar core and solar outer layers after the sunspot maximum in the solar activity cycle can explain the higher (run number 27 and 71) of solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. But solar flare induced atmospheric neutrino flux may have effect in the nucleon decay detector on the underground. The neutrino flux from solar cosmic rays may be a useful guide to understand the background of nucleon decay, magnetic monopole search, and the detection of neutrino flux in sea water experiment.

  8. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flares and Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, D.

    2004-06-01

    Most power-full solar flare as the ones occurred on 23th February 1956, September 29th 1989 and recent ones occurred on 28th October, on 2nd-4th and 13th November 2003 have been respectively recorded by Radio-X- and Cosmic Rays detectors. These flares took place most in the open or in the edge and in the hidden solar disk (as for the September 29th, 1989 beyond 105Wo and for last November 2003 flare events). The 4th November event was the most powerful X event in the highest known rank category X28. The observed and estimated total flare energy E = 1031-1033 erg should be a source also of a prompt secondary neutrino burst originated, by proton-proton-pion production on the sun itself; a more delayed and spread neutrino flux signal arise later on the terrestrial atmosphere. These first earliest prompt solar neutrino burst might be already recorde, in a few neutrino clustered events, in largest neutrino underground detectors as Super-Kamiokande one, in time correlation with the sharp X-Radio flare onset. Our first estimate at the Super-Kamiokande II Laboratory is found to be a few (1-5) events. Their discover (or absence) should constrains the solar flare acceleration, energetic and its inner environment. Any large neutrino flare event might even verify the expected neutrino flavour mixing leading to comparable electron- muon event as well as a comparable energy fluence and spectra. Rare Tau appearence by neutrino muon into tau conversion might also arise.

  9. Everything under the Sun: A review of solar neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Gann, Gabriel D. Orebi

    2015-07-15

    Solar neutrinos offer a unique opportunity to study the interaction of neutrinos with matter, a sensitive search for potential new physics effects, and a probe of solar structure and solar system formation. This paper describes the broad physics program addressed by solar neutrino studies, presents the current suite of experiments programs, and describes several potential future detectors that could address the open questions in this field. This paper is a summary of a talk presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference in Boston.

  10. Everything under the sun: A review of solar neutrinos

    DOE PAGES

    Gann, Gabriel D. Orebi

    2015-07-15

    Solar neutrinos offer a unique opportunity to study the interaction of neutrinos with matter, a sensitive search for potential new physics effects, and a probe of solar structure and solar system formation. This paper describes the broad physics program addressed by solar neutrino studies, presents the current suite of experiments programs, and describes several potential future detectors that could address the open questions in this field. This paper is a summary of a talk presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference in Boston.

  11. Report on solar-neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report on solar neutrino experiments will include a summary of the results of the chlorine detector, and an account of our plans to build a gallium solar neutrino experiment. In addition to discussing the experimental side of the solar neutrino problem I would like to relate our experiences during the last 15 years in working in the Homestake Gold Mine. In the course of our work at Homestake a number of independent groups have asked to use our facilities and, because of the cooperative and helpful attitude of the Mine management, these experimentalists could be easily accommodated. A brief account of these experiences may be useful for the main business of this workshop, building large particle detectors for observing nucleon decay, and the related question of the need for a national underground physics facility.

  12. Solar neutrinos, Martian rivers, and Praesepe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Young, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Some recent papers on solar neutrinos, Martian rivers, and Praesepe stars are reviewed. Possible causes of solar neutrino detection rates being below theoretical expectations are quoted. The widespread presence of sinuous dendritic channels on Mars is noted. The occurrence of earth-like epochs on Mars is indicated as a plausible explanation for many such channels in terms of surface liquid water flows. The roughly uniform distribution of the Praesepe stars through the main sequence width is viewed as the indication that the excursion time off the main sequence is comparable to the time between mixings.

  13. Radiochemical Solar Neutrino Experiments - Successful and Otherwise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn,R.L.

    2008-05-25

    Over the years, several different radiochemical systems have been proposed as solar neutrino detectors. Of these, two achieved operating status and obtained important results that helped to define the current field of neutrino physics: the first solar-neutrino experiment, the Chlorine Detector ({sup 37}Cl) that was developed by chemist Raymond Davis and colleagues at the Homestake Mine, and the subsequent Gallium ({sup 71}Ga) Detectors that were operated by (a) the SAGE collaboration at the Baksan Laboratory and (b) the GALLEX/GNO collaborations at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. These experiments have been extensively discussed in the literature and in many previous International Neutrino Conferences. In this paper, I present important updates to the results from SAGE and GALLEX/GNO. I also review the principles of the radiochemical detectors and briefly describe several different detectors that have been proposed. In light of the well-known successes that have been subsequently obtained by real-time neutrino detectors such as Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and KamLAND, I do not anticipate that any new radiochemical neutrino detectors will be built. At present, only SAGE is still operating; the Chlorine and GNO radiochemical detectors have been decommissioned and dismantled.

  14. Asymptotic normalization coefficients (nuclear vertex constants) for p + 7Be → 8B and the direct 7Be( p, γ)8B astrophysical S factors at solar energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igamov, S. B.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2008-10-01

    A new analysis of the precise experimental astrophysical S factors for the direct-capture reaction 7Be( p, γ)8B [A.J. Junghans et al., Phys. Rev. C 68, 065803 (2003) and L.T. Baby et al., Phys. Rev. C 67, 065805 (2003)] is carried out on the basis of a modified two-body potential approach in which the direct astrophysical S factor, S 17( E), is expressed in terms of the asymptotic normalization constants for p + 7Be → 8B and two additional conditions are involved to verify the peripheral character of the reaction under consideration. The Woods-Saxon potential form is used for the bound-( p + 7Be)-state wave function and for p 7Be-scattering wave function. New estimates are obtained for the “indirectly measured” values of the asymptotic normalization constants (the nuclear vertex constants) for the p + 7Be → 8B and S 17( E) at E ≤ 115 keV, including E = 0. These values of S 17( E) and asymptotic normalization constants have been used for obtaining the indirectly measured values of the s-wave average scattering length and the p-wave effective-range parameters for p 7Be scattering.

  15. Solar neutrino physics in the nineties

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, J.F.

    1990-12-31

    The decade of the 1990`s should prove to be landmark period for the study of solar neutrino physics. Current observations show 2--3 times fewer neutrinos coming from the sun than are theoretically expected. As we enter the decade, new experiments are poised to attempt and discover whether this deficit is a problem with our understanding of how the sun works, is a hint of new neutrino properties beyond those predicted by the standard model of particle physics, or perhaps a combination of both. This paper will briefly review the current status of the field and point out how future measurements should help solve this interesting puzzle. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Solar Neutrino flare detection in Hyperkamiokande and SK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The possible buid and near activity of a Megaton neutrino detection in HyperKamiokande and the older SK implementation by Gadolinium liqid might open to future detection of largest solar flare (pion trace at tens MeV) electron neutrino and antineutrino. The multiwave detection of X-gamma and neutrino event might offer a deep view of such solar acelleration and of neutrino flavor mix along its flight. The possoble near future discover of such events will open a third neutrino astronomy windows after rarest SN 1987A and persistent Solar nuclear signals.

  17. Report on the Brookhaven Solar Neutrino Experiment

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J. C. Jr.

    1976-09-22

    This report is intended as a brief statement of the recent developments and results of the Brookhaven Solar Neutrino Experiment communicated through Professor G. Kocharov to the Leningrad conference on active processes on the sun and the solar neutrino problem. The report summarizes the results of experiments performed over a period of 6 years, from April 1970 to January 1976. Neutrino detection depends upon the neutrino capture reaction /sup 37/Cl(..nu..,e/sup -/)/sup 37/Ar producing the isotope /sup 37/Ar (half life of 35 days). The detector contains 3.8 x 10/sup 5/ liters of C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/ (2.2 x 10/sup 30/ atoms of /sup 37/Cl) and is located at a depth of 4400 meters of water equivalent (m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine at Lead, South Dakota, U.S.A. The procedures for extracting /sup 37/Ar and the counting techniques used were described in previous reports. The entire recovered argon sample was counted in a small gas proportional counter. Argon-37 decay events were characterized by the energy of the Auger electrons emitted following the electron capture decay and by the rise-time of the pulse. Counting measurements were continued for a period sufficiently long to observe the decay of /sup 37/Ar.

  18. The solar neutrino problem: mixing of neutrinos and mixing in the Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    The author reviews the current status of the solar neutrino problem, including the exciting possibility of matter enhanced neutrino oscillations. Neutrino flux measurements, independent of questions of solar dynamics, appear to leave only one competing candidate astrophysical solution, at least in the case of steady state solar models. That possibility - mixing of the solar core on time scales of 3He equilibration - appears to have some attractive features. A "score card" is presented in which the two alternatives - mixed neutrinos or a mixed Sun - are handicapped.

  19. The solar neutrino problem: Mixing of neutrinos and mixing in the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    I review the current status of the solar neutrino problem, including the exciting possibility of matter enhanced neutrino oscillations. Neutrino flux measurements, independent of questions of solar dynamics, appear to leave only one competing candidate astrophysical solution, at least in the case of steady-state solar models. That possibility - mixing of the solar core on time scales of 3He equilibration - appears to have some attractive features. A “score card” is presented in which the two alternatives - mixed neutrinos or a mixed sun - are handicapped.

  20. A 17 keV neutrino and large magnetic moment solution of the solar neutrino puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao, Zhijian; Berezhiani, Z. G.

    1992-08-01

    Zee-type models with Majorons naturally incorporate the 17 keV neutrino but in their minimal version fail to simultaneously solve the solar neutrino puzzle. If there is a sterile neutrino state, a particularly simple solution is found to the solar neutrino problem, which besides nu(sub 17) predicts a light Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud neutrino nu(sub light) = nu(sub e) + nu(sub mu)(sup c) with a magnetic moment being easily as large as 10(exp -11)(mu)(sub B) through the Barr-Freire-Zee mechanism.

  1. 17 keV neutrino and large magnetic moment solution of the solar neutrino puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Eugeni Kh.; Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Senjanović, Goran; Tao, Zhijian

    1993-01-01

    Zee-type models with majorons naturally incorporate the 17 keV neutrino but in their minimal version fail to simultaneously solve the solar neutrino puzzle. If there is a sterile neutrino state, we find a particularly simple solution to the solar neutrino problem, which besides ν17 predicts a light Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud neutrino νlight = νe + νcμ with a magnetic moment being easily as large as 10 -11μB through the Barr-Freire-Zee mechanism.

  2. Constraints on neutrino oscillations using 1258 days of Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Fukuda, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Itow, Y; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Okada, A; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Toshito, T; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Desai, S; Earl, M; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Liu, D W; Price, L R; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Takemori, D; Hayato, Y; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakamura, K; Obayashi, Y; Oyama, Y; Sakai, A; Sakuda, M; Kohama, M; Suzuki, A T; Inagaki, T; Nakaya, T; Nishikawa, K; Haines, T J; Blaufuss, E; Dazeley, S; Lee, K B; Svoboda, R; Goodman, J A; Guillian, G; Sullivan, G W; Turcan, D; Habig, A; Hill, J; Jung, C K; Martens, K; Malek, M; Mauger, C; McGrew, C; Sharkey, E; Viren, B; Yanagisawa, C; Mitsuda, C; Miyano, K; Saji, C; Shibata, T; Kajiyama, Y; Nagashima, Y; Nitta, K; Takita, M; Yoshida, M; Kim, H I; Kim, S B; Yoo, J; Okazawa, H; Ishizuka, T; Etoh, M; Gando, Y; Hasegawa, T; Inoue, K; Ishihara, K; Maruyama, T; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Koshiba, M; Hatakeyama, Y; Ichikawa, Y; Koike, M; Nishijima, K; Fujiyasu, H; Ishino, H; Morii, M; Watanabe, Y; Golebiewska, U; Kielczewska, D; Boyd, S C; Stachyra, A L; Wilkes, R J; Young, K K

    2001-06-18

    We report the result of a search for neutrino oscillations using precise measurements of the recoil electron energy spectrum and zenith angle variations of the solar neutrino flux from 1258 days of neutrino-electron scattering data in Super-Kamiokande. The absence of significant zenith angle variation and spectrum distortion places strong constraints on neutrino mixing and mass difference in a flux-independent way. Using the Super-Kamiokande flux measurement in addition, two allowed regions at large mixing are found.

  3. Feasibility of /sup 81/Br(nu,e/sup -/)/sup 81/Kr solar neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Allman, S.L.; Chen, C.H.; Kramer, S.D.; Thomson, J.O.; Cleveland, B.

    1985-05-01

    Several ingenious solutions have been offered for the solar neutrino problem - a defect in the solar model, the appearance of a new type of neutrino physics, the sun is no longer burning, etc. The range of these proffered solutions stresses the need for a new experiment to study the sun. The modern pulsed laser now makes possible a new solar neutrino test which examines an independent neutrino source in the sun. A recently proposed experiment would use the reaction /sup 81/Br(nu,e/sup -/)/sup 81/Kr to measure the flux of /sup 7/Be neutrinos from the sun. When /sup 7/Be decays by electron capture to make /sup 7/Li, a neutrino is emitted at 0.862 MeV and the flux of these on the earth is about 4 x 10/sup 9/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/, according to the standard model. Therefore, an experiment based on /sup 81/Br(nu,e/sup -/)/sup 81/Kr which is sensitive to these lower energy neutrinos would be of fundamental importance. To first order, the chlorine experiment detects the /sup 8/B neutrinos while bromine detects the much more abundant /sup 7/Be neutrino source. In practice, the proposed bromine experiment would be very similar to the chlorine radiochemical experiment, except that /sup 81/Kr with a half-life of 2 x 10/sup 5/ years cannot be counted by decay methods. With an experiment of about the same volume as the chlorine experiment (380 m/sup 3/) filled with CH/sub 2/Br/sub 2/, the model predicts about 2 atoms of /sup 81/Kr per day. The bromine experiment depends entirely on the RIS method, implemented with pulsed lasers, for its success. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. Bühler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  5. Towards the resolution of the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, Alexander

    2000-08-29

    A number of experiments have accumulated over the years a large amount of solar neutrino data. The data indicate that the observed solar neutrino flux is significantly smaller than expected and, furthermore, that the electron neutrino survival probability is energy dependent. This ''solar neutrino problem'' is best solved by assuming that the electron neutrino oscillates into another neutrino species. Even though one can classify the solar neutrino deficit as strong evidence for neutrino oscillations, it is not yet considered a definitive proof. Traditional objections are that the evidence for solar neutrino oscillations relies on a combination of hard, different experiments, and that the Standard Solar Model (SSM) might not be accurate enough to precisely predict the fluxes of different solar neutrino components. Even though it seems unlikely that modifications to the SSM alone can explain the current solar neutrino data, one still cannot completely discount the possibility that a combination of unknown systematic errors in some of the experiments and certain modifications to the SSM could conspire to yield the observed data. To conclusively demonstrate that there is indeed new physics in solar neutrinos, new experiments are aiming at detecting ''smoking gun'' signatures of neutrino oscillations, such as an anomalous seasonal variation in the observed neutrino flux or a day-night variation due to the regeneration of electron neutrinos in the Earth. In this dissertation we study the sensitivity reach of two upcoming neutrino experiments, Borexino and KamLAND, to both of these effects. Results of neutrino oscillation experiments for the case of two-flavor oscillations have always been presented on the (sin{sup 2} 2{theta}, {Delta}m{sup 2}) parameter space. We point out, however, that this parameterization misses the half of the parameter space {pi}/4 < {theta} {le} {pi}/2, which is physically inequivalent to the region 0 {le} {theta} {le} {pi}/4 in the presence of

  6. The analysis of solar models: Neutrinos and oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Tomczyk, S.; Dumont, P. J.; Brunish, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    Tests of solar neutrino flux and solar oscillation frequencies were used to assess standard stellar structure theory. Standard and non-standard solar models are enumerated and discussed. The field of solar seismology, wherein the solar interior is studied from the measurement of solar oscillations, is introduced.

  7. Solar neutrino experiments and a test for neutrino oscillations with radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Rowley, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment are given and compared to the most recent standard solar model calculations. The observations are about a factor of 4 below theoretical expectations. In view of the uncertainties involved in the theoretical models of the sun, the discrepancy is not considered to be evidence for neutrino oscillations. The status of the development of a gallium solar neutrino detector is described. Radiochemical neutrino detectors can be used to search for ..nu../sub e/ oscillations by using megacurie sources of monoenergetic neutrinos like /sup 65/Zn. A quantitative evaluation of possible experiments using the Brookhaven chlorine solar neutrino detector and a gallium detector is given. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Possible explanation of the solar-neutrino puzzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethe, H. A.

    1986-01-01

    A new derivation of the Mikheyev and Smirnov (1985) mechanism for the conversion of electron neutrinos into mu neutrinos when traversing the sun is presented, and various hypotheses set forth. It is assumed that this process is responsible for the detection of fewer solar neutrinos than expected, with neutrinos below a minimum energy, E(m), being undetectable. E(m) is found to be about 6 MeV, and the difference of the squares of the respective neutrino masses is calculated to be 6 X 10 to the - 5th sq eV. A restriction on the neutrino mixing angle is assumed such that the change of density near the crossing point is adiabatic. It is predicted that no resonance conversion of neutrinos will occur in the dense core of supernovae, but conversion of electron neutrinos to mu neutrinos will occur as they escape outward through a density region around 100.

  9. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flare in Megaton and km3 detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele; di Giacomo, Paola

    2009-03-01

    To foresee a solar flare neutrino signal we infer its upper and lower bound. The upper bound was derived since a few years by general energy equipartition arguments on observed solar particle flare. The lower bound, the most compelling one for any guarantee neutrino signal, is derived by most recent records of hard Gamma bump due to solar flare on January 2005 (by neutral pion decay). Because neutral and charged pions (made by hadron scattering in the flare) are born on the same foot, their link is compelling: the observed gamma flux [Grechnev V.V. et al., arXiv:0806.4424, Solar Physics, Vol. 1, October, (2008), 252] reflects into a corresponding one for the neutrinos, almost one to one. Moreover while gamma photons might be absorbed (in deep corona) or at least reduced inside the flaring plasma, the secondaries neutrino are not. So pion neutrinos should be even more abundant than gamma ones. Tens-hundred MeV neutrinos may cross undisturbed the whole Sun, doubling at least their rate respect a unique solar-side for gamma flare. Therefore we obtain minimal bounds opening a windows for neutrino astronomy, already at the edge of present but quite within near future Megaton neutrino detectors. Such detectors are considered mostly to reveal cosmic supernova background or rare Local Group (few Mpc) Supernovas events [Matthew D. Kistler et al. 0810.1959v1]. However rarest (once a decade), brief (a few minutes) powerful solar neutrino “flare” may shine and they may overcome by two to three order of magnitude the corresponding steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, leading in largest Neutrino detector at least to one or to meaning-full few events clustered signals. The voice of such a solar anti-neutrino flare component at a few tens MeVs may induce an inverse beta decay over a vanishing anti-neutrino solar background. Megaton or even inner ten Megaton Ice Cube detector at ten GeV threshold may also reveal traces in hardest energy of solar flares. Icecube

  10. Solar neutrino physics with low-threshold dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, J.; Strigari, L. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.

    2015-05-01

    Dark matter detectors will soon be sensitive to Solar neutrinos via two distinct channels: coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron elastic scatterings. We establish an analysis method for extracting Solar model properties and neutrino properties from these measurements, including the possible effects of sterile neutrinos which have been hinted at by some reactor experiments and cosmological measurements. Even including sterile neutrinos, through the coherent scattering channel, a 1 ton-year exposure with a low-threshold background free Germanium detector could improve on the current measurement of the normalization of the B 8 Solar neutrino flux down to 3% or less. Combining with the neutrino-electron elastic scattering data will provide constraints on both the high- and low-energy survival probability and will improve on the uncertainty on the active-to-sterile mixing angle by a factor of 2. This sensitivity to active-to-sterile transitions is competitive and complementary to forthcoming dedicated short baseline sterile neutrino searches with nuclear decays. Finally, we show that such solar neutrino physics potentials can be reached as long as the signal-to-noise ratio is better than 0.1.

  11. Solar neutrinos: Prospects for detection and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    From the viewpoint of particle physics, the Sun provides us with a high intensity (approx. 10(11)/cm(2)sec) source of neutrinos that have traveled over an interesting distance. An opportunity to mount incomparable neutrino oscillation experiments would be missed if not exploited. From the distribution, a precise record of the thermonuclear reactions that occur in the sun's high-temperature core. A unique, quantitative test of theories of stellar evolution is provided, and thus one of the fundamental clocks that monitor the aging of the universe. This information cannot be obtained from conventional observations of the radiation emitted from cool stellar surfaces: solar photons have lost, in their 10(7) year journey outward from the core, all detailed memory of the mechanisms by which they were created. The feasibility, by virtue of several very recent advances in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, of a complete program of solor neutrino spectroscopy that will quantitatively test both the standard stellar model and the behavior of low-energy netrinos over astrophysical distances is examined.

  12. E sub 6 leptoquarks and the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roulet, Esteban

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that non-conventional neutrino oscillations take place in the superstring inspired E sub 6 models is considered. In this context, the influence of leptoquark mediated interactions of the neutrinos with nucleons in the resonant flavor conversion is discussed. It is shown that this effect can be significant for v sub e - v sub tau oscillations if these neutrinos have masses required in the ordinary Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, and may lead to a solution of the solar neutrino problem even in the absence of vacuum mixings. On the other hand, this model cannot lead to a resonant behavior in the sun if the neutrinos are massless.

  13. Yet another possible explanation of the solar-neutrino puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W.; Turner, M.S.; Walker, T.P.

    1986-04-01

    Mikheyev and Smirnov have shown that the interactions of neutrinos with matter can result in the conversion of electron neutrinos produced in the center of the sun to muon neutrinos. Bethe has exploited this and has pointed out that the solar-neutrino puzzle can be resolved if the mass difference squared of the two neutrinos is m/sub 2//sup 2/ - m /sub 1//sup 2/ approx. = 6 x 10/sup -5/ eV/sup 2/, and the mixing angle satisfies sin theta/sub v/ > 0.0065. We discuss a qualitatively different solution to the solar-neutrino puzzle which requires 1.0 x 10/sup -8/ < (m/sub 2//sup 2/ - m/sub 1//sup 2/) (sin/sup 2/ 2theta/sub v//cos 2theta/sub v/) < 6.1 x 10/sup -8/ eV/sup 2/. Our solutions result in a much smaller flux of neutrinos from the p - p process than predicted by standard solar models, while Bethe's solution results in a flux of neutrinos from the p - process that is about the same as standard solar models.

  14. Status of the Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, Kevin B.

    2006-11-17

    The Borexino experiment is designed to measure the flux of 7Be solar neutrinos. The experiment, having a 100-ton fiducial volume of organic liquid scintillator, should detect roughly 35 neutrinos per day in the energy range 250 - 1300 keV, a range lower than that of any previous real-time neutrino detector. Though the 862-keV 7Be neutrinos make up roughly 10% of the total solar neutrino flux, they have not previously been directly observed. Their energy is at a delicate point for confirmation of the vacuum-to-matter oscillation transition. In these proceedings, I will present the status of the Borexino experiment as of August 2006, as we prepare for final filling of the detector.

  15. Muon and Tau Neutrinos Spectra from Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele; Moscato, Federica

    2003-12-01

    Most power-full solar flare as the ones occurred on 23th February 1956, September 29th 1989, 28th October and on 2nd-4th November 2003 are sources of cosmic rays, X, gamma and neutrino bursts. These flares took place both on front or in the edge and in the hidden solar disk. The 4th November event was the most powerful X event in the highest known rank category X28 just at horizons. The observed and estimated total flare energy (EFL ≃ 1031div 1033 erg) should be a source of a prompt secondary neutrino burst originated, by proton-proton-pion production on the sun itself; a more delayed and spread neutrino flux signal arise by the solar charged flare particles reaching the terrestrial atmosphere. These first earliest prompt solar neutrino burst might be observed, in a few neutrino clustered events, in present or future largest neutrino underground detectors as Super-Kamiokande one, in time correlation with the X-Radio flare. The onset in time correlation has great statistical significance. Our first estimate on the neutrino number events detection at the Super-Kamiokande II Laboratory for horizontal or hidden flare is found to be few events: NeV_bar{ν}_e≃ 0.63&etae ()/(35 MeV) ()/(1031 erg); and NeV_bar{ν}μ ≃ 3.58()/(200 MeV) ()/(1031erg) η,SUB>μ, where η≃ 1, Eνμ > 113 MeV. Our first estimates of neutrino signals in largest underground detectors hint for few events in correlation with X, gamma, radio onser. Our approximated spectra for muons and taus from these rare solar eruption are shown over the most common background. The muon and tau signature is very peculiar and characteristic over electron and anti-electron neutrino fluxes. The rise of muon neutrinos will be detectable above the minimal muon threshold Eν ≃ 113 MeV energy, or above the pion and Δ ° thresholds (Eν≃ 151 and 484 MeV). Any large neutrino flare event record might also verify the expected neutrino flavour mixing leading to a few as well as a comparable

  16. Resonant-Spin Flavour solutions to the Solar neutrino Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, O. G.

    2002-07-01

    Resonant spin-flavour solutions to the solar neutrino problem are introduced, in the framework of analytic solutions to the solar magneto-hydrodynamics equations. We study these solutions in a scheme with 3 effective parameters: the neutrino magnetic moment, the neutrino mass difference and mixing. We perform a fit of the solar neutrino data, including the recent SNO CC. We show how a rates-only analysis slightly flavours spin-flavour precession solutions over oscillations. In addition to the resonant solution, there is a new non-resonant solution in the dark-side. Both solutions lead to flat recoil energy spectra in excellent agreement with the latest SuperKamiokande data.

  17. Light sterile neutrinos, spin flavor precession, and the solar neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, C. R.; Pulido, João; Picariello, Marco

    2009-04-01

    We generalize to three active flavors a previous two-flavor model for the resonant spin flavor conversion of solar neutrinos to sterile ones, a mechanism which is added to the well-known large mixing angle (LMA) one. The transition magnetic moments from the muon and tau neutrinos to the sterile play the dominant role in fixing the amount of active flavor suppression. We also show, through numerical integration of the evolution equations, that the data from all solar neutrino experiments except Borexino exhibit a clear preference for a sizable magnetic field either in the convection zone or in the core and radiation zone. This is possibly related to the fact that the data from the first set are average ones taken during a period of mostly intense solar activity, whereas in contrast Borexino data were taken during a period of quiet Sun. We argue that the solar neutrino experiments are capable of tracing the possible modulation of the solar magnetic field. Those monitoring the high-energy neutrinos, namely, the B8 flux, appear to be sensitive to a field modulation either in the convection zone or in the core and radiation zone. Those monitoring the low-energy fluxes will be sensitive to the second type of solar field profiles only. In this way Borexino alone may play an essential role, since it examines both energy sectors, although experimental redundancy from other experiments will be most important.

  18. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerive, A.; Klein, J. R.; McDonald, A. B.; Noble, A. J.; Poon, A. W. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from 1999 to 2006. By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from 8B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth. The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. This review summarizes the results from three phases of solar neutrino detection as well as other physics results obtained from analyses of the SNO data.

  19. Measurement of the reaction ^7Be(p,γ)^8B with a solid radioactive target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greife, Uwe

    2000-04-01

    The reaction ^7Be(p,γ)^8B is regarded as a key to the understanding of the solar neutrino spectrum and thus most probably to the understanding of new neutrino properties. This contribution describes an experiment measuring the absolute cross section of ^7Be(p,γ)^8B with a solid radioactive target in the energy range between 350 keV and 2.6 MeV. The experiment was performed at the Dynamitron Tandem Laboratory of the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Germany.

  20. First indication of terrestrial matter effects on solar neutrino oscillation.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, A; Abe, K; Hayato, Y; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Kishimoto, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakano, Y; Nakayama, S; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takenaga, Y; Tomura, T; Ueno, K; Yokozawa, T; Wendell, R A; Irvine, T; Kajita, T; Kaneyuki, K; Lee, K P; Nishimura, Y; Okumura, K; McLachlan, T; Labarga, L; Berkman, S; Tanaka, H A; Tobayama, S; Kearns, E; Raaf, J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Goldhabar, M; Bays, K; Carminati, G; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Ganezer, K S; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Hong, N; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Akiri, T; Himmel, A; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Tasaka, S; Jang, J S; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Bronner, C; Hirota, S; Huang, K; Ieki, K; Ikeda, M; Kikawa, T; Minamino, A; Nakaya, T; Suzuki, K; Takahashi, S; Fukuda, Y; Choi, K; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Mijakowski, P; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Yanagisawa, C; Ishino, H; Kibayashi, A; Koshio, Y; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Yano, T; Kuno, Y; Tacik, R; Kim, S B; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Totsuka, Y; Yokoyama, M; Martens, K; Marti, Ll; Vagins, M R; Martin, J F; de Perio, P; Konaka, A; Wilking, M J; Chen, S; Zhang, Y; Wilkes, R J

    2014-03-01

    We report an indication that the elastic scattering rate of solar B8 neutrinos with electrons in the Super-Kamiokande detector is larger when the neutrinos pass through Earth during nighttime. We determine the day-night asymmetry, defined as the difference of the average day rate and average night rate divided by the average of those two rates, to be [-3.2 ± 1.1(stat) ± 0.5(syst)]%, which deviates from zero by 2.7 σ. Since the elastic scattering process is mostly sensitive to electron-flavored solar neutrinos, a nonzero day-night asymmetry implies that the flavor oscillations of solar neutrinos are affected by the presence of matter within the neutrinos' flight path. Super-Kamiokande's day-night asymmetry is consistent with neutrino oscillations for 4 × 10(-5)  eV(2) ≤ Δm 2(21) ≤ 7 × 10(-5) eV(2) and large mixing values of θ12, at the 68% C.L. PMID:24655245

  1. Solar neutrinos and 1-3 leptonic mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Srubabati; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2005-09-01

    Effects of the 1-3 leptonic mixing on the solar neutrino observables are studied and the signatures of nonzero {theta}{sub 13} are identified. For this we have rederived the formula for 3{nu}-survival probability including all relevant corrections and constructed the isocontours of observables in the sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 12}-sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} plane. Analysis of the solar neutrino data gives sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}=0.007{sub -0.007}{sup +0.080} (90% C.L.) for {delta}m{sup 2}=8x10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}. The combination of the ratio CC/NC at Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) and gallium production rate selects sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}=0.017{+-}0.026 (1{sigma}). The global fit of all oscillation data leads to zero best value of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}. The sensitivity (1{sigma} error) of future solar neutrino studies to sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} can be improved down to 0.01-0.02 by precise measurements of the pp-neutrino flux and the CC/NC ratio as well as spectrum distortion at high (E>4 MeV) energies. Combination of experimental results sensitive to the low and high energy parts of the solar neutrino spectrum resolves the degeneracy of angles {theta}{sub 13} and {theta}{sub 12}. Comparison of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} as well as sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 12} measured in the solar neutrinos and in the reactor/accelerator experiments may reveal new effects which can not be seen otherwise.

  2. a Brief Critique of the Search for Neutrino Oscillations with “SINGLE MEASUREMENT” Solar Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, David B.; Cheng, Mao-Tung

    We briefly review the recent results on solar neutrino observations pointing out the dependence on the model of the solar neutrino production. We show that current uncertainties make it rather unlikely that unambiguous proof of neutrino oscillations can be obtained from any current (single measurement) techniques. We then show the importance of carrying out solar neutrino experiments where two reactions are measured simultaneously (double experiments). As an example we apply this to the ICARUS liquid Argon detector being constructed for the Gran Sasso Laboratory.

  3. Charge exchange reactions and solar neutrino detection in 81Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. F.; Gabbard, F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of 81Br as the detector of the solar neutrino flux hinges upon the knowledge of the Gamow-Teller matrix element from the ground state of 81Br to the 52- state at 0.457 MeV in 81Kr. The possibility of obtaining this matrix element is discussed in terms of the (p, n) and (3He, t) charge exchange reactions. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 81Br(p, n)81Kr and 81Br(3He, t)81Kr Gamow-Teller transitions; solar neutrino detection.

  4. First real-time detection of solar pp neutrinos by Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, M.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Kayser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablëv, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    Solar neutrinos have been pivotal to the discovery of neutrino flavour oscillations and are a unique tool to probe the reactions that keep the Sun shine. Although most of solar neutrino components have been directly measured, the neutrinos emitted by the keystone pp reaction, in which two protons fuse to make a deuteron, have so far eluded direct detection. The Borexino experiment, an ultra-pure liquid scintillator detector running at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy, has now filled the gap, providing the first direct real time measurement of pp neutrinos and of the solar neutrino luminosity.

  5. Solar neutrinos and the influence of radiative opacities on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, T. R.; Ezer, D.; Stothers, R.

    1973-01-01

    Use of new radiative opacities based on the hot Thomas-Fermi model of the atom yields a predicted solar neutrino flux which is still considerably larger than the flux observed in Davis's Cl-37 experiment.

  6. Neutrino signals from electroweak bremsstrahlung in solar WIMP annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nicole F.; Brennan, Amelia J.; Jacques, Thomas D. E-mail: a.brennan@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au

    2012-10-01

    Bremsstrahlung of W and Z gauge bosons, or photons, can be an important dark matter annihilation channel. In many popular models in which the annihilation to a pair of light fermions is helicity suppressed, these bremsstrahlung processes can lift the suppression and thus become the dominant annihilation channels. The resulting dark matter annihilation products contain a large, energetic, neutrino component. We consider solar WIMP annihilation in the case where electroweak bremsstrahlung dominates, and calculate the resulting neutrino spectra. The flux consists of primary neutrinos produced in processes such as χχ→ν-bar νZ and χχ→ν-bar lW, and secondary neutrinos produced via the decays of gauge bosons and charged leptons. After dealing with the neutrino propagation and flavour evolution in the Sun, we consider the prospects for detection in neutrino experiments on Earth. We compare our signal with that for annihilation to W{sup +}W{sup −}, and show that, for a given annihilation rate, the bremsstrahlung annihilation channel produces a larger signal by a factor of a few.

  7. Nuclear processes and neutrino production in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Kozlovsky, S.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of flare neutrino flux is approached from the standpoint of recent observations and theoretical results on the nuclear processes in solar flares. Attention is given to the energy spectra and total numbers of accelerated particles in flares, as well as their resulting production of beta(+)-emitting radionuclei and pions; these should be the primary sources of neutrinos. The observed 0.511 MeV line flux for the June 21, 1980 flare is compared with the expected from the number and spectrum of accelerated particles.

  8. Contribution of gallium experiments to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The results of gallium measurements of solar neutrino and measurements with artificial sources of neutrinos are presented. Conclusions are drawn from these results, and the potential of the SAGE experiment for studying transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 0.5 eV{sup 2} and a sensitivity of a few percent to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is examined.

  9. A step toward CNO solar neutrino detection in liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villante, F. L.; Ianni, A.; Lombardi, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Vissani, F.

    2011-07-01

    The detection of CNO solar neutrinos in ultrapure liquid scintillator detectors is limited by the background produced by bismuth-210 nuclei that undergo β-decay to polonium-210 with a lifetime of ˜7 days. Polonium-210 nuclei are unstable and decay with a lifetime equal to ˜200 days emitting α particles that can be also detected. In this Letter, we show that the Bi-210 background can be determined by looking at the time evolution of α-decay rate of Po-210, provided that α particle detection efficiency is stable over the data acquisition period and external sources of Po-210 are negligible. A sufficient accuracy can be obtained in a relatively short time. As an example, if the initial Po-210 event rate is ˜2000 cpd/100 ton or lower, a Borexino-like detector could start discerning CNO neutrino signal from Bi-210 background in Δt˜1 yr.

  10. Solar neutrino interactions with liquid scintillators used for double beta-decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu; Zuber, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Solar neutrinos interact within double-beta-decay (DBD) detectors and hence will contribute to backgrounds (BGs) for DBD experiments. Background contributions due to solar neutrinos are evaluated for their interactions with atomic electrons and nuclei in liquid scintillation detectors used for DBD experiments. They are shown to be serious BGs for high-sensitivity DBD experiments to search for the Majorana neutrino masses in the inverted and normal hierarchy regions.

  11. Magnetic neutrino resonant spin-flavor precession, 2. Helio-latitudinal asymmetry of solar neutrino fluxes and correlation coefficients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    2001-08-01

    On the bases of available Homestake experimental data (Cleveland et al., 1998) for more than two solar cycles (1970-1994) we determine for each solar neutrino run "n" effective helio-latitude Lef(n). Then we separate all Homestake runs on three equal helio -latitudinal zones: SOUTHERLY, EQUATORIAL, and NORTHERLY with average helio-latitudes -5.3, -0.3 and +5.3 degrees, correspondingly. For each zone and each run we found effective Zurich sunspot number Zef(n), total effective surface of sunspots STef(n), as well as effective surfaces of sunspots in different non-symmetrical helio-latitudinal belts. We separated also all runs on 3 equal groups of LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH solar activity with average sunspot numbers 25.0, 80.1 and 149.9. We found that the biggest decrease of solar neutrino flux with increasing of solar activity was observed in EQUATORIAL zone: from 3.6 SNU at LOW solar activity to 2.1 SNU at HIGH solar activity. The biggest SOUTH -NORTH asymmetry in solar neutrino fluxes was observed in group of runs at LOW solar activity: 2.9 SNU in SOUTHERLY zone and 2.1 SNU in NORTHERLY zone. The SOUTHNORTH asymmetry is found also in correlation coefficients between solar neutrino fluxes in the helio-latitudinal zones SOUTHERLY, EQUATORIAL, and NORTHERLY with solar activity in different non-symmetrical helio-latitudinal belts. Obtained results support the model of magnetic neutrino resonant spin-flavor precession.

  12. Quasi-biennial modulation of solar neutrino flux: connections with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchio, A.; Laurenza, M.; D'alessi, L.; Carbone, V.; Storini, M.

