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Sample records for 8x6 foot wind

  1. RM-10 INSTALLATION IN THE 8X6 FOOT WIND TUNNEL - OPERATIONS ENGINEER RAYMOND J KARABINUS AND TECHNIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    RM-10 INSTALLATION IN THE 8X6 FOOT WIND TUNNEL - OPERATIONS ENGINEER RAYMOND J KARABINUS AND TECHNICIAN GRADY S SPEER MAKE FINAL CHECK OF BOUNDARY LAYER RAKES AT READ OF STING MOUNTED LANGLEY RESEARCH MISSILE MODEL BEFORE TESTS IN THE 8X6 FOOT WIND

  2. ENTRANCE TO 8X6 FOOT WIND TUNNEL BUILDING SHOWING ENGINEERS LEAVING FOR CLASSES AFTER BEING GRANTED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    ENTRANCE TO 8X6 FOOT WIND TUNNEL BUILDING SHOWING ENGINEERS LEAVING FOR CLASSES AFTER BEING GRANTED LEAVE TO ATTEND ADVANCED COURSES AT UNIVERSITY AWAY FROM THE LEWIS FLIGHT PROPULSION LABORATORY LFPL

  3. AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR IN THE 8X6 FOOT SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL - ELECTRIC MOTORS OF 87,000 HORSEPOWER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR IN THE 8X6 FOOT SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL - ELECTRIC MOTORS OF 87,000 HORSEPOWER DRIVE THIS HUGE COMPRESSOR TO PRODUCE 1300 MILE PER HOUR AIRSPEEDS - THE 2 HALVES OF THE 18 FOOT DIAMETER CASING ARE SHOWN OPENED TO EXPOSE THE 7 ROW

  4. Comparison of the 10x10 and the 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnels at the NASA Glenn Research Center for Low-Speed (Subsonic) Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Thomas R.; Johns, Albert L.; Bury, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and Lockheed Martin tested an aircraft model in two wind tunnels to compare low-speed (subsonic) flow characteristics. Test objectives were to determine and document similarities and uniqueness of the tunnels and to verify that the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) is a viable low-speed test facility when compared to the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT). Conclusions are that the data from the two facilities compares very favorably and that the 10-by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center is a viable low-speed wind tunnel.

  5. Historical Overview and Recent Improvements at the NASA Glenn Research Center 8x6 9x15 Wind Tunnel Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussling, Joseph John

    2015-01-01

    A brief history of the 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) and 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio is presented along with current capabilities and plans for future upgrades within the facility.

  6. 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Improvements Expanded Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David

    2016-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center was built in 1969 in the return leg of the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT). The 8x6 SWT was completed in 1949 and acoustically treated to mitigate community noise issues in 1950. This treatment included the addition of a large muffler downstream of the 8x6 SWT test section and diffuser. The 9x15 LSWT was designed for performance testing of V/STOL aircraft models, but with the addition of the current acoustic treatment in 1986 the tunnel been used principally for acoustic and performance testing of aircraft propulsion systems. The present document describes an anticipated acoustic upgrade to be completed in 2017.

  7. 7 x 10 Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of 7 x 10 Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT). In 1928, the NACA decided to replace its original Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT #1) with two tunnels--the 5-foot vertical tunnel and a 7 by 10 foot rectangular throat tunnel. Both were open-throat, closed-return-passage tunnels. While the 5 foot vertical tunnel was to be used mainly for spin tests, the 7x10 was an all-purpose tunnel although the main intent was to study stability and control problems. Construction was completed in the summer of 1930; calibration later that same year. The balance was installed and the tunnel went into operation in early 1931. The Warwick Machine Co. of Newport News, Virginia had the contract to fabricate and erection the 7x10 Foot tunnel for a total cost of $18,018.90. The balance was made by Fairbanks, Morse and Co., of Baltimore, Maryland for $2,544.00. The honeycomb was made by the Berkley Machine Works and Foundry Co., Inc. of Norfolk, Virginia for $1,580 and the control panel by Clark Controller Co. of Cleveland, OH for $1,153. Published in NACA TR No. 412, 'The 7 by 10 Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics,' by Thomas A. Harris, 1932; Reference Notes on the 'Atmospheric Wind Tunnel' in the Langley Historical Archives (D. Baals notes on wind tunnels).

  8. 7 x 10-Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Smoke generator for 7 x 10-Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT) (left center); Force Test Set-Up in the center. In 1928, the NACA decided to replace its original Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT #1) with two tunnels--the 5-foot vertical tunnel and a 7 by 10 foot rectangular throat tunnel. Both were open-throat, closed-return-passage tunnels. While the 5-foot vertical tunnel was to be used mainly for spin tests, the 7x10 was an all-purpose tunnel although the main intent was to study stability and control problems. Construction was completed in the summer of 1930; calibration later that same year. The balance was installed and the tunnel went into operation in early 1931.

  9. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF 8FOOT HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNEL. SAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF 8-FOOT HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNEL. SAME CAMERA POSITION AS VA-118-B-10 LOOKING IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot High Speed Wind Tunnel, 641 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  10. 7 x 10-Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Drawing of 7 x 10-Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT). In 1928, the NACA decided to replace its original Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (AWT #1) with two tunnels--the 5-foot vertical tunnel and a 7 by 10 foot rectangular throat tunnel. Both were open-throat, closed-return-passage tunnels. While the 5-foot vertical tunnel was to be used mainly for spin tests, the 7x10 was an all-purpose tunnel although the main intent was to study stability and control problems. Construction was completed in the summer of 1930; calibration later that same year. The balance was installed and the tunnel went into operation in early 1931. The Warwick Machine Co. of Newport News, Virginia had the contract to fabricate and erection the 7x10-Foot tunnel for a total cost of $18,018.90. The balance was made by Fairbanks, Morse and Co., of Baltimore, Maryland for 2,544.00. The honeycomb was made by the Berkley Machine Works and Foundry Co., Inc. of Norfolk, Virginia for $1,580 and the control panel by Clark Controller Co. of Cleveland, OH for $1,153.

  11. Results of the AFRSI detailed-environment test of the 0.035-scale SSV pressure-loads model 84-0 in the Ames 11x11 ft. TWT and the Lewis 8x6 ft. and 10x10 ft. SWT (OA-310A, B, C), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, B. A.; Marroquin, J.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed orbiter aerodynamic and aeroacoustic pressure data were obtained in a three-part experimental investigation (OA-310A, B and C). The tests were conducted in three NASA facilities: OA-310A in the Ames 11x11-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel; OA-310B in the Lewis 8x6-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel; and OA-310C in the Lewis 10x10-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Test data were obtained to support analysis of the Space Transportation System (STS)-6 advanced flexible reusable surface insulation (AFRSI) anomaly using the 0.035-scale space shuttle vehicle pressure-loads Model 84-0. Data were obtained in the areas of the orbiter where AFRSI is to be applied to OV-099 and OV-103. Emphasis was placed on acquiring detailed aeroacoustic data and time-averaged pressure distributions on five affected areas: (1) canopy; (2) side of fuselage; (3) upper surface of wing; (4) OMS pods; and (5) vertical tail. Data were obtained at nominal ascent and entry atmospheric flight trajectory conditions between M=0.6 through M-3.5. Sample plotted data are given. aba M.G.

  12. Acoustic evaluation of the Helmholtz resonator treatment in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Gordon, Elliot B.

    1989-01-01

    The acoustic consequences of sealing the Helmholtz resonators of the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT) were experimentally evaluated. This resonator sealing was proposed in order to avoid entrapment of hydrogen during tests of advanced hydrogen-fueled engines. The resonators were designed to absorb energy in the 4- to 20-Hz range; thus, this investigation is primarily concerned with infrasound. Limited internal and external noise measurements were made at tunnel Mach numbers ranging from 0.5 to 2.0. Although the resonators were part of the acoustic treatment installed because of a community noise problem their sealing did not seem to indicate a reoccurrence of the problem would result. Two factors were key to this conclusion: (1) A large bulk treatment muffler downstream of the resonators was able to make up for much of the attenuation originally provided by the resonators, and (2) there was no noise source in the tunnel test section. The previous community noise problem occurred when a large ramjet was tested in an open-loop tunnel configuration. If a propulsion system producing high noise levels at frequencies of less than 10 Hz were tested, the conclusion on community noise would have to be reevaluated.

  13. The 6-foot-4-inch Wind Tunnel at the Washington Navy Yard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmond, G L; Mccrary, J A

    1935-01-01

    The 6-foot-4-inch wind tunnel and its auxiliary equipment has proven itself capable of continuous and reliable output of data. The real value of the tunnel will increase as experience is gained in checking the observed tunnel performance against full-scale performance. Such has been the case of the 8- by 8-foot tunnel, and for that reason the comparison in the calibration tests have been presented.

  14. Preliminary Computational Study for Future Tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot' x 7 foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, Jason M.; Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; WInski, Courtney S.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Commercial Supersonics Technology Project seeks to advance tools and techniques to make over-land supersonic flight feasible. In this study, preliminary computational results are presented for future tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot x 7 foot supersonic wind tunnel to be conducted in early 2016. Shock-plume interactions and their effect on pressure signature are examined for six model geometries. Near- field pressure signatures are assessed using the CFD code USM3D to model the proposed test geometries in free-air. Additionally, results obtained using the commercial grid generation software Pointwise Reigistered Trademark are compared to results using VGRID, the NASA Langley Research Center in-house mesh generation program.

  15. A Unique RCM Application at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonagofski, James M.; Machala, Anthony C.; Smith, Anthony M.; Presley, Leroy L. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is known internationally as a center of excellence for its capabilities and achievements in the field of developmental aerodynamics. The Center has a variety of aerodynamic test facilities including the largest wind tunnel in the world (with 40 x 80 deg and 80 x 120 deg atmospheric test sections) and the 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel which is the subject of this paper. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Wind tunnel investigation of a 14 foot vertical axis windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. J.; Guillotte, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A full scale wind tunnel investigation was made to determine the performance characteristics of a 14 ft diameter vertical axis windmill. The parameters measured were wind velocity, shaft torque, shaft rotation rate, along with the drag and yawing moment. A velocity survey of the flow field downstream of the windmill was also made. The results of these tests along with some analytically predicted data are presented in the form of generalized data as a function of tip speed ratio.

  17. Wind-Tunnel Tests of 10-foot-diameter Autogiro Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B; Bioletti, Carlton

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of a series of 10-foot-diameter autogiro rotor models tested in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. Four of the models differed only in the airfoil sections of the blades, the sections used being the NACA 0012, 0018, 4412, and 4418. Three additional models employing the NACA 0012 section were tested, in which a varying portion of the blade near the hub was replaced by a streamline tube with a chord of about one-fourth the blade chord.

  18. Construction of the 30 x 60 Foot Wind Tunnel at Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    This photograph from 1930 shows the 30 x 60 Foot Tunnel during construction. Smith J. de France, a NACA engineer, was in charge of the design team for the new tunnel. Planning involved the construction of a 1/5 scale model of the tunnel. In 1929, the NACA received congresional approval and two year appropriation of $900,000 for construction. The tunnel was built by the J.A. Jones Construction Company. The framework is solid steel. Like many early wind tunnels, the 30 x 60 foot tunnel featured 'inside- out' construction, with structual supports on the outside. The circular frames indicate where the two 35 foot propellers are located today. Built to test full-scale models or actual aircraft, the 30 x 60 foot tunnel was an innovative concept in wind tunnel design. It proved especially valuable during World War II as a majority of the nation's bombers and fighters (as well as several foreign aircraft) were tested in this tunnel. Since the 1970s, one of the unique test techinques used in the 30 x 60 was free flight of dynamically scaled models in the test section. This technique allowed researchers to measure and assess flight characteristics as well as control options. The 30 x 60 is an example of a major facility adapted to serve a multitude of uses that its designers did not initially visualize. The 30 x 60 remained as one of NASA's largest wind tunnels until its closing in September 1995. In 1985 the 30 x 60 foot wind tunnel was designated a National Historic Landmark.

  19. Experimental study of flow deflectors designed to alleviate ground winds induced by exhaust of 80-by 120-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, V. J.; Schmidt, G. I.; Reinath, M. S.; Vanaken, J. M.; Parrish, C. L.; Schuler, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study directed at finding a deflector ramp that will reduce to an acceptable level the ground winds under the exhaust jet of the 80 by 120 Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Center is described. A one-fifieth scale model of the full-scale facility was used to investigate how the jet flow field was modified by the various design parameters of the ramp. It was concluded that the ground winds were alleviated sufficiently by a ramp with end plates located next to the wind tunnel building along the ground edge of the exhaust opening. At full scale, the ramp should have a slant length of 7.62 m (25 ft) or more, and would be elevated at about 45 degrees to the ground plane. The material should have holes less than 15.2 (6 in) in diameter distributed uniformly over its surface to produce a porosity of about 30%.

  20. Plume and Shock Interaction Effects on Sonic Boom in the 1-foot by 1-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan; Winski, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    The desire to reduce or eliminate the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas has led to extensive research at NASA. Restrictions are due to the disturbance of the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed by the aircraft. A study has been performed focused on reducing the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave generated by airplane components with a focus on shock waves caused by the exhaust nozzle plume. Testing was completed in the 1-foot by 1-foot supersonic wind tunnel to study the effects of an exhaust nozzle plume and shock wave interaction. The plume and shock interaction study was developed to collect data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation of a nozzle plume passing through the shock generated from the wing or tail of a supersonic vehicle. The wing or tail was simulated with a wedgeshaped shock generator. This test entry was the first of two phases to collect schlieren images and off-body static pressure profiles. Three wedge configurations were tested consisting of strut-mounted wedges of 2.5- degrees and 5-degrees. Three propulsion configurations were tested simulating the propulsion pod and aft deck from a low boom vehicle concept, which also provided a trailing edge shock and plume interaction. Findings include how the interaction of the jet plume caused a thickening of the shock generated by the wedge (or aft deck) and demonstrate how the shock location moved with increasing nozzle pressure ratio.

  1. NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1993-01-01

    The 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at Lewis Research Center is available for use by qualified researchers. This manual contains tunnel performance maps which show the range of total temperature, total pressure, static pressure, dynamic pressure, altitude, Reynolds number, and mass flow as a function of test section Mach number. These maps are applicable for both the aerodynamic and propulsion cycle. The 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel is an atmospheric facility with a test section Mach number range from 0.36 to 2.0. General support systems (air systems, hydraulic system, hydrogen system, infrared system, laser system, laser sheet system, and schlieren system are also described as are instrumentation and data processing and acquisition systems. Pretest meeting formats are outlined. Tunnel user responsibility and personal safety requirements are also stated.

  2. Design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of a prototype 150-foot long composite wind turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gewehr, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of a prototype 150 foot long composite wind turbine blade is described. The design approach and material selection, compatible with low cost fabrication methods and objectives, are highlighted. The operating characteristics of the blade during rotating and nonrotating conditions are presented. The tensile, compression, and shear properties of the blade are reported. The blade fabrication, tooling, and quality assurance are discussed.

  3. The 12-foot pressure wind tunnel restoration project model support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, Glen E.

    1992-01-01

    The 12 Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel is a variable density, low turbulence wind tunnel that operates at subsonic speeds, and up to six atmospheres total pressure. The restoration of this facility is of critical importance to the future of the U.S. aerospace industry. As part of this project, several state of the art model support systems are furnished to provide an optimal balance between aerodynamic and operational efficiency parameters. Two model support systems, the Rear Strut Model Support, and the High Angle of Attack Model Support are discussed. This paper covers design parameters, constraints, development, description, and component selection.

  4. Turbulence Intensity at Inlet of 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel Caused by Upwind Blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Denise; Yuricich, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In order to estimate the magnitude of turbulence in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel (80 x 120) caused by buildings located upwind from the 80 x 120 inlet, a 150th-scale study was performed that utilized a nominal two-dimensional blockage placed ahead of the inlet. The distance of the blockage ahead of the inlet was varied. This report describes velocity measurements made in the plane of the 80 x 120 model inlet for the case of zero ambient (atmospheric) wind.

  5. Operating manual holographic interferometry system for 2 x 2 foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A holographic interferometer system was installed in a 2X2 foot transonic wind tunnel. The system incorporates a modern, 10 pps, Nd:YAG pulsed laser which provides reliable operation and is easy to align. The spatial filtering requirements of the unstable resonator beam are described as well as the integration of the system into the existing Schieren system. A two plate holographic interferometer is used to reconstruct flow field data. For static wind tunnel models the single exposure holograms are recorded in the usual manner; however, for dynamic models such as oscillating airfoils, synchronous laser hologram recording is used.

  6. Simulation and control engineering studies of NASA-Ames 40 foot by 80 foot/80 foot by 120 foot wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, J. G.; Jones, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The development and use of a digital computer simulation of the proposed wind tunnel facility is described. The feasibility of automatic control of wind tunnel airspeed and other parameters was examined. Specifications and implementation recommendations for a computer based automatic control and monitoring system are presented.

  7. Abe Silverstein 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel Validated for Low-Speed (Subsonic) Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and Lockheed Martin Corporation tested an aircraft model in two wind tunnels to compare low-speed (subsonic) flow characteristics. Objectives of the test were to determine and document the similarities and uniqueness of the tunnels and to validate that Glenn's 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) is a viable low-speed test facility. Results from two of Glenn's wind tunnels compare very favorably and show that the 10x10 SWT is a viable low-speed wind tunnel. The Subsonic Comparison Test was a joint effort by NASA and Lockheed Martin using the Lockheed Martin's Joint Strike Fighter Concept Demonstration Aircraft model. Although Glenn's 10310 and 836 SWT's have many similarities, they also have unique characteristics. Therefore, test data were collected for multiple model configurations at various vertical locations in the test section, starting at the test section centerline and extending into the ceiling and floor boundary layers.

  8. Modernization and Activation of the NASA Ames 11- by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmak, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    The Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) was modernized to improve performance, capability, productivity, and reliability. Automation systems were installed in all three UPWT tunnel legs and the Auxiliaries facility. Major improvements were made to the four control rooms, model support systems, main drive motors, and main drive speed control. Pressure vessel repairs and refurbishment to the electrical distribution system were also completed. Significant changes were made to improve test section flow quality in the 11-by 11-Foot Transonic leg. After the completion of the construction phase of the project, acceptance and checkout testing was performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the modernized facility. A pneumatic test of the tunnel circuit was performed to verify the structural integrity of the pressure vessel before wind-on operations. Test section turbulence, flow angularity, and acoustic parameters were measured throughout the tunnel envelope to determine the effects of the tunnel flow quality improvements. The new control system processes were thoroughly checked during wind-off and wind-on operations. Manual subsystem modes and automated supervisory modes of tunnel operation were validated. The aerodynamic and structural performance of both the new composite compressor rotor blades and the old aluminum rotor blades was measured. The entire subsonic and supersonic envelope of the 11-by 11-Foot Transonic leg was defined up to the maximum total pressure.

  9. Reduction of Background Noise in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, Stephen M.; Allen, Christopher S.; Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry E. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Background noise in both open-jet and closed wind tunnels adversely affects the signal-to-noise ratio of acoustic measurements. To measure the noise of increasingly quieter aircraft models, the background noise will have to be reduced by physical means or through signal processing. In a closed wind tunnel, such as the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel, the principle background noise sources can be classified as: (1) fan drive noise; (2) microphone self-noise; (3) aerodynamically induced noise from test-dependent hardware such as model struts and junctions; and (4) noise from the test section walls and vane set. This paper describes the steps taken to minimize the influence of each of these background noise sources in the 40 x 80.

  10. NASA Glenn 1-by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seablom, Kirk D.; Soeder, Ronald H.; Stark, David E.; Leone, John F. X.; Henry, Michael W.

    1999-01-01

    This manual describes the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1 - by 1 -Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel and provides information for customers who wish to conduct experiments in this facility. Tunnel performance envelopes of total pressure, total temperature, and dynamic pressure as a function of test section Mach number are presented. For each Mach number, maps are presented of Reynolds number per foot as a function of the total air temperature at the test section inlet for constant total air pressure at the inlet. General support systems-such as the service air, combustion air, altitude exhaust system, auxiliary bleed system, model hydraulic system, schlieren system, model pressure-sensitive paint, and laser sheet system are discussed. In addition, instrumentation and data processing, acquisition systems are described, pretest meeting formats and schedules are outlined, and customer responsibilities and personnel safety are addressed.

  11. An experimental investigation of boundary layer and crossflow characteristics of the Ames 2 by 2 foot and 11 by 11 foot transonic wind-tunnel walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matyk, G.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The boundary layer and crossflow characteristics of 2- by 2-foot and 11- by 11-foot transonic wind-tunnel wall configurations have been studied for Mach numbers ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 and for various crossflow to free stream unit mass flow ratios. For the 2- by 2-ft and 11- by 11-ft wall configurations, these ratios ranged from 0 to 0.12 and from 0 to 0.07, respectively. Most notably, for both wall configurations, the pressure-drop coefficient across the wall was nonlinear with mass flow and invariant with Mach number.

  12. Flow quality studies of the NASA Lewis Research Center 8- by 6-foot supersonic/9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, E. Allen; Pickett, Mark T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the existing flow quality in the NASA Lewis 8 by 6 Foot Supersonic/9 by 15 Foot Low speed Wind Tunnel. The information gathered from these studies was used to determine the types and designs of flow manipulators which can be installed to improve overall tunnel flow quality and efficiency. Such manipulators include honeycomb flow straighteners, turbulence reduction screens, corner turning vanes, and acoustic treatments. The types of measurements, instrumentation, and results obtained from experiments conducted at several locations throughout the tunnel loop are described.

  13. Uncertainty Analysis of NASA Glenn's 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Julia E.; Hubbard, Erin P.; Walter, Joel A.; McElroy, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine the measurement uncertainty of the Mach Number of the 8- by 6-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This paper details the analysis process used, including methods for handling limited data and complicated data correlations. Due to the complexity of the equations used, a Monte Carlo Method was utilized for this uncertainty analysis. A summary of the findings are presented as pertains to understanding what the uncertainties are, how they impact various research tests in the facility, and methods of reducing the uncertainties in the future.

  14. The Acoustic Environment of the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel is an acoustic testing facility with a long history of aircraft propulsion noise research. Due to interest in renovating the facility to support future testing of advanced quiet engine designs, a study was conducted to document the background noise level in the facility and investigate the sources of contaminating noise. The anechoic quality of the facility was also investigated using an interrupted noise method. The present report discusses these aspects of the noise environment in this facility.

  15. An Investigation of the Drag of Windshields in the 8-foot High-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Russell G; Delano, James B

    1942-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests made to determine the drag of closed-cockpit and transport-type windshields. The tests were made at speeds corresponding to a Mach number range of approximately 0.25 to 0.58 in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel. This speed range corresponds to a test Reynolds number range of 2,510,000 to 4,830,000 based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the full-span model (17.29 in.). The shapes of the windshield proper, the hood, and the tail fairing were systematically varied to include common types and refined design.

  16. Propeller propulsion integration, phase 1. [conducted in langley 30 by 60 foot full scale wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, G.; Koenig, K.; Miley, S. J.; Mcwhorter, J.; Wells, G.

    1981-01-01

    A bibliography was compiled of all readily available sources of propeller analytical and experimental studies conducted during the 1930 through 1960 period. A propeller test stand was developed for the measurement of thrust and torque characteristics of full scale general aviation propellers and installed in the LaRC 30 x 60 foot full scale wind tunnel. A tunnel entry was made during the January through February 1980 period. Several propellers were tested, but unforseen difficulties with the shaft thrust torque balance severely degraded the data quality.

  17. NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1993-01-01

    This manual describes the 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Research Center and provides information for users who wish to conduct experiments in this atmospheric facility. Tunnel variables such as pressures, temperatures, available tests section area, and Mach number ranges (0.05 to 0.20) are discussed. In addition, general support systems such as air systems, hydraulic system, hydrogen system, laser system, flow visualization system, and model support systems are described. Instrumentation and data processing and acquisition systems are also discussed.

  18. Airloads Correlation of the UH-60A Rotor Inside the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, I-Chung; Norman, Thomas R.; Romander, Ethan A.

    2013-01-01

    The presented research validates the capability of a loosely-coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and comprehensive rotorcraft analysis (CRA) code to calculate the flowfield around a rotor and test stand mounted inside a wind tunnel. The CFD/CRA predictions for the full-scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor inside the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center are compared with the latest measured airloads and performance data. The studied conditions include a speed sweep at constant lift up to an advance ratio of 0.4 and a thrust sweep at constant speed up to and including stall. For the speed sweep, wind tunnel modeling becomes important at advance ratios greater than 0.37 and test stand modeling becomes increasingly important as the advance ratio increases. For the thrust sweep, both the wind tunnel and test stand modeling become important as the rotor approaches stall. Despite the beneficial effects of modeling the wind tunnel and test stand, the new models do not completely resolve the current airload discrepancies between prediction and experiment.

  19. Supersonic Retropropulsion Experimental Results from the NASA Ames 9- x 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic retropropulsion was experimentally examined in the Ames Research Center 9x7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at Mach 1.8 and 2.4. The experimental model, previously designed for and tested in the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach 2.4, 3.5 and 4.6, was a 5-in diameter 70-deg sphere-cone forebody with a 9.55-in long cylindrical aftbody. The forebody was designed to accommodate up to four 4:1 area ratio nozzles, one on the model centerline and the other three on the half radius spaced 120-deg apart. Surface pressure and flow visualization were the primary measurements, including high-speed data to investigate the dynamics of the interactions between the bow and nozzle shocks. Three blowing configurations were tested with thrust coefficients up to 10 and angles of attack up to 20-deg. Preliminary results and observations from the test are provided

  20. A Summary of the Experimental Results for a Generic Tractor-Trailer in the Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot and 12-Foot Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce L.; Satran, Dale R.; Heineck, James T.; Walker, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental measurements of a generic tractor-trailer were obtained in two wind tunnels at Ames Research Center. After a preliminary study at atmospheric conditions in the 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel, additional testing was conducted at Reynolds numbers corresponding to full-scale highway speeds in the 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel. To facilitate computational modeling, the 1:8-scale geometry, designated the Generic Conventional Model, included a simplified underbody and omitted many small-scale details. The measurements included overall and component forces and moments, static and dynamic surface pressures, and three-component particle image velocimetry. This summary report highlights the effects of numerous drag reduction concepts and provides details of the model installation in both wind tunnels. To provide a basis for comparison, the wind-averaged drag coefficient was tabulated for all configurations tested. Relative to the baseline configuration representative of a modern class-8 tractor-trailer, the most effective concepts were the trailer base flaps and trailer belly box providing a drag-coefficient reduction of 0.0855 and 0.0494, respectively. Trailer side skirts were less effective yielding a drag reduction of 0.0260. The database of this experimental effort is publicly available for further analysis.

  1. Sources and levels of background noise in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.

    1988-01-01

    Background noise levels are measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel following installation of a sound-absorbent lining on the test-section walls. Results show that the fan-drive noise dominated the empty test-section background noise at airspeeds below 120 knots. Above 120 knots, the test-section broadband background noise was dominated by wind-induced dipole noise (except at lower harmonics of fan blade-passage tones) most likely generated at the microphone or microphone support strut. Third-octave band and narrow-band spectra are presented for several fan operating conditions and test-section airspeeds. The background noise levels can be reduced by making improvements to the microphone wind screen or support strut. Empirical equations are presented relating variations of fan noise with fan speed or blade-pitch angle. An empirical expression for typical fan noise spectra is also presented. Fan motor electric power consumption is related to the noise generation. Preliminary measurements of sound absorption by the test-section lining indicate that the 152 mm thick lining will adequately absorb test-section model noise at frequencies above 300 Hz.

  2. Flow Quality Measurements in the NASA Ames Upgraded 11-by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amaya, Max A.; Murthy, Sreedhara V.; George, M. W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the many upgrades designed and implemented in the NASA Ames 11-by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel over the past few years, several directly affect flow quality in the test section: a turbulence reduction system with a honeycomb and two screens, a flow smoothing system in the back leg diffusers, an improved drive motor control system, and a full replacement set of composite blades for the compressor. Prior to the shut-down of the tunnel for construction activities, an 8-foot span rake populated with flow instrumentation was traversed in the test section to fully document the flow quality and establish a baseline against which the upgrades could be characterized. A similar set of measurements was performed during the recent integrated system test trials, but the scope was somewhat limited in accordance with the primary objective of such tests, namely to return the tunnel to a fully operational status. These measurements clearly revealed substantial improvements in flow angularity and significant reductions in turbulence level for both full-span and semi-span testing configurations, thus making the flow quality of the tunnel one of the best among existing transonic facilities.

  3. User manual for NASA Lewis 10 by 10 foot supersonic wind tunnel. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1995-01-01

    This manual describes the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Lewis Research Center and provides information for users who wish to conduct experiments in this facility. Tunnel performance operating envelopes of altitude, dynamic pressure, Reynolds number, total pressure, and total temperature as a function of test section Mach number are presented. Operating envelopes are shown for both the aerodynamic (closed) cycle and the propulsion (open) cycle. The tunnel test section Mach number range is 2.0 to 3.5. General support systems, such as air systems, hydraulic system, hydrogen system, fuel system, and Schlieren system, are described. Instrumentation and data processing and acquisition systems are also described. Pretest meeting formats and schedules are outlined. Tunnel user responsibility and personnel safety are also discussed.

  4. New Model Exhaust System Supports Testing in NASA Lewis' 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, James W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In early 1996, the ability to run NASA Lewis Research Center's Abe Silverstein 10- by 10- Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10) at subsonic test section speeds was reestablished. Taking advantage of this new speed range, a subsonic research test program was scheduled for the 10x10 in the fall of 1996. However, many subsonic aircraft test models require an exhaust source to simulate main engine flow, engine bleed flows, and other phenomena. This was also true of the proposed test model, but at the time the 10x10 did not have a model exhaust capability. So, through an in-house effort over a period of only 5 months, a new model exhaust system was designed, installed, checked out, and made ready in time to support the scheduled test program.

  5. Comparison of acoustic data from a 102 mm conic nozzle as measured in the RAE 24-foot wind tunnel and the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, A., Jr.; Mckie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative program between the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), England, and the NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to compare acoustic measurements made in the RAE 24-foot wind tunnel and in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The acoustic measurements were made in both facilities using the same 102 mm conical nozzle supplied by the RAE. The nozzle was tested by each organization using its respective jet test rig. The mounting hardware and nozzle exit conditions were matched as closely as possible. The data from each wind tunnel were independently analyzed by the respective organization. The results from these tests show good agreement. In both facilities, interference with acoustic measurement is evident at angles in the forward quadrant.

  6. Shake test results of the MDHC test stand in the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Benton H.; Peterson, Randall

    1994-01-01

    A shake test was conducted to determine the modal properties of the MDHC (McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company) test stand installed in the 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. The shake test was conducted for three wind-tunnel balance configurations with and without balance dampers, and with the snubber engagement to lock the balance frame. A hydraulic shaker was used to apply random excitation at the rotor hub in the longitudinal and lateral directions. A GenRad 2515 computer-aided test system computed the frequency response functions at the rotor hub and support struts. From these response functions, the modal properties, including the natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape were calculated. The critical modes with low damping ratios are identified as the test-stand second longitudinal mode for the dampers-off configuration, the test-stand yaw mode for the dampers-on configuration, and the test stand first longitudinal mode for the balance-frame locked configuration.

  7. Background Pressure Profiles for Sonic Boom Vehicle Testing in the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Shaw, Stephen; Adamson, Eric; Simerly, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to identify test facilities that offer sonic boom measurement capabilities, an exploratory test program was initiated using wind tunnels at NASA research centers. The subject of this report is the sonic boom pressure rail data collected in the Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose is to summarize the lessons learned based on the test activity, specifically relating to collecting sonic boom data which has a large amount of spatial pressure variation. The wind tunnel background pressure profiles are presented as well as data which demonstrated how both wind tunnel Mach number and model support-strut position affected the wind tunnel background pressure profile. Techniques were developed to mitigate these effects and are presented.

  8. Calibration of the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (1996 and 1997 Tests)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, E. Allen

    2012-01-01

    There were several physical and operational changes made to the NASA Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel during the period of 1992 through 1996. Following each of these changes, a facility calibration was conducted to provide the required information to support the research test programs. Due to several factors (facility research test schedule, facility downtime and continued facility upgrades), a full test section calibration was not conducted until 1996. This calibration test incorporated all test section configurations and covered the existing operating range of the facility. However, near the end of that test entry, two of the vortex generators mounted on the compressor exit tailcone failed causing minor damage to the honeycomb flow straightener. The vortex generators were removed from the facility and calibration testing was terminated. A follow-up test entry was conducted in 1997 in order to fully calibrate the facility without the effects of the vortex generators and to provide a complete calibration of the newly expanded low speed operating range. During the 1997 tunnel entry, all planned test points required for a complete test section calibration were obtained. This data set included detailed in-plane and axial flow field distributions for use in quantifying the test section flow quality.

  9. Check Calibration of the NASA Glenn 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (2014 Test Entry)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Aaron; Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Arrington, E. Allen

    2016-01-01

    A check calibration of the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) was conducted in May/June 2014 using an array of five supersonic wedge probes to verify the 1999 Calibration. This check calibration was necessary following a control systems upgrade and an integrated systems test (IST). This check calibration was required to verify the tunnel flow quality was unchanged by the control systems upgrade prior to the next test customer beginning their test entry. The previous check calibration of the tunnel occurred in 2007, prior to the Mars Science Laboratory test program. Secondary objectives of this test entry included the validation of the new Cobra data acquisition system (DAS) against the current Escort DAS and the creation of statistical process control (SPC) charts through the collection of series of repeated test points at certain predetermined tunnel parameters. The SPC charts secondary objective was not completed due to schedule constraints. It is hoped that this effort will be readdressed and completed in the near future.

  10. New Test Section Installed in NASA Lewis' 1- by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Steven W.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's 1- by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (1x1) is a critical facility that fulfills the needs of important national programs. This tunnel supports supersonic and hypersonic research test projects for NASA, for other Government agencies, and for industry, such as the High Speed Research (HSR) and Space Transportation Technologies (STT) programs. The 1x1, which is located in Lewis' Building 37, Cell 1NW, was built in 1954 and was upgraded to provide Mach 6.0 capability in 1989. Since 1954, only minor improvements had been made to the test section. To improve the 1x1's capabilities and meet the needs of these programs, Lewis recently redesigned and replaced the test section. The new test section has interchangeable window and wall inserts that allow easier and faster test configuration changes, thereby improving the adaptability and productivity of this highly utilized facility. In addition, both the wall and window areas are much larger. The larger walls provide more flexibility in how models are mounted and instrumented. The new window design vastly increases optical access to the research test hardware, which makes the use of advanced flow-visualization systems more effective.

  11. Parametric Inlet Tested in Glenn's 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Davis, David O.; Solano, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    The Parametric Inlet is an innovative concept for the inlet of a gas-turbine propulsion system for supersonic aircraft. The concept approaches the performance of past inlet concepts, but with less mechanical complexity, lower weight, and greater aerodynamic stability and safety. Potential applications include supersonic cruise aircraft and missiles. The Parametric Inlet uses tailored surfaces to turn the incoming supersonic flow inward toward an axis of symmetry. The terminal shock spans the opening of the subsonic diffuser leading to the engine. The external cowl area is smaller, which reduces cowl drag. The use of only external supersonic compression avoids inlet unstart--an unsafe shock instability present in previous inlet designs that use internal supersonic compression. This eliminates the need for complex mechanical systems to control unstart, which reduces weight. The conceptual design was conceived by TechLand Research, Inc. (North Olmsted, OH), which received funding through NASA s Small-Business Innovation Research program. The Boeing Company (Seattle, WA) also participated in the conceptual design. The NASA Glenn Research Center became involved starting with the preliminary design of a model for testing in Glenn s 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10 10 SWT). The inlet was sized for a speed of Mach 2.35 while matching requirements of an existing cold pipe used in previous inlet tests. The parametric aspects of the model included interchangeable components for different cowl lip, throat slot, and sidewall leading-edge shapes and different vortex generator configurations. Glenn researchers used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools for three-dimensional, turbulent flow analysis to further refine the aerodynamic design.

  12. Air-Loads Prediction of a UH-60A Rotor inside the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, I-Chung; Romander, Ethan A.; Potsdam, Mark; Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    The presented research extends the capability of a loose coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structure dynamics (CSD) code to calculate the flow-field around a rotor and test stand mounted inside a wind tunnel. Comparison of predicted air-load results for a full-scale UH-60A rotor recently tested inside the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center and in free-air flight are made for three challenging flight data points from the earlier conducted UH-60A Air-loads Program. Overall results show that the extension of the coupled CFD/CSD code to the wind-tunnel environment is generally successful.

  13. An Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Rotorcraft Airfoils in the NASA Ames Eleven-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemming, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Five full scale rotorcraft airfoils were tested in the NASA Ames Eleven-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel for full scale Reynolds numbers at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.07. The models, which spanned the tunnel from floor to ceiling, included two modern baseline airfoils, the SC1095 and SC1094 R8, which have been previously tested in other facilities. Three advanced transonic airfoils, designated the SSC-A09, SSC-A07, and SSC-B08, were tested to confirm predicted performance and provide confirmation of advanced airfoil design methods. The test showed that the eleven-foot tunnel is suited to two-dimensional airfoil testing. Maximum lift coefficients, drag coefficients, pitching moments, and pressure coefficient distributions are presented. The airfoil analysis codes agreed well with the data, with the Grumman GRUMFOIL code giving the best overall performance correlation.

  14. Revalidation of the NASA Ames 11-by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel with a Commercial Airplane Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmak, Frank J.; Hudgins, M.; Hergert, D.; George, Michael W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The 11-By 11-Foot Transonic leg of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) was modernized to improve tunnel performance, capability, productivity, and reliability. Wind tunnel tests to demonstrate the readiness of the tunnel for a return to production operations included an Integrated Systems Test (IST), calibration tests, and airplane validation tests. One of the two validation tests was a 0.037-scale Boeing 777 model that was previously tested in the 11-By 11-Foot tunnel in 1991. The objective of the validation tests was to compare pre-modernization and post-modernization results from the same airplane model in order to substantiate the operational readiness of the facility. Evaluation of within-test, test-to-test, and tunnel-to-tunnel data repeatability were made to study the effects of the tunnel modifications. Tunnel productivity was also evaluated to determine the readiness of the facility for production operations. The operation of the facility, including model installation, tunnel operations, and the performance of tunnel systems, was observed and facility deficiency findings generated. The data repeatability studies and tunnel-to-tunnel comparisons demonstrated outstanding data repeatability and a high overall level of data quality. Despite some operational and facility problems, the validation test was successful in demonstrating the readiness of the facility to perform production airplane wind tunnel%, tests.

  15. The Aerodynamic Drag of Flying-boat Hull Model as Measured in the NACA 20-foot Wind Tunnel I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1935-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic drag were made in the 20-foot wind tunnel on a representative group of 11 flying-boat hull models. Four of the models were modified to investigate the effect of variations in over-all height, contours of deck, depth of step, angle of afterbody keel, and the addition of spray strips and windshields. The results of these tests, which cover a pitch-angle range from -5 to 10 degrees, are presented in a form suitable for use in performance calculations and for design purposes.

  16. Performance and test section flow characteristics of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter T.

    1993-01-01

    Results from the performance and test section flow calibration of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented. Measurements indicating the 80- by 120-ft test section flow quality were obtained throughout the tunnel operational envelope and for atmospheric wind speeds up to approximately 20 knots. Tunnel performance characteristics and a dynamic pressure system calibration were also documented during the process of mapping the test section flow field. Experimental results indicate that the test section flow quality is relatively insensitive to dynamic pressure and the level of atmospheric winds experienced during the calibration. The dynamic pressure variation in the test section is within +/-75 percent of the average. The axial turbulence intensity is less than 0.5 percent up to the maximum test section speed of 100 knots, and the vertical and lateral flow angle variations are within +/-5 deg and +/-7 deg, respectively. Atmospheric winds were found to affect the pressure distribution in the test section only at high ratios of wind speed to test section speed.

  17. Aero-acoustic experimental verification of optimum configuration of variable-pitch fans for 40 x 80 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lown, H.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of two drive fan configurations (low-speed and high-speed variable pitch design) for a 40 x 80 foot wind tunnel were monitored. A 1/7-scale model was utilized. The necessary aero-acoustic data reduction computer program logic was supplied. Test results were evaluated, and the optimum configuration to be employed in the 40 foot full scale fan was recommended.

  18. Large-scale V/STOL testing. [conducted in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. G.; Aiken, T. N.; Aoyagi, K.; Falarshi, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several facets of large-scale testing of V/STOL aircraft configurations are discussed with particular emphasis on test experience in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Examples of powered-lift test programs are presented in order to illustrate tradeoffs confronting the planner of V/STOL test programs. Large-scale V/STOL wind-tunnel testing can sometimes compete with small-scale testing in the effort required (overall test time) and program costs because of the possibility of conducting a number of different tests with a single large-scale model where several small-scale models would be required. The benefits of both high- or full-scale Reynolds numbers, more detailed configuration simulation, and number and type of onboard measurements are studied.

  19. Dynamic characteristics of the 40- by 80-/80- by 120-foot wind tunnel drive fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmbrodt, W.

    1983-01-01

    The existing 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center is being modified to upgrade and expand the research capabilty of the facility. The modification project includes an enhancement of the wind-tunnel drive power capability by installing large capacity electric motors and new drive fans to attain higher airspeeds in the existing 40- by 80-ft test section. It also involves the constructin of a new tunnel leg which includes a larger 80-- by 120-ft test section. The 40-by 80-ft test section will have a maximum airspeed approaching 300 knots. It was previously limited to about 200 knots. The maximum airspeed of the 80- by 120-ft test section will be about 100 knots. Becaue of the critical nature of the drive fans in the operation of the facility, an extensive effort was undertaken to verify, for each blade-retention system, its structural integrity and its dynamic characteristics.

  20. Adjoint Method and Predictive Control for 1-D Flow in NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ardema, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling method and a new optimal control approach to investigate a Mach number control problem for the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. The flow in the wind tunnel is modeled by the 1-D unsteady Euler equations whose boundary conditions prescribe a controlling action by a compressor. The boundary control inputs to the compressor are in turn controlled by a drive motor system and an inlet guide vane system whose dynamics are modeled by ordinary differential equations. The resulting Euler equations are thus coupled to the ordinary differential equations via the boundary conditions. Optimality conditions are established by an adjoint method and are used to develop a model predictive linear-quadratic optimal control for regulating the Mach number due to a test model disturbance during a continuous pitch

  1. Analytical study of the effects of wind tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise. [NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot tunnel in simulating flight levels of fan noise. A previously developed theory for predicting rotor/turbulence interaction noise was refined and extended to include first-order effects of inlet turbulence anisotropy. This theory was then verified by carrying out extensive data/theory comparisons. The resulting model computer program was then employed to carry out a parametric study of the effects of fan size, blade number, and operating line on rotor/turbulence noise for outdoor test stand. NASA Ames wind tunnel, and flight inlet turbulence conditions. A major result of this study is that although wind tunnel rotor/turbulence noise levels are not as low as flight levels they are substantially lower than the outdoor test stand levels and do not mask other sources of fan noise.

  2. Space Launch System Liftoff and Transition Aerodynamic Characterization in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Erickson, Gary E.; Paulson, John W.; Tomek, William G.; Bennett, David W.; Blevins, John A.

    2015-01-01

    A 1.75% scale force and moment model of the Space Launch System was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to quantify the aerodynamic forces that will be experienced by the launch vehicle during its liftoff and transition to ascent flight. The test consisted of two parts: the first was dedicated to measuring forces and moments for the entire range of angles of attack (0deg to 90deg) and roll angles (0 deg. to 360 deg.). The second was designed to measure the aerodynamic effects of the liftoff tower on the launch vehicle for ground winds from all azimuthal directions (0 deg. to 360 deg.), and vehicle liftoff height ratios from 0 to 0.94. This wind tunnel model also included a set of 154 surface static pressure ports. Details on the experimental setup, and results from both parts of testing are presented, along with a description of how the wind tunnel data was analyzed and post-processed in order to develop an aerodynamic database. Finally, lessons learned from experiencing significant dynamics in the mid-range angles of attack due to steady asymmetric vortex shedding are presented.

  3. Modification of the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel for component acoustic testing for the second generation supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Allmen, J. R.; Soderman, P. T.

    1994-01-01

    The development of a large-scale anechoic test facility where large models of engine/airframe/high-lift systems can be tested for both improved noise reduction and minimum performance degradation is described. The facility development is part of the effort to investigate economically viable methods of reducing second generation high speed civil transport noise during takeoff and climb-out that is now under way in the United States. This new capability will be achieved through acoustic modifications of NASA's second largest subsonic wind tunnel: the 40-by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center. Three major items are addressed in the design of this large anechoic and quiet wind tunnel: a new deep (42 inch (107 cm)) test section liner, expansion of the wind tunnel drive operating envelope at low rpm to reduce background noise, and other promising methods of improving signal-to-noise levels of inflow microphones. Current testing plans supporting the U.S. high speed civil transport program are also outlined.

  4. Full-scale S-76 rotor performance and loads at low speeds in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Vol. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinoda, Patrick M.

    1996-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter rotor test was conducted in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel with a four-bladed S-76 rotor system. Rotor performance and loads data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles-of-attack and thrust conditions at tunnel speeds ranging from 0 to 100 kt. The primary objectives of this test were (1) to acquire forward flight rotor performance and loads data for comparison with analytical results; (2) to acquire S-76 forward flight rotor performance data in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel to compare with existing full-scale 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test data that were acquired in 1977; (3) to evaluate the acoustic capability of the 80- by 120- Foot Wind Tunnel for acquiring blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise in the low speed range and compare BVI noise with in-flight test data; and (4) to evaluate the capability of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel test section as a hover facility. The secondary objectives were (1) to evaluate rotor inflow and wake effects (variations in tunnel speed, shaft angle, and thrust condition) on wind tunnel test section wall and floor pressures; (2) to establish the criteria for the definition of flow breakdown (condition where wall corrections are no longer valid) for this size rotor and wind tunnel cross-sectional area; and (3) to evaluate the wide-field shadowgraph technique for visualizing full-scale rotor wakes. This data base of rotor performance and loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies for full-scale, four-bladed, fully articulated rotor systems. Rotor performance and structural loads data are presented in this report.

  5. Reflective Focused Schlieren System Improved for Use in 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Gary Scott

    2000-01-01

    The reflective focused schlieren system that was developed for use in the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field as part of the Unstart Test Program was improved this past year. In April 1999, the development and use of the system was presented at the Supersonic Tunnel Association International in Bedford, England. A focused schlieren system is similar to a standard schlieren system in that shock waves coming from an object in supersonic flow can be seen using a standard video camera. Unlike the standard schlieren system, which produces a two-dimensional schlieren image, a focused schlieren system can produce a threedimensional image. The preceding drawing shows the components of the reflective focused schlieren system being developed for use in the 10x10 SWT. Although the system worked well for the Unstart Test Program, it was not sensitive enough to be classified as a facility capability. Therefore, a program was implemented to improve the sensitivity of the reflective focused schlieren system so that it could be a facility capability for Glenn's 10x10 SWT. Several techniques were implemented to increase the sensitivity and to improve the overall operation of the system. These included refinement of the source grid, improvement in the cutoff grid production, improvement of the source grid and cutoff grid alignment, installation of an improved light source, and incorporation of an image-enhancing system. These changes are being implemented with the system set up in the laboratory. A checkout test of the system is planned in the 10x10 SWT in March 2000. Of these techniques, the most developed is the refinement of the source grid. The original system had a pattern of -in. by -in. squares on -in. centers (distance between the center points of adjacent squares). This gave a ratio of light to dark (reflective to nonreflective area) of 3:1. The recommended ratio is 1:1. In order to accomplish this, a pattern of

  6. Aerodynamic characteristics of the modified 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel as measured in a 1/50th-scale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.; Naumowicz, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center were measured by using a 1/50th-scale facility. The model was configured to closely simulate the features of the full-scale facility when it became operational in 1986. The items measured include the aerodynamic effects due to changes in the total-pressure-loss characteristics of the intake and exhaust openings of the air-exchange system, total-pressure distributions in the flow field at locations around the wind tunnel circuit, the locations of the maximum total-pressure contours, and the aerodynamic changes caused by the installation of the acoustic barrier in the southwest corner of the wind tunnel. The model tests reveal the changes in the aerodynamic performance of the 1986 version of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel compared with the performance of the 1982 configuration.

  7. Large-Scale Boundary-Layer Control Tests on Two Wings in the NACA 20-Foot Wind Tunnel, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Hugh B.

    1935-01-01

    Tests were made in the N.A.C.A. 20-foot wind tunnel on: (1) a wing, of 6.5-foot span, 5.5-foot chord, and 30 percent maximum thickness, fitted with large end plates and (2) a 16-foot span 2.67-foot chord wing of 15 percent maximum thickness to determine the increase in lift obtainable by removing the boundary layer and the power required for the blower. The results of the tests on the stub wing appeared more favorable than previous small-scale tests and indicated that: (1) the suction method was considerably superior to the pressure method, (2) single slots were more effective than multiple slots (where the same pressure was applied to all slots), the slot efficiency increased rapidly for increasing slot widths up to 2 percent of the wing chord and remained practically constant for all larger widths tested, (3) suction pressure and power requirements were quite low (a computation for a light airplane showed that a lift coefficient of 3.0 could be obtained with a suction as low as 2.3 times the dynamic pressure and a power expenditure less than 3 percent of the rated engine power), and (4) the volume of air required to be drawn off was quite high (approximately 0.5 cubic feet per second per unit wing area for an airplane landing at 40 miles per hour with a lift coefficient of 3,0), indicating that considerable duct area must be provided in order to prevent flow losses inside the wing and insure uniform distribution of suction along the span. The results from the tests of the large-span wing were less favorable than those on the stub wing. The reasons for this were, probably: (1) the uneven distribution of suction along the span, (2) the flow losses inside the wing, (3) the small radius of curvature of the leading edge of the wing section, and (4) the low Reynolds Number of these tests, which was about one half that of the stub wing. The results showed a large increase in the maximum lift coefficient with an increase in Reynolds Number in the range of the tests. The

  8. Pratt & Whitney Two Dimensional HSR Nozzle Test in the NASA Lewis 9- By 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel: Aerodynamic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.; Jones, Christopher W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a test that was conducted jointly by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines and NASA Lewis Research Center. The test was conducted in NASA's 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT). The test setup, methods, and aerodynamic results of this test are discussed. Acoustical results are discussed in a separate paper by J. Bridges and J. Marino.

  9. Acoustic Quality of the 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel Test Section After Installation of a Deep Acoustic Lining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Hayes, Julie A.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2002-01-01

    A recessed, 42-inch deep acoustic lining has been designed and installed in the 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) test section to greatly improve the acoustic quality of the facility. This report describes the test section acoustic performance as determined by a detailed static calibration-all data were acquired without wind. Global measurements of sound decay from steady noise sources showed that the facility is suitable for acoustic studies of jet noise or similar randomly generated sound. The wall sound absorption, size of the facility, and averaging effects of wide band random noise all tend to minimize interference effects from wall reflections. The decay of white noise with distance was close to free field above 250 Hz. However, tonal sound data from propellers and fans, for example, will have an error band to be described that is caused by the sensitivity of tones to even weak interference. That error band could be minimized by use of directional instruments such as phased microphone arrays. Above 10 kHz, air absorption began to dominate the sound field in the large test section, reflections became weaker, and the test section tended toward an anechoic environment as frequency increased.

  10. Analysis of 7- X 10-foot high speed wind tunnel shaft loads in support of fan blade failure investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faison, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    This is a report of the investigation of the High-Speed 7- X 10-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, which experienced a catastrophic failure of all 18 Sitka spruce fan blades during operation at 0.8 Mach number on 2 July 1985. The High-Speed Tunnel, a closed-circuit/single-return atmospheric wind tunnel, had been operated since 1945 to support a wide range of subsonic aerodynamic tests and studies. The failed blade set had been in use since 1975. In addition to blade loss, the most significant damage was a bent main drive shaft for a total estimated damage loss of 1.7 million dollars. An analysis of the natural frequency characteristics as well as loads, reactions, stresses, and deflections of the fan drive system resulting from steady-state and dynamic loads due to unbalance was performed. Transient load cases were simulated by step input and ramp input loading functions intended to simulate the loss of one to nine blades (maximum unbalance forces).

  11. Analysis of F/A-18 Tail Buffet Data Acquired in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Kevin D.; Meyn, Larry A.; Schmitz, Fredric H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Tail buffet studies were conducted on a full-scale, production, F/A-18 fighter aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California. Tail buffet data were acquired over an angle-of-attack range of +20 deg to +40 deg, a side-slip range of -16 deg to + 16 deg, and at wind speeds up to 100 knots. The maximum speed corresponds to a Reynolds number of l2.3 x l0(exp 6) based on mean aerodynamic chord and a Mach number of 0. 15. The port, vertical tail fin was instrumented with ninety-six surface-pressure transducers, arranged in six by eight arrays, on each side of the fin. ne aircraft was also equipped with a removable Leading-Edge Extension (LEX) fence whose purpose is to reduce tail-buffet loads. Current analysis methods for the unsteady aerodynamic pressures and loads are described. Only results for the zero side-slip condition are to be presented, both with and without the LEX fence. Results of the time-averaged, power-spectral analysis are presented for the tail fin bending moments which are derived from the integrated pressure field. Local wave velocities on the tail surfaces are calculated from pressure correlations. It was found that the LEX fence significantly reduces the magnitude of the root-mean-square pressures and bending moments. Scaling and repeatability issues are addressed by comparing the present full scale results for pressures at the 60%-span and 45%-chord location with previous full-scale F/A-18 tail-buffet test in the 80- by 120- Foot Wind Tunnel, and with several small-scale tests. The comparisons show that the tail buffet frequency scales very well with tail chord and free-stream velocity, and that there is good agreement with the previous full-scale test. Root-mean-square pressures and power spectra do not scale as well as the frequency results. Addition of a LEX fence caused tail-buffet loads to be reduced at all model scales.

  12. Acoustics Reflections of Full-Scale Rotor Noise Measurements in NFAC 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbely, Natasha Lydia; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Sim, Ben W.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of current research is to identify the extent of acoustic time history distortions due to wind tunnel wall reflections. Acoustic measurements from the recent full-scale Boeing-SMART rotor test (Fig. 2) will be used to illustrate the quality of noise measurement in the NFAC 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test section. Results will be compared to PSU-WOPWOP predictions obtained with and without adjustments due to sound reflections off wind tunnel walls. Present research assumes a rectangular enclosure as shown in Fig. 3a. The Method of Mirror Images7 is used to account for reflection sources and their acoustic paths by introducing mirror images of the rotor (i.e. acoustic source), at each and every wall surface, to enforce a no-flow boundary condition at the position of the physical walls (Fig. 3b). While conventional approach evaluates the "combined" noise from both the source and image rotor at a single microphone position, an alternative approach is used to simplify implementation of PSU-WOPWOP for this reflection analysis. Here, an "equivalent" microphone position is defined with respect to the source rotor for each mirror image that effectively renders the reflection analysis to be a one rotor, multiple microphones problem. This alternative approach has the advantage of allowing each individual "equivalent" microphone, representing the reflection pulse from the associated wall surface, to be adjusted by the panel absorption coefficient illustrated in Fig. 1a. Note that the presence of parallel wall surfaces requires an infinite number of mirror images (Fig. 3c) to satisfy the no-flow boundary conditions. In the present analysis, up to four mirror images (per wall surface) are accounted to achieve convergence in the predicted time histories

  13. Current Background Noise Sources and Levels in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Jaeger, Stephen; Soderman, Paul; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Background noise measurements were made of the acoustic environment in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) at NASA Ames Research Center. The measurements were acquired subsequent to the 40x80 Aeroacoustic Modernization Project, which was undertaken to improve the anechoic characteristics of the 40x80's closed test section as well as reduce the levels of background noise in the facility. The resulting 40x80 anechoic environment was described by Soderman et. al., and the current paper describes the resulting 40x80 background noise, discusses the sources of the noise, and draws comparisons to previous 40x80 background noise levels measurements. At low wind speeds or low frequencies, the 40x80 background noise is dominated by the fan drive system. To obtain the lowest fan drive noise for a given tunnel condition, it is possible in the 40x80 to reduce the fans' rotational speed and adjust the fans' blade pitch, as described by Schmidtz et. al. This idea is not new, but has now been operationally implemented with modifications for increased power at low rotational speeds. At low to mid-frequencies and at higher wind speeds, the dominant noise mechanism was thought to be caused by the surface interface of the previous test section floor acoustic lining. In order to reduce this noise mechanism, the new test section floor lining was designed to resist the pumping of flow in and out of the space between the grating slats required to support heavy equipment. In addition, the lining/flow interface over the entire test section was designed to be smoother and quieter than the previous design. At high wind speeds or high frequencies, the dominant source of background noise in the 40x80 is believed to be caused by the response of the in-flow microphone probes (required by the nature of the closed test section) to the fluctuations in the freestream flow. The resulting background noise levels are also different for probes of various

  14. Status and capabilities of the National Full Scale Facility 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mort, K. W.; Engelbert, D. F.; Dusterberry, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The background, requirements, and aerodynamic design of the modified NASA Ames 40 x 80 ft wind tunnel are reviewed, along with the systems integration and systems test results. Advancing vehicle sizes and airspeeds required a larger wind tunnel test section and a capability for 100 and 300 knots airspeed simulation. Acoustic mufflers at the inlet and exit of the nonreturn circuit provide noise suppression. The enlarged test section is intended to accomodate the complex flowfields of wings with high lift coefficients, and the drive system is designed with minimum residual swirl. Features of the fan blades are examined, along with characteristics of the test channels, control vanes and louvers, the exit, circuit losses, temperature rises during operation of the nonreturn circuit, and the facility acoustics. Specific construction problems and solutions for the conversion process are outlined, and it is noted that operational status is expected at the end of 1982.

  15. Investigation of the Flying Mock-Up of the Consolidated Vultee XP-92 Airplane in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Force and Moment Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Bradford, H.; Graham, David

    1948-01-01

    This report contains the results of the investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of the flying mock-up of the Consolidated Vultee XP-92 airplane as conducted in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel, Data are presented for test conditions which would give information as to the limits of stability and controllability, and also, the effect of Reynolds number. No analysis of the data has been made.

  16. Experimental investigation of the subsonic high-altitude operation of the NASA Lewis 10- by 10-foot supersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA Lewis 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel during subsonic tunnel operation in the aerodynamic cycle to determine the test section flow characteristics near the Advanced Turboprop Project propeller model plane of rotation. The investigation used an eight-probe pitot static flow survey rake to measure total and static pressures at two locations in the wind tunnel: the test section and the bellmouth section (upstream of the two-dimensional flexible-wall nozzle). A cone angularity probe was used to measure any flow angularity in the test section. The evaluation was conducted at tunnel Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.35 and at three operating altitudes from 2,000 to 50,000 ft. which correspond to tunnel reference total pressures from 1960 to 245 psfa, respectively. The results of this experimental investigation indicate a total-pressure loss area in the center of the test section and a static-pressure gradient from the test section centerline to the wall. These total and static pressure differences were observed at all tunnel operating altitudes and diminished at lower tunnel velocities. The total-pressure loss area was also found in the bellmouth section, which indicates that the loss mechanism is not the tunnel flexible-wall nozzle. The flow in the test section is essentially axial since very small flow angles were measured. The results also indicate that a correction to the tunnel total and static pressures must be applied in order to determine accurate freestream conditions at the test section centerline.

  17. Enabling Advanced Wind-Tunnel Research Methods Using the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low Speed Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busan, Ronald C.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Croom, Mark A.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Grafton, Sue B.; O-Neal, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Design of Experiment (DOE) testing methods were used to gather wind tunnel data characterizing the aerodynamic and propulsion forces and moments acting on a complex vehicle configuration with 10 motor-driven propellers, 9 control surfaces, a tilt wing, and a tilt tail. This paper describes the potential benefits and practical implications of using DOE methods for wind tunnel testing - with an emphasis on describing how it can affect model hardware, facility hardware, and software for control and data acquisition. With up to 23 independent variables (19 model and 2 tunnel) for some vehicle configurations, this recent test also provides an excellent example of using DOE methods to assess critical coupling effects in a reasonable timeframe for complex vehicle configurations. Results for an exploratory test using conventional angle of attack sweeps to assess aerodynamic hysteresis is summarized, and DOE results are presented for an exploratory test used to set the data sampling time for the overall test. DOE results are also shown for one production test characterizing normal force in the Cruise mode for the vehicle.

  18. Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Feet » Foot Health Information Surgery When is Foot Surgery Necessary? Many foot problems do not respond ... restore the function of your foot. Types of Foot Surgery Fusions: Fusions are usually performed to treat ...

  19. V/STOL Tandem Fan transition section model test. [in the Lewis Research Center 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkin, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    An approximately 0.25 scale model of the transition section of a tandem fan variable cycle engine nacelle was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel. Two 12-inch, tip-turbine driven fans were used to simulate a tandem fan engine. Three testing modes simulated a V/STOL tandem fan airplane. Parallel mode has two separate propulsion streams for maximum low speed performance. A front inlet, fan, and downward vectorable nozzle forms one stream. An auxilliary top inlet provides air to the aft fan - supplying the core engine and aft vectorable nozzle. Front nozzle and top inlet closure, and removal of a blocker door separating the two streams configures the tandem fan for series mode operations as a typical aircraft propulsion system. Transition mode operation is formed by intermediate settings of the front nozzle, blocker door, and top inlet. Emphasis was on the total pressure recovery and flow distortion at the aft fan face. A range of fan flow rates were tested at tunnel airspeeds from 0 to 240 knots, and angles-of-attack from -10 to 40 deg for all three modes. In addition to the model variables for the three modes, model variants of the top inlet were tested in the parallel mode only. These lip variables were: aft lip boundary layer bleed holes, and Three position turning vane. Also a bellmouth extension of the top inlet side lips was tested in parallel mode.

  20. Acoustic Data Processing and Transient Signal Analysis for the Hybrid Wing Body 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    An advanced vehicle concept, the HWB N2A-EXTE aircraft design, was tested in NASA Langley's 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study its acoustic characteristics for var- ious propulsion system installation and airframe con gurations. A signi cant upgrade to existing data processing systems was implemented, with a focus on portability and a re- duction in turnaround time. These requirements were met by updating codes originally written for a cluster environment and transferring them to a local workstation while en- abling GPU computing. Post-test, additional processing of the time series was required to remove transient hydrodynamic gusts from some of the microphone time series. A novel automated procedure was developed to analyze and reject contaminated blocks of data, under the assumption that the desired acoustic signal of interest was a band-limited sta- tionary random process, and of lower variance than the hydrodynamic contamination. The procedure is shown to successfully identify and remove contaminated blocks of data and retain the desired acoustic signal. Additional corrections to the data, mainly background subtraction, shear layer refraction calculations, atmospheric attenuation and microphone directivity corrections, were all necessary for initial analysis and noise assessments. These were implemented for the post-processing of spectral data, and are shown to behave as expected.

  1. A three-dimensional orthogonal laser velocimeter for the NASA Ames 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.; Cooper, Donald L.

    1995-01-01

    A three-component dual-beam laser-velocimeter system has been designed, fabricated, and implemented in the 7-by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The instrument utilizes optical access from both sides and the top of the test section, and is configured for uncoupled orthogonal measurements of the three Cartesian coordinates of velocity. Bragg cell optics are used to provide fringe velocity bias. Modular system design provides great flexibility in the location of sending and receiving optics to adapt to specific experimental requirements. Near-focus Schmidt-Cassegrain optic modules may be positioned for collection of forward or backward scattered light over a large solid angle, and may be clustered to further increase collection solid angle. Multimode fiber optics transmit collected light to the photomultiplier tubes for processing. Counters are used to process the photomultiplier signals and transfer the processed data digitally via buffered interface controller to the host MS-DOS computer. Considerable data reduction and graphical display programming permit on-line control of data acquisition and evaluation of the incoming data. This paper describes this system in detail and presents sample data illustrating the system's capability.

  2. Direct Validation of the Wall Interference Correction System of the Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert; Boone, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the test of a large semispan model was used to perform a direct validation of a wall interference correction system for a transonic slotted wall wind tunnel. At first, different sets of uncorrected aerodynamic coefficients were generated by physically changing the boundary condition of the test section walls. Then, wall interference corrections were computed and applied to all data points. Finally, an interpolation of the corrected aerodynamic coefficients was performed. This interpolation made sure that the corrected Mach number of a given run would be constant. Overall, the agreement between corresponding interpolated lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficient sets was very good. Buoyancy corrections were also investigated. These studies showed that the accuracy goal of one drag count may only be achieved if reliable estimates of the wall interference induced buoyancy correction are available during a test.

  3. Two-Dimensional Bifurcated Inlet Variable Cowl Lip Test Completed in 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, T. R.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field successfully tested a variable cowl lip inlet at simulated takeoff conditions in Glenn s 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) as part of the High-Speed Research Program. The test was a follow-on to the Two-Dimensional Bifurcated (2DB) Inlet/Engine test. At the takeoff condition for a High-Speed Civil Transport aircraft, the inlet must provide adequate airflow to the engine with an acceptable distortion level and high-pressure recovery. The test was conducted to study the effectiveness of installing two rotating lips on the 2DB Inlet cowls to increase mass flow rate and eliminate or reduce boundary layer flow separation near the lips. Hardware was mounted vertically in the test section so that it extended through the tunnel ceiling and that the 2DB Inlet was exposed to the atmosphere above the test section. The tunnel was configured in the aerodynamic mode, and exhausters were used to pump down the tunnel to vacuum levels and to provide a maximum flow rate of approximately 58 lb/sec. The test determined the (1) maximum flow in the 2DB Inlet for each variable cowl lip, (2) distortion level and pressure recovery for each lip configuration, (3) boundary layer conditions near variable lips inside the 2DB Inlet, (4) effects of a wing structure adjacent to the 2DB Inlet, and (5) effects of different 2DB Inlet exit configurations. It also employed flow visualization to generate enough qualitative data on variable lips to optimize the variable lip concept. This test was a collaborative effort between the Boeing Company and Glenn. Extensive inhouse support at Glenn contributed significantly to the progress and accomplishment of this test.

  4. M2-F1 mounted in NASA Ames Research Center 40x80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    After the first attempted ground-tow tests of the M2-F1 in March 1963, the vehicle was taken to the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, for wind-tunnel testing. During these tests, Milt Thompson and others were in the M2-F1 to position the control surfaces for each test. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C

  5. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot Print A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  6. Boundary-Layer Transition on the N.A.C.A. 0012 and 23012 Airfoils in the 8-Foot High-Speed Wind Tunnel, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, John V.

    1940-01-01

    Determinations of boundary-layer transition on the NACA 0012 and 2301 airfoils were made in the 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel over a range of Reynolds Numbers from 1,600,000 to 16,800,000. The results are of particular significance as compared with flight tests and tests in wind tunnels of appreciable turbulence because of the extremely low turbulence in the high-speed tunnel. A comparison of the results obtained on NACA 0012 airfoils of 2-foot and 5-foot chord at the same Reynolds Number permitted an evaluation of the effect of compressibility on transition. The local skin friction along the surface of the NACA 0012 airfoil was measured at a Reynolds Number of 10,000,000. For all the lift coefficient at which tests were made, transition occurred in the region of estimated laminar separation at the low Reynolds Numbers and approach the point of minimum static pressure as a forward limit at the high Reynolds Numbers. The effect of compressibility on transition was slight. None of the usual parameters describing the local conditions in the boundary layer near the transition point served as an index for locating the transition point. As a consequence of the lower turbulence in the 8-foot high-speed tunnel, the transition points occurred consistently farther back along the chord than those measured in the NACA full-scale tunnel. An empirical relation for estimating the location of the transition point for conventional airfoils on the basis of static-pressure distribution and Reynolds Number is presented.

  7. Comparison between design and installed acoustic characteristics of NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel acoustic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    The test section of the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel was acoustically treated to allow the measurement of sound under simulated free-field conditions. The treatment was designed for high sound absorption at frequencies above 250 Hz and for withstanding the environmental conditions in the test section. In order to achieve the design requirements, a fibrous, bulk-absorber material was packed into removable panel sections. Each section was divided into two equal-depth layers packed with material to different bulk densities. The lower density was next to the facing of the treatment. The facing consisted of a perforated plate and screening material layered together. Sample tests for normal-incidence acoustic absorption were also conducted in an impedance tube to provide data to aid in the treatment design. Tests with no airflow, involving the measurement of the absorptive properties of the treatment installed in the 9- by 15-foot wind tunnel test section, combined the use of time-delay spectrometry with a previously established free-field measurement method. This new application of time-delay spectrometry enabled these free-field measurements to be made in nonanechoic conditions. The results showed that the installed acoustic treatment had absorption coefficients greater than 0.95 over the frequency range 250 Hz to 4 kHz. The measurements in the wind tunnel were in good agreement with both the analytical prediction and the impedance tube test data.

  8. Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing Capability Upgraded in NASA Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center supports short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) tests in its 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9 x 15 LSWT). As part of a facility capability upgrade, a dynamic actuation system (DAS) was fabricated to enhance the STOVL testing capabilities. The DAS serves as the mechanical interface between the 9 x 15 LSWT test section structure and the STOVL model to be tested. It provides vertical and horizontal translation of the model in the test section and maintains the model attitude (pitch, yaw, and roll) during translation. It also integrates a piping system to supply the model with exhaust and hot air to simulate the inlet suction and nozzle exhausts, respectively. Hot gas ingestion studies have been performed with the facility ground plane installed. The DAS provides vertical (ascent and descent) translation speeds of up to 48 in./s and horizontal translation speeds of up to 12 in./s. Model pitch variations of +/- 7, roll variations of +/- 5, and yaw variations of 0 to 180 deg can be accommodated and are maintained within 0.25 deg throughout the translation profile. The hot air supply, generated by the facility heaters and regulated by control valves, provides three separate temperature zones to the model for STOVL and hot gas ingestion testing. Channels along the supertube provide instrumentation paths from the model to the facility data system for data collection purposes. The DAS is supported by the 9 x 15 LSWT test section ceiling structure. A carriage that rides on two linear rails provides for horizontal translation of the system along the test section longitudinal axis. A vertical translation assembly, consisting of a cage and supertube, is secured to the carriage. The supertube traverses vertically through the cage on a set of linear rails. Both translation axes are hydraulically actuated and provide position and velocity profile control. The lower flange on the supertube serves as the model interface to the DAS. The

  9. Results of heat transfer tests of an 0.0175-scale space shuttle vehicle model 22 OTS in the NASA-Ames 3.5 foot hypersonic wind tunnel (IH3), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, T. F.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Heat transfer data for the 0.0175-scale space shuttle vehicle 3 are presented. Interference heating effects were investigated by a model build-up technique of orbiter alone, tank alone, second, and first stage configurations. The test program was conducted in the NASA-Ames 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 5.3 for nominal free stream Reynolds number per foot values of 1.5, and 5.0 million.

  10. Flow direction measurement criteria and techniques planned for the 40- by 80-/80- x 120-foot wind tunnel integrated systems tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, P. T.; Hoffmann, J.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was performed in order to develop the criteria for the selection of flow direction indicators for use in the Integrated Systems Tests (ISTs) of the 40 by 80/80 by 120 Foot Wind Tunnel System. The problems, requirements, and limitations of flow direction measurement in the wind tunnel were investigated. The locations and types of flow direction measurements planned in the facility were discussed. A review of current methods of flow direction measurement was made and the most suitable technique for each location was chosen. A flow direction vane for each location was chosen. A flow direction vane that employs a Hall Effect Transducer was then developed and evaluated for application during the ISTs.

  11. STOL and STOVL hot gas ingestion and airframe heating tests in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.

    1989-01-01

    Short takeoff and landing (STOL) and advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft are being pursued for deployment near the end of this century. These concepts offer unique capabilities not seen in conventional aircraft: for example, shorter takeoff distances and the ability to operate from damaged runways and remote sites. However, special technology is critical to the development of this unique class of aircraft. Some of the real issues that are associated with these concepts are hot gas ingestion and airframe heating while in ground effects. Over the past nine years, NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in several cooperative programs in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion and airframe heating. The modifications are presented that were made in the 9- by 15-Foot LSWT, including the evolution of the ground plane, model support system, and tunnel sidewalls; and flow visualization techniques, instrumentation, test procedures, and test results. The 9- by 15-Foot LSWT tests were conducted at full scale exhaust nozzle pressure ratios. The headwind velocities varied from 8 to 120 kn depending on the concept (STOL or STOVL). Typical compressor-face distortions (pressure and temperature), ground plane contours, and model surface temperature profiles are presented.

  12. Flight effects on noise generated by the JT8D-17 engine in a quiet nacelle and a conventional nacelle as measured in the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strout, F. G.

    1976-01-01

    A JT8D-17 turbofan engine was tested in the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel to determine flight effects on jet and fan noise. Baseline, quiet nacelle with 20-lobe ejector/suppressor, and internal mixer configurations were tested over a range of engine power settings and tunnel velocities. Flight effects derived from the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel test are compared with 727/JT8D flight test data and with model data obtained in a smaller wind tunnel. Procedures are defined for measuring noise data in a wind tunnel relatively near the sources and analyzing the results to obtain far-field flight effects. Wind tunnel and 727 flight test noise results compare favorably for both the baseline and quiet nacelle configurations. Two reports are provided, including a comprehensive version with extensive test results and analysis and the subject summary version that emphasizes data analysis and program finding.

  13. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Learn About Feet » Foot Health Information Athlete's Foot What is Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot is a skin disease caused by a fungus, ... fungus growth. Not all fungus conditions are athlete's foot. Other conditions, such as disturbances of the sweat ...

  14. Results of tests using a 0.030-scale model (45-0) of space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the NASA/ARC 12-foot pressure wind tunnel (OA159)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation (test OA159) was conducted in the NASA/ARC 12-foot Pressure Wind Tunnel from June 23 through July 8, 1975. The objective was to obtain detailed strut tare and interference effects of the support system used in the NASA/ARC 40 x 80-foot wind tunnel during 0.36-scale orbiter testing (OA100). Six-component force and moment data were obtained through an angle-of-attack range from -9 through +18 degrees with 0 deg angle of sideslip and a sideslip angle range from -9 through +18 degrees at 9 deg angle of attack results are presented.

  15. Athlete's foot

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea pedis; Fungal infection - feet; Tinea of the foot; Infection - fungal - feet; Ringworm - foot ... Athlete's foot is the most common type of tinea infection. The fungus or yeast thrives in warm, ...