    2011-12-01

    A quasi-biennial periodicity has been recently found (Vecchio et al., 2010) in the solar neutrino flux, as detected at the Homestake experiment, as well as in the flux of solar energetic protons, by means of the Empirical Modes Decomposition technique. Moreover, both fluxes have been found to be significantly correlated at the quasi-biennial timescale, thus supporting the hypothesis of a connection between solar neutrinos and solar activity. The origin of this connection is investigated, by modeling how the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect (the process for which the well-known neutrino flavor oscillations are modified in passing through the material) could be influenced by matter fluctuations. As proposed by Burgess et al., 2004, by introducing a background magnetic field in the helioseismic model, density fluctuations can be excited in the radiative zone by the resonance between helioseismic g-modes and Alfvén waves. In particular, with reasonable values of the background magnetic field (10-100 kG), the distance between resonant layers could be of the same order of neutrino oscillation length. We study the effect over this distance of a background magnetic field which is variable with a ~2 yr period, in agreement with typical variations of solar activity. Our findings suggest that the quasi-biennial modulation of the neutrino flux is theoretically possible as a consequence of the magnetic field variations in the solar interior. A. Vecchio, M. Laurenza, V. Carbone, M. Storini, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 709, L1-L5 (2010). C. Burgess, N. S. Dzhalilov, T. I. Rashba, V., B.Semikoz, J. W. F. Valle, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 348, 609-624 (2004).

  13. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, D.; Giganti, C.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Bottino, B.; Canci, N.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pocar, A.; Razeti, M.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Suvorov, Y.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Wang, H.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ``neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ~15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the 7Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  14. Measurement of day and night neutrino energy spectra at SNO and constraints on neutrino mixing parameters.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Q R; Allen, R C; Andersen, T C; Anglin, J D; Barton, J C; Beier, E W; Bercovitch, M; Bigu, J; Biller, S D; Black, R A; Blevis, I; Boardman, R J; Boger, J; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Bühler, G; Cameron, J; Chan, Y D; Chen, H H; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Clifford, E T H; Cowan, J H M; Cowen, D F; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Davidson, W F; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ferraris, A P; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Gil, S; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A S; Hamian, A A; Handler, W B; Haq, R U; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hepburn, J D; Heron, H; Hewett, J; Hime, A; Howe, M; Hykawy, J G; Isaac, M C P; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jonkmans, G; Kazkaz, K; Keener, P T; Klein, J R; Knox, A B; Komar, R J; Kouzes, R; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lay, M; Lee, H W; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Locke, W; Luoma, S; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Manor, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McDonald, D S; McFarlane, K; McGregor, G; Meijer Drees, R; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Milton, G; Moffat, B A; Moorhead, M; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Ng, H S; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Omori, M; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Poon, A W P; Radcliffe, T J; Roberge, A; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rosendahl, S S E; Rowley, J K; Rusu, V L; Saettler, E; Schaffer, K K; Schwendener, M H; Schülke, A; Seifert, H; Shatkay, M; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W E; Spreitzer, T; Starinsky, N; Steiger, T D; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Storey, R S; Sur, B; Tafirout, R; Tagg, N; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Thornewell, P M; Trent, P T; Tserkovnyak, Y I; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Waltham, C E; Wang, J-X; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M

    2002-07-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has measured day and night solar neutrino energy spectra and rates. For charged current events, assuming an undistorted 8B spectrum, the night minus day rate is 14.0%+/-6.3%(+1.5%)(-1.4%) of the average rate. If the total flux of active neutrinos is additionally constrained to have no asymmetry, the nu(e) asymmetry is found to be 7.0%+/-4.9%(+1.3%)(-1.2%). A global solar neutrino analysis in terms of matter-enhanced oscillations of two active flavors strongly favors the large mixing angle solution.

  15. The status of the solar neutrino problem and the Russian-American gallium experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1994-04-01

    Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution.

  16. The solar neutrino puzzle and the vL --> vR conversion hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, R.; Fiorentini, G.

    As a possible explanation of the solar neutrino puzzle, several authors have invoked a neutrino helicity rotation (vL --> vR) in the solar magnetic field, coupled to a neutrino magnetic moment. We discuss: (i) the effect on the vL --> vR conversion probability of the different coherent interaction with matter of the two neutrino helicity states; (ii) the azimuthal asymmetry in the elastic v-e scattering of solar neutrinos, due to the interference between the weak and the electromagnetic amplitude. We also briefly comment on the theoretical problem posed by a neutrino magnetic moment as large as 10-10μB. Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Italy.

  17. ecCNO solar neutrinos: A challenge for gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villante, F. L.

    2015-03-01

    Neutrinos produced in the Sun by electron capture reactions on 13N, 15O and 17F, to which we refer as ecCNO neutrinos, are not usually considered in solar neutrino analysis since the expected fluxes are extremely low. The experimental determination of this sub-dominant component of the solar neutrino flux is very difficult but could be rewarding since it provides a determination of the metallic content of the solar core and, moreover, probes the solar neutrino survival probability in the transition region at Eν ∼ 2.5 MeV. In this Letter, we suggest that this difficult measure could be at reach for future gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors, such as LENA.

  18. Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2010-08-04

    Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

  19. Solar neutrinos as background in dark matter searches involving electron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A. W.; Vergados, J. D.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work we estimate the potential background of solar neutrinos on electron detectors. These detectors are considered relevant for detecting light dark matter particles in the MeV region, currently sought by experiments. We find that the copious low energy pp neutrinos are a dangerous background at the energies involved in these experiments, in fact close to the anticipated event rate, while the more energetic Boron neutrinos are harmless.

  20. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; Antonelli, Vito; Baussan, Eric; Beacom, John; Bezrukov, Leonid; Blyth, Simon; Brugnera, Riccardo; Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Busto, Jose; Cabrera, Anatael; Cai, Hao; Cai, Xiao; Cammi, Antonio; Cao, Guofu; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Yixue; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Clerbaux, Barbara; Conrad, Janet; D'Angelo, Davide; De Kerret, Hervé; Deng, Zhi; Deng, Ziyan; Ding, Yayun; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dornic, Damien; Dracos, Marcos; Drapier, Olivier; Dusini, Stefano; Dye, Stephen; Enqvist, Timo; Fan, Donghua; Fang, Jian; Favart, Laurent; Ford, Richard; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Gan, Haonan; Garfagnini, Alberto; Giammarchi, Marco; Gonchar, Maxim; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Gonin, Michel; Grassi, Marco; Grewing, Christian; Guan, Mengyun; Guarino, Vic; Guo, Gang; Guo, Wanlei; Guo, Xin-Heng; Hagner, Caren; Han, Ran; He, Miao; Heng, Yuekun; Hsiung, Yee; Hu, Jun; Hu, Shouyang; Hu, Tao; Huang, Hanxiong; Huang, Xingtao; Huo, Lei; Ioannisian, Ara; Jeitler, Manfred; Ji, Xiangdong; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Jollet, Cécile; Kang, Li; Karagounis, Michael; Kazarian, Narine; Krumshteyn, Zinovy; Kruth, Andre; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Leitner, Rupert; Li, Chao; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Weidong; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Yi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; Liang, Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Ling, Jiajie; Lippi, Ivano; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Hongbang; Liu, Hu; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Jinchang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Shulin; Lombardi, Paolo; Long, Yongbing; Lu, Haoqi; Lu, Jiashu; Lu, Jingbin; Lu, Junguang; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Luo, Shu; Lyashuk, Vladimir; Möllenberg, Randolph; Ma, Xubo; Mantovani, Fabio; Mao, Yajun; Mari, Stefano M.; McDonough, William F.; Meng, Guang; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Meroni, Emanuela; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miramonti, Lino; Mueller, Thomas; Naumov, Dmitry; Oberauer, Lothar; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Ortica, Fausto; Paoloni, Alessandro; Peng, Haiping; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Previtali, Ezio; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yongzhong; Qin, Zhonghua; Raffelt, Georg; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Ricci, Barbara; Robens, Markus; Romani, Aldo; Ruan, Xiangdong; Ruan, Xichao; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Shaevitz, Mike; Sinev, Valery; Sirignano, Chiara; Sisti, Monica; Smirnov, Oleg; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Steinmann, Jochen; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Yongjie; Taichenachev, Dmitriy; Tang, Jian; Tkachev, Igor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; van Waasen, Stefan; Volpe, Cristina; Vorobel, Vit; Votano, Lucia; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Wang, Guoli; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ruiguang; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Wen, Liangjian; Wiebusch, Christopher; Wonsak, Björn; Wu, Qun; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Wurm, Michael; Xi, Yufei; Xia, Dongmei; Xie, Yuguang; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Xu, Jilei; Yan, Baojun; Yang, Changgen; Yang, Chaowen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yifan; Yao, Yu; Yegin, Ugur; Yermia, Frédéric; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Boxiang; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Zeyuan; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zhan, Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhenghua; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhong, Weili; Zhou, Guorong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Wenxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhou, Yeling; Zhou, Yufeng; Zou, Jiaheng

    2016-03-01

    . Detection of neutrinos from all past core-collapse supernova explosions in the visible universe with JUNO would further provide valuable information on the cosmic star-formation rate and the average core-collapse neutrino energy spectrum. Antineutrinos originating from the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth can be detected in JUNO with a rate of ˜400 events per year, significantly improving the statistics of existing geoneutrino event samples. Atmospheric neutrino events collected in JUNO can provide independent inputs for determining the MH and the octant of the {θ }23 mixing angle. Detection of the 7Be and 8B solar neutrino events at JUNO would shed new light on the solar metallicity problem and examine the transition region between the vacuum and matter dominated neutrino oscillations. Regarding light sterile neutrino topics, sterile neutrinos with {10}-5 {{{eV}}}2\\lt {{Δ }}{m}412\\lt {10}-2 {{{eV}}}2 and a sufficiently large mixing angle {θ }14 could be identified through a precise measurement of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum. Meanwhile, JUNO can also provide us excellent opportunities to test the eV-scale sterile neutrino hypothesis, using either the radioactive neutrino sources or a cyclotron-produced neutrino beam. The JUNO detector is also sensitive to several other beyondthe-standard-model physics. Examples include the search for proton decay via the p\\to {K}++\\bar{ν } decay channel, search for neutrinos resulting from dark-matter annihilation in the Sun, search for violation of Lorentz invariance via the sidereal modulation of the reactor neutrino event rate, and search for the effects of non-standard interactions. The proposed construction of the JUNO detector will provide a unique facility to address many outstanding crucial questions in particle and astrophysics in a timely and cost-effective fashion. It holds the great potential for further advancing our quest to understanding the fundamental properties of neutrinos, one

  1. Nuclear Structure of 8B Studied by Proton Resonance Scatterings on 7Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Amadio, G.; Kubono, S.; Fujikawa, H.; Saito, A.; He, J. J.; Teranishi, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Inafuku, K.; Niikura, M.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.

    2008-05-01

    A new measurement of the proton resonance scattering on 7Be was performed up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV using the low-energy RI beam facility CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. The excitation function of 8B above 3.5 MeV was successfully measured for the first time, providing important information about the reaction rate of 7Be(p,γ)8B, which is the key reaction in the solar 8B neutrino production. For more intensive experimental studies with RI beams, the development of a cryogenic gas target system is ongoing at CNS. In this paper a preliminary result of the 7Be experiment and the present status of the development of the target system are presented.

  2. Nuclear Structure of {sup 8}B Studied by Proton Resonance Scatterings on {sup 7}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Amadio, G.; Kubono, S.; Fujikawa, H.; Niikura, M.; Binh, D. N.; Saito, A.; He, J. J.; Teranishi, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Inafuku, K.; Khiem, L. H.

    2008-05-21

    A new measurement of the proton resonance scattering on {sup 7}Be was performed up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV using the low-energy RI beam facility CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. The excitation function of {sup 8}B above 3.5 MeV was successfully measured for the first time, providing important information about the reaction rate of {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B, which is the key reaction in the solar {sup 8}B neutrino production. For more intensive experimental studies with RI beams, the development of a cryogenic gas target system is ongoing at CNS. In this paper a preliminary result of the {sup 7}Be experiment and the present status of the development of the target system are presented.

  3. The status of the study of solar CNO neutrinos in the Borexino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanchenko, G. A.; Collaboration: Borexino Collaboration

    2015-12-15

    Although less than 1% of solar energy is generated in the CNO cycle, it plays a critical role in astrophysics, since this cycle is the primary source of energy in certain more massive stars and at later stages of evolution of solar-type stars. Electron neutrinos are produced in the CNO cycle reactions. These neutrinos may be detected by terrestrial neutrino detectors. Various solar models with different abundances of elements heavier than helium predict different CNO neutrino fluxes. A direct measurement of the CNO neutrino flux could help distinguish between these models and solve several other astrophysical problems. No CNO neutrinos have been detected directly thus far, and the best upper limit on their flux was set in the Borexino experiment. The work on reducing the background in the region of energies of CNO neutrinos (up to 1.74 MeV) and developing novel data analysis methods is presently under way. These efforts may help detect the CNO neutrino flux in the Borexino experiment at the level predicted by solar models.

  4. Neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    Besson, Dave; Cowen, Doug; Selen, Mats; Wiebusch, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos represent a new “window” to the Universe, spanning a large range of energy. We discuss the science of neutrino astrophysics and focus on two energy regimes. At “lower” energies (≈1 MeV), studies of neutrinos born inside the sun, or produced in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere, have allowed the first incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos have mass. At energies typically one thousand to one million times higher, sources further than the sun (both within the Milky Way and beyond) are expected to produce a flux of particles that can be detected only through neutrinos. PMID:10588680

  5. The SNO+ Scintillator Purification Plant and Projected Sensitivity to Solar Neutrinos in the Pure Scintillator Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershing, Teal; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The SNO+ detector is a neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment utilizing the renovated SNO detector. In the second phase of operation, the SNO+ detector will contain 780 tons of organic liquid scintillator composed of 2 g/L 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). In this phase, SNO+ will strive to detect solar neutrinos in the sub-MeV range, including CNO production neutrinos and pp production neutrinos. To achieve the necessary detector sensitivity, a four-part scintillator purification plant has been constructed in SNOLAB for the removal of ionic and radioactive impurities. We present an overview of the SNO+ scintillator purification plant stages, including distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and metal scavenger columns. We also give the projected SNO+ sensitivities to various solar-produced neutrinos based on the scintillator plant's projected purification efficiency.

  6. Proposed solar neutrino experiment using /sup 81/Br(nu,e/sup -/)/sup 81/Kr

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Chen, C.H.; Kramer, S.D.; Allman, S.L.

    1984-12-01

    It has now been shown that it is feasible to measure the /sup 7/Be neutrino source in the sun by using the reaction /sup 81/Br(nu,e/sup -/)/sup 81/Kr in a radiochemical experiment. Such an experiment would be quite similar to the Davis, Cleveland, and Rowley method for measuring the /sup 8/B neutrino using /sup 37/Cl(nu,e/sup -/)/sup 37/Ar except that the resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) method (instead of decay counting) would be employed to count the 2 x 10/sup 5/-yr /sup 81/Kr atoms.

  7. Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Hulth, P. O.; Botner, O.; Carlson, P.; Ohlsson, T.

    2006-03-01

    J. N. Bahcall (1934-2005) -- Preface -- List of participants -- Committees -- Nobel symposium on neutrino physics - program -- The history of neutrino oscillations / S. M. Bilenky -- Super-Kamiokande results on neutrino oscillations / Y. Suzuki -- Sudbury neutrino observatory results / A. B. McDonald -- Results from KamLAND reactor neutrino detection / A. Suzuki -- New opportunities for surprise / J. Conrad -- Solar models and solar neutrinos / J. N. Bahcall -- Atmospheric neutrino fluxes / T. K. Gaisser -- The MSW effect and matter effects in neutrino oscillations / A. Yu. Smirnov -- Three-flavour effects and CP- and T-violation in neutrino oscillations / E. Kh. Akhmedov -- Global analysis of neutrino data / M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia -- Future precision neutrino oscillation experiments and theoretical implications / M. Lindner -- Experimental prospects of neutrinoless double beta decay / E. Fiorini -- Theoretical prospects of neutrinoless double beta decay / S. T. Petcov -- Supernova neutrino oscillations / G. G. Raffelt -- High-energy neutrino astronomy / F. Halzen -- Neutrino astrophysics in the cold: Amanda, Baikal and IceCube / C. Spiering -- Status of radio and acoustic detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos and a proposal on reporting results / D. Saltzberg -- Detection of neutrino-induced air showers / A. A. Watson -- Prospect for relic neutrino searches / G. B. Gelmini -- Leptogenesis in the early universe / T. Yanagida -- Neutrinos and big bang nucleosynthesis / G. Steigman -- Extra galactic sources of high energy neutrinos / E. Waxman -- Cosmological neutrino bounds for non-cosmologists / M. Tegmark -- Neutrino intrinsic properties: the neutrino-antineutrino relation / B. Kayser -- NuTeV and neutrino properties / M. H. Shaevitz -- Absolute masses of neutrinos - experimental results and future possibilities / C. Weinheimer -- Flavor theories and neutrino masses / P. Ramond -- Neutrino mass models and leptogenesis / S. F. King -- Neutrino mass and

  8. Low energy neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Super-Kamiokande (SK), a 50 kton water Cherenkov detector, observes 8B solar neutrinos via neutrino-electron elastic scattering. The analysis threshold was successfully lowered to 3.5 MeV (recoil electron kinetic energy) in SK-IV. To date SK has observed solar neutrinos for 18 years. An analysis regarding possible correlations between the solar neutrino flux and the 11 year solar activity cycle is shown. With large statistics, SK searches for distortions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum caused by the MSW resonance in the core of the sun. SK also searches for a day/night solar neutrino flux asymmetry induced by the matter in the Earth. The Super-Kamiokande Gd (SK-Gd) project is the upgrade of the SK detector via the addition of water-soluble gadolinium (Gd) salt. This modification will enable it to efficiently identify low energy anti-neutrinos. SK-Gd will pursue low energy physics currently inaccessible to SK due to backgrounds. The most important will be the world’s first observation of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. The main R&D program towards SK-Gd is EG ADS: a 200 ton, fully instrumented tank built in a new cavern in the Kamioka mine.

  9. High precision 7Be solar neutrinos measurement and day night effect obtained with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testera, G.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Kobychev, V.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Leung, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, F.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pena-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-11-01

    We report the direct measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino signal rate performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and the search for a day-night asymmetry of this interaction rate. The interaction rate of the 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is 46±1.6(stat)-1.6+1.5(syst) counts/(day · 100 ton). The hypothesis of no oscillation for this solar neutrinos is inconsistent with our measurement at the 5.8σ C.L. Our result is the first direct measurement of solar neutrinos with an accuracy better than 5%. We report the survival probability for solar νe in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations. The measured day night asymmetry is Adn=0.001±0.012 (stat)±0.007 (syst), in agreement with the predicition of MSW-LMA neutrino [13] oscillations. This result discourages MSW oscillations with mixing parameters in the LOW region at more than 8.5σ, meaning that this region is, for the first time, strongly rejected without the assumption of CPT symmetry. The result can also be used to constrain some neutrino oscillation scenarios involving new physics.

  10. On the question of the magnitude of day-night asymmetry for solar neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshin, S. S. Lobanov, A. E. Kharlanov, O. G.

    2013-09-15

    The effect of flavor day-night asymmetry is considered for solar neutrinos of energy about 1 MeV under the assumption that the electron-density distribution within the Earth is approximately piecewise continuous on the scale of the neutrino-oscillation length. In this approximation, the resulting asymmetry factor for beryllium neutrinos does not depend on the structure of the inner Earth's layers or on the properties of the detector used. Its numerical estimate is on the order of -4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, which is far beyond the reach of present-day experiments.

  11. Solar neutrinos and the MSW effect for three-neutrino mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, X.; Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers considered three-neutrino Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mixing, assuming m sub 3 is much greater than m sub 2 is greater than m sub 1 as expected from theoretical consideration if neutrinos have mass. They calculated the corresponding mixing parameter space allowed by the Cl-37 and Kamiokande 2 experiments. They also calculated the expected depletion for the Ga-71 experiment. They explored a range of theoretical uncertainty due to possible astrophysical effects by varying the B-8 neutrino flux and redoing the MSW mixing calculation.

  12. Electron events from the scattering with solar neutrinos in the search of keV scale sterile neutrino dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Hang

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work, we showed that it is possible to detect keV scale sterile neutrino dark matter νs in a β decay experiment using radioactive sources such as T3 or Ru106. The signals of this dark matter candidate are monoenergetic electrons produced in the neutrino capture process νs+ N'→N+e-. These electrons have energy greater than the maximum energy of the electrons produced in the associated decay process N'→N+e-+ν ¯e. Hence, signal electron events are well beyond the end point of the β decay spectrum and are not polluted by the β decay process. Another possible background, which is a potential threat to the detection of νs dark matter, is the electron event produced by the scattering of solar neutrinos with electrons in target matter. In this article, we study in detail this possible background and discuss its implications for the detection of keV scale sterile neutrino dark matter. In particular, bound state features of electrons in Ru atoms are considered with care in the scattering process when the kinetic energy of the final electron is the same order of magnitude of the binding energy.

  13. The fluxes of CN neutrinos from the Sun in case of mixing in a spherical layer in the solar core

    SciTech Connect

    Kopylov, Anatoly; Petukhov, Valery E-mail: beril@inr.ru

    2012-03-01

    The results of the calculation are presented for the fluxes of CN neutrinos from the Sun in case of mixing in a spherical layer in the solar core, consistent with the seismic data and with the measured solar neutrino fluxes. It is shown that a substantial increase of the flux of {sup 13}N neutrinos can be gained in this case. The possible implications for experiment are discussed.

  14. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal, part III

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Steven Ray

    2008-01-01

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keY of 65.4{sup +3.1}{sub 3.0} (stat) {sup +2.6}{sub -2.8} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neUlrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 {+-} 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.88 {+-} 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63--67 SNU with an uncertainly of about 5%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the pp neutrino flux produced in the Sun to be {phi}{sup {circle_dot}}{sub pp} = (6.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  15. Studying the Sun's Nuclear Furnace with a Neutrino Detector Spacecraft in Close Solar Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomey, Nickolas

    2016-05-01

    A neutrino based detector in close solar orbit would have a neutrino flux 10,000x or more larger flux than on Earth and a smaller detector able to handle high rates with exception energy resolution could be used. We have studied the idea of operating such an experiment in close solar orbits that takes it off the ecliptic plane and in a solar orbit where the distance from the Sun will change distance. This neutrino detector on a space craft could do Solar Astrophysics studying the Solar nuclear furnace, basic nuclear physics and elementary particle physics; some of these ideas are new unique science that can only be preformed from a spacecraft. The harsh environment provides many challenges but if such a detector could be made to work it can be the next major step in this science study. How a small segmented detector can operate and preform in this environment to detect solar neutrinos will be elaborated upon using a combination of signal strength, fast signal timing, shielding and segmentation.

  16. THE SOLAR ENERGETIC BALANCE REVISITED BY YOUNG SOLAR ANALOGS, HELIOSEISMOLOGY, AND NEUTRINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine; Piau, Laurent

    2011-04-20

    The energetic balance of the standard solar model (SSM) results from equilibrium between nuclear energy production, energy transfer, and photospheric emission. In this Letter, we give an order of magnitude of several percent for the loss of energy in kinetic energy, magnetic energy, and X-ray or UV radiation during the entire solar lifetime from the observations of the present Sun. We also estimate the loss of mass from the observations of young solar analogs, which could reach up to 30%. We deduce new models of the present Sun, their associated neutrino fluxes, and internal sound-speed profile. This approach sheds quantitative lights on the disagreement between the sound speed obtained by helioseismology and the sound speed derived from the SSM including the updated photospheric CNO abundances, based on recent observations. We conclude that about 20% of the present discrepancy could come from the incorrect description of the early phases of the Sun, its activity, its initial mass, and mass-loss history. This study has obvious consequences on the solar system formation and the early evolution of the closest planets.

  17. Solar oscillations, gravitational multipole field of the sun and the solar neutrino paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, H.A.; Rosenwald, R.D.

    1986-11-04

    The visual solar oblateness work and the solar seismological work on the internal rotation of the sun are reviewed and their implications concerning the static gravitational multipole moments of the sun are discussed. The results of this work are quite deviant which is indicative of the complexity encountered and of the necessity for continued studies based on a diverse set of observing techniques. The evidence for phase-locked internal gravity modes of the sun is reviewed and the implications for the solar neutrino paradox are discussed. The rather unique possibility for testing the relevance which the phase-locked gravity modes have to this paradox is also noted. The oscillating perturbations in the sun's gravitational field produced by the classified internal gravity modes and the phase-locked modes are inferred from the observed temperature eigenfunctions. Strains of the order of 10/sup -18/ in gravitational radiation detectors based on free masses are inferred for frequencies near 100 ..mu..Hz. The relevance of these findings is discussed in terms of a new technique for use in solar seismological studies and of producing background signals in studies of low-frequency gravitational radiation. 64 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Absence of a day-night asymmetry in the 7Be solar neutrino rate in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, F.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Peña-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the result of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate in the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The measured asymmetry is Adn = 0.001 ± 0.012 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst), in agreement with the prediction of MSW-LMA solution for neutrino oscillations. This result disfavors MSW oscillations with mixing parameters in the LOW region at more than 8.5 σ. This region is, for the first time, strongly disfavored without the use of reactor anti-neutrino data and therefore the assumption of CPT symmetry. The result can also be used to constrain some neutrino oscillation scenarios involving new physics.

  19. Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, K.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Neutrinos are electrically neutral ELEMENTARY PARTICLES which experience only the weak nuclear force and gravity. Their existence was introduced as a hypothesis by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to explain the apparent violation of energy conservation in radioactive beta decay. Chadwick had discovered in 1914 that the energy spectrum of electrons emitted in beta decay was not monoenergetic but continuous...

  20. Solar neutrinos and the influences of opacity, thermal instability, additional neutrino sources, and a central black hole on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Ezer, D.

    1972-01-01

    Significant quantities that affect the internal structure of the sun are examined for factors that reduce the temperature near the sun's center. The four factors discussed are: opacity, central black hole, thermal instability, and additional neutrino sources.

  1. A Study of Solar Neutrinos Using the Super-Kamiokande Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Zoa

    The first solar neutrino flux results from the Super-Kamiokande detector are described. This independent analysis is based on a data set from June 1996 through February 1997. A total neutrino flux of 2.61 ± 0.12 (stat) ±0.13 (syst) ×106/ [ν over cm2s] is implied from the data above a 7 MeV energy threshold. When the measurement is compared with the most recent Standard Solar Model flux prediction (BP95), the ratio of data/SSM is 0.394 ± 0.018 (stat) ± 0.019 (syst). The measured fluxes during day and night yield a fractional difference of +0.019 ± 0.046 (stat). Interpretations are given in the context of vacuum and MSW enhanced neutrino flavor oscillations.

  2. Solar neutrino limit on axions and keV-mass bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Gondolo, Paolo; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2009-05-15

    The all-flavor solar neutrino flux measured by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory constrains nonstandard energy losses to less than about 10% of the Sun's photon luminosity, superseding a helioseismological argument and providing new limits on the interaction strength of low-mass particles. For the axion-photon coupling strength we find g{sub a{gamma}}<7x10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1}. We also derive explicit limits on the Yukawa coupling to electrons of pseudoscalar, scalar, and vector bosons with keV-scale masses.

  3. Independent Measurement of the Total Active B8 Solar Neutrino Flux Using an Array of He3 Proportional Counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Anthony, A. E.; Banar, J.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chauhan, D.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Dimarco, M.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J. T. M.; Graham, K.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamian, A. A.; Harper, G. C.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Klein, J. R.; Kormos, L. L.; Kos, M.; Krüger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Loach, J. C.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Martin, R.; McBryde, K.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, G. G.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A.; Nickel, B. G.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Gann, G. D. Orebi; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner, S. D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, L.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tešić, G.; Thornewell, P. M.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Tunnell, C. D.; van Wechel, T.; van Berg, R.; Vandevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Walker, T. J.; Wall, B. L.; Waller, D.; Tseung, H. Wan Chan; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2008-09-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of He3 proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active (νx) B8 solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54-0.31+0.33(stat)-0.34+0.36(syst)×106cm-2s-1, in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields Δm2=7.59-0.21+0.19×10-5eV2 and θ=34.4-1.2+1.3 degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO’s previous results.

  4. Neutral-current detectors for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Hime, A.; SNO Collaboration

    1997-09-01

    With its heavy water target, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has the unique opportunity to measure both the {sup 8}B flux of electron neutrinos from the Sun and the flux of all active neutrino species independently, thus offering a direct and model-independent test of a neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem. The authors report on the physics intent and design of a discrete method of neutral-current detection in the Sudbury neutrino observatory that will utilize ultra-low background {sup 3}He proportional counters dispersed throughout the heavy water volume. Projections of background in all components of the detector are considered in an analysis of the ability to extract the neutral-current signal and the neutral-current to charged-current ratio.

  5. Chasing the ghost particle: The long and winding road toward the detection of solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2015-10-01

    One of the great achievements of neutrino physics was the discovery of solar neutrinos in 1968 through the Homestake underground experiment. This experiment exploited a radiochemical method based on the chlorine-argon process of inverse beta decay suggested by Bruno Pontecorvo in 1946 during his work in the classified Canadian nuclear project. In this paper, we study the emergence of the method. We focus on the role played by the problematic status of the neutrino and its antiparticle in its field of application and the influence exerted by the contemporary models of energy production in the sun. We also provide evidence that a first germ of this radiochemical method, in the form of a chlorine-sulfur process, was suggested in a paper published by Richard Crane in late 1930s.

  6. A search for evidence of solar rotation in Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Shantanu; Liu, Dawei W.

    2016-09-01

    We apply the generalized Lomb-Scargle (LS) periodogram, proposed by Zechmeister and Kurster, to the solar neutrino data from Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) using data from its first five years. For each peak in the LS periodogram, we evaluate the statistical significance in two different ways. The first method involves calculating the False Alarm Probability (FAP) using non-parametric bootstrap resampling, and the second method is by calculating the difference in Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) between the null hypothesis, viz. the data contains only noise, compared to the hypothesis that the data contains a peak at a given frequency. Using these methods, we scan the frequency range between 7-14 cycles per year to look for any peaks caused by solar rotation, since this is the proposed explanation for the statistically significant peaks found by Sturrock and collaborators in the Super-K dataset. From our analysis, we do confirm that similar to Sturrock et al, the maximum peak occurs at a frequency of 9.42/year, corresponding to a period of 38.75 days. The FAP for this peak is about 1.5% and the difference in BIC (between pure white noise and this peak) is about 4.8. We note that the significance depends on the frequency band used to search for peaks and hence it is important to use a search band appropriate for solar rotation. However, The significance of this peak based on the value of BIC is marginal and more data is needed to confirm if the peak persists and is real.

  7. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2016-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ → νbar nu, τ+τ-, bbar b, we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νbar nu and τ+τ- channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νbar nu channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV . If the νbar nu or τ+τ- channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions.

  8. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2016-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ → νν-bar , τ{sup +}τ{sup −}, b b-bar , we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νν-bar and τ{sup +}τ{sup −} channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νν-bar channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV . If the νν-bar or τ{sup +}τ{sup −} channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions.

  9. Production and suppression of {sup 11}C in the solar neutrino experiment Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Meindl, Quirin; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Avanzini, M. Buizza; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Kerret, H. de; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.

    2011-04-27

    Cosmogenic {sup 11}C is produced in-situ by atmospheric muons and forms the main background for the measurement of solar pep- and CNO-neutrinos. However, FLUKA simulations show that the majority of {sup 11}C is accompanied by a free neutron in the final state, thus allowing for an efficient tagging method, the so-called Three-Fold Coincidence technique. The technique and its first applications on Borexino data are presented.

  10. Production and suppression of 11C in the solar neutrino experiment Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meindl, Quirin; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Avanzini, M. Buizza; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; de Kerret, H.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Joyce, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Leung, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Risso, P.; Romani, A.; Rountree, D.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2011-04-01

    Cosmogenic 11C is produced in-situ by atmospheric muons and forms the main background for the measurement of solar pep- and CNO-neutrinos. However, FLUKA simulations show that the majority of 11C is accompanied by a free neutron in the final state, thus allowing for an efficient tagging method, the so-called Three-Fold Coincidence technique. The technique and its first applications on Borexino data are presented.

  11. SEISMIC AND DYNAMICAL SOLAR MODELS. I. THE IMPACT OF THE SOLAR ROTATION HISTORY ON NEUTRINOS AND SEISMIC INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Turck-Chieze, S.; Palacios, A.; Nghiem, P. A. P.

    2010-06-01

    Solar activity and helioseismology show the limitation of the standard solar model and call for the inclusion of dynamical processes in both convective and radiative zones. In this paper, we concentrate on the radiative zone. We first recall the sensitivity of boron neutrinos to the microscopic physics included in solar standard and seismic models. We confront the neutrino predictions of the seismic model with all the detected neutrino fluxes. Then, we compute new models of the Sun including a detailed transport of angular momentum and chemicals due to internal rotation that includes meridional circulation and shear-induced turbulence. We use two stellar evolution codes: CESAM and STAREVOL to estimate the different terms. We follow three temporal evolutions of the internal rotation which differ by their initial conditions: very slow, moderate, and fast rotation, with magnetic braking at the arrival on the main sequence for the last two. We find that the meridional velocities in the present solar radiative zone are extremely small in comparison with those of the convective zone (smaller than 10{sup -6} cm s{sup -1} instead of m s{sup -1}). All models lead to a radial differential rotation profile in the radiative zone but with a significantly different contrast. We compare these profiles to the presumed solar internal rotation and show that if meridional circulation and shear turbulence were the only mechanisms transporting angular momentum within the Sun, a rather slow rotation in the young Sun is favored. We confirm the small influence of the transport by rotation on the sound speed profile but its potential impact on the chemicals in the transition region between radiation and convective zones. These models are physically more representative of the real Sun than the standard or seismic solar models but a high initial rotation, as has been considered previously, increases the disagreement with neutrinos and the sound speed in the radiative zone. This present work

  12. Neutrino masses, neutrino oscillations, and cosmological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical concepts and motivations for considering neutrinos having finite masses are discussed and the experimental situation on searches for neutrino masses and oscillations is summarized. The solar neutrino problem, reactor, deep mine and accelerator data, tri decay experiments and double beta-decay data are considered and cosmological implications and astrophysical data relating to neutrino masses are reviewed. The neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem, the missing mass problem in galaxy halos and galaxy cluster galaxy formation and clustering, and radiative neutrino decay and the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation are examined.

  13. Effects of heavy-element settling on solar neutrino fluxes and interior structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the effects of gravitational settling of both He and heavier elements on the predicted solar neutrino fluxes and interior sound speed and density profiles. We find that while the structural changes that result from the inclusion of both He and heavy-element settling are only slightly larger than the changes resulting from the inclusion of He settling alone, the additional increases in expected neutrino fluxes are of comparable size. Our preferred model with both He and heavy-element settling has neutrino count rates of 9.0 SNU for Cl-37 detectors and 137 SNU for Ga-71 detectors, as compared to 7.1 and 127 SNU for a comparable model without any diffusive separation, or 8.0 and 132 SNU for a model that includes He settling alone. We suggest that the correction factors by which the predicted neutrino fluxes of solar models calculated without including the effects of diffusion should be multiplied are 1.25 +/- 0.08 for Cl detectors, 1.07 +/- 0.02 for Ga detectors, and 1.28 +/- 0.09 for the B-8 flux (1 sigma errors). Comparison of internal sound speed and density profiles strongly suggests that the additional changes in calculated p-mode oscillation frequencies due to the inclusion of heavy-element settling will be small compared to the changes that result from He settling alone, especially for the higher degree modes. All models with diffusive separation give much better agreement with the observed depth of the convection zone than do nondiffusive models. The model that includes both He and heavy-element settling requires an initial He mass fraction Y = 0.280 and has a surface He abundance of Y = 0.251 at the solar age.

  14. Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

    The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water Čerenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

  15. Neutrino measurements from the Sun and Earth: Results from Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; D’Angelo, D.; Giammarchi, M.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Ranucci, G. Re, A.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Hagner, C.; Meyer, M.; Bonfini, G.; Cavalcante, P.; Gabriele, F.; Gazzana, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Laubenstein, M.; and others

    2015-07-15

    Important neutrino results came recently from Borexino, a massive, calorimetric liquid scintillator detector installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. With its unprecedented radiopurity levels achieved in the core of the detection medium, it is the only experiment in operation able to study in real time solar neutrino interactions in the challenging sub-MeV energy region. The recently achieved breakthrough observation of the fundamental pp flux, the precise measurement of the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux, and the results concerning the pep, {sup 8}B and CNO fluxes, together with their physics implications, are described in this work. Moreover, the detector has also provided a clean detection of terrestrial neutrinos, from which they emerge as a new probe of the interior of the Earth.

  16. Results of ultra-low level 71ge counting for application in the Gallex-solar neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Physics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Huebner, M.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Schneider, K.; Schlotz, R.

    1985-01-01

    It has been experimentally verified that the Ultra-Low-Level Counting System for the Gallex solar neutrino experiment is capable of measuring the expected solar up silon-flux to plus or minus 12% during two years of operation.

  17. FIRST STUDY OF DARK MATTER PROPERTIES WITH DETECTED SOLAR GRAVITY MODES AND NEUTRINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Turck-Chieze, S.; Garcia, R. A.; Ballot, J.; Couvidat, S.; Mathur, S.; Salabert, D.; Silk, J.

    2012-02-10

    We derive new limits on the cold dark matter properties for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), potentially trapped in the solar core by using for the first time the central temperature constrained by boron neutrinos and the central density constrained by the dipolar gravity modes detected with the Global Oscillations at Low Frequency/Solar Helioseismic Observatory instrument. These detections disfavor the presence of non-annihilating WIMPs for masses {<=}10 GeV and spin dependent cross-sections >5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -36} cm{sup 2} in the solar core but cannot constrain WIMP annihilation models. We suggest that in the coming years helio- and asteroseismology will provide complementary probes of dark matter.