  16. Foot pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - foot ... Foot pain may be due to: Aging Being on your feet for long periods of time Being overweight A ... sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, ...

  17. Foot Drop

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Foot Drop Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Foot Drop? Foot drop describes the inability to raise ...

  18. Results of pressure distribution tests of a 0.010-scale space shuttle orbiter model (61-0) in the NASA/ARC 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (test OH38), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, W. H.; Polek, T.

    1975-01-01

    Test results are presented of hypersonic pressure distributions at simulated atmospheric entry conditions. Pressure data were obtained at Mach numbers of 7.4 and 10.4 and Reynolds numbers of 3.0 and 6.5 million per foot. Data are presented in both plotted and tabulated data form. Photographs of wind tunnel apparatus and test configurations are provided.

  19. Hypersonic aeroheating test of space shuttle vehicle configuration 3 (model 22-OTS) in the NASA-Ames 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (IH20), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of hypersonic wind tunnel testing of an 0.0175 scale version of the vehicle 3 space shuttle configuration are presented. Temperature measurements were made on the launch configuration, orbiter plus tank, orbiter alone, tank alone, and solid rocket booster alone to provide heat transfer data. The test was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers of 5.3 and 7.3 and at free-stream Reynolds numbers of 1.5 million, 3.7 million, 5.0 million, and 7.0 million per foot. The model was tested at angles of attack from -5 deg to 20 deg and side slip angles of -5 deg and 0 deg.

  20. Canard-body-tail missile test at angles of attack to 50 deg in the Ames 11-foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. Q.; Schwind, R. G.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1978-01-01

    Blunted ogive cylinder missile models with a length-to-diameter ratio of 10.4 were tested at transonic speeds and large angles of attack in an 11 foot transonic wind tunnel. The configurations are: body, body with tail panels, body with canards, and body with canards and tails. Forces and moments from the entire model and each of the eight fins were measured over the pitch range of 20 deg to 50 deg, and roll angles of 0 deg to 45 deg and canard deflection angles between 0 deg and 15 deg. The Reynolds number ranged from 3.9 x 10 to the 6th power per meter. Large side forces and yawing moments were observed for some of the test cases involving a symmetric geometry.

  1. Comparison of aircraft noise measured in flight test and in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, A., Jr.; Soderman, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    A method to determine free-field aircraft noise spectra from wind-tunnel measurements has been developed. The crux of the method is the correction for reverberations. Calibrated loud speakers are used to simulate model sound sources in the wind tunnel. Corrections based on the difference between the direct and reverberant field levels are applied to wind-tunnel data for a wide range of aircraft noise sources. To establish the validity of the correction method, two research aircraft - one propeller-driven (YOV-10A) and one turbojet-powered (XV-5B) - were flown in free field and then tested in the wind tunnel. Corrected noise spectra from the two environments agree closely.

  2. Experimental investigation of inlet flow-control cascades for the NFAC 80- by 120-foot Indraft Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Aken, Johannes M.; Scheller, Nina M.

    1988-01-01

    The present investigation of aerodynamic performance for various inlet cascade configurations of an indraft wind tunnel with a short inlet and a low contraction ratio has given attention to the effects of inlet wall shape, antiturbulence screens, and horizontal flow straighteners on test-section flow quality. It is found that an inlet cascade with a tailored vane-splay distribution, antiturbulence screen, and horizontal splitters, will both yield good test section flow quality and furnish isolation from atmospheric winds and turbulence.

  3. Boundary layer separation on isolated boattail nozzles. M.S. Thesis; [conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, W. K.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomenon of separated flow on a series of circular-arc afterbodies was investigated using the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.95 at 0 deg angle of attack. Both high-pressure air and solid circular cylinders with a diameter equal to the nozzle exit diameter were used to simulate jet exhausts. A detailed data base of boundary layer separation locations was obtained using oil-flow techniques. The results indicate that boundary layer separation is most extensive on steep boattails at high Mach numbers.

  4. Acoustic Modifications of the Ames 40x80 Foot Wind Tunnel and Test Techniques for High-Speed Research Model Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The NFAC 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames is being refurbished with a new, deep acoustic lining in the test section which will make the facility nearly anechoic over a large frequency range. The modification history, key elements, and schedule will be discussed. Design features and expected performance gains will be described. Background noise reductions will be summarized. Improvements in aeroacoustic research techniques have been developed and used recently at NFAC on several wind tunnel tests of High Speed Research models. Research on quiet inflow microphones and struts will be described. The Acoustic Survey Apparatus in the 40x80 will be illustrated. A special intensity probe was tested for source localization. Multi-channel, high speed digital data acquisition is now used for acoustics. And most important, phased microphone arrays have been developed and tested which have proven to be very powerful for source identification and increased signal-to-noise ratio. Use of these tools for the HEAT model will be illustrated. In addition, an acoustically absorbent symmetry plane was built to satisfy the HEAT semispan aerodynamic and acoustic requirements. Acoustic performance of that symmetry plane will be shown.

  5. Design and Development of a Deep Acoustic Lining for the 40-by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Schmitz, Fredric H.; Allen, Christopher S.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Sacco, Joe N.; Mosher, Marianne; Hayes, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this report has made effective use of design teams to build a state-of-the-art anechoic wind-tunnel facility. Many potential design solutions were evaluated using engineering analysis, and computational tools. Design alternatives were then evaluated using specially developed testing techniques, Large-scale coupon testing was then performed to develop confidence that the preferred design would meet the acoustic, aerodynamic, and structural objectives of the project. Finally, designs were frozen and the final product was installed in the wind tunnel. The result of this technically ambitious project has been the creation of a unique acoustic wind tunnel. Its large test section (39 ft x 79 ft x SO ft), potentially near-anechoic environment, and medium subsonic speed capability (M = 0.45) will support a full range of aeroacoustic testing-from rotorcraft and other vertical takeoff and landing aircraft to the take-off/landing configurations of both subsonic and supersonic transports.

  6. Results of heat transfer tests of an 0.0175-scale space shuttle vehicle model 22 OTS in the NASA-Ames 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (IH3), volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, T. F.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Heat-transfer data for the 0.0175-scale Space Shuttle Vehicle 3 are presented. Interference heating effects were investigated by a model build-up technique of Orbiter alone, tank alone, second, and first stage configurations. The test program was conducted in the NASA-Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Mach 5.3 for nominal free-stream Reynolds number per foot values of 1.5 x 1,000,000 and 5.0 x 1,000,000.

  7. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  8. Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foot and take an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medicine to relieve pain. See your doctor if ... foot. Use ice and an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medicine. See your doctor if the pain doesn' ...

  9. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of tinea, athlete's foot. The Basics on Tinea Infections Tinea (pronounced: TIH-nee-uh) is the medical name ... or scalp, including athlete's foot, jock itch , and ringworm (despite its name, ringworm is not a worm). ...

  10. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot Transonic wind tunnel (IA613A), volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e. top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  11. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e., top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  12. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e., top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  13. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot Transonic wind tunnel (IA613A), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e. top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  14. Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  15. Real-time computer data system for the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel facility at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambra, J. M.; Tolari, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The background material and operational concepts of a computer-based system for an operating wind tunnel are described. An on-line real-time computer system was installed in a wind tunnel facility to gather static and dynamic data. The computer system monitored aerodynamic forces and moments of periodic and quasi-periodic functions, and displayed and plotted computed results in real time. The total system is comprised of several off-the-shelf, interconnected subsystems that are linked to a large data processing center. The system includes a central processor unit with 32,000 24-bit words of core memory, a number of standard peripherals, and several special processors; namely, a dynamic analysis subsystem, a 256-channel PCM-data subsystem and ground station, a 60-channel high-speed data acquisition subsystem, a communication link, and static force and pressure subsystems. The role of the test engineer as a vital link in the system is also described.

  16. The Real-Time Wall Interference Correction System of the NASA Ames 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert

    1998-01-01

    An improved version of the Wall Signature Method was developed to compute wall interference effects in three-dimensional subsonic wind tunnel testing of aircraft models in real-time. The method may be applied to a full-span or a semispan model. A simplified singularity representation of the aircraft model is used. Fuselage, support system, propulsion simulator, and separation wake volume blockage effects are represented by point sources and sinks. Lifting effects are represented by semi-infinite line doublets. The singularity representation of the test article is combined with the measurement of wind tunnel test reference conditions, wall pressure, lift force, thrust force, pitching moment, rolling moment, and pre-computed solutions of the subsonic potential equation to determine first order wall interference corrections. Second order wall interference corrections for pitching and rolling moment coefficient are also determined. A new procedure is presented that estimates a rolling moment coefficient correction for wings with non-symmetric lift distribution. Experimental data obtained during the calibration of the Ames Bipod model support system and during tests of two semispan models mounted on an image plane in the NASA Ames 12 ft. Pressure Wind Tunnel are used to demonstrate the application of the wall interference correction method.

  17. Investigations on an 0.030-scale space shuttle vehicle configuration 140A/B orbiter model in the Ames Research Center unitary plan 8 by 7-foot supersonic wind tunnel (0A53C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted of an 0.030 scale model of the space shuttle orbiter in a supersonic wind tunnel. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5. Reynolds numbers ranged from 0.75 million per foot to 4.00 million per foot. The objective of the test was to establish and verify longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic performance, stability, and control characteristics for the configuration 140 A/B SSV Orbiter. Six-component force and moment data, base and cavity pressures, body-flap, elevon, speedbrake, and rudder hinge moments, and vertical tail forces and moments were measured.

  18. Tests of the Northrop XSSM-A-3 Missile in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: Wing Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, David

    1950-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine the longitudinal stability characteristics of a full-scale Northrop XSSM-A-3 missile. Various wing modifications were investigated in an effort to provide a configuration that would maintain longitudinal stability to lift coefficients necessary for landing the missile during flight tests. The results of the tests led to the choice of a wing with an increased leading-edge radius. A short discussion of the results is presented, but no analysis of the data has been made in order to make the data available as soon as possible.

  19. Results of flutter test OS7 obtained using the 0.14-scale space shuttle orbiter fin/rudder model number 55-0 in the NASA LaRC 16-foot transonic dynamics wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.14-scale dynamically scaled model of the space shuttle orbiter vertical tail was tested in a 16-foot transonic dynamic wind tunnel to determine flutter, buffet, and rudder buzz boundaries. Mach numbers between .5 and 1.11 were investigated. Rockwell shuttle model 55-0 was used for this investigation. A description of the test procedure, hardware, and results of this test is presented.

  20. Results of flutter test OS6 obtained using the 0.14-scale wing/elevon model (54-0) in the NASA LaRC 16-foot transonic dynamics wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.14-scale dynamically scaled model of the space shuttle orbiter wing was tested in the Langley Research Center 16-Foot Transonic Dynamics Wind Tunnel to determine flutter, buffet, and elevon buzz boundaries. Mach numbers between 0.3 and 1.1 were investigated. Rockwell shuttle model 54-0 was utilized for this investigation. A description of the test procedure, hardware, and results of this test is presented.

  1. The design of test-section inserts for higher speed aeroacoustic testing in the Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry E.

    1992-01-01

    An engineering feasibility study was made of aeroacoustic inserts designed for large-scale acoustic research on aircraft models in the 80- by 120 Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The goal was to find test-section modifications that would allow improved aeroacoustic testing at airspeeds equal to and above the current 100 knots limit. Results indicate that the required maximum airspeed drives the design of a particular insert. Using goals of 200, 150, and 100 knots airspeed, the analysis led to a 30 x 60 ft open-jet test section, a 40 x 80 ft open-jet test section, and a 70 x 110 ft closed test section with enhanced wall lining respectively. The open-jet inserts would be composed of a nozzle, collector, diffuser, and acoustic wedges incorporated in the existing 80 x 120 ft test section. The closed test section would be composed of approximately 5-ft acoustic wedges covered by a porous plate attached to the test-section walls of the existing 80 x 120. All designs would require a double row of acoustic vanes between the test section and fan drive to attenuate fan noise and, in the case of the open-jet designs, to control flow separation at the diffuser downstream end. The inserts would allow virtually anechoic acoustics studies of large helicopter models, jets and V/STOL aircraft models in simulated flight. Model scale studies would be necessary to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any of the designs.

  2. Acoustic Performance of the GEAE UPS Research Fan in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    A model advanced turbofan was acoustically tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel in 1994. The Universal Propulsion Simulator fan was designed and manufactured by General Electric Aircraft Engines, and included an active core, as well as bypass, flow paths. The fan was tested with several rotors featuring unswept, forward-swept and aft-swept designs of both metal and composite construction. Sideline acoustic data were taken with both hard and acoustically treated walls in the flow passages. The fan was tested within an airflow at a Mach number of 0.20, which is representative of aircraft takeoff/approach conditions. All rotors showed similar aerodynamic performance. However, the composite rotors typically showed higher noise levels than did corresponding metal rotors. Aft and forward rotor sweep showed at most modest reductions of transonic multiple pure tone levels. However, rotor sweep often introduced increased rotor-stator interaction tone levels. Broadband noise was typically higher for the composite rotors and also for the aft-swept metal rotor. Transonic MPT generation was reduced with increasing fan axis angle of attack (AOA); however, higher downstream noise levels did increase with AOA resulting in higher overall Effective Perceived Noise Level.

  3. Hot gas ingestion testing of an advanced STOVL concept in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel with flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Flood, Joseph D.; Strock, Thomas W.; Amuedo, Kurt C.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft capable of operating from remote sites, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, it is important that the technologies critical to this unique class of aircraft be developed. Recognizing this need, NASA Lewis Research Center, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, and DARPA defined a cooperative program for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. Results from a test program are presented along with a discussion of the facility modifications allowing this type of testing at model scale. These modifications to the tunnel include a novel ground plane, an elaborate model support which included 4 degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, a suction system exhaust for inlet flow, and tunnel sidewall modifications. Several flow visualization techniques were employed including water mist in the nozzle flows and tufts on the ground plane. Headwind (free-stream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 knots.

  4. Hot gas ingestion testing of an advanced STOVL concept in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel with flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Flood, Joseph D.; Strock, Thomas W.; Amuedo, Kurt C.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft capable of operating from remote sites, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, it is important that the technologies critical to this unique class of aircraft be developed. Recognizing this need, NASA Lewis Research Center, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, and DARPA defined a cooperative program for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. Results from a test program are presented along with a discussion of the facility modifications allowing this type of testing at modal scale. These modifications to the tunnel include a novel ground plane, an elaborate model support which included 4 degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, a suction system exhaust for inlet flow, and tunnel sidewall modifications. Several flow visualization techniques were employed including water mist in the nozzle flows and tufts on the ground plane. Headwind (free-stream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 knots.

  5. Hot gas ingestion test results of a two-poster vectored thrust concept with flow visualization in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.

    1990-01-01

    A 9.2 percent scale STOVL hot gas ingestion model was tested in the NASA Lewis 9 x 15-foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Flow visualization from the Phase 1 test program, which evaluated the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, is covered. The Phase 2 test program evaluated the hot gas ingestion phenomena at higher temperatures and used a laser sheet to investigate the flow field. Hot gas ingestion levels were measured for the several forward nozzle splay configurations and with flow control/life improvement devices (LIDs) which reduced the hot gas ingestion. The test was conducted at full scale nozzle pressure ratios and inlet Mach numbers. Results are presented over a range of nozzle pressure ratios at a 10 kn headwind velocity. The Phase 2 program was conducted at exhaust nozzle temperatures up to 1460 R and utilized a sheet laser system for flow visualization of the model flow field in and out of ground effects. The results reported are for nozzle exhaust temperatures up to 1160 R and contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, the total pressure recovery, the inlet temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane contours, the model airframe heating, and the location of the ground flow separation.

  6. Application of a Two Camera Video Imaging System to Three-Dimensional Vortex Tracking in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry A.; Bennett, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    A description is presented of two enhancements for a two-camera, video imaging system that increase the accuracy and efficiency of the system when applied to the determination of three-dimensional locations of points along a continuous line. These enhancements increase the utility of the system when extracting quantitative data from surface and off-body flow visualizations. The first enhancement utilizes epipolar geometry to resolve the stereo "correspondence" problem. This is the problem of determining, unambiguously, corresponding points in the stereo images of objects that do not have visible reference points. The second enhancement, is a method to automatically identify and trace the core of a vortex in a digital image. This is accomplished by means of an adaptive template matching algorithm. The system was used to determine the trajectory of a vortex generated by the Leading-Edge eXtension (LEX) of a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft tested in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The system accuracy for resolving the vortex trajectories is estimated to be +/-2 inches over distance of 60 feet. Stereo images of some of the vortex trajectories are presented. The system was also used to determine the point where the LEX vortex "bursts". The vortex burst point locations are compared with those measured in small-scale tests and in flight and found to be in good agreement.

  7. Wing pressure distributions from subsonic tests of a high-wing transport model. [in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Zachary T.; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted on a generic, high-wing transport model in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This report contains pressure data that document effects of various model configurations and free-stream conditions on wing pressure distributions. The untwisted wing incorporated a full-span, leading-edge Krueger flap and a part-span, double-slotted trailing-edge flap system. The trailing-edge flap was tested at four different deflection angles (20 deg, 30 deg, 40 deg, and 60 deg). Four wing configurations were tested: cruise, flaps only, Krueger flap only, and high lift (Krueger flap and flaps deployed). Tests were conducted at free-stream dynamic pressures of 20 psf to 60 psf with corresponding chord Reynolds numbers of 1.22 x 10(exp 6) to 2.11 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers of 0.12 to 0.20. The angles of attack presented range from 0 deg to 20 deg and were determined by wing configuration. The angle of sideslip ranged from minus 20 deg to 20 deg. In general, pressure distributions were relatively insensitive to free-stream speed with exceptions primarily at high angles of attack or high flap deflections. Increasing trailing-edge Krueger flap significantly reduced peak suction pressures and steep gradients on the wing at high angles of attack. Installation of the empennage had no effect on wing pressure distributions. Unpowered engine nacelles reduced suction pressures on the wing and the flaps.

  8. A two-dimensional adaptive-wall test section with ventilated walls in the Ames 2- by 2-foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Lee, George; Mcdevitt, T. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The first tests conducted in the adaptive-wall test section of the Ames Research Center's 2- by 2-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel are described. A procedure was demonstrated for reducing wall interference in transonic flow past a two-dimensional airfoil by actively controlling flow through the slotted walls of the test section. Flow through the walls was controlled by adjusting pressures in compartments of plenums above and below the test section. Wall interference was assessed by measuring (with a laser velocimeter) velocity distributions along a contour surrounding the model, and then checking those measurements for their compatibility with free-air far-field boundary conditions. Plenum pressures for minimum wall interference were determined from empirical influence coefficients. An NACA 0012 airfoil was tested at angles of attach of 0 and 2, and at Mach numbers between 0.70 and 0.85. In all cases the wall-setting procedure greatly reduced wall interference. Wall interference, however, was never completely eliminated, primarily because the effect of plenum pressure changes on the velocities along the contour could not be accurately predicted.

  9. Shake test of rotor test apparatus with balance dampers in the 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Biggers, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    A shake test was conducted to determine the dynamic characteristics of a rotor test apparatus on two strut systems with balance dampers in the Ames 40- by 80-ft wind tunnel. The rotor-off hub transfer function (acceleration per unit force as a function of frequency) was measured in the longitudinal and lateral directions, using a combination of broadband and discrete frequency excitation techniques. The dynamic data are summarized for the configurations tested, giving the following properties for each mode identified: the natural frequency, the hub response at resonance, the fixed system damping, the damping ratio, and the modal mass. The complete transfer functions are presented, and the detailed test results are included as an appendix.

  10. Noise measurements from an ejector suppressor nozzle in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Cooper, Beth A.; Hall, David G.; Khavaran, Abbas

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic results are presented of a cooperative nozzle test program between NASA and Pratt and Whitney, conducted in the NASA-Lewis 9 x 15 ft Anechoic Wind Tunnel. The nozzle tested was the P and W Hypermix Nozzle concept, a 2-D lobed mixer nozzle followed by a short ejector section made to promote rapid mixing of the induced ejector nozzle flow. Acoustic and aerodynamic measurements were made to determine the amount of ejector pumping, degree of mixing, and noise reduction achieved. A series of tests were run to verify the acoustic quality of this tunnel. The results indicated that the tunnel test section is reasonably anechoic but that background noise can limit the amount of suppression observed from suppressor nozzles. Also, a possible internal noise was observed in the air supply system. The P and W ejector suppressor nozzle demonstrated the potential of this concept to significantly reduce jet noise. Significant reduction in low frequency noise was achieved by increasing the peak jet noise frequency. This was accomplished by breaking the jet into segments with smaller dimensions than those of the baseline nozzle. Variations in ejector parameters had little effect on the noise for the geometries and the range of temperatures and pressure ratios tested.

  11. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SETTLING CHAMBER OF 8FOOT HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SETTLING CHAMBER OF 8-FOOT HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNEL. Jet Lowe, HAER Photographer, December 1995. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot High Speed Wind Tunnel, 641 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  12. Investigations on an 0.030-scale space shuttle vehicle configuration 140A/B orbiter model in the Ames Research Center 9 by 7-foot supersonic wind tunnel (OA53B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an 0.030-scale space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B model was conducted in the Ames Research Center 9- by 7-foot supersonic wind tunnel. This part of test series OA53 was conducted at Mach numbers of 1.60 and 2.00 and at Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.0 million per foot to 4.0 million per foot. The objective was to establish and verify longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic performance, stability, and control characteristics for the configuration 140A/B SSV orbiter. Reynolds number studies were performed on certain nominal control-setting configurations, and examinations were made of the incremental effects of an alternate wing leading-edge configuration and of a sealed elevon-split construction. Six-component force and moment data, base and cavity pressures, bodyflap, elevon, speedbrake, and rudder hinge moments, and vertical tail forces and moments were measured for the orbiter.

  13. Aeroacoustic Study of a 26%-Scale Semispan Model of a Boeing 777 Wing in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Burnside, Nathan J.; Soderman, Paul T.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Reinero, Bryan R.; James, Kevin D.; Arledge, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    An acoustic and aerodynamic study was made of a 26%-scale unpowered Boeing 777 aircraft semispan model in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for the purpose of identifying and attenuating airframe noise sources. Simulated approach and landing configurations were evaluated at Mach numbers between 0.12 and 0.24. Cruise configurations were evaluated at Mach numbers between 0.24 and 0.33. The research team used two Ames phased-microphone arrays, a large fixed array and a small traversing array, mounted under the wing to locate and compare various noise sources in the wing high-lift system and landing gear. Numerous model modifications and noise alleviation devices were evaluated. Simultaneous with acoustic measurements, aerodynamic forces were recorded to document aircraft conditions and any performance changes caused by the geometric modifications. Numerous airframe noise sources were identified that might be important factors in the approach and landing noise of the full-scale aircraft. Several noise-control devices were applied to each noise source. The devices were chosen to manipulate and control, if possible, the flow around the various tips and through the various gaps of the high-lift system so as to minimize the noise generation. Fences, fairings, tip extensions, cove fillers, vortex generators, hole coverings, and boundary-layer trips were tested. In many cases, the noise-control devices eliminated noise from some sources at specific frequencies. When scaled to full-scale third-octave bands, typical noise reductions ranged from 1 to 10 dB without significant aerodynamic performance loss.

  14. The design of test-section inserts for higher speed aeroacoustic testing in the Ames 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olson, Larry E.

    1992-01-01

    An engineering feasibility study was made of aeroacoustic inserts designed for large-scale acoustic research on aircraft models in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The goal was to find test-section modifications that would allow improved aeroacoustic testing at airspeeds equal to and above the current 100 knots limit. Results indicate that the required maximum airspeed drives the design of a particular insert. Using goals of 200, 150, and 100 knots airspeed, the analysis led to a 30 x 60 ft open-jet test section, a 40 x 80 ft open-jet test section, and a 70 x 110 ft closed test section with enhanced wall lining respectively. The open-jet inserts would be composed of a nozzle, collector, diffuser, and acoustic wedges incorporated in the existing 80 x 120 ft test section. The closed test section would be composed of approximately 5-ft acoustic wedges covered by a porous plate attached to the test-section walls of the existing 80 x 120. All designs would require a double row of acoustic vanes between the test section and fan drive to attenuate fan noise and, in the case of the open-jet designs, to control flow separation at the diffuser downstream end. The inserts would allow virtually anechoic acoustics studies of large helicopter models, jets, and V/STOL aircraft models in simulated flight. Model scale studies would be necessary to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any of the designs. Successful development of acoustically transparent walls, though not strictly necessary to the project, would lead to a porous-wall test section that could be substituted for any of the open-jet designs, and thereby eliminate many aerodynamic and acoustic problems characteristic of open-jet shear layers.

  15. Forward velocity effects on fan noise and the suppression characteristics of advanced inlets as measured in the NASA-Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. T.

    1980-05-01

    Forward velocity effects on the forward radiated fan noise and on the suppression characteristics of three advanced inlets relative to a baseline cylindrical inlet were measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 40 x 80 foot Wind Tunnel. A modified JT15D turbofan engine in a quiet nacelle was the source of fan noise; the advanced inlets were a Conventional Takeoff/Landing (CTOL) hybrid inlet, a Short Takeoff/Landing (STOL) hybrid inlet, and a treated deflector inlet. Also measured were the static to flight effects on the fan noise of canting the baseline inlet 4 deg downward to simulate typical wing mounted turbofan engines. The CTOL hybrid inlet suppressed the high tip speed fan noise as much as 18 PNdB on a 61 m (200 ft) sideline scaled to a CF6 size engine while the STOL hybrid inlet suppressed the low tip speed fan noise as much as 13 PNdB on a 61 m (200 ft) sideline scaled to a OCSEE size engine. The deflector inlet suppressed the high tip speed fan noise as much as 13 PNdB at 61 m (200 ft) overhead scaled to a CF6 size engine. No significant changes in fan noise suppression for the CTOL and STOL hybrid inlets occurred for forward velocity changes above 21 m/s (68 ft/s) or for angle of attack changes up to 15 deg. However, changes in both forward velocity and angle of attack changed the deflector inlet noise unpredictably due to the asymmetry of the inlet flow field into the fan.

  16. Wind tunnel test of the 0.015-scale Rockwell International space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the Ames 6 by 6 foot supersonic wind tunnel. [to determine longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, M. D.; Dziubala, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental investigations were performed in a 6- by 6-Foot Supersonic wind tunnel on a 0.015-scale model of the Rockwell International space shuttle vehicle (SSV) 2A orbiter. The purpose of the test was to investigate the longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of the vehicle. In addition, hinge moments were measured on the rudder and elevons. Buffet onset was investigated using wing trailing edge pressures and a strain gauge instrumented panel mounted in the wing. The model was tested through a Mach range from 0.6 to 2.0 at a constant unit Reynolds number of 2.5 million. Pitch runs were made at angles of attack from minus 2 deg to +26 deg with beta = 0 deg and 5 deg; yaw runs were made in the range from minus 5 deg to 10 deg of sideslip at angles of attack of 0 deg and 10 deg. Static pressures were measured at the fuselage base and the trailing edges of the wing and rudder. Boundary layer transition was fixed for some runs using distributed roughness strips.

  17. Wind tunnel tests of the 0.010-scale space shuttle integrated vehicle (model 52-QT) in the NASA/Ames 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (IA18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparza, V.; Chee, E.; Stone, J.; Mellenthin, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel on an 0.010-scale model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle consisting of an orbiter and external tank. The basic hypersonic stability characteristics of the orbiter attached rigidly to the external tank and the basic hypersonic stability characteristics of external tank alone simulating RTLS abort conditions were evaluated. The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack from- 8 deg through +30 deg and angles of sideslip of- 8 deg through +8 deg at fixed angles of attack of -4 deg, 0 deg, and +4 deg. A maximum angle of attack range of +15 deg through +40 deg was obtained for this configuration, at Mach number 7.3, for one run only. External tank alone testing was conducted at angles of attack from +8 deg through -30 deg and angles of sideslip of -8 deg at fixed angles of attack of -4 deg, 0 deg and +4 deg. Six-component force data and static base pressures were recorded during the test.

  18. Results of a FRSI material test under Space Shuttle ascent conditions in the Ames Research Center 9x7 foot supersonic wind tunnel (OS13). Space Shuttle aerothermodynamic data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, P. L.; Collette, J. G. R.

    1992-01-01

    A test was conducted in the NASA/ARC 9 x 7 foot supersonic wind tunnel to verify the integrity of Felt Reusable Surface Insulation (FRSI) material in a panel flutter environment. A FRSI sample panel was subjected to the shocks, pressure gradients, and turbulence characteristics encountered at dynamic pressure 1.5 times the 3(sigma) dispersed trajectory flight conditions of the Space Shuttle. Static and fluctuating pressure data were obtained for Mach numbers ranging from 1.55 to 2.5 with dynamic pressures of 625 to 1250 psf. The FRSI panel suffered no appreciable damage as a result of the test.

  19. Advanced Canard in 12 Foot Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Advanced-concepts model plane with front canards, winglets and pusher propellers, in 12 Foot Low-Speed Tunnel. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, (page 12), by James Schultz.

  20. Large-scale aeroacoustic research feasibility and conceptual design of test-section inserts for the Ames 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Olsen, Larry E.

    1990-01-01

    An engineering feasibility study was made of aeroacoustic inserts designed for large-scale acoustic research on aircraft models in the 80 by 120 foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The advantages and disadvantages of likely designs were analyzed. Results indicate that the required maximum airspeed leads to the design of a particular insert. Using goals of 200, 150, and 100 knots airspeed, the analysis indicated a 30 x 60 ft open-jet test section, a 40 x 80 ft open jet test section, and a 70 x 100 ft closed test section with enhanced wall lining, respectively. The open-jet inserts would be composed of a nozzle, collector, diffuser, and acoutic wedges incorporated in the existing 80 x 120 test section. The closed test section would be composed of approximately 5 ft acoustic wedges covered by a porous plate attached to the test section walls of the existing 80 x 120. All designs would require a double row of acoustic vanes between the test section and fan drive to attenuate fan noise and, in the case of the open-jet designs, to control flow separation at the diffuser downstream end. The inserts would allow virtually anechoic acoustic studies of large helicopter models, jets, and V/STOL aircraft models in simulated flight. Model scale studies would be necessary to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any of the designs. In all designs studied, the existing structure would have to be reinforced. Successful development of acoustically transparent walls, though not strictly necessary to the project, would lead to a porous-wall test section that could be substituted for any of the open-jet designs, and thereby eliminate many aerodynamic and acoustic problems characteristic of open-jet shear layers. The larger size of the facility would make installation and removal of the insert components difficult. Consequently, scheduling of the existing 80 x 120 aerodynamic test section and scheduling of the open-jet test section would likely be made on an

  1. Hot gas ingestion test results of a two-poster vectored thrust concept with flow visualization in the NASA Lewis 9- x 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.

    1990-01-01

    A 9.2 percent scale Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) hot gas ingestion model was designed and built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MCAIR) and tested in the Lewis Research Center 9 x 15 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). Hot gas ingestion, the entrainment of heated engine exhaust into the inlet flow field, is a key development issure for advanced short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft. Flow visualization from the Phase 1 test program, which evaluated the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, is covered. The Phase 2 test program evaluated the hot gas ingestion phenomena at higher temperatures and used a laser sheet to investigate the flow field. Hot gas ingestion levels were measured for the several forward nozzle splay configurations and with flow control/life improvement devices (LIDs) which reduced the hot gas ingestion. The model support system had four degrees of freedom - pitch, roll, yaw, and vertical height variation. The model support system also provided heated high-pressure air for nozzle flow and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The test was conducted at full scale nozzle pressure ratios and inlet Mach numbers. Test and data analysis results from Phase 2 and flow visualization from both Phase 1 and 2 are documented. A description of the model and facility modifications is also provided. Headwind velocity was varied from 10 to 23 kn. Results are presented over a range of nozzle pressure ratios at a 10 kn headwind velocity. The Phase 2 program was conducted at exhaust nozzle temperatures up to 1460 R and utilized a sheet laser system for flow visualization of the model flow field in and out of ground effects. The results reported are for nozzle exhaust temperatures up to 1160 R. These results will contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, the total pressure recovery, the inlet temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane contours

  2. Investigations of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS Integrated Space Shuttle Vehicle Jet-Plume Model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 by11-Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (IA80). Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results are documented of jet plume effects wind tunnel test of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS launch configuration space shuttle vehicle model in the 11 x 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This test involved cold gas main propulsion system (MPS) and solid rocket motor (SRB) plume simulations at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.4. Integrated vehicle surface pressure distributions, elevon and rudder hinge moments, and wing and vertical tail root bending and torsional moments due to MPS and SRB plume interactions were determined. Nozzle power conditions were controlled per pretest nozzle calibrations. Model angle of attack was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg; model angle of sideslip was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg. Reynolds number was varied for certain test conditions and configurations, with the nominal freestream total pressure being 14.69 psia. Plotted force and pressure data are presented.

  3. Aeroheating (pressure) characteristics on a 0.10-scale version of the vehicle 3 space shuttle configuration (26-OTS) in the Langley Research Center 4-foot wind tunnel (IH4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    Results of wind tunnel tests, conducted at the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, are presented. The model tested was an 0.010-scale version of the Vehicle 3 Space Shuttle Configuration. Pressure measurements were made on the launch configuration, Orbiter alone, external tank alone, and solid rocket booster alone, to provide heat transfer pressure data. The tests were conducted for a Mach number range from 2.36 to 4.6 and Reynolds number range from 1.2 to 5 million per foot. The model was tested at angles of attack from -10 to 20 deg for a sideslip angle range from -5 to +5 deg, and at sideslip angles from -5 to 48 deg for 0 deg angle of attack. Tabulated data are given and photographs of the test configuration are shown.

  4. Green foot.

    PubMed

    LeFeber, W P; Golitz, L E

    1984-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa may infect the skin surface, nails, hair follicles, or deeper tissues. We report a 13-year-old male with an asymptomatic green discoloration of the toenails and sole of the right foot. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured from the shoe, but not from the discolored skin. We suspect that constant wearing of occlusive, rubber-soled, basketball shoes associated with hyperhidrosis allowed colonization of his shoe with pseudomonas. This case is unique in that colonization resulted in a green color of the foot not associated with infection of the skin.

  5. Diabetic Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause you to lose feeling in your feet. You may not feel a cut, a blister or a sore. Foot injuries such as these can cause ulcers and ... the blood vessels can also mean that your feet do not get enough blood and oxygen. It ...

  6. 6. VIEW OF FIVEFOOT WIND TUNNEL WITH AIR STRAIGHTENER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF FIVE-FOOT WIND TUNNEL WITH AIR STRAIGHTENER AND OPERATOR STATION IN FOREGROUND (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building No. 19, Five-Foot Wind Tunnel, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  7. Initial Assessment of Acoustic Source Visibility with a 24-Element Microphone Array in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of background noise were recently obtained with a 24-element phased microphone array in the test section of the Arnold Engineering Development Center 80- by120-Foot Wind Tunnel at speeds of 50 to 100 knots (27.5 to 51.4 m/s). The array was mounted in an aerodynamic fairing positioned with array center 1.2m from the floor and 16 m from the tunnel centerline, The array plate was mounted flush with the fairing surface as well as recessed in. (1.27 cm) behind a porous Kevlar screen. Wind-off speaker measurements were also acquired every 15 on a 10 m semicircular arc to assess directional resolution of the array with various processing algorithms, and to estimate minimum detectable source strengths for future wind tunnel aeroacoustic studies. The dominant background noise of the facility is from the six drive fans downstream of the test section and first set of turning vanes. Directional array response and processing methods such as background-noise cross-spectral-matrix subtraction suggest that sources 10-15 dB weaker than the background can be detected.

  8. Ceramic and coating applications in the hostile environment of a high temperature hypersonic wind tunnel. [Langley 8-foot high temperature structures tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puster, R. L.; Karns, J. R.; Vasquez, P.; Kelliher, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    A Mach 7, blowdown wind tunnel was used to investigate aerothermal structural phenomena on large to full scale high speed vehicle components. The high energy test medium, which provided a true temperature simulation of hypersonic flow at 24 to 40 km altitude, was generated by the combustion of methane with air at high pressures. Since the wind tunnel, as well as the models, must be protected from thermally induced damage, ceramics and coatings were used extensively. Coatings were used both to protect various wind tunnel components and to improve the quality of the test stream. Planned modifications for the wind tunnel included more extensive use of ceramics in order to minimize the number of active cooling systems and thus minimize the inherent operational unreliability and cost that accompanies such systems. Use of nonintrusive data acquisition techniques, such as infrared radiometry, allowed more widespread use of ceramics for models to be tested in high energy wind tunnels.

  9. Heat-transfer test results for a .0275-scale space shuttle external tank with a 10 deg/40 deg double cone-ogive nose in the NASA/AMES 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (FH14), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    A .0275 scale forebody model of the new baseline configuration of the space shuttle external tank vent cap configuration was tested to determine the flow field due to the double cone configuration. The tests were conducted in a 3.5 foot hypersonic wind tunnel at alpha = -5 deg, -4.59 deg, 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg; beta = 0 deg, -3 deg, -5.51 deg, -6 deg, -9 deg, and +6 deg; nominal freestream Reynolds numbers per foot of 1.5 x 1 million, 3.0 x 1 million, and 5.0 x 1 million; and a nominal Mach number of 5. Separation and reattached flow from thermocouple data, shadowgraphs, and oil flows indicate that separation begins about 80% from the tip of the 10 deg cone, then reattaches on the vent cap and produces fully turbulent flow over most of the model forebody. The hardware disturbs the flow over a much larger area than present TPS application has assumed. A correction to the flow disturbance was experimentally suggested from the results of an additional test run.