  18. A Search for Neutrinos from the Solar hep Reaction and the DiffuseSupernova Neutrino Background with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S.N.; Anthony, A.E.; Beier, E.W.; Bellerive,A.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S.D.; Boulay, M.G.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, M.; Chen,X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress,F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; DiMarco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Drouin,P.-L.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Evans,H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J.T.M.; Graham, K.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hemingway,R.J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Jagam,P.; Jelley, N.A.; Klein, J.R.; Kormos, L.L.; Kos, M.; Krueger, A.; Kraus,C.; Krauss, C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.Lawson.I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Loach, J.C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin,R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis,K.K.S.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Nickel, B.G.; Noble, A.J.; Norman,E.B.; Oblath, N.S.; Okada, C.E.; O'Keeffe, H.M.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Oser,S.M.; Ott, R.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Secrest, J.A.; Seibert, S.R.; Simard, O.; Sims, C.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van Berg, R.; Van de Water, R.G.; VanDevender, B.A.; Virtue,C.J.; Walker, T.J.; Wall, B.L.; Waller, D.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark,D.L.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wouters,J.M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2006-08-01

    A search has been made for neutrinos from the hep reactionin the Sun and from the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB)using data collected during the first operational phase of the SudburyNeutrino Observatory, with an exposure of 0.65 kilotonne-years. For thehep neutrino search, two events are observed in the effective electronenergy range of 14.3 MeVneutrino oscillations, an upperlimit of 2.3 x 104 cm-2s-1 at the 90 percent confidence level is inferredon the integral total flux of hep neutrinos. For DSNB neutrinos, noevents are observed in the effective electron energy range of 21 MeVneutrino energy range of 22.9 MeVneutrino flux and by two orders of magnitude on theprevious upper limit on the nu e component of the DSNB flux.

  19. Particle Detection in Superfluid Helium: R&D for Low Energy Solar Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lanou, Robert E., Jr.

    2006-03-31

    This report presents a summary of the results from R&D conducted as a feasibility study in the Department of Physics of Brown University for detection of low energy solar neutrinos utilizing a superfluid helium target. The report outlines the results in several areas: 1) development of experimental facilities, 2) energy deposition by electrons and alphas in superfluid helium, 3) development of wafer and metallic magnetic calorimeters, 4) background studies, 5) coded apertures and conceptual design, 6) Detection of single electrons and 7) a simulation of expected performance of a full scale device. Recommendations for possible future work are also presented. A bibliography of published papers and unpublished doctoral theses is included.

  20. Ground state mass of 81Kr and the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzes, R. T.; Lowry, M. M.; Bennett, C. L.

    1982-02-01

    The 81Br(3He,t)81Kr, reaction has been used to determine an improved value for the ground state mass of 81Kr. A comparison is made with 51V(3He,t)51Cr and the implications for calibration of the proposed bromine solar neutrino detector are presented. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 81Br(3He,t)81Kr, 51V(3He,t)51Cr, 87Rb(3He,t)87Sr, 85Rb(3He,t)85Sr, E(3He)=24.7 MeV; Q values measured, ground state 81Kr mass inferred.

  1. Neutrino Oscillations and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, David

    2001-04-01

    When the existence of the neutrino was almost apologetically first proposed by Wolfgang Pauli it was intended to explain the mysterious apparent absence of energy and momentum in beta decay. 70 years later the neutrino has indeed solved that mystery, but it has generated still more of its own. Are neutrinos massive? Is it possible to create a neutrino with its spin in the same direction as its momentum? What fraction of the mass of the Universe is made up of neutrinos? Are the flavour labels which we put on neutrinos, like electron and muon, really fixed or can they change? Why does no experiment see the predicted flux of neutrinos from the Sun? Why do there appear to be roughly equal numbers of muon and electron neutrinos created in our atmosphere, rather than the 2:1 ratio we would expect? Many of these questions were coupled when Bruno Pontecorvo first suggested that the shortfall in solar neutrino measurements were caused by neutrino oscillations - neutrinos spontaneously changing flavour as they travel from the Sun. 30 years later we still await definitive proof of that conjecture, and providing that proof is the reason for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The talk will discuss the current state of neutrino oscillations studies, and show how the unique capabilities of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory can provide definitive proof of whether neutrino oscillations are the long-sought answer to the solar neutrino problem.

  2. 15 CFR 8b.18 - New construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards (UFAS) (Appendix A to 41 CFR subpart 101-19.6) shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New construction. 8b.18 Section 8b.18... HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Accessibility § 8b.18...

  3. 15 CFR 8b.18 - New construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards (UFAS) (Appendix A to 41 CFR subpart 101-19.6) shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false New construction. 8b.18 Section 8b.18... HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Accessibility § 8b.18...

  4. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  5. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  6. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  7. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  8. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  9. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  10. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  11. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  12. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  13. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  14. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  15. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  16. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  17. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  18. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  19. 15 CFR 8b.22 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 8b.22 Section 8b... Secondary Education § 8b.22 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  20. 15 CFR 8b.22 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 8b.22 Section 8b... Secondary Education § 8b.22 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  1. BOUNDS ON LEPTON FLAVOR CHANGING CURRENTS AND THE SOLAR NEUTRINO PUZZLE:. Bounds on Lepton Flavor Changing Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    degl'Innocenti, Scilla; Ricci, Barbara

    We present a phenomenological analysis of a lepton flavor changing current, considering the case of interactions among leptons which change the neutrino flavor and are diagonal in the charged lepton sector. In the case of νe↔νµ transition, we derive a bound on the vector coupling constant GV≤0.16 GF from experimental data on νµ-e scattering. For a transition νe↔νx, from (anti) νe-e scattering experiments and from the analysis of advanced stellar evolutionary phases, we find GV≤0.55 GF. We discuss the compatibility of these data with a possible explanation of the solar neutrino puzzle. We also analyze how the present bounds can be improved in future long baseline neutrino experiments and atmospheric neutrino detectors.

  2. 7Be(p,gamma)8B S-factor from Ab Initio Wave Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Bertulani, C A; Caurier, E

    2006-10-12

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) predicts low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. We present here a brief overview of the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss our calculation of the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor. We also present our first results of the {sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be S-factor and of the S-factor of the mirror reaction {sup 3}H({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Li. The {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B and {sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be reactions correspond to the most important uncertainties in solar model predictions of neutrino fluxes.

  3. Low-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludhova, Livia

    2016-05-01

    There exist several kinds of sources emitting neutrinos in the MeV energy range. These low-energy neutrinos from different sources can be often detected by the same multipurpose detectors. The status-of-art of the field of solar neutrinos, geoneutrinos, and the search for sterile neutrino with artificial neutrino sources is provided here; other neutrino sources, as for example reactor or high-energy neutrinos, are described elsewhere. For each of these three fields, the present-day motivation and open questions, as well as the latest experimental results and future perspectives are discussed.

  4. Effects of sudden mixing in the solar core on solar neutrinos and ice ages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezer, D.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some numerical experiments with a solar model have been conducted in connection with the hypothesis regarding the effects of mixing in the solar core. Questions concerning a plausible mechanism by which such a mixing could be produced are explored. The variation of solar luminosity throughout the numerical experiments is shown. In connection with a great change in luminosity after a second mixing, it is suggested that the earth is presently undergoing an ice age.

  5. 15 CFR 8b.5 - Assurances required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assurances required. 8b.5 Section 8b.5... Assurances required. (a) Assurances. An applicant for Federal financial assistance to which this part applies shall submit an assurance, on a form specified by the Secretary, that the program or activity will...

  6. 15 CFR 8b.5 - Assurances required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assurances required. 8b.5 Section 8b.5... Assurances required. (a) Assurances. An applicant for Federal financial assistance to which this part applies shall submit an assurance, on a form specified by the Secretary, that the program or activity will...

  7. 15 CFR 8b.18 - New construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Standards (UFAS) (Appendix A to 41 CFR subpart 101-19.6) shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false New construction. 8b.18 Section 8b.18... construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility constructed by, on behalf of,...

  8. A GaAs DETECTOR FOR DARK MATTER AND SOLAR NEUTRINO RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    T. BOWLES; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    The ability to produce large GaAs crystals with the requisite electronic properties to be fabricated into charged particle and photon detectors would provide a detector medium that would find numerous applications in both applied and fundamental research. Various applications would likely include x-ray detectors on satellites, environmental monitoring, medical imaging, bore hole mining spectroscopy, searches for dark matter, and solar neutrino research. We have carried out the development of GaAs detectors using two commercial crystal growing techniques. We have shown it should be able to grow detectors with 20 cm{sup 2} area and a depletion depth of 1 mm. Detectors of this size would find immediate applications in high-resolution, room temperature, low energy gamma ray measurements. We have also arrived at an understanding of the limitations of the common techniques used to grow GaAs and have determined that it should be possible to produce larger detectors using proprietary methods.

  9. Determination of the νe and total B8 solar neutrino fluxes using the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmad, Q. R.; Ahmed, S. N.; Allen, R. C.; Andersen, T. C.; Anglin, J. D.; Bühler, G.; Barton, J. C.; Beier, E. W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bergevin, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S. D.; Black, R. A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R. J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowler, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Brice, S. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Burritt, T. H.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, H. H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cowan, J. H. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cox, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W. F.; Deng, H.; Dimarco, M.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J. A.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A. P.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E. D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Gil, S.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J. T. M.; Graham, K.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamer, A. S.; Hamian, A. A.; Handler, W. B.; Haq, R. U.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Henning, R.; Hepburn, J. D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Hykaway, J. G.; Isaac, M. C. P.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P. T.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J. R.; Knox, A. B.; Komar, R. J.; Kormos, L. L.; Kos, M.; Kouzes, R.; Krüger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H. W.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McDonald, D. S.; McFarlane, K.; McGee, S.; McGregor, G.; Drees, R. Meijer; Mes, H.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis, K. K. S.; Miller, M. L.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B. A.; Monreal, B.; Moorhead, M.; Morrissette, B.; Nally, C. W.; Neubauer, M. S.; Newcomer, F. M.; Ng, H. S.; Nickel, B. G.; Noble, A. J.; Norman, E. B.; Novikov, V. M.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner, S. D.; Rielage, K.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rowley, J. K.; Rusu, V. L.; Saettler, E.; Schülke, A.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J. J.; Sims, C. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A. R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Starinsky, N.; Steiger, T. D.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stonehill, L. C.; Storey, R. S.; Sur, B.; Tafirout, R.; Tagg, N.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanner, N. W.; Taplin, R. K.; Thorman, M.; Thornewell, P. M.; Tolich, N.; Trent, P. T.; Tserkovnyak, Y. I.; Tsui, T.; Tunnell, C. D.; van Berg, R.; van de Water, R. G.; Virtue, C. J.; Walker, T. J.; Wall, B. L.; Waltham, C. E.; Tseung, H. Wan Chan; Wang, J.-X.; Wark, D. L.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wittich, P.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zuber, K.

    2007-04-01

    This article provides the complete description of results from the Phase I data set of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). The Phase I data set is based on a 0.65 kiloton-year exposure of 2H2O (in the following denoted as D2O) to the solar B8 neutrino flux. Included here are details of the SNO physics and detector model, evaluations of systematic uncertainties, and estimates of backgrounds. Also discussed are SNO's approach to statistical extraction of the signals from the three neutrino reactions (charged current, neutral current, and elastic scattering) and the results of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the νe flux. Under the assumption that the B8 spectrum is undistorted, the measurements from this phase yield a solar νe flux of ϕ(νe)=1.76-0.05+0.05(stat.)-0.09+0.09(syst.)×106 cm-2 s-1 and a non-νe component of ϕ(νμτ)=3.41-0.45+0.45(stat.)-0.45+0.48(syst.)×106 cm-2 s-1. The sum of these components provides a total flux in excellent agreement with the predictions of standard solar models. The day-night asymmetry in the νe flux is found to be Ae=7.0±4.9(stat.)-1.2+1.3%(syst.), when the asymmetry in the total flux is constrained to be zero.

  10. Earth regeneration of solar neutrinos at SNO and Super-Kamiokande

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, V.; Marfatia, D.; Whisnant, K.; Wood, B. P.

    2001-10-01

    We analyze the 1258-day Super-Kamiokande day and night solar neutrino energy spectra with various {chi}{sup 2} definitions. The best-fit lies in the large mixing angle (LMA) region at ({Delta}m{sup 2},tan{sup 2}{theta})=(5.01 x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2},0.60), independently of whether systematic errors are included in the {chi}{sup 2} definition. We compare the exclusion and allowed regions from the different definitions and choose the most suitable definition to predict the regions from SNO at the end of three years of data accumulation. We first work under the assumption that Super-Kamiokande ''sees'' a flux-suppressed flat energy spectrum. Then, we consider the possibility of each one of the three Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein regions being the solution to the solar neutrino problem. We find that the exclusion and allowed regions for the flat spectrum hypothesis and the LMA and low probability, low mass solutions are alike. In three years, we expect SNO to find very similar regions to that obtained by Super-Kamiokande. We evaluate whether the zenith angle distribution at SNO with optimum binning will add anything to the analysis of the day and night spectra; for comparison, we show the results of our analysis of the 1258-day zenith angle distribution from Super-Kamiokande, for which the best-fit parameters are ({Delta}m{sup 2},tan{sup 2}{theta})=(5.01 x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2},0.56).

  11. Sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.; Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  12. SNO: solving the mystery of the missing neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Jelley, Nick; Poon, Alan

    2007-03-30

    The end of an era came on 28 November 2006 when the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) finally stopped data-taking after eight exciting years of discoveries. During this time the Observatory saw evidence that neutrinos, produced in the fusion of hydrogen in the solar core, change flavour while passing through the Sun on their way to the Earth. This observation explained the longstanding puzzle as to why previous experiments had seen fewer solar neutrinos than predicted and confirmed that these elusive particles have mass. Solar neutrinos were first detected in Ray Davis's radiochemical experiment in 1967, for which discovery he shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics. Surprisingly he found only about a third of the number predicted from models of the Sun's output. This deficit, the so-called Solar Neutrino Problem, was confirmed by Kamiokande-II while other experiments saw related deficits of solar neutrinos. A possible explanation for this deficit, suggested by Gribov and Pontecorvo in 1969, was that some of the electron-type neutrinos, which are produced in the Sun, had ''oscillated'' into neutrinos that could not be detected in the Davis detector. The oscillation mechanism requires that neutrinos have non-zero mass. The unique advantage, which was pointed out by the late Herb Chen in 1985, of using heavy water (D{sub 2}O) to detect the neutrinos from {sup 8}B decays in the solar fusion process is that it enables both the number of electron-type and of all types of neutrinos to be measured. A comparison of the flux of electron-type neutrinos to that of all flavours could then reveal whether flavour transformation is the cause of the solar neutrino deficit. In heavy water neutrinos of all types can break a deuteron apart into its constituent proton and neutron (neutral-current reaction), while only electron-type neutrinos can change the deuteron into two protons and release an electron (charged-current reaction). SNO was designed by scientists from Canada, the USA

  13. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  14. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  15. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  16. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  17. Novel Ideas for Neutrino Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, Ken

    2007-04-23

    Recent developments in neutrino physics, primarily the demonstration of neutrino oscillations in both atmospheric neutrinos and solar neutrinos, provide the first conclusive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The simplest phenomenology of neutrino oscillations, for three generations of neutrino, requires six parameters - two squared mass differences, 3 mixing angles and a complex phase that could, if not 0 or {pi}, contribute to the otherwise unexplained baryon asymmetry observed in the universe. Exploring the neutrino sector will require very intense beams of neutrinos, and will need novel solutions.

  18. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  19. Enrichment services for chromium isotopes for the GALLEX (gallium experiment) international collaboration experiment on solar neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szady, Andrew J.

    1990-07-01

    Detailed discussions were held with members of the Gallium Experiment (GALLEX) international solar neutrino research collaboration concerning negotiations to provide $1.4 million in services to enrich (50)Cr for a (51)Cr neutrino source. The source will be used to calibrate the 20-ton gallium solar neutrino detector currently in place in the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. Funding approval for the enrichment services is expected from the European Common Market by October 19, 1990. The discussions focused on the technical aspects of the enrichment, the health and safety requirements for handling the process gas, cost projections, schedule, the Work-for-Others contract, and the method of payment. Discussions were also held with members of the Nuclear Physics Dept. at the University of Milan concerning the availability of isotopes enriched by the Calutron at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Very high purity material is needed to grow crystals for use in double beta decay detectors. Finally, working sessions were held to draft a coauthored paper on the results of using the gas centrifuge to remove trace quantities of (85)Kr from natural xenon.

  20. Global analyses of neutrino oscillation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We summarize the determination of some neutrino properties from the global analysis of solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrino data in the framework of three-neutrino mixing as well as in some extended scenarios such as the mixing with eV-scale sterile neutrinos invoked for the interpretation of the short baseline anomalies, and the presence of non-standard neutrino interactions.

  1. 15 CFR 8b.25 - Nonacademic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Secondary Education § 8b.25 Nonacademic services. (a) Physical education and athletics. (1) In providing physical education courses and athletics and similar aid, benefits, or services to any of its students, a... offers physical education courses or that operates or sponsors intercollegiate, club, or...

  2. 15 CFR 8b.25 - Nonacademic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Secondary Education § 8b.25 Nonacademic services. (a) Physical education and athletics. (1) In providing physical education courses and athletics and similar aid, benefits, or services to any of its students, a... offers physical education courses or that operates or sponsors intercollegiate, club, or...

  3. 15 CFR 8b.25 - Nonacademic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Secondary Education § 8b.25 Nonacademic services. (a) Physical education and athletics. (1) In providing physical education courses and athletics and similar aid, benefits, or services to any of its students, a... offers physical education courses or that operates or sponsors intercollegiate, club, or...

  4. 15 CFR 8b.25 - Nonacademic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Secondary Education § 8b.25 Nonacademic services. (a) Physical education and athletics. (1) In providing physical education courses and athletics and similar aid, benefits, or services to any of its students, a... offers physical education courses or that operates or sponsors intercollegiate, club, or...

  5. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002-2007 data-taking period

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J. N.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gurkina, P. P.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Khairnasov, N. G.; Knodel, T. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Yants, V. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Bowles, T. J.; Elliott, S. R.; Teasdale, W. A.; Nico, J. S.; Cleveland, B. T.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2009-07-15

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4{sub -3.0}{sup +3.1} (stat) {sub -2.8}{sup +2.6} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1{+-}3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87{+-}0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63 SNU to 66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be {phi}{sub pp}{sup {center_dot}}=(6.0{+-}0.8)x10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  6. Design Considerations for a Large Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator Detector with Applications for Solar Neutrino and Double Beta Decay Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, Peter; Robertson, Hamish; Gehman, Victor; Gehring, George; Iwamoto, Hideko; Will, Doug

    2002-10-01

    The realization of a large, metal-loaded liquid scintillator detector has exciting possibilities in the areas of Double Beta Decay, low-energy solar neutrino, and supernova neutrino studies. We have used statistical considerations to arrive at an analytical expression which will allow us to optimize a detector design for energy and spatial resolution. Using these results, we consider the possible use of Avalanche Photo-Diode detectors operated in the Geiger regime as a possible replacement for Photomultiplier Tubes.

  7. Measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux by Super-Kamiokande: Energy spectra, geomagnetic effects, and solar modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, E.; Okumura, K.; Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Tomura, T.; Wendell, R. A.; Akutsu, R.; Irvine, T.; Kajita, T.; Kaneyuki, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Nantais, C. M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Weatherly, P.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Park, R. G.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; O'Sullivan, E.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Tasaka, S.; Jang, J. S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Cao, S. V.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Choi, K.; Itow, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Fukuda, D.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Xu, C.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Suda, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Marti, Ll.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Martin, J. F.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Zhang, Y.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive study of the atmospheric neutrino flux in the energy region from sub-GeV up to several TeV using the Super-Kamiokande (SK) water Cherenkov detector is presented in this paper. The energy and azimuthal spectra, and variation over time, of the atmospheric νe+ν¯ e and νμ+ν¯μ fluxes are measured. The energy spectra are obtained using an iterative unfolding method by combining various event topologies with differing energy responses. The azimuthal spectra depending on energy and zenith angle, and their modulation by geomagnetic effects, are also studied. A predicted east-west asymmetry is observed in both the νe and νμ samples at 8.0 σ and 6.0 σ significance, respectively, and an indication that the asymmetry dipole angle changes depending on the zenith angle was seen at the 2.2 σ level. The measured energy and azimuthal spectra are consistent with the current flux models within the estimated systematic uncertainties. A study of the long-term correlation between the atmospheric neutrino flux and the solar magnetic activity cycle is performed, and a weak preference for a correlation was seen at the 1.1 σ level, using SK-I-SK-IV data spanning a 20-year period. For several particularly strong solar activity periods, corresponding to Forbush decrease events, no theoretical prediction is available but a deviation below the typical neutrino event rate is seen at the 2.4 σ level. The seasonal modulation of the neutrino flux is also examined, but the change in flux at the SK site is predicted to be negligible, and, as expected, no evidence for a seasonal correlation is seen.

  8. First observation of beryllium-7 solar neutrinos with KamLAND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, Gregory J.

    2009-09-01

    The international KamLAND collaboration operates a 1 kton liquid scintillation detector in the Kamioka mine in Gifu, Japan. KamLAND's main scientific results are the precision measurement of the solar Dm 2 12 = 7.58[Special characters omitted.] (stat) [Special characters omitted.] (syst) and tan 2 [straight theta] 12 = 0.56[Special characters omitted.] (stat) [Special characters omitted.] (syst) utilizing reactor n e and first evidence for the observation of geologically produced anti-neutrinos. In an effort to extend KamLAND's scientific reach, extensive research has been performed on preparing a spectroscopic measurement of 7 Be solar n e s. This work provides the first inclusive analysis of KamLAND's backgrounds below 1 MeV. 85 Kr and 210 Pb, dissolved in KamLAND liquid scintillator, were found to be the dominant source of low energy backgrounds. The concentration of these ultra-trace contaminants were determined to be 10 -20 g/g. This is more than 6 orders of magnitude lower than commercially available ultra-pure liquids. To attain a signal-to-background ratio suitable for the detection of 7 Be solar n e s, the concentration of these contaminants had to be reduced by 5 orders of magnitude. A comprehensive study of 210 Pb removal was undertaken over the course of this thesis. This work further covers techniques for the removal of 220 Rn, 222 Rn and their daughter nuclei from liquid scintillator at concentrations of 10^-18 g/g. Purification techniques studied in this work include water extraction, isotope exchange, adsorption, and distillation. These laboratory studies guided the design and implementation of a large scale purification system in the Kamioka mine. The purification system's design and operation is discussed in detail as well as specific experiments devised to control scintillator quality and radio-purity. The purification system's effectiveness in removing radioactive trace impurities is analyzed in detail. The total scintillator purified over two

  9. Nucleosynthesis and Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2011-05-06

    Neutrinos play the critical roles in nucleosynthesis of light-to-heavy mass nuclei in core-collapse supernovae. We study the nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and find suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta. These isotopes are predominantly synthesized by the supernova {nu}-process. We also study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances and propose a method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, i.e. {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy.

  10. Core-collapse Supernovae from 9 to 120 Solar Masses Based on Neutrino-powered Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Ertl, T.; Woosley, S. E.; Brown, Justin M.; Janka, H.-T.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleosynthesis, light curves, explosion energies, and remnant masses are calculated for a grid of supernovae (SNe) resulting from massive stars with solar metallicity and masses from 9.0 to 120 {M}⊙ . The full evolution is followed using an adaptive reaction network of up to 2000 nuclei. A novel aspect of the survey is the use of a one-dimensional neutrino transport model for the explosion. This explosion model has been calibrated to give the observed energy for SN 1987A, using five standard progenitors, and for the Crab SN using a 9.6 {M}⊙ progenitor. As a result of using a calibrated central engine, the final kinetic energy of the SN is variable and sensitive to the structure of each pre-SN star. Many progenitors with extended core structures do not explode, but become black holes (BHs), and the masses of exploding stars do not form a simply connected set. The resulting nucleosynthesis agrees reasonably well with the Sun provided that a reasonable contribution from SNe Ia is also allowed, but with a deficiency of light s-process isotopes. The resulting neutron star initial mass function has a mean gravitational mass near 1.4 {M}⊙ . The average BH mass is about 9 {M}⊙ if only the helium core implodes, and 14 {M}⊙ if the entire pre-SN star collapses. Only ˜10% of SNe come from stars over 20 {M}⊙ , and some of these are Type Ib or Ic. Some useful systematics of Type IIp light curves are explored.

  11. Solar r-process-constrained actinide production in neutrino-driven winds of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.; Janka, H.-Th.

    2016-07-01

    Long-lived radioactive nuclei play an important role as nucleo-cosmochronometers and as cosmic tracers of nucleosynthetic source activity. In particular, nuclei in the actinide region like thorium, uranium, and plutonium can testify to the enrichment of an environment by the still enigmatic astrophysical sources that are responsible for the production of neutron-rich nuclei by the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process). Supernovae and merging neutron-star (NS) or NS-black hole binaries are considered as most likely sources of the r-nuclei. But arguments in favour of one or the other or both are indirect and make use of assumptions; they are based on theoretical models with remaining simplifications and shortcomings. An unambiguous observational determination of a production event is still missing. In order to facilitate searches in this direction, e.g. by looking for radioactive tracers in stellar envelopes, the interstellar medium or terrestrial reservoirs, we provide improved theoretical estimates and corresponding uncertainty ranges for the actinide production (232Th, 235, 236, 238U, 237Np, 244Pu, and 247Cm) in neutrino-driven winds of core-collapse supernovae. Since state-of-the-art supernova models do not yield r-process viable conditions - but still lack, for example, the effects of strong magnetic fields - we base our investigation on a simple analytical, Newtonian, adiabatic and steady-state wind model and consider the superposition of a large number of contributing components, whose nucleosynthesis-relevant parameters (mass weight, entropy, expansion time-scale, and neutron excess) are constrained by the assumption that the integrated wind nucleosynthesis closely reproduces the Solar system distribution of r-process elements. We also test the influence of uncertain nuclear physics.

  12. Los Alamos Science, Number 25 -- 1997: Celebrating the neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N.G.

    1997-12-31

    This issue is devoted to the neutrino and its remaining mysteries. It is divided into the following areas: (1) The Reines-Cowan experiment -- detecting the poltergeist; (2) The oscillating neutrino -- an introduction to neutrino masses and mixing; (3) A brief history of neutrino experiments at LAMPF; (4) A thousand eyes -- the story of LSND (Los Alamos neutrino oscillation experiment); (5) The evidence for oscillations; (6) The nature of neutrinos in muon decay and physics beyond the Standard Model; (7) Exorcising ghosts -- in pursuit of the missing solar neutrinos; (8) MSW -- a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem; (8) Neutrinos and supernovae; and (9) Dark matter and massive neutrinos.

  13. Be7 solar neutrino measurement with KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, R.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Oki, Y.; Otani, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yamauchi, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; McKee, D. W.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Murayama, H.; O'Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Learned, J. G.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Downum, K. E.; Tolich, K.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Heeger, K.; Decowski, M. P.

    2015-11-30

    We report a measurement of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate of 862 keV 7Be solar neutrinos based on a 165.4 kt d exposure of KamLAND. The observed rate is 582±94(kt d)₋1, which corresponds to an 862-keV 7Be solar neutrino flux of (3.26±0.52)×109cm₋2s₋1, assuming a pure electron-flavor flux. Comparing this flux with the standard solar model prediction and further assuming three-flavor mixing, a νe survival probability of 0.66±0.15 is determined from the KamLAND data. Lastly, utilizing a global three-flavor oscillation analysis, we obtain a total 7Be solar neutrino flux of (5.82±1.02)×109cm₋2s₋1, which is consistent with the standard solar model predictions.

  14. Neutrinos beyond the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, J.W.F.

    1989-08-01

    I review some basic aspects of neutrino physics beyond the Standard Model such as neutrino mixing and neutrino non-orthogonality, universality and CP violation in the lepton sector, total lepton number and lepton flavor violation, etc.. These may lead to neutrino decays and oscillations, exotic weak decay processes, neutrinoless double /beta/ decay, etc.. Particle physics models are discussed where some of these processes can be sizable even in the absence of measurable neutrino masses. These may also substantially affect the propagation properties of solar and astrophysical neutrinos. 39 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Results from Neutrino Oscillations Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis

    2010-09-10

    The interpretation of the results of early solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations has been verified by several recent experiments using both, natural and man-made sources. The observations provide compelling evidence in favor of the existence of neutrino masses and mixings. These proceedings give a general description of the results from neutrino oscillation experiments, the current status of the field, and some possible future developments.

  16. Bolometric detection of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, B.; Krauss, L. M.; Wilczek, F.

    1985-01-01

    Elastic neutrino scattering off electrons in crystalline silicon at 1-10 mK results in measurable temperature changes in macroscopic amounts of material, even for low-energy (less than 0.41-MeV) pp neutrinos from the sun. New detectors for bolometric measurement of low-energy neutrino interactions, including coherent nuclear elastic scattering, are proposed. A new and more sensitive search for oscillations of reactor antineutrinos is practical (about 100 kg of Si), and would lay the groundwork for a more ambitious measurement of the spectrum of pp, Be-7, and B-8 solar neutrinos, and of supernovae anywhere in the Galaxy (about 10 tons of Si).

  17. Why is the neutrino oscillation formula expanded in Δ m {21/2}/Δ m {31/2} still accurate near the solar resonance in matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xun-Jie

    2015-10-01

    The conventional approximate formula for neutrino oscillation in matter which is obtained from the expansion in terms of the ratio of mass square differences α = Δ m 21 2 /Δ m 31 2 ≈ 0.03, first proposed by Cervera, et al. and Freund, turns out to be an accurate formula for accelerator neutrino experiments. Originally it required the neutrino energy to be well above the solar resonance to validate the expansion but it is found to be still very accurate when the formula is extrapolated to the resonance, which is practically important for the T2K experiment. This paper shows that the accuracy is guaranteed by cancellations of branch cut singularities and also, for the first time, analytically computes the actual error of the formula. The actual error implies that the original requirement can be safely removed in current experiments.

  18. 15 CFR 8b.21 - Treatment of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of students. 8b.21 Section 8b.21 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Secondary Education § 8b.21 Treatment of students. (a) General. No qualified handicapped student shall,...

  19. 15 CFR 8b.21 - Treatment of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Treatment of students. 8b.21 Section 8b.21 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Secondary Education § 8b.21 Treatment of students. (a) General. No qualified handicapped student shall,...

  20. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl and {sup 71}Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  1. A search for astrophysical burst signals at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chauhan, D.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox, G. A.; Dai, X.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J. A.; DiMarco, M.; Diamond, M. D.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Graham, K.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Huang, M.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Jerkins, M.; Keeter, K. J.; Klein, J. R.; Kormos, L. L.; Kos, M.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Krueger, A.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S. R.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Nickel, B. G.; Noble, A. J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Oblath, N. S.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner, S. D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Sonley, T. J.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tešić, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van Berg, R.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Wall, B. L.; Waller, D.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P. J. S.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2014-03-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has confirmed the standard solar model and neutrino oscillations through the observation of neutrinos from the solar core. In this paper we present a search for neutrinos associated with sources other than the solar core, such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. We present a new method for looking for temporal coincidences between neutrino events and astrophysical bursts of widely varying intensity. No correlations were found between neutrinos detected in SNO and such astrophysical sources.

  2. Evolution of substellar 'brown' dwarfs and the evolutionary status of VB8B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed evolutionary calculations for stars near and below the minimum main sequence (MS) mass are presented, and the results are compared to VB8B. The standard set of stellar equations are solved, and the influence of both high and low grain opacities is assessed. All masses less than 0.08 solar are found to evolve to 0.0001 solar luminosities in a billion years or less. Both 0.08 solar mass and 0.075 solar mass stars become MS stars after five billion years, but with luminosities substantially below 0.0001 solar. The best fit to VB8B is 0.06 + or - 0.02 solar mass, but less than 0.8 solar mass. Depending upon its very precise mass, VB8B can be either a substellar brown dwarf with an age of 0.3-3 billion years, or an MS star with an age anywhere from two billion years to a Hubble time.

  3. A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, Samuel M.; Boinett, Christine J.; Madé, Laure F.; Ouko, Tom T.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Kariuki, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple fimbriae and pili to mediate host colonization, including the type IVb pilus, colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III). Not all colonization factors are well characterized or known in toxin positive ETEC isolates, which may have an impact identifying ETEC isolates based on molecular screening of these biomarkers. We describe a novel coli surface antigen (CS) 8 subtype B (CS8B), a family of CFA/III pilus, in a toxin producing ETEC isolate from a Kenyan collection. In highlighting the existence of this putative CS, we provide the sequence and specific primers, which can be used alongside other ETEC primers previously described. PMID:26187892

  4. A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Samuel M; Boinett, Christine J; Madé, Laure F; Ouko, Tom T; Fèvre, Eric M; Thomson, Nicholas R; Kariuki, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple fimbriae and pili to mediate host colonization, including the type IVb pilus, colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III). Not all colonization factors are well characterized or known in toxin positive ETEC isolates, which may have an impact identifying ETEC isolates based on molecular screening of these biomarkers. We describe a novel coli surface antigen (CS) 8 subtype B (CS8B), a family of CFA/III pilus, in a toxin producing ETEC isolate from a Kenyan collection. In highlighting the existence of this putative CS, we provide the sequence and specific primers, which can be used alongside other ETEC primers previously described. PMID:26187892

  5. A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Samuel M; Boinett, Christine J; Madé, Laure F; Ouko, Tom T; Fèvre, Eric M; Thomson, Nicholas R; Kariuki, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple fimbriae and pili to mediate host colonization, including the type IVb pilus, colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III). Not all colonization factors are well characterized or known in toxin positive ETEC isolates, which may have an impact identifying ETEC isolates based on molecular screening of these biomarkers. We describe a novel coli surface antigen (CS) 8 subtype B (CS8B), a family of CFA/III pilus, in a toxin producing ETEC isolate from a Kenyan collection. In highlighting the existence of this putative CS, we provide the sequence and specific primers, which can be used alongside other ETEC primers previously described.

  6. Solar fusion cross sections II: the pp chain and CNO cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Adelberger, E G; Bemmerer, D; Bertulani, C A; Chen, J -W; Costantini, H; Couder, M; Cyburt, R; Davids, B; Freedman, S J; Gai, M; Garcia, A; Gazit, D; Gialanella, L; Greife, U; Hass, M; Heeger, K; Haxton, W C; Imbriani, G; Itahashi, T; Junghans, A; Kubodera, K; Langanke, K; Leitner, D; Leitner, M; Marcucci, L E; Motobayashi, T; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Nollett, Kenneth M; Nunes, F M; Park, T -S; Parker, P D; Prati, P; Ramsey-Musolf, M J; Hamish Robertson, R G; Schiavilla, R; Simpson, E C; Snover, K A; Spitaleri, C; Strieder, F; Suemmerer, K; Trautvetter, R E; Tribble, R E; Typel, S; Uberseder, E; Vetter, P; Wiescher, M; Winslow, L

    2011-04-01

    The available data on nuclear fusion cross sections important to energy generation in the Sun and other hydrogen-burning stars and to solar neutrino production are summarized and critically evaluated. Recommended values and uncertainties are provided for key cross sections, and a recommended spectrum is given for 8B solar neutrinos. Opportunities for further increasing the precision of key rates are also discussed, including new facilities, new experimental techniques, and improvements in theory. This review, which summarizes the conclusions of a workshop held at the Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle, in January 2009, is intended as a 10-year update and supplement to 1998, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1265.

  7. Direct evidence for neutrino flavor transformation from neutral-current interactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Q R; Allen, R C; Andersen, T C; D Anglin, J; Barton, J C; Beier, E W; Bercovitch, M; Bigu, J; Biller, S D; Black, R A; Blevis, I; Boardman, R J; Boger, J; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Bühler, G; Cameron, J; Chan, Y D; Chen, H H; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Clifford, E T H; Cowan, J H M; Cowen, D F; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Davidson, W F; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ferraris, A P; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Gil, S; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A S; Hamian, A A; Handler, W B; Haq, R U; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hepburn, J D; Heron, H; Hewett, J; Hime, A; Howe, M; Hykawy, J G; Isaac, M C P; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jonkmans, G; Kazkaz, K; Keener, P T; Klein, J R; Knox, A B; Komar, R J; Kouzes, R; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lay, M; Lee, H W; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Locke, W; Luoma, S; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Manor, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McDonald, D S; McFarlane, K; McGregor, G; Meijer Drees, R; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Milton, G; Moffat, B A; Moorhead, M; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Ng, H S; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Omori, M; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Poon, A W P; Radcliffe, T J; Roberge, A; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rosendahl, S S E; Rowley, J K; Rusu, V L; Saettler, E; Schaffer, K K; Schwendener, M H; Schülke, A; Seifert, H; Shatkay, M; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W E; Spreitzer, T; Starinsky, N; Steiger, T D; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Storey, R S; Sur, B; Tafirout, R; Tagg, N; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Thornewell, P M; Trent, P T; Tserkovnyak, Y I; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Waltham, C E; Wang, J-X; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M

    2002-07-01

    Observations of neutral-current nu interactions on deuterium in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are reported. Using the neutral current (NC), elastic scattering, and charged current reactions and assuming the standard 8B shape, the nu(e) component of the 8B solar flux is phis(e) = 1.76(+0.05)(-0.05)(stat)(+0.09)(-0.09)(syst) x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1) for a kinetic energy threshold of 5 MeV. The non-nu(e) component is phi(mu)(tau) = 3.41(+0.45)(-0.45)(stat)(+0.48)(-0.45)(syst) x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), 5.3sigma greater than zero, providing strong evidence for solar nu(e) flavor transformation. The total flux measured with the NC reaction is phi(NC) = 5.09(+0.44)(-0.43)(stat)(+0.46)(-0.43)(syst) x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), consistent with solar models.

  8. Cosmic Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2008-02-01

    I recall the place of neutrinos in the electroweak theory and summarize what we know about neutrino mass and flavor change. I next review the essential characteristics expected for relic neutrinos and survey what we can say about the neutrino contribution to the dark matter of the Universe. Then I discuss the standard-model interactions of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, paying attention to the consequences of neutrino oscillations, and illustrate a few topics of interest to neutrino observatories. I conclude with short comments on the remote possibility of detecting relic neutrinos through annihilations of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos at the Z resonance.

  9. High energy-resolution measurement of the 82Se(3He,t )82Br reaction for double-β decay and for solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frekers, D.; Alanssari, M.; Adachi, T.; Cleveland, B. T.; Dozono, M.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Holl, M.; Ishikawa, D.; Matsubara, H.; Okamura, H.; Puppe, P.; Suda, K.; Tamii, A.; Thies, J.; Yoshida, H. P.

    2016-07-01

    A high-resolution (3He,t ) charge-exchange experiment at an incident energy of 420 MeV has been performed on the double beta (β β ) decay nucleus 82Se. A detailed Gamow-Teller (GT-) strength distribution in 82Br has been extracted, which provides information to the β β -decay nuclear matrix elements. Three strong and isolated transitions, which are to the 75, 1484 and the 2087 keV states in 82Br, are found to dominate the low-excitation region below ≈2.1 MeV. Above 2.1 MeV a sudden onset of a strong GT fragmentation is observed. The degree of fragmentation resembles a situation found in the neighboring A =76 system 76Ge, whereas the observed concentration of strength in the three low-lying states is reminiscent of the heavier neighbors 96Zr and 100Mo. The strong GT transition to the 75 keV ( 1+) state makes 82Se interesting for solar neutrino detection. The 82Se(νe,e-)82Br solar neutrino capture rate in a nonoscillation scenario is therefore evaluated to 668 ±12 (stat)±60 (sys) SNU, and some of the advantages of using selenium for solar neutrino studies are discussed.

  10. Neutrino clouds and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Stephenson, G.J. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    We have examined the consequences of assuming the existence of a light scalar boson, weakly coupled to neutrinos, and not coupled to any other light fermions. For a range of parameters, we find that this hypothesis leads to the development of neutrino clusters which form in the early Universe and which provide gravitational fluctuations on scales small compared to a parsec (i.e., the scale of solar systems). Under some conditions, this can produce anomalous gravitational acceleration within solar systems and lead to a vanishing of neutrino mass-squared differences, giving rise to strong neutrino oscillation effects.

  11. EFFECTS OF A DEEP MIXED SHELL ON SOLAR g-MODES, p-MODES, AND NEUTRINO FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Charles L.

    2009-08-10

    A mixed-shell model that reflects g-modes away from the Sun's center is developed further by calibrating its parameters and evaluating a mixing mechanism: buoyancy. The shell roughly doubles g-mode oscillation periods and would explain why there is no definitive detection of their periods. But the shell has only minor effects on most p-modes. The model provides a mechanism for causing short-term fluctuations in neutrino flux and makes plausible the correlations between this flux and solar activity levels. Relations are derived for a shell heated asymmetrically by transient increases in nuclear burning in small 'hot spots'. The size of these spots and the timing of a heating event are governed by sets(l) of standing asymptotic g-modes, coupled by a maximal principle that greatly enhances their excitation and concentrates power toward the equator, assisting the detection of higher-l sets. Signals from all sets, except one, in the range 2 {<=} l {<=} 8 are identified by difference periods between consecutive radial states using the method of Garcia et al. and reinterpreting their latest spectrum. This confirms two detections of sets in a similar range of l by their rotation rates. The mean radius of shell mixing is r{sub m} = 0.16 R{sub sun}, which improves an earlier independent estimate of 0.18 by the author. The shell may cause the unexplained dip in measured sound speed at its location. Another sound speed error, centered near 0.67 R{sub sun}, and reversing flows in the same place with a period originally near 1.3 yr suggest that the g-modes are depositing there about 3% of the solar luminosity. That implies the shell at r{sub m} is receiving a similar magnitude of power, which would be enough energy to mix the corresponding shell in a standard solar model in <<10{sup 7} yr.

  12. Experimental evidence of electron neutrino oscillations and validation of MSW-LMA model with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanzini, M. Buizza

    2011-04-01

    We report the real time measurements of 7Be and 8B solar neutrino fluxes performed with the Borexino experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The achievement of these measurements was possible thanks to the excellent levels of the radiopurity reached. The measurement of the 7Be in real time is the first direct measurements of the survival probability for solar electron neutrinos in the vacuum region. For 8B we reached a threshold energy of 3MeV which is the lowest achieved so far in real time. For the first time, the same apparatus can measure two different oscillation regions (vacuum-driven and matter-enhanced) predicted by the MSW-LMA model. Borexino also quotes the ratio between the survival probabilities, corresponding to 1.93 ± 0.75, and validates the presence of the transition region between the two oscillation regimes, according to the MSW-LMA solution.In addition, a preliminary result on the Day-Night Asymmetry (ADN) for the 7Be neutrino flux is presented and corresponds to 0.007 ± 0.073. This measurement makes Borexino able to give once more an independent confirmation of the MSW-LMA solution.

  13. 17 CFR 270.8b-20 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 270.8b...) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-20 Additional information. In addition to the information expressly required to be included in a registration statement or report, there...

  14. 15 CFR 8b.20 - Admission and recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission and recruitment. 8b.20... Secondary Education § 8b.20 Admission and recruitment. (a) General. Qualified handicapped may not, on the basis of handicap, be denied admission or be subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment...

  15. 15 CFR 8b.15 - Employment on ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices § 8b.15 Employment on ships. No qualified handicapped individual possessing an appropriate license or certificate obtained from the United States Coast Guard pursuant to the requirements of 46 CFR 10... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment on ships. 8b.15 Section...

  16. 15 CFR 8b.15 - Employment on ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices § 8b.15 Employment on ships. No qualified handicapped individual possessing an appropriate license or certificate obtained from the United States Coast Guard pursuant to the requirements of 46 CFR 10... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment on ships. 8b.15 Section...

  17. 15 CFR 8b.15 - Employment on ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices § 8b.15 Employment on ships. No qualified handicapped individual possessing an appropriate license or certificate obtained from the United States Coast Guard pursuant to the requirements of 46 CFR 10... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Employment on ships. 8b.15 Section...

  18. 15 CFR 8b.15 - Employment on ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices § 8b.15 Employment on ships. No qualified handicapped individual possessing an appropriate license or certificate obtained from the United States Coast Guard pursuant to the requirements of 46 CFR 10... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employment on ships. 8b.15 Section...

  19. 15 CFR 8b.15 - Employment on ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices § 8b.15 Employment on ships. No qualified handicapped individual possessing an appropriate license or certificate obtained from the United States Coast Guard pursuant to the requirements of 46 CFR 10... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment on ships. 8b.15 Section...

  20. Development of InP solid state detector and liquid scintillator containing metal complex for measurement of pp/7Be solar neutrinos and neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Shigetaka

    2012-07-01

    A large volume solid state detector using a semi-insulating Indium Phosphide (InP) wafer have been developed for measurement of pp/7Be solar neutrinos. Basic performance such as the charge collection efficiency and the energy resolution were measured by 60% and 20%, respectively. In order to detect two gammas (115keV and 497keV) from neutrino capture, we have designed hybrid detector which consist InP detector and liquid xenon scintillator for IPNOS experiment. New InP detector with thin electrode (Cr 50Å- Au 50Å). For another possibility, an organic liquid scintillator containing indium complex and zirconium complex were studied for a measurement of low energy solar neutrinos and neutrinosless double beta decay, respectively. Benzonitrile was chosen as a solvent because of good solubility for the quinolinolato complexes (2 wt%) and of good light yield for the scintillation induced by gamma-ray irradiation. The photo-luminescence emission spectra of InQ3 and ZrQ4 in benzonitrile was measured and liquid scintillator cocktail using InQ3 and ZrQ4 (50mg) in benzonitrile solutions (20 mL) with secondary scintillators with PPO (100mg) and POPOP (10mg) was made. The energy spectra of incident gammas were measured, and they are first results of the gamma-ray energy spectra using luminescent of metal complexes.

  1. The nylon scintillator containment vessels for the Borexino solar neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Pocar, A.; Shutt, T.

    2014-06-01

    The neutrino event rate in the Borexino scintillator is very low ( 0.5 events per day per ton) and concentrated in an energy region well below the 2.6 MeV threshold of natural radioactivity. The intrinsic radioactive contaminants in the photomultipliers (PMTs), in the Stainless Steel Sphere, and in other detector components, play special requirements on the system required to contain the scintillator. The liquid scintillator must be shielded from the Stainless Steel Sphere and from the PMTs by a thick barrier of buffer fluid. The fluid barrier, in addition, needs to be segmented in order to contain migration of radon and daughters emanated by the Stainless Steel Sphere and by the PMTs. These requirements were met by designing and building two spherical vessel made of thin nylon film. The inner vessel contains the scintillator, separating it from the surrounding buffer. The buffer region itself is divided into two concentric shells by the second, outer nylon vessel. In addition, the two nylon vessels must satisfy stringent requirements for radioactivity and for mechanical, optical and chemical properties. This paper describes the requirements of the the nylon vessels for the Borexino experiment and offers a brief overview of the construction methods adopted to meet those requirements.

  2. Solar nutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    The topics covered include: an overview of the subject of solar neutrinos, a brief summary of the theory of stellar evolution, a description of the main sources of solar neutrinos, a brief summary of the results of the Brookhaven C1-37 experiment, an anaysis of the principal solar neutrino experiments, and a discussion of how solar neutrino experiments can be used to detect the collapse of stars in the Galaxy. A description of how the Ga-71 experiment can be used to decide whether the origin of the present discrepancy between theory and observation lies in conventional solar models or conventional physics is presented.

  3. Planck-scale physics and neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Evgenii Kh.; Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Senjanovic, Goran

    1992-11-01

    We discuss gravitationally induced masses and mass splittings of Majorana, Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud, and Dirac neutrinos. Among other implications, these effects can provide a solution of the solar neutrino puzzle. In particular, we show how this may work in the 17 keV neutrino picture.

  4. Neutrino Physics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lederman, L. M.

    1963-01-09

    The prediction and verification of the neutrino are reviewed, together with the V A theory for its interactions (particularly the difficulties with the apparent existence of two neutrinos and the high energy cross section). The Brookhaven experiment confirming the existence of two neutrinos and the cross section increase with momentum is then described, and future neutrino experiments are considered. (D.C.W.)

  5. Evidence for neutrino mass: A decade of discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Heeger, Karsten M.

    2004-12-08

    Neutrino mass and mixing are amongst the major discoveries of recent years. From the observation of flavor change in solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments to the measurements of neutrino mixing with terrestrial neutrinos, recent experiments have provided consistent and compelling evidence for the mixing of massive neutrinos. The discoveries at Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and KamLAND have solved the long-standing solar neutrino problem and demand that we make the first significant revision of the Standard Model in decades. Searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay probe the particle nature of neutrinos and continue to place limits on the effective mass of the neutrino. Possible signs of neutrinoless double-beta decay will stimulate neutrino mass searches in the next decade and beyond. I review the recent discoveries in neutrino physics and the current evidence for massive neutrinos.

  6. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

  7. Neutrino oscillations and the seesaw origin of neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, O. G.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2016-07-01

    The historical discovery of neutrino oscillations using solar and atmospheric neutrinos, and subsequent accelerator and reactor studies, has brought neutrino physics to the precision era. We note that CP effects in oscillation phenomena could be difficult to extract in the presence of unitarity violation. As a result upcoming dedicated leptonic CP violation studies should take into account the non-unitarity of the lepton mixing matrix. Restricting non-unitarity will shed light on the seesaw scale, and thereby guide us towards the new physics responsible for neutrino mass generation.

  8. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west.

  9. Low energy threshold analysis of the phase I and phase II data sets of the Sudbury neutrino observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, S R; Hime, A; Elliott, S R; Rielage, K

    2009-01-01

    Results are reported from a joint analysis of Phase I and Phase II data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The effective electron kinetic energy threshold used is T{sub eff} = 3.5 MeV, the lowest analysis threshold yet achieved with water Cherenkov detector data. In units of 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} s{sup =1}, the total flux of active-flavor neutrinos from {sup 8}B decay in the Sun measured using the neutral current (NC) reaction of neutrinos on deuterons, with no constraint on the {sup 8}B neutrino energy spectrum, is found to be {Phi}{sub NC} = 5.140{sub -0.158}{sup +0.160}(stat){sub -0.117}{sup +0.132}(syst). These uncertainties are more than a factor of two smaller than previously published results. Also presented are the spectra of recoil electrons from the charged current reaction of neutrinos on deuterons and the elastic scattering of electrons. A fit to the SNO data in which the free parameters directly describe the total {sup 8}B neutrino flux and the energy-dependent Ve survival probability provides a measure of the total {sup 8}B neutrino flux {Phi}{sub 8{sub B}} = 5.046{sub -0.152}{sup +0.159}(stat){sub -0.123}{sup +0.107}(syst). Combining these new results with results of all other solar experiments and the KamLAND reactor experiment yields best-fit values of the mixing parameters of {theta}{sub 12} = 34.06{sub -0.84}{sup +1.16} degrees and {Delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} = 7.59{sub -0.21}{sup +0.20} x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}. The global value of {Phi}{sub 8{sub B}} is extracted to a precision of {sub -2.95}{sup +2.38}%. In a three-flavor analysis the best fit value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 13} is 2.00{sub -1.63}{sup +2.09} x 10{sup -2}. Interpreting this as a limit implies an upper bound of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 13} < 0.057 (95% C. L.).

  10. Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This prepares the way for a Neutrino Factory (NF) in which high energy muons decay within the straight sections of a storage ring to produce a beam of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. The NF concept was proposed in 1997 at a time when the discovery that the three known types of neutrino ({nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}) can change their flavor as they propagate through space (neutrino oscillations) was providing a first glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source: a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  11. EXPLOSIVE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN THE NEUTRINO-DRIVEN ASPHERICAL SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION OF A NON-ROTATING 15 M{sub sun} STAR WITH SOLAR METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kotake, Kei; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2011-09-01

    We investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a non-rotating 15 M{sub sun} star with solar metallicity that explodes by a neutrino-heating supernova (SN) mechanism aided by both standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and convection. To trigger explosions in our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we approximate the neutrino transport with a simple light-bulb scheme and systematically change the neutrino fluxes emitted from the protoneutron star. By a post-processing calculation, we evaluate abundances and masses of the SN ejecta for nuclei with a mass number {<=}70, employing a large nuclear reaction network. Aspherical abundance distributions, which are observed in nearby core-collapse SN remnants, are obtained for the non-rotating spherically symmetric progenitor, due to the growth of a low-mode SASI. The abundance pattern of the SN ejecta is similar to that of the solar system for models whose masses range between (0.4-0.5) M{sub sun} of the ejecta from the inner region ({<=}10, 000 km) of the precollapse core. For the models, the explosion energies and the {sup 56}Ni masses are {approx_equal} 10{sup 51}erg and (0.05-0.06) M{sub sun}, respectively; their estimated baryonic masses of the neutron star are comparable to the ones observed in neutron-star binaries. These findings may have little uncertainty because most of the ejecta is composed of matter that is heated via the shock wave and has relatively definite abundances. The abundance ratios for Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe observed in the Cygnus loop are reproduced well with the SN ejecta from an inner region of the 15 M{sub sun} progenitor.

  12. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Thanks to compelling evidence that neutrinos can change flavor, we now know that they have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. In these lectures, we explain the physics of neutrino flavor change, both in vacuum and in matter. Then, we describe what the flavor-change data have taught us about neutrinos. Finally, we consider some of the questions raised by the discovery of neutrino mass, explaining why these questions are so interesting, and how they might be answered experimentally.

  13. Diminished phosphodiesterase-8B potentiates biphasic insulin response to glucose.

    PubMed

    Dov, Avital; Abramovitch, Eva; Warwar, Nasim; Nesher, Rafael

    2008-02-01

    cAMP activates multiple signal pathways, crucial for the pancreatic beta-cells function and survival and is a major potentiator of insulin release. A family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) terminate the cAMP signals. We examined the expression of PDEs in rat beta-cells and their role in the regulation of insulin response. Using RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, we identified PDE3A, PDE3B, PDE4B, PDE4D, and PDE8B in rat islets and in INS-1E cells and several possible splice variants of these PDEs. Specific depletion of PDE3A with small interfering (si) RNA (siPDE3A) led to a small (67%) increase in the insulin response to glucose in INS-1E cells but not rat islets. siPDE3A had no effect on the glucagon-like peptide-1 (10 nmol/liter) potentiated insulin response in rat islets. Depletion in PDE8B levels in rat islets using similar technology (siPDE8B) increased insulin response to glucose by 70%, the potentiation being of similar magnitude during the first and second phase insulin release. The siPDE8B-potentiated insulin response was further increased by 23% when glucagon-like peptide-1 was included during the glucose stimulus. In conclusion, PDE8B is expressed in a small number of tissues unrelated to glucose or fat metabolism. We propose that PDE8B, an 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-insensitive cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, could prove a novel target for enhanced insulin response, affecting a specific pool of cAMP involved in the control of insulin granule trafficking and exocytosis. Finally, we discuss evidence for functional compartmentation of cAMP in pancreatic beta-cells.

  14. Neutrino Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2010-06-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(1021) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source : a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  15. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Joseph A. Formaggio

    2011-10-12

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  16. Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Several anomalies recorded in short-baseline neutrino experiments suggest the possibility that the standard 3-flavor framework may be incomplete and point towards a manifestation of new physics. Light sterile neutrinos provide a credible solution to these puzzling results. Here, we present a concise review of the status of the neutrino oscillations within the 3+1 scheme, the minimal extension of the standard 3-flavor framework endowed with one sterile neutrino species. We emphasize the potential role of LBL experiments in the searches of CP violation related to sterile neutrinos and their complementarity with the SBL experiments.

  17. Generalized mass ordering degeneracy in neutrino oscillation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma, Pilar; Schwetz, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We consider the impact of neutral-current (NC) nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI) on the determination of the neutrino mass ordering. We show that in the presence of NSI there is an exact degeneracy which makes it impossible to determine the neutrino mass ordering and the octant of the solar mixing angle θ12 at oscillation experiments. The degeneracy holds at the probability level and for arbitrary matter density profiles, and hence solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrino experiments are affected simultaneously. The degeneracy requires order-1 corrections from NSI to the NC electron neutrino-quark interaction and can be tested in electron neutrino NC scattering experiments.

  18. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  19. 15 CFR 8b.21 - Treatment of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., counseling, financial aid, physical education, athletics, recreation, transportation, other extracurricular, or other post secondary education aid, benefits, or services to which this subpart applies. (b) A... Secondary Education § 8b.21 Treatment of students. (a) General. No qualified handicapped student shall,...

  20. 15 CFR 8b.21 - Treatment of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., counseling, financial aid, physical education, athletics, recreation, transportation, other extracurricular, or other post secondary education aid, benefits, or services to which this subpart applies. (b) A... Secondary Education § 8b.21 Treatment of students. (a) General. No qualified handicapped student shall,...

  1. 15 CFR 8b.21 - Treatment of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., counseling, financial aid, physical education, athletics, recreation, transportation, other extracurricular, or other post secondary education aid, benefits, or services to which this subpart applies. (b) A... Secondary Education § 8b.21 Treatment of students. (a) General. No qualified handicapped student shall,...

  2. Neutrino factory

    DOE PAGES

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable ofmore » making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.« less

  3. Neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  4. Neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R. J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that θ13>0 . The measured value of θ13 is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO ν Design Study consortium. EURO ν coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO ν baseline accelerator facility will provide 1 021 muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  5. Neutrino oscillations in noisy media

    SciTech Connect

    Loreti, F.N.; Balantekin, A.B.

    1994-05-27

    The authors develop the Redfield equation for delta-correlated gaussian noise and apply it to the case of two neutrino flavor or spin precession in the presence of a noisy matter density or magnetic field, respectively. The criteria under which physical fluctuations can be well approximated by the delta-correlated gaussian noise for the above cases are examined. Current limits on the possible neutrino magnetic moment and solar magnetic field suggest that a reasonably noisy solar magnetic field would not appreciably affect the solar electron neutrino flux. However, if the solar electron density has fluctuations of a few percent of the local density and a small enough correlation length, the MSW effect is suppressed for a range of parameters.

  6. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-10-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  7. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-06-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  8. Three dimensional calculation of flux of low energy atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H.; Bludman, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation of low energy flux of atmospheric neutrinos are presented and compared with earlier one-dimensional calculations 1,2 valid at higher neutrino energies. These low energy neutrinos are the atmospheric background in searching for neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Primary cosmic rays produce the neutrino flux peaking at near E sub=40 MeV and neutrino intensity peaking near E sub v=100 MeV. Because such neutrinos typically deviate by 20 approximately 30 from the primary cosmic ray direction, three-dimensional effects are important for the search of atmospheric neutrinos. Nevertheless, the background of these atmospheric neutrinos is negligible for the detection of solar and supernova neutrinos.

  9. Progress in the Physics of Massive Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BARGER, V.; MARFATIA, D.; WHISNANT, K.

    The current status of the physics of massive neutrinos is reviewed with a forward-looking emphasis. The article begins with the general phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in vacuum and matter and documents the experimental evidence for oscillations of solar, reactor, atmospheric and accelerator neutrinos. Both active and sterile oscillation possibilities are considered. The impact of cosmology (BBN, CMB, leptogenesis) and astrophysics (supernovae, highest energy cosmic rays) on neutrino observables and vice versa, is evaluated. The predictions of grand unified, radiative and other models of neutrino mass are discussed. Ways of determining the unknown parameters of three-neutrino oscillations are assessed, taking into account eight-fold degeneracies in parameters that yield the same oscillation probabilities, as well as ways to determine the absolute neutrino mass scale (from beta-decay, neutrinoless double-beta decay, large scale structure and Z-bursts). Critical unknowns at present are the amplitude of νμ→νe oscillations and the hierarchy of the neutrino mass spectrum; the detection of CP violation in the neutrino sector depends on these and on an unknown phase. The estimated neutrino parameter sensitivities at future facilities (reactors, superbeams, neutrino factories) are given. The overall agenda of a future neutrino physics program to construct a bottom-up understanding of the lepton sector is presented.

  10. Neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1994-04-01

    The existence of a finite neutrino mass would have important consequences in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Experimental sensitivities have continued to be pushed down without any confirmed evidence for a finite neutrino mass. Yet there are several observations of discrepancies between theoretical predictions and observations which might be possible indications of a finite neutrino mass. Thus, extensive theoretical and experimental work is underway to resolve these issues.

  11. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañas, B. C.; Miranda, O. G.; Parada, A.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs), discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1 ×10-11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1 | ≤ 5.6 ×10-11μB, |Λ2 | ≤ 4.0 ×10-11μB, and |Λ3 | ≤ 3.1 ×10-11μB (90% C.L.), irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  12. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations.

  13. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations. PMID:20431258

  14. An ''archaeological'' quest for galactic supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lazauskas, Rimantas; Volpe, Cristina E-mail: Cecilia.Lunardini@asu.edu

    2009-04-15

    We explore the possibility to observe the effects of electron neutrinos from past galactic supernovae, through a geochemical measurement of the amount of Technetium 97 produced by neutrino-induced reactions in a Molybdenum ore. The calculations we present take into account the recent advances in our knowledge of neutrino interactions, of neutrino oscillations inside a supernova, of the solar neutrino flux at Earth and of possible failed supernovae. The predicted Technetium 97 abundance is of the order of 10{sup 7} atoms per 10 kilotons of ore, which is close to the current geochemical experimental sensitivity. Of this, {approx} 10-20% is from supernovae. Considering the comparable size of uncertainties, more precision in the modeling of neutrino fluxes as well as of neutrino cross sections is required for a meaningful measurement.

  15. Atmospheric neutrino problem in maximally-mixed three generations of neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, C.; Kim, C. W.; Kim, J. D.

    1995-02-01

    Motivated by the indication that both the atmospheric and the solar neutrino puzzles may simultaneously be solved by (vacuum as well as matter-induced resonant) oscillations of two generations of neutrinos with large mixing, we have analyzed the data on the atmospheric and solar neutrinos assuming that all three neutrinos are maximally mixed. It is shown that the values of Δm2 obtained from the two-generation analyses are still valid even in the three-generation scheme, i.e. the two puzzles can be solved simultaneously if Δm231 ~= 10-2eV2 for the atmospheric neutrinos and Δm221 ~= 10-10eV2 for solar neutrinos in the maximally mixed three-generation scheme.

  16. Supernova neutrinos, neutral currents and the origin of fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.; Haxton, W. C.

    1988-01-01

    An argument is made for the existence of a significant role for neutrinos in the nuclear chemistry of an exploding supernova. Emphasis is given to the neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis of fluorine. It is shown that fluorine's solar abundance constrains the temperature of muon and tauon neutrinos to values near what is expected from the standard model.

  17. Neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, H.

    2012-09-15

    Neutrino astrophysics offers a new possibility to observe our Universe: high-energy neutrinos, produced by the most energetic phenomena in our Galaxy and in the Universe, carry complementary (if not exclusive) information about the cosmos: this young discipline extends in fact the conventional astronomy beyond the usual electromagnetic probe. The weak interaction of neutrinos with matter allows them to escape from the core of astrophysical objects and in this sense they represent a complementary messenger with respect to photons. However, their detection on Earth due to the small interaction cross section requires a large target mass. The aim of this article is to review the scientific motivations of the high-energy neutrino astrophysics, the detection principles together with the description of a running apparatus, the experiment ANTARES, the performance of this detector with some results, and the presentation of other neutrino telescope projects.

  18. Neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-15

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ{sub 13}. The accelerator facility will deliver 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δ{sub CP} that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δ{sub CP} coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  19. Neutrino Oscillations: Eighty Years in Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Rebecca Lyn

    In order to discuss neutrino oscillations, it is necessary to have knowledge of the developments in the field spanning the last eighty years. The existence of the neutrino was posited by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to account for the mass defect in beta decay, and to this day physicists are still endeavoring to answer fundamental questions about this enigmatic particle. The scope of this thesis includes a historical background of neutrino physics and a discussion of neutrinos and the Standard Model; subsequent to this is a discussion of the Solar Neutrino Problem, which provided the impetus for the proposal of neutrino oscillations. Bolstering the theory of neutrino oscillations (which is developed in the body of this thesis) are neutrino detector experiments and their results; these include the Homestake experiment, SNO, Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande, MINOS, and Double-Chooz. We also include relevant derivations, most particularly of the quantum mechanics of neutrino oscillations as treated in the wave packet formalism. We have amassed here the principle theories and experimental results -- a mere tip of the iceberg -- that have brought us to our current understanding of neutrino oscillations. We have also studied the quantum mechanics of neutrino oscillations and developed for ourselves the wave packet formalism describing the phenomenon.

  20. Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

    1996-09-01

    Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the `exotic` particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino (`little neutral one`, as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with `neutron`, a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a `paper tiger`. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Neutrino detection with CLEAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinsey, D. N.; Coakley, K. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible, thereby allowing detection by conventional photomultipliers. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense, and transparent to its own scintillation light, making it practical for use in a large self-shielding apparatus. The central region of a full-sized detector would be a stainless steel tank holding approximately 135 metric tons of liquid neon. Inside the tank and suspended in the liquid neon would be several thousand photomultipliers. Monte Carlo simulations of gamma ray backgrounds have been performed assuming liquid neon as both shielding and detection medium. Gamma ray events occur with high probability in the outer parts of the detector. In contrast, neutrino scattering events occur uniformly throughout the detector. We discriminate background gamma ray events from events of interest based on a spatial maximum likelihood method estimate of event location. Background estimates for CLEAN are presented, as well as an evaluation of the sensitivity of the detector for p-p neutrinos. Given these simulations, the physics potential of the CLEAN approach is evaluated.

  2. Experimental Anomalies in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamara, Ornella

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, experimental anomalies ranging in significance (2.8-3.8 σ) have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrinos over baselines less than 1 km. Results from the LSND and MiniBooNE short-baseline νe /νe appearance experiments show anomalies which cannot be described by oscillations between the three standard model neutrinos (the ``LSND anomaly''). In addition, a re-analysis of the anti-neutrino flux produced by nuclear power reactors has led to an apparent deficit in νe event rates in a number of reactor experiments (the ``reactor anomaly''). Similarly, calibration runs using 51Cr and 37Ar radioactive sources in the Gallium solar neutrino experiments GALLEX and SAGE have shown an unexplained deficit in the electron neutrino event rate over very short distances (the ``Gallium anomaly''). The puzzling results from these experiments, which together may suggest the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model and hint at exciting new physics, including the possibility of additional low-mass sterile neutrino states, have raised the interest in the community for new experimental efforts that could eventually solve this puzzle. Definitive evidence for sterile neutrinos would be a revolutionary discovery, with implications for particle physics as well as cosmology. Proposals to address these signals by employing accelerator, reactor and radioactive source experiments are in the planning stages or underway worldwide. In this talk some of these will be reviewed, with emphasis on the accelerator programs.

  3. Implications of solar wind measurements for solar models and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenelli, Aldo; Scott, Pat; Villante, Francesco L.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Asplund, Martin; Basu, Sarbani; Grevesse, Nicolas; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    We critically examine recent claims of a high solar metallicity by von Steiger & Zurbuchen (2016, vSZ16) based on in situ measurements of the solar wind, rather than the standard spectroscopically-inferred abundances (Asplund et al. 2009, AGSS09). We test the claim by Vagnozzi et al. (2016) that a composition based on the solar wind enables one to construct a standard solar model in agreement with helioseismological observations and thus solve the decades-old solar modelling problem. We show that, although some helioseismological observables are improved compared to models computed with spectroscopic abundances, most are in fact worse. The high abundance of refractory elements leads to an overproduction of neutrinos, with a predicted 8B flux that is nearly twice its observed value, and 7Be and CNO fluxes that are experimentally ruled out at high confidence. A combined likelihood analysis shows that models using the vSZ16 abundances fare worse than AGSS09 despite a higher metallicity. We also present astrophysical and spectroscopic arguments showing the vSZ16 composition to be an implausible representation of the solar interior, identifying the first ionisation potential effect in the outer solar atmosphere and wind as the likely culprit.

  4. Implications of solar wind measurements for solar models and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenelli, Aldo; Scott, Pat; Villante, Francesco L.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Asplund, Martin; Basu, Sarbani; Grevesse, Nicolas; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    We critically examine recent claims of a high solar metallicity by von Steiger & Zurbuchen (2016, vSZ16) based on in situ measurements of the solar wind, rather than the standard spectroscopically inferred abundances (Asplund et al. 2009, hereafter AGSS09). We test the claim by Vagnozzi et al. (2016) that a composition based on the solar wind enables one to construct a standard solar model in agreement with helioseismological observations and thus solve the decades-old solar modelling problem. We show that, although some helioseismological observables are improved compared to models computed with spectroscopic abundances, most are in fact worse. The high abundance of refractory elements leads to an overproduction of neutrinos, with a predicted 8B flux that is nearly twice its observed value, and 7Be and CNO fluxes that are experimentally ruled out at high confidence. A combined likelihood analysis shows that models using the vSZ16 abundances are worse than AGSS09 despite a higher metallicity. We also present astrophysical and spectroscopic arguments showing the vSZ16 composition to be an implausible representation of the solar interior, identifying the first ionization potential effect in the outer solar atmosphere and wind as the likely culprit.

  5. Search for Neutrinos from the Sun

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1968-09-01

    A solar neutrino detection system has been built to observe the neutrino radiation from the sun. The detector uses 3,900,000 liters of tetrachloroethylene as the neutrino capturing medium. Argon is removed from the liquid by sweeping with helium gas, and counted in a small low level proportional counter. The recovery efficiency of the system was tested with Ar{sup 36} by the isotope dilution method, and also with Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by fast neutrons. These tests demonstrate that Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by neutrino capture can be removed with a 95 percent efficiency by the procedure used.

  6. Evidence for neutrino oscillations in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Alysia Diane

    2004-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large-volume heavy water Cerenkov detector designed to resolve the solar neutrino problem. SNO observes charged-current interactions with electron neutrinos, neutral-current interactions with all active neutrinos, and elastic-scattering interactions primarily with electron neutrinos with some sensitivity to other flavors. This dissertation presents an analysis of the solar neutrino flux observed in SNO in the second phase of operation, while ~2 tonnes of salt (NaCl) were dissolved in the heavy water. The dataset here represents 391 live days of data. Only the events above a visible energy threshold of 5.5 MeV and inside a fiducial volume within 550 cm of the center of the detector are studied. The neutrino flux observed via the charged-current interaction is [1.71 ± 0.065(stat.)±$0.065\\atop{0.068}$(sys.)±0.02(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1, via the elastic-scattering interaction is [2.21±0.22(stat.)±$0.12\\atop{0.11}$(sys.)±0.01(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1, and via the neutral-current interaction is [5.05±0.23(stat.)±$0.31\\atop{0.37}$(sys.)±0.06(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1. The electron-only flux seen via the charged-current interaction is more than 7σ below the total active flux seen via the neutral-current interaction, providing strong evidence that neutrinos are undergoing flavor transformation as they travel from the core of the Sun to the Earth. The most likely origin of the flavor transformation is matter-induced flavor oscillation.

  7. Neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Mark

    2002-05-15

    The wave theory of light, and in particular the principle of interference, was formulated by Thomas Young in 1801. In the 20th century, the principle of interference was extended to the quantum mechanical wave functions describing matter. The phenomenon of quantum mechanical interference of different neutrino states, neutrino oscillations, has provided one of the most exciting developments in high energy particle physics of the last decade. Observations of the flavour oscillations of neutrinos produced by distant sources, such as from the core of the Sun, provide compelling evidence that neutrinos have mass. This article describes the main features and the most significant experimental observations of this unusual application of the principle of interference.

  8. Neutrino astrophysics with Hyper-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Takatomi; Hyper-Kamiokande proto Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Hyper-Kamiokande (Hyper-K) is a proposed next generation underground large water Cherenkov detector. The detector consists of 1 Mt pure water tank with surrounding 99,000 newly developed photo sensors, providing fiducial volume of 0.56 Mt. The energies, positions and directions of charged particles produced by neutrino interactions are detected using its Cherenkov light in water. Our detector will be located at deep underground to reduce the cosmic muon flux and its spallation products, which is a dominant background at the low energy analysis. Hyper-K will play a considerable role in the next neutrino physics frontier, even in the neutrino astrophysics. The detection with large statistics of astrophysical neutrons, i.e., solar neutrino, supernova burst neutrino and supernova relic neutrino, will be remarkable information for both of particle physics and astrophysics.

  9. Planck scale effects in neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, E. K.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao, Zhi-Jan; Berezhiani, Z. G.

    1992-08-01

    We study the phenomenology and cosmology of the Majoron (flavon) models of one inert neutrino and three active ones. We pay special attention to the possible (almost) conserved generalization of the Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton charge. Using Planck scale physics effects, which provide the breaking of the lepton charge, we show how, in this picture, one can incorporate the solutions to some of the central issues in neutrino physics, such as the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles, dark matter, and a 17 keV neutrino. These gravitation effects induce tiny Majorana mass terms for neutrinos and considerable masses for flavons. The cosmological demand for the sufficiently fast decay of flavons implies a lower limit on the electron neutrino mass in the range of 0.1-1 eV.

  10. Planck scale effects in neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Eugeni Kh.; Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Senjanović, Goran; Tao, Zhijian

    1993-04-01

    We study the phenomenology and cosmology of the Majoron (flavon) models of three active and one inert neutrino paying special attention to the possible (almost) conserved generalization of the Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton charge. Using Planck scale physics effects which provide the breaking of the lepton charge, we show how in this picture one can incorporate the solutions to some of the central issues in neutrino physics such as the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles and the dark matter problem with the possible existence of a heavy (1-10 keV) neutrino. These gravitational effects induce tiny Majorana mass terms for neutrinos and considerable masses for flavons. The cosmological demand for the sufficiently fast decay of flavons implies a lower limit on the electron-neutrino mass in the range of 0.1-1 eV.

  11. A beta-alpha coincidence counting system for measurement of trace quantities of 238U and 232Th in aqueous samples at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, M.; Doucas, G.; Fergani, H.; Jelley, N. A.; Majerus, S.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Perry, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment was built to measure the total flux of 8B solar neutrinos via the neutral current disintegration deuterium nuclei. This process can be mimiced by daughter isotopes of 232Th and 238U which can photodisintegrate the deuterium nucleus. Measurement of the concentration of such radioisotopes in the heavy water was critical to the success of the experiment. A radium assay technique using Hydrous Titanium Oxide coated filters was developed for this purpose and it was used in conjunction with a delayed beta-alpha coincidence counting system. The design, calibration and operation of this counting system are described in this paper. The counting efficiency for 232Th (224Ra) and 238U (226Ra) were measured to be 50 ± 5% and 62 ± 7%

  12. Fitting the annual modulation in DAMA with neutrons from muons and neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathan H

    2014-08-22

    The DAMA/LIBRA experiment searches for evidence of dark matter scattering off nuclei. Data from DAMA show 9.2 σ evidence for an annual modulation, consistent with dark matter having a cross section around 2 × 10(-40) cm(2). However, this is excluded by other direct detection experiments. We propose an alternative source of annual modulation in the form of neutrons, which have been liberated from material surrounding the detector by a combination of (8)B solar neutrinos and atmospheric muons. The phase of the muon modulation lags 30 days behind the data; however, we show that adding the modulated neutrino component shifts the phase of the combined signal forward. In addition, we estimate that neutrinos and muons need ∼ 1000 m(3) of scattering material in order to generate enough neutrons to constitute the signal. With current data, our model gives as good a fit as dark matter, and we discuss prospects for future experiments to discriminate between the two. PMID:25192085

  13. Fitting the annual modulation in DAMA with neutrons from muons and neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathan H

    2014-08-22

    The DAMA/LIBRA experiment searches for evidence of dark matter scattering off nuclei. Data from DAMA show 9.2 σ evidence for an annual modulation, consistent with dark matter having a cross section around 2 × 10(-40) cm(2). However, this is excluded by other direct detection experiments. We propose an alternative source of annual modulation in the form of neutrons, which have been liberated from material surrounding the detector by a combination of (8)B solar neutrinos and atmospheric muons. The phase of the muon modulation lags 30 days behind the data; however, we show that adding the modulated neutrino component shifts the phase of the combined signal forward. In addition, we estimate that neutrinos and muons need ∼ 1000 m(3) of scattering material in order to generate enough neutrons to constitute the signal. With current data, our model gives as good a fit as dark matter, and we discuss prospects for future experiments to discriminate between the two.