  10. Effects of reaction control system jet simulation on the stability and control characteristics of a 0.015-scale space shuttle orbiter model in the Ames Research Center 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dziubala, T. J.; Marroquin, J.; Cleary, J. W.; Mellenthin, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the Ames Research Center 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel to obtain detailed effects which interactions between the RCS jet flow field and the local orbiter flow field have on orbiter hypersonic stability and control characteristics. Six-component force data were obtained through an angle-of-attack range of 15 to 35 deg with 0 deg angle of sideslip. The test was conducted with yaw, pitch and roll jet simulation at a free-stream Mach number of 10.3. These data simulate two SSV reentry flight conditions at Mach numbers of 28.3 and 10.3. Fuselage base pressures and pressures on the nonmetric RCS pods were obtained in addition to the basic force measurements. Model 42-0 was used for these tests.

  11. Results of tests OA63 and IA29 on an 0.015 scale model of the space shuttle configuration 140 A/B in the NASA/ARC 6- by 6-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. H.; Thornton, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA/ARC 6- by 6-foot transonic wind tunnel from September 12 to September 28, 1973 on an 0.015-scale model of the space shuttle configuration 140 A/B. Surface pressure data were obtained for the orbiter for both launch and entry configuration at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.0. The surface pressures were obtained in the vicinity of the cargo bay door hinge and parting lines, the side of the fuselage at the crew compartment and below the OMS pods at the aft compartment. Data were obtained at angles of attack and sideslip consistent with the expected divergencies along the nominal trajectory. These tests were first in a series of tests supporting the orbiter venting analysis. The series will include tests in three facilities covering a total Mach number range from 0.6 to 10.4.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of a canard-controlled missile at Mach numbers of 0.8, 1.3, and 1.75. [in the Ames 6 by 6 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassner, D. L.; Wettlaufer, B.

    1977-01-01

    A typical missile model with nose-mounted canards and cruciform tail surfaces was tested in the Ames 6- by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the contributions of the component aerodynamic surfaces to the static aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers of 0.8, 1.3, and 1.75 and Reynolds number of 625,000 based on body diameter. Data were obtained at angles of attack ranging from 0 deg to 24 deg for various stages of model build-up (i.e., with and without canard and/or tail surfaces). In addition, two different sets of canards and tail surfaces were investigated. For the canard and tail arrangements investigated, the model was trimmable at angles of attack up to about 7 deg with canard deflections of about 10 deg. Also, the tail arrangements studied provided ample pitch stability.

  13. Investigation of space shuttle vehicle 140C configuration orbiter (model 16-0) wheel well pressure loads in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11 foot wind tunnel (OA143)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted .0405-scale representation of the 140C outer mold line space shuttle orbiter configuration in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11.00 foot low speed wind tunnel. The primary test objectives were to define the orbiter wheel well pressure loading and its effects on landing gear thermal insulation and to investigate the pressure environment experienced by both the horizontal flight nose probe and air vent door probes. Steady state and dynamic pressure values were recorded in the orbiter nose gear well, left main landing gear well, horizontal flight nose probe, and both left and right air vent door probe. All steady state pressure levels were measured by Statham differential pressure transducers while dynamic pressure levels were recorded by Kulite high frequency response pressure sensors.

  14. Results of test IA137 in the NASA/ARC 14 foot transonic wind tunnel of the 0.07 scale external tank forebody (model 68-T) to determine auxiliary aerodynamic data system feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a 14 foot transonic wind tunnel to examine the feasibility of the auxiliary aerodynamic data system (AADS) for determining angles of attack and sideslip during boost flight. The model used was a 0.07 scale replica of the external tank forebody consisting of the nose portion and a 60 inch (full scale) cylindrical section of the ogive cylinder tangency point. The model terminated in a blunt base with a 320.0 inch diameter at external tank (ET) station 1120.37. Pressure data were obtained from five pressure orifices (one total and four statics) on the nose probe, and sixteen surface static pressure orifices along the ET forebody.

  15. Aeroheating (pressure) characteristics on a 0.010-scale version of the vehicle 3 space shuttle configuration (26-OTS) in the Langley Research Center 4-foot wind tunnel (IH4), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The results of wind tunnel tests conducted on a 0.010-scale version of the Vehicle 3 Space Shuttle Configuration were presented. Pressure measurements were made on the launch configuration, orbiter alone, external tank alone, and solid rocket booster alone, to provide heat transfer pressure data. The tests were conducted for a Mach number range from 2.36 to 4.6 and Reynolds number range from 1.2 to 5 million per foot. The model was tested at angles of attack from -10 deg to 20 deg for a sideslip angle range from -5 deg to +5 deg and at sideslip angles from -5 deg to 48 deg for 0 deg angle of attack.

  16. Cavus Foot Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toes All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Cavus Foot Surgery Page Content What is a cavus foot? A cavus or high-arched foot may have ... related problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The main goal of surgery is to ...

  17. 6. FAN HOUSE OF 8FOOT HIGH SPEED TUNNEL. AIR INTAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FAN HOUSE OF 8-FOOT HIGH SPEED TUNNEL. AIR INTAKES AND FILTERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE UPPER LEVEL STRUCTURE. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot High Speed Wind Tunnel, 641 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  18. Hypersonic aeroheating test of space shuttle vehicle: Configuration 3 (model 22 OTS) in the NASA-Ames 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (IH20), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    The model tested was an 0.0175-scale version of the vehicle 3 space shuttle configuration. Temperature measurements were made on the launch configuration, orbiter plus tank, orbiter alone, tank alone, and solid rocket booster (SRB) alone to provide heat transfer data. The test was conducted at free stream Mach numbers of 5.3 and 7.3 and at free stream Reynolds numbers of 1.5, 3.7, 5.0, and 7.0 million per foot. The model was tested at angles of attack from -5 deg to 20 deg and side slip angles of -5 deg and 0 deg.

  19. Flight effects on noise by the JT8D engine with inverted primary/fan flow as measured in the NASA-Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strout, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    A JT8D-17R engine with inverted primary and fan flows was tested under static conditions as well as in the NASA Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel to determine static and flight noise characteristics, and flow profile of a large scale engine. Test and analysis techniques developed by a previous model and JT8D engine test program were used to determine the in-flight noise. The engine with inverted flow was tested with a conical nozzle and with a plug nozzle, 20 lobe nozzle, and an acoustic shield. Wind tunnel results show that forward velocity causes significant reduction in peak PNL suppression relative to uninverted flow. The loss of EPNL suppression is relatively modest. The in-flight peak PNL suppression of the inverter with conical nozzle was 2.5 PNdb relative to a static value of 5.5 PNdb. The corresponding EPNL suppression was 4.0 EPNdb for flight and 5.0 EPNdb for static operation. The highest in-flight EPNL suppression was 7.5 EPNdb obtained by the inverter with 20 lobe nozzle and acoustic shield. When compared with the JT8D engine with internal mixer, the inverted flow configuration provides more EPNL suppression under both static and flight conditions.

  20. Results of a M = 5.3 heat transfer test of the integrated vehicle using phase-change paint techniques on the 0.0175-scale model 56-OTS in the NASA/Ames Research Center 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA/Ames Research Center 3.5-foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel to obtain supersonic heat-distribution data in areas between the orbiter and external tank using phase-change paint techniques. The tests used Novamide SSV Model 56-OTS in the first and second-stage ascent configurations. Data were obtained at a nominal Mach number of 5.3 and a Reynolds number per foot of 5 x 10 to the 6th power with angles of attack of 0 deg, +/- 5 deg, and sideslip angles of 0 deg and +/- 5 deg.

  1. Planus Foot Posture and Pronated Foot Function are Associated with Foot Pain: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of foot posture and foot function to foot pain. Methods Data were collected on 3,378 members of the Framingham Study who completed foot examinations in 2002–2008. Foot pain (generalized and at six locations) was based on the response to the question “On most days, do you have pain, aching or stiffness in either foot?” Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static pressure measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the center of pressure excursion index from dynamic pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of foot posture and function on generalized and location-specific foot pain, adjusting for age and weight. Results Planus foot posture was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of arch pain in men (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 – 1.90), while cavus foot posture was protective against ball of foot pain (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00) and arch pain (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48 – 0.85) in women. Pronated foot function was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of generalized foot pain (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04 – 1.56) and heel pain (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 – 2.27) in men, while supinated foot function was protective against hindfoot pain in women (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 – 1.00). Conclusion Planus foot posture and pronated foot function are associated with foot symptoms. Interventions that modify abnormal foot posture and function may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of foot pain. PMID:23861176

  2. Investigation of the Flying Mock-Up of Consolidated Vultee XP-92 Airplane in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: Pressure Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, David

    1948-01-01

    This report contains the results of the wind tunnel investigation of the pressure distribution on the flying mock-up of the Consolidated Vultee XP-92 airplane. Data are presented for the pressure distribution over the wing, vertical tail and the fuselage, and for the pressure loss and rate of flow through the ducted fuselage. Data are also presented for the calibration of two airspeed indicators, and for the calibration of angle-of-attack and sideslip-angle indicator vanes.

  3. Static and wind tunnel near-field/far-field jet noise measurements from model scale single-flow base line and suppressor nozzles. Summary report. [conducted in the Boeing large anechoic test chamber and the NASA-Ames 40by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeck, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A test program was conducted in the Boeing large anechoic test chamber and the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel to study the near- and far-field jet noise characteristics of six baseline and suppressor nozzles. Static and wind-on noise source locations were determined. A technique for extrapolating near field jet noise measurements into the far field was established. It was determined if flight effects measured in the near field are the same as those in the far field. The flight effects on the jet noise levels of the baseline and suppressor nozzles were determined. Test models included a 15.24-cm round convergent nozzle, an annular nozzle with and without ejector, a 20-lobe nozzle with and without ejector, and a 57-tube nozzle with lined ejector. The static free-field test in the anechoic chamber covered nozzle pressure ratios from 1.44 to 2.25 and jet velocities from 412 to 594 m/s at a total temperature of 844 K. The wind tunnel flight effects test repeated these nozzle test conditions with ambient velocities of 0 to 92 m/s.

  4. An Investigation of the McDonnell XP-85 Airplane in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: Pressure-Distribution Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunton, Lynn W.; James, Harry A.

    1948-01-01

    Pressure measurements were made during wind-tunnel tests of the McDonnell XP-85 parasite fighter. Static-pressure orifices were located over the fuselage nose, over the canopy, along the wing root, and along the upper and lower stabilizer roots. A total-pressure and static-pressure rake was located in the turbojet engine air-intake duct. It was installed at the station where the compressor face would be located. Pressure data were obtained for two airplane conditions, clean and with skyhook extended, through a range of angle of attack and a range of yaw.

  5. Results of a jet plume effects test on Rockwell International integrated space shuttle vehicle using a vehicle 5 configuration 0.02-scale model (88-OTS) in the 11 by 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (IA19), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of jet plume effects test IA19 using a vehicle 5 configuration integrated space shuttle vehicle 0.02-scale model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 x 11-foot leg of the unitary plan wind tunnel. The jet plume power effects on the integrated vehicle static pressure distribution were determined along with elevon, main propulsion system nozzle, and solid rocket booster nozzle effectiveness and elevon hinge moments.

  6. Flight effects on JT8D engine jet noise as measured in the NASA Ames 40-by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strout, F. G.; Atencio, A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A JT8D-17 turbofan engine was tested in a 40 x 80 ft wind tunnel to determine flight effects on jet noise. The engine was configured as a baseline with conical nozzle, a quiet nacelle 20-lobe ejector/suppressor, and an internal mixer with conical nozzle. Tunnel-off and tunnel-on noise tests were conducted over a range of nozzle pressure ratios (1.2 to 2.1), primary jet velocities (275 to 550 m/s), and tunnel velocities up to 100 m/s. Aft quadrant noise data were measured by a pair of traversing microphones located on a 3-m sideline relative to the engine centerline. Unique correlations and analysis procedures were developed in order to define far-field flight effects from the relatively near-field noise measurements. The ejector/suppressor experienced a significant loss of suppression relative to static measurements during flight while the internal mixer indicated a slight gain in suppression. It is concluded that the wind tunnel is a viable method for studying flight effects on engine jet noise.

  7. 14. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TENFOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TEN-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  8. 13. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TENFOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. EXTERIOR VIEW OF OLD TEN-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  9. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Alexandersen, S.; Astrup, P.; Champion, H. J.; Donaldson, A. I.; Dunkerley, F. N.; Gloster, J.; Sørensen, J. H.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    2003-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of host species, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of the virus that can initiate infection. One of the mechanisms of spread is the carriage of droplets and droplet nuclei exhaled in the breath of infected animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have transmitted disease over a distance of several hundred kilometres. During the 2001 FMD epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK), atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to assess the potential for atmospheric dispersion of the disease. The operational value of such modelling is primarily to identify premises which may have been exposed so that the human resources for surveillance and disease control purposes are employed most effectively. The paper describes the combined modelling techniques and presents the results obtained of detailed analyses performed during the early stages of the UK 2001 epidemic. This paper investigates the potential for disease spread in relation to two outbreaks (Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall and Prestwick Hall Farm, Ponteland, Northumberland). A separate paper (Gloster et al., 2002) provides a more detailed analysis of the airborne disease transmission in the vicinity of Burnside Farm. The combined results are consistent with airborne transmission of disease to livestock in the Heddon-on-the Wall area. Local topography may have played a significant role in influencing the pattern of disease spread.

  10. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Alexandersen, S.; Astrup, P.; Champion, H. J.; Donaldson, A. I.; Dunkerley, F. N.; Gloster, J.; Sørensen, J. H.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    2003-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of host species, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of the virus that can initiate infection. One of the mechanisms of spread is the carriage of droplets and droplet nuclei exhaled in the breath of infected animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have transmitted disease over a distance of several hundred kilometres. During the 2001 FMD epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK), atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to assess the potential for atmospheric dispersion of the disease. The operational value of such modelling is primarily to identify premises which may have been exposed so that the human resources for surveillance and disease control purposes are employed most effectively.

    The paper describes the combined modelling techniques and presents the results obtained of detailed analyses performed during the early stages of the UK 2001 epidemic. This paper investigates the potential for disease spread in relation to two outbreaks (Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall and Prestwick Hall Farm, Ponteland, Northumberland). A separate paper (Gloster et al., 2002) provides a more detailed analysis of the airborne disease transmission in the vicinity of Burnside Farm.

    The combined results are consistent with airborne transmission of disease to livestock in the Heddon-on-the-Wall area. Local topography may have played a significant role in influencing the pattern of disease spread.

  11. Space Shuttle AFRSI OMS pod environment test using model 81-0 test fixture in the Ames Research Center 9x7-foot supersonic wind tunnel (OS-314A/B/C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A test was conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 9x7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to help resolve an anomaly that developed during the STS-6 orbiter flight wherein sections of the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) covering the OMS pods suffered some damage. A one-third scale two-dimensional shell structure model of an OMS pod cross-section was employed to support the test articles. These consisted of 15 AFRSI blanket panels form-fitted over the shell structures for exposure to simulated flight conditions. Of six baseline blankets, two were treated with special surface coatings. Two other panels were configured with AFRSI sections removed from the OV099 orbiter vehicle after the STS-6 flight. Seven additional specimens incorporated alternative designs and repairs. Following a series of surface pressure calibration runs, the specimens were exposed to simulated ascent and entry dynamic pressure profiles. Entry conditions included the use of a vortex generator to evaluate the effect of shed vortices on the AFRSI located in the area of concern.

  12. Forward velocity effects on fan noise and the suppression characteristics of advanced inlets as measured in the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel: Acoustic data report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. T.

    1981-01-01

    Forward velocity effects on the forward radiated fan noise and on the suppression characteristics of three advanced inlets relative to a baseline cylindrical inlet were measured in a wind tunnel. A modified JT15D turbofan engine in a quiet nacelle was the source of fan noise; the advanced inlets were a CTOL hybrid inlet, an STOL hybrid inlet, and a treated deflector inlet. Also measured were the static to flight effects on the baseline inlet noise and the effects on the fan noise of canting the baseline inlet 4 deg downward to simulate typical wing mounted turbofan engines. The 1/3 octave band noise data from these tests are given along with selected plots of 1/3 octave band spectra and directivity and full scale PNL directivities. The test facilities and data reduction techniques used are also described.

  13. Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common locations for athlete's foot include: Spaces (webs) between the toes, especially between the 4th ... no worm involved.) Between the toes (the interdigital spaces), athlete's foot may appear as inflamed, scaly, and ...

  14. Management of Foot Pain

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Charles M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals chiefly with the young adult foot, the older adult foot, and pain of mechanical origin. It does not discuss treatment by surgical methods, but rather by the use of exercises, foot supports and shoe corrections. Foot pain resulting from mechanical disorders can be treated effectively by determination of the biomechanical causative factors, usually by simple physical examination. Relief can often be gained with simple mechanical devices, provided at low cost. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4 PMID:21263862

  15. Prevention of foot blisters.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Foot blisters are the most common medical problem faced by Soldiers during foot march operations and, if untreated, they can lead to infection. Foot blisters are caused by boots rubbing on the foot (frictional forces), which separates skin layers and allows fluid to seep in. Blisters can be prevented by wearing properly sized boots, conditioning feet through regular road marching, wearing socks that reduce reduce friction and moisture, and possibly applying antiperspirants to the feet. PMID:24952049

  16. Laser velocimeter optical traverse scheme: An investigation of a proposed optical scanning technique for Arnold Engineering and Development Center's four-foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajci, G. S.

    1983-12-01

    This investigation analyzed a nonstandard laser velocimeter setup proposed for use in AEDC Wind Tunnel 4T. The setup uses a gimballed mirror to move the probe volume from point to point, and the translation of a lens to control the distance in the tunnel the probe volume reaches. Results show that for equal indices of refraction inside and outside the tunnel, the laser beams of a converging pair do not totally converge with its associated beam except under certain conditions, and the probe volumes created by each pair of overlapping laser beams do not always coincide. This work then provides the conditions necessary for total convergence of a pair of laser beams for this setup. A solution is then proposed to insure convergence of each laser beam pair and overlap of the two probe volumes. More than a solution to the above problems, a method is given to determine the azimuth and elevation angles for a mirror such that the reflected beam off the mirror passes through a given point in the tunnel after traversing a window. To carry out these investigations, a computer code was written to simulate the nonstandard laser velocimeter setup, and a second code was written to determine the azimuth and elevation angles for a mirror such that the reflected beam off the mirror passes through a given point in the tunnel after traversing a window. Both codes were written in FORTRAN 77, implemented on a CDC 6000-CYBER 74.

  17. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  18. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Semi-automatic readout equipment installed in the 1950s used for data recording and reduction in the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST). A 1957 NACA report on wind tunnel facilities at Langley included these comments on the data recording and reduction equipment for the 8-foot HST: 'The data recording and reduction equipment used for handling steady force and pressure information at the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel is similar to that described for the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. Very little dynamic data recording equipment, however, is available.' The description of the 16-foot transonic tunnel equipment is as follows: 'A semiautomatic force data readout system provides tabulated raw data and punch card storage of raw data concurrent with the operation of the wind tunnel. Provision is made for 12 automatic channels of strain gage-data output, and eight channels of four-digit manually operated inputs are available for tabulating and punching constants, configuration codes, and other information necessary for data reduction and identification. The data are then processed on electronic computing machines to obtain the desired coefficients. These coefficients and their proper identification are then machine tabulated to provide a printed record of the results. The punched cards may also be fed into an automatic plotting device for the preparation of plots necessary for data analysis.'

  19. SKITTER foot design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Gene; Jones, David L.; Morris, James; Parham, Martin; Stephens, Jim; Yancey, Gregg

    1987-01-01

    A mechanical design team was formed to design a foot for the lunar utility vehicle SKITTER. The primary design was constrained to be a ski pole design compatible with the existing femur-tibia design legs. The lunar environment had several important effects on the foot design. Three materials were investigated for the SKITTER foot: aluminum alloys, cold worked stainless steel alloys, and titanium alloys. Thin film coatings were investigated as a method of wear reduction for the foot. The performance of the foot is dependent on the action of the legs. The range of motion for the legs was determined to be vertical to 15 degrees above horizontal. An impact analysis was performed for the foot movement, but the results were determined to be inconclusive due to unknown soil parameters. The initial foot design configuration consisted of an annulus attached to the pointed pole. The annulus was designed to prevent excess sinkage. Later designs call for a conical shaped foot with a disk at the point of the tibia attachment. The conical design was analyzed for strength and deflection by two different approaches. A deformable body analysis was performed for the foot under crane load in crane position, and also under actuator load in the vertical position. In both cases, the deflection of the foot was insignificant and the stresses well below the strength of the titanium alloy.

  20. Pediatric foot fractures.

    PubMed

    Ribbans, William J; Natarajan, Ramanathan; Alavala, Sairam

    2005-03-01

    Fractures of the foot in children usually have a good prognosis and generally are treated nonoperatively. Displaced fractures of the talus and calcaneus and tarsometatarsal dislocations are rare in children and their outcome is generally good in the younger child. Older adolescents with these injuries need treatment similar to how an adult would be treated for the same injury in order to achieve a good result. Foot fractures in children may pose a diagnostic challenge particularly in the absence of obvious radiographic changes. Repeated clinical examination and judicious use of imaging techniques such as isotope bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging are needed to establish a diagnosis. Knowledge of the anatomy and significance of accessory bones of the foot and disorders of the growing foot skeleton are helpful in managing injuries of child's foot. In this study, we review common injuries of a child's foot and include a discussion on differential diagnosis.

  1. Airloads investigation of an 0.030-scale model of the space shuttle vehicle 140A/B launch configuration (model 47-OTS) in the arc 11-foot unitary plan wind tunnel for Mach range 0.6 to 1.4 (IA14A), Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of tests conducted on an 0.030-scale launch configuration model of the space shuttle vehicle 140A/B in the NASA/ARC 11-foot unitary plan wind tunnel are presented. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.4. Surface pressure distributions were obtained simultaneously with six-component stability and control force data on the complete launch configuration. The configuration consisted of the orbiter, an external tank, two solid rocket boosters, and associated intercomponent attach hardware. Angles of attack and sideslip from -10 degrees to +10 degrees were investigated.

  2. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... pounding their feet endure from... Foot Injuries in Olympic Athletes and Beyond Foot and ankle surgeons offer ... for athletes of all levels. The 2012 Summer Olympics have arrived, and according to foot and ankle ...

  3. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

  4. Diabetic foot infections.

    PubMed

    Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated.

  5. Diabetes - foot ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 33. Kim PJ, Steinberg JS. Complications of the diabetic foot. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2013;42:833-847. PMID: 24286952 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24286952 . Read More Diabetes Diabetes and nerve damage Leg or foot amputation Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions Diabetes and ...

  6. 6. CLOSEUP VIEW OF TENFOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF TEN-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  7. Drop foot corrective device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

  8. Foot amputation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016. Richardson DR. Amputations of the foot. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ... 15. Toy PC. General principles of amputations. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ...

  9. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Foot Problems How can diabetes affect my feet? Too much glucose, also called ... you have any of these signs. How can diabetes change the shape of my feet? Nerve damage ...

  10. Fancy Foot Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blattner, Bunny; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventy-six Fort Lauderdale third, fourth, and fifth graders spent an entire day researching, measuring, comparing, and creating fantasies about feet. This article describes "Foot Day" and presents the activity sheets used by the students. (Author/SJL)

  11. Results of heat transfer tests of an 0.0175-scale space shuttle vehicle model 22 OTS in the NASA-Ames 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (IH3), volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, T. F.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Heat-transfer data for the 0.0175-scale space shuttle vehicle 3 are presented, and interference heating effects were investigated by a model build-up technique of the orbiter. The test program was conducted at Mach 5.3 for nominal free-stream Reynolds number per foot values of 1,500,000 and 5,000,000.

  12. 4. PACK TRAIN WAITING TO BE UNLOADED AT FOOT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PACK TRAIN WAITING TO BE UNLOADED AT FOOT OF YAKI TRAIL. APPROXIMATELY TWO-AND-ONE-HALF TONS OF STEEL ON ANIMALS SHOWN. NOTE COIL OF 1-1/2' WIND CABLE IN FOREGROUND. - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  13. Charcot foot syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jeffcoate, W J

    2015-06-01

    Charcot foot syndrome is an uncommon complication of diabetes but is potentially devastating in its consequences. Outcome is made worse by widespread professional ignorance leading to delayed diagnosis, but it is also hampered by lack of understanding of its causes and lack of treatments with proven effectiveness, other than offloading. There remains a desperate need for studies into its causes as well as comparative audit and trials designed to determine the best treatment for this difficult condition. Such work can probably only be effectively carried out through the establishment of multicentre networks. Nevertheless, improved understanding in recent years of the likely role of inflammatory pathways has raised awareness of the multiple ways in which the effects of neuropathy may be manifest in the development of the Charcot foot. This awareness is also leading to the realization that similar processes may conceivably contribute to the refractoriness of other foot diseases in diabetes, including both chronic unhealing ulcers and osteomyelitis.

  14. Terminal area energy management regime investigations utilizing an 0.030-scale model (47-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B/C/R in the Ames Research Center 11 x 11 foot transonic wind tunnel (0A148), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Data obtained in wind tunnel tests are presented. The objectives of the tests were to: (1) obtain pressure distributions, forces and moments over the vehicle 5 Orbiter in the terminal area energy management (TAEM) and approach phases of flight; (2) obtain elevon and rudder hinge moments in the TAEM and approach phases of flight; (3) obtain body flap and elevon loads for verification of loads balancing with integrated pressure distributions; and (4) obtain pressure distributions near the short OMS pods in the high subsonic, transonic and low supersonic Mach number regimes. Testing was conducted over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.4 with Reynolds number variations from 4.57 million to 2.74 million per foot. Model angle-of-attack was varied from -4 to 16 degrees and angles of side slip ranged from -8 to 8 degrees.

  15. Results of an aerodynamic investigation of a space shuttle orbiter/747 carrier flight test configuration to determine separation characteristics utilizing 0.0125-scale models (48-0/AX1318I-1) in the LTV 4 x 4 foot high speed wind tunnel (CA26), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Results of tests conducted on a 0.0125-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and a 0.0125-scale model of the 747 CAM configuration in a 4 x 4-foot High Speed Wind Tunnel were presented. Force and moment data were obtained for each vehicle separately at a Mach number of 0.6 and for each vehicle in proximity to the other at Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7. The proximity effects of each vehicle on the other at separation distances (from the mated configuration) ranging from 1.5 feet to 75 feet were presented; 747 Carrier angles of attack from 0 deg to 6 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 deg and -5 deg were tested. Model variables included orbiter elevon, aileron and body flap deflections, orbiter tailcone on and off, and 747 stabilizer and rudder deflections.

  16. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations. PMID:27294922

  17. [Mycetoma pedis (Madura foot)].

    PubMed

    Vogel, H; Gonzales Echazarreta, R; Kniha, H; Vogel-Karl, B

    1983-01-01

    Mycetoma pedis or Madura foot is rare in central Europe but has a wide distribution in the tropics. In roentgendiagnostic there are a destruction of the cortical margin and lytic zones in the spongiosa. Older bone manifestations show sclerosis. Periosteal reaction provokes spicules and only seldom "onion peel" patterns. PMID:6666256

  18. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  19. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002–05). Methods. Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Results. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). Conclusion. These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain. PMID:24049103

  20. Aerodynamic results of an abort separation effects test (IA8) conducted in the NASA/ARC 14-foot transonic wind tunnel on a model (6-OTS) of the Rockwell International launch configuration integrated vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a 6-OTS 0.015-scale model. The Ames dual sting support separation rig was used to obtain grid-type data for tank-booster abort from orbiter (SSV). Freestream data were obtained for the orbiter to provide a baseline for evaluation of proximity effects. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.32 to 1.1, and Reynolds number per foot varying from 2.1 million to 3.9 million. Data are not presented. Because of balance failure, a very substantial portion of the test was run with a dummy balance in the tank boosters configuration.

  1. Results of heat transfer tests of a 0.0175-scale space shuttle vehicle 5 model (60-OTS) in the NASA-Ames Research Center 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (test IH48)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, W. H.; Lockman, W. K.

    1976-01-01

    Heat transfer data are presented for a .0175-scale model of the Rockwell International Space Shuttle Vehicle 5. The primary purpose of these tests was to obtain aerodynamic interference heating data on the external tank in the tank alone, second-, and first-stage configurations. Data were also obtained on the Orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Nominal Mach Nos. of 5.2 and 5.3 at nominal freestream unit Reynolds numbers of 1.5 and 5.0 million per foot, respectively, were investigated. Photographs of the tested configurations and test equipment are shown.

  2. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  3. The foot of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Harcourt-Smith, W E H; Throckmorton, Z; Congdon, K A; Zipfel, B; Deane, A S; Drapeau, M S M; Churchill, S E; Berger, L R; DeSilva, J M

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo. PMID:26439101

  4. The foot of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Harcourt-Smith, W E H; Throckmorton, Z; Congdon, K A; Zipfel, B; Deane, A S; Drapeau, M S M; Churchill, S E; Berger, L R; DeSilva, J M

    2015-10-06

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo.

  5. The foot of Homo naledi

    PubMed Central

    Harcourt-Smith, W. E. H.; Throckmorton, Z.; Congdon, K. A.; Zipfel, B.; Deane, A. S.; Drapeau, M. S. M.; Churchill, S. E.; Berger, L. R.; DeSilva, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo. PMID:26439101

  6. Chondroblastoma of the foot.

    PubMed

    Fink, B R; Temple, H T; Chiricosta, F M; Mizel, M S; Murphey, M D

    1997-04-01

    A total of 322 cases of chondroblastoma were referred to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology between 1960 and 1990. Ten additional cases of chondroblastoma were treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center between 1985 and 1993. Forty-two of these involved the foot, two of which were treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Patients with chondroblastoma of the foot were male in 35 (81%) cases, with a mean age of 25.5 years, which was significantly different from the mean age of 17.3 years in patients with chondroblastoma of the long bones (P < 0.0001). Chondroblastoma of the foot is most commonly found in the posterior subchondral areas of the talus and calcaneus as well as in the calcaneal apophysis. Radiographically, the lesion was associated with an articular surface or apophyseal area in all cases and appeared radiolucent, with little to no matrix production. The margins were generally well defined. Cystic features were noted grossly and histologically in 24 (57%) specimens, a feature seen in only 21% of all chondroblastomas overall. Treatment consists of thorough curetting and bone grafting with good oncologic and functional results.

  7. The neuropathic diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Rathur, Haris M; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, and result in major medical, social and economic consequences for the patients, their families, and society. Foot ulcers are likely to be of neuropathic origin and, therefore, are eminently preventable. Individuals with the greatest risk of ulceration can easily be identified by careful clinical examination of their feet: education and frequent follow-up is indicated for these patients. When infection complicates a foot ulcer, the combination can be limb-threatening, or life-threatening. Infection is defined clinically, but wound cultures assist in identification of causative pathogens. Tissue specimens are strongly preferred to wound swabs for wound cultures. Antimicrobial therapy should be guided by culture results, and although such therapy may cure the infection, it does not heal the wound. Alleviation of the mechanical load on ulcers (offloading) should always be a part of treatment. Plantar neuropathic ulcers typically heal in 6 weeks with nonremovable casts, because pressure at the ulcer site is mitigated and compliance is enforced. The success of other approaches to offloading similarly depends on the patient's adherence to the strategy used for pressure relief.

  8. The diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Rathur, Haris M; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, resulting in major medical, social and economic consequences for the patients, their families, and society. Foot ulcers are more likely to be of neuropathic origin, and therefore eminently preventable. People at greatest risk of ulceration can easily be identified by careful clinical examination of the feet: education and frequent follow-up is indicated for these patients. When infection complicates a foot ulcer, the combination can be limb or life-threatening. Infection is defined clinically, but wound cultures assist in identifying the causative pathogens. Tissue specimens are strongly preferred to wound swabs for wound cultures. Antimicrobial therapy should be guided by culture results, and although such therapy may cure the infection, it does not heal the wound. Alleviation of the mechanical load on ulcers (offloading) should always be a part of treatment. Plantar neuropathic ulcers typically heal in 6 weeks with irremovable casting, because pressure at the ulcer site is mitigated and compliance is enforced. The success of other approaches to offloading similarly depends on the patients' adherence to the effectiveness of pressure relief.

  9. Results of investigations on an 0.015-scale 140A/B configuration of the Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter (model 49-O) in the NASA/Ames Research Center 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (OA36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, M. D.; Gillins, R. L.; Cleary, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The results of wind tunnel tests of the 140A/B configuration components are reported for the fuselage, canopy, elevons, bodyflaps, pods, engine nozzles, rudder, vertical tail, and wing. The test facility, and data reduction procedures are described. Test results for each component are graphed, and tabulated source data are included.

  10. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  11. Effects of wing-leading-edge modifications on a full-scale, low-wing general aviation airplane: Wind-tunnel investigation of high-angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics. [conducted in Langley 30- by 60-foot tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, W. A., Jr.; Satran, D. R.; Johnson, J. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Wing-leading-edge modifications included leading-edge droop and slat configurations having full-span, partial-span, or segmented arrangements. Other devices included wing-chord extensions, fences, and leading-edge stall strips. Good correlation was apparent between the results of wind-tunnel data and the results of flight tests, on the basis of autorotational stability criterion, for a wide range of wing-leading-edge modifications.

  12. 3. VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST (1991). WrightPatterson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  13. 9. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  14. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  15. 10. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). WrightPatterson Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW OF WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  16. Gone with the Wind? Integrity and Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Frances; Katz, Brit

    2011-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina slammed into 80 miles of Mississippi shoreline on August 29, 2005. It was the nation's worst natural disaster, a perfect storm. One hundred sixty miles-per-hour winds sent 55-foot-tall waves and a 30-foot wall of water across the shore and miles inland. It displaced 400,000 residents along the coast of the Mississippi, and…

  17. Subsonic aerodynamic characteristic of semispan commercial transport model with wing-mounted advanced ducted propeller operating in reverse thrust. [conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Zachary T.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Gile, Brenda E.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1994-01-01

    A test was conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel to determine the effect of the reverse-thrust flow field of a wing-mounted advanced ducted propeller on the aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan subsonic high-lift transport model. The advanced ducted propeller (ADP) model was mounted separately in position alongside the wing so that only the aerodynamic interference of the propeller and nacelle affected the aerodynamic performance of the transport model. Mach numbers ranged from 0.14 to 0.26; corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 x 10(exp 6). The reverse-thrust flow field of the ADP shielded a portion of the wing from the free-stream airflow and reduced both lift and drag. The reduction in lift and drag was a function of ADP rotational speed and free-stream velocity. Test results included ground effects data for the transport model and ADP configuration. The ground plane caused a beneficial increase in drag and an undesirable slight increase in lift. The ADP and transport model performance in ground effect was similar to performance trends observed for out of ground effect. The test results form a comprehensive data set that supports the application of the ADP engine and airplane concept on the next generation of advanced subsonic transports. Before this investigation, the engine application was predicted to have detrimental ground effect characteristics. Ground effect test measurements indicated no critical problems and were the first step in proving the viability of this engine and airplane configuration.

  18. Results of an experimental investigation to determine separation characteristics for the Orbiter/747 using a 0.0125-scale model (48-0 AX1318I-1 747) in the Ames Research Center 14-foot wind tunnel (CA23B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparza, V.

    1976-01-01

    Aerodynamic separation data obtained from a wind tunnel test of an 0.0125-scale SSV Orbiter model of a VC70-000002 Configuration and a 0.0125-scale 747 model was presented. Separation data was obtained at a Mach number of 0.6 and three incidence angles of 4, 6, and 8 degrees. The orbiter angle of attack was varied from 0 to 14 degrees. Longitudinal, lateral and normal separation increments were obtained for fixed 747 angles of attack of 0, 2, and 4 degrees while varying the orbiter angle of attack. Control surface settings on the 747 carrier included rudder deflections of 0 and 10 degrees and horizontal stabilizer deflections of -1 and +5 degrees.

  19. Results of transonic wind tunnel tests on an 0.015-scale space shuttle mated vehicle model (67-ots) in the LaRC 8 foot TPT (IA41)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, R.; Burrows, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to obtain aerodynamic force data for Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20. Data were obtained for an alpha range of -10 deg to +10 deg (beta = 0 deg beta = 5 deg) and beta range of -10 deg to +10 deg (alpha = 0 deg). Longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control data were obtained for tank alone, tank plus SRB's, tank plus Orbiter, and mated configuration of tank + Orbiter + SRB's. Also, single-component rudder hinge moment data were obtained at rudder deflections of 0 and -20 deg for each Mach number tested. Plots of aerodynamic coefficients vs. Mach number are presented, using data from both test IA41 and tests LRC-UPWT-1056, 1073 (IA42A/B) for Mach numbers of 1.60 to 4.63. The model tested in IA42A/B was the same model as tested in IA41.