  14. Neutrino mass and mixing in the seesaw playground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Stephen F.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss neutrino mass and mixing in the framework of the classic seesaw mechanism, involving right-handed neutrinos with large Majorana masses, which provides an appealing way to understand the smallness of neutrino masses. However, with many input parameters, the seesaw mechanism is in general not predictive. We focus on natural implementations of the seesaw mechanism, in which large cancellations do not occur, where one of the right-handed neutrinos is dominantly responsible for the atmospheric neutrino mass, while a second right-handed neutrino accounts for the solar neutrino mass, leading to an effective two right-handed neutrino model. We discuss recent attempts to predict lepton mixing and CP violation within such natural frameworks, focusing on the Littlest Seesaw and its distinctive predictions.

  15. 15 CFR 8b.6 - Remedial action, voluntary action, and self-evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... self-evaluation. 8b.6 Section 8b.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.6 Remedial action, voluntary action, and self-evaluation. (a... or this part and where another recipient exercises control over the recipient that has...

  16. 15 CFR 8b.24 - Financial and employment assistance to students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... students. 8b.24 Section 8b.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF... Secondary Education § 8b.24 Financial and employment assistance to students. (a) Provision of financial... person that provides assistance to any of the recipient's students in a manner that discriminates...

  17. Near maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing in neutrino mass models with two texture zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, S.; Gautam, R. R.; Singh, Lal; Gupta, Manmohan

    2014-07-01

    The implications of a large value of the effective Majorana neutrino mass for a class of two texture zero neutrino mass matrices have been studied in the flavor basis. It is found that these textures predict a near maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle in the limit of a large effective Majorana neutrino mass. It is noted that this prediction is independent of the values of solar and reactor neutrino mixing angles. We present the symmetry realization of these textures using the discrete cyclic group Z3. It is found that the texture zeros realized in this work remain stable under renormalization group running of the neutrino mass matrix from the seesaw scale to the electroweak scale, at one-loop level.

  18. Quest for the lowest-energy neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Super-Kamiokande (SK) has been observing 8B solar neutrinos for 17 years. Since the start of the SK-III phase, much effort has been expended in reducing backgrounds. The main contributing background comes from the beta decay of 214Bi, which is produced in the decays of radon in the purified air, detector materials, and the purified water. To reduce this background, the water system of SK has been upgraded. Heat exchangers for the cooling supply water were improved so as to suppress convection in the tank that transports radon near the photomultiplier tubes into the fiducial volume. To evaluate the remaining radon concentration, very-low-background radon detectors for air and water were designed and developed. Not only radon, but other contaminants in the water (bacteria and metal ions) were also investigated.

  19. Quest for the lowest-energy neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-17

    Super-Kamiokande (SK) has been observing {sup 8}B solar neutrinos for 17 years. Since the start of the SK-III phase, much effort has been expended in reducing backgrounds. The main contributing background comes from the beta decay of {sup 214}Bi, which is produced in the decays of radon in the purified air, detector materials, and the purified water. To reduce this background, the water system of SK has been upgraded. Heat exchangers for the cooling supply water were improved so as to suppress convection in the tank that transports radon near the photomultiplier tubes into the fiducial volume. To evaluate the remaining radon concentration, very-low-background radon detectors for air and water were designed and developed. Not only radon, but other contaminants in the water (bacteria and metal ions) were also investigated.

  20. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J. S.; Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2016-03-01

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  1. Neutrino-nucleus scattering off 136Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ydrefors, E.; Suhonen, J.; Zhao, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Theoretical estimates of the cross sections for the neutrino-nucleus scattering off relevant nuclei for supernova neutrinos are essential for many applications in neutrino physics and astrophysics. The double-β -decaying nucleus 136Xe nucleus is used by the EXO Collaboration in the search for neutrinoless double-β decay. A ton-scale experiment based on 136Xe could also be used for studies of supernova neutrinos and/or solar neutrinos. Purpose: The purpose of the present work is, thus, to perform a study of the charged-current and neutral-current nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos for 136Xe . Method: The cross sections are computed by using the well-established framework for studies of semileptonic processes in nuclei introduced by O'Connell, Donnelly, and Walecka [Phys. Rev. C 6, 719 (1972), 10.1103/PhysRevC.6.719]. The nuclear wave functions of the initial and the final nuclear states for the neutral-current neutrino-nucleus scattering in 136Xe are computed by using the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Similarly, the pnQRPA is adopted to construct the initial and final nuclear states which are relevant for the charged-current reactions. The nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are subsequently computed by folding the cross sections with appropriate energy spectra for the incoming neutrinos. Results: We present results for the cross sections of the charged-current and neutral-current neutrino and antineutrino scatterings off 136Xe . Nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are also given. For the considered scenario for the neutrino mixing we have found that neutrino interactions with matter and so-called collective neutrino oscillations enhance significantly the neutrino and antineutrino flux-averaged cross sections. Conclusions: We have found that for the charged-current and neutral-current neutrino scatterings off 136Xe transitions mediated by the 1+ multipole are the most important ones. However, for the charged

  2. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  3. Radiative capture estimates via analytic continuation of elastic-scattering data, and the solar-neutrino problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwinski, Z. R.; Rosenberg, Leonard; Spruch, Larry

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of σγ for 3He(α,γ)7Be, central to the solar ν problem, disagree. In a direct capture model, the normalization constants N32 and N12 of the P32 and P12 bound state wave functions of 7Be at large 3He-α separations determine σγ. N32 and N12 are given by (simpler) measurements of σγ at a higher energy E, or, as here, by analytic continuation of the 3He-α p32 and p12 phase shifts, δ(E). The method has been successfully tested on calculations of Tang et al. Better measurements of δ(E) are called for. [NUCLEAR REACTIONS 3He(α,γ)7Be, E<300 keV, 3He(α,α)3He, E<4 MeV, effective range function, analytic continuation technique, bound state energies, and normalization.

  4. Overview and Status of Experimental Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancu, Ion

    2002-10-01

    Seventy years after the existence of the neutrino has been postulated by Wolfgang Pauli, these elusive particles remain surrounded by mystery. One of the most fundamental questions about neutrinos is whether they have an identically vanishing mass, as assumed by the Standard Model, or not. Direct measurements have proven to be extremely difficult to perform, and have yielded so far only upper limits. However, if neutrino flavour oscillations do happen, this would automatically imply that at least one of the three neutrinos (the electron, muon or tau neutrino) must have a non-zero mass. The present experimental data indicate that both the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits can be explained by the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, while the positive signal reported by the accelerator-based LSND experiment remains to be verified by an independent measurement (MiniBooNE). This talk reviews the current status of the neutrino oscillations experiments, experiments which are quite likely to produce results with significant consequences for both the Standard Model and Cosmology.

  5. Dark matter vs. neutrinos: the effect of astrophysical uncertainties and timing information on the neutrino floor

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jonathan H.

    2015-03-09

    Future multi-tonne Direct Detection experiments will be sensitive to solar neutrino induced nuclear recoils which form an irreducible background to light Dark Matter searches. Indeed for masses around 6 GeV the spectra of neutrinos and Dark Matter are so similar that experiments are said to run into a neutrino floor, for which sensitivity increases only marginally with exposure past a certain cross section. In this work we show that this floor can be overcome using the different annual modulation expected from solar neutrinos and Dark Matter. Specifically for cross sections below the neutrino floor the DM signal is observable through a phase shift and a smaller amplitude for the time-dependent event rate. This allows the exclusion power to be improved by up to an order of magnitude for large exposures. In addition we demonstrate that, using only spectral information, the neutrino floor exists over a wider mass range than has been previously shown, since the large uncertainties in the Dark Matter velocity distribution make the signal spectrum harder to distinguish from the neutrino background. However for most velocity distributions it can still be surpassed using timing information, and so the neutrino floor is not an absolute limit on the sensitivity of Direct Detection experiments.

  6. Dark matter vs. neutrinos: the effect of astrophysical uncertainties and timing information on the neutrino floor

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jonathan H.

    2015-03-01

    Future multi-tonne Direct Detection experiments will be sensitive to solar neutrino induced nuclear recoils which form an irreducible background to light Dark Matter searches. Indeed for masses around 6 GeV the spectra of neutrinos and Dark Matter are so similar that experiments are said to run into a neutrino floor, for which sensitivity increases only marginally with exposure past a certain cross section. In this work we show that this floor can be overcome using the different annual modulation expected from solar neutrinos and Dark Matter. Specifically for cross sections below the neutrino floor the DM signal is observable through a phase shift and a smaller amplitude for the time-dependent event rate. This allows the exclusion power to be improved by up to an order of magnitude for large exposures. In addition we demonstrate that, using only spectral information, the neutrino floor exists over a wider mass range than has been previously shown, since the large uncertainties in the Dark Matter velocity distribution make the signal spectrum harder to distinguish from the neutrino background. However for most velocity distributions it can still be surpassed using timing information, and so the neutrino floor is not an absolute limit on the sensitivity of Direct Detection experiments.

  7. Neutrino oscillations as a probe of dark energy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David B; Nelson, Ann E; Weiner, Neal

    2004-08-27

    We consider a class of theories in which neutrino masses depend significantly on environment, as a result of interactions with the dark sector. Such theories of mass varying neutrinos were recently introduced to explain the origin of the cosmological dark energy density and why its magnitude is apparently coincidental with that of neutrino mass splittings. In this Letter we argue that in such theories neutrinos can exhibit different masses in matter and in vacuum, dramatically affecting neutrino oscillations. As an example of modifications to the standard picture, we consider simple models that may simultaneously account for the LSND anomaly, KamLAND, K2K, and studies of solar and atmospheric neutrinos, while providing motivation to continue to search for neutrino oscillations in short baseline experiments such as BooNE.

  8. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  9. Time-correlated coincidences at the sudbury neutrino observatory: An antineutrino search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokair, Timothy Milad

    This dissertation presents a search for antineutrinos in all three phases of data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. This work presents a new method for detecting time correlated coincidences in water detectors. There are two separate searches: an outside search for the inverse beta decay of antineutrinos on protons and an inside search for the inverse beta decay of antineutrinos on deuterons. The inside search found 3 antineutrino candidates in Phase I with an expected background of 3.83+0.71-0.72 events, 28 antineutrino candidates in Phase II with an expected background of 21.25+3.72-3.75 events, 4 antineutrino candidates in Phase III with an expected background of 6.06 +/- 1.14 events. The outside search found 4 antineutrino candidates in Phase I with an expected background of 1.21+0.14-0.17 events, 8 antineutrino candidates in Phase II with an expected background of 9.77+1.06-1.34 events, 0 antineutrino candidates in Phase III with an expected background of 0.46 +/- 0.29 events. Including the expected contribution of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors after oscillations, a limit on the solar antineutrino flux is computed to be F8Bn¯ ≤ 2.5 x 103 cm-2s -1. Taking the flux limit and the measured 8B solar neutrino flux, a limit on the neutrino to antineutrino conversion probability of P(nu → nu) ≤ 5.0 x 10-4. These limits are the best limits from a water detector.

  10. Limits on neutrino radiative decay from SN1987A

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, A.H.; Fenimore, E.; Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The authors calculate limits on the properties of neutrinos using data from gamma ray detectors on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Solar Max Mission satellites. A massive neutrino decaying in flight from the supernova would produce gamma rays detectable by these instruments. The lack of such a signal allows us to constrain the mass, radiative lifetime, and branching ratio to photons of a massive neutrino species produced in the supernova.

  11. Limits on neutrino radiative decay from SN1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Andrew H.; Fenimore, ED; Turner, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate limits on the properties of neutrinos using data from gamma ray detectors on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Solar Max Mission satellites. A massive neutrino decaying in flight from the supernova would produce gamma rays detectable by these instruments. The lack of such a signal allows us to constrain the mass, radiative lifetime, and branching ratio to photons of a massive neutrino species produced in the supernova.

  12. A BAYESIAN ASSESSMENT OF P-VALUES FOR SIGNIFICANCE ESTIMATION OF POWER SPECTRA AND AN ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE, WITH APPLICATION TO SOLAR NEUTRINO DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, P. A.; Scargle, J. D.

    2009-11-20

    the corresponding post-probability and hence the corresponding log-odds. It seems sensible-even if not logically essential-to seek a likelihood function for which the two procedures lead to the same answer. We find that this consistency condition may be satisfied, to good approximation, by a special case of the previously proposed likelihood function. We find that the resulting significance estimates are considerably more conservative than those usually associated with the p-values. As two examples, we apply the new procedure to two recent analyses of solar neutrino data: (1) power spectrum analysis of Super-Kamiokande data and (2) the combined analysis of radiochemical neutrino data and irradiance data.

  13. Neutrino in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, D.

    2010-09-01

    The relic neutrinos from the Big Bang or the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) neutrinos are expected to be the most abundant particles in our universe after the relic photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). They carry precious information from the early epoch when our universe was only 1 sec old. Although not yet directly detected, CNB may be revealed indirectly through cosmological observations due to their important cosmological influence. I review the cosmological role of neutrinos and the present cosmological constraints on neutrino characteristics. Namely, I discuss the impact of neutrinos in the cosmic expansion, neutrino decoupling, the role of neutrinos in the primordial production of light elements, their effect on CMB anisotropies, LSS formation, the possible neutrino contribution to the Dark Matter in the universe, leptogenesis, etc. Due to the considerable cosmological influence of neutrinos, cosmological bounds on neutrino properties from observational data exist. I review the cosmological constraints on the neutrino characteristics, such as the effective number of neutrino species, neutrino mass and mixing parameters, lepton number of the universe, gravitational clustering of neutrinos, presence of sterile neutrino, etc.

  14. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  15. Global gene profiling of aging lungs in Atp8b1 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Stearns, Timothy M.; Czachor, Alexander; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Turn, Christina; Westermann-Clark, Emma; Breitzig, Mason; Tan, Lee; Lockey, Richard F.; King, Benjamin L.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies implicate cardiolipin oxidation in several age-related diseases. Atp8b1 encoding Type 4 P-type ATPases is a cardiolipin transporter. Mutation in Atp8b1 gene or inflammation of the lungs impairs the capacity of Atp8b1 to clear cardiolipin from lung fluid. However, the link between Atp8b1 mutation and age-related gene alteration is unknown. Therefore, we investigated how Atp8b1 mutation alters age-related genes. Methods We performed Affymetrix gene profiling of lungs isolated from young (7-9 wks, n=6) and aged (14 months, 14 M, n=6) C57BL/6 and Atp8b1 mutant mice. In addition, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed. Differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results Global transcriptome analysis revealed 532 differentially expressed genes in Atp8b1 lungs, 157 differentially expressed genes in C57BL/6 lungs, and 37 overlapping genes. IPA of age-related genes in Atp8b1 lungs showed enrichment of Xenobiotic metabolism and Nrf2-mediated signaling pathways. The increase in Adamts2 and Mmp13 transcripts in aged Atp8b1 lungs was validated by qRT-PCR. Similarly, the decrease in Col1a1 and increase in Cxcr6 transcripts was confirmed in both Atp8b1 mutant and C57BL/6 lungs. Conclusion Based on transcriptome profiling, our study indicates that Atp8b1 mutant mice may be susceptible to age-related lung diseases. PMID:27689529

  16. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 2, Appendices A-C

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NW, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this EN there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constricting Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER, which consists of Appendices A, B, and C, assesses the potential geologic impacts of the proposed Section 8B construction, presents the results of the Section 8B soil survey, and describes the water quality studies and analyses performed for the ER. The following summary sections provide information for geology, soils, and water quality.

  17. Neutrino-Argon Interaction with GENIE Event Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneanu, Daniela

    2010-11-01

    Neutrinos are very special particles, have only weak interactions, except gravity, and are produced in very different processes in Nuclear and Particle Physics. Neutrinos are, also, messengers from astrophysical objects, as well as relics from Early Universe. Therefore, its can give us information on processes happening in the Universe, during its evolution, which cannot be studied otherwise. The underground instrumentation including a variety of large and very large detectors, thanks to technical breakthroughs, have achieved new fundamental results like the solution of the solar neutrino puzzle and the evidence for Physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary interactions in the neutrino sector with non-vanishing neutrino masses and lepton flavour violation. Two of the LAGUNA (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics) detectors, namely: GLACIER (Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment) [1] and LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astrophysics) [2] could be emplaced in ``Unirea'' salt mine from Slănic-Prahova, Romania. A detailed analysis of the conditions and advantages is necessary. A few results have been presented previously [3]. In the present work, we propose to generate events and compute the cross sections for interactions between neutrino and Argon-40, to estimate possible detection performances and event types. For doing this, we use the code GENIE (G_enerates E_vents for N_eutrino I_nteraction E_xperiments) [4]. GENIE Code is an Object-Oriented Neutrino MC Generator supported and developed by an international collaboration of neutrino interaction experts.

  18. 15 CFR 8b.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and adoption of grievance procedures. 8b.7 Section 8b.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the... adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A recipient, other than a small...) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient, other than a small recipient, shall adopt...

  19. 17 CFR 270.8b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 270.8b-12 Section 270.8b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements as to paper, printing and language. (a) Registration statements and reports shall be filed on good... report or any portion thereof may be prepared by any similar process which, in the opinion of...

  20. 17 CFR 270.8b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 270.8b-12 Section 270.8b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements as to paper, printing and language. (a) Registration statements and reports shall be filed on good... report or any portion thereof may be prepared by any similar process which, in the opinion of...

  1. 17 CFR 270.8b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 270.8b-12 Section 270.8b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements as to paper, printing and language. (a) Registration statements and reports shall be filed on good... portion thereof may be prepared by any similar process which, in the opinion of the Commission,...

  2. 17 CFR 270.8b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., printing and language. 270.8b-12 Section 270.8b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements as to paper, printing and language. (a) Registration statements and reports shall be filed on good.... (d) The body of all printed registration statements and reports and all notes to financial...

  3. 17 CFR 270.8b-12 - Requirements as to paper, printing and language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and reports shall be in the English language. If any exhibit or other paper or document filed with a... English language. (f) Where a registration statement or report is distributed through an electronic medium..., printing and language. 270.8b-12 Section 270.8b-12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  4. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  5. A high sensitivity search for electron anti-neutrinos from the sun and other sources at Kamland

    SciTech Connect

    Eguchi, K.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Hanada, H.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, K.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Iwamoto, T.; Kawashima, T.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Koseki, Y.; Maeda, T.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, M.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, T.; Ogawa, H.; Owada, K.; Piquemal, F.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tada, K.; Tajima, O.; Takayama, T.; Tamae, K.; Watanabe, H.; Busenitz, J.; Djurcic, Z.; McKinny, K.; Mei, D.-M.; Piepke, A.; Yakushev, E.; Berger, B.E.; Chan, Y.D.; Decowski, M.P.; Dwyer, D.A.; Freedman, S.J.; Fu, Y.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Goldman, J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lesko, K.T.; Luk, K.-B.; Murayama, H.; Nygren, D.R.; Okada, C.E.; Poon, A.W.P.; Steiner, H.M.; Winslow, L.A.; Horton-Smith, G.A.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R.D.; Tipton, B.; Vogel, P.; Lane, C.E.; Miletic, T.; Gorham, P.W.; Guillian, G.; Learned, J.G.; Maricic, J.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Dazeley, S.; Hatakeyama, S.; Svoboda, R.; Dieterle, B.D.; DiMauro, M.; Detwiler, J.; Gratta, G.; Ishii, K.; Tolich, N.; Uchida, Y.; Batygov, M.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kanyshkov, Y.; Kozlov, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Gould, C.R.; Karwowski, H.J.; Markoff, D.M.; Messimore, J.A.; Nakamura, K.; Rohm, R.M.; Tornow, W.; Young, A.R.; Chen, M-J.; Wang, Y-F.

    2003-10-21

    Data corresponding to a KamLAND detector exposure of 0.28 kton-year has been used to search for {bar {nu}}{sub e}'s in the energy range 8.3 MeV < E{sup {bar {nu}}{sub e}} < 14.8 MeV. No candidates were found for an expected background of 1.1 {+-} 0.4 events. This result can be used to obtain a limit on {bar {nu}}{sub e} fluxes of any origin. Assuming that all {bar {nu}}{sub e} flux has its origin in the Sun and has the characteristic {sup 8}B solar {nu}{sub e} energy spectrum, we obtain an upper limit of 3.7 x 10{sup 2} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (90 percent C.L.) on the {bar {nu}}{sub e} flux. We interpret this limit, corresponding to 2.8 x 10{sup -4} of the Standard Solar Model {sup 8}B {nu}{sub e} flux, in the framework of spin-flavor precession and neutrino decay models.

  6. The YAV-8B simulation and modeling. Volume 2: Program listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Detailed mathematical models of varying complexity representative of the YAV-8B aircraft are defined and documented. These models are used in parameter estimation and in linear analysis computer programs while investigating YAV-8B aircraft handling qualities. Both a six degree of freedom nonlinear model and a linearized three degree of freedom longitudinal and lateral directional model were developed. The nonlinear model is based on the mathematical model used on the MCAIR YAV-8B manned flight simulator. This simulator model has undergone periodic updating based on the results of approximately 360 YAV-8B flights and 8000 hours of wind tunnel testing. Qualified YAV-8B flight test pilots have commented that the handling qualities characteristics of the simulator are quite representative of the real aircraft. These comments are validated herein by comparing data from both static and dynamic flight test maneuvers to the same obtained using the nonlinear program.

  7. Short distance neutrino oscillations with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminata, A.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; di Noto, L.; Durero, M.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquères, N.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Veyssière, C.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino detector has convincingly shown its outstanding performances in the low energy, sub-MeV regime through its unprecedented accomplishments in the solar and geo-neutrinos detection. These performances make it the ideal tool to accomplish a state-of-the-art experiment able to test unambiguously the long-standing issue of the existence of a sterile neutrino, as suggested by the several anomalous results accumulated over the past two decades, i.e. the outputs of the LSND and Miniboone experiments, the results of the source calibration of the two Gallium solar neutrino experiments, and the recently hinted reactor anomaly. The SOX project will exploit two sources, based on Chromium and Cerium, respectively, which deployed under the experiment, in a location foreseen on purpose at the time of the construction of the detector, will emit two intense beams of neutrinos (Cr) and anti-neutrinos (Ce). Interacting in the active volume of the liquid scintillator, each beam would create an unmistakable spatial wave pattern in case of oscillation of the νe (or ν̅e) into the sterile state: such a pattern would be the smoking gun proving the existence of the new sterile member of the neutrino family. Otherwise, its absence will allow setting a very stringent limit on its existence.

  8. Neutrino-flavoured sneutrino dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March-Russell, John; McCabe, Christopher; McCullough, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    A simple theory of supersymmetric dark matter (DM) naturally linked to neutrino flavour physics is studied. The DM sector comprises a spectrum of mixed lhd-rhd sneutrino states where both the sneutrino flavour structure and mass splittings are determined by the associated neutrino masses and mixings. Prospects for indirect detection from solar capture are good due to a large sneutrino-nucleon cross-section afforded by the inelastic splitting (solar capture limits exclude an explanation of DAMA/LIBRA). We find parameter regions where all heavier states will have decayed, leaving only one flavour mixture of sneutrino as the candidate DM. Such regions have a unique ‘smoking gun’ signature — sneutrino annihilation in the Sun produces a pair of neutrino mass eigenstates free from vacuum oscillations, with the potential for detection at neutrino telescopes through the observation of a hard spectrum of ν μ and ν τ (for a normal neutrino hierarchy). Next generation direct detection experiments can explore much of the parameter space through both elastic and inelastic scattering. We show in detail that the observed neutrino masses and mixings can arise as a consequence of supersymmetry breaking effects in the sneutrino DM sector, consistent with all experimental constraints.

  9. New neutrino mass sum rule from the inverse seesaw mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorame, L.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J. W. F.; Rojas, Alma D.

    2012-09-01

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum rules. One of these implies a lower bound on the effective neutrinoless double beta mass parameter, even for normal hierarchy neutrinos. Here we propose a new model based on the S4 flavor symmetry that leads to the new neutrino mass sum rule and discuss how to generate a nonzero value for the reactor angle θ13 indicated by recent experiments, and the resulting correlation with the solar angle θ12.

  10. Neutrino Oscillations with Three Active and Three Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-07-01

    This is an extension of estimates of the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with one sterile neutrino to three sterile neutrinos, using a 6x6 matrix. Since the mixing angle for only one sterile neutrino has been experimentally determined, we estimate the μ to e neutrino oscillation probability with different mixing angles for two of the sterile neutrinos.

  11. Astrophysics and cosmology closing in on neutrino masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1990-01-01

    Massive neutrinos are expected in most grand unified theories that attempt to unify the strong and electroweak interactions. So far, heroic laboratory experiments have yielded only upper bounds on the masses of the elusive neutrinos. These bounds, however, are not very restrictive and cannot even exclude the possibility that the dark matter in the universe consists of neutrinos. The astrophysical and cosmological bounds on the masses of the muon and tau neutrinos, m(nu sub mu) and m(nu sub tau), which already are much more restrictive than the laboratory bounds, and the laboratory bound on the mass of the electron neutrino, m(nu sub e) can be improved significantly by future astrophysical and cosmological observations that perhaps will pin down the neutrino masses. Indeed, the recent results from the solar neutrino experiments combined with the seesaw mechanism for generating neutrino masses suggest that m(nu sub e) of about 10 to the -8th electron volts, m(nu sub mu) of about 0.001 electron volts, and m(nu sub tau) of about 10 electron volts, which can be tested in the near future by solar neutrino and accelerator experiments.

  12. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  13. Neutrino Physics at Fermilab

    ScienceCinema

    Saoulidou, Niki

    2016-07-12

    Neutrino oscillations provide the first evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. I will briefly overview the neutrino "hi-story", describing key discoveries over the past decades that shaped our understanding of neutrinos and their behavior. Fermilab was, is and hopefully will be at the forefront of the accelerator neutrino experiments.  NuMI, the most powerful accelerator neutrino beam in the world has ushered us into the era of precise measurements. Its further upgrades may give a chance to tackle the remaining mysteries of the neutrino mass hierarchy and possible CP violation.

  14. Neutrino Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshio; Chiba, Satoshi; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Keiichi; Takamura, Akira; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    2009-05-04

    Neutrino nucleosynthesis is an important synthesis process for light elements in supernovae. One important physics input of neutrino nucleosynthesis is cross sections of neutrino-nucleus reactions. The cross sections of neutrino-{sup 12}C and {sup 4}He reactions are derived using new shell model Hamiltonians. With the new cross sections, light element synthesis of a supernova is investigated. The appropriate range of the neutrino temperature for supernovae is constrained to be between 4.3 MeV and 6.5 MeV from the {sup 11}B abundance in Galactic chemical evolution. Effects by neutrino oscillations are also discussed.

  15. Neutrino-driven Explosion of a 20 Solar-mass Star in Three Dimensions Enabled by Strange-quark Contributions to Neutrino–Nucleon Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melson, Tobias; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Bollig, Robert; Hanke, Florian; Marek, Andreas; Müller, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    Interactions with neutrons and protons play a crucial role for the neutrino opacity of matter in the supernova core. Their current implementation in many simulation codes, however, is rather schematic and ignores not only modifications for the correlated nuclear medium of the nascent neutron star, but also free-space corrections from nucleon recoil, weak magnetism, or strange quarks, which can easily add up to changes of several 10% for neutrino energies in the spectral peak. In the Garching supernova simulations with the Prometheus-Vertex code, such sophistications have been included for a long time except for the strange-quark contributions to the nucleon spin, which affect neutral-current neutrino scattering. We demonstrate on the basis of a 20 {M}ȯ progenitor star that a moderate strangeness-dependent contribution of {g}{{a}}{{s}}=-0.2 to the axial-vector coupling constant {g}{{a}}≈ 1.26 can turn an unsuccessful three-dimensional (3D) model into a successful explosion. Such a modification is in the direction of current experimental results and reduces the neutral-current scattering opacity of neutrons, which dominate in the medium around and above the neutrinosphere. This leads to increased luminosities and mean energies of all neutrino species and strengthens the neutrino-energy deposition in the heating layer. Higher nonradial kinetic energy in the gain layer signals enhanced buoyancy activity that enables the onset of the explosion at ˜300 ms after bounce, in contrast to the model with vanishing strangeness contributions to neutrino–nucleon scattering. Our results demonstrate the close proximity to explosion of the previously published, unsuccessful 3D models of the Garching group.

  16. Neutrino-Argon Interaction with GENIE Event Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Chesneanu, Daniela

    2010-11-24

    Neutrinos are very special particles, have only weak interactions, except gravity, and are produced in very different processes in Nuclear and Particle Physics. Neutrinos are, also, messengers from astrophysical objects, as well as relics from Early Universe. Therefore, its can give us information on processes happening in the Universe, during its evolution, which cannot be studied otherwise. The underground instrumentation including a variety of large and very large detectors, thanks to technical breakthroughs, have achieved new fundamental results like the solution of the solar neutrino puzzle and the evidence for Physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary interactions in the neutrino sector with non-vanishing neutrino masses and lepton flavour violation.Two of the LAGUNA(Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics) detectors, namely: GLACIER (Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment) and LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astrophysics) could be emplaced in 'Unirea' salt mine from Slanic-Prahova, Romania. A detailed analysis of the conditions and advantages is necessary. A few results have been presented previously. In the present work, we propose to generate events and compute the cross sections for interactions between neutrino and Argon-40, to estimate possible detection performances and event types. For doing this, we use the code GENIE(G lowbar enerates E lowbar vents for N lowbar eutrino I lowbar nteraction E lowbar xperiments). GENIE Code is an Object-Oriented Neutrino MC Generator supported and developed by an international collaboration of neutrino interaction experts.

  17. The Final Results from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was a water Cherenkov detector dedicated to investigate elementary particles called neutrinos. It successfully took data between 1999 and 2006. The detector was unique in its use of heavy water as a detection medium, permitting it to make a solar model-independent test of solar neutrino mixing. In fact, SNO conclusively showed that solar neutrinos oscillate on their way from the core of the Sun to the Earth. This groundbreaking observation was made during three independent phases of the experiment. Even if data taking ended, SNO is still in a mode of precise determination of the solar neutrino oscillation parameters because all along SNO had developed several methods to tell charged-current events apart from neutral-current events. This ability is crucial for the final and ultimate data analysis of all the phases. The physics reach of a combined three-phase solar analysis will be reviewed together with results and subtleties about solar neutrino physics.

  18. KamLAND's precision neutrino oscillation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decowski, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    The KamLAND experiment started operation in the Spring of 2002 and is operational to this day. The experiment observes signals from electron antineutrinos from distant nuclear reactors. The program, spanning more than a decade, allowed the determination of LMA-MSW as the solution to the solar neutrino transformation results (under the assumption of CPT invariance) and the measurement of various neutrino oscillation parameters. In particular, the solar mass-splitting Δ m212 was determined to high precision. Besides the study of neutrino oscillation, KamLAND started the investigation of geologically produced antineutrinos (geo-ν‾e). The collaboration also reported on a variety of other topics related to particle and astroparticle physics.

  19. Structural mechanism for the regulation of HCN ion channels by the accessory protein TRIP8b

    PubMed Central

    DeBerg, Hannah A.; Bankston, John R.; Rosenbaum, Joel C.; Brzovic, Peter S.; Zagotta, William N.; Stoll, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels underlie the cationic Ih current present in many neurons. The direct binding of cAMP to HCN channels increases the rate and extent of channel opening and results in a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation. TRIP8b is an accessory protein that regulates the cell surface expression and dendritic localization of HCN channels and reduces the cyclic nucleotide dependence of these channels. Here we use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to show that TRIP8b binds to the apo state of the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) of HCN2 channels without changing the overall domain structure. With EPR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we locate TRIP8b relative to the HCN channel and identify the binding interface on the CNBD. These data provide a structural framework for understanding how TRIP8b regulates the cyclic nucleotide dependence of HCN channels. PMID:25800552

  20. QLC relation and neutrino mass hierarchy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrandis, Javier; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2005-01-27

    Latest measurements have revealed that the deviation from a maximal solar mixing angle is approximately the Cabibbo angle, i.e., QLC relation. We argue that it is not plausible that this deviation from maximality, be it a coincidence or not, comes from the charged lepton mixing. Consequently we have calculated the required corrections to the exactly bimaximal neutrino mass matrix ansatz necessary to account for the solar mass difference and the solar mixing angle. We point out that the relative size of these two corrections depends strongly on the hierarchy case under consideration. We find that the inverted hierarchy case with opposite CP parities, which is known to guarantee the RGE stability of the solar mixing angle, offers the most plausible scenario for a high energy origin of a QLC-corrected bimaximal neutrino mass matrix. This possibility may allow us to explain the QLC relation in connection with the origin of the charged fermion mass matrices.

  1. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 6, Appendix N

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER documents the results of the architectural, historical, and cultural resources assessment for the entire Section 8B ROW that was completed in May 1995 to document the architectural, historical, and cultural resources located within the project area. The assessment included evaluation of the potential for cultural (i.e., rural historic) landscapes in the area of the ROW. The assessment showed that one National Register-listed property is located 0.3 mile south of the ROW

  2. Full genomic analyses of human rotavirus strains possessing the rare P[8]b VP4 subtype.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Souvik; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Yamamoto, Dai; Nagashima, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2011-08-01

    Rotaviruses with the P[8] VP4 genotype are a major cause of acute infantile diarrhea. The P[8] genotype is classified into two genetically distinct subtypes, P[8]a and P[8]b. Most of the P[8] strains belong to subtype P[8]a, whilst P[8]b strains are rare. To date, the whole genomes of a few P[8]a strains have been analyzed, whilst there are no reports on full genomic analysis of the P[8]b strains. To determine the genetic makeup of the rare P[8]b strains and their overall genetic relatedness to the P[8]a strains, the present study analyzed the full genomes of a human G9P[8]b strain, MMC38, and a G1P[8]b strain, MMC71, detected in Bangladesh in 2005. By nucleotide sequence identities and phylogenetic analyses, strains MMC38 and MMC71 exhibited a human rotavirus Wa-like genotype constellation. Except for the VP4 gene, all the genes of strains MMC38 and MMC71 were closely related to cognate genes of the contemporary and more recent human Wa-like G1P[8]a, G9P[8]a, G11P[8]a, G11P[25], G12P[6] and G12P[8]a strains, including those from Bangladesh. Therefore, strains MMC38 and MMC71 possessed the genetically distinct P[8]b VP4 gene on a common human Wa-like genetic backbone, pointing towards their possible origin from reassortment events between common human Wa-like strains and unidentified rotavirus strains possessing the rare P[8]b-like VP4 gene. Since strains with this stable Wa-like genetic backbone can spread rapidly, and it is not certain as to whether the current rotavirus vaccines will be equally efficacious against the P[8]b strains as the P[8]a strains, proper detection of P[8]b strains and their whole genomic analyses might be of public health significance. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report on full genomic analysis of the rare P[8]b rotavirus strains. PMID:21640848

  3. Supernova neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Scholberg, K.

    2015-07-15

    In this presentation I summarize the main detection channels for neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae, and describe current status of and future prospects for supernova-neutrino-sensitive detectors worldwide.

  4. The phospholipid flippase ATP8B1 mediates apical localization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.

    PubMed

    van der Mark, Vincent A; de Jonge, Hugo R; Chang, Jung-Chin; Ho-Mok, Kam S; Duijst, Suzanne; Vidović, Dragana; Carlon, Marianne S; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Paulusma, Coen C

    2016-09-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the phospholipid flippase ATP8B1. Apart from severe cholestatic liver disease, many PFIC1 patients develop extrahepatic symptoms characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), such as pulmonary infection, sweat gland dysfunction and failure to thrive. CF is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel essential for epithelial fluid transport. Previously it was shown that CFTR transcript levels were strongly reduced in livers of PFIC1 patients. Here we have investigated the hypothesis that ATP8B1 is important for proper CFTR expression and function. We analyzed CFTR expression in ATP8B1-depleted intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cell lines and assessed CFTR function by measuring short-circuit currents across transwell-grown ATP8B1-depleted intestinal T84 cells and by a genetically-encoded fluorescent chloride sensor. In addition, we studied CFTR surface expression upon induction of CFTR transcription. We show that CFTR protein levels are strongly reduced in the apical membrane of human ATP8B1-depleted intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cell lines, a phenotype that coincided with reduced CFTR activity. Apical membrane insertion upon induction of ectopically-expressed CFTR was strongly impaired in ATP8B1-depleted cells. We conclude that ATP8B1 is essential for correct apical localization of CFTR in human intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cells, and that impaired CFTR localization underlies some of the extrahepatic phenotypes observed in ATP8B1 deficiency. PMID:27301931

  5. BMP8B Increases Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis through Both Central and Peripheral Actions

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Andrew J.; Carobbio, Stefania; Martins, Luís; Slawik, Marc; Hondares, Elayne; Vázquez, María Jesús; Morgan, Donald; Csikasz, Robert I.; Gallego, Rosalía; Rodriguez-Cuenca, Sergio; Dale, Martin; Virtue, Samuel; Villarroya, Francesc; Cannon, Barbara; Rahmouni, Kamal; López, Miguel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is fundamental to energy balance and is also relevant for humans. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate adipogenesis, and, here, we describe a role for BMP8B in the direct regulation of thermogenesis. BMP8B is induced by nutritional and thermogenic factors in mature BAT, increasing the response to noradrenaline through enhanced p38MAPK/CREB signaling and increased lipase activity. Bmp8b−/− mice exhibit impaired thermogenesis and reduced metabolic rate, causing weight gain despite hypophagia. BMP8B is also expressed in the hypothalamus, and Bmp8b−/− mice display altered neuropeptide levels and reduced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), indicating an anorexigenic state. Central BMP8B treatment increased sympathetic activation of BAT, dependent on the status of AMPK in key hypothalamic nuclei. Our results indicate that BMP8B is a thermogenic protein that regulates energy balance in partnership with hypothalamic AMPK. BMP8B may offer a mechanism to specifically increase energy dissipation by BAT. PMID:22579288

  6. Geo-neutrino Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-12-17

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  7. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris

    2012-06-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures. Neutrinos and photons are by far the most abundant elementary particles in the universe. Thus, if we would like to comprehend the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Of course, studying the neutrinos is challenging, since the only known forces through which these electrically-neutral leptons interact are the weak force and gravity. Consequently, interactions of neutrinos in a detector are very rare events, so that very large detectors and intense neutrino sources are needed to make experiments feasible. Nevertheless, we have confirmed that the weak interactions of neutrinos are correctly described by the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics. Moreover, in the last 14 years, we have discovered that neutrinos have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. These discoveries have been based on the observation that neutrinos can change from one 'flavor' to another - the phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation. We shall explain the physics of neutrino oscillation, deriving the probability of oscillation in a new way. We shall also provide a very brief guide to references that can be used to study some major neutrino-physics topics other than neutrino oscillation.

  8. Speedy neutrinos, again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Frank

    2012-02-01

    I am writing with regard to the OPERA collaboration's recent publicizing of experimental results suggesting that neutrinos have been observed travelling faster than light (see "Superluminal neutrinos split OPERA collaboration", November 2011 pp12-13 "The brave new-media world", ibid p19; and "Speedy neutrinos", December 2011 pp20-21).

  9. Neutrinos in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, D.; Frere, J.-M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutrinos from the Big Bang or the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) carry precious information from the early epoch when our universe was only 1 s old. Although not yet directly detected, CNB may be revealed indirectly through cosmological observations due to neutrino important cosmological influence. We review the cosmological role of neutrinos and the cosmological constraints on neutrino characteristics. Namely, we discuss the impact of neutrinos in the early universe: the cosmic expansion, neutrino decoupling, the role of neutrinos in the primordial production of light elements, leptogenesis, etc. We briefly discuss the role of neutrino at later stages of the universe. Due to the considerable cosmological influence of neutrinos, cosmological bounds on neutrino properties from observational data exist. We review the cosmological constraints on the effective number of neutrino species, neutrino mass and mixing parameters, lepton number of the universe, presence of sterile neutrino, etc.

  10. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 3, Appendix D

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER inventories the fishes and benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting the aquatic ecosystems potentially affected by the proposed construction of Section 8B. Stream biological surveys were completed at 31 stream sites during the Fall of 1994. The sampling strategy for both invertebrates and fish was to survey the different taxa from all available habitats. For benthic invertebrates, a standardized qualitative manual collection technique was employed for all 31 stations. For fish

  11. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 5, Appendices J-M

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices J through M, which describe potential impacts regarding traffic, noise, and aesthetics. The results of the traffic studies described in these appendices resulted in the following conclusions: Unacceptable levels of service will occur on numerous roads within and outside of the park increasingly in the Mure based upon current and future regional growth. However, the results of the traffic assessment indicated that there would be no significant or

  12. Detecting Cosmic Neutrinos with IceCube at the Earth's South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurahashi Neilson, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    The universe has been studied using light since the dawn of astronomy, when starlight captured the human eye. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory views the universe in a different and unique way: in high-energy neutrinos. IceCube's recent discovery of a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos, in other words, the universe glowing in neutrinos from beyond the solar system, started a new era of neutrino astronomy. I will motivate why neutrinos are a necessary messenger in high-energy astronomy. I will discuss the multiple diffuse flux analyses in IceCube that observe the astrophysical flux, and what each can tell us. Spatial analyses that aim to identify the sources of such astrophysical neutrinos will also be discussed, followed by an attempt to reconcile all results, to draw a coherent picture that is the state of neutrino astronomy.

  13. Mass determination of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1988-01-01

    A time-energy correlation method has been developed to determine the signature of a nonzero neutrino mass in a small sample of neutrinos detected from a distant source. The method is applied to the Kamiokande II (Hirata et al., 1987) and IMB (Bionta et al., 1987) observations of neutrino bursts from SN 1987A. Using the Kamiokande II data, the neutrino rest mass is estimated at 2.8 + 2.0, - 1.4 eV and the initial neutrino pulse is found to be less than 0.3 sec full width, followed by an emission tail lasting at least 10 sec.

  14. Neutrinos from AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The great penetrating power of neutrinos makes them ideal probe of astrophysical sites and conditions inaccessible to other forms of radiation. These are the centers of stars (collapsing or not) and the centers of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). It has been suggested that AGN presented a very promising source of high energy neutrinos, possibly detectable by underwater neutrino detectors. This paper reviews the evolution of ideas concerning the emission of neutrinos from AGN in view of the more recent developments in gamma-ray astronomy and their implications for the neutrino emission from these class of objects.

  15. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 4, Appendices E-I

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical, resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices E through I (all ecological survey reports), which are summarized individually in the sections that follow. The following conclusions result from the completion of these surveys and the ER impact analysis: (1) Forest clearing should be limited as much as possible; (2) Disturbed areas should be replanted with native trees; (3) Drainages should be bridged rather than leveled with cut and fill; (4) For areas of steep slopes and potential erosion

  16. Sneutrino-antisneutrino mixing and neutrino mass in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kiwoon; Hwang, Kyuwan; Song, Wan Young

    2002-04-01

    In supersymmetric models with nonzero Majorana neutrino mass, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix, which may lead to same-sign dilepton signals in future collider experiments. We point out that the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario has a good potential to provide an observable rate of such signals for the neutrino masses suggested by the atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations. It is noted also that the sneutrino-antisneutrino mixing can provide much stronger information on some combinations of the neutrino masses and mixing angles than the neutrino experiments.

  17. ATP8B1-mediated spatial organization of Cdc42 signaling maintains singularity during enterocyte polarization

    PubMed Central

    Bruurs, Lucas J.M.; Donker, Lisa; Zwakenberg, Susan; Zwartkruis, Fried J.; Begthel, Harry; Knisely, A.S.; Posthuma, George; van de Graaf, Stan F.J.; Paulusma, Coen C.

    2015-01-01

    During yeast cell polarization localization of the small GTPase, cell division control protein 42 homologue (Cdc42) is clustered to ensure the formation of a single bud. Here we show that the disease-associated flippase ATPase class I type 8b member 1 (ATP8B1) enables Cdc42 clustering during enterocyte polarization. Loss of this regulation results in increased apical membrane size with scattered apical recycling endosomes and permits the formation of more than one apical domain, resembling the singularity defect observed in yeast. Mechanistically, we show that to become apically clustered, Cdc42 requires the interaction between its polybasic region and negatively charged membrane lipids provided by ATP8B1. Disturbing this interaction, either by ATP8B1 depletion or by introduction of a Cdc42 mutant defective in lipid binding, increases Cdc42 mobility and results in apical membrane enlargement. Re-establishing Cdc42 clustering, by tethering it to the apical membrane or lowering its diffusion, restores normal apical membrane size in ATP8B1-depleted cells. We therefore conclude that singularity regulation by Cdc42 is conserved between yeast and human and that this regulation is required to maintain healthy tissue architecture. PMID:26416959

  18. Autosomal-dominant striatal degeneration is caused by a mutation in the phosphodiesterase 8B gene.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Silke; Schirmacher, Anja; Halfter, Hartmut; Bäumer, Sebastian; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Timmerman, Vincent; De Jonghe, Peter; Fekete, Klára; Stögbauer, Florian; Lüdemann, Peter; Hund, Margret; Quabius, Elgar Susanne; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant striatal degeneration (ADSD) is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder affecting the striatal part of the basal ganglia. ADSD is characterized by bradykinesia, dysarthria, and muscle rigidity. These symptoms resemble idiopathic Parkinson disease, but tremor is not present. Using genetic linkage analysis, we have mapped the causative genetic defect to a 3.25 megabase candidate region on chromosome 5q13.3-q14.1. A maximum LOD score of 4.1 (Theta = 0) was obtained at marker D5S1962. Here we show that ADSD is caused by a complex frameshift mutation (c.94G>C+c.95delT) in the phosphodiesterase 8B (PDE8B) gene, which results in a loss of enzymatic phosphodiesterase activity. We found that PDE8B is highly expressed in the brain, especially in the putamen, which is affected by ADSD. PDE8B degrades cyclic AMP, a second messenger implied in dopamine signaling. Dopamine is one of the main neurotransmitters involved in movement control and is deficient in Parkinson disease. We believe that the functional analysis of PDE8B will help to further elucidate the pathomechanism of ADSD as well as contribute to a better understanding of movement disorders.

  19. ATP8B1-mediated spatial organization of Cdc42 signaling maintains singularity during enterocyte polarization.

    PubMed

    Bruurs, Lucas J M; Donker, Lisa; Zwakenberg, Susan; Zwartkruis, Fried J; Begthel, Harry; Knisely, A S; Posthuma, George; van de Graaf, Stan F J; Paulusma, Coen C; Bos, Johannes L

    2015-09-28

    During yeast cell polarization localization of the small GTPase, cell division control protein 42 homologue (Cdc42) is clustered to ensure the formation of a single bud. Here we show that the disease-associated flippase ATPase class I type 8b member 1 (ATP8B1) enables Cdc42 clustering during enterocyte polarization. Loss of this regulation results in increased apical membrane size with scattered apical recycling endosomes and permits the formation of more than one apical domain, resembling the singularity defect observed in yeast. Mechanistically, we show that to become apically clustered, Cdc42 requires the interaction between its polybasic region and negatively charged membrane lipids provided by ATP8B1. Disturbing this interaction, either by ATP8B1 depletion or by introduction of a Cdc42 mutant defective in lipid binding, increases Cdc42 mobility and results in apical membrane enlargement. Re-establishing Cdc42 clustering, by tethering it to the apical membrane or lowering its diffusion, restores normal apical membrane size in ATP8B1-depleted cells. We therefore conclude that singularity regulation by Cdc42 is conserved between yeast and human and that this regulation is required to maintain healthy tissue architecture. PMID:26416959

  20. Autosomal-Dominant Striatal Degeneration Is Caused by a Mutation in the Phosphodiesterase 8B Gene

    PubMed Central

    Appenzeller, Silke; Schirmacher, Anja; Halfter, Hartmut; Bäumer, Sebastian; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Timmerman, Vincent; De Jonghe, Peter; Fekete, Klára; Stögbauer, Florian; Lüdemann, Peter; Hund, Margret; Quabius, Elgar Susanne; Ringelstein, E. Bernd; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant striatal degeneration (ADSD) is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder affecting the striatal part of the basal ganglia. ADSD is characterized by bradykinesia, dysarthria, and muscle rigidity. These symptoms resemble idiopathic Parkinson disease, but tremor is not present. Using genetic linkage analysis, we have mapped the causative genetic defect to a 3.25 megabase candidate region on chromosome 5q13.3-q14.1. A maximum LOD score of 4.1 (Θ = 0) was obtained at marker D5S1962. Here we show that ADSD is caused by a complex frameshift mutation (c.94G>C+c.95delT) in the phosphodiesterase 8B (PDE8B) gene, which results in a loss of enzymatic phosphodiesterase activity. We found that PDE8B is highly expressed in the brain, especially in the putamen, which is affected by ADSD. PDE8B degrades cyclic AMP, a second messenger implied in dopamine signaling. Dopamine is one of the main neurotransmitters involved in movement control and is deficient in Parkinson disease. We believe that the functional analysis of PDE8B will help to further elucidate the pathomechanism of ADSD as well as contribute to a better understanding of movement disorders. PMID:20085714

  1. Atmospheric Neutrinos: Background and Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Mocioiu, Irina

    2010-11-24

    We discuss a brief history of atmospheric neutrinos, from background to proton decay searches to proving neutrino oscillations. We then discuss how high statistics atmospheric neutrino measurements in the IceCube Deep Core Array can provide useful information about neutrino oscillation parameters and other neutrino properties.

  2. Collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-06-24

    In a dense neutrino medium neutrinos can experience collective flavor transformation through the neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. In this talk we present some basic features of collective neutrino flavor transformation in the context in core-collapse supernovae. We also give some qualitative arguments for why and when this interesting phenomenon may occur and how it may affect supernova nucleosynthesis.

  3. Possible scenario for MaVaN's as the only neutrino flavor conversion mechanism in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Holanda, P.C. de

    2009-07-01

    Mass Varying neutrino mechanisms were proposed to link the neutrino mass scale with dark energy, addressing the coincidence problem. In some scenarios this mass can present a dependence on the baryonic density felt by neutrinos, creating an effective neutrino mass that depends both on the neutrino and baryonic densities. In this article we investigate the possibility that a neutrino effective mass in matter in addition to a very small mass squared difference in vacuum (O(10{sup −9} eV{sup 2})) are the main flavour conversion mechanism acting in neutrino oscillation experiments. We present a parameterization on the environmental effects on neutrino mass that produces the right flavour conversion probabilities for solar and terrestrial neutrinos experiments.

  4. Phosphodiesterase 8B and cyclic AMP signaling in the adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Leal, Leticia Ferro; Szarek, Eva; Faucz, Fabio; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-09-01

    Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia (BAH) in humans and mice has been recently linked to phosphodiesterase (PDE) 8B (PDE8B) and 11 (PDE11A) defects. These findings have followed the discovery that defects of primary genes of the cyclic monophosphatase (cAMP) signaling pathway, such as guanine nucleotide binding alpha subunit and PRKAR1A, are involved in the pathogenesis of BAH in humans; complete absence of Prkar1a in the adrenal cortex of mice also led to pathology that mimicked the human disease. Here, we review the most recent findings in human and mouse studies on PDE8B, a cAMP-specific PDE that appears to be highly expressed in the adrenal cortex and whose deficiency may underlie predisposition to BAH and possibly other human diseases. PMID:25971952

  5. YAV-8B reaction control system bleed and control power usage in hover and transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Merrick, Vernon K.; Stortz, Michael W.

    1994-01-01

    Using a calibrated Rolls-Royce Pegasus engine and existing aircraft instrumentation and pressure taps, total and individual nozzle reaction control system (RCS) bleed flow rates have been measured on a YAV-8B Harrier during typical short takeoff, transition, hover, and vertical landing maneuvers. RCS thrust forces were calculated from RCS nozzle total pressure measurements, and control power was determined from the moments produced by these thrusts and the aircraft's moments of inertia. These data document the characteristics of the YAV-8B RCS with its basic stability augmentation system (SAS) engaged. Advanced control system designs for the YAV-8B can be compared to the original SAS based on the total bleed use and the percentage of available bleed used. In addition, the peak and mean values of the bleed and control power data can be used for sizing the reaction controls for a future short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft.

  6. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Schumann, M. E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2–30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ∼ 2 × 10{sup −48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV⋅c{sup −2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ∼ 6 GeV⋅c{sup −2} to cross sections above ∼ 4 × 10{sup −45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 × 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  7. Analysis of Human TAAR8 and Murine Taar8b Mediated Signaling Pathways and Expression Profile

    PubMed Central

    Mühlhaus, Jessica; Dinter, Juliane; Nürnberg, Daniela; Rehders, Maren; Depke, Maren; Golchert, Janine; Homuth, Georg; Yi, Chun-Xia; Morin, Silke; Köhrle, Josef; Brix, Klaudia; Tschöp, Matthias; Kleinau, Gunnar; Biebermann, Heike

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) exerts metabolic effects in vivo that contradict known effects of thyroid hormones. 3-T1AM acts as a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonist and activates Gs signaling in vitro. Interestingly, 3-T1AM-meditated in vivo effects persist in Taar1 knockout-mice indicating that further targets of 3-T1AM might exist. Here, we investigated another member of the TAAR family, the only scarcely studied mouse and human trace-amine-associated receptor 8 (Taar8b, TAAR8). By RT-qPCR and locked-nucleic-acid (LNA) in situ hybridization, Taar8b expression in different mouse tissues was analyzed. Functionally, we characterized TAAR8 and Taar8b with regard to cell surface expression and signaling via different G-protein-mediated pathways. Cell surface expression was verified by ELISA, and cAMP accumulation was quantified by AlphaScreen for detection of Gs and/or Gi/o signaling. Activation of G-proteins Gq/11 and G12/13 was analyzed by reporter gene assays. Expression analyses revealed at most marginal Taar8b expression and no gender differences for almost all analyzed tissues. In heart, LNA-in situ hybridization demonstrated the absence of Taar8b expression. We could not identify 3-T1AM as a ligand for TAAR8 and Taar8b, but both receptors were characterized by a basal Gi/o signaling activity, a so far unknown signaling pathway for TAARs. PMID:25391046

  8. Probing the nuclear structure of {sup 8}B and {sup 19}C

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, T.; Geissel, H.; Aumann, T.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Hellstroem, M.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nickel, F.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schwab, W.; Suemmerer, K.; Winkler, M.; Lenske, H.; Markenroth, K.; Axelsson, L.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Smedberg, M. H.; Zhukov, M. V.; Bergmann, U.; Riisager, K.

    1998-12-21

    The nuclei {sup 8}B and {sup 19}C were investigated in breakup reactions at relativistic energies. The fragment separator FRS at GSI was used as an energy-loss spectrometer to measure the longitudinal momentum distributions of the breakup fragments after one-nucleon removal. For the case of {sup 8}B, the measured momentum distribution is in agreement with our previous experiment, but in this measurement the momentum range extends up to 175 MeV/c in the projectile frame. For {sup 18}C fragments from the breakup of {sup 19}C, we extract a much larger momentum width than the value obtained in a measurement at lower projectile energies.

  9. 15 CFR 8b.10 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state or local law or other requirements and effect of employment opportunities. 8b.10 Section 8b.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of... PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.10 Effect of state or local law...

  10. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  11. Trafficking and Gating of Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channels Are Regulated by Interaction with Tetratricopeptide Repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting Protein (TRIP8b) and Cyclic AMP at Distinct Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ye; Noam, Yoav; Lewis, Alan S.; Gallagher, Johnie J.; Wadman, Wytse J.; Baram, Tallie Z.; Chetkovich, Dane M.

    2011-01-01

    Ion channel trafficking and gating are often influenced by interactions with auxiliary subunits. Tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b) is an auxiliary subunit for neuronal hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. TRIP8b interacts directly with two distinct sites of HCN channel pore-forming subunits to control channel trafficking and gating. Here we use mutagenesis combined with electrophysiological studies to define and distinguish the functional importance of the HCN/TRIP8b interaction sites. Interaction with the last three amino acids of the HCN1 C terminus governed the effect of TRIP8b on channel trafficking, whereas TRIP8b interaction with the HCN1 cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) affected trafficking and gating. Biochemical studies revealed that direct interaction between TRIP8b and the HCN1 CNBD was disrupted by cAMP and that TRIP8b binding to the CNBD required an arginine residue also necessary for cAMP binding. In accord, increasing cAMP levels in cells antagonized the up-regulation of HCN1 channels mediated by a TRIP8b construct binding the CNBD exclusively. These data illustrate the distinct roles of the two TRIP8b-HCN interaction domains and suggest that TRIP8b and cAMP may directly compete for binding the HCN CNBD to control HCN channel gating, kinetics, and trafficking. PMID:21504900

  12. Decay of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Beacom, John F; Bell, Nicole F; Hooper, Dan; Pakvasa, Sandip; Weiler, Thomas J

    2003-05-01

    Existing limits on the nonradiative decay of one neutrino to another plus a massless particle (e.g., a singlet Majoron) are very weak. The best limits on the lifetime to mass ratio come from solar neutrino observations and are tau/m greater, similar 10(-4) s/eV for the relevant mass eigenstate(s). For lifetimes even several orders of magnitude longer, high-energy neutrinos from distant astrophysical sources would decay. This would strongly alter the flavor ratios from the phi(nu(e)):phi(nu(mu)):phi(nu(tau))=1:1:1 expected from oscillations alone and should be readily visible in the near future in detectors such as IceCube. PMID:12785996

  13. Probing Exotic Physics With Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, Chris; Hooper, Dan

    2010-09-01

    Future galactic supernovae will provide an extremely long baseline for studying the properties and interactions of neutrinos. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of using such an event to constrain (or discover) the effects of exotic physics in scenarios that are not currently constrained and are not accessible with reactor or solar neutrino experiments. In particular, we focus on the cases of neutrino decay and quantum decoherence. We calculate the expected signal from a core-collapse supernova in both current and future water Cerenkov, scintillating, and liquid argon detectors, and find that such observations will be capable of distinguishing between many of these scenarios. Additionally, future detectors will be capable of making strong, model-independent conclusions by examining events associated with a galactic supernova's neutronization burst.

  14. The Effects of Collective Neutrino Oscillations on Supernova Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seadrow, Shaquann; Frohlich, C.; Duan, H.; Friedland, A.; McLaughlin, G.; Keohane, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    A core-collapse supernova originates from the implosion of the electron degenerate core inside a massive star. Runaway electron capture produces on the order of 1057 neutrinos containing about 1053 erg of energy in total. While the vast majority of neutrinos are eventually released, during the first few seconds these neutrinos drive both the dynamics, and likewise the nucleosynthesis, inside the supernova. Recently, our understanding of oscillations among the different flavors of neutrinos (electron, muon, and tau) has significantly improved, allowing us to ask if neutrino flavor change has a significant effect on nucleosynthesis in a core-collapse supernova. To investigate the effects of collective neutrino flavor oscillations, we use the hydrodynamic conditions from a spherically-symmetrical model of the implosion, bounce, and explosion of the 1.4 solar mass core that is inside an 8.8 solar mass star (Huedepohl et al. 2009). We select 20 mass tracers in the ejecta, varying in initial radii, and follow these trajectories for the first 9 seconds following bounce. We include these trajectories into a nuclear reaction network in order to calculate the detailed nucleosynthesis. We use three sets of neutrino reaction rates, all of which are calculated consistently with the conditions in the supernova model: (i) no collective flavor oscillations, (ii) collective oscillations for normal neutrino mass hierarchy, and (iii) collective oscillations for inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We calculate the detailed nucleosynthesis for each trajectory for all three sets of neutrino rates. We find that the inclusion of collective oscillations (ii or iii) significantly increases the free neutron abundance; however, we obtain similar results regardless of which hierarchy is used. The increase in free neutrons also increases the subsequent rate of neutron capture, but has only a small effect on the predicted final abundances. This work was performed as part of North Carolina State

  15. Charged Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachelrieß, M.

    2013-04-01

    High-energy neutrino astronomy has grown up, with IceCube as one of its main experiments having sufficient sensitivity to test "vanilla" models of astrophysical neutrinos. I review predictions of neutrino fluxes as well as the status of cosmic ray physics. I comment also briefly on an improvement of the Fermi-LAT limit for cosmogenic neutrinos and on the two neutrino events presented by IceCube first at "Neutrino 2012".

  16. Neutrino propagation in a fluctuating sun

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.P.; Michaud, D.

    1997-05-01

    We adapt to neutrino physics a general formulation for particle propagation in fluctuating media, initially developed for applications to electromagnetism and neutron optics. In leading approximation this formalism leads to the usual MSW effective Hamiltonian governing neutrino propagation through a medium. Next-to-leading contributions describe deviations from this description, which arise due to neutrino interactions with fluctuations in the medium. We compute these corrections for two types of fluctuations: (i) microscopic thermal fluctuations and (ii) macroscopic fluctuations in the medium{close_quote}s density. While the first of these reproduces standard estimates, which are negligible for applications to solar neutrinos, we find that the second can be quite large, since it grows in size with the correlation length of the fluctuation. We consider two models in some detail. For fluctuations whose correlations extend only over a local region in space of length l, appreciable effects for MSW oscillations arise if ({delta}n/n){sup 2}l{approx_gt}100m or so. Alternatively, a crude model of helioseismic p-waves gives appreciable effects only when ({delta}n/n){approx_gt}1{percent}. In general the dominant effect is to diminish the quality of the resonance, making the suppression of the {sup 7}Be neutrinos a good experimental probe of fluctuations deep within the sun. Fluctuations can also provide a new mechanism for reducing the solar neutrino flux, giving an energy-independent suppression factor of 1/2 away from the resonant region, even for small vacuum mixing angles. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.

  17. Paradoxes of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2009-08-15

    Despite the theory of neutrino oscillations being rather old, some of its basic issues are still being debated in the literature. We discuss a number of such issues, including the relevance of the 'same energy' and 'same momentum' assumptions, the role of quantum-mechanical uncertainty relations in neutrino oscillations, the dependence of the coherence and localization conditions that ensure the observability of neutrino oscillations on neutrino energy and momentum uncertainties, the question of (in)dependence of the oscillation probabilities on the neutrino production and detection processes, and the applicability limits of the stationary-source approximation. We also develop a novel approach to calculation of the oscillation probability in the wave-packet approach, based on the summation/integration conventions different from the standard one, which allows a new insight into the 'same energy' vs. 'same momentum' problem. We also discuss a number of apparently paradoxical features of the theory of neutrino oscillations.

  18. 17 CFR 270.8b-21 - Information unknown or not available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information unknown or not... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-21 Information unknown or not... registrant. If any required information is unknown and not reasonably available to the registrant,...

  19. 17 CFR 270.8b-21 - Information unknown or not available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information unknown or not... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-21 Information unknown or not... registrant. If any required information is unknown and not reasonably available to the registrant,...

  20. 17 CFR 270.8b-21 - Information unknown or not available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information unknown or not... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-21 Information unknown or not... registrant. If any required information is unknown and not reasonably available to the registrant,...

  1. 17 CFR 270.8b-21 - Information unknown or not available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information unknown or not... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-21 Information unknown or not... registrant. If any required information is unknown and not reasonably available to the registrant,...

  2. The expansion of Phytophthora clade 8b: three new species associated with winter grown vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Bertier, L; Brouwer, H; de Cock, A W A M; Cooke, D E L; Olsson, C H B; Höfte, M

    2013-12-01

    Despite its association with important agricultural crops, Phytophthora clade 8b is a poorly studied group of species. The clade currently consists of three officially described species (Phytophthora porri, P. brassicae and P. primulae) that are host-specific pathogens of leek, cabbages and Primula spp., respectively. However, over the past few decades, several other clade 8b-like Phytophthoras have been found on a variety of different host plants that were all grown at low temperatures in winter seasons. In this study, a collection of 30 of these isolates was subjected to a phylogenetic study using two loci (the rDNA ITS region and the mitochondrial cox1 gene). This analysis revealed a clear clustering of isolates according to their host plants. To verify whether these isolates belong to separate species, a detailed morphological study was conducted. On the basis of genetic and morphological differences and host specificity, we now present the official description of three new species in clade 8b: Phytophthora cichorii sp. nov., P. dauci sp. nov. and P. lactucae sp. nov. Two other groups of isolates (Phytophthora taxon castitis and Phytophthora taxon parsley) might also represent new species but the data available at this time are insufficient for an official description. This brings Phytophthora clade 8b to a group of six species that are all host-specific, slow-growing and specifically infect herbaceous crops at low temperatures.

  3. 7Be(p,(gamma))8B S-factor From Ab Initio Wave Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Bertulani, C; Caurier, E

    2005-08-15

    Nuclear structure of {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}B and {sup 7,8}Li is studied within the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from the high-precision CD-Bonn 2000 nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, wave functions of {sup 7}Be and {sup 8}B bound states are obtained in basis spaces up to 10{h_bar}{Omega} and used to calculate channel cluster form factors (overlap integrals) of the {sup 8}B ground state with {sup 7}Be+p. Due to the use of the harmonic oscillator (HO) basis, the overlap integrals have incorrect asymptotic properties. We fix this problem in two alternative ways. First, by a Woods-Saxon (WS) potential solution fit to the interior of the NCSM overlap integrals. Second, by a direct matching with the Whittaker function. The corrected overlap integrals are then used for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor calculation. We study the convergence of the S-factor with respect to the NCSM HO frequency and the model space size. Our S-factor results are in agreement with recent direct measurement data.

  4. 17 CFR 270.8b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-10 Requirements as to proper form... by the Commission, as in effect on the date of filing. Any such statement or report shall be...

  5. 17 CFR 270.8b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-10 Requirements as to proper form... by the Commission, as in effect on the date of filing. Any such statement or report shall be...

  6. 17 CFR 270.8b-11 - Number of copies; signatures; binding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Number of copies; signatures... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-11 Number of copies; signatures; binding. (a) Three complete copies of each registration statement or report, including exhibits and...

  7. Neutrinos in Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2008-01-24

    I give an overview of the effects of neutrinos on cosmology, focussing in particular on the role played by neutrinos in the evolution of cosmological perturbations. I discuss how recent observations of the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale structure of galaxies can probe neutrino masses with greater precision than current laboratory experiments. I describe several new techniques that will be used to probe cosmology in the future.

  8. Neutrinos: Nature's Ghosts?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-06-18

    Dr. Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino. Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more.

  9. Neutrinos: Nature's Ghosts?

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino. Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more.

  10. Neutrino Physics at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Federspiel, F.; Garvey, G.; Louis, W.C.; Mills, G.B.; Tayloe, R.; Sandberg, V.; Sapp, B.; White, D.H.

    1999-07-09

    The Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND), located at the LANSCE (formerly LAMPF) linear accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory, has seen evidence for the oscillation of neutrinos, and hence neutrino mass. That discovery was the impetus for this LDRD project, begun in 1996. The goal of this project was to define the appropriate technologies to use in a follow up experiment and to set in place the requirements for such an experiment.

  11. High intensity neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, A. K.

    2015-07-15

    High-intensity proton accelerator complex enabled long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments with a precisely controlled neutrino beam. The beam power so far achieved is a few hundred kW with enourmorous efforts of accelerator physicists and engineers. However, to fully understand the lepton mixing structure, MW-class accelerators are desired. We describe the current intensity-frontier high-energy proton accelerators, their plans to go beyond and technical challenges in the neutrino beamline facilities.

  12. The next-generation liquid-scintillator neutrino observatory LENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, Michael; Beacom, John F.; Bezrukov, Leonid B.; Bick, Daniel; Blümer, Johannes; Choubey, Sandhya; Ciemniak, Christian; D'Angelo, Davide; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Derbin, Alexander; Dighe, Amol; Domogatsky, Grigorij; Dye, Steve; Eliseev, Sergey; Enqvist, Timo; Erykalov, Alexey; von Feilitzsch, Franz; Fiorentini, Gianni; Fischer, Tobias; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Grabmayr, Peter; Hagner, Caren; Hellgartner, Dominikus; Hissa, Johannes; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Jaupart, Claude; Jochum, Josef; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Kayunov, Alexei; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Lazanu, Ionel; Learned, John G.; Lewke, Timo; Lombardi, Paolo; Lorenz, Sebastian; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Loo, Kai; Maalampi, Jukka; Mantovani, Fabio; Marafini, Michela; Maricic, Jelena; Marrodán Undagoitia, Teresa; McDonough, William F.; Miramonti, Lino; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Meindl, Quirin; Mena, Olga; Möllenberg, Randolph; Muratova, Valentina; Nahnhauer, Rolf; Nesterenko, Dmitry; Novikov, Yuri N.; Nuijten, Guido; Oberauer, Lothar; Pakvasa, Sandip; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Pallavicini, Marco; Pascoli, Silvia; Patzak, Thomas; Peltoniemi, Juha; Potzel, Walter; Räihä, Tomi; Raffelt, Georg G.; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Razzaque, Soebur; Rummukainen, Kari; Sarkamo, Juho; Sinev, Valerij; Spiering, Christian; Stahl, Achim; Thorne, Felicitas; Tippmann, Marc; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Trzaska, Wladyslaw H.; Vergados, John D.; Wiebusch, Christopher; Winter, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    As part of the European LAGUNA design study on a next-generation neutrino detector, we propose the liquid-scintillator detector LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) as a multipurpose neutrino observatory. The outstanding successes of the Borexino and KamLAND experiments demonstrate the large potential of liquid-scintillator detectors in low-energy neutrino physics. Low energy threshold, good energy resolution and efficient background discrimination are inherent to the liquid-scintillator technique. A target mass of 50 kt will offer a substantial increase in detection sensitivity. At low energies, the variety of detection channels available in liquid scintillator will allow for an energy - and flavor-resolved analysis of the neutrino burst emitted by a galactic Supernova. Due to target mass and background conditions, LENA will also be sensitive to the faint signal of the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background. Solar metallicity, time-variation in the solar neutrino flux and deviations from MSW-LMA survival probabilities can be investigated based on unprecedented statistics. Low background conditions allow to search for dark matter by observing rare annihilation neutrinos. The large number of events expected for geoneutrinos will give valuable information on the abundances of Uranium and Thorium and their relative ratio in the Earth's crust and mantle. Reactor neutrinos enable a high-precision measurement of solar mixing parameters. A strong radioactive or pion decay-at-rest neutrino source can be placed close to the detector to investigate neutrino oscillations for short distances and sub-MeV to MeV energies. At high energies, LENA will provide a new lifetime limit for the SUSY-favored proton decay mode into kaon and antineutrino, surpassing current experimental limits by about one order of magnitude. Recent studies have demonstrated that a reconstruction of momentum and energy of GeV particles is well feasible in liquid scintillator. Monte Carlo studies on the

  13. Accelerator neutrino program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The accelerator neutrino programme in the USA consists primarily of the Fermilab neutrino programme. Currently, Fermilab operates two neutrino beamlines, the Booster neutrino beamline and the NuMI neutrino beamline and is the planning stages for a third neutrino beam to send neutrinos to DUSEL. The experiments in the Booster neutrino beamline are miniBooNE, SciBooNE and in the future microBooNE, whereas in the NuMI beamline we have MINOS, ArgoNut, MINERVA and coming soon NOvA. The major experiment in the beamline to DUSEL will be LBNE.

  14. Scattering of low-energy neutrinos on atomic shells

    SciTech Connect

    Babič, Andrej; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-28

    We present a derivation of the total cross section for inelastic scattering of low-energy solar neutrinos and reactor antineutrinos on bound electrons, resulting in a transition of the electron to an excited state. The atomic-shell structure of various chemical elements is treated in terms of a nonrelativistic approximation. We estimate the interaction rates for modern neutrino detectors, in particular the Borexino and GEMMA experiments. We establish that in these experiments the effect can be safely neglected, but it could be accessible to future large-volume neutrino detectors with low energy threshold.

  15. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, H.; Garvey, G.; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  16. Neutrinos in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1986-10-01

    The role of neutrinos in Type II supernovae is discussed. An overall view of the neutrino luminosity as expected theoretically is presented. The different weak interactions involved are assessed from the standpoint of how they exchange energy, momentum, and lepton number. Particular attention is paid to entropy generation and the path to thermal and chemical equilibration, and to the phenomenon of trapping. Various methods used to calculate the neutrino flows are considered. These include trapping and leakage schemes, distribution-averaged transfer, and multi-energy group methods. The information obtained from the neutrinos caught from Supernova 1987a is briefly evaluated. 55 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Muons and neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high. Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed.

  18. Nonlinear growing neutrino cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaita, Youness; Baldi, Marco; Führer, Florian; Puchwein, Ewald; Wetterich, Christof

    2016-03-01

    The energy scale of dark energy, ˜2 ×10-3 eV , is a long way off compared to all known fundamental scales—except for the neutrino masses. If dark energy is dynamical and couples to neutrinos, this is no longer a coincidence. The time at which dark energy starts to behave as an effective cosmological constant can be linked to the time at which the cosmic neutrinos become nonrelativistic. This naturally places the onset of the Universe's accelerated expansion in recent cosmic history, addressing the why-now problem of dark energy. We show that these mechanisms indeed work in the growing neutrino quintessence model—even if the fully nonlinear structure formation and backreaction are taken into account, which were previously suspected of spoiling the cosmological evolution. The attractive force between neutrinos arising from their coupling to dark energy grows as large as 106 times the gravitational strength. This induces very rapid dynamics of neutrino fluctuations which are nonlinear at redshift z ≈2 . Nevertheless, a nonlinear stabilization phenomenon ensures only mildly nonlinear oscillating neutrino overdensities with a large-scale gravitational potential substantially smaller than that of cold dark matter perturbations. Depending on model parameters, the signals of large-scale neutrino lumps may render the cosmic neutrino background observable.

  19. Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun.

    PubMed

    2014-08-28

    In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sun's energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10(33) ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process. PMID:25164748

  20. Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun.

    PubMed

    2014-08-28

    In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sun's energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10(33) ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process.

  1. PREFACE: Prospects in Neutrino Physics 2013 - NuPhys2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    The first "Prospects in Neutrino Physics 2013 - NuPhys2013" conference was held at the Institute of Physics, IoP, London, 19-20 December 2013 and was attended by about 130 delegates from institutions worldwide. Lunch and coffee breaks allowed discussions among delegates and speakers to take place in an informal setting. This conference is unique in discussing the worldwide strategy to address unresolved issues in neutrino physics, and shape the future directions of particle physics. We discussed the current status and focussed especially on the prospects of future experiments, their performance and physics reach. It is particularly timely due to the recent measurements in neutrino physics and planned worldwide experiments. The following topics were addressed: • Theory and Phenomenology Perspectives • Future Long and Short Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments • Reactor neutrino and flux • Neutrinoless double beta decays • Solar, atmospheric, supernova neutrinosNeutrino cosmology in which both the phenomenological and experimental aspects were equally addressed. World-leading experts in the different neutrino areas were invited to give review talks. To encourage and facilitate the participation of early-career researchers and PhD students, a poster session formed a key aspect of this meeting. The conference was organized by Francesca Di Lodovico and Silvia Pascoli. It was sponsored by the IoP through their Topic Research Meeting Grant, and also supported by Durham IPPP, ERC-207282, FP7 invisibles project, Queen Mary University of London.