  20. Results of investigations on an 0.015-scale model (49-0) of the Rockwell International Space Shuttle orbiter in the NASA-Ames Research Center 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (0A98)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, M. D.; Dzuibala, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel test are presented; the model used for this test was 0.015-scale 140 A/B hybrid configuration of the space shuttle orbiter. The primary test objectives were to obtain incremental data on the effects of a sting mount on base pressures and force and moment data. The increments obtained included the addition of MPS nozzles as well as the deletion of the simulated sting mount. Six-component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded over an angle of attack range from 12 to 42 degrees at 0 and 5 degrees angles of sideslip. The testing was accomplished at Mach 5.3 and Mach 10.3. The effects of various elevon, body flap, and speed brake settings were investigated, and static pressures were measured at the fuselage base for use in force-data reduction.

  1. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Data is given in graphical and tabular form.

  2. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Additional information is given in tabular form.

  3. Foot landmarking for footwear customization.

    PubMed

    Luximon, Ameersing; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Tsui, Kwok L

    2003-03-15

    As consumers are becoming increasingly selective of what they wear on their feet, manufacturers are experiencing problems developing and fitting the right footwear. Literature suggests that shoes with a shape similar to feet may be comfortable because they attempt to maintain the feet in a neutral posture. The objective of this paper is to develop a metric to quantify mismatches between feet and lasts and also to be able to generate the two-dimensional outline of the foot using the minimum number of landmarks. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese were participants in the experiment. In addition to subject weight, height, foot length and foot width, the left foot outlines were drawn and 18 landmarks were marked on each of the two-dimensional foot outlines. A step-wise procedure was used to reduce the chosen 18 landmarks to eight, such that the mean absolute negative error (an indicator of 'tightness') between the foot outline and the modelled curve was 1.3 mm. These eight landmarks seem to show an improvement over those proposed by other researchers, thus showing the importance of choosing the right landmarks for modelling the foot. The positive and negative absolute errors were on average 1.8 mm and 1.3 mm respectively. Moreover, the mean errors for the toe region and for the rest of the foot were 1.7 mm and 1.6 mm respectively. The results indicate that the foot outline, an important component for footwear functionality and fitting, may be modelled using eight critical landmarks.

  4. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  5. Complications of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul J; Steinberg, John S

    2013-12-01

    The diabetic foot is at high risk for complications because of its role in ambulation. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease can lead to chronic foot ulcers, which are at high risk for infection, in part attributable to areas of high pressure caused by lack of tolerance of the soft tissue and bone and joint deformity. If left untreated, infection and ischemia lead to tissue death, culminating in amputation. Treatment strategies include antibiosis, topical therapies, offloading, debridement, and surgery. A multidisciplinary team approach is necessary in the prevention and treatment of complications of the diabetic foot.

  6. Freeing the foot: integrating the foot core system into rehabilitation for lower extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Fourchet, François

    2015-04-01

    The intrinsic muscles of the foot play a critical role in the regulation of absorption and propulsion during dynamic activities. Dysfunction of these may lead to an increased demand on the remaining components within the foot core system to maintain dynamic foot control, leading to a more rapid breakdown of these contributors and those proximal to the foot. Training the intrinsic foot muscles through a systematic progression of isolation via the short foot exercise offers the opportunity to reincorporate their contribution into the foot core system. This article discusses the function of the intrinsic foot muscles, their contributions to dynamic foot control, and a progressive training paradigm.

  7. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  8. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  9. 7 CFR 1217.4 - Board foot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Board foot. 1217.4 Section 1217.4 Agriculture..., and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.4 Board foot. Board foot or BF means a unit of... cubic equivalent. A board foot calculation for softwood lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 3285.4). (3) ABS footing pads. (i) ABS footing pads are permitted, provided... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (incorporated by reference, see § 3285.4). (3) ABS footing pads. (i) ABS footing pads are permitted, provided... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing...

  12. Living with Diabetes: Foot Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... area and to prevent the ulcer from returning. Poor Circulation Poor circulation (blood flow) can make your foot less ... can control some of the things that cause poor blood flow. Don't smoke; smoking makes arteries ...

  13. Foot evaluation by infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    DiBenedetto, Margarete; Yoshida, Michael; Sharp, Mark; Jones, Bruce

    2002-05-01

    For better assessment of foot injury severity during basic military training, we evaluated a simple noninvasive technique: thermography. With this infrared imaging method, we determined normal foot parameters (from 30 soldiers before training), thermographic findings in different foot stress fractures (from 30 soldiers so diagnosed), and normal responses to abnormal stresses in 30 trainees who underwent the same training as the previous group but did not have musculoskeletal complaints. We found that normal foot thermograms show onion peel-like progressive cooling on the plantar surface, with a medially located warm center at the instep. Thermograms of injured feet show areas of increased heat, but excessive weight-bearing pressures on feet, new shoes, or boots also cause increased infrared emission even without discomfort. Differentiation remains difficult; however, thermography can detect injury early. It does not reveal exact diagnoses, but its greatest benefit is easy follow-up to monitor severity and healing. PMID:12053846

  14. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... the big toe “pushes off” during walking and running. The sesamoids also serve as a weight-bearing ... on the ball of the foot when walking, running, and jumping. Sesamoid injuries can involve the bones, ...

  15. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Painless swelling may affect both legs and may include the calves or ... of gravity makes the swelling most noticeable in the lower ...

  16. Design, fabrication, and test of a composite material wind turbine rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gustafson, R. E.; More, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic design, structural design, fabrication, and structural testing is described for a 60 foot long filament wound, fiberglass/epoxy resin matrix wind turbine rotor blade for a 125 foot diameter, 100 kW wind energy conversion system. One blade was fabricated which met all aerodynamic shape requirements and was structurally capable of operating under all specified design conditions. The feasibility of filament winding large rotor blades was demonstrated.

  17. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  18. An Investigation of the Low-speed Stability and Control Characteristics of Swept-forward and Swept-back Wing in the Ames 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Gerald M; Stevens, Victor I , Jr

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been made at large scale of the characteristics of highly swept wings. Data were obtained at several angles of sideslip on wings having angles of sweep of plus or minus 45 degrees, plus or minus 30 degrees, and 0 degrees. The airfoil sections of the wings varied from approximately NACA 0015 at the root to NACA 23009 at the tip. Each wing was investigated with flaps under flection, partial-span split flaps deflected 60 degrees, full-span split flaps defected 60 degrees and split-flap-type ailerons deflected plus or minus 15 degrees. Values of maximum lift were obtained at Reynolds numbers raging from 5.7 to 9.2 times 10 to the 6th power. In this report the summarized results are compared with the predictions made by use of the simplified theory for the effect of sweep and with existing small-scale data. The basic wind-tunnel results from which these summary data were taken are included in an appendix. The primary problems accompanying the use of weep as revealed by this investigation are the loss in maximum lift, the high effective dihedral, and the sharp reduction in lateral-control effectiveness. In general, simple theory enables good predictions to be made of the gross effects of sweep but further refinements are necessary to obtain the accuracy required for design purposes. In cases where comparisons can be made, the indications are that, as sweep increases, scale effects diminish and large-scale results approach small-scale results.

  19. Transonic stability and control characteristics of a 0.015-scale (remotely controlled elevon) model 44-0 of the space shuttle orbiter tested in the NASA/LaRC 8 foot TPT (LA62). [wind tunnel stability tests in transonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, J. D.; Buhl, M. L., Jr.; Parrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the test was to generate a detailed aerodynamic data base which can be used to substantiate the aerodynamic design data book for the current shuttle orbiter configuration. Special attention was directed to definition of nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics by taking data at small increments in Mach number, angle of attack, and elevon position. Six-component aerodynamic force and moment and elevon position data were recorded over an angle-of-attack range from -4 deg to 20 deg, at angles of sideslip of 0 deg and 2 deg. The test Mach numbers were from 0.35 to 1.20. The Reynolds number for most of the test was held at a constant 3.5 million per foot.

  20. Generation, saturation, and convection of electrostatic waves in Jupiter's shock foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, S. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a model is developed for the analysis of the electrostatic waves produced in the shock foot at Jupiter. It is shown that an ion beam instability involving the ions reflected at the shock ramp and the incoming solar-wind electrons produces waves at the observed frequencies and that saturation via orbit diffusion limits the waves to amplitudes near to what is observed. Results from a two-dimensional model of the reflected beam in the foot indicate that the waves propagate against the solar wind away from the shock ramp and are amplified up to their saturation amplitudes. The saturation results, combined with the electron temperature profile due to wave-particle interactions predicted by quasi-linear theory, reproduce a wave amplitude profile for the shock foot that is in reasonable agreement with the observations.

  1. Calibration of the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel with test section air removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, B. W., Jr.; Runckel, J. F.; Igoe, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel with test section air removal (plenum suction) was calibrated to a Mach number of 1.3. The results of the calibration, including the effects of slot shape modifications, test section wall divergence, and water vapor condensation, are presented. A complete description of the wind tunnel and its auxiliary equipment is included.

  2. Foot Comfort for the Fashionable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Modellista Footwear's new shoe line uses Tempur(TM) material, which conforms to each wearer's unique foot shape to absorb shock and cushion the foot. The foam's properties allow the shoe to change with the wearer's foot as it shrinks and swells throughout the day. Scientists at NASA's Ames Research Center originally developed temper foam in the early 1970s to relieve the intense pressure of G-forces experienced by astronauts during rocket launches. Tempur-Pedic, Inc., further developed the foam and granted Modellista a license to use it in footwear. The Modellista collection is the first shoe design and construction to be certified by the Space Awareness Alliance. The shoes, with designs ranging from traditional clog shapes to sling backs and open-toe sandals, are currently available nationwide at select specialty shoe stores and through catalogs. Tempur(TM) is a registered trademark of Tempur-Pedic, Inc.

  3. Diabetic foot ulcers: practical treatment recommendations.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    When treating diabetic foot ulcers it is important to be aware of the natural history of the diabetic foot, which can be divided into five stages: stage 1, a normal foot; stage 2, a high risk foot; stage 3, an ulcerated foot; stage 4, an infected foot; and stage 5, a necrotic foot. This covers the entire spectrum of foot disease but emphasises the development of the foot ulcer as a pivotal event in stage 3, which demands urgent and aggressive management. Diabetic foot care in all stages needs multidisciplinary management to control mechanical, wound, microbiological, vascular, metabolic and educational aspects. Achieving good metabolic control of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure is important in each stage, as is education to teach proper foot care appropriate for each stage. Ideally, it is important to prevent the development of ulcers in stages 1 and 2. In stage 1, the normal foot, it is important to encourage the use of suitable footwear, and to educate the patient to promote healthy foot care and footwear habits. In stage 2, the foot has developed one or more of the following risk factors for ulceration: neuropathy, ischaemia, deformity, swelling and callus. The majority of deformities can be accommodated in special footwear and as callus is an important precursor of ulceration it should be treated aggressively, especially in the neuropathic foot. In stage 3, ulcers can be divided into two distinct entities: those in the neuropathic foot and those in the neuroischaemic foot. In the neuropathic foot, ulcers commonly develop on the plantar surface of the foot and the toes, and are associated with neglected callus and high plantar pressures. In the neuroischaemic foot, ulcers are commonly seen around the edges of the foot, including the apices of the toes and back of the heel, and are associated with trauma or wearing unsuitable shoes. Ulcers in stage 3 need relief of pressure (mechanical control), sharp debridement and dressings (wound control), and

  4. The Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Frykberg, Robert G.; Armstrong, David G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B.; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K.; Uccioli, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

  5. The foot and ankle examination.

    PubMed

    Papaliodis, Dean N; Vanushkina, Maria A; Richardson, Nicholas G; DiPreta, John A

    2014-03-01

    Most foot and ankle disorders can be diagnosed after a proper history and clinical examination and can be effectively managed in a primary care setting. It is important to assess the entirety of patient disorders that present as they can be multifactorial in cause. A broad differential should include disorders of bones, joints, muscles, neurovasculature, and surrounding soft tissue structures. Physical examination should be thorough and focused on inspection, palpation, range of motion, and appropriate special tests when applicable. This article highlights some of the salient features of the foot and ankle examination and diagnostic considerations.

  6. Peroneal nerve injury with foot drop complicating ankle sprain--a series of four cases with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brief, James M; Brief, Rochelle; Ergas, Enrique; Brief, L Paul; Brief, Andrew A

    2009-01-01

    Foot drop has many etiologies. One rarely mentioned and often neglected reason for foot drop is an acute inversion sprain of the ankle. Over the past 14 years, a collection of 32 cases of foot drop have been compiled in our orthopaedic and physiatric practices. All cases had appropriate evaluations, including electrodiagnostic studies (electromyography and nerve conduction studies) to determine the location and type of injury. Treatment and follow-up are also discussed. Of the 32 case studies, four were caused by a straightforward acute inversion sprain of the ankle. These cases are described with the electrodiagnostic evaluations, treatments, and outcomes. Proposed mechanisms for this type of foot drop are discussed, including traction and compression of the common peroneal nerve as it winds around the neck of the fibula, and possible compression by hematoma. Surgical versus conservative treatment is described. The functional impairment associated with foot drop is detailed.

  7. Wind Simulation

    2008-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that provides an hourly simulation of a wind energy system, which includes a calculation of wind turbine output as a power-curve fit of wind speed.

  8. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    MedlinePlus

    ... AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find an Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeon Page Content The Orthopaedic Distinction Who are Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeons? Orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons are ...

  9. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes occur in adults. Symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease include fever, mouth sores, and a skin rash. More About Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Describes causes of the disease, its symptoms, ...

  10. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Field Hockey Football Injuries Golf Injuries Lacrosse Rugby Running Soccer Softball Tennis Volleyball Find an ACFAS Physician ... Foot and Ankle Although golf does not involve running or jumping, injuries can occur to the foot ...

  12. Aeroacoustic research in wind tunnels: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, J.; Arndt, R. E. A.

    1973-01-01

    The increasing attention given to aerodynamically generated noise brings into focus the need for quality experimental research in this area. To meet this need several specialized anechoic wind tunnels have been constructed. In many cases, however, budgetary constraints and the like make it desirable to use conventional wind tunnels for this work. Three basic problems are inherent in conventional facilities: (1) high background noise, (2) strong frequency dependent reverberation effects, and (3) unique instrumentation problems. The known acoustic characteristics of several conventional wind tunnels are evaluated and data obtained in a smaller 4- x 5-foot wind tunnel which is convertible from a closed jet to an open jet mode are presented. The data from these tunnels serve as a guideline for proposed modifications to a 7- x 10-foot wind tunnel. Consideration is given to acoustic treatment in several different portions of the wind tunnel.

  13. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  2. Billet planting, 8-foot rows, residue updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practices are continually tested and upgraded to maximize sugarcane yield in Louisiana. Over the past 3 years extensive research went in to comparing the industry standard 6-foot row spacing to a wider, 8 foot row. Each 8 foot row was double drilled with seed canes that were 2-3 feet apart....

  3. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  5. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  8. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.104 Foot... in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.136 Foot protection. (a) General... areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  12. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  13. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  15. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  17. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot... for foot injury to occur shall wear footwear meeting the specifications of ANSI Z41, except...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  19. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? Print A A A Text Size ... while you might have lost feeling in your foot, it might have felt heavy, or you might ...

  20. National Wind Technology Center (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This overview fact sheet is one in a series of information fact sheets for the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). Wind energy is one of the fastest growing electricity generation sources in the world. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), the nation's premier wind energy technology research facility, fosters innovative wind energy technologies in land-based and offshore wind through its research and testing facilities and extends these capabilities to marine hydrokinetic water power. Research and testing conducted at the NWTC offers specialized facilities and personnel and provides technical support critical to the development of advanced wind energy systems. From the base of a system's tower to the tips of its blades, NREL researchers work side-by-side with wind industry partners to increase system reliability and reduce wind energy costs. The NWTC's centrally located research and test facilities at the foot of the Colorado Rockies experience diverse and robust wind patterns ideal for testing. The NWTC tests wind turbine components, complete wind energy systems and prototypes from 400 watts to multiple megawatts in power rating.

  1. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  2. A user's guide to the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel complex. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The operational characteristics and equipment associated with the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel complex which is located in buildings 1146 and 1234 at the Langley Research Center are described in detail. This complex consists of the 16-foot transonic wind tunnel, the static test facility, and the 16- by 24-inch water tunnel research facilities. The 16-foot transonic tunnel is a single-return atmospheric wind tunnel with a 15.5 foot diameter test section and a Mach number capability from 0.20 to 1.30. The emphasis for research conducted in this research complex is on the integration of the propulsion system into advanced aircraft concepts. In the past, the primary focus has been on the integration of nozzles and empennage into the afterbody of fighter aircraft. During the last several years this experimental research has been expanded to include developing the fundamental data base necessary to verify new theoretical concepts, inlet integration into fighter aircraft, nozzle integration for supersonic and hypersonic transports, nacelle/pylon/wing integration for subsonic transport configurations, and the study of vortical flows (in the 16- by 24-inch water tunnel). The purpose here is to provide a comprehensive description of the operational characteristics of the research facilities of the 16-foot transonic tunnel complex and their associated systems and equipments.

  3. Wind tunnel pressurization and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pejack, Edwin R.; Meick, Joseph; Ahmad, Adnan; Lateh, Nordin; Sadeq, Omar

    1988-01-01

    The high density, low toxicity characteristics of refrigerant-12 (dichlorofluoromethane) make it an ideal gas for wind tunnel testing. Present limitations on R-12 emissions, set to slow the rate of ozone deterioration, pose a difficult problem in recovery and handling of large quantities of R-12. This preliminary design is a possible solution to the problem of R-12 handling in wind tunnel testing. The design incorporates cold temperature condensation with secondary purification of the R-12/air mixture by adsorption. Also discussed is the use of Freon-22 as a suitable refrigerant for the 12 foot wind tunnel.

  4. [Orthopaedic footwear against foot ulcers in diabetes].

    PubMed

    Bus, Sicco A

    2014-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, foot ulcers are a major problem because they increase the risk of a foot infection and amputation and reduce quality of life. After a foot ulcer has healed, the risk of recurrence is high. Orthopaedic shoes and orthotics are often prescribed to high risk patients and aim to reduce the mechanical pressure on the plantar surface of the foot. Orthopaedic footwear that is modified to reduce pressure is not much more effective in preventing foot ulcer recurrence than orthopaedic footwear that did not undergo such modification, unless the shoes are worn as recommended. In that case, the risk of ulcer recurrence is reduced by 46%. In patients with a history of ulceration, compliance in wearing orthopaedic shoes at home is low, while these patients walk more inside the house than outside the house. Foot pressure measurements should be part of the prescription and evaluation of orthopaedic footwear for patients at high risk for foot ulceration.

  5. Strength of footing with punching shear preventers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Moon, Jiho; Park, Keum-Sung; Bae, Kyu-Woong

    2014-01-01

    The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested. PMID:25401141

  6. Strength of Footing with Punching Shear Preventers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Moon, Jiho; Park, Keum-Sung; Bae, Kyu-Woong

    2014-01-01

    The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested. PMID:25401141

  7. Migratory routes and at-sea threats to Pink-footed Shearwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Hodum, Peter; Colodro, Valentina; Carle, Ryan; López, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    The Pink-footed Shearwater (Ardenna creatopus) is a seabird with a breeding range restricted to three islands in Chile and an estimated world population of approximately 56,000 breeding individuals (Muñoz 2011, Oikonos unpublished data). Due to multiple threats on breeding colonies and at-sea, Pink-footed Shearwaters are listed as Endangered by the government of Chile (Reglamento de Clasificación de Especies, 2011), Threatened by the government of Canada (Environment Canada 2008), and are listed under Appendix 1 of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP 2013). A principal conservation concern for the species is mortality from fisheries bycatch during the breeding and non-breeding seasons; thus, identification of areas of overlap between at-sea use by Pink-footed Shearwaters and fisheries is a high priority conservation objective (Hinojosa Sáez and Hodum 1997, Mangel et al. 2013, ACAP 2013). During the non-breeding period, Pink-footed Shearwaters range as far north as Canada, although little was known until recently about migration routes and important wintering areas where fisheries bycatch could be a risk. Additionally, Pink-footed Shearwaters face at-sea threats during the non-breeding season off the west coast of North America. Recently, areas used by wintering Pink-footed Shearwaters have been identified as areas of interest for developing alternative energy offshore in North America (e.g., floating wind generators; Trident Winds 2016). The goal of our study was to track Pink-footed Shearwater post-breeding movements with satellite tags to identify timing and routes of migration, locate important non-breeding foraging habitats, and determine population distribution among different wintering regions.

  8. Overview of advanced wing design. [Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel and 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of experiment theory correlation are presented to give an indication of the capabilities and limitations of wing design and analysis for transonic applications by potential flow theory. The examples include correlations of experimental pressure distributions with theoretical results from isolated wing codes and wing-body codes. Both conservative and non conservative differencing as well as body and boundary layer corrections are considered. A full potential isolated wing code correlates well with data from an isolated wing test but may give poor prediction of the aerodynamic characteristics of some wing-body configurations. Potential flow wing body codes were found to improve the correlation for the wing-body configurations considered.

  9. Unsteady density and velocity measurements in the 6 foot x 6 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, W. C.; Johnson, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used and the results obtained in four aero-optic tests are summarized. It is concluded that the rather large values of density fluctuation appear to be the result of much higher Mach number than freestream and the violent turbulence in the flow as it separates from the turret. A representative comparison of fairing on-fairing off rms density fluctuation indicates essentially no effect at M = 0.62 and a small effect at M = 0.95. These data indicate that some slight improvement in optical quality can be expected with the addition of a fairing, although at M = 0.62 its effect would be nil. Fairings are very useful in controlling pressure loads on turrets, but will not have first order effects on optical quality. Scale sizes increase dramatically with increasing azimuth angle for a reprensentative condition. Since both scale sizes and fluctuation levels increase (total turbulence path length also increases) with azimuth angle, substantial optical degradation might be expected. For shorter wave lengths, large degradations occur.

  10. Space Shuttle Model In The 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    What may appear at first glance to be a swimming shark is a wind tunnel model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, being tested at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton,VA. The Orbiter model is 5.5 feet long (1/20th of the real Orbiter's length) and has remotely operated control surfaces. Inside Langley's 16 foot Transonic Wind Tunnel, the model simulated Orbiter re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere, when it must fly through the transonic speed range (the range that crosses the sound barrier). Information on Orbiter stability and control, collected and analyzed during the tests, were integrated with other data to become part of computerized flight simulation programs.

  11. Acoustic measurement study 40 by 80 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An acoustical study conducted during the period from September 1, 1973 to April 30, 1974 measured sound pressure levels and vibration amplitudes inside and outside of the subsonic tunnel and on the tunnel structure. A discussion of the technical aspects of the study, the field measurement and data reduction procedures, and results are presentd, and conclusions resulting from the study which bear upon near field and far field tunnel noise, upon the tunnel as an acoustical enclosure, and upon the sources of noise within the tunnel drive system are given.

  12. Large-Scale Wind Turbine Testing in the NASA 24.4m (80) by 36.6m(120) Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter T.; Imprexia, Cliff (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center in California provides a unique capability to test large-scale wind turbines under controlled conditions. This special capability is now available for domestic and foreign entities wishing to test large-scale wind turbines. The presentation will focus on facility capabilities to perform wind turbine tests and typical research objectives for this type of testing.

  13. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI <25). Obese participants were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. PMID:26260010

  14. The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Hertel, Jay; Bramble, Dennis; Davis, Irene

    2015-03-01

    The foot is a complex structure with many articulations and multiple degrees of freedom that play an important role in static posture and dynamic activities. The evolutionary development of the arch of the foot was coincident with the greater demands placed on the foot as humans began to run. The movement and stability of the arch is controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. However, the intrinsic muscles are largely ignored by clinicians and researchers. As such, these muscles are seldom addressed in rehabilitation programmes. Interventions for foot-related problems are more often directed at externally supporting the foot rather than training these muscles to function as they are designed. In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm for understanding the function of the foot. We begin with an overview of the evolution of the human foot with a focus on the development of the arch. This is followed by a description of the foot intrinsic muscles and their relationship to the extrinsic muscles. We draw the parallels between the small muscles of the trunk region that make up the lumbopelvic core and the intrinsic foot muscles, introducing the concept of the foot core. We then integrate the concept of the foot core into the assessment and treatment of the foot. Finally, we call for an increased awareness of the importance of the foot core stability to normal foot and lower extremity function. PMID:24659509

  15. The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Patrick O; Hertel, Jay; Bramble, Dennis; Davis, Irene

    2015-03-01

    The foot is a complex structure with many articulations and multiple degrees of freedom that play an important role in static posture and dynamic activities. The evolutionary development of the arch of the foot was coincident with the greater demands placed on the foot as humans began to run. The movement and stability of the arch is controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. However, the intrinsic muscles are largely ignored by clinicians and researchers. As such, these muscles are seldom addressed in rehabilitation programmes. Interventions for foot-related problems are more often directed at externally supporting the foot rather than training these muscles to function as they are designed. In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm for understanding the function of the foot. We begin with an overview of the evolution of the human foot with a focus on the development of the arch. This is followed by a description of the foot intrinsic muscles and their relationship to the extrinsic muscles. We draw the parallels between the small muscles of the trunk region that make up the lumbopelvic core and the intrinsic foot muscles, introducing the concept of the foot core. We then integrate the concept of the foot core into the assessment and treatment of the foot. Finally, we call for an increased awareness of the importance of the foot core stability to normal foot and lower extremity function.

  16. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI <25). Obese participants were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals.

  17. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  18. ENERGY SAVINGS IN FORMATION FLIGHT OF PINK-FOOTED GEESE

    PubMed

    Cutts; Speakman

    1994-04-01

    Fifty-four skeins of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) were photographed from directly underneath to eliminate the effects of perspective distortion, and the wing-tip spacings (the distance between adjacent birds' wing tips perpendicular to the flight path at maximum wingspan) and depths (the distance between adjacent birds' body centres parallel to the flight path) were measured at the same time as local wind speeds. The photographs were used to test for savings in induced power from wing positioning relative to the predicted positions of vortices generated by other wings, using a theoretical model. The mean wing-tip spacing corresponded to a saving in induced power of 14 %, less than one-third of the maximum possible. The saving in total power might be as low as 2.4 %. The high variation in wing-tip spacing suggests that pink-footed geese found difficulty maintaining position and thus adopted a strategy of flying outboard of the optimal position that maximises savings. This may minimise the risk of straying into a zone where savings are negative. There was a significant correlation between depth and wing-tip spacing, supporting an alternative communication hypothesis, whereby the birds position themselves to obtain maximum information on their neighbour's position. In high winds, there was little change in wing-tip spacing variation but a decrease in depth variation, suggesting a shift towards more regularly spaced skeins.

  19. Improved Speed Control System for the 87,000 HP Wind Tunnel Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becks, Edward A.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Blumenthal, Philip Z.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design, installation, and integrated systems tests for a new drive motor speed control system which was part of a recent rehab project for the NASA Lewis 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The tunnel drive consists of three mechanically-coupled 29,000 HP wound rotor induction motors driving an axial flow compressor. Liquid rheostats are used to vary the impedance of the rotor circuits, thus varying the speed of the drive system. The new design utilizes a distributed digital control system with a dual touch screen CRT operator console to provide alarm monitoring, logging, and trending. The liquid rheostats are driven by brushtype servomotor systems with magnetostrictive linear displacement transducers used for position feedback. The new system achieved all goals for speed variations with load, motor load balance, and control of total power.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of footings for lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, Koon M.; Golis, Kelly M.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1992-01-01

    Presented here are the results of laboratory experiments with diffferent footing shapes for lunar telescopes. These experiments used a variety of soils including some to simulate regolith response. Based on what is known of regolith and regolith-structure interaction, a shallow-multiple-contact points footing foundation can be adequately designed to support lunar telescopes. Plane-strain load-displacement tests were conducted with different footings and different lunar simulants in a deep transparent plexiglass container. The model footings considered include the rectangular, hemispherical, and spudcan designs. Simulants used to reproduce the mechanical properties of the lunar regolith were fly ash, crushed basalt with and without glass, and a processed lunar simulant. Load-displacement curves were obtained for the different footings in Ottawa sand and in the crushed basalt with glass. The spudcan footing was found to be self-digging and yet stiff, thus providing excellent lateral stability in a large variety of soils.

  1. Diabetic foot ulcer: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Saraogi, Ravi Kant

    2008-02-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a rising health problem with rising prevalence of diabetes. It is the most important cause of non-traumatic foot amputations. Diabetic foot ulcers are primarily due to neuropathy and/or ischaemia, and are frequently complicated by infection. Up to 85% of all diabetic foot related problems are preventable through a combination of good foot care and appropriate education for patients and healthcare providers. The holistic care of diabetic foot ulcer patients requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Apart from blood sugar control, treatment of ulcer involves debridement, offloading, appropriate dressings, vascular maintenance and infection control. Use of adjunctive treatments such as various growth factors, skin replacement dressings and vacuum assisted closure will accelerate healing in selected cases.

  2. Meteorology (Wind)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Wind speed at 50 m (m/s) The average and percent difference minimum and ... are given.   Percent of time for ranges of wind speed at 50 m (percent) Percentage [frequency] of time that wind speed is in each range (0-2, 3-6, 7-10, 11-14, 15-18, 19-25 m/s).   ...

  3. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Schaden, Wolfgang; Mittermayr, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are among the most common foot disorders with ulceration, infection, and gangrene that may ultimately lead to lower extremity amputation. The goals of treatment include the control of diabetes and proper shoe wear. An effective therapy and appropriate foot care are important in wound healing in DFUs. Recently, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) was reported to significantly promote and accelerate the healing of complex soft tissue wounds as compared to the standard methods of treatment in DFUs. ESWT showed positive results in short-term and long-term outcomes in diabetic patients suffering from foot ulcers. In this article, we review the clinical results of ESWT in DFUs.

  4. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Bus, Sicco A

    2012-02-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical outcome. However, several aspects related to offloading are underexposed. First, in the management of foot complications, offloading is mostly studied as a single entity, whereas it should be analysed in a broader perspective of contributing factors to better predict clinical outcome. This includes assessment of patient behavioural factors such as type and intensity of daily physical activity and adherence to prescribed treatment. Second, a large gap exists between evidence-based recommendations and clinical practice in the use of offloading for ulcer treatment, and this gap needs to be bridged. Possible ways to achieve this are discussed in this article. Third, our knowledge about the efficacy and role of offloading in treating complicated and non-plantar neuropathic foot ulcers needs to be expanded because these ulcers currently dominate presentation in multidisciplinary foot practice. Finally, foot ulcer prevention is underexposed when compared with ulcer treatment. Prevention requires a larger focus, in particular regarding the efficacy of therapeutic footwear and its relative role in comparison with other preventative strategies. These priorities need the attention of clinicians, scientists and professional societies to improve our understanding of offloading and to improve clinical outcome in the management of the diabetic foot.

  5. The diabetic foot: a review.

    PubMed

    Ricco, J B; Thanh Phong, L; Schneider, F; Illuminati, G; Belmonte, R; Valagier, A; Régnault De La Mothe, G

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is among the most frequent complications of diabetes. Neuropathy and ischaemia are the initiating factors and infection is mostly a consequence. We have shown in this review that any DFU should be considered to have vascular impairment. DFU will generally heal if the toe pressure is >55 mmHg and a transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) <30 mmHg has been considered to predict that a diabetic ulcer may not heal. The decision to intervene is complex and made according to the symptoms and clinical findings. If both an endovascular and a bypass procedure are possible with an equal outcome to be expected, endovascular treatments should be preferred. Primary and secondary mid-term patency rates are better after bypass, but there is no difference in limb salvage. Bedridden patients with poor life expectancy and a non-revascularisable leg are indications for performing a major amputation. A deep infection is the immediate cause of amputation in 25% to 50% of diabetic patients. Patients with uncontrolled abscess, bone or joint involvement, gangrene, or necrotising fasciitis have a "foot-at risk" and need prompt surgical intervention with debridement and revascularisation. As demonstrated in this review, foot ulcer in diabetic is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Early referral, non-invasive vascular testing, imaging and intervention are crucial to improve DFU healing and to prevent amputation. Diabetics are eight to twenty-four times more likely than non-diabetics to have a lower limb amputation and it has been suggested that a large part of those amputations could be avoided by an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach.

  6. The diabetic foot: a review.

    PubMed

    Ricco, J B; Thanh Phong, L; Schneider, F; Illuminati, G; Belmonte, R; Valagier, A; Régnault De La Mothe, G

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is among the most frequent complications of diabetes. Neuropathy and ischaemia are the initiating factors and infection is mostly a consequence. We have shown in this review that any DFU should be considered to have vascular impairment. DFU will generally heal if the toe pressure is >55 mmHg and a transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) <30 mmHg has been considered to predict that a diabetic ulcer may not heal. The decision to intervene is complex and made according to the symptoms and clinical findings. If both an endovascular and a bypass procedure are possible with an equal outcome to be expected, endovascular treatments should be preferred. Primary and secondary mid-term patency rates are better after bypass, but there is no difference in limb salvage. Bedridden patients with poor life expectancy and a non-revascularisable leg are indications for performing a major amputation. A deep infection is the immediate cause of amputation in 25% to 50% of diabetic patients. Patients with uncontrolled abscess, bone or joint involvement, gangrene, or necrotising fasciitis have a "foot-at risk" and need prompt surgical intervention with debridement and revascularisation. As demonstrated in this review, foot ulcer in diabetic is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Early referral, non-invasive vascular testing, imaging and intervention are crucial to improve DFU healing and to prevent amputation. Diabetics are eight to twenty-four times more likely than non-diabetics to have a lower limb amputation and it has been suggested that a large part of those amputations could be avoided by an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:24126512

  7. Stress Fractures of the Foot.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Munier; Clutton, Juliet; Ridgewell, Mark; Lyons, Kathleen; Perera, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Stress fractures of the foot and ankle may be more common among athletes than previously reported. A low threshold for investigation is warranted and further imaging may be appropriate if initial radiographs remain inconclusive. Most of these fractures can be treated conservatively with a period of non-weight-bearing mobilization followed by gradual return to activity. Early surgery augmented by bone graft may allow athletes to return to sports earlier. Risk of delayed union, nonunion, and recurrent fracture is high. Many of the patients may also have risk factors for injury that should be modified for a successful outcome.

  8. 13. 64 foot truss oblique view of the 64 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 64 foot truss - oblique view of the 64 foot pony truss showing its general configuration. The 80 foot pony trusses are similar. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  9. On Sound Footing: The Health of Your Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe On Sound Footing The Health of Your Feet Your feet ... search Features A Bang to the Brain On Sound Footing Wise Choices Links Foot Health Tips Use ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions hand-foot-genital syndrome hand-foot-genital syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Hand-foot-genital syndrome is a rare condition that ...

  11. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored.

  12. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data.

    PubMed

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject's foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions. PMID:26703622

  13. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data.

    PubMed

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2015-12-23

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject's foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions.

  14. Langley 14- by 22-foot subsonic tunnel test engineer's data acquisition and reduction manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinto, P. Frank; Orie, Nettie M.

    1994-01-01

    The Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel is used to test a large variety of aircraft and nonaircraft models. To support these investigations, a data acquisition system has been developed that has both static and dynamic capabilities. The static data acquisition and reduction system is described; the hardware and software of this system are explained. The theory and equations used to reduce the data obtained in the wind tunnel are presented; the computer code is not included.

  15. Data reduction formulas for the 16-foot transonic tunnel: NASA Langley Research Center, revision 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Charles E.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Capone, Francis J.; Grayston, Alan M.

    1992-01-01

    The equations used by the 16-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel in the data reduction programs are presented in nine modules. Each module consists of equations necessary to achieve a specific purpose. These modules are categorized in the following groups: (1) tunnel parameters; (2) jet exhaust measurements; (3) skin friction drag; (4) balance loads and model attitudes calculations; (5) internal drag (or exit-flow distribution); (6) pressure coefficients and integrated forces; (7) thrust removal options; (8) turboprop options; and (9) inlet distortion.

  16. An optical flameout detection system for NASA Langley's 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, S. E.; West, J. W.; Lawrence, R. M.; Harper, S. E.; Alderfer, D. W.; Connelly, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    A brief description is presented of an optical flameout detection system under development at NASA Langley's 8-Foot High Temperature Wind Tunnel. The system design, theory of operation, and performance are addressed. The system can respond quickly to sudden changes in combustor light intensity and is a reliable indicator of flame activity within the combustor. Deviations of the system could provide more detailed information on various aspects of the combustion process.

  17. Strut Supported Bell XS-2 in 7 x 10 Foot Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    The strut system used conventionally into the 1940s to support models in large wind tunnels disturbed airflow so much that many test results were questionable, especially at higher Mach numbers. In this photo from August 1946, a strut-supported model of the Bell XS-2 is being tested in the 7x10 Foot Tunnel. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 313.

  18. [The "diabetic foot" syndrome. An overview].

    PubMed

    Chantelau, E

    1999-01-01

    Amputation has been used most frequently to treat the diabetic foot syndrome, occlusive microangiopathy being suspected as the underlying cause. This paradigm is obsolete: most diabetic foot lesions are due to traumatic painless (neuropathic) infections. Evidence is presented for alternative treatment strategies to effectively reduce exorbitant amputation rates in diabetic patients.

  19. Comparative Anatomy of the Hand and Foot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Ralph A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an activity to articulate comparison of the hand and foot. Students carefully cut out corresponding hand/foot parts (carpals, tarsals, metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges) from enlarged diagrams and paste them on paper for comparative analysis. Sample student inferences and diagrams used for the activity are provided. (JN)

  20. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar's brain.

    PubMed

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar's brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  1. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal precast concrete pads meeting or exceeding ASTM C 90-02a, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete... compressive strength of 1,200 pounds per square inch (psi); or (ii) Six inch minimum poured-in-place...

  3. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  4. Louisiana farm discussion: 8 foot row spacing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year several tests in growers’ fields were used to compare traditional 6-foot row spacing to 8-foot row spacing. Cane is double-drilled in the wider row spacing. The wider row spacing would accommodate John Deere 3522 harvester. Field data indicate the sugarcane yields are very comparable in 8-...

  5. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methods and practices that prevent the effects of frost heave by one of the following methods: (1) Conventional footings. Conventional footings must be placed below the frost line depth for the site unless an... frost line depth is not available from the LAHJ, a registered professional engineer,...

  6. Basketball injuries of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    McDermott, E P

    1993-04-01

    Foot and ankle injuries in basketball are discussed in three unrelated categories in this article. This includes a practical differential diagnosis of ankle sprains, acute conditions of the mid and hindfoot, overuse syndromes of nerve entrapment, fascial strain, synovitis, joint subluxation, and inflammation resulting from repetitive stress. The diagnosis and treatment of tendon inflammation of the extrinsic foot musculature is also reviewed.

  7. A national approach to diabetes foot risk stratification and foot care.

    PubMed

    Leese, G P; Stang, D; Pearson, D W

    2011-08-01

    The Scottish Diabetes Foot Action Group (SDG) has developed and introduced a national strategy plan for diabetic foot care across Scotland. This has involved the implementation of an evidence-based national foot screening and risk stratification programme that has already covered 61% of the population in just the first two years. Nationally agreed patient information foot leaflets and professional education material have been introduced, and a consensus for antibiotic use in the diabetic foot has been published. Information on multidisciplinary specialist foot services has been collected, indicating that 58% of Health Board areas have consultants with dedicated sessions in their job plan to a foot clinic, and 42% had integrated orthotic involvement. The SDG aims to increase these figures. Work has been undertaken to support local podiatry networks and improve communication between the specialist centre and the community. At a national level the SDG is working with Foot in Diabetes UK (FDUK) to recognize key podiatry skills by developing core competencies and a competency framework for the diabetes podiatrist and diabetes orthotist. The annual Scottish Diabetes Survey indicates some improvement in amputation rates with prevalence decreasing from 0.8% to 0.5%, and improved recording of foot ulceration at a national level. This national strategy has helped highlight the importance and difficulties facing diabetes foot care and should help to continue to improve the quality of care of people with diabetes who have foot-related problems.

  8. The diabetic foot management - recent advance.

    PubMed

    Sinwar, Prabhu Dayal

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic ulceration of the foot represents a major global medical, social and economic problem. It is the commonest major end-point of diabetic complications. Diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in foot ulceration and may act alone, together, or in combination with other factors such as microvascular disease, biomechanical abnormalities, limited joint mobility and increased susceptibility to infection. In the diabetic foot, distal sensory polyneuropathy is seen most commonly. The advent of insulin overcame the acute problems of ketoacidosis and infection, but could not prevent the vascular and neurological complications. Management of diabetic neuropathic ulcer by appropriate and timely removal of callus, control of infection and reduction of weight bearing forces. Management of diabetic ischaemic foot are medical management, surgical management and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of stenosed and occluded lower extremity arteries. Foot ulceration in persons with diabetes is the most frequent precursor to amputation. PMID:25638739

  9. An overview of the Charcot foot pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Kaynak, Gökhan; Birsel, Olgar; Güven, Mehmet Fatih; Öğüt, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Charcot arthropathy of the foot is a rare but devastating complication of diabetes that remains to be a challenging issue for the foot and ankle surgeons. Charcot foot fails to be an obvious diagnostic option that comes to mind, even in a pathognomonic clinical appearance. The rarity of the disorder, more common pathologies that mimic the condition, and the self-limiting prognosis deviate the clinician from the right diagnosis. The clinical challenges in the diagnosis of Charcot foot require in-depth investigations of its enigmatic nature to establish useful guidelines. Yet, this goal seems to be beyond reach, without a holistic view of the immense literature concerning the pathophysiology of the disorder. The primary objective of this article is to put together and review the recent advancements about the etiology and intrinsic mechanisms of diabetic Charcot foot. PMID:23919113

  10. Tumours of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeeshan; Hussain, Shakir; Carter, Simon R

    2015-09-01

    Sarcomas are rare tumours and particularly rarer in the foot and ankle region. The complex anatomy of the foot and ankle makes it unique and hence poses a challenge to the surgeon for limb salvage surgery. Other lesions found in the foot and ankle region are benign bone and soft tissue tumours, metastasis and infection. The purpose of this article is to discuss the relevance of the complex anatomy of the foot and ankle in relation to tumours, clinical features, their general management principles and further discussion about some of the more common bone and soft tissue lesions. Discussion of every single bone and soft tissue lesion in the foot and ankle region is beyond the scope of this article.

  11. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale entrance cone looking north, exit cone looking south, wind vanes north end, wind vanes north end of east return passage, wind vanes south end of west exit cone looking north east, wind vanes at south end of east exit cone looking north west, entrance cone looking south from north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) entrance cone under construction. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'The entrance cone is 75 feet in length and in this distance the cross section changes from a rectangle 72 by 110 feet to a 30 by 60 foot elliptic section. The area reduction in the entrance cone is slightly less than 5:1. The shape of the entrance cone was chosen to give as fas as possible a constant acceleration to the air stream and to retain a 9-foot length of nozzle for directing the flow.' (p. 293)

  12. Python Engine Installed in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    An engine mechanic checks instrumentation prior to an investigation of engine operating characteristics and thrust control of a large turboprop engine with counter-rotating propellers under high-altitude flight conditions in the 20-foot-dianieter test section of the Altitude Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Cleveland, Ohio, now known as the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  13. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    PubMed

    Anandi, C; Alaguraja, D; Natarajan, V; Ramanathan, M; Subramaniam, C S; Thulasiram, M; Sumithra, S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical grading and bacteriological study of 107 patients with diabetic foot lesions revealed polymicrobial aetiology in 69 (64.4%) and single aetiology in 21 (19.6%). Among 107 patients 62 had ulcer. Of these 31 had mixed aerobes. Twenty six patients with cellulitis and 12 with gangrene had more than 5 types of aerobes and anaerobes such as E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Enterobactor spp., Enterococci spp., Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. It was noted that 50 out of 62 patients with ulcer, and all the patients with cellulitis and gangrene were given surgical management and treated with appropriate antibiotics based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. PMID:17642727

  14. The immersion foot syndrome. 1946.

    PubMed

    Ungley, C C; Channell, G D; Richards, R L

    2003-01-01

    1. Prolonged exposure of the extremities to cold insufficient to cause tissue freezing produces a well-defined syndrome. 'Immersion foot' is one of the descriptive but inaccurate terms applied to this syndrome. The clinical features, aetiology, pathology, prevention, and treatment of immersion foot are considered in detail. A discussion on pathogenesis is also included. 2. In the natural history of a typical case of immersion foot there are four stages: the period of exposure and the pre-hyperaemic, hyperaemic, and post-hyperaemic stages. 3. During exposure and immediately after rescue the feet are cold, numb, swollen, and pulseless. Intense vasoconstriction sufficient to arrest blood-flow is believed to be the predominant factor during this phase. 4. This is followed by a period of intense hyperaemia, increased swelling, and severe pain. Hyperaemia is due to the release in chilled and ischaemic tissues of relatively stable vasodilator metabolites; pain may be the result of relative anoxia of sensory nerve-endings. 5. Within 7-10 days of rescue the intense hyperaemia and swelling subside and pain diminishes in intensity. A lesser degree of hyperaemia may persist for several weeks. Objective disturbances of sensation and sweating and muscular atrophy and paralysis now become apparent. These findings are correlated with damage to the peripheral nerves. 6. After several weeks the feet become cold-sensitive; when exposed to low temperature they cool abnormally and may remain cold for several hours. Hyperhidrosis frequently accompanies this cold-sensitivity. The factors responsible for these phenomena are incompletely understood; several possible explanations are considered. 7. Severe cases may develop blisters and gangrene. The latter is usually superficial and massive loss of tissue is rare. 8. The hands may be affected but seldom as severely as the feet. The essential features of immersion hand are the same as those of immersion foot. 9. Prognosis depends upon

  15. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb amputation unless a prompt, rational, multidisciplinary approach to therapy is taken. Factors that affect development and healing of diabetic patients' foot ulcers include the degree of metabolic control, the presence of ischemia or infection, and continuing trauma to feet from excessive plantar pressure or poorly fitting shoes. Appropriate wound care for diabetic patients addresses these issues and provides optimal local ulcer therapy with débridement of necrotic tissue and provision of a moist wound-healing environment. Therapies that have no known therapeutic value, such as foot soaking and topical antiseptics, can actually be harmful and should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Family physicians are often primary medical contacts for patients with diabetes. Patients should be screened regularly for diabetic foot complications, and preventive measures should be initiated for those at risk of ulceration. PMID:11398715

  16. Quantifying foot deformation using finite helical angle.

    PubMed

    Pothrat, Claude; Goislard de Monsabert, Benjamin; Vigouroux, Laurent; Viehweger, Elke; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2015-10-15

    Foot intrinsic motion originates from the combination of numerous joint motions giving this segment a high adaptive ability. Existing foot kinematic models are mostly focused on analyzing small scale foot bone to bone motions which require both complex experimental methodology and complex interpretative work to assess the global foot functionality. This study proposes a method to assess the total foot deformation by calculating a helical angle from the relative motions of the rearfoot and the forefoot. This method required a limited number of retro-reflective markers placed on the foot and was tested for five different movements (walking, forefoot impact running, heel impact running, 90° cutting, and 180° U-turn) and 12 participants. Overtime intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify the helical angle pattern repeatability for each movement. Our results indicated that the method was suitable to identify the different motions as different amplitudes of helical angle were observed according to the flexibility required in each movement. Moreover, the results showed that the repeatability could be used to identify the mastering of each motion as this repeatability was high for well mastered movements. Together with existing methods, this new protocol could be applied to fully assess foot function in sport or clinical contexts.

  17. Reconstruction of Mirror Foot with Dysplastic Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Shyam, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Mirror foot is a rare congenital anomaly associated with duplication of the structures of the foot. Verghese et al have classified these feet into three types. Type three is associated with a Dysplastic tibia of which only 5 have been reported. Surgical management has been reported in only two of these five cases which are in the form of amputation. Case Report: We would like to present the reconstruction of a Mirror foot associated with a dysplastic tibia. Our case which is only the sixth reported case attempts to present a surgical reconstruction to a plantigrade foot. Reconstruction was attempted in this case since the child showed a good quadriceps function at the knee. Reconstruction consisted of excision of the preaxial polydactyly to achieve a more cosmetic appearance to the foot as well as improve the ability to wear foot wear. The dysplastic tibia was osteotomized to correct the varus deformity and achieve a plantigtade foot. This helped the child to ambulate more easily with a shoe raise and a brace to maintain the correction achieved. At a five year follow up the child was walking and running with a shoe raise for a 9 cm limb length discrepancy. There was however recurrence of the deformity due to fibular overgrowth. The child’s parents refused further reconstruction and were satisfied with the present function and appearance of the child. Conclusion: Reconstruction can therefore be attempted in these limbs associated with good quadriceps function. PMID:27299070

  18. Amputation and reamputation of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D G; Lavery, L A; Harkless, L B; Van Houtum, W H

    1997-06-01

    The authors compare the level of foot amputation by age, prevalence of arterial disease as a precipitating factor, gender, and ethnicity in persons with diabetes mellitus. Medical records were abstracted for each hospitalization for a lower extremity amputation from January 1 to December 31, 1993, in six metropolitan statistical areas in south Texas. Amputation level was defined by ICD-9-CM codes and were categorized as foot, leg, and thigh amputations. Foot-level amputations were further subcategorized as hallux or first ray, middle, fifth, multiple digit or ray, and midfoot amputations. Only the highest amputation level for each individual was used in the analysis. Of 1,043 subjects undergoing a lower extremity amputation in south Texas in the year 1993, 477 received their amputation at the level of the foot. African-Americans requiring a foot-level amputation were at significantly higher risk to undergo a midfoot-level amputation than was the rest of the population. Nearly 40% of all subjects undergoing a foot-level amputation had a previous history of amputation. However, nearly 40% of subjects undergoing foot amputations had not been diagnosed either before or during admission with peripheral arterial occlusive disease, suggesting a causal pathway dependent primarily on neuropathy. This implies that better screening of diabetic patients with appropriate risk-directed treatment at the primary care level may significantly impact the large number of preventable diabetes-related lower extremity amputations.

  19. Wind generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, F.R.

    1980-01-29

    A wind operated generator is disclosed herein having a stationary frame or base rotatably supporting at least four sets of pivotal blades intended to be driven by impinging wind currents. Each set of blades operates in unison for opening and closing air passageways between adjacent ones of the blades as the sets of blades rotate about a common vertical axis. A wind direction sensor is provided which moves into the direction of the wind, and electro-mechanical or mechanical interface networks operably couple the wind direction sensor to the respective sets of blades whereby the blades are responsive to wind direction so as to be properly feathered to propel the sets of blades. By employment of the interface network, those blades that are in position to actuate or rotate the windmill will receive the full force of the wind while other blades which are not in a position to accomplish the proper operation will be turned to permit passage of the wind thereby.

  20. Floating frame grounding system. [for wind tunnel static force measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsyth, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a floating frame grounding system (FFGS) for the 40- by 80-foot low speed wind tunnel facility at the NASA Ames Research Center National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex is addresssed. When electrical faults are detected, the FFGS ensures a ground path for the fault current. In addition, the FFGS alerts the tunnel operator when a mechanical foul occurs.

  1. Foot and ankle problems in dancers.

    PubMed

    Kadel, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    The dancer's foot and ankle are subjected to high forces and unusual stresses in training and performance. Injuries are common in dancers, and the foot and ankle are particularly vulnerable. Ankle sprains, ankle impingement syndromes, flexor hallucis longus tendonitis, cuboid subluxation, stress fractures, midfoot injuries, heel pain, and first metatarsophalangeal joint problems including hallux valgus, hallux rigidus, and sesamoid injuries will be reviewed. This article will discuss these common foot and ankle problems in dancers and give typical clinical presentation and diagnostic and treatment recommendations.

  2. Wind energy.

    PubMed

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  3. Wind energy.

    PubMed

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented. PMID:17272245

  4. The diabetic foot in 2015: an overview.

    PubMed

    Markakis, K; Bowling, F L; Boulton, A J M

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, it can be said that the diabetic foot is no longer the Cinderella of diabetic complications. Thirty years ago there was little evidence-based research taking place on the diabetic foot, and there were no international meetings addressing this topic. Since then, the biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot meetings started in 1986, the American Diabetes Association founded their Foot Council in 1987, and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes established a Foot Study Group in 1998. The first International Symposium on the Diabetic Foot in The Netherlands was convened in 1991, and this was soon followed by the establishment of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot that has produced useful guidelines in several areas of investigation and the management of diabetic foot problems. There has been an exponential rise in publications on diabetic foot problems in high impact factor journals, and a comprehensive evidence-base now exists for many areas of treatment. Despite the extensive evidence available, it, unfortunately, remains difficult to demonstrate that most types of education are efficient in reducing the incidence of foot ulcers. However, there is evidence that education as part of a multi-disciplinary approach to diabetic foot ulceration plays a pivotal role in incidence reduction. With respect to treatment, strong evidence exists that offloading is the best modality for healing plantar neuropathic foot ulcers, and there is also evidence from two randomized controlled trials to support the use of negative-pressure wound therapy in complex post-surgical diabetic foot wounds. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy exhibits the same evidence level and strength of recommendation. International guidelines exist on the management of infection in the diabetic foot. Many randomized trials have been performed, and these have shown that the agents studied generally produced comparable results, with the exception of one study in which tigecycline was shown to

  5. Hand-foot-mouth disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral infection caused by Coxsackievirus that usually begins in the throat. Symptoms include; fever, sore throat, ulcers in the throat, headache, and a rash with blisters on the palms of the ...

  6. Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... osteoarthritis develops as a result of abnormal foot mechanics such as flat feet or high arches. A ... prescribed to provide support to improve the foot’s mechanics or cushioning to help minimize pain. Bracing. Bracing, ...

  7. [Diabetic, neuropathic, arteriopathic foot and dressing choice].

    PubMed

    Lowe, S; Kayoumi, M

    2012-11-14

    The definition for the diabetic foot is infection, ulceration or destruction of deep tissues of the foot associated with neuropathy or peripheral vascular disease in the lower extremity of people with diabetes. Non-diabetic patients may suffer the same risks when neuropathy and arteriopathy are present. Knowing that 85% of amputations are preceded by foot ulcers, prevention is primordial. At the onset of an ulcer, immediate treatment must be undertaken and preferably by an interdisciplinary team. Delayed healing and increased risk of infection are often due to an associated vascular disease. While the array of dressings is expansive there is no «gold standard» treatment or «miracle dressing» described for foot ulcers. The management consists of wound analysis, debridement, woundcare and especially offloading.

  8. Diabetic foot ulcer management: the podiatrist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Turns, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot complications result from two broad pathologies-neuropathic and neuro-ischaemic feet. It is important for diabetic patients to have at least a yearly review of foot ulcer risk factors, and they should have a corresponding risk classification agreed based on this assessment. Diabetic foot ulcer assessment should include a wound classification tool, which can give an indication of wounds at greater risk of non-healing or amputation. The treatment of diabetic foot ulcers should be part of a comprehensive care plan that should also include treatment of infection, frequent debridement (if deemed appropriate by a skilled specialist clinician), biomechanical offloading, blood glucose control and treatment of comorbidities. Clinicians should base dressing selection on the wound's location, size and depth, amount of exudate, presence of infection or necrosis and the condition of the surrounding tissue.

  9. Results of a pressure loads investigation on a 0.030-scale model (47-OTS) of the integrated space shuttle vehicle configuration 5 in the NASA Ames Research Center 9 by 7 foot leg of the unitary plan wind tunnel (IA81B), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chee, E.

    1975-01-01

    The investigations of pressure distributions are presented for aeroloads analysis at Mach numbers from 1.55 through 2.5. Angles of attack and sideslip varied from -6 to +6 degrees. Photographs of wind tunnel models are shown.

  10. A dynamic 3D foot reconstruction system.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Ali K; Trucco, Emanuele; Salvi, Joaquim; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2011-01-01

    Foot problems are varied and range from simple disorders through to complex diseases and joint deformities. Wherever possible, the use of insoles, or orthoses, is preferred over surgery. Current insole design techniques are based on static measurements of the foot, despite the fact that orthoses are prevalently used in dynamic conditions while walking or running. This paper presents the design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion, and its use to show that foot measurements in dynamic conditions differ significantly from their static counterparts. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Engineering and clinical tests were carried out for the validation of the system. The accuracy of the system was found to be 0.34 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.44 mm (static case) and 2.81 mm (dynamic case). Furthermore, a study was performed to compare the effective length of the foot between static and dynamic reconstructions using the 4D system. Results showed an average increase of 9 mm for the dynamic case. This increase is substantial for orthotics design, cannot be captured by a static system, and its subject-specific measurement is crucial for the design of effective foot orthoses.

  11. 20. 80 foot pony truss an upper chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 80 foot pony truss - an upper chord pin connection at a vertical post other than at the end post. Common to the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, there are two pairs per 80 foot truss and one pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  12. A method for data base management and analysis for wind tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biser, Aileen O.

    1987-01-01

    To respond to the need for improved data base management and analysis capabilities for wind-tunnel data at the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel, research was conducted into current methods of managing wind-tunnel data and a method was developed as a solution to this need. This paper describes the development of the data base management and analysis method for wind-tunnel data. The design and implementation of the software system are discussed and examples of its use are shown.

  13. Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stan

    A "stellar wind" is the continuous, supersonic outflow of matter from the surface layers of a star. Our sun has a solar wind, driven by the gas-pressure expansion of the hot (T > 106 K) solar corona. It can be studied through direct in situ measurement by interplanetary spacecraft; but analogous coronal winds in more distant solar-type stars are so tenuous and transparent that that they are difficult to detect directly. Many more luminous stars have winds that are dense enough to be opaque at certain wavelengths of the star's radiation, making it possible to study their wind outflows remotely through careful interpretation of the observed stellar spectra. Red giant stars show slow, dense winds that may be driven by the pressure from magnetohydrodyanmic waves. As stars with initial mass up to 8 M ⊙ evolve toward the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), a combination of stellar pulsations and radiative scattering off dust can culminate in "superwinds" that strip away the entire stellar envelope, leaving behind a hot white dwarf stellar core with less than the Chandrasekhar mass of ˜ ​​ 1. 4M ⊙. The winds of hot, luminous, massive stars are driven by line-scattering of stellar radiation, but such massive stars can also exhibit superwind episodes, either as Red Supergiants or Luminous Blue Variable stars. The combined wind and superwind mass loss can strip the star's hydrogen envelope, leaving behind a Wolf-Rayet star composed of the products of earlier nuclear burning via the CNO cycle. In addition to such direct effects on a star's own evolution, stellar winds can be a substantial source of mass, momentum, and energy to the interstellar medium, blowing open large cavities or "bubbles" in this ISM, seeding it with nuclear processed material, and even helping trigger the formation of new stars, and influencing their eventual fate as white dwarves or core-collapse supernovae. This chapter reviews the properties of such stellar winds, with an emphasis on the various

  14. The Charcot foot: pathophysiology, diagnosis and classification.

    PubMed

    Trieb, K

    2016-09-01

    Neuropathic changes in the foot are common with a prevalence of approximately 1%. The diagnosis of neuropathic arthropathy is often delayed in diabetic patients with harmful consequences including amputation. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment can avoid an extensive programme of treatment with significant morbidity for the patient, high costs and delayed surgery. The pathogenesis of a Charcot foot involves repetitive micro-trauma in a foot with impaired sensation and neurovascular changes caused by pathological innervation of the blood vessels. In most cases, changes are due to a combination of both pathophysiological factors. The Charcot foot is triggered by a combination of mechanical, vascular and biological factors which can lead to late diagnosis and incorrect treatment and eventually to destruction of the foot. This review aims to raise awareness of the diagnosis of the Charcot foot (diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy and the differential diagnosis, erysipelas, peripheral arterial occlusive disease) and describe the ways in which the diagnosis may be made. The clinical diagnostic pathways based on different classifications are presented. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1155-9.

  15. The management of the infected diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Caravaggi, Carlo; Sganzaroli, Adriana; Galenda, Paolo; Bassetti, Matteo; Ferraresi, Roberto; Gabrielli, Livio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease with a worldwide increasing trend. Foot complications, closely related to neuropathy and obstructive peripheral vascular disease, are responsible for more than 1 million of leg amputations every year. Foot infection can dramatically increase the risk of amputation. Although many ulcer classification systems have been proposed to stratify the severity of the infectious process, the definition of a specific therapeutic approach still remains an unsolved problem. A Diabetic Foot Triage and an Integrated Surgical Protocol are proposed to identify a diagnostic flowchart and a step-by-step surgical protocol that can be applied in the treatment of diabetic foot infection. Considering the rapid climbing of multidrug resistant strains it is very important to rationalize the use of antibiotics utilizing them only for the treatment of true infected ulcers. PAD is widely considered the most important factor conditioning the outcome of a diabetic foot ulcer. Currently no randomized control trials are reported in the international literature directly comparing open versus endovascular revascularisation in diabetic patients with CLI. Insufficient data are available to demonstrate whether open bypass surgery or endovascular interventions are more effective in these patients. A decisional flow chart in choosing the best revascularization strategy in diabetic patients with CLI is proposed. Goals and technical aspects of emergency and elective surgical procedures in diabetic foot are analysed to evaluate critical aspects and to suggest proper surgical choices.

  16. The Charcot foot: pathophysiology, diagnosis and classification.

    PubMed

    Trieb, K

    2016-09-01

    Neuropathic changes in the foot are common with a prevalence of approximately 1%. The diagnosis of neuropathic arthropathy is often delayed in diabetic patients with harmful consequences including amputation. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment can avoid an extensive programme of treatment with significant morbidity for the patient, high costs and delayed surgery. The pathogenesis of a Charcot foot involves repetitive micro-trauma in a foot with impaired sensation and neurovascular changes caused by pathological innervation of the blood vessels. In most cases, changes are due to a combination of both pathophysiological factors. The Charcot foot is triggered by a combination of mechanical, vascular and biological factors which can lead to late diagnosis and incorrect treatment and eventually to destruction of the foot. This review aims to raise awareness of the diagnosis of the Charcot foot (diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy and the differential diagnosis, erysipelas, peripheral arterial occlusive disease) and describe the ways in which the diagnosis may be made. The clinical diagnostic pathways based on different classifications are presented. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1155-9. PMID:27587513

  17. [Charcot arthropathy and diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    López-Gavito, E; Parra-Téllez, P; Vázquez-Escamilla, J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic degenerative disease, which currently is taking on alarming proportions in the population of our country. Neuropathic arthropathy is one of the most interesting degenerative joint disorders and increasingly common within the orthopedic pathology. It is defined as a progressive degenerative arthropathy, chronic and affecting one or more peripheral joints, and develops as a result of the lack of sensory perception normal in the innervation of joints. As a result the joints of the feet are subjected to trauma and repetitive injury causing a neurotraumatic effect with progressive damage to the joints of the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot. Diagnosis includes a proper medical history, careful examination of the affected limb, conventional X-ray, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in some cases. Conservative treatment includes: drugs, rest of the affected limb, and the use of appliances like total-contact cast, orthotics or special shoes. Surgical treatment depends on the stage of the disease, and may require one or more surgical procedures, in order to achieve a full foot plantar support to prevent ulcers. One of the surgeries performed most often is the fusion of damaged joints. Surgery must be performed only in the coalescence phase of the disease, using internal, or external fixation or both. PMID:27627777

  18. [Charcot arthropathy and diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    López-Gavito, E; Parra-Téllez, P; Vázquez-Escamilla, J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic degenerative disease, which currently is taking on alarming proportions in the population of our country. Neuropathic arthropathy is one of the most interesting degenerative joint disorders and increasingly common within the orthopedic pathology. It is defined as a progressive degenerative arthropathy, chronic and affecting one or more peripheral joints, and develops as a result of the lack of sensory perception normal in the innervation of joints. As a result the joints of the feet are subjected to trauma and repetitive injury causing a neurotraumatic effect with progressive damage to the joints of the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot. Diagnosis includes a proper medical history, careful examination of the affected limb, conventional X-ray, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in some cases. Conservative treatment includes: drugs, rest of the affected limb, and the use of appliances like total-contact cast, orthotics or special shoes. Surgical treatment depends on the stage of the disease, and may require one or more surgical procedures, in order to achieve a full foot plantar support to prevent ulcers. One of the surgeries performed most often is the fusion of damaged joints. Surgery must be performed only in the coalescence phase of the disease, using internal, or external fixation or both.

  19. Filament winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, A. M.

    The major aspects of filament winding are discussed, emphasizing basic reinforcement and matrix materials, winding procedures, process controls, and cured composite properties. Fiberglass (E-glass and S-glass strengths are 500,000 and 665,000 psi respectively) and polyester resins are the principal reinforcement constituent materials. Graphite and aramid reinforcements are being used more frequently, primarily for the more critical pressure vessels. Matrix systems are most commonly based on epoxy as it has superior mechanical properties, fatigue behavior, and heat resistance as compard with polyesters. A fiberglass overwrap of PVC pipe is an anticipated development in on-site winding and combination winding, and the compression molding of filament wound lay-ups will be investigated. The fabrication of weight-sensitive structural components may be achieved by using such moldings.

  20. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel...

  1. Diagnostics and treatment of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Apelqvist, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Every 30 s, a lower limb is amputated due to diabetes. Of all amputations in diabetic patients 85% are preceded by a foot ulcer which subsequently deteriorates to a severe infection or gangrene. There is a complexity of factors related to healing of foot ulcers including strategies for treatment of decreased perfusion, oedema, pain, infection, metabolic disturbances, malnutrition, non-weight bearing, wound treatment, foot surgery, and management of intercurrent disease. Patients with diabetic foot ulcer and decreased perfusion do often not have rest pain or claudication and as a consequence non-invasive vascular testing is recommended for early recognition of ulcers in need of revascularisation to achieve healing. A diabetic foot infection is a potentially limb-threatening condition. Infection is diagnosed by the presence or increased rate of signs inflammation. Often these signs are less marked than expected. Imaging studies can diagnose or better define deep, soft tissue purulent collections and are frequently needed to detect pathological findings in bone. The initial antimicrobial treatment as well as duration of treatment is empiric. There is a substantial delay in wound healing in diabetic foot ulcer which has been related to various abnormalities. Several new treatments related to these abnormalities have been explored in wound healing with various successes. An essential part of the strategy to achieve healing is an effective offloading. Many interventions with advanced wound management have failed due to not recognizing the need for effective offloading. A multidisciplinary approach to wounds and foot ulcer has been successfully implemented in different centres with a substantial decrease in amputation rate.

  2. Laser velocimeter data acquisition system for the Langley 14- by 22-foot subsonic tunnel. Software reference guide version 3.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jumper, Judith K.

    1994-01-01

    The Laser Velocimeter Data Acquisition System (LVDAS) in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Tunnel is controlled by a comprehensive software package. The software package was designed to control the data acquisition process during wind tunnel tests which employ a laser velocimeter measurement system. This report provides detailed explanations on how to configure and operate the LVDAS system to acquire laser velocimeter and static wind tunnel data.

  3. Diagnostic considerations of lateral column foot pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Traister, Eric; Simons, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Foot maladies are often classified descriptively by general foot locations, i.e., forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot. However, common vernacular verbiage, implicating a common biomechanical purpose, also applies pathology to the medial or lateral foot column. Although imprecisely defined, lateral column injuries to the foot encompass conditions that affect any of the lateral side of the foot from the calcaneus to the toes. The lateral column of the foot includes the calcaneus, the cuboid, the fourth and fifth metatarsals as well as the calcaneocuboid, cuboido-metatarsal, and intermetatarsal joints. It may be helpful to think in a "lateral column" fashion when evaluating and treating certain lateral foot injuries, load patterns, and biomechanical or anatomical faults. Misdiagnosed injuries in this area of the foot can be a source of great morbidity to the athlete. It is important for the clinician to be aware of common conditions presenting as pain to the lateral side of the foot.

  4. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    VIGIL,MANUEL G.

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels.

  5. A shift in priority in diabetic foot care and research: 75% of foot ulcers are preventable.

    PubMed

    Bus, Sicco A; van Netten, Jaap J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a heavy burden on the patient and the healthcare system, but prevention thereof receives little attention. For every euro spent on ulcer prevention, ten are spent on ulcer healing, and for every randomized controlled trial conducted on prevention, ten are conducted on healing. In this article, we argue that a shift in priorities is needed. For the prevention of a first foot ulcer, we need more insight into the effect of interventions and practices already applied globally in many settings. This requires systematic recording of interventions and outcomes, and well-designed randomized controlled trials that include analysis of cost-effectiveness. After healing of a foot ulcer, the risk of recurrence is high. For the prevention of a recurrent foot ulcer, home monitoring of foot temperature, pressure-relieving therapeutic footwear, and certain surgical interventions prove to be effective. The median effect size found in a total of 23 studies on these interventions is large, over 60%, and further increases when patients are adherent to treatment. These interventions should be investigated for efficacy as a state-of-the-art integrated foot care approach, where attempts are made to assure treatment adherence. Effect sizes of 75-80% may be expected. If such state-of-the-art integrated foot care is implemented, the majority of problems with foot ulcer recurrence in diabetes can be resolved. It is therefore time to act and to set a new target in diabetic foot care. This target is to reduce foot ulcer incidence with at least 75%.

  6. The diabetic foot--an update.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Andrew J M

    2008-01-01

    Despite an improvement in our understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of diabetic foot problems in the last 2 decades, the 21st Century epidemic of type 2 diabetes will ensure that the incidence of foot problems will continue to increase in the diabetic population. In the aetiopathogenesis it is important to understand that a number of factors working together usually result in foot ulceration: the commonest trio is neuropathy, deformity and trauma. In Western countries, the incidence of neuroischaemic ulcers is now increasing making early detection of those at risk even more important. In the pathogenesis of Charcot neuroarthropathy, recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis include the central role of the RANK-L OPG signalling system. Finally, in terms of wound healing, the most frequently neglected aspect of care is appropriate offloading of neuropathic or neuroischaemic foot ulcers. The next decades will undoubtedly see the application of stem cell therapy in the management of diabetic foot ulceration.

  7. How visual perceptual grouping influences foot placement

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, John; Goodwin, Charlotte; Burn, Jeremy F.; Leonards, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Everybody would agree that vision guides locomotion; but how does vision influence choice when there are different solutions for possible foot placement? We addressed this question by investigating the impact of perceptual grouping on foot placement in humans. Participants performed a stepping stone task in which pathways consisted of target stones in a spatially regular path of foot falls and visual distractor stones in their proximity. Target and distractor stones differed in shape and colour so that each subset of stones could be easily grouped perceptually. In half of the trials, one target stone swapped shape and colour with a distractor in its close proximity. We show that in these ‘swapped’ conditions, participants chose the perceptually groupable, instead of the spatially regular, stepping location in over 40% of trials, even if the distance between perceptually groupable steps was substantially larger than normal step width/length. This reveals that the existence of a pathway that could be traversed without spatial disruption to periodic stepping is not sufficient to guarantee participants will select it and suggests competition between different types of visual input when choosing foot placement. We propose that a bias in foot placement choice in favour of visual grouping exists as, in nature, sudden changes in visual characteristics of the ground increase the uncertainty for stability. PMID:26587273

  8. 11 Foot Unitary Plan Tunnel Facility Optical Improvement Large Window Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, Veronica M.

    2015-01-01

    The test section of the 11 by 11-foot Unitary Plan Transonic Wind Tunnel (11-foot UPWT) may receive an upgrade of larger optical windows on both the North and South sides. These new larger windows will provide better access for optical imaging of test article flow phenomena including surface and off body flow characteristics. The installation of these new larger windows will likely produce a change to the aerodynamic characteristics of the flow in the Test Section. In an effort understand the effect of this change, a computational model was employed to predict the flows through the slotted walls, in the test section and around the model before and after the tunnel modification. This report documents the solid CAD model that was created and the inviscid computational analysis that was completed as a preliminary estimate of the effect of the changes.

  9. Galactic Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    Galactic winds have become arguably one of the hottest topics in extragalactic astronomy. This enthusiasm for galactic winds is due in part to the detection of winds in many, if not most, high-redshift galaxies. Galactic winds have also been invoked by theorists to (1) suppress the number of visible dwarf galaxies and avoid the "cooling catastrophe" at high redshift that results in the overproduction of massive luminous galaxies, (2) remove material with low specific angular momentum early on and help enlarge gas disks in CDM + baryons simulations, (3) reduce the dark mass concentrations in galaxies, (4) explain the mass-metallicity relation of galaxies from selective loss of metal-enriched gas from smaller galaxies, (5) enrich and "preheat" the ICM, (6) enrich the IGM without disturbing the Lyαforest significantly, and (7) inhibit cooling flows in galaxy clusters with active cD galaxies. The present paper highlights a few key aspects of galactic winds taken from a recent ARAA review by Veilleux, Cecil, &Bland-Hawthorn (2005; herafter VCBH). Readers interested in a more detailed discussion of this topic are encouraged to refer to the original ARAA article.

  10. Effect of Custom-Molded Foot Orthoses on Foot Pain and Balance in Children With Symptomatic Flexible Flat Feet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. Method A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic technique to control foot overpronation. Pain questionnaire was used to obtain pain sites, degree, and frequency. Balancing ability was determined using computerized posturography. These evaluations were performed prior to custom-molded foot orthoses, 1 month, and 3 months after fitting foot orthoses. Result Of 24 children with symptomatic flexible flat feet recruited for this study, 20 completed the study. Significant (p<0.001) improvements in pain degree and frequency were noted after 1 and 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. In addition, significant (p<0.05) improvement in balancing ability was found after 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. Conclusion Short-term use of custom-molded foot orthoses significantly improved foot pain and balancing ability in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot. PMID:26798604

  11. Drive System Enhancement in the NASA Lewis Research Center Supersonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becks, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of NASA Lewis' Aeropropulsion Wind Tunnel Productivity Improvements was presented at the 19th AIAA Advanced Measurement & Ground Testing Technology Conference. Since that time Lewis has implemented subsonic operation in their 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel as had been proven viable in the 8- by 6 and 9- by 15-Foot Wind Tunnel Complex and discussed at the aforementioned conference. In addition, two more years of data have been gathered to help quantify the true productivity increases in these facilities attributable to the drive system and operational improvements. This paper was invited for presentation at the 20th Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Conference to discuss and quantify the productivity improvements in the 10- by 10 SWT since the implementation of less than full complement motor operation. An update on the increased productivity at the 8- by 6 and 9- by 15-Foot facility due to drive system enhancements will also be presented.

  12. Wind Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  13. Wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  14. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.