  2. High-energy neutrinos from a lunar observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, M. M.; Silberberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    The detection of high-energy (HE) cosmic and solar-flare neutrions near the lunar surface would be feasible at energies much lower than for a terrestrial observatory. At these lower energies ( 10 to the 9th eV), the neutrino background is drastically reduced below that generated by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. Because of the short mean free path ( 1m) of the progenitor pi and K mesons against nuclear interactions in lunar rocks, the neutrino background would be quite low. At 1 GeV, less than 1% of the pions would decay; at 10 GeV, 0.1%. Thus, if the neutrino flux to be observed is intense enough, and its spectrum is steep enough, then the signal-to-noise ratio is very favorable. The observation of HE neutrinos from solar flares would be dramatically enhanced, especially at lower energies, since the flare spectra are very steep. Detection of these neutrinos on Earth does not appear to be feasible. A remarkable feature of solar flares as viewed in HE neutrinos from a lunar base is that the entire surface of the Sun would be visible.

  3. Extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos and relic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2006-03-01

    I review the essentials of ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions, show how neutral-current detection and flavor tagging can enhance the scientific potential of neutrino telescopes, and sketch new studies on neutrino encounters with dark matter relics and on gravitational lensing of neutrinos.

  4. Review of neutrino oscillations with sterile and active neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-08-01

    Recently neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that it is very likely that there are one or two sterile neutrinos. In this review neutrino oscillations with one, two, three sterile and three active neutrinos, and parameters that are consistent with experiments, are reviewed.

  5. Quantum dissipation in a neutrino system propagating in vacuum and in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, Marcelo M.; de Holanda, Pedro C.; Oliveira, Roberto L. N.

    2016-07-01

    Considering the neutrino state like an open quantum system, we analyze its propagation in vacuum or in matter. After defining what can be called decoherence and relaxation effects, we show that in general the probabilities in vacuum and in constant matter can be written in a similar way, which is not an obvious result for such system. From this result, we analyze the situation where neutrino evolution satisfies the adiabatic limit and use this formalism to study solar neutrinos. We show that the decoherence effect may not be bounded by the solar neutrino data and review some results in the literature, in particular the current results where solar neutrinos were used to put bounds on decoherence effects through a model-dependent approach. We conclude explaining how and why these models are not general and we reinterpret these constraints.

  6. Cosmological neutrino mass detection: The Best probe of neutrino lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi-)massless particles as in majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way-out to explain a discrepancy {approx}< 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and Lab data.

  7. Monte Carlo neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.

    2006-03-01

    We demonstrate that the effects of matter upon neutrino propagation may be recast as the scattering of the initial neutrino wave function. Exchanging the differential, Schrodinger equation for an integral equation for the scattering matrix S permits a Monte Carlo method for the computation of S that removes many of the numerical difficulties associated with direct integration techniques.

  8. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  9. Determination of YAV-8B Reaction Control System bleed flow usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Merrick, Vernon K.; Stortz, Michael W.; Eames, David J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Using a calibrated Rolls-Royce Pegasus engine, total Reaction Control System (RCS) bleed flow rates have been measured on a YAV-8B Harrier during typical short takeoff, transition, hover and vertical landing maneuvers. Using existing aircraft instrumentation and pressure taps located in the RCS ducts, bleed flow rates at each RCS valve were also measured directly during flight and ground tests. These data were compared with the calibrated engine data and with the RCS part of a YAV-8B mathematical model used in piloted simulation at NASA Ames Research Center. Areas of disagreement were small, being confined to the estimation of closed RCS valve leakages and the modeling of the RCS butterfly valve pressure losses.

  10. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter-neutrino resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Duan, Huaiyu; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter-neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino-electron and neutrino-neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Fowl Aviadenovirus Serotype 8b Isolated in South America

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Katherine; Chumbe, Ana; Montesinos, Ricardo; Montalván, Ángela; González, Armando E.; Icochea, Eliana; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo

    2016-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequence of fowl aviadenovirus E (FAdV-E) serotype 8b strain FV211-16, isolated from chickens with inclusion body hepatitis in Peru. Genome comparisons with other FAdV-E strains revealed identities of 84.9 to 97.1% and the presence of 9 and 2 unique amino acid mutations in hexon and fiber proteins, respectively.

  12. A lower radius and mass for the transiting extrasolar planet HAT-P-8 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Ciceri, S.; Fortney, J. J.; Morley, C. V.; Dittmann, J. A.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Bruni, I.; Barbieri, M.; Evans, D. F.; D'Ago, G.; Nikolov, N.; Henning, Th.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The extrasolar planet HAT-P-8 b was thought to be one of the more inflated transiting hot Jupiters. Aims: By using new and existing photometric data, we computed precise estimates of the physical properties of the system. Methods: We present photometric observations comprising eleven light curves covering six transit events, obtained using five medium-class telescopes and telescope-defocussing technique. One transit was simultaneously obtained through four optical filters, and two transits were followed contemporaneously from two observatories. We modelled these and seven published datasets using the jktebop code. The physical parameters of the system were obtained from these results and from published spectroscopic measurements. In addition, we investigated the theoretically-predicted variation of the apparent planetary radius as a function of wavelength, covering the range 330-960 nm. Results: We find that HAT-P-8 b has a significantly lower radius (1.321 ± 0.037 RJup) and mass (1.275 ± 0.053 MJup) compared to previous estimates (1.50-0.06+0.08 R_{Jup} and 1.52-0.16+0.18 M_{Jup} respectively). We also detect a radius variation in the optical bands that, when compared with synthetic spectra of the planet, may indicate the presence of a strong optical absorber, perhaps TiO and VO gases, near the terminator of HAT-P-8 b. Conclusions: These new results imply that HAT-P-8 b is not significantly inflated, and that its position in the planetary mass-radius diagram is congruent with those of many other transiting extrasolar planets. Full Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A11

  13. Neutrinos and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos could be key particles to unravel the nature of the dark matter of the Universe. On the one hand, sterile neutrinos in minimal extensions of the Standard Model are excellent dark matter candidates, producing potentially observable signals in the form of a line in the X-ray sky. On the other hand, the annihilation or the decay of dark matter particles produces, in many plausible dark matter scenarios, a neutrino flux that could be detected at neutrino telescopes, thus providing non-gravitational evidence for dark matter. More conservatively, the non-observation of a significant excess in the neutrino fluxes with respect to the expected astrophysical backgrounds can be used to constrain dark matter properties, such as the self-annihilation cross section, the scattering cross section with nucleons and the lifetime.

  14. Rab8b Regulates Transport of West Nile Virus Particles from Recycling Endosomes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shintaro; Suzuki, Tadaki; Kawaguchi, Akira; Phongphaew, Wallaya; Yoshii, Kentaro; Iwano, Tomohiko; Harada, Akihiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2016-03-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) particles assemble at and bud into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are secreted from infected cells through the secretory pathway. However, the host factor related to these steps is not fully understood. Rab proteins, belonging to the Ras superfamily, play essential roles in regulating many aspects of vesicular trafficking. In this study, we sought to determine which Rab proteins are involved in intracellular trafficking of nascent WNV particles. RNAi analysis revealed that Rab8b plays a role in WNV particle release. We found that Rab8 and WNV antigen were colocalized in WNV-infected human neuroblastoma cells, and that WNV infection enhanced Rab8 expression in the cells. In addition, the amount of WNV particles in the supernatant of Rab8b-deficient cells was significantly decreased compared with that of wild-type cells. We also demonstrated that WNV particles accumulated in the recycling endosomes in WNV-infected cells. In summary, these results suggest that Rab8b is involved in trafficking of WNV particles from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane. PMID:26817838

  15. The Characterization of the Cool and Eccentric Exoplanet WASP-8b with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, J.; Madhusudhan, N.; Stevenson, K.; Hardy, R.; Blecic, J.; Anderson, D.; Hardin, M.; Campo, C.

    2012-10-01

    WASP-8b is one of the coldest hot-Jupiter planets observed during secondary eclipse (when the planet passes behind the star) with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the our observations of WASP-8b at the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0-micron wavebands with the Spitzer's IRAC instrument, during secondary eclipse. We will show the resulting light curves of our infrared observations, determining the planet-to-star flux ratios. With this spectral information we further characterized the planet's dayside atmosphere, constraining its chemical composition, recognizing the absence of a thermal inversion, and estimating the energy redistribution regime over its surface. Although having a equilibrium temperature is only 950K, the large eccentricity of the orbit (e=0.31) should make the dayside temperature of WASP-8b oscillate with an amplitude of hundreds of degrees. We modeled these temporal variation of the temperature over the surface of the planet and set constrains on the rotational angular velocity and radiative timescale of the planet, based in the observed hemisphere-averaged brightness temperature during secondary eclipse. This planet is also dynamically interesting since it orbits the primary star of a binary system. Along with a large eccentricity, suggests the presence of an unseen planetary companion. A precise determination of the eclipse mid-times will help to constrain the orbit of such companion.

  16. Dark matter astrophysical uncertainties and the neutrino floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, Ciaran A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by direct detection faces an encroaching background due to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. For a given WIMP mass the cross section at which neutrinos constitute a dominant background is dependent on the uncertainty on the flux of each neutrino source, principally from the Sun, supernovae or atmospheric cosmic ray collisions. However there are also considerable uncertainties with regard to the astrophysical ingredients of the predicted WIMP signal. Uncertainties in the velocity of the Sun with respect to the Milky Way dark matter halo, the local density of WIMPs, and the shape of the local WIMP speed distribution all have an effect on the expected event rate in direct detection experiments and hence will change the region of the WIMP parameter space for which neutrinos are a significant background. In this work we extend the neutrino floor calculation to account for the uncertainty in the astrophysics dependence of the WIMP signal. We show the effect of uncertainties on projected discovery limits with an emphasis on low WIMP masses (less than 10 GeV) when solar neutrino backgrounds are most important. We find that accounting for astrophysical uncertainties changes the shape of the neutrino floor as a function of WIMP mass but also causes it to appear at cross sections up to an order of magnitude larger, extremely close to existing experimental limits, indicating that neutrino backgrounds will become an issue sooner than previously thought. We also explore how neutrinos hinder the estimation of WIMP parameters and how astrophysical uncertainties impact the discrimination of WIMPs and neutrinos with the use of their respective time dependencies.

  17. 11B and constraints on neutrino oscillations and spectra from neutrino nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sam M; Heger, Alexander; Tur, Clarisse

    2011-04-15

    We study the sensitivity to variations in the triple-alpha and 12C(α,γ)16O reaction rates, of the yield of the neutrino-process isotopes 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La, and 180Ta in core-collapse supernovae. Compared to solar abundances, less than 15% of 7Li, about 25%-80% of 19F, and about half of 138La is produced in these stars. Over a range of ±2σ for each helium-burning rate, 11B is overproduced and the yield varies by an amount larger than the variation caused by the effects of neutrino oscillations. The total 11B yield, however, may eventually provide constraints on supernova neutrino spectra. PMID:21568548

  18. 11B and constraints on neutrino oscillations and spectra from neutrino nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sam M; Heger, Alexander; Tur, Clarisse

    2011-04-15

    We study the sensitivity to variations in the triple-alpha and 12C(α,γ)16O reaction rates, of the yield of the neutrino-process isotopes 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La, and 180Ta in core-collapse supernovae. Compared to solar abundances, less than 15% of 7Li, about 25%-80% of 19F, and about half of 138La is produced in these stars. Over a range of ±2σ for each helium-burning rate, 11B is overproduced and the yield varies by an amount larger than the variation caused by the effects of neutrino oscillations. The total 11B yield, however, may eventually provide constraints on supernova neutrino spectra.

  19. Coherent scattering of cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opher, R.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that cosmic neutrino scattering can be non-negligible when coherence effects previously neglected are taken into account. The coherent neutrino scattering cross section is derived and the neutrino index of refraction evaluated. As an example of coherent neutrino scattering, a detector using critical reflection is described which in principle can detect the low energy cosmic neutrino background allowed by the measured cosmological red shift.

  20. Neutrino-neutrino interactions in a supernova and their effect on neutrino flavor conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Dighe, Amol

    2011-11-23

    The neutrino-neutrino interactions inside a supernova core give rise to nonlinear collective effects that significantly influence the neutrino flavor conversions inside the star. I shall describe these interactions, the new oscillation phenomena they generate, and their effect on the neutrino fluxes arriving at the earth.

  1. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  2. Supernova nucleosynthesis and the physics of neutrino oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2012-11-20

    We studied the explosive nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and found that several isotopes of rare elements like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La, {sup 180}Ta and others are predominantly produced by the neutrino interactions with several abundant nuclei. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here first study how to know the suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances, and propose a new novel method to determine the neutrino oscillation parameters, {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that some SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced neutrino-process {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on {theta}{sub 13}, we show that although the uncertainties are still large, our method hints at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy for the first time.

  3. Conserved POU/OCT- and GATA-binding sites in 5'-flanking promoter region of mammalian WNT8B orthologs.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-05-01

    WNT family members are secreted-type glycoproteins regulating cell fate, planar cell polarity, cell adhesion, and cell movement. WNT signals are context-dependently transduced to the canonical pathway for the transcriptional up-regulation of MYC, CCND1, FGF20, JAG1, WISP1 and DKK1 genes, and also to the non-canonical pathway for the activation of RHOA, JNK, PKC, NFAT and NLK signaling cascades. We cloned and characterized the wild-type human WNT8B, while another group the aberrant human WNT8B with Gly230Ala and Arg284Leu amino-acid substitutions. Although WNT8B is undetectable in normal adult tissues by using Northern blot analyses, WNT8B is expressed in gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and embryonal tumors. Here, comparative integromics on WNT8B orthologs were investigated by using bioinformatics (Techint) and human intelligence (Humint). Cow Wnt8b gene was identified within NW_001494361.1 genome sequence. Predicted sequence XM_582222.3 was an artificial cow Wnt8b with aberrant prediction for the first exon. Cow Wnt8b complete coding sequence was found to encode a 350-amino-acid protein, which showed 96.9% total-amino-acid identity with human WNT8B. Comparative proteomics revealed that N-terminal signal peptide, 22 Cys residues, two Asn-linked glycosylation sites, Gly230, and Arg284 of human WNT8B were conserved among mammalian WNT8B orthologs. Comparative genomics revealed that POU/OCT- and GATA-binding sites in the 5'-flanking promoter region were conserved among human, chimpanzee, cow, mouse, and rat WNT8B orthologs. In silico expression analyses revealed that human WNT8B was expressed in embryoid body derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells, hepatocyte progenitors derived from ES cells, fetal brain, diffuse-type gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, and ovarian fibrotheoma. Based on the expression profiles of POU and GATA family transcription factors, it was revealed that WNT8B expression in hepatocyte

  4. Baryon Triality And Neutrino Masses From An Anomalous FlavorU(1)

    SciTech Connect

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Luhn, Christoph; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier,Marc

    2007-08-15

    We construct a concise U(1){sub X} Froggatt-Nielsen model in which baryon triality, a discrete gauge Z{sub 3}-symmetry, arises from U(1){sub X} breaking. The proton is thus stable, however, R-parity is violated. With the proper choice of U(1){sub X} charges we can obtain neutrino masses and mixings consistent with an explanation of the atmospheric and solar neutrino anomalies in terms of neutrino oscillations, with no right-handed neutrinos required. The only mass scale apart from M{sub grav} is m{sub soft}.

  5. Asymmetric neutrino production in magnetized proto-neutron stars in fully relativistic mean-field approach

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Hidaka, Jun; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Kuroda, Takami; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ryu, Chung-Yeol; Mathews, Grant J.

    2014-05-02

    We calculate the neutrino production cross-section in the proto-neutron-star matter under a strong magnetic field in the relativistic mean-field approach. We introduce a new parameter-set which can reproduce the 1.96 solar mass neutron star. We find that the production process increases emitted neutrinos along the direction parallel to the magnetic field and decrease those along its opposite direction. It means that resultant asymmetry due to the neutrino absorption and scattering process in the magnetic field becomes larger by the addition of the neutrino production process.

  6. Neutrino mass hierarchy and three-flavor spectral splits of supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Tomas, Ricard; Tamborra, Irene

    2010-05-01

    It was recently realized that three-flavor effects could peculiarly modify the development of spectral splits induced by collective oscillations, for supernova neutrinos emitted during the cooling phase of a protoneutron star. We systematically explore this case, explaining how the impact of these three-flavor effects depends on the ordering of the neutrino masses. In inverted mass hierarchy, the solar mass splitting gives rise to instabilities in regions of the (anti)neutrino energy spectra that were otherwise stable under the leading two-flavor evolution governed by the atmospheric mass splitting and by the 1-3 mixing angle. As a consequence, the high-energy spectral splits found in the electron (anti)neutrino spectra disappear, and are transferred to other flavors. Imperfect adiabaticity leads to smearing of spectral swap features. In normal mass hierarchy, the three-flavor and the two-flavor instabilities act in the same region of the neutrino energy spectrum, leading to only minor departures from the two-flavor treatment.

  7. Neutrinos from neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    A calculation of the flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from galactic neutron stars is presented. The calculation is used to determine the number of point sources detectable at the sensitivity threshold of a proposed deep underwater muon and neutrino detector array. The detector array would have a point source detection threshold of about 100 eV/sq cm-sec. Analysis of neutrino luminosities and the number of detectable sources suggests that the deep underwater detector may make a few discoveries. In particular, a suspected neutron star in the Cyg X-3 source seems a promising target for the deep underwater array.

  8. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Don Lincoln

    2016-07-12

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  9. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Don Lincoln

    2013-07-11

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  10. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  11. An 8-b 1.3-MHz successive-approximation A/D converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadidi, KH.; Tso, Vincent S.; Temes, Gabor C.

    1990-01-01

    A new successive-approximation A/D converter is described. It combines a string of equal-valued polysilicon resistors and a set of ratioed capacitors in a unique circuit configuration so that a high sampling rate is achieved. The comparator is realized by a chopper-stabilized amplifier to reduce the effect of the offset voltages of MOS amplifiers. The converter performs an 8-b monotonic conversion with a differential nonlinearity less than 1 LSB in 770 nsec. The die area is 3750 sq mil. This new conversion technique can also be utilized in a pipelined A/D converter (Temes, 1985) and enables it to achieve high speed.

  12. The New Structural Materials Science Beamlines BL8A and 8B at Photon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, A.; Sugiyama, H.; Koyama, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-06-23

    BL8A and 8B are new beamlines for structural materials science at Photon Factory. The primary characteristics of both beamlines are similar. The incident beam is monochromatized by the Si(111) double-flat crystal monochromator and focused at the sample position by a Rh-coated bent cylindrical quartz mirror. The Weissenberg-camera-type imaging-plate (IP) diffractometers were installed. The X-ray diffraction experiments for structural studies of strongly correlated materials, such as transition metals, molecular conductors, endohedral fullerenes, nano-materials, etc, are conducted at these stations.

  13. Leptonic mixing, family symmetries, and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros Varzielas, I. de; Gonzalez Felipe, R.; Serodio, H.

    2011-02-01

    Tribimaximal leptonic mixing is a mass-independent mixing scheme consistent with the present solar and atmospheric neutrino data. By conveniently decomposing the effective neutrino mass matrix associated to it, we derive generic predictions in terms of the parameters governing the neutrino masses. We extend this phenomenological analysis to other mass-independent mixing schemes which are related to the tribimaximal form by a unitary transformation. We classify models that produce tribimaximal leptonic mixing through the group structure of their family symmetries in order to point out that there is often a direct connection between the group structure and the phenomenological analysis. The type of seesaw mechanism responsible for neutrino masses plays a role here, as it restricts the choices of family representations and affects the viability of leptogenesis. We also present a recipe to generalize a given tribimaximal model to an associated model with a different mass-independent mixing scheme, which preserves the connection between the group structure and phenomenology as in the original model. This procedure is explicitly illustrated by constructing toy models with the transpose tribimaximal, bimaximal, golden ratio, and hexagonal leptonic mixing patterns.

  14. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... citations affecting Form N-8B-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.13 Form N..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management...

  15. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... citations affecting Form N-8B-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.13 Form N..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management...

  16. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... citations affecting Form N-8B-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.13 Form N..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management...

  17. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... citations affecting Form N-8B-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.13 Form N..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management...

  18. 17 CFR 274.13 - Form N-8B-3, registration statement of unincorporated management investment companies currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... citations affecting Form N-8B-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.13 Form N..., pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, by unincorporated management...

  19. Detecting the Neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, Robert G.

    In 1930 Wolfgang Pauli suggested that a new particle might be required to make sense of the radioactive-disintegration mode known as beta decay. This conjecture initially seemed impossible to verify since the new particle, which became known as the neutrino, was uncharged, had zero or small mass, and interacted only insignificantly with other matter. In 1951 Frederick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory undertook the difficult task of detecting the free neutrino by observing its inverse beta-decay interaction with matter. They succeeded in 1956. The neutrino was accepted rapidly as a fundamental particle despite discrepancies in reported details of the experiments and despite the absence of independent verification of the result. This paper describes the experiments, examines the nature of the discrepancies, and discusses the circumstances of the acceptance of the neutrino's detection by the physics community.

  20. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2015-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  1. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  2. Neutrinos in Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Sacha

    2008-02-21

    Neutrinos can contribute to various episodes of the evolution of the Universe. For instance, in the seesaw model, they may generate the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis. This conference proceedings briefly reviews lepton flavour effects in thermal leptogenesis.

  3. ICFA neutrino panel report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: "To promote international cooperation in the development of the accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments." In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel's findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel's initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  4. ICFA neutrino panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2015-07-15

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: <<neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments. >>>In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel’s findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel’s initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  5. Ultrahigh energy neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, G.; Elliot, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.; Mrenna, S.

    1990-03-01

    Ultrahigh energy neutrinos are valuable probes of physics beyond the Standard Model. Neutrinos of the highest energies are emitted by point sources in the sky. We review briefly the predictions of the Standard Model concerning neutrino interactions. We further argue that a number of preon models designed to overcome some difficulties of the Standard Model leads to a blurring of the distinction between leptons and quarks. As a consequence, at sufficiently high energies neutrinos acquire ``anomalous'' interactions. While this phenomenon can probably explain the observed muon excess in extensive air showers (EAS), it can be also tested by studying the absorption of the primaries on the cosmic microwave background. We discuss some observations to be performed in the search of such ``new physics'' beyond the Standard Model.

  6. WMAPping out neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-10-28

    Recent data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) place important bounds on the neutrino sector. The precise determination of the baryon number in the universe puts a strong constraint on the number of relativistic species during Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis. WMAP data, when combined with the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), also directly constrain the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. These results impinge upon a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the result from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND).We also note that the Heidelberg-Moscow evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is only consistent with the WMAP+2dFGRS data for the largest values of the nuclear matrix element.

  7. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewan, G. T.

    1992-04-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector is a 1000 ton heavy water (D2O) Cherenkov detector designed to study neutrinos from the sun and other astrophysical sources. The use of heavy water allows both electron neutrinos and all other types of neutrinos to be observed by three complementary reactions. The detector will be sensitive to the electron neutrino flux and energy spectrum shape and to the total neutrino flux irrespective of neutrino type. These measurements will provide information on both vacuum neutrino oscillations and matter-enhanced oscillations, the MSW effect. In the event of a supernova it will be very sensitive to muon and tau neutrinos as well as the electron neutrinos emitted in the initial burst, enabling sensitive mass measurements as well as providing details of the physics of stellar collapse. On behalf of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Collaboration : H.C . Evans, G.T . Ewan, H.W. Lee, J .R . Leslie, J .D. MacArthur, H .-B . Mak, A.B . McDonald, W. McLatchie, B.C . Robertson, B. Sur, P. Skensved (Queen's University) ; C.K . Hargrove, H. Mes, W.F. Davidson, D. Sinclair, 1 . Blevis, M. Shatkay (Centre for Research in Particle Physics) ; E.D. Earle, G.M. Milton, E. Bonvin, (Chalk River Laboratories); J .J . Simpson, P. Jagam, J . Law, J .-X . Wang (University of Guelph); E.D . Hallman, R.U. Haq (Laurentian University); A.L. Carter, D. Kessler, B.R . Hollebone (Carleton University); R. Schubank . C.E . Waltha m (University of British Columbia); R.T. Kouzes, M.M. Lowry, R.M. Key (Princeton University); E.W. Beier, W. Frati, M. Newcomer, R. Van Berg (University of Penn-sylvania), T.J . Bowles, P.J . Doe, S.R . Elliott, M.M. Fowler, R.G.H. Robertson, D.J . Vieira, J .B . Wilhelmy, J .F. Wilker-son, J .M. Wouters (Los Alamos National Laboratory) ; E. Norman, K. Lesko, A. Smith, R. Fulton, R. Stokstad (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), N.W. Tanner, N. JCIILY, P. Trent, J . Barton, D.L . Wark (University of Oxford).

  8. A long pentraxin-3-derived pentapeptide for the therapy of FGF8b-driven steroid hormone-regulated cancers.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Arianna; Matarazzo, Sara; Pagano, Katiuscia; Ragona, Laura; Rezzola, Sara; Corsini, Michela; Di Salle, Emanuela; Presta, Marco; Ronca, Roberto

    2015-05-30

    Fibroblast growth factor-8b (FGF8b) affects the epithelial/stromal compartments of steroid hormone-regulated tumors by exerting an autocrine activity on cancer cells and a paracrine pro-angiogenic function, thus contributing to tumor progression. The FGF8b/FGF receptor (FGFR) system may therefore represent a target for the treatment of steroid hormone-regulated tumors. The soluble pattern recognition receptor long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) binds various FGFs, including FGF2 and FGF8b, thus inhibiting the angiogenic and tumorigenic activity of androgen-regulated tumor cells. Nevertheless, the complex/proteinaceous structure of PTX3 hampers its pharmacological exploitation. In this context, the acetylated pentapeptide Ac-ARPCA-NH2 (ARPCA), corresponding to the N-terminal amino acid sequence PTX3(100-104), was identified as a minimal FGF2-binding peptide able to antagonize the biological activity of FGF2. Here, we demonstrate that ARPCA binds FGF8b and inhibits its capacity to form FGFR1-mediated ternary complexes with heparan sulphate proteoglycans. As a FGF8b antagonist, ARPCA inhibits FGFR1 activation and signalling in endothelial cells, hampering the angiogenic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by FGF8b. Also, ARPCA suppresses the angiogenic and tumorigenic potential of prototypic androgen/FGF8b-dependent Shionogi 115 mammary carcinoma cells and of androgen/FGF8b/FGF2-dependent TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cells. In conclusion, ARPCA represents a novel FGF8b antagonist with translational implications for the therapy of steroid hormone-regulated tumors.

  9. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Lucía; Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width.

  10. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  11. Neutrinos from GRBs cannonballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, J. R.; Ferry, S.

    We present a new estimation of the production of prompt neutrinos in the Cannonball Model of Gamma Ray Bursts proposed by Dar and De Rújula. Interactions between nucleons in the cannonballs and nucleons in the supernova shell are calculated in the rest frame of the shocked matter produced by these interactions. We explore the neutrino yield as a function of the parameters of the model.

  12. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  13. Adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using spent tea leaves as adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Osa, Riesta Ramdhaniyati; Suryanti, Venty

    2016-02-01

    The adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using spent tea leaves (STL) as adsorbent, has been studied by batch adsorption technique. The adsorbent was activated by NaOH 4% for 24 hours for delignification process. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR to indetify the functional groups of cellulose was shown by uptake -OH, C-H and C-O. The optimum conditions of adsorption experiments were achieved when pH was set as 6 with contact time of 75 minutes and capacity of adsorption was 3.28 mg/g. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir and Isotherm Freundlichs. The kinetic models, pseudo first order and pseudo second order were employed to describe the adsorption mechanism. The experimental results showed that the pseudo second order equation was the best model that described the adsorption behavior with the coefficient of correlation (R2) was equal higher than 0.99 The results suggested that STL had high potential to be used as effective adsorbent for Procion Red MX 8B removal.

  14. WASP-8b: CHARACTERIZATION OF A COOL AND ECCENTRIC EXOPLANET WITH SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardin, Matthew; Campo, Christopher J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Anderson, David R.

    2013-05-01

    WASP-8b has 2.18 times Jupiter's mass and is on an eccentric (e = 0.31) 8.16 day orbit. With a time-averaged equilibrium temperature of 948 K, it is one of the least-irradiated hot Jupiters observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have analyzed six photometric light curves of WASP-8b during secondary eclipse observed in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 {mu}m Infrared Array Camera bands. The eclipse depths are 0.113% {+-} 0.018%, 0.069% {+-} 0.007%, and 0.093% {+-} 0.023%, respectively, giving respective brightness temperatures of 1552, 1131, and 938 K. We characterized the atmospheric thermal profile and composition of the planet using a line-by-line radiative transfer code and a Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampler. The data indicated no thermal inversion, independently of any assumption about chemical composition. We noted an anomalously high 3.6 {mu}m brightness temperature (1552 K); by modeling the eccentricity-caused thermal variation, we found that this temperature is plausible for radiative timescales less than {approx}10{sup 2} hr. However, as no model spectra fit all three data points well, the temperature discrepancy remains as an open question.

  15. WASP-8b: Characterization of a Cool and Eccentric Exoplanet with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Blecic, Jasmina; Anderson, David R.; Hardin, Matthew; Campo, Christopher J.

    2013-05-01

    WASP-8b has 2.18 times Jupiter's mass and is on an eccentric (e = 0.31) 8.16 day orbit. With a time-averaged equilibrium temperature of 948 K, it is one of the least-irradiated hot Jupiters observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have analyzed six photometric light curves of WASP-8b during secondary eclipse observed in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 μm Infrared Array Camera bands. The eclipse depths are 0.113% ± 0.018%, 0.069% ± 0.007%, and 0.093% ± 0.023%, respectively, giving respective brightness temperatures of 1552, 1131, and 938 K. We characterized the atmospheric thermal profile and composition of the planet using a line-by-line radiative transfer code and a Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampler. The data indicated no thermal inversion, independently of any assumption about chemical composition. We noted an anomalously high 3.6 μm brightness temperature (1552 K) by modeling the eccentricity-caused thermal variation, we found that this temperature is plausible for radiative timescales less than ~102 hr. However, as no model spectra fit all three data points well, the temperature discrepancy remains as an open question.

  16. Neutrino experiments: Hierarchy, CP, CPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manmohan; Randhawa, Monika; Singh, Mandip

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of our recent investigations regarding the prospects of ongoing neutrino experiments as well as future experiments in determining few of the most important unknowns in the field of neutrino physics, specifically the neutrino mass ordering and leptonic CP-violation phase. The effect of matter oscillations on the neutrino oscillation probabilities has been exploited in resolving the degeneracy between the neutrino mass ordering and the CP violation phase in the leptonic sector. Further, we estimate the extent of extrinsic CP and CPT violation in the experiments with superbeams as well as neutrino factories.

  17. Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

  18. Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrynina, A. A. Mikheev, N. V.; Narynskaya, E. N.

    2013-10-15

    The vertex function for a virtual massive neutrino is calculated in the limit of soft real photons. A method based on employing the neutrino self-energy operator in a weak external electromagnetic field in the approximation linear in the field is developed in order to render this calculation of the vertex function convenient. It is shown that the electric charge and the electric dipole moment of the real neutrino are zero; only the magnetic moment is nonzero for massive neutrinos. A fourth-generation heavy neutrino of mass not less than half of the Z-boson mass is considered as a massive neutrino.

  19. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  20. Trapped ionic simulation of neutrino electromagnetic properties in neutrino oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. S.; Cai, Xiaoya; Pan, Hui

    2015-11-01

    We present an approach to study neutrino electromagnetic properties by simulating neutrino oscillation in both dense background matter and external electromagnetic field in terms of trapped coupling ions. We find that the neutrino and anti-neutrino productions can be simulated by using large enough diagonal matter potentials and external magnetic field. We further show that the transition probabilities of flavor neutrino have rich features and time scales corresponding to the neutrino magnetic moments and electric millicharges. Especially, such features and scales can be achieved by tuning the laser parameters. At last, we show that the millicharge and magnetic moments can be detected in terms of flavor neutrino transition probabilities in the trapped ion system. Our approach provides a useful clue to measure the neutrino electromagnetic properties for experimental realization.

  1. Massive Cherenkov neutrino facilities…their evolution, their future: Twenty-five years at these International Neutrino Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulak, Lawrence R.

    2005-06-01

    This review traces the evolution of massive water Cherenkov tracking calorimeters. Pioneering concepts, first presented in this conference a quarter of a century ago, have led to 1) IMB, the first large detector (10kT), which was designed primarily to search for proton decay, and secondarily to be sensitive to supernova neutrinos and atmospheric oscillations, and 2) Dumand, an attempt to initiate the search for TeV astrophysical neutrinos with a prototype for a 1 km3 telescope. The concepts and initial work on IMB influenced subsequent detectors: Kamiokande, Super-K, SNO, and, in part, Kamland. These detectors have to their credit the elucidation of the physics of atmospheric, solar, reactor and supernova neutrinos. With the advent of the K2K beam, controlled accelerator neutrinos confirm the atmospheric studies. The path breaking developments of Dumand now are incorporated in the high-volume Amanda and Antares detectors, as well as their sequels, IceCube and the proposed Cubic Kilometer detector. The future (ultimate?) facilities have new physics challenges: A high-resolution megaton detector, eventually coupled with an intense accelerator neutrino source, is critical for precision studies of neutrino oscillation parameters and for the potential discovery of CP violation in the lepton sector. The Gigaton TeV neutrino telescopes (IceCube and Cubic Kilometer) seek to open high-energy neutrino astronomy, still an elusive goal. (Amanda, IceCube, and UNO, as well as Minos, Icarus and other large neutrino facilities using non-Cherenkov technologies, are treated in other contributions to this volume.)

  2. Tau neutrinos favored over sterile neutrinos in atmospheric muon neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Fukuda, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Toshito, T; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Price, L R; Smy, M; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Takemori, D

    2000-11-01

    The previously published atmospheric neutrino data did not distinguish whether muon neutrinos were oscillating into tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos, as both hypotheses fit the data. Using data recorded in 1100 live days of the Super-Kamiokande detector, we use three complementary data samples to study the difference in zenith angle distribution due to neutral currents and matter effects. We find no evidence favoring sterile neutrinos, and reject the hypothesis at the 99% confidence level. On the other hand, we find that oscillation between muon and tau neutrinos suffices to explain all the results in hand.

  3. No-neutrino double beta decay: more than one neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Interference effects between light and heavy Majorana neutrinos in the amplitude for no-neutrino double beta decay are discussed. The effects include an upper bound on the heavy neutrino mass, and an A dependence for the effective mass extracted from double beta decay. Thus the search for the no-neutrino decay mode should be pursued in several nuclei, and particularly in Ca/sup 48/, where the effective mass may be quite large.

  4. Atmospheric neutrinos in ice and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Giordano, Gerardo; Mocioiu, Irina; Mena, Olga

    2010-11-01

    The main goal of the IceCube Deep Core array is to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origins. Atmospheric neutrinos are commonly considered as a background for these searches. We show that the very high statistics atmospheric neutrino data can be used to obtain precise measurements of the main oscillation parameters.

  5. Secondary atmospheric tau neutrino production

    SciTech Connect

    Bulmahn, Alexander; Hall Reno, Mary

    2010-09-01

    We evaluate the flux of tau neutrinos produced from the decay of pair produced taus from incident muons using a cascade equation analysis. To solve the cascade equations, our numerical result for the tau production Z moment is given. Our results for the flux of tau neutrinos produced from incident muons are compared to the flux of tau neutrinos produced via oscillations and the direct prompt atmospheric tau neutrino flux. Results are given for both downward and upward going neutrinos fluxes and higher zenith angles are discussed. We conclude that the direct prompt atmospheric tau neutrino flux dominates these other atmospheric sources of tau neutrinos for neutrino energies larger than a few TeV for upward fluxes, and over a wider range of energy for downward fluxes.

  6. Hadronization processes in neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei; Mandalia, Shivesh

    2015-10-15

    Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments utilize details of hadronic final states to improve the precision of neutrino interaction measurements. The hadronic system was often neglected or poorly modelled in the past, but they have significant effects on high precision neutrino oscillation and cross-section measurements. Among the physics of hadronic systems in neutrino interactions, the hadronization model controls multiplicities and kinematics of final state hadrons from the primary interaction vertex. For relatively high invariant mass events, many neutrino experiments rely on the PYTHIA program. Here, we show a possible improvement of this process in neutrino event generators, by utilizing expertise from the HERMES experiment. Finally, we estimate the impact on the systematics of hadronization models for neutrino mass hierarchy analysis using atmospheric neutrinos such as the PINGU experiment.

  7. Flight test and numerical simulation of transonic flow around YAV-8B Harrier II wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gea, Lie-Mine; Chyu, Wei J.; Stortz, Michael W.; Roberts, Andrew C.; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1991-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is used to study the aerodynamics of the YAV-8B Harrier II wing in the transonic region. A numerical procedure is developed to compute the flow field around the complicated wing-pylon-fairing geometry. The surface definition of the wing and pylons were obtained from direct measurement using theodolite triangulation. A thin-layer Navier-Stokes code with the Chimera technique is used to compute flow solutions. The computed pressure distributions at several span stations are compared with flight test data and show good agreement. Computed results are correlated with flight test data that show the flow is severely separated in the vicinity of the wing-pylon junction. Analysis shows that shock waves are induced by pylon swaybrace fairings, that the flow separation is much stronger at the outboard pylon and that the separation is caused mainly by the crossflow passing the geometry of wing-pylon junction.

  8. 1995 Bird survey Foothills parkway section 8B National Park Service, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.C.; Giffen, N.R.; Wade, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Foothills Parkway Section 8B right-of-way (ROW) is a stretch of land between Pittman Center and Cosby, Tennessee that is approximately 14.2 miles long and 1,000 ft wide, with a considerably wider section on Webb Mountain. A breeding bird survey was conducted at selected sample points along the ROW. The intent of the survey was to identify bird communities, area sensitive species (birds dependent on extensive forest systems for all their needs) and endangered, threatened, federal candidate, and state `in need of management` species now using the ROW. The survey also provides baseline data to assess future habitat impacts as well as cumulative impacts of the project.

  9. WASP-8b: a retrograde transiting planet in a multiple system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Gillon, M.; Hebb, L.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R.

    2010-07-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-8b, a transiting planet of 2.25 ± 0.08 MJup on a strongly inclined eccentric 8.15-day orbit, moving in a retrograde direction to the rotation of its late-G host star. Evidence is found that the star is in a multiple stellar system with two other companions. The dynamical complexity of the system indicates that it may have experienced secular interactions such as the Kozai mechanism or a formation that differs from the “classical” disc-migration theory. Based on observations made with HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6-m ESO telescope and the EULER Swiss telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile.Radial velocity data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/517/L1

  10. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Annual technical progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl and {sup 71}Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  11. The Coulomb Dissociation of {sup 8}B: A New Tool in Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2008-01-24

    The GSI1, GSI2 (as well as the RIKEN2 and the corrected GSI2) measurements of the Coulomb Dissociation (CD) of {sup 8}B are in good agreement with the most recent Direct Capture (DC) {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B reaction measurement performed at Weizmann and in agreement with the Seattle result. Yet it was claimed that the CD and DC results are sufficiently different and need to be reconciled. We show that these statements arise from a misunderstanding (as well as misrepresentation) of CD experiments. We recall a similar strong statement questioning the validity of the CD method due to an invoked large E2 component that was also shown to arise from a misunderstanding of the CD method. In spite of the good agreement between DC and CD data the slope of the astrophysical cross section factor (S{sub 17}) can not be extracted with high accuracy due to discrepancies among the most recent DC data as well as a discrepancies among the three reports of the GSI CD data. The slope is directly related to the d-wave component that dominates at higher energies. This d-wave component must be subtracted from measured data to extrapolate to zero energy. Hence the uncertainty of the measured slope leads to an additional downward uncertainty ({sub -3.0}{sup +0.0} eV-b) of the extrapolated zero energy cross section factor, S{sub 17}(0). Such an uncertainty is also consistent with the smaller value of S{sub 17}(0) extracted using the ANC method. This uncertainty must be alleviated by future experiments to allow a precise determination of S{sub 17}(0), a goal that so far has not be achieved in spite of strong statement(s) that appeared in the literature.

  12. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2010-06-01

    I give a theoretical overview of some basic properties of massive neutrinos in these lectures. Particular attention is paid to the origin of neutrino masses, the pattern of lepton flavor mixing, the feature of leptonic CP violation and the electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos. I highlight the TeV seesaw mechanisms as a possible bridge between neutrino physics and collider physics in the era characterized by the Large Hadron Collider.

  13. Gravitational Lensing of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; Mocioiu, Irina; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The black hole at the center of the galaxy is a powerful lens for supernova neutrinos. In the very special circumstance of a supernova near the extended line of sight from Earth to the galactic center, lensing could dramatically enhance the neutrino flux at Earth and stretch the neutrino pulse.

  14. Neutrino sea scope takes shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2016-03-01

    A consortium of European physicists building a vast neutrino detector on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea has unveiled the science it will carry out. The Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT) will use strings of radiation detectors arranged in a 3D network to measure the light emitted when neutrinos very occasionally interact with the surrounding sea water.

  15. Explosive nucleosynthesis in a neutrino-driven core collapse supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kotake, Kei; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2010-06-01

    We investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a delayed neutrino-driven, supernova explosion aided by standing accretion shock instability (SASI), based on two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the explosion of a 15 M{sub c}entre dot star. We take into accounts neutrino heating and cooling as well as change in electron fraction due to weak interactions appropriately, in the two-dimensional simulations. We assume the isotropic emission of neutrinos from the neutrino spheres with given luminosities. and the Fermi-Dirac distribution of given temperatures. We find that the stalled shock revives due to the neutrino heating aided by SASI for cases with L{sub n}u{sub e}>=3.9x10{sup 52}ergss{sup -1} and the as-pherical shock passes through the outer layers of the star (>=10,000 km), with the explosion energies of approx10{sup 51}ergs.Next we examine abundances and masses of the supernova ejecta. We find that masses of the ejecta and {sup 56}Ni correlate with the neutrino luminosity, and {sup 56}Ni mass is comparable to that observed in SN 1987A. We also find that abundance pattern of the supernova ejecta is similar to that of the solar system, for cases with high explosion energies of >10{sup 51}ergs. We emphasize that {sup 64}Zn, which is underproduced in the spherical case, is abundantly produced in slightly neutron-rich ejecta.

  16. Neutrino astrophysics: a new tool for exploring the universe.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eli

    2007-01-01

    In the past four decades a new type of astronomy has emerged, where instead of looking up into the sky, "telescopes" are buried miles underground or deep under water or ice and search not for photons (that is, light), but rather for particles called neutrinos. Neutrinos are nearly massless particles that interact very weakly with matter. The detection of neutrinos emitted by the Sun and by a nearby supernova provided direct tests of the theory of stellar evolution and led to modifications of the standard model describing the properties of elementary particles. At present, several very large neutrino detectors are being constructed, aiming at the detection of the most powerful sources of energy and particles in the universe. The hope is that the detection of neutrinos from these sources, which are extra-Galactic and are most likely powered by mass accretion onto black holes, will not only allow study of the sources, but, much like solar neutrinos, will also provide new information about fundamental properties of matter.

  17. SOX: search for short baseline neutrino oscillations with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivier, M.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffliot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, T.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquàres, N.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Veyssiére, C.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Borexino detector has convincingly shown its outstanding performances in the low energy regime through its accomplishments in the observation and study of the solar and geo neutrinos. It is then an ideal tool to perform a state of the art source-based experiment for testing the longstanding hypothesis of a fourth sterile neutrino with ~ eV2 mass, as suggested by several anomalies accumulated over the past three decades in source, reactor, and accelerator-based experiments. The SOX project aims at successively deploying two intense radioactive sources, made of Cerium (antineutrino) and Chromium (neutrino), respectively, in a dedicated pit located beneath the detector. The existence of such an ~ eV2 sterile neutrino would then show up as an unambiguous spatial and energy distortion in the count rate of neutrinos interacting within the active detector volume. This article reports on the latest developments about the first phase of the SOX experiment, namely CeSOX, and gives a realistic projection of CeSOX sensitivity to light sterile neutrinos in a simple (3+1) model.

  18. Structure and stoichiometry of an accessory subunit TRIP8b interaction with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels

    PubMed Central

    Bankston, John R.; Camp, Stacey S.; DiMaio, Frank; Lewis, Alan S.; Chetkovich, Dane M.; Zagotta, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Ion channels operate in intact tissues as part of large macromolecular complexes that can include cytoskeletal proteins, scaffolding proteins, signaling molecules, and a litany of other molecules. The proteins that make up these complexes can influence the trafficking, localization, and biophysical properties of the channel. TRIP8b (tetratricopetide repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting protein) is a recently discovered accessory subunit of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels that contributes to the substantial dendritic localization of HCN channels in many types of neurons. TRIP8b interacts with the carboxyl-terminal region of HCN channels and regulates their cell-surface expression level and cyclic nucleotide dependence. Here we examine the molecular determinants of TRIP8b binding to HCN2 channels. Using a single-molecule fluorescence bleaching method, we found that TRIP8b and HCN2 form an obligate 4:4 complex in intact channels. Fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence anisotropy allowed us to confirm that two different domains in the carboxyl-terminal portion of TRIP8b—the tetratricopepide repeat region and the TRIP8b conserved region—interact with two different regions of the HCN carboxyl-terminal region: the carboxyl-terminal three amino acids (SNL) and the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, respectively. And finally, using X-ray crystallography, we determined the atomic structure of the tetratricopepide region of TRIP8b in complex with a peptide of the carboxy-terminus of HCN2. Together, these experiments begin to uncover the mechanism for TRIP8b binding and regulation of HCN channels. PMID:22550182

  19. Probing Late Neutrino Mass Properties With SupernovaNeutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Joseph; Goldberg, Haim; Perez, Gilad; Sarcevic, Ina

    2007-08-08

    Models of late-time neutrino mass generation contain new interactions of the cosmic background neutrinos with supernova relic neutrinos (SRNs). Exchange of an on-shell light scalar may lead to significant modification of the differential SRN flux observed at earth. We consider an Abelian U(1) model for generating neutrino masses at low scales, and show that there are cases for which the changes induced in the flux allow one to distinguish the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos, as well as the type of neutrino mass hierarchy (normal or inverted or quasi-degenerate). In some region of parameter space the determination of the absolute values of the neutrino masses is also conceivable. Measurements of the presence of these effects may be possible at the next-generation water Cerenkov detectors enriched with Gadolinium, or a 100 kton liquid argon detector.

  20. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to - π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  1. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to ‑ π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  2. Cosmology and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, Gary

    1982-05-01

    Constraints on cosmology and on neutrino physics are provided by the abundances of the light elements produced during the early evolution of the universe. The predictions of primordial nucleosynthesis depend on the nucleon to photon ratio ɛ and on the number of types of two component neutrinos Nν. A comparison between the big bang predictions and the observed abundances of D, 3He, 4He and 7Li shows that ɛ is constrained to a narrow range around 4×10-10 and Nν<~4. An important consequence of the derived value of ɛ is that the universal density of nucleon is small, raising the possibility that our Universe may be dominated by massive relic neutrinos. The constraint on Nn suggests that (almost) all lepton species are now known.

  3. The Neutrino Telescope ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan José

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration [1] , formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological deffects, Q-balls, etc). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented

  4. Neutrino physics: Summary talk

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    This paper is organized as follows: First, I describe the state of neutrino phenomenology. Emphasis is placed on sin/sup 2/ /theta//sub W/, its present status and future prospects. In addition, some signatures of ''new physics'' are described. Then, kaon physics at Fermilab is briefly discussed. I concentrate on the interesting rare decay K/sub L/ /yields/ /pi//sup 0/e/sup +/e/sup /minus// which may be a clean probe direct CP violation. Neutrino mass, mixing, and electromagnetic moments are surveyed. There, I describe the present state and future direction of accelerator based experiments. Finally, I conclude with an outlook on the future. Throughout this summary, I have drawn from and incorporated ideas discussed by other speakers at this workshop. However, I have tried to combine their ideas with my own perspective on neutrino physics and where it is headed. 49 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. The neutrino signal at HALO: learning about the primary supernova neutrino fluxes and neutrino properties

    SciTech Connect

    Väänänen, Daavid; Volpe, Cristina E-mail: volpe@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2011-10-01

    Core-collapse supernova neutrinos undergo a variety of phenomena when they travel from the high neutrino density region and large matter densities to the Earth. We perform analytical calculations of the supernova neutrino fluxes including collective effects due to the neutrino-neutrino interactions, the Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect due to the neutrino interactions with the background matter and decoherence of the wave packets as they propagate in space. We predict the numbers of one- and two-neutron charged and neutral-current electron-neutrino scattering on lead events. We show that, due to the energy thresholds, the ratios of one- to two-neutron events are sensitive to the pinching parameters of neutrino fluxes at the neutrinosphere, almost independently of the presently unknown neutrino properties. Besides, such events have an interesting sensitivity to the spectral split features that depend upon the presence/absence of energy equipartition among neutrino flavors. Our calculations show that a lead-based observatory like the Helium And Lead Observatory (HALO) has the potential to pin down important characteristics of the neutrino fluxes at the neutrinosphere, and provide us with information on the neutrino transport in the supernova core.

  6. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize in Experimental Particle Physics Talk: 40 Years of Neutrino Physics--A Personal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, Eugene

    2010-02-01

    In the past forty years neutrino physics has made great advances. Some of the steps and missteps that were taken on the path from the 1960's to the present will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to the development of solar neutrino physics. )

  7. NOνA Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jediny, Filip

    2015-06-01

    The NOνA experiment is a long-baseline accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment. It uses the upgraded NuMI beam from Fermilab and measures electron-neutrino appearance and muon-neutrino disappearance at its far detector in Ash River, Minnesota. Goals of the experiment include measurements of θ13, mass hierarchy and the CP violating phase. NOνA has begun to take neutrino data and first neutrino candidates are observed in its detectors. This document provides an overview of the scientific reach of the experiment, the status of detector operation and physics analysis, as well as the first data.

  8. Atmospheric neutrinos: Status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation studies at atmospheric neutrino experiments. While the current data gives some tantalising hints regarding the neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of θ23 and δCP, the hints are not statistically significant. We summarise the sensitivity to these sub-dominant three-generation effects from the next-generation proposed atmospheric neutrino experiments. We next present the prospects of new physics searches such as non-standard interactions, sterile neutrinos and CPT violation studies at these experiments.

  9. Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; /Fermilab

    2009-03-01

    We explain the relationship between Majorana neutrinos, which are their own antiparticles, and Majorana neutrino masses. We point out that Majorana masses would make the neutrinos very distinctive particles, and explain why many theorists strongly suspect that neutrinos do have Majorana masses. The promising approach to confirming this suspicion is to seek neutrinoless double beta decay. We introduce a toy model that illustrates why this decay requires nonzero neutrino masses, even when there are both right-handed and left-handed weak currents.

  10. Effects of Recent Reactor Anti-neutrino Spectra on Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterbenz, Ciara

    2015-10-01

    The β-decay of nuclear fission fragments produces a very large ve flux from nuclear reactions. The shape of the expected flux has previously been predicted by converting the measured β-electron spectrum to an ve spectrum. Recent reactor neutrino experiments, however, find a large shoulder in the observed ve spectrum relative to this prediction in the energy region 5 - 7 MeV. Accurate knowledge of the expected ve flux from reactors is important for oscillation experiments that only involve one neutrino detector. In this project, I examine the implications of these spectral changes on the ν oscillation result found by the KamLAND experiment. At the time of their finding, the spectral anomaly from 5 - 7 MeV had not be observed. I have re-derived the oscillation parameters Δm2 and sin2 (2 θ) using the anti-neutrino flux from Daya Bay and from nuclear database predictions. With these new expected fluxes, these oscillation parameters shifted and their uncertainties increased. I compare the new oscillation parameters with those derived from solar neutrino oscillation data.

  11. Supernova heavy element nucleosynthesis: Can it tell us about neutrino masses?

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, George M.

    1997-05-20

    Here we describe a new probe of neutrino properties based on heavy element nucleosynthesis. This technique is in many ways akin to the familiar light element Primordial Nucleosynthesis probe of conditions in the early universe. Our new probe is based on the fact that neutrino masses and vacuum mixings can engender matter-enhanced neutrino flavor transformation in the post core bounce supernova environment. Transformations of the type {nu}{sub {mu}}{sub (r)}<-->{nu}{sub e} in this site will have significant effects on the synthesis of the rapid neutron capture (r-Process) elements and the light p-nuclei. We suggest that an understanding of the origin of these nuclides, combined with the measured abundances of these species, may provide a ''Rosetta Stone'' for neutrino properties. Heavy element nucleosynthesis abundance considerations give either constraints/evidence for neutrino masses and flavor mixings, or strong constraints on the site of origin of r-Process nucleosynthesis. The putative limits on neutrino characteristics are complimentary to those derived from laboratory neutrino oscillation studies and solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments. Preliminary studies show that the existence of r-Process nuclei in the abundances observed in the Galaxy cannot be understood unless neutrinos have small masses (possibly in the cosmologically significant range)

  12. W. K. H. Panofsky Prize: The Road to Neutrino Mixing Angle θ13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, Kam-Biu

    2014-03-01

    A series of solar, atmospheric, accelerator and reactor neutrino experiments have observed transformations of one type of neutrino to another type. This intriguing phenomenon called neutrino oscillation was predicted by Pontecorvo, Maki, Nakagawa and Sakata. It is due to the fact that the three flavors of neutrinos observed in laboratories are mixtures of three neutrino mass eigenstates. Neutrino mixing is described by a set of three mixing angles and a CP-violating phase. The smallest angle, θ13, was unknown until 2012. Knowing the value of θ13 is essential. Besides being a fundamental parameter of nature, knowing its value will improve our understanding of neutrino mixing, provide guidance for building theoretical models and define the future program of neutrino oscillation experiments. In this talk, the experimental development that led to the recent discovery of a new θ13-driven neutrino oscillation will be presented. Work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics, contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  13. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  14. MIGHTY MURINES: NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT VERY HIGH ENERGY MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    KING,B.J.

    2000-05-05

    An overview is given of the potential for neutrino physics studies through parasitic use of the intense high energy neutrino beams that would be produced at future many-TeV muon colliders. Neutrino experiments clearly cannot compete with the collider physics. Except at the very highest energy muon colliders, the main thrust of the neutrino physics program would be to improve on the measurements from preceding neutrino experiments at lower energy muon colliders, particularly in the fields of B physics, quark mixing and CP violation. Muon colliders at the 10 TeV energy scale might already produce of order 10{sup 8} B hadrons per year in a favorable and unique enough experimental environment to have some analytical capabilities beyond any of the currently operating or proposed B factories. The most important of the quark mixing measurements at these energies might well be the improved measurements of the important CKM matrix elements {vert_bar}V{sub ub}{vert_bar} and {vert_bar}V{sub cb}{vert_bar} and, possibly, the first measurements of {vert_bar}V{sub td}{vert_bar} in the process of flavor changing neutral current interactions involving a top quark loop. Muon colliders at the highest center-of-mass energies that have been conjectured, 100--1,000 TeV, would produce neutrino beams for neutrino-nucleon interaction experiments with maximum center-of-mass energies from 300--1,000 GeV. Such energies are close to, or beyond, the discovery reach of all colliders before the turn-on of the LHC. In particular, they are comparable to the 314 GeV center-of-mass energy for electron-proton scattering at the currently operating HERA collider and so HERA provides a convenient benchmark for the physics potential. It is shown that these ultimate terrestrial neutrino experiments, should they eventually come to pass, would have several orders of magnitude more luminosity than HERA. This would potentially open up the possibility for high statistics studies of any exotic particles, such as

  15. Stopping power of neutrinos and antineutrinos in polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.

    1985-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam model is applied to quantify the energy loss of antineutrinos and neutrinos encountering polymers. The scattering cross-sectional energy due to encounters with electrons is calculated, along with the probability that an antineutrino will remain the same particle. The energy loss reaches a maximum, i.e., stopping occurs, when the probability is unity. The technique is applied to study the energy losses in kapton, a solid organic insulator used for antennas on spacecraft exposed to solar neutrinos with energies ranging from 0.5-10 MeV. The energy loss is found to be negligible.

  16. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2014-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉} using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  17. Pressure distribution for the wing of the YAV-8B airplane; with and without pylons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Delfrate, John H.; Sabsay, Catherine M.; Yarger, Jill M.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure distribution data have been obtained in flight at four span stations on the wing panel of the YAV-8B airplane. Data obtained for the supercritical profiled wing, with and without pylons installed, ranged from Mach 0.46 to 0.88. The altitude ranged from approximately 20,000 to 40,000 ft and the resultant Reynolds numbers varied from approximately 7.2 million to 28.7 million based on the mean aerodynamic chord. Pressure distribution data and flow visualization results show that the full-scale flight wing performance is compromised because the lower surface cusp region experiences flow separation for some important transonic flight conditions. This condition is aggravated when local shocks occur on the lower surface of the wing (mostly between 20 and 35 percent chord) when the pylons are installed for Mach 0.8 and above. There is evidence that convex fairings, which cover the pylon attachment flanges, cause these local shocks. Pressure coefficients significantly more negative than those for sonic flow also occur farther aft on the lower surface (near 60 percent chord) whether or not the pylons are installed for Mach numbers greater than or equal to 0.8. These negative pressure coefficient peaks and associated local shocks would be expected to cause increasing wave and separation drag at transonic Mach number increases.

  18. WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b are Members of Triple Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Morton, Timothy D.

    2014-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M ⊙ using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  19. Next discoveries in neutrino mixing: Electron neutrino appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyang, Hongyue

    The discovery of neutrino oscillation is a clear evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Measurements of electron neutrino (nu e) and electron anti-neutrino (nu e) appearances are the most important channels to complete the neutrino mixing matrix. In a nue/ nue appearance experiment, a near detector (ND) is used to constrain the neutrino flux and measure the backgrounds to the signal. Backgrounds to the nue appearance comes from Neutral Current Muon Neutrino Interactions (numu-NC), Charged Current Muon Neutrino Interactions (numu-CC), beam nu e events and outside backgrounds. The background components are then extrapolated to the far detector (FD). By looking for excess of signal nu e/nue-like events in FD, we measure the neutrino mixing angle, neutrino's mass hierarchy and the elusive CP-violation in the lepton sector. This dissertation focuses on the signals and backgrounds in nu e/nue appearance measurements. The first part of the dissertation presents an analysis of nue appearance in a large Water Cherenkov detector such as the one proposed by the LBNE collaboration. The analysis, including scanning thousands of events, aims to distinguish nu e signals from the NC backgrounds. The second part of the dissertation presents measurements of Resonance Neutrino Interactions using the NOMAD data. This process plays a critical role in not only neutrino-nuclear cross section but also in the precision analysis of the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments such as NOnuA and LBNE. The last part of the dissertation discusses the method of using low-nu fit method to measure relative neutrino flux and constrain beam nue background.

  20. Reactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; de Medeiros Varzielas, I.

    2014-07-01

    In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying A 4 flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading order effective operators. We prove this idea is viable by constructing an A 4-based ultraviolet completion, where the dominant tribimaximal structure arises from the type-I seesaw while the subleading contribution is determined by either type-II or type-III seesaw driven by a non-trivial A 4 singlet (minimal hybrid model). After finding general criteria, we identify all the N symmetries capable of producing such A 4-based minimal hybrid models.

  1. The enriched chromium neutrino source for GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, F.X.; Hahn, R.L.

    1991-01-18

    The preparation and study of an intense source of neutrinos in the form of neutron irradiated materials which are enriched in Cr-50 for use in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment are discussed. Chromyl fluoride gas is enriched in the Cr-50 isotope by gas centrifugation and subsequently converted to a very stable form of chromium oxide. The results of neutron activation analyses of such chromium samples indicate low levels of any long-lived activities, but show that short-lived activities, in particular Na-24, may be of concern. These results show that irradiating chromium oxide enriched in Cr-50 is preferable to irradiating either natural chromium or argon gas as a means of producing a neutrino source to calibrate the GALLEX detector. These results of the impurity level analysis of the enriched chromyl fluoride gas and its conversion to the oxide are also of interest to work in progress by other members of the Collaboration investigating an alternative conversion of the enriched gas to chromium metal. 35 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. The neutrino electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P.K.; Stenflo, L.; Bingham, R.; Bethe, H.A.; Dawson, J.M.; Mendonca, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that a wake of electron plasma oscillations can be created by the nonlinear ponderomotive force of an intense neutrino flux. The electrons trapped in the plasma wakefield will be accelerated to high energies. Such processes may be important in supernovas and pulsars. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  4. New axion and hidden photon constraints from a solar data global fit

    SciTech Connect

    Vinyoles, N.; Serenelli, A.; Isern, J.; Villante, F.L.; Basu, S.; Redondo, J. E-mail: aldos@ice.csic.es E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu E-mail: isern@ice.csic.es

    2015-10-01

    We present a new statistical analysis that combines helioseismology (sound speed, surface helium and convective radius) and solar neutrino observations (the {sup 8}B and {sup 7}Be fluxes) to place upper limits to the properties of non standard weakly interacting particles. Our analysis includes theoretical and observational errors, accounts for tensions between input parameters of solar models and can be easily extended to include other observational constraints. We present two applications to test the method: the well studied case of axions and axion-like particles and the more novel case of low mass hidden photons. For axions we obtain an upper limit at 3σ for the axion-photon coupling constant of g{sub aγ} < 4.1 · 10{sup −10} GeV{sup −1}. For hidden photons we obtain the most restrictive upper limit available accross a wide range of masses for the product of the kinetic mixing and mass of χ m < 1.8 ⋅ 10{sup −12} eV at 3σ. Both cases improve the previous solar constraints based on the Standard Solar Models showing the power of using a global statistical approach.

  5. 7Be(p,(gamma))8B S-factor from Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Wave Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Bertulani, C A; Caurier, E

    2005-12-02

    Nuclear structure of {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}B and {sup 7,8}Li is studied within the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from high-precision nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions, wave functions of {sup 7}Be and {sup 8}B bound states are obtained in basis spaces up to 10 h bar{Omega} and used to calculate channel cluster form factors (overlap integrals) of the {sup 8}B ground state with {sup 7}Be+p. Due to the use of the harmonic oscillator (HO) basis, the overlap integrals have incorrect asymptotic properties. We fix this problem in two alternative ways. First, by a Woods-Saxon (WS) potential solution fit to the interior of the NCSM overlap integrals. Second, by a direct matching with the Whittaker function. The corrected overlap integrals are then used for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor calculation. We study the convergence of the S-factor with respect to the NCSM HO frequency and the model space size. Our S-factor results are in agreement with recent direct measurement data. We also test the spectroscopic factors and the corrected overlap integrals from the NCSM in describing the momentum distributions in knockout reactions with {sup 8}B projectiles. A good agreement with the available experimental data is also found, attesting the overall consistency of the calculations.

  6. A non-standard CP transformation leading to maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimus, Walter; Lavoura, Luís.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a neutrino mass matrix Mν originally found by Babu, Ma, and Valle (BMV) and show that this mass matrix can be characterized by a simple algebraic relation. From this relation it follows that atmospheric neutrino mixing is exactly maximal while at the same time an arbitrary mixing angle θ13 of the lepton mixing matrix U is allowed and—in the usual phase convention—CP violation in mixing is maximal; moreover, neither the neutrino mass spectrum nor the solar mixing angle are restricted. We put forward a seesaw extension of the Standard Model, with three right-handed neutrinos and three Higgs doublets, where the family lepton numbers are softly broken by the Majorana mass terms of the right-handed neutrino singlets and the BMV mass matrix results from a non-standard CP symmetry.

  7. SNO+ status and plans for double beta decay search and other neutrino studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andringa, S.; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    SNO+ is a multi-purpose Neutrino Physics experiment, succeeding to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory by replacing heavy water with liquid scintillator, which can also be loaded with large quantities of double-beta decaying isotope. The scientific goals of SNO+ are the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, the study of solar neutrinos and of anti-neutrinos from nuclear reactors and the Earth's natural radioactivity, as well as supernovae neutrinos. The installation of the detector at SNOLAB is being completed and commissioning has already started with a dry run. The detector will soon be filled with water and, later, with scintillator. Here we highlight the main detector developments and address the several Physics analysis being prepared for the several planned SNO+ runs.

  8. Pseudo-dirac neutrinos: a challenge for neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Beacom, John F; Bell, Nicole F; Hooper, Dan; Learned, John G; Pakvasa, Sandip; Weiler, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Neutrinos may be pseudo-Dirac states, such that each generation is actually composed of two maximally mixed Majorana neutrinos separated by a tiny mass difference. The usual active neutrino oscillation phenomenology would be unaltered if the pseudo-Dirac splittings are deltam(2) less, similar 10(-12) eV(2); in addition, neutrinoless double beta decay would be highly suppressed. However, it may be possible to distinguish pseudo-Dirac from Dirac neutrinos using high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. By measuring flavor ratios as a function of L/E, mass-squared differences down to deltam(2) approximately 10(-18) eV(2) can be reached. We comment on the possibility of probing cosmological parameters with neutrinos. PMID:14753977

  9. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hamal, M.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The data taken with the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2010, a total live time of 863 days, are used to measure the oscillation parameters of atmospheric neutrinos. Muon tracks are reconstructed with energies as low as 20 GeV. Neutrino oscillations will cause a suppression of vertical upgoing muon neutrinos of such energies crossing the Earth. The parameters determining the oscillation of atmospheric neutrinos are extracted by fitting the event rate as a function of the ratio of the estimated neutrino energy and reconstructed flight path through the Earth. Measurement contours of the oscillation parameters in a two-flavour approximation are derived. Assuming maximal mixing, a mass difference of Δ m322 = (3.1 ± 0.9) ṡ10-3eV2 is obtained, in good agreement with the world average value.

  10. Evidence for a functional subdivision of Premotor Ear-Eye Field (Area 8B)

    PubMed Central

    Lanzilotto, Marco; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Lucchetti, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Supplementary Eye Field (SEF) and the Frontal Eye Field (FEF) have been described as participating in gaze shift control. Recent evidence suggests, however, that other areas of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex also influence gaze shift. Herein, we have investigated electrically evoked ear- and eye movements from the Premotor Ear-Eye Field, or PEEF (area 8B) of macaque monkeys. We stimulated PEEF during spontaneous condition (outside the task performance) and during the execution of a visual fixation task (VFT). In the first case, we functionally identified two regions within the PEEF: a core and a belt. In the core region, stimulation elicited forward ear movements; regarding the evoked eye movements, in some penetrations, stimulation elicited contraversive fixed-vectors with a mean amplitude of 5.14°; while in other penetrations, we observed prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15° in respect to the primary eye position. On the contrary, in the belt region, stimulation elicited backward ear movements; regarding the eye movements, in some penetrations stimulation elicited prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15° in respect to the primary eye position, while in the lateral edge of the investigated region, stimulation elicited contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell beyond 15° in respect to the primary eye position. Stimulation during VFT either did not elicit eye movements or evoked saccades of only a few degrees. Finally, even though no head rotation movements were observed during the stimulation period, we viewed a relationship between the duration of stimulation and the neck forces exerted by the monkey's head. We propose an updated vision of the PEEF composed of two functional regions, core and belt, which may be involved in integrating auditory and visual information important to the programming of gaze orienting

  11. DISCOVERY AND ROSSITER-McLAUGHLIN EFFECT OF EXOPLANET KEPLER-8b

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Basri, Gibor; Isaacson, Howard; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Welsh, William F.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Geary, John C.; Brown, Timothy M.; Dunham, Edward W.; Fischer, Debra A.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Howell, Steve B.; Johnson, John Asher

    2010-12-01

    We report on the discovery and the Rossiter-McLaughlin (R-M) effect of Kepler-8b, a transiting planet identified by the NASA Kepler Mission. Kepler photometry and Keck-HIRES radial velocities yield the radius and mass of the planet around this F8IV subgiant host star. The planet has a radius R{sub P} = 1.419 R{sub J} and a mass M{sub P} = 0.60 M{sub J}, yielding a density of 0.26 g cm{sup -3}, one of the lowest planetary densities known. The orbital period is P = 3.523 days and the orbital semimajor axis is 0.0483{sup +0.0006}{sub -0.0012} AU. The star has a large rotational vsin i of 10.5 {+-} 0.7 km s{sup -1} and is relatively faint (V {approx} 13.89 mag); both properties are deleterious to precise Doppler measurements. The velocities are indeed noisy, with scatter of 30 m s{sup -1}, but exhibit a period and phase that are consistent with those implied by transit photometry. We securely detect the R-M effect, confirming the planet's existence and establishing its orbit as prograde. We measure an inclination between the projected planetary orbital axis and the projected stellar rotation axis of {lambda} = -26.{sup 0}4 {+-} 10.{sup 0}1, indicating a significant inclination of the planetary orbit. R-M measurements of a large sample of transiting planets from Kepler will provide a statistically robust measure of the true distribution of spin-orbit orientations for hot Jupiters around F and early G stars.

  12. Discovery and Rossiter-Mclaughlin Effect of Exoplanet Kepler-8b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Cochran, William D.; Welsh, William F.; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie M.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Dunham, Edward W.; Endl, Michael; Fischer, Debra A.; Gautier, Thomas N., III; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John Asher; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Monet, David G.; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Howard, Andrew W.; MacQueen, Phillip; Orosz, Jerome A.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Twicken, Joseph D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Allen, Christopher; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley; Meibom, Søren; Klaus, Todd C.; Middour, Christopher K.; Cote, Miles T.; McCauliff, Sean; Girouard, Forrest R.; Gunter, Jay P.; Wohler, Bill; Hall, Jennifer R.; Ibrahim, Khadeejah; Kamal Uddin, AKM; Wu, Michael S.; Bhavsar, Paresh A.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Pletcher, David L.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R.

    2010-12-01

    We report on the discovery and the Rossiter-McLaughlin (R-M) effect of Kepler-8b, a transiting planet identified by the NASA Kepler Mission. Kepler photometry and Keck-HIRES radial velocities yield the radius and mass of the planet around this F8IV subgiant host star. The planet has a radius R P = 1.419 R J and a mass M P = 0.60 M J, yielding a density of 0.26 g cm-3, one of the lowest planetary densities known. The orbital period is P = 3.523 days and the orbital semimajor axis is 0.0483+0.0006 -0.0012 AU. The star has a large rotational vsin i of 10.5 ± 0.7 km s-1 and is relatively faint (V ≈ 13.89 mag); both properties are deleterious to precise Doppler measurements. The velocities are indeed noisy, with scatter of 30 m s-1, but exhibit a period and phase that are consistent with those implied by transit photometry. We securely detect the R-M effect, confirming the planet's existence and establishing its orbit as prograde. We measure an inclination between the projected planetary orbital axis and the projected stellar rotation axis of λ = -26fdg4 ± 10fdg1, indicating a significant inclination of the planetary orbit. R-M measurements of a large sample of transiting planets from Kepler will provide a statistically robust measure of the true distribution of spin-orbit orientations for hot Jupiters around F and early G stars. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. Leptonic CP Violation measurement at the neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet Castell, J.; Mena, O.

    2003-05-01

    In this talk, based on the work [J. Burguet Castell, et al., Nucl. Phys. B 608 (2001) 301], we refine our previous analysis [A. Cervera, et al., Nucl. Phys. B 579 (2000) 17] of the sensitivity to leptonic CP violation and θ13 at a neutrino factory in the LMA-MSW scenario, by exploring the full range of these two parameters. We have discovered that there exist, at fixed neutrino energy, Eν, and baseline, L, degenerate solutions. Although the spectral analysis helps in disentangling fake from true solutions, a leftover product of this degeneracy remains for a realistic detector, which we analyse. Furthermore, we take into account the expected uncertainties on the solar and atmospheric oscillation parameters and in the average Earth matter density along the neutrino path. An intermediate baseline of O(3000) km is still the best option to tackle CP violation, although a combination of two baselines turns out to be very important in resolving degeneracies.

  14. Three-Neutrino Oscillation Parameters: Status and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, F.; Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Montanino, D.; Palazzo, A.

    Neutrino oscillation searches using a variety of sources (solar, atmospheric, accelerator and reactor neutrinos) have established a standard three-neutrino (3ν) mass-mixing framework and five of its parameters: the two squared mass gaps (δm2, Δm2) and the three mixing angles (θ12, θ13, θ23). At present, a single class of experiments dominates each of these parameters, while only combined analyses of various (eventually all) data sets are needed to constrain the still unknown mass hierarchy [sign(Δm2)], θ23 octant and CP-violating phase δ. We review the status of the known and unknown parameters (as emerging from a global analysis of the oscillation data), investigate the correlations and stability of the such parameters within different combinations of data sets, and discuss the near-term prospects in this field.

  15. Neutrino nucleosynthesis in core-collapse Supernova explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieverding, A.; Huther, L.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Langanke, K.; Heger, A.

    2016-02-01

    The neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis (ν process) in supernova explosions of massive stars of solar metallicity with initial main sequence masses between 15 and 40 M⊙ has been studied. A new extensive set of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections for all the nuclei included in the reaction network is used and the average neutrino energies are reduced to agree with modern supernova simulations. Despite these changes the ν process is found to contribute still significantly to the production of the nuclei 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La and 180Ta, even though the total yields for those nuclei are reduced. Furthermore we study in detail contributions of the ν process to the production of radioactive isotopes 26Al, 22Na and confirm the production of 92Nb and 98Tc.

  16. Neutrino magnetic moment effects in neutrino nucleus reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Athar, M.S.

    1995-10-01

    Some low energy neutrino nucleus reactions induced by neutrinos (antineutrinos) having a magnetic moment of the order of 10{sup {minus}9}{minus}10{sup {minus}10} Bohr magneton are studied. It is found that in the case of {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, and {sup 16}O, the detection of very low energy scalar and isoscalar elastic and inelastic reactions induced by the isoscalar vector currents can provide a better limit on the neutrino magnetic moment.

  17. On the Detection of the Free Neutrino

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Reines, F.; Cowan, C. L., Jr.

    1953-08-06

    The experiment previously proposed [to Detect the Free Neutrino] has been initiated, with a Hanford pile as a neutrino source. It appears probable that neutrino detection has been accomplished, and confirmatory work is in progress. (K.S.)

  18. Brief introduction of the neutrino event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hayato, Yoshinari

    2015-05-15

    The neutrino interaction simulation programs (event generators) play an important role in the neutrino experiments. This article briefly explains what is the neutrino event generator and how it works.

  19. Revisiting the standard solar model

    SciTech Connect

    Turck-Chieze, S.; Cahen, S.; Casse, M.; Doom, C.

    1988-12-01

    The mutual consistency between standard solar models is studied based on the recent Los Alamos opacity tables. Satisfactory agreement is found among these models concerning the helium content and the neutrino capture rates. The reference model leads to a solar helium content of 0.276 + or - 0.012 by mass fraction. 75 references.

  20. Unparticle physics and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco, J.; Bolanos, A.; Miranda, O. G.; Moura, C. A.; Rashba, T. I.

    2009-04-01

    We have constrained unparticle interactions with neutrinos and electrons using available data on neutrino-electron elastic scattering and the four CERN LEP experiments data on mono photon production. We have found that, for neutrino-electron elastic scattering, the MUNU experiment gives better constraints than previous reported limits in the region d>1.5. The results are compared with the current astrophysical limits, pointing out the cases where these limits may or may not apply. We also discuss the sensitivity of future experiments to unparticle physics. In particular, we show that the measurement of coherent reactor neutrino scattering off nuclei could provide a good sensitivity to the couplings of unparticle interaction with neutrinos and quarks. We also discuss the case of future neutrino-electron experiments as well as the International Linear Collider.