    PubMed

    Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

    2014-06-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested. PMID:24703060

  15. Approach to managing diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, John A. A.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Of an estimated 1.7 to 2 million Canadians with diabetes, approximately 10% will present each year to their family doctors with plantar ulcers. Nearly 3500 will require major lower extremity amputations. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Most of the recommendations outlined in this paper are based on level I evidence from excellent bench research and epidemiologic studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics develop foot infections. These patients are on average 60 years old and have had diabetes for more than 10 years. Physicians who insist on excellent blood sugar control, provide ongoing patient education on diabetic foot care, prescribe appropriate shoes, and practise an aggressive multidisciplinary approach to wound care can reduce the rate of lower extremity amputations by more than 50%. CONCLUSION: Foot problems remain one of the main challenges associated with diabetes, but family physicians can manage them successfully. PMID:15116801

  16. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.

    PubMed

    Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

    2014-06-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested.

  17. A review of the biomechanics of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    van Schie, C H M

    2005-09-01

    In general, diabetic foot ulcers result from abnormal mechanical loading of the foot, such as repetitive moderate pressure applied to the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes changes in foot structure, affecting foot function and subsequently leading to increased plantar foot pressure, which is a predictive risk factor for the development of diabetic foot ulceration. Prevention of diabetic foot ulceration is possible by early identification of the insensitive foot, therefore a foot "at risk," and by protecting the foot from abnormal biomechanical loading. Abnormal foot pressures can be reduced using several different approaches, including callus debridement, prescription of special footwear, injection of liquid silicone, Achilles tendon lengthening, and so forth. Off-loading of the diabetic wound is a key factor in successful wound healing, as it is associated with reduced inflammatory and accelerated repair processes. Pressure relief can be achieved using various off-loading modalities including accommodative dressing, walking splints, ankle-foot orthosis, total contact cast, and removable and irremovable cast walkers.

  18. Foot and Ankle Injuries in Runners.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam S; Yin, Amy; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2016-02-01

    Foot and ankle injuries account for nearly one-third of running injuries. Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciopathy, and ankle sprains are 3 of the most common types of injuries sustained during training. Other common injuries include other tendinopathies of the foot and ankle, bone stress injuries, nerve conditions including neuromas, and joint disease including osteoarthritis. This review provides an evidence-based framework for the evaluation and optimal management of these conditions to ensure safe return to running participation and reduce risk for future injury. PMID:26616180

  19. Development of a Composite Antenna Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnes, Lionel

    2012-07-01

    MECANO ID develops and produces composite parts using RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) and LRI (Liquid Resin Infusion) processes. In collaboration with THALES ALENIA SPACE and ONERA, this project aims at replacing titanium antenna feet, which interface the Earth deck antenna of a telecommunication satellite to its support panel, with composite feet. The objectives of the presentation are to detail: - The methodology applied to develop the composite antenna foot - The experimental validation of the foot sizing This project was granted by the French state and the region Midi-Pyrénées.

  20. Small Joint Arthroscopy in the Foot.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Christopher L; Shane, Amber M; Payne, Trevor; Cavins, Zac

    2016-10-01

    Arthroscopy has advanced in the foot and ankle realm, leading to new innovative techniques designed toward treatment of small joint abnormality. A range of abnormalities that are currently widespread for arthroscopic treatment in larger joints continues to be translated to congruent modalities in the small joints. Small joint arthroscopy offers relief from foot ailments with a noninvasive element afforded by arthroscopy. Early studies have found comparable results from arthroscopic soft tissue procedures as well as arthrodesis of the small joints when compared with the standard open approach. PMID:27599441

  1. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  2. Experiment and analysis on the flow process dynamics of the NASA-Langley eight foot transonic pressure tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, P.

    1977-01-01

    A dynamic response test performed in a eight foot transonic pressure tunnel is described. The dynamics of the flow process of the wind tunnel at transonic conditions were obtained. Descriptions of the test conditions, instrumentation, presentation of raw data, analysis of data, and finally, based on experimental evidences, an attempt to construct an input output relationship of the flow process from the viewpoints of control engineering are included.

  3. [The gold standard in diabetic foot treatment: total contact cast].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Platonoff, Adriana; Florida Mejía-Mendoza, Melissa Desireé; Ibáñez-Doria, Mónica; Contreras-Ruiz, José

    2014-01-01

    In patients with diabetes, foot complications remain one of the main health issues, with ulcers representing one of the most common. These ulcerations originate from repetitive trauma on a foot with neuropathy. Inadequate care of the diabetic foot may lead to one of the gravest complications of the diabetic foot: amputation. The key to the treatment of the diabetic foot is the control of comorbidities (glucose levels and vascular disease), debridement, exudate control with the available modern dressings, treatment of infection, and offloading the affected foot. A common error in this basic treatment is the method used for offloading, leading to delayed healing as a result, and maybe even amputation. For this purpose we propose the total contact cast considered the "gold standard" in diabetic foot offloading. The objective of the present review is to present the existing evidence in the medical literature on the effectiveness of its use for healing diabetic foot ulcers and hence preventing amputations.

  4. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part I. Pathophysiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious, life-long condition that is the sixth leading cause of death in North America. Dermatologists frequently encounter patients with diabetes mellitus. Up to 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus will develop diabetic foot ulcers. Foot ulcer patients have an increased risk of amputation and increased mortality rate. The high-risk diabetic foot can be identified with a simplified screening, and subsequent foot ulcers can be prevented. Early recognition of the high-risk foot and timely treatment will save legs and improve patients' quality of life. Peripheral arterial disease, neuropathy, deformity, previous amputation, and infection are the main factors contributing to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. Early recognition of the high-risk foot is imperative to decrease the rates of mortality and morbidity. An interprofessional approach (ie, physicians, nurses, and foot care specialists) is often needed to support patients' needs.

  5. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control. PMID:17365634

  6. 20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN AND QUOIN SHOE. May 1933 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  7. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM BELOW, SHOWING VALVE TOWER TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Measurement system for 3-D foot coordinates and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guozhong; Li, Yunhui; Wang, Boxiong; Shi, Hui; Luo, Xiuzhi

    2008-12-01

    The 3-D foot-shape measurement system based on laser-line-scanning principle and the model of the measurement system were presented. Errors caused by nonlinearity of CCD cameras and caused by installation can be eliminated by using the global calibration method for CCD cameras, which based on nonlinear coordinate mapping function and the optimized method. A local foot coordinate system is defined with the Pternion and the Acropodion extracted from the boundaries of foot projections. The characteristic points can thus be located and foot parameters be extracted automatically by the local foot coordinate system and the related sections. Foot measurements for about 200 participants were conducted and the measurement results for male and female participants were presented. 3-D foot coordinates and parameters measurement makes it possible to realize custom-made shoe-making and shows great prosperity in shoe design, foot orthopaedic treatment, shoe size standardization, and establishment of a feet database for consumers.

  10. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications.

    PubMed

    Turns, Martin

    Diabetic foot problems are a common complication of diabetes mellitus and can lead to morbidity and mortality. Foot disease is the leading cause of non-traumatic lower-limb amputation in the developed world (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2004). Diabetic foot disease is a result of three main pathologies, which can occur singly or in combination. These are: peripheral neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease and infection. Consequences of these pathologies are ulceration, Charcot foot, painful neuropathy, gangrene and amputation (NICE, 2004). This article offers a podiatrist perspective of the management of diabetic foot problems, from initial assessment to the management of complex foot disease. Patients with a diabetic foot problem must be assessed thoroughly and referred to the local multidisciplinary team, where appropriate (NICE, 2004). Recurrence of ulcers is common, and therefore good foot health education, adequate footwear and regular podiatry, if required, must be an integral part of the patient's review process (NICE, 2004). PMID:21841646

  11. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  12. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  13. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  14. Wind tunnel investigation on wind turbine wakes and wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iungo, G. V.; Coëffé, J.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction between atmospheric boundary layer and wind farms leads to flow modifications, which need to be deeply characterized in order to relate them to wind farm performance. The wake flow produced from a wind farm is the result of a strong interaction between multiple turbine wakes, so that the wind farm configuration turns out to be one of the dominant features to enhance power production. For the present work a wind tunnel investigation was carried out with hot-wire anemometry and velocity measurements performed with multi-hole pressure probes. The tested wind farms consist of miniature three-bladed wind turbine models. Preliminarily, the wake flow generated from a single wind turbine is surveyed, which is characterized by a strong velocity defect lying in proximity of the wind turbine hub height. The wake gradually recovers by moving downstream; the characteristics of the incoming boundary layer and wind turbulence intensity can strongly affect the wake recovery, and thus performance of following wind turbines. An increased turbulence level is typically detected downstream of each wind turbine for heights comparable to the wind turbine blade top-tip. These wake flow fluctuations produce increased fatigue loads on the following wind turbines within a wind farm, which could represent a significant hazard for real wind turbines. Dynamics of vorticity structures present in wind turbine wakes are also investigated; particular attention is paid to the downstream evolution of the tip helicoidal vortices and to oscillations of the hub vortex. The effect of wind farm layout on power production is deeply investigated. Particular emphasis is placed on studying how the flow adjusts as it moves inside the wind farm and can affect the power production. Aligned and staggered wind farm configurations are analysed, also with varying separation distances in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The present experimental results are being used to test and guide the

  15. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the

  16. The NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel: Historical Overview, Facility Description, Calibration, Flow Characteristics, and Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Bangert, Linda S.; Asbury, Scott C.; Mills, Charles T. L.; Bare, E. Ann

    1995-01-01

    The Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel is a closed-circuit single-return atmospheric wind tunnel that has a slotted octagonal test section with continuous air exchange. The wind tunnel speed can be varied continuously over a Mach number range from 0.1 to 1.3. Test-section plenum suction is used for speeds above a Mach number of 1.05. Over a period of some 40 years, the wind tunnel has undergone many modifications. During the modifications completed in 1990, a new model support system that increased blockage, new fan blades, a catcher screen for the first set of turning vanes, and process controllers for tunnel speed, model attitude, and jet flow for powered models were installed. This report presents a complete description of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel and auxiliary equipment, the calibration procedures, and the results of the 1977 and the 1990 wind tunnel calibration with test section air removal. Comparisons with previous calibrations showed that the modifications made to the wind tunnel had little or no effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the tunnel. Information required for planning experimental investigations and the use of test hardware and model support systems is also provided.

  17. Wind sensitivity studies of a non-return wind tunnel with a 216- by 432-mm (8.5- by 17.0-inches) test section, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, W. T.; Mort, K. W.; Piazza, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The refinement of inlet and exit treatments were studied which would minimize the effect of external wind on the test-section flow quality of a nonreturn wind tunnel. The investigation was conducted in the Ames Research Center 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel which served as the wind source. Several inlets and two exits were tested at wind directions ranging from 0 to 180 degrees and at wind-to-test-section velocity ratios from zero to somewhat greater than one. For the best inlet configuration the flow quality was good, with a velocity deviation in each of the three component directions generally less. The loss in total pressure due to the inlet treatment was low: about 0.035 of the test-section dynamic pressure for the no-wind case.

  18. Wind tunnel and analytical investigation of over-the-wing propulsion/air frame interferences for a short-haul aircraft at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.78. [conducted in the Lewis 8 by 6 foot tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, O. D.; Lopez, M. L.; Welge, H. R.; Henne, P. A.; Sewell, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of analytical calculations and wind tunnel tests at cruise speeds of a representative four engine short haul aircraft employing upper surface blowing (USB) with a supercritical wing are discussed. Wind tunnel tests covered a range of Mach number M from 0.6 to 0.78. Tests explored the use of three USB nozzle configurations. Results are shown for the isolated wing body and for each of the three nozzle types installed. Experimental results indicate that a low angle nacelle and streamline contoured nacelle yielded the same interference drag at the design Mach number. A high angle powered lift nacelle had higher interference drag primarily because of nacelle boattail low pressures and flow separation. Results of varying the spacing between the nacelles and the use of trailing edge flap deflections, wing upper surface contouring, and a convergent-divergent nozzle to reduce potential adverse jet effects were also discussed. Analytical comparisons with experimental data, made for selected cases, indicate favorable agreement.

  19. The Diabetic Foot: The Importance of Coordinated Care

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dean Y.; Wilkins, C. Jason; Evans, David R.; Ammar, Thoraya; Deane, Colin; Vas, Prashanth R.; Rashid, Hisham; Sidhu, Paul S.; Edmonds, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Because of the severe morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes, diabetic foot care is an essential component of a peripheral vascular service. The goal of this article is to describe the vascular diabetic foot care pathway and how the coordinated foot care service for diabetic patients is delivered at King's College Hospital, London. PMID:25435655

  20. [Presurgical and postsurgical orthotic management of the rheumatoid foot].

    PubMed

    Carl, H D; Swoboda, B

    2012-10-01

    Foot complaints remain frequent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) even in the era of biological anti-rheumatic drugs. Orthotic management of rheumatoid foot disorders is able to improve mobility and thus the quality of life in RA patients. This article highlights the preoperative and postoperative orthotic management of the rheumatoid arthritic foot.

  1. Tendon Transfers Around the Foot: When and Where.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ken N; Wu, Kuan-Wen; Krzak, Joseph J; Smith, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    Tendon transfers are invaluable in the treatment of severe children's foot deformities. They are often preferable to simple releases, lengthening, or fusion in surgical treatment because they provide an active motor function for deformity correction and, when properly selected, the procedures stabilize the foot against progressive deformity. The authors describe 4 commonly used tendon transfer procedures that are useful in children's foot deformity surgeries.

  2. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  3. Real-time data reduction capabilities at the Langley 7 by 10 foot high speed tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, C. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The 7 by 10 foot high speed tunnel performs a wide range of tests employing a variety of model installation methods. To support the reduction of static data from this facility, a generalized wind tunnel data reduction program had been developed for use on the Langley central computer complex. The capabilities of a version of this generalized program adapted for real time use on a dedicated on-site computer are discussed. The input specifications, instructions for the console operator, and full descriptions of the algorithms are included.

  4. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    PubMed

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  5. Rare presentation of foot postaxial polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Atif; Arshad, Ambreen; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Polydactyly is a prevalent birth anomaly observed in the foot, and a number of classification systems have been suggested for this condition. Postaxial (fifth or little toe) polydactyly is the most common type. We encountered an exceedingly rare presentation of foot postaxial polydactyly that, to our inspection, had neither been previously classified nor described in published studies. In the present report, we have described an otherwise healthy 2-year-old female who had presented to our clinic with an isolated, extra little toe on her left foot. Foot radiographs revealed the presence of all 5 metatarsals; however, the fifth metatarsal was blocked and did not give rise to the fifth toe. Instead, the fifth (medial normal) and sixth (lateral extra) toes had originated from a single, separate accessory bud from the fourth metatarsal, and the main fourth metatarsal had given rise to the normal fourth toe. The lateral sixth toe was excised, and a periosteal sleeve of the excised extra toe was used for reconstruction of the lateral collateral ligament. We propose that this heretofore unmentioned presentation of postaxial polydactyly be added to the existing systems of classification of pedal polydactyly. A review of the published data pertaining to pedal polydactyly has also been presented.

  6. [A girl with a cold foot].

    PubMed

    Rouwet, E V; Ten Raa, S; Verhagen, H J M

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a progressively cold, pale foot. Pedal pulses were absent and there was sensory and motor loss. CT angiography revealed a thromboembolic occlusion of the crural arteries and a popliteal artery entrapment. Following thromboembolectomy with popliteal artery patch angioplasty and release of the gastrocnemius muscle, the girl fully recovered.

  7. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  8. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  9. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  10. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  11. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute, 25 West... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.115...

  12. Morbidity after crush injuries to the foot.

    PubMed

    Myerson, M S; McGarvey, W C; Henderson, M R; Hakim, J

    1994-08-01

    By retrospective review of hospital records and by follow-up clinical examinations, we evaluated 58 patients with crush injuries to the foot treated at our institution between 1986 and 1990. All patients had received initial treatment according to a standardized protocol determined by the type and magnitude of the injury. Patients were examined at a mean interval of 3.3 years (range 2-4) after injury, and the functional outcome was determined according to a foot trauma rating scale. Based on this scoring system, 46% of the patients had good functional outcome, 29% had fair results, and 25% had poor results. There was a significant correlation between a good functional outcome and careful adherence to the treatment protocol; however, some patients fared poorly regardless of treatment. Poor results occurred if treatment was not immediately initiated, if soft-tissue coverage was delayed (in those who experienced severe, mangling-type injuries necessitating partial foot amputation), if patients subsequently had neuritis or reflex sympathetic dystrophy, or if patients were involved in ongoing workers' compensation and litigation. We conclude that because crush injuries of the foot may be associated with prolonged morbidity, initial management should be directed toward recognition and treatment of compartment syndromes, early soft-tissue coverage, and rigid skeletal stabilization to enhance soft-tissue healing. PMID:7965298

  13. On-the-Job Foot Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... hidden hazards. ◆ Be considerate. Watch out for other workers’ safety. ◆ Follow the rules. Don't cut corners. Use ... workplace. Only one out of four victims of job- related foot injury wear any type of safety shoe or boot, ...

  14. Imaging of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, H

    1990-09-01

    The foot and ankle are subjected to daily stresses and strains ranging from normal walking activities to the excessive forces encountered in the active sports enthusiast. These traumatic events as well as systemic and local arthritic conditions and tumors can be temporarily or permanently disabling. Early, expedited, and cost-efficient diagnosis is the daily challenge for the radiologist, clinician, and patient. PMID:1975109

  15. Diabetic foot complications: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Giurini, John M; Lyons, Thomas E

    2005-09-01

    Foot complications in patients with diabetes mellitus are a challenge to the health care industry. A great deal of expenditure is due to the management of diabetic foot complications. This places a great burden on the health care industry. It also places a great burden on those diabetic patients with foot complications and their families. Therefore, their effective management in an efficient manner is crucial to our patients. To deal with these problems, a dedicated, knowledgeable, and experienced multidisciplinary team is key. Intervention at the earliest possible time yields the best outcome. Prevention is the focus for those with no ulcerations. For those with ulcerations, prompt recognition and treatment is key. The importance of classifying ulcerations according to size, depth, presence or absence of infection, and vascular status can not be overstated. Proper offloading is vital for those with neuropathic lesions. Recognition of patients with a component of ischemia and vascular intervention to increase perfusion will aid in wound healing. Of course deep infection requires immediate drainage. All efforts of those in the multidisciplinary team are directed at the restoration and maintenance of an ulcer-free foot which is important in enabling our patients to maintain their ambulatory status.

  16. Stress fractures of the foot and leg.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S A; Saltzman, C L; Albright, J P

    1993-04-01

    Stress fractures are overuse injuries of bone. Basketball players are particularly prone to develop the notoriously "troublesome" stress fractures of the foot and leg. This article reviews the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of stress fractures, with specific emphasis on the care of the basketball athlete.

  17. A 100-kW wind turbine blade dynamics analysis, weight-balance, and structural test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The results of dynamic analyses, weight and balance tests, static stiffness tests, and structural vibration tests on the 60-foot-long metal blades for the ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine are presented. The metal blades are shown to be free from structural or dynamic resonance at the wind turbine design speed. Aeroelastic instabilities are unlikely to occur within the normal operating range of the wind turbine.

  18. Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines: Subcontract Report, July 1999--December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D. P., Jr.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Good, R. E.; Sernka, K. J.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the numbers of avian collisions with wind turbines, several measures have been employed with various levels of success. One hypothesis is that painting turbine blades to increase their visibility may reduce avian fatalities. This study examined the effects of painting wind turbine blades with UV-reflective paint on bird use and mortality at the Foote Creek Rim Wind Plant in Carbon County, Wyoming.

  19. Factors influencing accuracy and reproducibility of body resistance measurements by foot-to-foot impedancemeters.

    PubMed

    Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel; Assadi, Imen

    2015-01-01

    The electronics of a BodySignal V2 (Tefal, France) foot-to-foot impedancemeter (FFI) was modified to display the foot-to-foot resistance instead of body fat. This device was connected to electrodes of different sizes mounted on a podoscope permitting photographs of subjects feet soles and electrodes in order to calculate the contact area between feet and electrodes. The foot-to-foot resistance was found to decrease when the contact area of feet with current and voltage electrodes increased. It was also sensitive to feet displacement and a backward move of 5 cm increased the mean resistance by 37 Ω. The resistance reproducibility was tested by asking the subject to repeat measurements 10-times by stepping up and down from the podoscope. The mean SD of these tests was 0.88% of mean resistance, but it fell to 0.47% when feet position was guided and to 0.29% with transverse voltage electrodes. For good reproducibility, it is important that voltage electrodes be small and that the scale design facilitates a correct position of heels on these electrodes.

  20. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  1. 18. 80 foot pony truss detail of the lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. 80 foot pony truss - detail of the lower cord pin connection, typical of the 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, where the vertical lace post joins the upper and lower chords. There are two pair of each 80 foot truss and a single pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. The view also shows the chord eye bar and eye rod along with the diagonal bar and rod members. The rod hanging diagonally to the left is a broken lateral member. A four inch conduit is also in view. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  2. Acute bilateral isolated foot drop: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kertmen, H.; Gürer, B.; Yimaz, E. R.; Sekerci, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop is defined as the weakness of the foot and ankle dorsiflexion. Acute unilateral foot drop is a well-documented entity, whereas bilateral foot drop is rarely documented. Slowly progressing bilateral foot drop may occur with various metabolic causes, parasagittal intracranial pathologies, and cauda equina syndrome. Acute onset of bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of acute bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation. The first patient was a 45-year-old man presented with acute bilateral foot drop, without any sign of the cauda equina syndrome. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging of the patient revealed L4-5 disc herniation. To our knowledge, this is the first presented case of acute bilateral foot drop without any signs of cauda equina syndrome caused by L4-5 disc herniation. The second patient was a 50-year-old man who was also presented with acute bilateral foot drop, and had T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension. Also this is the first presented case of T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension causing acute bilateral foot drop. We performed emergent decompressive laminectomy to both of the patients and extrude disc materials were excised. Both of the patients were recovered with favorable outcome. PMID:25972945

  3. Foot Disorders Associated with Over-Pronated and Over-Supinated Foot Function:The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Hannan, Marian T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The occurrence of musculoskeletal foot disorders differs by race and obesity, and these disorders may be related to pronated (low arch) or supinated (high arch) foot function. This cross-sectional analysis examined relationships of foot disorders and foot function by race and obesity in a community-based observational study of adults 50+ years old with and without osteoarthritis. Methods Members of a prospective cohort study in North Carolina were included in this analysis (N=1466, 67.2% women, 29.5% African American, mean age 68.5 years). Foot disorders were identified with a validated assessment tool, and each foot was categorized as over-pronated, over-supinated, and referent using the center of pressure excursion index from foot pressure scans during normal-paced walking. Logistic regression models estimated associations between foot function and each foot disorder with age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and race as covariates. Results Compared to referent, an over-pronated foot was associated with hallux valgus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.65) and overlapping toes (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12-1.64), especially in the obese. An over-supinated foot was inversely associated with hallux valgus (aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97). An over-supinated foot was less likely to be associated with Tailor’s bunions among the obese and was more likely to be associated with plantar fasciitis in Caucasians. Conclusion Foot function was related to hallux valgus and overlapping toes, especially among the obese. In clinical patients as well as in the community of older adults, treatments for both the foot disorder and the pronated/supinated foot are needed. Level of Evidence Level II-2: Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort study. PMID:25037712

  4. Sex estimation from foot dimensions in an indigenous Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sen, Jaydip; Kanchan, Tanuj; Ghosh, Shila

    2011-01-01

    Dismembered/severed human remains are frequently found in cases of mass disasters and criminal mutilation. Sex estimation from foot dimensions, therefore, has a vital role in establishing personal identity. There is a paucity of literature on this issue from various Indian populations. The "Rajbanshi" is one such indigenous population located in the state of West Bengal, India. The present study attempts to estimate sex from foot length, foot breadth, and foot index among 350 living adult Rajbanshi (175 men and 175 women) individuals (age range: 18-50 years). The study concludes that foot dimensions show significant sex differences. Both sectioning point and regression analyses can be used to estimate sex from foot dimensions. However, multiple regression models appear to have the maximum accuracy in sex differentiation. Although statistically significant sex differences are evident for foot index, its practical utility appears to be limited because of considerable overlap.

  5. Terminal area energy management regime investigations utilizing an 0.030-scale model (47-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B/C/R in the Ames Research Center 11 x 11 foot transonic wind tunnel (OA148), volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Data obtained in wind tunnel test OA148 are presented. The objectives of the test series were to: (1) obtain pressure distributions, forces and moments over the vehicle 5 orbiter in the thermal area energy management (TAEM) and approach phases of flight; (2) obtain elevon and rudder hinge moments in the TAEM and approach phases of flight; (3) obtain body flap and elevon loads for verification of loads balancing with integrated pressure distributions; and (4) obtain pressure distributions near the short OMS pods in the high subsonic, transonic and low supersonic Mach number regimes.

  6. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  7. The NASA Langley 8-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Harris, Charles D.; Reagon, Patricia G.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel is a continuous-flow, variable-pressure wind tunnel with control capability to independently vary Mach number, stagnation pressure, stagnation temperature, and humidity. The top and bottom walls of the test section are axially slotted to permit continuous variation of the test section Mach number from 0.2 to 1.2, the slot-width contour provides a gradient-free test section 50 in. long for Mach numbers equal to or greater than 1.0 and 100 in. long for Mach numbers less than 1.0. The stagnation pressure may be varied from 0.25 to 2.0 atm. The tunnel test section has been recalibrated to determine the relationship between the free-stream Mach number and the test chamber reference Mach number. The hardware was the same as that of an earlier calibration in 1972 but the pressure measurement instrumentation available for the recalibration was about an order of magnitude more precise. The principal result of the recalibration was a slightly different schedule of reentry flap settings for Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 than that determined during the 1972 calibration. Detailed tunnel contraction geometry, test section geometry, and limited test section wall boundary layer data are presented.

  8. Comparison of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Similar Models in Two Size Wind Tunnels at Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Anthony M.

    1998-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of two similar models of a lifting body configuration were run in two transonic wind tunnels, one a 16 foot the other a 14-inch and are compared. The 16 foot test used a 2% model while the 14-inch test used a 0.7% scale model. The wind tunnel model configurations varied only in vertical tail size and an aft sting shroud. The results from these two tests compare the effect of tunnel size, Reynolds number, dynamic pressure and blockage on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The data accuracy and uncertainty are also presented. It was concluded from these tests that the data resultant from a small wind tunnel compares very well to that of a much larger wind tunnel in relation to total vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.

  9. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA 23012 Airfoil with Various Arrangements of Slotted Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Harris , Thomas A

    1939-01-01

    An investigation was made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel and in the variable-density wind tunnel of the NACA 23012 airfoil with various slotted-flap arrangements. The purpose of the investigation in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel was to determine the airfoil section aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap shape, slot shape, and flap location. The flap position for maximum lift; polars for arrangements favorable for take-off and climb; and complete lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics for selected optimum arrangements were determined. The best arrangements were tested in the variable-density tunnel at an effective Reynolds number of 8,000,000. In addition, data from both wind tunnels are included for plain, split, external-airfoil, and Fowler flaps for purposes of comparison.

  10. Innovations in diabetic foot reconstruction using supermicrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery.

  11. [Subintimal angioplasty and diabetic foot revascularisation].

    PubMed

    Pierret, Charles; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Bordier, Lise; Blin, Emmanuel; Duverger, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic wounds foot are responsible for 5-10% minor or major amputation in France. In fact, amputation risk of lower limbs is 15-30% higher for diabetic patients. University of Texas classification (UT) is the reference for diabetic foot wound. It distinguish non ischemic and ischemic wound with more amputation. If ischaemia is combined, revascularization may be considered for salvage of the limb. Some revascularization techniques are well known: as surgical by-pass, angioplasty with or without stent, or hybrid procedures with the both. Subintimal angioplasty is a more recent endovascular technique, in assessment for old patients who are believed to be unsuitable candidates for conventional by-pass or angioplasty.

  12. Imaging in Foot and Ankle Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Victoria H; Rowbotham, Emma L; Grainger, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    The foot and ankle are commonly involved in a range of arthritides that affect the joints, bones, and soft tissues. Accurate plain film interpretation can often aid the diagnosis and monitor disease progression and treatment response. Ultrasound and MRI afford superior depiction of the soft tissues, and advances over recent years have centered on early detection of synovitis, enabling earlier diagnosis and treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of the imaging techniques of radiography, multidetector computed tomography, ultrasound, and MRI are discussed, as is optimization of these modalities for the assessment of the anatomically complex joints of the foot and ankle. Diagnostic features enabling differentiation between rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative spondyloarthropathies, osteoarthritis, gout, crystal deposition disease, pigmented villonodular synovitis, Charcot arthropathy, septic arthritis, synovial osteochondromatosis, hemophilia, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are also reviewed. PMID:27336451

  13. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Traudt, R.F.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a wind turbine device having a main rotatable driven shaft, elongated blades operatively mounted on the main shaft for unitary rotation with the main shaft. The blade extends substantially radially away from the main shaft and is adapted to fold downwind under naturally occurring forces and simultaneously feather in direct response to the folding movement. A means associated with the blades is included for increasing the rate of fold relative to the rate of feather as the speed of rotation increases.

  14. Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.9, Longitude 69.4 East (290.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon

  15. Wind Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA needed a way to make high-resolution measurements of the wind profile before launching Saturn vehicles. The standard smooth-surface weather balloons zigzagged or spiraled as they ascended due to air vortices that shed off the surface at various positions, which made accurate radar-tracking measurement impossible. A Marshall Space Flight Center engineer modified the surface of the balloons with conical dixie cups, which stabilized them. Now produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation, the Jimsphere is the standard device at all U.S. missile/launch vehicle ranges.

  16. An Automatic Speed Control for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1928-01-01

    Described here is an automatic control that has been used in several forms in wind tunnels at the Washington Navy Yard. The form now in use with the 8-foot tunnel at the Navy Yard is considered here. Details of the design and operation of the automatic control system are given. Leads from a Pitot tube are joined to an inverted cup manometer located above a rheostat. When the sliding weight of this instrument is set to a given notch, say for 40 m.p.h, the beam tip vibrates between two electric contacts that feed the little motor. Thus, when the wind is too strong or too weak, the motor automatically throws the rheostat slide forward and backward. If it failed to function well, the operator would notice the effect on his meniscus, and would operate the hand control by merely pressing the switch.

  17. Foot posture is associated with kinematics of the foot during gait: A comparison of normal, planus and cavus feet.

    PubMed

    Buldt, Andrew K; Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Menz, Hylton B; Nester, Christopher J; Landorf, Karl B

    2015-06-01

    Variations in foot posture are associated with the development of some lower limb injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. The objective of this study was to compare foot kinematics between normal, pes cavus and pes planus foot posture groups using a multi-segment foot model. Ninety-seven healthy adults, aged 18-47 were classified as either normal (n=37), pes cavus (n=30) or pes planus (n=30) based on normative data for the Foot Posture Index, Arch Index and normalised navicular height. A five segment foot model was used to measure tri-planar motion of the rearfoot, midfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and hallux during barefoot walking at a self-selected speed. Angle at heel contact, peak angle, time to peak angle and range of motion was measured for each segment. One way ANOVAs with post-hoc analyses of mean differences were used to compare foot posture groups. The pes cavus group demonstrated a distinctive pattern of motion compared to the normal and pes planus foot posture groups. Effect sizes of significant mean differences were large and comparable to similar studies. Three key differences in overall foot function were observed between the groups: (i) altered frontal and transverse plane angles of the rearfoot in the pes cavus foot; (ii) Less midfoot motion in the pes cavus foot during initial contact and midstance; and (iii) reduced midfoot frontal plane ROM in the pes planus foot during pre-swing. These findings indicate that foot posture does influence motion of the foot.

  18. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  19. Tendon transfers for the drop foot.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Karl M; Jones, Carroll P

    2014-03-01

    The paralytic drop foot represents a challenging problem for even the most experienced orthopedic surgeon. Careful patient selection, thorough preoperative examination and planning, and application of tendon transfer biomechanical and physiologic principles outlined in this article can lead to successful results, either through a posterior tibialis tendon transfer, Bridle transfer, or variations on these procedures. Achilles lengthening or gastrocnemius recession may also be needed at the time of tendon transfer. PMID:24548510

  20. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-07-11

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required.

  1. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  2. Prospecting for Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  3. Careers in Wind Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  4. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  5. The pathway to foot ulceration in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Andrew J M

    2013-09-01

    It should now be possible to achieve a reduction in the incidence of foot ulceration and amputations as knowledge about pathways that result in both these events increases. However, despite the universal use of patient education and the hope of reducing the incidence of ulcers in high-risk patients, there are no appropriately designed large, randomized controlled trials actually confirming that education works. It has been recognized for some years that education as part of a multidisciplinary approach to care of the diabetic foot can help to reduce the incidence of amputations in certain settings. Ultimately, however, a reduction in neuropathic foot problems will only be achieved if we remember that the patients with neuropathic feet have lost their prime warning signal—pain—that ordinarily brings patients to their doctor. Very little training is offered to health care professionals as to how to deal with such patients. Much can be learned about the management of such patients from the treatment of individuals with leprosy: if we are to succeed, we must realize that with loss of pain there is also diminished motivation in the healing of and prevention of injury. PMID:23992891

  6. Health literacy and diabetic foot ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Margolis, David J; Hampton, Michelle; Hoffstad, Ole; Malay, D Scot; Thom, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The adherence by patients to diabetic foot ulcer therapy is often difficult. The goal of this study was to begin to understand how a patient's health literacy affects their foot ulcer management decisions. Initially using a cross-sectional study design, we evaluated diabetics with foot ulcers within 4 weeks of being asked to participate in a longitudinal study. We assessed health literacy using measures of general health literacy, diabetes health literacy, diabetes self-efficacy, and diabetes numeracy. Individuals enrolled in the study had higher health literacy based on the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults [33.8 (SD 2.3) versus 27.3 (SD 9.6); p = 0.009] as compared to individuals who previously declined an invitation to enroll in the study. Furthermore, patients with lower Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults scores had larger (p = 0.04) and older (p = 0.125) wounds (markers for poorer prognosis). Other measures of literacy showed similar results. In conclusion, those with diminished health literacy were less likely to enroll in an investigational study and had wounds that were less likely to heal.

  7. Diabetic Foot Biomechanics and Gait Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, James S.; Najafi, Bijan

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot complications represent significant morbidity and precede most of the lower extremity amputations performed. Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes shown to affect gait. Glycosylation of soft tissues can also affect gait. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the changes in gait for persons with diabetes and highlight the effects of glycosylation on soft tissues at the foot–ground interface. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EBSCOhost® on-line databases were searched for articles pertaining to diabetes and gait. Bibliographies from relevant manuscripts were also searched. Findings Patients with diabetes frequently exhibit a conservative gait strategy where there is slower walking speed, wider base of gait, and prolonged double support time. Glycosylation affects are observed in the lower extremities. Initially, skin thickness decreases and skin hardness increases; tendons thicken; muscles atrophy and exhibit activation delays; bones become less dense; joints have limited mobility; and fat pads are less thick, demonstrate fibrotic atrophy, migrate distally, and may be stiffer. Interpretation In conclusion, there do appear to be gait changes in patients with diabetes. These changes, coupled with local soft tissue changes from advanced glycosylated end products, also alter a patient’s gait, putting them at risk of foot ulceration. Better elucidation of these changes throughout the entire spectrum of diabetes disease can help design better treatments and potentially reduce the unnecessarily high prevalence of foot ulcers and amputation. PMID:20663446

  8. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 285.207 (2009), Alta Wind I, LLC, Alta Wind...

  9. Current wind tunnel capability and planned improvements at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowditch, D. N.

    1986-01-01

    As the propulsion and power generation center of NASA, Lewis has designed its wind tunnels for propulsion research. Therefore, the 8 by 6 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel and the 10 by 10 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel provide the capability to test operating propulsion systems from Mach 0.4 to 3.5. The 9 by 15 Foot Wind Tunnel can investigate propulsion installation problems at the lower takeoff and landing speeds and provides an excellent anechoic environment to measure propeller and fan noise. The Lewis Central Air System provides steady air supplies to 450 psi, and exhaust to 3 in. of mercury absolute, which are available to the wind tunnels for simulation of jets and engine induced flows. The Lewis Icing Research Tunnel is the largest in the free world that can produce icing conditions throughout the year. Rehabilitation of the Altitude Wind Tunnel at Lewis would allow testing of propulsion systems in the upper left hand corner which would be a unique capability. Also, in a mothballed state at Lewis, the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility could provide the best simulation of nonvitiated Mach 5-7 test conditions available. Studies are currently being made of the Lewis facilities to identify enhancements of their research potential for the 1990's and beyond.

  10. Estimation of stature from foot length and foot breadth among the Rajbanshi: an indigenous population of North Bengal.

    PubMed

    Sen, Jaydip; Ghosh, Shila

    2008-10-25

    In forensic anthropology, estimation of stature from feet dimensions plays a significant role in establishing personal identity. There is a scarcity of literature on the estimation of stature from foot length and foot breadth among various Indian populations, including the indigenous populations found in the northern part of the state of West Bengal, India. The Rajbanshis and the Meches are two such indigenous populations. The present study is an attempt to understand the relationship between stature and feet dimensions among Rajbanshi male and female individuals of North Bengal, India. Measurements of stature, foot length and foot breadth were recorded from 350 adult Rajbanshi and 100 adult Meche individuals (age range: 18-50 years) residing in different villages located in the Darjeeling District of West Bengal. The Technical Error of Measurements was within the accepted limits. The results of the present study indicate that female Rajbanshi individuals exhibit shorter stature and smaller feet than their male counterparts. Using ANOVA, it is determined that there was significant differences (p<0.05) in stature, foot length and foot breadth between sexes. Using paired t-test, it is further observed that bilateral variation was significant (p<0.05) within sexes with respect to foot length, but not with foot breadth (p>0.05). Stature, foot length and foot breadth are positively and significantly correlated with each other (p<0.01). The higher correlation coefficient between stature and foot length over that of stature and foot breadth points to the fact that foot length, rather than foot breadth, is more accurate in estimating stature. Sexual dimorphism is more pronounced than bilateral differences among Rajbanshi individuals. Using linear regression, it is observed that stature was strongly dependent on foot length and foot breadth. Foot breadth is strongly dependent on foot length. Prediction of stature is more accurate by using step-wise multiple regression. Age

  11. Wind energy program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication.

  12. Calibration of Instruments for Measuring Wind Velocity and Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogler, Raymond D.; Pilny, Miroslav J.

    1950-01-01

    Signal Corps wind equipment AN/GMQ-1 consisting of a 3-cup anemometer and wind vane was calibrated for wind velocities from 1 to 200 miles per hour. Cup-shaft failure prevented calibration at higher wind velocities. The action of the wind vane was checked and found to have very poor directional accuracy below a velocity of 8 miles per hour. After shaft failure was reported to the Signal Corps, the cup rotors were redesigned by strengthening the shafts for better operation at high velocities. The anemometer with the redesigned cup rotors was recalibrated, but cup-shaft failure occurred again at a wind velocity of approximately 220 miles per hour. In the course of this calibration two standard generators were checked for signal output variation, and a wind-speed meter was calibrated for use with each of the redesigned cup rotors. The variation of pressure coefficient with air-flow direction at four orifices on a disk-shaped pitot head was obtained for wind velocities of 37.79 53.6, and 98.9 miles per hour. A pitot-static tube mounted in the nose of a vane was calibrated up to a dynamic pressure of 155 pounds per square foot, or approximately 256 miles per hour,

  13. Numerical Study of the High-Speed Leg of a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayani, Sudheer; Sellers, William L., III; Brynildsen, Scott E.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the numerical study of the high-speed leg of the NASA Langley 14 by 22-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The high-speed leg consists of the Settling Chamber, Contraction, Test Section, and First Diffuser. Results are shown comparing two different exit boundary conditions and two different methods of determining the surface geometry.

  14. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  15. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the "foot at risk" to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-04-10

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities.

  16. Investigations of Potential Phenotypes of Foot Osteoarthritis: Cross‐Sectional Analysis From the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Michelle; Thomas, Martin J.; Menz, Hylton B.; Myers, Helen L.; Thomas, Elaine; Downes, Thomas; Peat, George; Roddy, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the existence of distinct foot osteoarthritis (OA) phenotypes based on pattern of joint involvement and comparative symptom and risk profiles. Methods Participants ages ≥50 years reporting foot pain in the previous year were drawn from a population‐based cohort. Radiographs were scored for OA in the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, first and second cuneometatarsal, navicular first cuneiform, and talonavicular joints according to a published atlas. Chi‐square tests established clustering, and odds ratios (ORs) examined symmetry and pairwise associations of radiographic OA in the feet. Distinct underlying classes of foot OA were investigated by latent class analysis (LCA) and their association with symptoms and risk factors was assessed. Results In 533 participants (mean age 64.9 years, 55.9% female) radiographic OA clustered across both feet (P < 0.001) and was highly symmetrical (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% confidence interval 2.1, 4.2). LCA identified 3 distinct classes of foot OA: no or minimal foot OA (64%), isolated first MTP joint OA (22%), and polyarticular foot OA (15%). After adjustment for age and sex, polyarticular foot OA was associated with nodal OA, increased body mass index, and more pain and functional limitation compared to the other classes. Conclusion Patterning of radiographic foot OA has provided insight into the existence of 2 forms of foot OA: isolated first MTP joint OA and polyarticular foot OA. The symptom and risk factor profiles in individuals with polyarticular foot OA indicate a possible distinctive phenotype of foot OA, but further research is needed to explore the characteristics of isolated first MTP joint and polyarticular foot OA. PMID:26238801

  17. Wind resources of Somalia

    SciTech Connect

    Pallabazzer, R. ); Gabow, A.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The results of wind energy research in Somalia are presented. The wind resource appears to be suitable for power production on 85% of the country, very intense on 10% and uniform on 70%, being regular throughout. Two areas of different wind regimes have been identified and characterized; the wind-distribution characteristics of 11 sites are presented and discussed, together with the territorial maps of the wind intensity and of the wind energy.

  18. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    PubMed Central

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification. PMID:23705058

  19. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  20. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S; Abdulhadi, Nadia N; Coppell, Kirsten J

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002-2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  1. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman.

  2. Pathogenesis of foot ulcers and the need for offloading.

    PubMed

    Rathur, H M; Boulton, A J

    2005-04-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration represents a major medical, social and economic problem all over the world. While more than 5% of diabetic patients have a history of foot ulceration, the cumulative lifetime incidence may be as high as 15%. Ethnic differences exist in both ulcer and amputation incidences. Foot ulceration results from the interaction of several contributory factors, the most important of which is neuropathy. The use of the total-contact cast is demonstrated in the treatment of plantar neuropathic ulcers. Histological evidence suggests that pressure relief results in chronic foot ulcers changing their morphological appearance by displaying some features of an acute wound. Thus, repetitive stresses on the insensate foot appear to play a major role in maintaining ulcer chronicity. It is hoped that research activity in foot disease will ultimately result in fewer ulcers and less amputation in diabetes.

  3. Wind for Schools (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses, by installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools, by implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school. This poster provides an overview of the first two years of the Wind for Schools project, primarily supporting activities in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, Montana, and Idaho.

  4. Wind energy bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This bibliography is designed to help the reader search for information on wind energy. The bibliography is intended to help several audiences, including engineers and scientists who may be unfamiliar with a particular aspect of wind energy, university researchers who are interested in this field, manufacturers who want to learn more about specific wind topics, and librarians who provide information to their clients. Topics covered range from the history of wind energy use to advanced wind turbine design. References for wind energy economics, the wind energy resource, and environmental and institutional issues related to wind energy are also included.

  5. 19. 80 foot pony truss view of upper chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 80 foot pony truss - view of upper chord pin connection at the end post, typical of the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot tress. There are two pair per pony truss for a total of 24. Shown are the vertical lace post, end post, top chord member, and a diagonal member. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  6. 6-Axis Force/Moment Sensor In Humanoid Robot Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai-Faifi, Badrih; Al-Shammary, Maryam; Al-Shehry, Zinab

    2014-07-01

    The foot is the most Important part of the humanoid .Thought the sensor of the robot can understand the environment In which they live, it is important to developed an intelligent foot. In order to walk on uneven terrain safely this poster describes an intelligent foot with 6- axis force/moment sensors for humanoid robot that is one of the solution that can help the robot to walk in uneven terrain safely.

  7. Optimal foot shape for a passive dynamic biped.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Maxine; Hubbard, Mont

    2007-09-21

    Passive walking dynamics describe the motion of a biped that is able to "walk" down a shallow slope without any actuation or control. Instead, the walker relies on gravitational and inertial effects to propel itself forward, exhibiting a gait quite similar to that of humans. These purely passive models depend on potential energy to overcome the energy lost when the foot impacts the ground. Previous research has demonstrated that energy loss at heel-strike can vary widely for a given speed, depending on the nature of the collision. The point of foot contact with the ground (relative to the hip) can have a significant effect: semi-circular (round) feet soften the impact, resulting in much smaller losses than point-foot walkers. Collisional losses are also lower if a single impulse is broken up into a series of smaller impulses that gradually redirect the velocity of the center of mass rather than a single abrupt impulse. Using this principle, a model was created where foot-strike occurs over two impulses, "heel-strike" and "toe-strike," representative of the initial impact of the heel and the following impact as the ball of the foot strikes the ground. Having two collisions with the flat-foot model did improve efficiency over the point-foot model. Representation of the flat-foot walker as a rimless wheel helped to explain the optimal flat-foot shape, driven by symmetry of the virtual spoke angles. The optimal long period foot shape of the simple passive walking model was not very representative of the human foot shape, although a reasonably anthropometric foot shape was predicted by the short period solution.

  8. Tendon Transfers Around the Foot: When and Where.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ken N; Wu, Kuan-Wen; Krzak, Joseph J; Smith, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    Tendon transfers are invaluable in the treatment of severe children's foot deformities. They are often preferable to simple releases, lengthening, or fusion in surgical treatment because they provide an active motor function for deformity correction and, when properly selected, the procedures stabilize the foot against progressive deformity. The authors describe 4 commonly used tendon transfer procedures that are useful in children's foot deformity surgeries. PMID:26589081

  9. Facts that every vascular surgeon needs to know about the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, M

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes important aspects of the diabetic foot which the vascular surgeon needs to understand to efficiently manage the diabetic foot. Firstly, it emphasises the three main pathologies which come together in the diabetic foot, namely neuropathy, ischemia and immunopathy, the latter predisposing to infection. As a result of neuropathy, the signs and symptoms of tissue breakdown, infection and ischemia may be minimal. Nevertheless the pathology emanating from such clinical events proceeds rapidly without the body being aware of it and the end stage of tissue death and necrosis is quickly reached. It is important to have a prompt system of evaluation and intervention to prevent the rapid progression to necrosis. Thus, secondly, the paper describes a simple rapid assessment of the diabetic foot, which comprises inspection, palpation and sensory testing and leads on to a modern classification and staging of the diabetic foot. This classifies six subdivisions of the diabetic foot: foot with neuropathic ulceration, Charcot foot, neuroischemic foot, critically ischemic foot, acutely ischemic foot and renal ischemic foot and six stages in the natural history of each of these subdivisions: normal foot, high risk foot, ulcerated foot, infected foot, necrotic foot and unsalvageable foot. Thirdly, it describes modern management of the diabetic foot, emphazising wound care and revascularization within the context of a multidisciplinary care team that provides integrated care focused in a diabetic foot clinic, to which patients with diabetes should have easy and rapid access. Members of the team include podiatrist, nurse, orthotist, physician, radiologist and surgeons.

  10. Diagnosis and management of infection in the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Peters, Edgar J G; Lipsky, Benjamin A

    2013-09-01

    Foot infections are common in persons with diabetes mellitus. Most diabetic foot infections occur in a foot ulcer, which serves as a point of entry for pathogens. Unchecked, infection can spread contiguously to involve underlying tissues, including bone. A diabetic foot infection is often the pivotal event leading to lower extremity amputation, which account for about 60% of all amputations in developed countries. Given the crucial role infections play in the cascade toward amputation, all clinicians who see diabetic patients should have at least a basic understanding of how to diagnose and treat this problem.

  11. Clinical workflow for personalized foot pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Bucki, M; Luboz, V; Perrier, A; Champion, E; Diot, B; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Foot pressure ulcers are a common complication of diabetes because of patient's lack of sensitivity due to neuropathy. Deep pressure ulcers appear internally when pressures applied on the foot create high internal strains nearby bony structures. Monitoring tissue strains in persons with diabetes is therefore important for an efficient prevention. We propose to use personalized biomechanical foot models to assess strains within the foot and to determine the risk of ulcer formation. Our workflow generates a foot model adapted to a patient's morphology by deforming an atlas model to conform it to the contours of segmented medical images of the patient's foot. Our biomechanical model is composed of rigid bodies for the bones, joined by ligaments and muscles, and a finite element mesh representing the soft tissues. Using our registration algorithm to conform three datasets, three new patient models were created. After applying a pressure load below these foot models, the Von Mises equivalent strains and "cluster volumes" (i.e. volumes of contiguous elements with strains above a given threshold) were measured within eight functionally meaningful foot regions. The results show the variability of both location and strain values among the three considered patients. This study also confirms that the anatomy of the foot has an influence on the risk of pressure ulcer. PMID:27212210

  12. Foot structure and footwear prescription in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bus, Sicco A

    2008-01-01

    Foot structure abnormalities such as foot deformity and limited joint mobility are common and well established components of the diabetic foot which are associated with increased levels of mechanical stress on the foot and the development of ulcers. Our understanding of foot structure abnormality in diabetes has improved recently, mainly through the findings from in vivo imaging studies. Several examples will be discussed in this review. A limited understanding, however, still exists about several aspects related to the assessment, etiology, and consequences of change in foot structure in diabetes. Knowledge on these matters is needed if we are to better deal with the implications of foot structure change in diabetes. Diabetic patients with neuropathy and foot deformity are commonly prescribed with custom footwear, in particular after ulcer healing. The goal of this footwear is to redistribute and reduce plantar foot pressures, and to prevent ulcer recurrence. However, the available evidence for the effectiveness of custom footwear in secondary ulcer prevention is not yet strong. This may be associated with several factors, including a lack of standardized or systematic approach (a set of guidelines) in footwear prescription and evaluation or with the significant variability that exists across patients in the offloading effect of different footwear interventions, which increases the difficulty of predicting what works for a given patient. Objective evaluation tools such as in-shoe plantar pressure analysis can be helpful in this regard in order to ensure efficacy of an intervention. This provides a more optimal footwear solution that may lower the risk for ulceration.

  13. Effects of El Niño-driven changes in wind patterns on North Pacific albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Thorne, L H; Conners, M G; Hazen, E L; Bograd, S J; Antolos, M; Costa, D P; Shaffer, S A

    2016-06-01

    Changes to patterns of wind and ocean currents are tightly linked to climate change and have important implications for cost of travel and energy budgets in marine vertebrates. We evaluated how El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven wind patterns affected breeding Laysan and black-footed albatross across a decade of study. Owing to latitudinal variation in wind patterns, wind speed differed between habitat used during incubation and brooding; during La Niña conditions, wind speeds were lower in incubating Laysan (though not black-footed) albatross habitat, but higher in habitats used by brooding albatrosses. Incubating Laysan albatrosses benefited from increased wind speeds during El Niño conditions, showing increased travel speeds and mass gained during foraging trips. However, brooding albatrosses did not benefit from stronger winds during La Niña conditions, instead experiencing stronger cumulative headwinds and a smaller proportion of trips in tailwinds. Increased travel costs during brooding may contribute to the lower reproductive success observed in La Niña conditions. Furthermore, benefits of stronger winds in incubating habitat may explain the higher reproductive success of Laysan albatross during El Niño conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of considering habitat accessibility and cost of travel when evaluating the impacts of climate-driven habitat change on marine predators.

  14. Effects of El Niño-driven changes in wind patterns on North Pacific albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Thorne, L H; Conners, M G; Hazen, E L; Bograd, S J; Antolos, M; Costa, D P; Shaffer, S A

    2016-06-01

    Changes to patterns of wind and ocean currents are tightly linked to climate change and have important implications for cost of travel and energy budgets in marine vertebrates. We evaluated how El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven wind patterns affected breeding Laysan and black-footed albatross across a decade of study. Owing to latitudinal variation in wind patterns, wind speed differed between habitat used during incubation and brooding; during La Niña conditions, wind speeds were lower in incubating Laysan (though not black-footed) albatross habitat, but higher in habitats used by brooding albatrosses. Incubating Laysan albatrosses benefited from increased wind speeds during El Niño conditions, showing increased travel speeds and mass gained during foraging trips. However, brooding albatrosses did not benefit from stronger winds during La Niña conditions, instead experiencing stronger cumulative headwinds and a smaller proportion of trips in tailwinds. Increased travel costs during brooding may contribute to the lower reproductive success observed in La Niña conditions. Furthermore, benefits of stronger winds in incubating habitat may explain the higher reproductive success of Laysan albatross during El Niño conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of considering habitat accessibility and cost of travel when evaluating the impacts of climate-driven habitat change on marine predators. PMID:27278360

  15. Mechanism and Design Analysis of Articulated Ankle Foot Orthoses for Drop-Foot

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Mamat, Azuddin Bin

    2014-01-01

    Robotic technologies are being employed increasingly in the treatment of lower limb disabilities. Individuals suffering from stroke and other neurological disorders often experience inadequate dorsiflexion during swing phase of the gait cycle due to dorsiflexor muscle weakness. This type of pathological gait, mostly known as drop-foot gait, has two major complications, foot-slap during loading response and toe-drag during swing. Ankle foot orthotic (AFO) devices are mostly prescribed to resolve these complications. Existing AFOs are designed with or without articulated joint with various motion control elements like springs, dampers, four-bar mechanism, series elastic actuator, and so forth. This paper examines various AFO designs for drop-foot, discusses the mechanism, and identifies limitations and remaining design challenges. Along with two commercially available AFOs some designs possess promising prospective to be used as daily-wear device. However, the design and mechanism of AFO must ensure compactness, light weight, low noise, and high efficiency. These entailments present significant engineering challenges to develop a new design with wide consumer adoption. PMID:24892102

  16. A kinematic method to detect foot contact during running for all foot strike patterns.

    PubMed

    Milner, Clare E; Paquette, Max R

    2015-09-18

    The biomechanics of distance running are studied in relation to both understanding injury mechanisms and improving performance. Kinematic methods must be used to identify the stance phase of running when data are recorded during running on a standard treadmill or outside the laboratory. Recently, a focus on foot strike patterns has emerged in the field. Thus, there is a need for a kinematic method to identify foot contact that is equally effective for both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strike patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new kinematic method could accurately determine foot contact during running in both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strikers. Overground gait data were collected at on 22 runners, 11 with a rearfoot strike pattern and 11 with a non-rearfoot strike pattern. Data were processed to identify foot contact from: vertical ground reaction force, two previously published kinematic methods, and our new kinematic method. Limits of agreement were used to determine bias and random error of each kinematic method compared to ground reaction force onset. The new method had comparable random error at 200 Hz sampling frequency (5 ms per frame) to the previous methods (7 frames vs 6-9 frames) and produced the same offset for both strike patterns (3 frames), while the existing methods had different offsets for different strike patterns (4 or 7 frames). Study findings support use of this new method, as it can be applied to all running strike patterns without adjusting the frame offset, simplifying data processing.

  17. Mechanism and design analysis of articulated ankle foot orthoses for drop-foot.

    PubMed

    Alam, Morshed; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Mamat, Azuddin

    2014-01-01

    Robotic technologies are being employed increasingly in the treatment of lower limb disabilities. Individuals suffering from stroke and other neurological disorders often experience inadequate dorsiflexion during swing phase of the gait cycle due to dorsiflexor muscle weakness. This type of pathological gait, mostly known as drop-foot gait, has two major complications, foot-slap during loading response and toe-drag during swing. Ankle foot orthotic (AFO) devices are mostly prescribed to resolve these complications. Existing AFOs are designed with or without articulated joint with various motion control elements like springs, dampers, four-bar mechanism, series elastic actuator, and so forth. This paper examines various AFO designs for drop-foot, discusses the mechanism, and identifies limitations and remaining design challenges. Along with two commercially available AFOs some designs possess promising prospective to be used as daily-wear device. However, the design and mechanism of AFO must ensure compactness, light weight, low noise, and high efficiency. These entailments present significant engineering challenges to develop a new design with wide consumer adoption.

  18. A Pacinian hyperplasia of the foot.

    PubMed

    Satge, D; Nabhan, J; Nandiegou, Y; Hermann, B; Goburdhun, J; Labrousse, F

    2001-04-01

    A case of Pacinian hyperplasia of the right great toe is reported. Pacinian hyperplasia is a rare benign and recently recognized painful lesion composed of an excess of well formed or hyperplastic Pacinian corpuscules, normaly involved in sensory innervation. This lesion that is usually observed in the hand, must be distinguished from nerve tumors harboring onion-bulb structure which are not true well formed Pacinian corpuscules and from Morton neuroma. Pacinian hyperplasia is considered a reactive lesion and not a true neoplasm. To our knowledge, this case is the first described in the foot.

  19. Phaeohyphomycotic cyst in the Foot by Exophiala.

    PubMed

    Ch, Karunakarreddy; Thejaswids, Poornachandra; Kini, Hema; Shenoy, Suchitra; Prabhu, Shivananda

    2014-11-01

    A 52-year-old male, presented to us with a swelling over plantar aspect of right foot following trauma. Clinically it was a cystic swelling diagnosed as an abscess; ultrasound showed thick walled multilocular collection with thick echogenic debris, following which complete excision of the swelling was done. A part of the swelling was sent for histopathological examination and cut section showed thick purulent material. Other part sent for culture sensitivity grew, Exophiala, which belongs to Dematiaceous group of fungi. Surgical excision with antifungal treatment is the management in general for fungal cyst, whereas in our case complete excision was done without antifungal treatment. PMID:25584264

  20. Foot and Ankle Stress Fractures in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Greaser, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of stress fractures in the general athletic population is less than 1%, but may be as high as 15% in runners. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle account for almost half of bone stress injuries in athletes. These injuries occur because of repetitive submaximal stresses on the bone resulting in microfractures, which may coalesce to form complete fractures. Advanced imaging such as MRI and triple-phase bone scans is used to evaluate patients with suspected stress fracture. Low-risk stress fractures are typically treated with rest and protected weight bearing. High-stress fractures more often require surgical treatment. PMID:27637667

  1. [Experience of treatment of diabetic foot syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pertsov, V I; Ponomarenko, O V

    2014-07-01

    In The Clinic of Cathedra of The Catastrophes Medicine, Military Medicine, Anesthesiology and Reanimatology in 2010 - 2013 yrs 53 patients, ageing 23-65 yrs, were treated for diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) of neuropathic and mixed forms. Diagnostic-treatment algorithm was proposed for determination of level and degree of a circulation and neuropathic disorders, introduction of which have promoted optimization of surgical and local treatment, improvement of the complex treatment results in patients, suffering DFS. A new method of treatment application, using combined preparation of hyaluronic acid with the sodium succinic, have permitted to achieve a complete healing of the ulcer defect.

  2. Future research on foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P

    2002-12-01

    The recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Argentina, Europe, Japan, the Republic of Korea, South Africa and Uruguay have brought to world attention the devastating effects of the disease in a naïve population and the social and economic costs of control and eradication. The fact that much still remains unknown about the natural history of FMD virus came as a surprise to some. This paper attempts to identify where research should be directed in order to be better prepared in the future.

  3. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... and Alta IX to interconnect the full planned capacity of Petitioners' wind and solar generation... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta...

  4. A basic study on quantitative evaluation of 3-dimensional foot contact with an inertial sensor for FES foot drop correction.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Maho; Watanabe, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    In these days, FES is used to control ankle dorsiflexion of hemiplegic gait. Since not only dorsiflexion but also 3-dimensional foot contact isimportant for gait stability in hemiplegic gait, evaluation and control system of 3-dimensional foot contact with FES is needed to correct foot movement. In this study, the timing of initial contact and the timing when foot movement became stationary in the sagittal plane were detected, and the inclination angles in the sagittal and the frontal planes at these timings were used for evaluation. Using the inclination angles, 10 m walking of a hemiplegic subject under the 4 different gait conditions were quantitatively evaluated. The gait conditions were without FES, stimulation to the tibialis anterior, stimulation to the common peroneal nerve, and stimulation to both the tibialis anterior and the common peroneal nerve. Result of evaluation with the inclination angles showed that stimulation to the tibialis anterior could control foot contact appropriately in the sagittal plane, and stimulation to the common peroneal nerve was better to control foot inclination angle in the frontal plane. Inclination angle at the beginning of the stance phase indicated that FES system which used in clinical site commonly is not appropriate to control 3-dimensional foot contact. It was shown that inclination angle at the beginning of the stance phase was useful to evaluate 3-dimensional foot movements for FES foot drop correction.

  5. Altering prosthetic foot stiffness influences foot and muscle function during below-knee amputee walking: a modeling and simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fey, Nicholas P; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2013-02-22

    Most prosthetic feet are designed to improve amputee gait by storing and releasing elastic energy during stance. However, how prosthetic foot stiffness influences muscle and foot function is unclear. Identifying these relationships would provide quantitative rationale for prosthetic foot prescription that may lead to improved amputee gait. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of altered prosthetic foot stiffness on muscle and foot function using forward dynamics simulations of amputee walking. Three 2D muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of unilateral below-knee amputee walking with a range of foot stiffness levels were generated, and muscle and prosthetic foot contributions to body support and propulsion and residual leg swing were quantified. As stiffness decreased, the prosthetic keel provided increased support and braking (negative propulsion) during the first half of stance while the heel contribution to support decreased. During the second half of stance, the keel provided decreased propulsion and increased support. In addition, the keel absorbed less power from the leg, contributing more to swing initiation. Thus, several muscle compensations were necessary. During the first half of stance, the residual leg hamstrings provided decreased support and increased propulsion. During the second half of stance, the intact leg vasti provided increased support and the residual leg rectus femoris transferred increased energy from the leg to the trunk for propulsion. These results highlight the influence prosthetic foot stiffness has on muscle and foot function throughout the gait cycle and may aid in prescribing feet of appropriate stiffness.

  6. Correlating seabird movements with ocean winds: linking satellite telemetry with ocean scatterometry.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Josh; Flora, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Satellite telemetry studies of the movements of seabirds are now common and have revealed impressive flight capabilities and extensive distributions among individuals and species at sea. Linking seabird movements with environmental conditions over vast expanses of the world's open ocean, however, remains difficult. Seabirds of the order Procellariiformes (e.g., petrels, albatrosses, and shearwaters) depend largely on wind and wave energy for efficient flight. We present a new method for quantifying the movements of far-ranging seabirds in relation to ocean winds measured by the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikSCAT satellite. We apply vector correlation (as defined by Crosby et al. in J Atm Ocean Tech 10:355-367, 1993) to evaluate how the trajectories (ground speed and direction) for five procellariiform seabirds outfitted with satellite transmitters are related to ocean winds. Individual seabirds (Sooty Shearwater, Pink-footed Shearwater, Hawaiian Petrel, Grey-faced Petrel, and Black-footed Albatross) all traveled predominantly with oblique, isotropic crossing to quartering tail-winds (i.e., 105-165 degrees in relation to birds' trajectory). For all five seabirds, entire track line trajectories were significantly correlated with co-located winds. Greatest correlations along 8-day path segments were related to wind patterns during birds' directed, long-range migration (Sooty Shearwater) as well as movements associated with mega-scale meteorological phenomena, including Pacific Basin anticyclones (Hawaiian Petrel, Grey-faced Petrel) and eastward-propagating north Pacific cyclones (Black-footed Albatross). Wind strength and direction are important factors related to the overall movements that delineate the distribution of petrels at sea. We suggest that vector correlation can be used to quantify movements for any marine vertebrate when tracking and environmental data (winds or currents) are of sufficient quality and sample size. Vector correlation coefficients

  7. The German and Belgian accreditation models for diabetic foot services.

    PubMed

    Morbach, Stephan; Kersken, Joachim; Lobmann, Ralf; Nobels, Frank; Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot recommends that auditing should be part of the organization of diabetic foot care, the efforts required for data collection and analysis being balanced by the expected benefits. In Germany legislature demands measures of quality management for in- and out-patient facilities, and, in 2003, the Germany Working Group on the Diabetic Foot defined and developed a certification procedure for diabetic foot centres to be recognized as 'specialized'. This includes a description of management facilities, treatment procedures and outcomes, as well as the organization of mutual auditing visits between the centres. Outcome data is collected at baseline and 6 months on 30 consecutive patients. By 2014 almost 24,000 cases had been collected and analysed. Since 2005 Belgian multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics could apply for recognition by health authorities. For continued recognition diabetic foot clinics need to treat at least 52 patients with a new foot problem (Wagner 2 or more or active Charcot foot) per annum. Baseline and 6-month outcome data of these patients are included in an audit-feedback initiative. Although originally fully independent of each other, the common goal of these two initiatives is quality improvement of national diabetic foot care, and hence exchanges between systems has commenced. In future, the German and Belgian accreditation models might serve as templates for comparable initiatives in other countries. Just recently the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot initiated a working group for further discussion of accreditation and auditing models (International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot AB(B)A Working Group).

  8. Emergency wind erosion control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    February through May is the critical time for wind erosion in Kansas, but wind erosion can happen any time when high winds occur on smooth, wide fields with low vegetation and poor soil structure. The most effective wind erosion control is to ensure a protective cover of residue or growing crop thro...

  9. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  10. Activation, orientation and landing of female Culex quinquefasciatus in response to carbon dioxide and odour from human feet: 3-D flight analysis in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Lacey, E S; Cardé, R T

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the interaction between carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) and human foot odour on activation, upwind orientation and landing of host-seeking female Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a wind tunnel. More mosquitoes landed on warmed glass beads coated with foot odour than on clean beads; adding a plume of 4% CO(2) did not influence the proportion of mosquitoes landing. A second experiment used 3-dimensional video tracking to assess flight performance. Activation was more rapid with CO(2) and with CO(2) + foot odour than with clean air or with foot odour alone. Upwind flights were fastest with CO(2) and with clean air, and slowest with foot odour; the CO(2) + foot odour treatment overlapped the previous three treatments in significance. Flight headings tended more towards due upwind with CO(2) and with clean air than with CO(2) + foot odour or with foot odour alone. In both experiments, many mosquitoes flew upwind in clean air. There was little evidence of females changing course upon entering or exiting the CO(2) plume or reacting to foot odour during flight.

  11. Endothelial progenitor cells in diabetic foot syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drela, Ewelina; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Kulwas, Arleta; Rość, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    In the late 20th century endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were discovered and identified as cells capable of differentiating into endothelial cells. Antigens characteristic of endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells are located on their surface. EPCs can proliferate, adhere, migrate and have the specific ability to form vascular structure, and they have a wide range of roles: They participate in maintaining hemostasis, and play an important part in the processes of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. They are sources of angiogenic factors, especially vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). EPCs exist in bone marrow, from which they are recruited into circulation in response to specific stimuli. Tissue ischemia is thought to be the strongest inductor of EPC mobilization. Local ischemia accompanies many pathological states, including diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Impaired angiogenesis--in which EPCs participate--is typical of DFS. An analysis of the available literature indicates that in diabetic patients the number of EPCs declines and their functioning is impaired. Endothelial progenitor cells are crucial to vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during ischemic neovascularization. The pathomechanisms underlying impaired angiogenesis in patients with DFS is complicated, but the discovery of EPCs has shed new light on the pathogenesis of many diseases, including diabetes foot syndrome.

  12. Foot microcirculation and blood rheology in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zioupos, P; Barbenel, J C; Lowe, G D; MacRury, S

    1993-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with circulatory abnormalities. The blood flow in the skin of the dorsum of the foot and haemorheological variables were measured in 36 subjects. They were divided into three equal groups of diabetic patients: those with neuropathy, and both age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects; all were characterized by age, duration of diabetes and blood biochemistry. High and low shear rate blood viscosities were measured; aggregation was characterized using a Myrerene Aggregometer. The microcirculation in the skin of the dorsum of the foot was measured using a laser Doppler flowmeter. Measurements were made at room temperature with the subjects supine with the leg horizontal, and then with the lower leg vertical; the measurements were repeated at 42 degrees C. Both diabetic groups had significantly increased low shear whole blood viscosity compared with normal subjects. The aggregation index was significantly greater in diabetic neuropaths than normal subjects. There were significant differences in the depth of vasomotor activity between the three groups, with the diabetic neuropaths commonly showing no motor activity at room temperature. The only significant correlations were between equilibrium laser Doppler values with the limb horizontal and both the low and high shear whole blood viscosities.

  13. Microsurgical management of the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Christian; Schwabegger, Anton H; Meirer, Romed; Perkmann, Reinhold; Ninkovic, Marina; Ninkovic, Milomir

    2003-11-01

    Allthough there has been dramatic progress in limb salvage in recent decades, management of nonhealing wounds in diabetic patients continues to present a dilemma for the reconstructive surgeon. However, the acceptance of free-flap resurfacing of diabetic foot ulcers has increased in recent years. This study reviews 10 microvascular free muscle flaps in nine patients over a mean follow-up period of 44 months. Five patients had evidence of peripheral vascular disease. There was one flap loss, and nine flaps were transferred successfully. No perioperative mortality was encountered. The operations required a long, costly hospitalization (average hospital stay was 40 days). Seven of eight patients whose flaps survived had complications related to the free-flap recipient site. These seven patients underwent 20 secondary surgical procedures due to arterial and venous thrombosis, partial necrosis of the skin grafts, minor local infections, and gangrene or necrosis of the remaining toes. In three patients, progressive ischemic necrosis of the remaining toes, with total survival of the flap, was attributed to a microvascular steal phenomenon. However, all eight patients whose flaps survived subsequently ambulated on their flaps. The study demonstrates that microvascular surgery may result in functional lower-extremity salvage in diabetic patients with foot wounds that are not treatable by local flaps or skin grafts, and are destined for amputation.

  14. The estimation of airplane performance from wind tunnel tests on conventional airplane models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P; Ober, Shatswell

    1925-01-01

    Calculations of the magnitude of the correction factors and the range of their variations for wind tunnel models used in making aircraft performance predictions were made for 23 wind tunnel models. Calculated performances were compared with those actually determined for such airplanes as have been built and put through flight test. Except as otherwise noted, all the models have interplane struts and diagonal struts formed to streamwise shape. Wires were omitted in all cases. All the models were about 18 inches in span and were tested in a 4-foot wind tunnel. Results are given in tabular form.

  15. Nano-ADEPT Aeroloads Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brandon; Yount, Bryan; Kruger, Carl; Brivkalns, Chad; Makino, Alberto; Cassell, Alan; Zarchi, Kerry; McDaniel, Ryan; Ross, James; Wercinski, Paul; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Swanson, Gregory; Gold, Nili

    2016-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of the Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) was conducted in April 2015 at the US Army's 7 by10 Foot Wind Tunnel located at NASA Ames Research Center. Key geometric features of the fabric test article were a 0.7 meter deployed base diameter, a 70 degree half-angle forebody cone angle, eight ribs, and a nose-to-base radius ratio of 0.7. The primary objective of this wind tunnel test was to obtain static deflected shape and pressure distributions while varying pretension at dynamic pressures and angles of attack relevant to entry conditions at Earth, Mars, and Venus. Other objectives included obtaining aerodynamic force and moment data and determining the presence and magnitude of any dynamic aeroelastic behavior (buzz/flutter) in the fabric trailing edge. All instrumentation systems worked as planned and a rich data set was obtained. This paper describes the test articles, instrumentation systems, data products, and test results. Four notable conclusions are drawn. First, test data support adopting a pre-tension lower bound of 10 foot pounds per inch for Nano-ADEPT mission applications in order to minimize the impact of static deflection. Second, test results indicate that the fabric conditioning process needs to be reevaluated. Third, no flutter/buzz of the fabric was observed for any test condition and should also not occur at hypersonic speeds. Fourth, translating one of the gores caused ADEPT to generate lift without the need for a center of gravity offset. At hypersonic speeds, the lift generated by actuating ADEPT gores could be used for vehicle control.

  16. Behavior of captive white-footed mice.

    PubMed

    Kavanau, J L

    1967-03-31

    Detailed studies of the behavior of captive white-footed mice have cast a number of old problems in new perspectives. Many responses of small captive mammals cannot be interpreted at face value because of severe distortions of behavior that are caused by depriving the wild animal of natural outlets for activity. Confined animals are likely to seize upon and repeatedly exercise virtually any opportunities to modify (and alter their relationships with) their surroundings. In addition they have a strong tendency to counteract nonvolitional and "unexpected" deviations from the status quo. As a result, their responses do not bear an immutable relationship to the nature of the stimulus or other variable being modified; stimuli and activities that are rewarding in certain circumstances are avoided in others. These aspects of behavior have been illustrated by studies of nest occupancy, running in motordriven wheels, and control of intensity of illumination. The results of the control-of-illumination studies suggest the complex interplay of tendencies to modify features of the environment, to avoid conditions imposed compulsorily, and to select preferred levels of illumination. The importance of split-second timing, coordination, and quick reflex actions in the running of activity wheels is indicated by the fact that experienced white-footed mice prefer running in square "wheels" and wheels with hurdles to running in plain round wheels. The relatively conservative behavior of these mice in selecting between multiple sources of food and water and different types of activity wheels suggests the need for careful experimental design in free-choice studies with inexperienced animals. The tendency of trained animals to give some so-called "incorrect" responses even after long experience can be interpreted most reasonably in terms of the adaptive value of a certain degree of variability of behavior in the wild. White-footed mice readily master complex regimes in which several

  17. Wind Power Outlook 2004

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-01-01

    The brochure, expected to be updated annually, provides the American Wind Energy Association's (AWAE's) up-to-date assessment of the wind industry. It provides a summary of the state of wind power in the U.S., including the challenges and opportunities facing the industry. It provides summary information on the growth of the industry, policy-related factors such as the federal wind energy production tax credit status, comparisons with natural gas, and public views on wind energy.

  18. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  19. Wind Resource Maps (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides high-resolution wind maps and estimates of the wind resource potential that would be possible from development of the available windy land areas after excluding areas unlikely to be developed. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to Wind Powering America's online wind energy resource maps.

  20. 17. 80 foot pony truss detail of the lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 80 foot pony truss - detail of the lower pin connection located where an end post joins the first and the last vertical post. There are two pair on each of the five 80 foot trusses for a total of 20. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA