Science.gov

Sample records for 9-1-1 call takers

  1. A Strained 9-1-1 System and Threats to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Davis, Andrea L; Kermis, Amelia D; Khan, Yasin; Dupuis, Roxanne; Taylor, Jennifer A

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to understand safety climate in the United States (U.S.) fire service, which responded to more than 31 million calls to the 9-1-1 emergency response system in 2013. The majority of those calls (68 %) were for medical assistance, while only 4 % of calls were fire-related, highlighting that the 9-1-1 system serves as a critical public health safety net. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 123 firefighters from 12 fire departments across the United States. Using an iterative analytic approach supported by NVivo 10 software, we developed consensus regarding key themes. Firefighters concurred that the 9-1-1 system is strained and increasingly called upon to deliver Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in the community. Much like the hospital emergency department, EMS frequently assists low-income and elderly populations who have few alternative sources of support. Firefighters highlighted the high volume of low-acuity calls that occupy much of their workload, divert resources from true emergencies, and lead to unwarranted occupational hazards like speeding to respond to non-serious calls. As a result, firefighters reported high occupational stress, low morale, and desensitization to community needs. Firefighters' called for improvements to the 9-1-1 system-the backbone of emergency response in the U.S.-including better systems of triage, more targeted use of EMS resources, continuing education to align with job demands, and a strengthened social safety net to address the persistent needs of poor and elderly populations.

  2. Delivering 9-1-1 CPR Instructions to Limited English Proficient Callers: A Simulation Experiment.

    PubMed

    Meischke, Hendrika; Ike, Brooke; Painter, Ian; Chavez, Devora; Yip, Mei Po; Bradley, Steven M; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Having 911 telecommunicators deliver CPR instructions increases cardiac arrest survival, but limited English proficiency (LEP) decreases the likelihood callers will perform CPR and increases time to first compression. The objective of our study was to assess which 9-1-1 CPR delivery modes could decrease time to first compression and improve CPR quality for LEP callers. 139 LEP Spanish and Chinese speakers were randomized into three arms: receiving CPR instructions from a 9-1-1 telecommunicator (1) with telephone interpretation, (2) using alternative, simple ways to rephrase, or (3) who strictly adhered to protocol language. Time interval from call onset to first compression, and CPR quality were the main outcomes. The CPR quality was poor across study arms. Connecting to interpreter services added almost 2 min to the time. CPR training in LEP communities, and regular CPR training for phone interpreters may be necessary to improve LEP bystander CPR quality.

  3. The 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp coordinates resection at DNA double strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Greg H.P.; Lydall, David

    2015-01-01

    DNA-end resection, the generation of single-stranded DNA at DNA double strand break (DSB) ends, is critical for controlling the many cellular responses to breaks. Here we show that the conserved DNA damage checkpoint sliding clamp (the 9-1-1 complex) plays two opposing roles coordinating DSB resection in budding yeast. We show that the major effect of 9-1-1 is to inhibit resection by promoting the recruitment of Rad953BP1 near DSBs. However, 9-1-1 also stimulates resection by Exo1- and Dna2-Sgs1-dependent nuclease/helicase activities, and this can be observed in the absence of Rad953BP1. Our new data resolve the controversy in the literature about the effect of the 9-1-1 complex on DSB resection. Interestingly, the inhibitory role of 9-1-1 on resection is not observed near uncapped telomeres because less Rad953BP1 is recruited near uncapped telomeres. Thus, 9-1-1 both stimulates and inhibits resection and the effects of 9-1-1 are modulated by different regions of the genome. Our experiments illustrate the central role of the 9-1-1 checkpoint sliding clamp in the DNA damage response network that coordinates the response to broken DNA ends. Our results have implications in all eukaryotic cells. PMID:25925573

  4. A Guide to Census Takers: Methods and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Regional Planning Center, Albany. Migrant Census Office.

    Basic function of a migrant Census Taker is to identify eligible migrant children, 0-20 years old, residing within a designated area. Census Takers work part-time with school districts, migrant programs, and community agencies within the geographic area to set up procedures for relaying information on identified migrant children. Censuses are…

  5. Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larned, Jean Garner

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets is the ultimate goal in order to help those who train, manage and prevent hostage taking events which include police officers, negotiators, recovery personnel, academics and psychologists. The overall lack of literature relating to the topic of captive-taker motivations is another…

  6. Is Test Taker Perception of Assessment Related to Construct Validity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined test takers' perception of assessment demand and its impact on the measurement of intended constructs. More than 800 test takers took a pre- and a posttest of College English Test Band 4 and filled in a perception questionnaire to report the skills they perceive as necessary for answering the test. The study found test takers…

  7. Coordinating the Global Information Grid Initiative with the NG9-1-1 Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schmitt

    2008-05-01

    As the Department of Defense develops the Global Information Grid, the Department of Transportation develops the Next Generation 9-1-1 system. Close examinations of these initiatives show that the two are similar in architectures, applications, and communications interoperability. These similarities are extracted from the lowest user level to the highest commander rank that will be involved in each network. Once the similarities are brought into perspective, efforts should be made to collaborate between the two departments.

  8. In the company of givers and takers.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam

    2013-04-01

    Employees make decisions every day about whether to contribute to others--and their willingness to help is crucial to group and organizational effectiveness. But in a competitive, often zero-sum, world of work, generosity can be a dangerous path. How can leaders foster it without cutting into productivity, undermining fairness, and allowing employees to become doormats? The key, explains Wharton's Adam Grant, is to help givers reach a more nuanced understanding of what generosity is and is not. They'll be better positioned for sustainable giving when they can distinguish generosity from three attributes that often travel with it: timidity, availability, and empathy. Givers can overcome timidity, Grant says, by learning to act as agents--using "relational accounts" to advocate for others while negotiating for themselves. They can set boundaries on when, how, and whom to help. And they can strive to be perspective takers, not just empathizers, gathering knowledge about others that can lead to more-productive allocations of time that will benefit the organization as a whole.

  9. Stereotype threat? Effects of inquiring about test takers' gender on conceptual test performance in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    It has been found that activation of a stereotype, for example by indicating one's gender before a test, typically alters performance in a way consistent with the stereotype, an effect called "stereotype threat." On a standardized conceptual physics assessment, we found that asking test takers to indicate their gender right before taking the test did not deteriorate performance compared to an equivalent group who did not provide gender information. Although a statistically significant gender gap was present on the standardized test whether or not students indicated their gender, no gender gap was observed on the multiple-choice final exam students took, which included both quantitative and conceptual questions on similar topics.

  10. The 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp stimulates DNA resection by Dna2-Sgs1 and Exo1

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Greg H.P.; Balakrishnan, Lata; Dubarry, Marion; Campbell, Judith L.; Lydall, David

    2014-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at DNA ends is an important regulator of the DNA damage response. Resection, the generation of ssDNA, affects DNA damage checkpoint activation, DNA repair pathway choice, ssDNA-associated mutation and replication fork stability. In eukaryotes, extensive DNA resection requires the nuclease Exo1 and nuclease/helicase pair: Dna2 and Sgs1BLM. How Exo1 and Dna2-Sgs1BLM coordinate during resection remains poorly understood. The DNA damage checkpoint clamp (the 9-1-1 complex) has been reported to play an important role in stimulating resection but the exact mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the human 9-1-1 complex enhances the cleavage of DNA by both DNA2 and EXO1 in vitro, showing that the resection-stimulatory role of the 9-1-1 complex is direct. We also show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the 9-1-1 complex promotes both Dna2-Sgs1 and Exo1-dependent resection in response to uncapped telomeres. Our results suggest that the 9-1-1 complex facilitates resection by recruiting both Dna2-Sgs1 and Exo1 to sites of resection. This activity of the 9-1-1 complex in supporting resection is strongly inhibited by the checkpoint adaptor Rad953BP1. Our results provide important mechanistic insights into how DNA resection is regulated by checkpoint proteins and have implications for genome stability in eukaryotes. PMID:25122752

  11. Test Takers and the Validity of Score Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Perie, Marianne; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Clark, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that test takers are as integral to determining validity of test scores as defining target content and conditioning inferences on test use. A principled sustained attention to how students interact with assessment opportunities is essential, as is a principled sustained evaluation of evidence confirming the validity or calling…

  12. Voices from Test-Takers: Further Evidence for Language Assessment Validation and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; DeLuca, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Test-takers' interpretations of validity as related to test constructs and test use have been widely debated in large-scale language assessment. This study contributes further evidence to this debate by examining 59 test-takers' perspectives in writing large-scale English language tests. Participants wrote about their test-taking experiences in…

  13. Test-Takers' Strategic Behaviors in Independent and Integrated Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the strategic behaviors that test-takers reported using when responding to integrated and independent speaking tasks in an English oral proficiency test [the Speaking Section of the Internet-based Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL iBT)] and the relationship between test-takers' strategic behaviors and their…

  14. Prehospital Trauma Triage Decision-making: A Model of What Happens between the 9-1-1 Call and the Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Cushman, Jeremy T; Lerner, E Brooke; Fisher, Susan G; Seplaki, Christopher L; Veazie, Peter J; Wasserman, Erin B; Dozier, Ann; Shah, Manish N

    2016-01-01

    We describe the decision-making process used by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in order to understand how 1) injured patients are evaluated in the prehospital setting; 2) field triage criteria are applied in-practice; and 3) selection of a destination hospital is determined. We conducted separate focus groups with advanced and basic life support providers from rural and urban/suburban regions. Four exploratory focus groups were conducted to identify overarching themes and five additional confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify initial focus group findings and provide additional detail regarding trauma triage decision-making and application of field triage criteria. All focus groups were conducted by a public health researcher with formal training in qualitative research. A standardized question guide was used to facilitate discussion at all focus groups. All focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Responses were coded and categorized into larger domains to describe how EMS providers approach trauma triage and apply the Field Triage Decision Scheme. We conducted 9 focus groups with 50 EMS providers. Participants highlighted that trauma triage is complex and there is often limited time to make destination decisions. Four overarching domains were identified within the context of trauma triage decision-making: 1) initial assessment; 2) importance of speed versus accuracy; 3) usability of current field triage criteria; and 4) consideration of patient and emergency care system-level factors. Field triage is a complex decision-making process which involves consideration of many patient and system-level factors. The decision model presented in this study suggests that EMS providers place significant emphasis on speed of decisions, relying on initial impressions and immediately observable information, rather than precise measurement of vital signs or systematic application of field triage criteria. PMID:26017368

  15. Prehospital Trauma Triage Decision-making: A Model of What Happens between the 9-1-1 Call and the Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Cushman, Jeremy T; Lerner, E Brooke; Fisher, Susan G; Seplaki, Christopher L; Veazie, Peter J; Wasserman, Erin B; Dozier, Ann; Shah, Manish N

    2016-01-01

    We describe the decision-making process used by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in order to understand how 1) injured patients are evaluated in the prehospital setting; 2) field triage criteria are applied in-practice; and 3) selection of a destination hospital is determined. We conducted separate focus groups with advanced and basic life support providers from rural and urban/suburban regions. Four exploratory focus groups were conducted to identify overarching themes and five additional confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify initial focus group findings and provide additional detail regarding trauma triage decision-making and application of field triage criteria. All focus groups were conducted by a public health researcher with formal training in qualitative research. A standardized question guide was used to facilitate discussion at all focus groups. All focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Responses were coded and categorized into larger domains to describe how EMS providers approach trauma triage and apply the Field Triage Decision Scheme. We conducted 9 focus groups with 50 EMS providers. Participants highlighted that trauma triage is complex and there is often limited time to make destination decisions. Four overarching domains were identified within the context of trauma triage decision-making: 1) initial assessment; 2) importance of speed versus accuracy; 3) usability of current field triage criteria; and 4) consideration of patient and emergency care system-level factors. Field triage is a complex decision-making process which involves consideration of many patient and system-level factors. The decision model presented in this study suggests that EMS providers place significant emphasis on speed of decisions, relying on initial impressions and immediately observable information, rather than precise measurement of vital signs or systematic application of field triage criteria.

  16. Chinese College Test Takers' Individual Differences and Reading Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limei

    2016-06-01

    This study reports on the relationships between test takers' individual differences and their performance on a reading comprehension test. A total of 518 Chinese college students (252 women and 256 men; M age = 19.26 year, SD = 0.98) answered a questionnaire and sit for a reading comprehension test. The study found that test takers' L2 language proficiency was closely linked to their test performance. Test takers' employment of strategies was significantly and positively associated with their performance on the test. Test takers' motivation was found to be significantly associated with reading test performance. Test anxiety was negatively related to their use of reading strategies and test performance. The results of the study lent support to the threshold hypothesis of language proficiency. The implications for classroom teaching were provided.

  17. Chinese College Test Takers' Individual Differences and Reading Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limei

    2016-06-01

    This study reports on the relationships between test takers' individual differences and their performance on a reading comprehension test. A total of 518 Chinese college students (252 women and 256 men; M age = 19.26 year, SD = 0.98) answered a questionnaire and sit for a reading comprehension test. The study found that test takers' L2 language proficiency was closely linked to their test performance. Test takers' employment of strategies was significantly and positively associated with their performance on the test. Test takers' motivation was found to be significantly associated with reading test performance. Test anxiety was negatively related to their use of reading strategies and test performance. The results of the study lent support to the threshold hypothesis of language proficiency. The implications for classroom teaching were provided. PMID:27173665

  18. The KYxxL motif in Rad17 protein is essential for the interaction with the 9-1-1 complex.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Ikeuchi, Masayoshi; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2016-09-01

    ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint is the major DNA damage checkpoint against UV irradiation and DNA replication stress. The Rad17-RFC and Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complexes interact with each other to contribute to ATR signaling, however, the precise regulatory mechanism of the interaction has not been established. Here, we identified a conserved sequence motif, KYxxL, in the AAA+ domain of Rad17 protein, and demonstrated that this motif is essential for the interaction with the 9-1-1 complex. We also show that UV-induced Rad17 phosphorylation is increased in the Rad17 KYxxL mutants. These data indicate that the interaction with the 9-1-1 complex is not required for Rad17 protein to be an efficient substrate for the UV-induced phosphorylation. Our data also raise the possibility that the 9-1-1 complex plays a negative regulatory role in the Rad17 phosphorylation. We also show that the nucleotide-binding activity of Rad17 is required for its nuclear localization. PMID:27387238

  19. 77 FR 45607 - 9-1-1 Resiliency and Reliability In Wake of, June 29, 2012, Derecho Storm In Central, Mid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... COMMISSION 9-1-1 Resiliency and Reliability In Wake of, June 29, 2012, Derecho Storm In Central, Mid-Atlantic... Regarding Derecho Impact, Effects, and Restoration Efforts The Commission poses a series of questions... what ways was the derecho an ``extraordinary'' event? For example, compared to other types of...

  20. Validation of an Academic Listening Test: Effects of "Breakdown" Tests and Test Takers' Cognitive Awareness of Listening Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Youngshin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the breakdown effect of a listening comprehension test, whether test takers are affected in comprehending lectures by impediments, and collected test takers' cognitive awareness on test tasks which contain listening breakdown factors how they perceived these impediments. In this context of the study, a "Breakdown" is a test…

  1. What's in a Topic? Exploring the Interaction between Test-Taker Age and Item Content in High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Jayanti; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigates differential item functioning (DIF) in a listening comprehension test. The study explores the relationship between test-taker age and the items' language domains across multiple test forms. The data comprise test-taker responses (N = 2,861) to a total of 133 unique items, 46 items of which were…

  2. Relationships between Chinese College Test Takers' Strategy Use and EFL Reading Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Limei; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relationships between test takers' strategy use and test performance on an EFL reading test. For this study 209 Chinese college students were invited to participate in a reading comprehension test and answer a 30-item strategy use questionnaire. Results showed that two factors underlay test takers' reading test…

  3. Listening to Test-Takers: The Use of Supplemental Comments in Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    Supplemental or peripheral responses by test takers are seldom used by examiners, but in this study a program introduced by Thomas Edison State College (New Jersey) to allow the examined student to provide feedback to the testers and graders was studied. Student comment forms were designed to enable the student to identify problems with the test…

  4. Detection of Unmotivated Test Takers through an Analysis of Response Patterns: Beyond Person-Fit Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twiste, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of patterned responding in unmotivated test takers was investigated through the formation of a novel method. The proposed method relied on marginal proportions of answer choice options as well as the transitional proportions between responses on item pairs. A chi square analysis was used to determine the degree of significance…

  5. Use of a Statement of Test Taker Rights in Employment Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Kevin L.

    Professionals often seem to view guidelines, standards, and the like, not to mention legal mandates, as adding to their work load. It is argued that a widely promulgated set of test taker rights would actually make the work of personnel selection professionals easier. The California court case Soroka v. Dayton-Hudson Corporation, in which test…

  6. Policies of Global English Tests: Test-Takers' Perspectives on the IELTS Retake Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2016-01-01

    Globalized English proficiency tests such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) are increasingly playing the role of gatekeepers in a globalizing world. Although the use of the IELTS as a "policy tool" for making decisions in the areas of study, work and migration impacts on test-takers' lives and life chances, not…

  7. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  8. Three Essays on Teacher Education Programs and Test-Takers' Response Times on Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation includes three essays: one essay focuses on the effect of teacher preparation programs on teacher knowledge while the other two focus on test-takers' response times on test items. Essay One addresses the problem of how opportunities to learn in teacher preparation programs influence future elementary mathematics teachers'…

  9. Obstetrician/Gynecologists and Postpartum Mental Health: Differences between CME Course Takers and Nontakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddy, Meaghan A.; Farrow, Victoria A.; Joseph, Gerald F., Jr.; Schulkin, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Continuing medical education (CME) courses are an essential component of professional development. Research indicates a continued need for understanding how and why physicians select certain CME courses, as well as the differences between CME course takers and nontakers. Purpose: Obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) are health care…

  10. Effective Communication with the Impulsive Risk Taker: Hypotheses from Four Focus Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, J. M.; Ferguson, M. A.

    A study investigated how impulsiveness affects perceptions of risks, and examined message strategies that might be effective in reaching risk-takers. Twenty-two undergraduate subjects who scored high on a risk-taking measure/survey participated in one of four 60-90 minute focus groups in which participants discussed their health, their concerns…

  11. Response Time as an Indicator of Test Taker Speed: Assumptions Meet Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    The growing presence of computer-based testing has brought with it the capability to routinely capture the time that test takers spend on individual test items. This, in turn, has led to an increased interest in potential applications of response time in measuring intellectual ability and achievement. Goldhammer (this issue) provides a very useful…

  12. House calls.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Brian K; Tatum, Paul E

    2011-04-15

    House calls provide a unique perspective on patients' environment and health problems. The demand for house calls is expected to increase considerably in future decades as the U.S. population ages. Although study results have been inconsistent, house calls involving multidisciplinary teams may reduce hospital readmissions and long-term care facility stays. Common indications for house calls are management of acute or chronic illnesses, and palliative care. Medicare beneficiaries must meet specific criteria to be eligible for home health services. The INHOMESSS mnemonic provides a checklist for components of a comprehensive house call. In addition to performing a clinical assessment, house calls may involve observing the patient performing daily activities, reconciling medication discrepancies, and evaluating home safety. House calls can be integrated into practice with careful planning, including clustering house calls by geographic location and coordinating visits with other health care professionals and agencies.

  13. MRN- and 9-1-1-Independent Activation of the ATR-Chk1 Pathway during the Induction of the Virulence Program in the Phytopathogen Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Tenorio-Gómez, María; de Sena-Tomás, Carmen; Pérez-Martín, Jose

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) leads to DNA repair, and depending on the extent of the damage, to further events, including cell death. Evidence suggests that cell differentiation may also be a consequence of the DDR. During the formation of the infective hypha in the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, two DDR kinases, Atr1 and Chk1, are required to induce a G2 cell cycle arrest, which in turn is essential to display the virulence program. However, the triggering factor of DDR in this process has remained elusive. In this report we provide data suggesting that no DNA damage is associated with the activation of the DDR during the formation of the infective filament in U. maydis. We have analyzed bulk DNA replication during the formation of the infective filament, and we found no signs of impaired DNA replication. Furthermore, using RPA-GFP fusion as a surrogate marker of the presence of DNA damage, we were unable to detect any sign of DNA damage at the cellular level. In addition, neither MRN nor 9-1-1 complexes, both instrumental to transmit the DNA damage signal, are required for the induction of the above mentioned cell cycle arrest, as well as for virulence. In contrast, we have found that the claspin-like protein Mrc1, which in other systems serves as scaffold for Atr1 and Chk1, was required for both processes. We discuss possible alternative ways to trigger the DDR, independent of DNA damage, in U. maydis during virulence program activation.

  14. The N-terminus of Mcm10 is important for interaction with the 9-1-1 clamp and in resistance to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Alver, Robert C.; Zhang, Tianji; Josephrajan, Ajeetha; Fultz, Brandy L.; Hendrix, Chance J.; Das-Bradoo, Sapna; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate replication of the genome requires the evolutionarily conserved minichromosome maintenance protein, Mcm10. Although the details of the precise role of Mcm10 in DNA replication are still debated, it interacts with the Mcm2-7 core helicase, the lagging strand polymerase, DNA polymerase-α and the replication clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Loss of these interactions caused by the depletion of Mcm10 leads to chromosome breakage and cell cycle checkpoint activation. However, whether Mcm10 has an active role in DNA damage prevention is unknown. Here, we present data that establish a novel role of the N-terminus of Mcm10 in resisting DNA damage. We show that Mcm10 interacts with the Mec3 subunit of the 9-1-1 clamp in response to replication stress evoked by UV irradiation or nucleotide shortage. We map the interaction domain with Mec3 within the N-terminal region of Mcm10 and demonstrate that its truncation causes UV light sensitivity. This sensitivity is not further enhanced by a deletion of MEC3, arguing that MCM10 and MEC3 operate in the same pathway. Since Rad53 phosphorylation in response to UV light appears to be normal in N-terminally truncated mcm10 mutants, we propose that Mcm10 may have a role in replication fork restart or DNA repair. PMID:24972833

  15. Analysis of Test Takers' Metacognitive and Cognitive Strategy Use and EFL Reading Test Performance: A Multi-Sample SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Limei; Goh, Christine C. M.; Kunnan, Antony John

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between test takers' metacognitive and cognitive strategy use through a questionnaire and their test performance on an English as a Foreign Language reading test. A total of 593 Chinese college test takers responded to a 38-item metacognitive and cognitive strategy questionnaire and a 50-item reading…

  16. Test Takers' Attitudes about the TOEFL iBT[TM]. TOEFL iBT Research Report. RR-10-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Attali, Yigal

    2010-01-01

    The principal aims of this study, a conceptual replication of an earlier investigation of the TOEFL[R] computer-based test, or TOEFL CBT, in Buenos Aires, Cairo, and Frankfurt, were to assess test takers' reported acceptance of the TOEFL Internet-based test, or TOEFL iBT[TM], and its associations with possible determinants of this acceptance and…

  17. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  18. Investigating the Validity of an Integrated Listening-Speaking Task: A Discourse-Based Analysis of Test Takers' Oral Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Kellie; Elder, Catherine; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Performance on integrated tasks requires candidates to engage skills and strategies beyond language proficiency alone, in ways that can be difficult to define and measure for testing purposes. While it has been widely recognized that stimulus materials impact test performance, our understanding of the way in which test takers make use of these…

  19. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  20. Soccer penalty takers' uniform colour and pre-penalty kick gaze affect the impressions formed of them by opposing goalkeepers.

    PubMed

    Greenlees, Iain; Leyland, Alex; Thelwell, Richard; Filby, William

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of soccer players' uniform colour and gaze behaviour on the impressions that are formed of them by opposing goalkeepers. Twelve soccer goalkeepers observed video footage, filmed from between the goalposts to simulate their usual viewpoint, of four players preparing to take a penalty kick. Each of the four players displayed a different combination of gaze (either 90% or 10% with gaze operationalized as looking directly at the camera) and uniform colour (red or white). Goalkeepers rated each player on a series of descriptors (e.g. confidence, composure, assertiveness) and rated their expectancies for successfully saving penalty kicks from that player. Analysis revealed that those penalty takers displaying 90% gaze were perceived to possess positive characteristics to a greater extent than penalty takers displaying 10% gaze. Results also revealed penalty takers wearing red were perceived to possess positive characteristics to a greater extent than those wearing white. Goalkeepers reported higher expectancies of saving penalties from penalty takers displaying 10% gaze and wearing white uniforms than any of the other combinations. Our results therefore support the potential importance of gaze and uniform colour in the formation of impressions and expectancies in sport. PMID:18344127

  1. An Analysis of the Relationships between Test Takers' Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use and Second Language Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, James Enos

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between test takers' strategy and their performance on second-language tests (SLTP) comprising an 80-item Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Questionnaire and a 70-item standardized language test. Results explain SLTP by grammar and reading ability; cognitive processing by comprehending, storing, and retrieval…

  2. Dominant rats are natural risk takers and display increased motivation for food reward.

    PubMed

    Davis, J F; Krause, E G; Melhorn, S J; Sakai, R R; Benoit, S C

    2009-08-01

    Risk-taking behavior is a vital aspect mediating the formation of social structure in animals. Here, we utilized the visible burrow system (VBS), a model in which rats form dominance hierarchies, to test the hypothesis that dominant rats in the VBS are natural risk takers and display an increased motivational state after VBS exposure. In particular, we predicted that dominant rats would have attenuated anxiety-like behavior and augmented acquisition of operant responding for food reward relative to subordinate and controls. We further hypothesized that these behaviors would correlate with elevated mesocortical orexin signaling. Prior to burrow exposure, male Long-Evans rats were tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM), and subsequently exposed to the VBS for seven consecutive days. At the conclusion of burrow exposure body weight and plasma corticosterone were used to confirm social rank within each colony. Interestingly, rats that went on to become dominant in the VBS spent significantly more time in the open arms of the EPM prior to burrow exposure and displayed increased operant responding for food reward. This effect was present over a range of reinforcement schedules and also persisted for up to 1 month following VBS exposure. Moreover, dominant rats displayed increased orexin receptor mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) relative to subordinate and control rats. These data support previous findings from our group and are consistent with the hypothesis that risk-taking behavior may precede dominance formation in social hierarchies. PMID:19393296

  3. Test Takers' Writing Activities during the "TOEFL iBT"® Writing Tasks: A Stimulated Recall Study. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-25. ETS Research Report No. RR-15-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the writing activities that test takers engage in when responding to the writing tasks in the "TOEFL iBT"[superscript R] test and to examine the effects of task type and test-taker English language proficiency (ELP) and keyboarding skills on the frequency and distribution of these activities. Each of 22 test…

  4. The Speaking Section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT): Test-Takers' Reported Strategic Behaviors. TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Huang, Li-Shih; Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study responds to the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) research agenda concerning the need to understand the processes and knowledge that test-takers utilize. Specifically, it investigates the strategic behaviors test-takers reported using when taking the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT). It also investigates…

  5. What Has Experience Got to Do with It? An Exploration of L1 and L2 Test Takers' Perceptions of Test Performance and Alignment to Classroom Literacy Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Christine; Cheng, Liying; Fox, Janna; Klinger, Don; Zheng, Ying

    2011-01-01

    The importance of first language (L1) and second language (L2) test takers' experience with large-scale literacy testing has been well documented in educational research. Our study focused on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT), a cross-curricular literacy test that is one of the graduation requirements for Ontario high school…

  6. Investigating the Effects of Strategy Use and Second Language Test Performance with High- and Low-Ability Test Takers: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, James E.

    1998-01-01

    Uses structural equation modelling to examine the relationship between learning strategy use and second-language test performance (SLTP) in 1,382 high- and low-ability test takers. Results showed metacognitive strategy use and SLTP models produced similar factorial structures for each group; cognitive strategy use models differed. This suggests…

  7. A call center primer.

    PubMed

    Durr, W

    1998-01-01

    Call centers are strategically and tactically important to many industries, including the healthcare industry. Call centers play a key role in acquiring and retaining customers. The ability to deliver high-quality and timely customer service without much expense is the basis for the proliferation and expansion of call centers. Call centers are unique blends of people and technology, where performance indicates combining appropriate technology tools with sound management practices built on key operational data. While the technology is fascinating, the people working in call centers and the skill of the management team ultimately make a difference to their companies. PMID:10182518

  8. Calling All Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Mary D.; Doyle, John C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how to establish and operate a call center that handles customer service, telemarketing, collections, and other customer-focused areas. Discusses the advantages of a call center, the new opportunities that will arise as a result of emerging technologies, and the challenges of recruiting, training, and retaining personnel. (JOW)

  9. Knowledge and practice of mothers/care-takers towards diarrhoea and its treatment in rural communities in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ketsela, T; Asfaw, M; Belachew, C

    1991-10-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Knowledge and practices of mothers or other care-takers of children are important determinants of the occurrence or outcome of diarrhoeal diseases. Base-line information on these variables is also needed for developing health education programmes and for formulating national policy on home fluid therapy. This study was conducted with the objectives of assessing the knowledge and practice of mothers and other caretakers of children towards diarrhoeal diseases and the sociodemographic correlates of adequate knowledge and practice. A study was conducted in the rural North, South, East and West Shewa Administrative Regions in April, 1990. A two-stage cluster sampling proportionate to size was used to select a total of 750 mothers or other caretakers. These were interviewed by trained and supervised health workers who used a pretested questionnaire. The three major ethnic groups were Oromo, Guragie and Hadya. Of the total respondents, 79.3% were illiterate, 78.5% got their water from unprotected sources, 88.9% had no latrines, 80.4% had no access to mass media and 7.1% spent more than 2 hours to reach to the nearest health facilities. Only 2.6% and 5.7% of mothers had adequate knowledge and practice on diarrhoea or its treatment, respectively. Age and educational level of mothers or other caretakers were found to be positively associated with adequate knowledge and practice towards diarrhoea and its treatment. The study clearly indicated that health education messages have not been effectively disseminated to the rural population. It is, therefore, strongly recommended that the Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme strengthens its communication activities through increasing persuasion of health workers who could serve as effective means of reaching the population who have access to health services.

  10. CALL on Mac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuzawa, Jeannette L.; Lubin, Jan M.

    Five computer programs for the Macintosh that are geared for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are described. All five programs allow the teacher to input material. The first program allows entry of new vocabulary lists including definition, a sentence in which the exact word is used, a fill-in-the-blank exercise, and the word's phonetics…

  11. When Crises Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

  12. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  13. Wake-Up Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

  14. Are doctors risk takers?

    PubMed Central

    Pikkel, Dvora; Pikkel Igal, Yael Sara; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Pikkel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective Risk taking affects human behavior in general and decisions in medicine in particular. We used game theory to assess physicians’ risk-taking tendencies. Methods Physicians were recruited to the study by advertisement. It was explained that they would receive a sum of money for correct prediction of the flipping of a coin. They could try to sell their opportunity to flip the coin for an amount of money they determined. The sum offered by the participants was considered an indicator of risk taking. A demographic questionnaire assessed age, sex, seniority, and area of specialization of the participants. A multivariate analysis assessed associations between risk-taking behavior and, seniority, and specialization. Results Sixty-two physicians participated, 36 males and 26 females, seniority 1–34 years. Of a possible range of 0–10, the mean score for risk taking was 5.5 – just slightly more than indifference. Negative correlations were found between risk taking and seniority, and between risk taking and age (β =−0.45, P<0.001 for both). Surgeons and anesthesiologists showed greater risk taking than did other physicians (β =0.69, P<0.05); and females less than males, though the latter correlation was not statistically significant. Conclusion Understanding the tendency of physicians to risk taking may elucidate their decision-making processes and contribute to understanding of causes of adverse events and to the education of physicians. PMID:27382344

  15. Just call it "treatment".

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Peter D; Schwartz, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Although many in the addiction treatment field use the term "medication-assisted treatment" to describe a combination of pharmacotherapy and counseling to address substance dependence, research has demonstrated that opioid agonist treatment alone is effective in patients with opioid dependence, regardless of whether they receive counseling. The time has come to call pharmacotherapy for such patients just "treatment". An explicit acknowledgment that medication is an essential first-line component in the successful management of opioid dependence. PMID:23186149

  16. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  17. Investigating the Relationship between Test-Taker Background Characteristics and Test Performance in a Heterogeneous English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) Test Population: A Factor Analytic Approach. Research Report. ETS RR-15-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manna, Venessa F.; Yoo, Hanwook

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the heterogeneity in the English-as-a-second-language (ESL) test population by modeling the relationship between test-taker background characteristics and test performance as measured by the "TOEFL iBT"® using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with covariate approach. The background characteristics studied…

  18. Learning as Calling and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

  19. An Evaluation Framework for CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2016-01-01

    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  20. Ebola: a call to action.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The size, speed and potential reach of the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa presents a wake-up call to the research and pharmaceutical communities - and to federal governments - of the continuing need to invest resources in the study and cure of emerging infectious diseases.

  1. Formative Considerations Using Integrative CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Philip; Shaver, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Addresses technical and learning issues relating to a formative implementation of a computer assisted language learning (CALL) browser-based intermediate Russian program. Instruction took place through a distance education implementation and in a grouped classroom using a local-area network. Learners indicated the software was clear, motivating,…

  2. Call for improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  3. Emergency imaging discrepancy rates at a level 1 trauma center: identifying the most common on-call resident "misses".

    PubMed

    Tomich, Jennifer; Retrouvey, Michele; Shaves, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    The focus of our research is to identify the most frequently reported on-call discrepancies at our hospital by modality and level of resident training. Our intent is to identify specific areas of concern that may be amenable to improvement through initiation of dedicated resident training in the field of emergency radiology. Our study included 648 significant discrepancies from 193,722 studies ordered through the emergency department over a 7-year period. The overall discrepancy rates were calculated for each resident level of training and modality type. Significance was determined using χ2 testing with α = 0.05. The most common types of discrepancies were identified. The overall rate of reported discrepancies was low for all levels of training (0.23-0.42 %) with a small, but statistically significant, decrease in rate for the senior residents. Common categories of discrepancies for all residents included fractures on radiographs (XR) and computed tomography (CT), masses and hemorrhage on CT, and lung nodules and pulmonary infiltrates on radiographs. Specific discrepancies reported more frequently for new call-takers included phalangeal fractures on XR as well as white matter disease, hepatic lacerations, pyelonephritis, peritoneal fluid, lymphadenopathy, and pneumothoraces on CT. It is our recommendation that radiology resident training programs ensure that the common discrepancies illustrated herein are specifically addressed as part of a dedicated emergency radiology course.

  4. Call to Restore Mesopotamian Marshlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Call to restore Mesopotamian marshlands When the current military conflict in Iraq has concluded, a rehabilitation of that country should include a full assessment and action plan for restoring the marshlands of Mesopotamia, the United Nations Environment Programme said on 22 March. The marshlands, also known as the Fertile Crescent, could disappear within three to five years, according to UNEP. UNEP Executive Director Klaus Toepfer said the loss of the marshlands ``is an environmental catastrophe for this region and underscores the huge pressures facing wetlands and freshwater ecosystems across the world.''

  5. Report calls for riparian protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A 22 March report by The (U.S.) National Academies calls for the protection and restoration of riparian areas in the United States. However, it concedes that key difficulties in this endeavor include the lack of basic information about the extent and ecological health of these areas, and even a precise ecological definition of what a riparian area is.The report, “Riparian Areas: Functions and Strategies for Management” prepared by the Water Science and Technology Board of the National Research Council, states that “restoration of riparian functions along America's water bodies should be a national goal.”

  6. Function of loud calls in wild bonobos.

    PubMed

    White, Frances; Waller, Michel; Boose, Klaree; Merrill, Michelle; Wood, Kimberley

    2015-07-20

    Under the social origins hypothesis, human language is thought to have evolved within the framework of non-human primate social contexts and relationships. Our two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, however, have very different social relationships and this may be reflected in their use of loud calls. Much of loud calling in the male-bonded and aggressive chimpanzee functions for male alliance formation and intercommunity aggression. Bonobos, however, are female bonded and less aggressive and little is known on the use and function of their loud calls. Data on frequencies, context, and locations of vocalizations were collected for wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, at the Lomako Forest study site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1983 to 2009. Both males and females participated in loud calls used for inter-party communication. Calling and response rates by both males and females were higher during party fusion than party fission and were common at evening nesting. The distribution of loud calls within the community range of loud calls was not random with males calling significantly more towards the periphery of the range and females calling significantly more in central areas. Calling and party fission were common at food patches. Responses were more frequent for female calls than for male calls. Calling, followed by fusion, was more frequent when a small party called from a large patch. We conclude that bonobo females and males loud calls can function in inter-party communication to call others to large food patches. Females call to attract potential allies and males call to attract potential mates. Our results support the social hypothesis of the origin of language because differences in the function and use of loud calls reflect the differing social systems of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobo loud calls are important for female communication and function in party coordination and, unlike chimpanzees, are less important in male cooperative aggression

  7. Function of loud calls in wild bonobos.

    PubMed

    White, Frances; Waller, Michel; Boose, Klaree; Merrill, Michelle; Wood, Kimberley

    2015-07-20

    Under the social origins hypothesis, human language is thought to have evolved within the framework of non-human primate social contexts and relationships. Our two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, however, have very different social relationships and this may be reflected in their use of loud calls. Much of loud calling in the male-bonded and aggressive chimpanzee functions for male alliance formation and intercommunity aggression. Bonobos, however, are female bonded and less aggressive and little is known on the use and function of their loud calls. Data on frequencies, context, and locations of vocalizations were collected for wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, at the Lomako Forest study site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1983 to 2009. Both males and females participated in loud calls used for inter-party communication. Calling and response rates by both males and females were higher during party fusion than party fission and were common at evening nesting. The distribution of loud calls within the community range of loud calls was not random with males calling significantly more towards the periphery of the range and females calling significantly more in central areas. Calling and party fission were common at food patches. Responses were more frequent for female calls than for male calls. Calling, followed by fusion, was more frequent when a small party called from a large patch. We conclude that bonobo females and males loud calls can function in inter-party communication to call others to large food patches. Females call to attract potential allies and males call to attract potential mates. Our results support the social hypothesis of the origin of language because differences in the function and use of loud calls reflect the differing social systems of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobo loud calls are important for female communication and function in party coordination and, unlike chimpanzees, are less important in male cooperative aggression.

  8. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ...

  9. Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martin

    1987-01-01

    Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

  10. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public:...

  11. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL.... The table which follows indicates the composition and blocks of international call signs available for... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ...

  12. Bird calls: their potential for behavioral neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Birdsongs are always part of larger set of sound signals. Every bird uses a repertoire of calls for communication. Calls are shorter and simpler than songs, with a much larger range of functions. Whereas songs are specialized for application in reproduction and territoriality, calls also serve such functions as signaling about food, maintaining social cohesion, contact calls, synchronizing and coordinating flight, and the resolution of aggressive and sexual conflicts. Alarm calls of various kinds are a major component, including distress, mobbing, and hawk alarm calls. Call repertoires vary greatly in size, up to 20 or so distinct call types. Rough estimates for songbirds range between 5 and 10, but some birds, especially galliforms, may have twice as many. Call usage is often sexually dimorphic and commonly varies seasonally and with physiological state. Most calls appear to be innate, but more and more examples of developmental plasticity in bird calls are emerging. Some display well-defined local dialects. A case is made for the value to avian behavioral neurobiology of including bird calls in studies of the psychophysics and sensory physiology of signal perception. They may also help to extend the range of neurobiological investigations of the song system to include circuitry controlling such functionally related behaviors as aggression and reproduction.

  13. Bird calls: their potential for behavioral neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Birdsongs are always part of larger set of sound signals. Every bird uses a repertoire of calls for communication. Calls are shorter and simpler than songs, with a much larger range of functions. Whereas songs are specialized for application in reproduction and territoriality, calls also serve such functions as signaling about food, maintaining social cohesion, contact calls, synchronizing and coordinating flight, and the resolution of aggressive and sexual conflicts. Alarm calls of various kinds are a major component, including distress, mobbing, and hawk alarm calls. Call repertoires vary greatly in size, up to 20 or so distinct call types. Rough estimates for songbirds range between 5 and 10, but some birds, especially galliforms, may have twice as many. Call usage is often sexually dimorphic and commonly varies seasonally and with physiological state. Most calls appear to be innate, but more and more examples of developmental plasticity in bird calls are emerging. Some display well-defined local dialects. A case is made for the value to avian behavioral neurobiology of including bird calls in studies of the psychophysics and sensory physiology of signal perception. They may also help to extend the range of neurobiological investigations of the song system to include circuitry controlling such functionally related behaviors as aggression and reproduction. PMID:15313768

  14. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call...

  15. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call...

  16. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 2.302, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call...

  17. Calling in Work: Secular or Sacred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael F.; Pickering, N. K.; Shin, J. Y.; Dik, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarship indicates that people who view their work as a calling are more satisfied with their work and their lives. Historically, calling has been regarded as a religious experience, although modern researchers frequently have adopted a more expansive and secular conceptualization of calling, emphasizing meaning and personal fulfillment…

  18. Bonobos Extract Meaning from Call Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Zanna; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred) and apples (less preferred) at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system. PMID:21556149

  19. Integrated literature review of postdischarge telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Sarah J; Solverson, Susan; Schlidt, Andrea; Hack, Deborah; Smith, Jeri Lynn; Ryan, Polly

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review of the literature assessed the impact of a postdischarge telephone call on patient outcomes. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and an evidence table was developed. The content, timing, and professional placing the call varied across studies. Study strength was low and findings were inconsistent. Measures varied across studies, many sample sizes were small, and studies differed by patient population. Evidence is inconclusive for use of phone calls to decrease readmission, emergency department use, patient satisfaction, scheduled and unscheduled follow-up, and physical and emotional well-being. Among these studies, there was limited support for medication-focused calls by pharmacists but no support for decreasing readmission. Health care providers benefited from feedback but did not need to place the call to realize this benefit. Inpatient nurses were unable to manage the volume of calls. There was no standardized approach to the call, training, or documentation requirements.

  20. Integrated literature review of postdischarge telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Sarah J; Solverson, Susan; Schlidt, Andrea; Hack, Deborah; Smith, Jeri Lynn; Ryan, Polly

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review of the literature assessed the impact of a postdischarge telephone call on patient outcomes. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and an evidence table was developed. The content, timing, and professional placing the call varied across studies. Study strength was low and findings were inconsistent. Measures varied across studies, many sample sizes were small, and studies differed by patient population. Evidence is inconclusive for use of phone calls to decrease readmission, emergency department use, patient satisfaction, scheduled and unscheduled follow-up, and physical and emotional well-being. Among these studies, there was limited support for medication-focused calls by pharmacists but no support for decreasing readmission. Health care providers benefited from feedback but did not need to place the call to realize this benefit. Inpatient nurses were unable to manage the volume of calls. There was no standardized approach to the call, training, or documentation requirements. PMID:23833254

  1. Classification and automatic transcription of primate calls.

    PubMed

    Versteegh, Maarten; Kuhn, Jeremy; Synnaeve, Gabriel; Ravaux, Lucie; Chemla, Emmanuel; Cäsar, Cristiane; Fuller, James; Murphy, Derek; Schel, Anne; Dunbar, Ewan

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports on an automated and openly available tool for automatic acoustic analysis and transcription of primate calls, which takes raw field recordings and outputs call labels time-aligned with the audio. The system's output predicts a majority of the start times of calls accurately within 200 milliseconds. The tools do not require any manual acoustic analysis or selection of spectral features by the researcher.

  2. Classification and automatic transcription of primate calls.

    PubMed

    Versteegh, Maarten; Kuhn, Jeremy; Synnaeve, Gabriel; Ravaux, Lucie; Chemla, Emmanuel; Cäsar, Cristiane; Fuller, James; Murphy, Derek; Schel, Anne; Dunbar, Ewan

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports on an automated and openly available tool for automatic acoustic analysis and transcription of primate calls, which takes raw field recordings and outputs call labels time-aligned with the audio. The system's output predicts a majority of the start times of calls accurately within 200 milliseconds. The tools do not require any manual acoustic analysis or selection of spectral features by the researcher. PMID:27475207

  3. Disentangling the Link between Perceiving a Calling and Living a Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Autin, Kelsey L.

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may…

  4. Development and Validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Eldridge, Brandy M.; Steger, Michael F.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    Research on work as a calling is limited by measurement concerns. In response, the authors introduce the multidimensional Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Brief Calling scale (BCS), instruments assessing presence of, and search for, a calling. Study 1 describes CVQ development using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis…

  5. Integrated Language Skills CALL Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin; Agawa, Grant

    2013-01-01

    The importance of a structured learning framework or interrelated frameworks is the cornerstone of a solid English as a foreign language (EFL) computer-assisted language learning (CALL) curriculum. While the benefits of CALL are widely promoted in the literature, there is often an endemic discord separating theory and practice. Oftentimes the…

  6. The function of Barbary macaque copulation calls.

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S

    1998-01-01

    In a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. It has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. Two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. The first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). The second proposes that copulation calling results in a female being mated by many males, thus promoting competition at the level of sperm (sperm competition hypothesis). In this paper, I give results from the first experimental study to test these hypotheses. Playback was used to examine the function of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Gibraltar. Although rank did not affect lone males' likelihood of approaching copulation calls, when playbacks were given to pairs of males only the higher ranking individual approached. Moreover, females were mated significantly sooner after playback of their copulation call than after playback of a control stimulus. These results suggest that the copulation calls of female Barbary macaques play a key role in affecting patterns of male reproductive behaviour, not only providing an indirect mechanism of female choice, but also promoting sperm competition by reducing the interval between copulations. Potential fitness benefits of inciting male-male competition at these two levels are discussed. PMID:9523431

  7. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  8. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  9. CALL in Lebanese Elementary ESL Writing Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidaoui, Diana; Bahous, Rima; Bacha, Nahla N.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the effectiveness of using computer assisted language learning (CALL) in motivating fourth-grade English as a second language (ESL) students to develop better writing skills. It also seeks to explore the perceptions of ESL teachers and students regarding the use of CALL in the ESL classroom. The study involved 48 fourth…

  10. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations.

  11. Bat echolocation calls: Orientation to communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, M. Brock

    2001-05-01

    Bats hunting flying insects adjust the design of their echolocation calls according to the situation in which they forage and stage in an attack. Changes in call design across attack sequences alert other bats within earshot to the presence of prey, demonstrating a continuum in roles for biosonar signals between orientation and communication. Many aerial-feeding bats change the design of their echolocation calls in the presence of echolocating conspecifics. Bats may change frequency parameters, durations, and/or intensities of their calls. While a variety of free-tailed bats (Molossidae Otomops martiensseni, Tadarida teniotis, Molossus molossus) consistently change their echolocation calls when more than one bat is flying in an area, at least one sheath-tailed bat (Emballonuridae Taphozous perforatus) does not. Changes in echolocation calls may maximize jamming avoidance and/or enhance the communicative function of the calls. The data for molossids support the hypothesis that when hunting some species fly in formation. Here, variation in individual call design could provide positional information and reduce the chances of mid-air collisions.

  12. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105

  13. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-04-01

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of 'good design' through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge.

  14. Coaching "Callings" throughout the Adult Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Frederic M.

    2001-01-01

    The process of "callings" continues throughout life. Coaching can connect the present to the future in a meaningful way. Callings represent a value shift requiring revision of the nature and scope of one's central purpose in life and meaningful activities. (JOW)

  15. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations. PMID:25234902

  16. Evaluation of CALL: Initial Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allum, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary learning theory suggests that productive recall should strengthen learning of new vocabulary items (Nation, 2001). CALL can provide both the opportunities for productive recall and the feedback to motivate repeated efforts to reproduce new items. The latter capability appears to give CALL some advantages over paper-based exercises, in…

  17. Lunar cycle and poison center calls.

    PubMed

    Oderda, G M; Klein-Schwartz, W

    1983-07-01

    An analysis of calls to the Maryland Poison Center was performed to assess whether a relationship exists between the moon periods and poison exposure calls. A given period was defined as the day of the lunar event +/- 2 days. Thirteen lunar cycles in which 22,079 calls occurred were analyzed. A larger proportion of total calls to the center and unintentional poisoning calls occurred during the full moon period. A significantly larger number of unintentional poisonings occurred in the full moon period compared to suicide attempts and drug abuse which occurred most frequently during the new moon period. The lunar cycle had no effect on the distribution of victim's age or sex or the location of treatment.

  18. Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging

  19. Audience effects in chimpanzee copulation calls

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Audience effects arise when the signaling behavior of animals is affected by the presence of others. Whilst this phenomenon has been documented in numerous animal species, very little research has addressed what effect the listening audience has in the mating context. In this article we discuss our recent findings that the production of chimpanzee copulation calls is effected by the presence of potentially eavesdropping females and males. We relate these results to understanding the function of primate copulation calls in addition to what more they can tell us about the cognitive processes underlying primate call production. PMID:19641752

  20. Disentangling the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Ryan D; Autin, Kelsey L

    2013-04-01

    Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may explain the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling. Adults with higher yearly incomes and more education were significantly more likely to endorse living a calling, but no significant group differences were found for perceiving a calling. Additionally, using structural equation modeling, work volition was found to be a significant mediator in the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling, and organizational support was found to be a significant mediator in the link between work volition and living a calling. The strength and significance of these indirect effects were supported by bootstrapping techniques. We suggest that part of the reason people with a calling feel more able to live out that calling is because of increased feelings of control in their career decision making. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  1. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  2. Engineers call for US nuclear safety fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Seven Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) engineers have called on the commission to force the owners of US nuclear reactors to repair a design flaw that could affect the safe operation of emergency core cooling systems.

  3. Administrator Bolden Calls Underwater NEEMO Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    From outside their underwater laboratory in Florida, NASA Astronaut and NEEMO 16 Commander Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger and European Space Agency astronaut Timothy Peake took a call from NASA Admini...

  4. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  5. President Obama Calls Atlantis and Station Crews

    NASA Video Gallery

    President Barack Obama called the crews of Atlantis and the International Space Station today, noting that the final shuttle mission also "ushers in an exciting new era to push the frontiers of spa...

  6. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/97 PMID:23206277

  7. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. PMID:23206277

  8. Communication cliques in mobile phone calling networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Xia; Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-11-01

    People in modern societies form different social networks through numerous means of communication. These communication networks reflect different aspects of human's societal structure. The billing records of calls among mobile phone users enable us to construct a directed calling network (DCN) and its Bonferroni network (SVDCN) in which the preferential communications are statistically validated. Here we perform a comparative investigation of the cliques of the original DCN and its SVDCN constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that the statistical properties of the cliques of the two calling networks are qualitatively similar and the clique members in the DCN and the SVDCN exhibit idiosyncratic behaviors quantitatively. Members in large cliques are found to be spatially close to each other. Based on the clique degree profile of each mobile phone user, the most active users in the two calling networks can be classified in to several groups. The users in different groups are found to have different calling behaviors. Our study unveils interesting communication behaviors among mobile phone users that are densely connected to each other.

  9. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  10. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate. PMID:26627784

  11. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate.

  12. Addressing the call-back problem

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, R.

    1985-08-01

    Service recalls or call-backs are one of the costliest and most persistent of service management problems. Although all service industries have call-back problems each time the oilburner breaks down, the customer has what could be a costly inconvenience. Every customer complaint reduces loyalty and makes the industry more and more vulnerable to competition, not just from each other but, from the utilities and the discounters. A customer who gets prompt, capable service will usually stay with his present company and, just as importantly, he stays with fuel oil. If the industry were to place the blame for call-backs on a particular person or area it would probably be in the individual serviceman. The lack of training, lack of motivation, lack of compassion for the customer or lack of company spirit, is discussed.

  13. A History of Commitment in CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan

    The evolution of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is examined, focusing on what has changed and what has not changed much during that time. A variety of changes are noted: the development of multimedia capabilities, color, animation, and technical improvement of audio and video quality; availability of databases, better fit between…

  14. Easy system call tracing for Plan 9.

    SciTech Connect

    Minnich, Ronald G.

    2010-09-01

    Tracing system calls makes debugging easy and fast. On Plan 9, traditionally, system call tracing has been implemented with acid. New systems do not always implement all the capabilities needed for Acid, particularly the ability to rewrite the process code space to insert breakpoints. Architecture support libraries are not always available for Acid, or may not work even on a supported architecture. The requirement that Acid's libraries be available can be a problem on systems with a very small memory footprint, such as High Performance Computing systems where every Kbyte counts. Finally, Acid tracing is inconvenient in the presence of forks, which means tracing shell pipelines is particularly troublesome. The strace program available on most Unix systems is far more convenient to use and more capable than Acid for system call tracing. A similar system on Plan 9 can simplify troubleshooting. We have built a system calling tracing capability into the Plan 9 kernel. It has proven to be more convenient than strace in programming effort. One can write a shell script to implement tracing, and the C code to implement an strace equivalent is several orders of magnitude smaller.

  15. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  16. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  17. Corrective Feedback and Learner Uptake in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a study in which we investigated the effects of corrective feedback on learner uptake in CALL. Learner uptake is here defined as learner responses to corrective feedback in which, in case of an error, students attempt to correct their mistake(s). 177 students from three Canadian universities participated in the study during…

  18. GUIDELINES FOR MAKING A HOME CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    PROCEDURES FOR MAKING A HOME CALL FOR COMPENSATORY EDUCATION WERE PRESENTED. THESE INCLUDED EVALUATING THE TYPE OF NEIGHBORHOOD, THE CONDITIONS OF THE HOME, THE EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HOME, THE FAMILY USE OF LEISURE TIME, AND THE PARENTAL ATTITUDES ON EDUCATION AND CULTURE. THE APPLICATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN CEP REQUIESTED…

  19. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... electronically using the Internet by accessing the Commission's Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS), through... USF/ICC Transformation Order, which, among other things, reaffirmed the prohibition on call blocking... Transformation Order, which, among other things, established a number of new rules requiring carriers to...

  20. Looking Back: Tracing Trends in Canadian CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Mary-Louise; Sinyor, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    "CCALLNET" ("The Canadian Computer-Assisted Language Learning Network at the Post-Secondary Level") was a semi-annual newsletter published from 1987 to 2002 that was distributed to colleagues across Canada who taught languages to university students. Its objective was to create a network of Canadian faculty interested in CALL by informing them…

  1. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policymakers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. Secretary of Education…

  2. Calling Careers: Overview and Accompanying Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinson, Nancy M.

    CALLING CAREERS is a televised series of fifteen 20-minute lessons intended to acquaint fourth through eighth grade students with twelve vocational clusters and to demonstrate the opportunities contained within them, the relationships between them, and the personal characteristics and work habits they require. The series also demonstrates how jobs…

  3. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....18 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of a margin deficiency without effecting personal contact with the leverage customer. If a...

  4. Developing a CALL Program on WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Fung-kuen Eva

    The process of developing, pilot testing, and revising a set of English-as-a-Second-Language instructional materials for computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is described. The materials are designed to prepare students for job interviews in the Hong Kong (China) employment market, which differs in some significant ways from other…

  5. Using Software Design Methods in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The phrase "software design" is not one that arouses the interest of many CALL practitioners, particularly those from a humanities background. However, software design essentials are simply logical ways of going about designing a system. The fundamentals include modularity, anticipation of change, generality and an incremental approach. While CALL…

  6. The TATL Framework for CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Chiaráin, Neasa; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2015-01-01

    The Theory Actions Technology Learner context (TATL) framework provides an initial analysis tool to guide Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) development. It entails joint consideration of four key factors that need to be considered prior and during development activities: (1) the underlying pedagogical theory; (2) the learning tasks…

  7. Don't Call It School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    "Homeschooling," "deschooling," and "unschooling" are commonly used terms in the alternative-education world, but each lacks specificity. In this article, the author describes what he discovered during several visits to North Star. Known officially as North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens, it is not as structured as a so-called "free"…

  8. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor. PMID:15841221

  9. Context-Sensitive "Help" in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses design and usability issues pertaining to context-sensitive "help" in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As part of the discussion, we present a study in which we examined the effects of three independent factors on student usage of context-sensitive "help": feedback, exercise type, and language proficiency. Forty…

  10. A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

  11. CALL--Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bax, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

  12. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor.

  13. Modeling Learning Processes in Lexical CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin; Laurillard, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Studies the performance of a novice Spanish student using a Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system designed for vocabulary enlargement. Results indicate that introspective evidence may be used to validate performance data within a theoretical framework that characterizes the learning approach as "surface" or "deep." (25 references)…

  14. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request for... Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board) with the requested materials in response to...

  15. "The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Tammy

    This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history, new…

  16. Educational Use of Databases in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the idea that databases are very useful tools for teaching languages over the Internet. Databases in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are commonly used in three ways: for reference sources such as dictionaries, in the management of large websites, and for data processing such as language tests and learners'…

  17. CALL FOR ABSTRACTS - PIT LAKES 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    This call for abstracts is for the 11/16-18/2004 Pit Lakes 2004 meeting held in Reno, NV. This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international pit lake approaches, including pit lakes from arid and wet regions throu...

  18. A resolution designating April 2010 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2010-04-14

    04/14/2010 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S2326-2327; text as passed Senate: CR S2326-2327; text of measure as introduced: CR S2300) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. A resolution designating April 2013 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2013-04-23

    04/23/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S2904; text as passed Senate: CR S2903) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Rig safety 9-1-1: what you need to know about ambulance safety & standards.

    PubMed

    Levick, Nadine

    2008-10-01

    What is it that we need to know about ambulance safety? How do we digest the information that's put forward by manufacturers? Does KKK-A-1822 compliance mean the ambulance can endure a crash? What's safe and what isn't? What works and what doesn't? And where do we go to find out?

  1. 78 FR 21879 - Improving 9-1-1 Reliability; Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ..., or adopted key best practices in theory, with substantial exceptions in day-to-day operation. To what... advance the goals of this NPRM. 8. We specifically seek comments from state commissions and PSAPs on the... this reporting approach alone or as part of an integrated approach meet the goal of ensuring...

  2. A resolution designating April 2011 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2011-03-30

    03/30/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S2000; text as passed Senate: CR S2000; text of measure as introduced: CR S1995) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of operating in the analog mode described in the standard document ANSI TIA/EIA-553-A-1999 Mobile...

  4. Wake-up call: a bioterrorism exercise.

    PubMed

    Tyre, T E

    2001-12-01

    Operation Wake-Up Call was a simulated bioterrorism exercise conducted in Waukesha County, Wisconsin (Metropolitan Milwaukee) on November 6, 1999. The purpose of the exercise was to test and evaluate the emergency response capability of local municipal, county, state, federal, and reserve military agencies to a weapons of mass destruction terrorist act. The exercise simulated a biological agent (Bacillus anthracis spores) release, a hostage-taking event, and the management of multiple biological and conventional weapons casualties that overwhelmed local first responders' capability. The exercise involved local, county, state, and federal agencies in a joint operational environment featuring integrated command and control systems. This report describes the primary purpose, goals, and assumptions of the exercise and reports on the evaluation of Wake-Up Call by the participating agencies.

  5. Calling Card Analysis in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, David; Mitra, Robi D

    2016-02-01

    Calling card analysis is a high-throughput method for identifying the genomic binding sites of multiple transcription factors in a single experiment in budding yeast. By tagging a DNA-binding protein with a targeting domain that directs the insertion of the Ty5 retrotransposon, the genomic binding sites for that transcription factor are marked. The transposition locations are then identified en masse by Illumina sequencing. The calling card protocol allows for simultaneous analysis of multiple transcription factors. By cloning barcodes into the Ty5 transposon, it is possible to pair a unique barcode with every transcription factor in the experiment. The method presented here uses expression of transcription factors from their native loci; however, it can also be altered to measure binding sites of transcription factors overexpressed from a plasmid. PMID:26832687

  6. Tropical forests: a call for action

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, F.

    1986-05-01

    This article is a review of a report called Tropical Forests: A Call for Action which was a report of an International Task Force convened by the World Resources Institute, World Bank, and the United Nations Development Programme. The report was put together because the forestry problems of developing countries can only be solved in the wider arena of public policies for rural development, and because forest conservation and development projects can earn rates of economic return high enough to be self-sustaining. This report is important because for the first time major development assistance agencies have collaborated in the preparation of a comprehensive and cost-specific forestry program for developing countries.

  7. Call me antipsychiatry activist--not "consumer".

    PubMed

    Weitz, Don

    2003-01-01

    The author, a long-time human rights activist, explains why he calls himself an anti-psychiatry activist rather than a "mental health consumer." He believes that the latter term is nonsensical in the current mental health system, characterized by lack of consumer choice and an explosion of involuntary interventions. He is a member of People Against Coercive Treatment and the Ontario Coalition Against Poverty.

  8. Digital Signal Combining for Conference Calling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, F.

    1986-01-01

    Signals combined with minimal noise by use of sums in read-only memories. Signals from subscribers A and B digitized, transmitted, and combined by addressing ROM. Combining operation electronic equivalent of looking up value of function of two variables in mathematical table. Combined digitized signal transmitted, converted to analog form, and delivered to subscriber C. System intended especially for combining number of separate audio signals into one signal for retransmission, as in telephone conference calling.

  9. Call progress time measurement in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasnabish, Bhumip

    1999-11-01

    Usually a voice call is established through multiple stages in IP telephony. In the first stage, a phone number is dialed to reach a near-end or call-originating IP-telephony gateway. The next stages involve user identification through delivering an m-digit user-id to the authentication and/or billing server, and then user authentication by using an n- digit PIN. After that, the caller is allowed (last stage dial tone is provided) to dial a destination phone number provided that authentication is successful. In this paper, we present a very flexible method for measuring call progress time in IP telephony. The proposed technique can be used to measure the system response time at every stage. It is flexible, so that it can be easily modified to include new `tone' or a set of tones, or `voice begin' can be used in every stage to detect the system's response. The proposed method has been implemented using scripts written in Hammer visual basic language for testing with a few commercially available IP telephony gateways.

  10. Communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats: Examination by acoustic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Yoko; Nagato, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    We classified communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus abramus) by acoustic characteristics D. The Japanese pipistrelles emitted communication calls that were completely different from FM echolocation calls. Data showed that in general duration of communication calls was longer than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 1 ms; long CF communication call, 50 ms) and that frequency of commu-nication calls were lower than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 80-40 kHz; long CF communication call, about 14 kHz). Typical classified communication calls were as follows: slightly short CF call (20 ms, 14 kHz), short CF call (5 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long CF call (30 ms, 14 kHz), long CF call (50 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long FM call (15 ms, 30-15 kHz), long FM call (20 ms, 25-15 kHz), complicated FM call (10-50 ms, 25-15 kHz), short intermittent CF call (1 ms, 14 kHz) and noise call (20-100 ms, below 60 kHz). Details will be discussed more specifically. [Research supported by a grant to RCAST at Doshisha Univ. from MEXT and by the Innovative Cluster Creation Project promoted by MEXT.

  11. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the cr-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

  12. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  13. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

  14. Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

  15. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

    2011-11-01

    Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals.

  16. Calling at a cost: elevated nestling calling attracts predators to active nests.

    PubMed

    Haff, Tonya M; Magrath, Robert D

    2011-08-23

    Begging by nestling birds has been used to test evolutionary models of signalling but theory has outstripped evidence. Eavesdropping predators potentially impose a cost on begging that ensures signal honesty, yet little experimental evidence exists for such a cost at active nests because the use of artificial nests, long playback bouts and absence of parents may have exaggerated costs. We broadcast short periods (1 h) of either nestling vocalizations or background noise at active white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, nests. Nestlings called naturally during both treatments, allowing us to test whether elevated calling increases risk, a key but rarely tested assumption of evolutionary models. Predators visited nests exclusively during periods of elevated calling. Furthermore, playbacks affected neither adult visits nor nestling activity, suggesting that calling alone attracted predators. Adults gave alarm calls and nestlings usually called less when predators approached nests. Predation risk to broods is, therefore, likely to fluctuate substantially over short periods of time, depending on nestling hunger and whether adults or young have detected predators. This study confirms a present-day cost of nestling begging, demonstrates that this cost can be incurred over short periods and supports the importance of parent-offspring antipredator strategies in reducing predation risk.

  17. Theology links Christian ministry with God's call.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, L J

    1984-03-01

    Catholic health care ministry originates in and is shaped by the theme of call in the Old and New Testaments. To be specifically Catholic, health professionals and facilities must define their ministries according to the values expressed in this theological tradition. Sponsorship. The opportunity to provide health care enables religious communities to contribute to God's ongoing creation process and to reiterate Christ's call to minister to others. Although health care facility sponsorship thrusts religious communities into the arena of big business, the abandonment of the health care mission could be considered a betrayal of evangelical values. Quality of life. The implicit concern for human dignity that distinguishes Catholic health care facilities should be evident in personalized patient care, just working conditions, and a commitment to healing in the civic community. Stewardship in ethics. The development of business policies and procedures and institutional responses to social change should be carefully considered in light of the Catholic understanding of loving covenant and the Christian way of life. Shared ministry. Health care facilities have played a leading role in implementing the Second Vatican Council's vision of ministry. Sponsoring communities' continued willingness to share responsibilities with laity will be imperative in meeting the health care demands of the future.

  18. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Reber, Stephan A; Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2013-08-22

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships.

  19. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Reber, Stephan A; Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2013-08-22

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

  20. From Test Takers to Test Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kari

    2009-01-01

    As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…

  1. Automated DNA Base Pair Calling Algorithm

    1999-07-07

    The procedure solves the problem of calling the DNA base pair sequence from two channel electropherogram separations in an automated fashion. The core of the program involves a peak picking algorithm based upon first, second, and third derivative spectra for each electropherogram channel, signal levels as a function of time, peak spacing, base pair signal to noise sequence patterns, frequency vs ratio of the two channel histograms, and confidence levels generated during the run. Themore » ratios of the two channels at peak centers can be used to accurately and reproducibly determine the base pair sequence. A further enhancement is a novel Gaussian deconvolution used to determine the peak heights used in generating the ratio.« less

  2. Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  3. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing.

  4. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Khaleel A.; Fuzessery, Zoltan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations, or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. PMID:25142131

  5. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. PMID:25142131

  6. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    PubMed

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux. PMID:22399473

  7. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    PubMed

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  8. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  9. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Regular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest of... minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments made pursuant to employment agreements. Typically, such minimum.... (b) Application illustrated. The application of these principles to call-back payments may...

  10. CALL and Less Commonly Taught Languages: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) researchers face many challenges in developing effective, high-quality CALL. CALL research has a very strong focus on the Most Commonly Taught Languages (MCLTs), particularly English. CALL researchers working with Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs) face further constraints. LCTLs can range from…

  11. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  12. Contemporary spirituality: a call to wholeness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, H

    1986-06-01

    Our society and thus our health care organizations are beset by a dualistic perspective that identifies some groups as embodying "masculine" characteristics that are desirable, implying that other groups are less valuable. This perspective, visible in ageism, sexism, and racism, threatens the call to live and heal as Jesus lived and healed, which is the cornerstone of the Catholic health care ministry. A contemporary wholistic spirituality must be articulated that emphasizes individual responsibility for living as a person who believes in the dignity of all persons created by God. Modifying the language of health care is one way to better reflect a wholistic orientation. Two expressions that require special attention are "health care provider" and "patient." Substituting "health care promoter" and "client" for these terms would emphasize the health care ministry's role in helping persons with health care needs to be involved in the healing process. Since a health care organization's effectiveness depends on its members' commitment to healing, it is imperative that the organization's values be modeled and communicated to the members through the organization's decisions and activities. It likewise is important that those involved in the healing ministry reflect on their spirituality, their relationships with self, God, and others, to monitor those values that affect their relationships and experiences.

  13. Another call to increase STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

  14. Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James

    2016-06-01

    Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.

  15. Glucocorticoid and androgen signaling pathways diverge between advertisement calling and non-calling fish.

    PubMed

    Genova, Rachel M; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Knapp, Rosemary; Fergus, Daniel; Bass, Andrew H

    2012-09-01

    Behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms of social vocalization in teleost fish are influenced by the glucocorticoid cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11kT). The relative abundance of both 11kT, which binds to androgen receptors (ARα, ARβ), and cortisol, which binds to glucocorticoid receptors (GR-1, GR-2), is regulated by 11β-hydroxylase (11βH) that converts 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and testosterone to 11β-OH-testosterone, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) that converts cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone and 11β-OH-testosterone to 11kT. In midshipman fish, we tested the hypothesis that plasma steroid levels, mRNA abundance for 11βH and 11βHSD in the vocal muscle and testis (known site of 11kT synthesis), and mRNA abundances for ARs and GRs in vocal muscle, would differ between males that did or did not recently produce 'hum' advertisement calls. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that non-calling male vocal muscle had significantly higher mRNA levels for all receptors except ARα, and a strong trend for higher 11βHSD; 11βH was similar to that in calling males. Calling males had higher plasma and testis 11kT, but lower plasma cortisol, levels. Testis enzyme levels did not differ between male groups, although calling males showed a positive linear correlation between plasma 11kT and testis 11βHSD mRNA levels, consistent with testis being the main source of plasma 11kT. We propose that higher vocal muscle 11βHSD levels in non-calling males reflect increased local conversion of elevated cortisol to cortisone, providing protection from cortisol-related toxicity, while increased receptor expression in non-calling males functions as a preparatory mechanism for meeting the physiological demands of future vocalization. PMID:22884426

  16. Arginine vasotocin injection increases probability of calling in cricket frogs, but causes call changes characteristic of less aggressive males.

    PubMed

    Marler, C A; Chu, J; Wilczynski, W

    1995-12-01

    Male cricket frogs, Acris crepitans communicate to males and females using advertisement calls, which are arranged into call groups. Calls at the middle and end, but not beginning of the call group, are modified in response to male-male aggressive interactions. We found in this field study of male cricket frogs in natural breeding choruses that the peptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) not only increased the probability that males called after injections, but also caused modifications in middle and end calls to produce calls characteristic of less aggressive males. Moreover, AVT-injected males showed significantly greater increases in call dominant frequency than saline-injected males, again, a characteristic of less aggressive males. Cricket frog calls are used to both repel males and attract females, thus call changes may relate to male-male and/or male-female interactions. Saline-injected males also demonstrated significant changes in several call traits, including changes that occurred in the beginning and middle calls of the call groups, but not the end calls. AVT appeared to block some call changes produced through handling. These data suggest that AVT can influence acoustic communication in frogs in several ways, including effects on call characteristics and dominant frequency, as well as potentially blocking some handling effects.

  17. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Goldizen, Anne W; Garland, Ellen C; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined. PMID:26093396

  18. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales

    PubMed Central

    Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Dunlop, Rebecca A.; Goldizen, Anne W.; Garland, Ellen C.; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined. PMID:26093396

  19. Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    Guest Editors:

    Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK

    Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks.

    Scope of Submission

    The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
    • WDM node architectures
    • Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion
    • Routing protocols
    • WDM switching and routing
    • Quality of service
    • Performance measurement and evaluation
    • Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control
    • Traffic measurement and field trials
    • Optical burst and packet switching
    • OBS/OPS node architectures
    • Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms
    • Contention resolution/avoidance strategies
    • Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.)
    • Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping

    • Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

      2016-01-01

      This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

  1. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH PLATFORM AND TOWER ON RIGHT IS CALLED LAUNCH UMBILICAL TOWER, (LUT). - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  2. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  3. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  4. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  5. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  6. Calling and Career Preparation: Investigating Developmental Patterns and Temporal Precedence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas; Herrmann, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a calling and career development are assumed to be closely related. However, the nature of and reason for this relationship have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized the existence of reciprocal effects between calling and three dimensions of career preparation and assessed the change of the presence of a calling,…

  7. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  8. Linguistics, Procedure and Technique in CALL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torsani, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Research in CALL education has identified a series of goals and constraints for technology in language education that need to be taken into account when designing a CALL syllabus. This article presents a theoretical framework for syllabus design based on the identification of three areas of expertise within CALL: linguistic knowledge, procedural…

  9. Correlates of Gay-Related Name-Calling in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…

  10. Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

  11. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Request to call election. 81.5 Section 81.5 Indians... FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.5 Request to call election. (a) The Secretary shall authorize the calling of an election to adopt a constitution and bylaws or to revoke a constitution and bylaws, upon a request from...

  12. 29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false On-call time. 785.17 Section 785.17 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Waiting Time § 785.17 On-call time. An employee who is required to remain on call on the employer's premises or so...

  13. Heterospecific Acoustic Interference: Effects on Calling in Oophaga pumilio

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stefanie; Parada, Humberto; Narins, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Call rate suppression is a common short-term solution for avoiding acoustic interference in animals. It has been widely documented between and within frog species, but the effects of non-anuran calling on frog vocalizations is less well known. Heterospecific acoustic interference on the calling of Oophaga pumilio (Bauer, 1994) (formerly Dendrobates pumilio) males was studied in a lowland, wet tropical forest in SE Nicaragua. Acoustic playback experiments were conducted to characterize the responses of O. pumilio males to interfering calls of cicadas, two species of crickets and a sympatric dendrobatid frog, Phyllobates lugubris. Call rate, call bout duration, percent of time calling, dominant frequency and latency to first-call were analyzed. Significant call rate suppression was observed during all stimulus playbacks, yet no significant differences were found in spontaneous call rates during pre- and post-playback trials. Dominant frequency significantly decreased after P. lugubris playback and first-call latency significantly decreased in response to both cicada and tree cricket playbacks. These results provide robust evidence that O. pumilio males can dynamically modify their calling pattern in unique ways, depending on the source of the heterospecific acoustic interference. PMID:20953296

  14. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency Call Center Service. 25.284 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service. (a) Providers of mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call...

  15. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency Call Center Service. 25.284 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service. (a) Providers of mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call...

  16. Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling's domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a…

  17. Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sheri L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college…

  18. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these standards can be inspected at the Federal... selective calling (DSC) equipment and selective calling equipment installed in ship and coast stations, and...-STD, “RTCM Recommended Minimum Standards for Digital Selective Calling (DSC) Equipment...

  19. 76 FR 17933 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate... significant consequences on a regional or national scale. The IP Data Call is administered out of the IP Infrastructure Information Collection Division (IICD). The IP Data Call provides opportunities for states...

  20. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  1. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  2. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  3. Web-Based CALL for Arabic: Constraints and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corda, Alessandra; van der Stel, Mieke

    2004-01-01

    The first section of this paper gives a brief overview of the experiences with LAN-based CALL programs for Arabic in the past 7 years at Leiden University (The Netherlands). The second section discusses constraints and technical challenges related to the use of Web-based CALL for Arabic, focusing in particular on a new Web-based CALL application,…

  4. Does Vessel Noise Affect Oyster Toadfish Calling Rates?

    PubMed

    Luczkovich, Joseph J; Krahforst, Cecilia S; Hoppe, Harry; Sprague, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    The question we addressed in this study is whether oyster toadfish respond to vessel disturbances by calling less when vessels with lower frequency spectra are present in a sound recording and afterward. Long-term data recorders were deployed at the Neuse (high vessel-noise site) and Pamlico (low vessel-noise site) Rivers. There were many fewer toadfish detections at the high vessel-noise site than the low-noise station. Calling rates were lower in the high-boat traffic area, suggesting that toadfish cannot call over loud vessel noise, reducing the overall calling rate, and may have to call more often when vessels are not present. PMID:26611015

  5. Individual Distinctiveness in Call Types of Wild Western Female Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Roberta; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication. PMID:25029238

  6. Individual distinctiveness in call types of wild western female gorillas.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Roberta; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication.

  7. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

  8. Reducing juvenile delinquency with automated cell phone calls.

    PubMed

    Burraston, Bert O; Bahr, Stephen J; Cherrington, David J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 70 juvenile probationers (39 treatment and 31 controls), we evaluated the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program that combined cognitive-behavioral training and automated phone calls. The cognitive-behavioral training contained six 90-min sessions, one per week, and the phone calls occurred twice per day for the year following treatment. Recidivism was measured by whether they were rearrested and the total number of rearrests during the 1st year. To test the impact of the phone calls, those who received phone calls were divided into high and low groups depending on whether they answered more or less than half of their phone calls. Those who completed the class and answered at least half of their phone calls were less likely to have been arrested and had fewer total arrests. PMID:23486755

  9. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Ikkyu

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  10. Reducing juvenile delinquency with automated cell phone calls.

    PubMed

    Burraston, Bert O; Bahr, Stephen J; Cherrington, David J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 70 juvenile probationers (39 treatment and 31 controls), we evaluated the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program that combined cognitive-behavioral training and automated phone calls. The cognitive-behavioral training contained six 90-min sessions, one per week, and the phone calls occurred twice per day for the year following treatment. Recidivism was measured by whether they were rearrested and the total number of rearrests during the 1st year. To test the impact of the phone calls, those who received phone calls were divided into high and low groups depending on whether they answered more or less than half of their phone calls. Those who completed the class and answered at least half of their phone calls were less likely to have been arrested and had fewer total arrests.

  11. 40 CFR 155.48 - Data Call-In.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data Call-In. 155.48 Section 155.48... STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.48 Data Call-In. The Agency may issue a Data Call-In notice under FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) at any time if the Agency believes that...

  12. Impact of Hurricane Ike on Texas poison center calls.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2009-10-01

    On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas, resulting in the mandatory evacuation of 8 counties before landfall and the declaration of disaster areas in 29 counties afterward. This study evaluated whether Hurricane Ike affected the pattern of Texas poison center calls. Texas poison center calls received from the disaster area counties were identified for 3 time periods: August 12 to September 10, 2008 (preevacuation), September 11 to 13, 2008 (evacuation and hurricane landfall), and September 14 to 30, 2008 (postevacuation). For selected types of calls, the mean daily call volume during time periods 2 and 3 was compared with a baseline range (BR) derived from the mean daily call volume during time period 1. During the evacuation and landfall period, gasoline exposure calls were higher than expected (mean 3, BR -1 to 2). During the postevacuation period, higher than expected numbers of calls were observed for gasoline exposures (mean 5, BR -1 to 2) and carbon monoxide exposures (mean 3, BR -1-1). During an evacuation, certain calls such as those involving gasoline exposures may increase. After a hurricane, calls such as those involving carbon monoxide and gasoline exposures may increase.

  13. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls-the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)-across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal.

  14. Calling rate, corticosterone plasma levels and immunocompetence of Hypsiboas albopunctatus.

    PubMed

    Titon, Stefanny Christie Monteiro; de Assis, Vania Regina; Titon, Braz; Barsotti, Adriana Maria Giorgi; Flanagan, Sarah Perry; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    During the breeding season, male anuran amphibians produce advertisement calls. Androgens play a permissive role in the activation of calling activity, which is often positively correlated to androgen plasma levels and testes mass. Additionally, calling effort is also correlated to corticosterone plasma levels (hereinafter referred to as CORT), which is associated with the mobilization of energy substrates to sustain the high energy flux associated with this activity. However, high CORT also has many immunosuppressive effects and might interfere with reproduction. Consequently, CORT might mediate a compromise between reproductive effort and immunocompetence in anurans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between calling rate, immunocompetence, and CORT in Hypsiboas albopunctatus, a midsize anuran occurring in South America. To understand these relationships, we conducted focal observations of calling behavior, followed by blood collection for CORT measurements and evaluation of some immune parameters. Our results showed that individuals with larger testes had higher calling rates, and those with higher calling rates showed lower cell-mediated immune response (swelling response to phytohaemagglutinin), although these relationships were not mediated by CORT. Furthermore, males calling early in the evening showed high CORT, and individuals with lower body condition index had higher CORT. We conclude that calling activity shows a cost in terms of cellular immune response in H. albopunctatus, but this compromise does not appear to be mediated by glucocorticoid plasma levels. PMID:27364933

  15. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    PubMed

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  16. On the function of redfronted lemur's close calls.

    PubMed

    Pflüger, Femke J; Fichtel, Claudia

    2012-09-01

    In order to maintain group cohesion, many social mammals and birds regularly produce close calls. In some primate species, close calls appear to have a dual function: calls addressed at a broad class of targets serve to maintain group cohesion, whereas the same calls directed at a specific target serve to regulate subsequent social interactions. Redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) produce different types of close calls: grunts, long grunts, hoos and meows. In order to study the function of these calls, we conducted focal observations and vocal recordings from eight adult males and females out of four social groups in Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. Redfronted lemurs produce long grunts, hoos and meows at relatively low rates during foraging, resting or group movements, respectively. Grunts were given most often and more or less constantly during foraging and traveling. Calling rate increased when the risk of separation increased and may thus promote group cohesion. Grunts given during approaches of other group members resulted more often in friendly interactions than approaches that were not accompanied by a grunt. Thus, redfronted lemurs produce specific but also generic contact calls, whereas the latter calls have a dual function that varies depending on the addressed audience: they act as an auditory beacon to maintain group cohesion and serve as signals of benign intent to avoid costly conflicts and facilitating social interactions.

  17. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  18. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  19. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  20. 47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Call preemption prohibition. 10.510 Section 10.510 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption prohibition. Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must...

  1. 47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Call preemption prohibition. 10.510 Section 10.510 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption prohibition. Devices marketed for public use under part 10 must...

  2. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  3. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  4. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  5. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  6. Radio advertising increases hospital call center volume by 48%.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Since the fall of 2005, call volume at University of Southern California University Hospital of Los Angeles' call center has increased by nearly 50%. How? The hospital embarked on a long-term radio campaign to promote its presence as a premier academic medical center and to increase patient volume. PMID:17186899

  7. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  8. Why We All Need Call Waiting on Our Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that you can go all day without a single call on your phone and then suddenly you get two calls at once? This is actually not as uncommon as it sounds and there is a mathematical reason for why we should expect it to happen, believe it or not.

  9. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for selective calling equipment. 80.225 Section 80.225 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.225 Requirements for selective calling equipment. This...

  10. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for selective calling equipment. 80.225 Section 80.225 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.225 Requirements for selective calling equipment. This...

  11. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel... for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  12. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall provide... common carrier shall provide interstate transmission services for any collect information services...

  13. Enhancing Online CALL Design: The Case for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemard, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Whilst the potential of online Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in terms of access, immediacy and exposure is widely acknowledged, as yet remarkably little is known about its impact on the user population, be they language teachers or learners. Indeed, beyond its technological development, online CALL design is still affected by a dearth…

  14. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments made pursuant to employment agreements. Typically, such minimum... illustrated as follows: An employment agreement provides a minimum of 3 hours' pay at time and one-half for... Friday, inclusive, in a workweek beginning on Monday, and are paid overtime compensation at time and...

  15. Critical Considerations for Planning and Implementing a CALL Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul

    2009-01-01

    The field of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has transformed dramatically--from the days of the behaviourist approach that dominated CALL in the 1970s to the dynamism of Interactive approach in the 1990s under the immense influence of information communication technology (ICT). Regardless of these periodic changes and improvements,…

  16. 7 CFR 7.7 - Calling of elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calling of elections. 7.7 Section 7.7 Agriculture... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.7 Calling of elections. (a) Each election of community... not later than December 30 each year. Each such election shall be held in accordance with...

  17. 7 CFR 7.7 - Calling of elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calling of elections. 7.7 Section 7.7 Agriculture... COMMITTEES § 7.7 Calling of elections. (a) The Secretary will establish a county committee in each county or area under the jurisdiction of a multiple county office. (b) Each election of county committee...

  18. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement pursuant to § 64.1310(a) that relieves it of its § 64.1310(a)(1) tracking system obligation,...

  19. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement pursuant to § 64.1310(a) that relieves it of its § 64.1310(a)(1) tracking system obligation,...

  20. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement pursuant to § 64.1310(a) that relieves it of its § 64.1310(a)(1) tracking system obligation,...

  1. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement pursuant to § 64.1310(a) that relieves it of its § 64.1310(a)(1) tracking system obligation,...

  2. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement pursuant to § 64.1310(a) that relieves it of its § 64.1310(a)(1) tracking system obligation,...

  3. Sound imaging of nocturnal animal calls in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Takeshi; Aihara, Ikkyu; Otsuka, Takuma; Takeda, Ryu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Hiroshi G

    2011-09-01

    We present a novel method for imaging acoustic communication between nocturnal animals. Investigating the spatio-temporal calling behavior of nocturnal animals, e.g., frogs and crickets, has been difficult because of the need to distinguish many animals' calls in noisy environments without being able to see them. Our method visualizes the spatial and temporal dynamics using dozens of sound-to-light conversion devices (called "Firefly") and an off-the-shelf video camera. The Firefly, which consists of a microphone and a light emitting diode, emits light when it captures nearby sound. Deploying dozens of Fireflies in a target area, we record calls of multiple individuals through the video camera. We conduct two experiments, one indoors and the other in the field, using Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica). The indoor experiment demonstrates that our method correctly visualizes Japanese tree frogs' calling behavior. It has confirmed the known behavior; two frogs call synchronously or in anti-phase synchronization. The field experiment (in a rice paddy where Japanese tree frogs live) also visualizes the same calling behavior to confirm anti-phase synchronization in the field. Experimental results confirm that our method can visualize the calling behavior of nocturnal animals in their natural habitat.

  4. Eyes Wide Shut? Querying the Depth of Call Centre Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Maeve

    2000-01-01

    An ethnographic study of customer service call centers found that both desired and unintended outcomes are influenced by personal coping and organizational sustaining mechanisms. When organizations use behavioral control, a climate of resistance ensues. An alternative is to view call centers as learning sites. (SK)

  5. Results from Organizational Development Interventions in a Technology Call Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Call center staff answered calls in 4 treatments: alignment job design (n=35), autonomous work teams (n=35), high-involvement work processes (n=43), and controls (n=36). Job satisfaction improved in alignment job design and high-involvement treatments, most significantly in the latter. Skill level and attitude toward autonomous work might have…

  6. Implications of Research on Human Memory for CALL Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of what is generally accepted about how human memory works as it applied to computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses a number of interactions from various CALL products in light of the research summarized. (Author/VWL)

  7. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution. PMID:26960074

  8. The Multidimensionality of Calling: Conceptualization, Measurement and a Bicultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmaier, Tamara; Abele, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    The experience of a calling may be seen as the ultimate form of subjective career success that has many positive consequences for individuals and organizations. We are here concerned with the conceptualization of a new multidimensional measure of calling, the MCM. In the first two studies we employed a qualitative approach and came up with five…

  9. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial...

  10. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory taking" will provide…

  11. 16 CFR 1018.21 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calling of meetings. 1018.21 Section 1018.21 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.21 Calling of meetings. Advisory committees shall, as a general rule, meet...

  12. 22 CFR 214.32 - Calling of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calling of advisory committee meetings. 214.32 Section 214.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.32 Calling of advisory committee meetings. (a) No advisory...

  13. Dialogue-Based CALL: An Overview of Existing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibauw, Serge; François, Thomas; Desmet, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Dialogue-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) covers applications and systems allowing a learner to practice the target language in a meaning-focused conversational activity with an automated agent. We first present a common definition for dialogue-based CALL, based on three features: dialogue as the activity unit, computer as the…

  14. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution.

  15. CALL: Using What We Know to Avoid Reinventing the Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shield, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written about Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) both from the point of view of its history and its definition. While it is not the aim of this paper to revisit such issues in detail, it opens with an overview of some of the major issues around definitions of CALL and the related terms that have emerged over the years to…

  16. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  17. Antibiotic stewardship: a call for action by the urologic community.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Bartoletti, Ricardo; Cek, Mete; Grabe, Magnus; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Pickard, Robert; Bjerklund-Johansen, Truls E

    2013-09-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and lack of new antibiotics in the near future calls for a variety of coordinated strategies called "Antibiotic stewardship", to improve antibiotic use with the goal of enhancing patient health outcomes and reducing emergence of resistance to antibiotics.

  18. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  19. 75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Data Call Survey. DHS previously published this information collection request (ICR) in the Federal Register on December 22, 2009, at 74 FR 68070-68071, for a 60-day public comment period. DHS received no... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey...

  20. Jamaican Call-In Radio: A Uses and Gratification Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    Noting that radio call-in programs seem to contain the elements for active audience involvement and participation, a study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that information gain and surveillance are the primary gratifications sought through call-in radio programs, especially in a culture that has a strong oral tradition and relatively few…

  1. CALL in the Year 2000: A Look Back from 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    This commentary offers a brief reflection on the state of CALL in 1997, when "Language Learning & Technology" was launched with my paper entitled "CALL in the year 2000: Still in search of research paradigms?" The point of my 1997 paper was to suggest the potential value of research on second language learning for the study…

  2. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial...

  3. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial...

  4. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial...

  5. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial...

  6. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call...

  7. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call...

  8. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call...

  9. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 25.284 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service. (a) Providers of mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call...

  10. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 25.284 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service. (a) Providers of Mobile-Satellite Service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call...

  11. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 25.284 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.284 Emergency Call Center Service. (a) Providers of Mobile-Satellite Service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call...

  12. Call combinations in monkeys: compositional or idiomatic expressions?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call series consisting of two call types in response to different events. They can also be combined into short sequences that convey a different message from those conveyed by either call type alone. Here, we investigate whether 'pyow-hack' sequences are compositional in that the individual calls contribute to their overall meaning. However, the monkeys behaved as if they perceived the sequence as an idiomatic expression rather than decoding the sequence. Nonetheless, while this communication system lacks the generative power of syntax it enables callers to increase the number of messages that can be conveyed by a small and innate call repertoire.

  13. Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

    2010-07-01

    Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed. PMID:20649243

  14. Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

    2010-07-01

    Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed.

  15. Evidence That Calls-Based and Mobility Networks Are Isomorphic.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Michele; Hausmann, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Social relations involve both face-to-face interaction as well as telecommunications. We can observe the geography of phone calls and of the mobility of cell phones in space. These two phenomena can be described as networks of connections between different points in space. We use a dataset that includes billions of phone calls made in Colombia during a six-month period. We draw the two networks and find that the call-based network resembles a higher order aggregation of the mobility network and that both are isomorphic except for a higher spatial decay coefficient of the mobility network relative to the call-based network: when we discount distance effects on the call connections with the same decay observed for mobility connections, the two networks are virtually indistinguishable.

  16. Evidence That Calls-Based and Mobility Networks Are Isomorphic

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Michele; Hausmann, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Social relations involve both face-to-face interaction as well as telecommunications. We can observe the geography of phone calls and of the mobility of cell phones in space. These two phenomena can be described as networks of connections between different points in space. We use a dataset that includes billions of phone calls made in Colombia during a six-month period. We draw the two networks and find that the call-based network resembles a higher order aggregation of the mobility network and that both are isomorphic except for a higher spatial decay coefficient of the mobility network relative to the call-based network: when we discount distance effects on the call connections with the same decay observed for mobility connections, the two networks are virtually indistinguishable. PMID:26713730

  17. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively.

  18. Addressee Errors in ATC Communications: The Call Sign Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monan, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Communication errors involving aircraft call signs were portrayed in reports of 462 hazardous incidents voluntarily submitted to the ASRS during an approximate four-year period. These errors resulted in confusion, disorder, and uncoordinated traffic conditions and produced the following types of operational anomalies: altitude deviations, wrong-way headings, aborted takeoffs, go arounds, runway incursions, missed crossing altitude restrictions, descents toward high terrain, and traffic conflicts in flight and on the ground. Analysis of the report set resulted in identification of five categories of errors involving call signs: (1) faulty radio usage techniques, (2) call sign loss or smearing due to frequency congestion, (3) confusion resulting from similar sounding call signs, (4) airmen misses of call signs leading to failures to acknowledge or readback, and (5) controller failures regarding confirmation of acknowledgements or readbacks. These error categories are described in detail and several associated hazard mitigating measures that might be aken are considered.

  19. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

  20. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of

  1. Calling behavior of blue and fin whales off California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, Erin Marie

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an effective means for evaluating cetacean presence in remote regions and over long time periods, and may become an important component of cetacean abundance surveys. To use passive acoustic recordings for abundance estimation, an understanding of the behavioral ecology of cetacean calling is crucial. In this dissertation, I develop a better understanding of how blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus ) whales use sound with the goal of evaluating passive acoustic techniques for studying their populations. Both blue and fin whales produce several different call types, though the behavioral and environmental context of these calls have not been widely investigated. To better understand how calling is used by these whales off California I have employed both new technologies and traditional techniques, including acoustic recording tags, continuous long-term autonomous acoustic recordings, and simultaneous shipboard acoustic and visual surveys. The outcome of these investigations has led to several conclusions. The production of blue whale calls varies with sex, behavior, season, location, and time of day. Each blue whale call type has a distinct behavioral context, including a male-only bias in the production of song, a call type thought to function in reproduction, and the production of some calls by both sexes. Long-term acoustic records, when interpreted using all call types, provide a more accurate measure of the local seasonal presence of whales, and how they use the region annually, seasonally and daily. The relative occurrence of different call types may indicate prime foraging habitat and the presence of different segments of the population. The proportion of animals heard calling changes seasonally and geographically relative to the number seen, indicating the calibration of acoustic and visual surveys is complex and requires further study on the motivations behind call production and the behavior of calling whales

  2. The association between advertising and calls to a tobacco quitline

    PubMed Central

    Mosbaek, Craig H; Austin, Donald F; Stark, Michael J; Lambert, Lori C

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the cost effectiveness of different types of television and radio advertisements and the time of day in which advertisements were placed in generating calls to the Oregon tobacco quitline. Design Cost effectiveness was measured by cost per call, calculated as the cost of advertising divided by the number of quitline calls generated by that advertising. Advertising was bought in one‐week or two‐week blocks and included 27 daytime television buys, 22 evening television buys and 31 radio buys. Results Cost effectiveness varied widely by medium, time of day and advertisement used. Daytime television was seven times more cost effective than evening television and also more cost effective than radio. The most effective advertisements at generating quitline calls were real life testimonials by people who lost family members to tobacco and advertisements that deal practically with how to quit. Conclusions Placement of television advertisements during the day versus the evening can increase an advertisement's effectiveness in generating calls to a quitline. Some advertising messages were more effective than others in generating calls to a quitline. Quitline providers can apply findings from previous research when planning media campaigns. In addition, call volume should be monitored in order to assess the cost effectiveness of different strategies to promote use of the quitline. PMID:18048626

  3. Lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) great call reveals individual caller identity.

    PubMed

    Terleph, Thomas A; Malaivijitnond, S; Reichard, U H

    2015-07-01

    Gibbons (family Hylobatidae) produce loud, elaborate vocalizations (songs), often in well-coordinated male/female duets. The female's great call, the most conspicuous phrase of the gibbon vocal repertoire, functions primarily to mediate territorial defense. Despite the fact that lar gibbons (Hylobates lar) are the most widely distributed and well researched hylobatid species and produce a rich vocal repertoire, the individual-specificity of their great calls has not previously been quantified. In addition, spectral and temporal features of notes occurring at specific locations within the lar great call have not been described. Here we provide such a description, and test the hypothesis that great calls are statistically discriminable between a large sample of individual callers. We compared recordings of great calls from 14 wild lar females in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Our analyses of principal components derived from spectral and temporal measures, as well as spectrograms from the entire great call, indicate that acoustic variation is sufficient to allow identification of individual callers (83.5% discriminability based on principal components, and inter-individual call variation exceeding intra-individual variation in overall spectrogram). These vocalizations potentially allow individual recognition of animals.

  4. Can calls to NHS Direct be used for syndromic surveillance?

    PubMed

    Harcourt, S E; Smith, G E; Hollyoak, V; Joseph, C A; Chaloner, R; Rehman, Y; Warburton, F; Ejidokun, O O; Watson, J M; Griffiths, R K

    2001-09-01

    This study assessed whether NHS Direct could be a useful source of surveillance data for communicable diseases, using influenza as a pilot condition. Data on the weekly total number of calls and the number from people reporting influenza-like symptoms to three pilot NHS Direct sites were collected between November 1999 and March 2000. NHS Direct data were compared with routinely available influenza surveillance data. The NHS Direct call rate peaked at 331 per 100,000 population in week 52 of 1999. The percentage of calls for 'influenza-like illness' (one site) peaked at 15% during week 51. Information about weekly call numbers to NHS Direct could be produced in a timely way. It was not clear whether the observed peak in calls reflected a true increase in influenza or whether it was the result of an increase in calls over the Christmas/Millennium holiday period due to more difficulty in accessing other services. The ability to assess the proportion of calls made directly by, or on behalf of, each age group will be of vital importance in interpreting seasonal respiratory disease.

  5. Can a gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) generalize call classes?

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Amanda L; de Freitas, Mafalda; Wu, Gi-Mick; Janik, Vincent M

    2015-11-01

    Past researchers have found that gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) are capable of classifying vocal signals by call type using a trained set, but were unable to generalize to novel exemplars (Shapiro, Slater, & Janik, 2004). Given the importance of auditory categorization in communication, it would be surprising if the animals were unable to generalize acoustically similar calls into classes. Here, we trained a juvenile gray seal to discriminate novel calls into 2 classes, "growls" and "moans," by vocally matching call types (i.e., the seal moaned when played a moan and growled when played a growl). Our method differed from the previous study as we trained the animal using a comparatively large set of exemplars with standardized durations, consisting of both the seal's own calls and those of 2 other seals. The seal successfully discriminated growls and moans for both her own (94% correct choices) and the other seals' (87% correct choices) calls. We used a generalized linear model (GLM) and found that the seal's performance significantly improved across test sessions, and that accuracy was higher during the first presentation of a sound from her own repertoire but decreased after multiple exposures. This pattern was not found for calls from unknown seals. Factor analysis for mixed data (FAMD) identified acoustic parameters that could be used to discriminate between call types and individuals. Growls and moans differed in noise, duration and frequency parameters, whereas individuals differed only in frequency. These data suggest that the seal could have gained information about both call type and caller identity using frequency cues.

  6. Correlates of negative physical health in call center shift workers.

    PubMed

    Rameshbabu, Anjali; Reddy, Diane M; Fleming, Raymond

    2013-05-01

    The call center industry, a burgeoning sector is characterized by unique job demands, which render it susceptible to high attrition rates and negative health concerns. This study examined the relationship between job stress from interpersonal factors, job stress from work factors, coping, inadequate sleep, and negative physical health reports among call center shift workers (n = 239), a relatively under-researched population. Inadequate sleep and job stress from interpersonal factors were associated with negative physical health outcome for the participants in this study. Further, spending longer in the call center industry was associated with negative health outcome for the shift worker participants.

  7. An empirical analysis of the corporate call decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Murray Dean

    1998-12-01

    In this thesis we provide insights into the behavior of financial managers of utility companies by studying their decisions to redeem callable preferred shares. In particular, we investigate whether or not an option pricing based model of the call decision, with managers who maximize shareholder value, does a better job of explaining callable preferred share prices and call decisions than do other models of the decision. In order to perform these tests, we extend an empirical technique introduced by Rust (1987) to include the use of information from preferred share prices in addition to the call decisions. The model we develop to value the option embedded in a callable preferred share differs from standard models in two ways. First, as suggested in Kraus (1983), we explicitly account for transaction costs associated with a redemption. Second, we account for state variables that are observed by the decision makers but not by the preferred shareholders. We interpret these unobservable state variables as the benefits and costs associated with a change in capital structure that can accompany a call decision. When we add this variable, our empirical model changes from one which predicts exactly when a share should be called to one which predicts the probability of a call as the function of the observable state. These two modifications of the standard model result in predictions of calls, and therefore of callable preferred share prices, that are consistent with several previously unexplained features of the data; we show that the predictive power of the model is improved in a statistical sense by adding these features to the model. The pricing and call probability functions from our model do a good job of describing call decisions and preferred share prices for several utilities. Using data from shares of the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PGE) we obtain reasonable estimates for the transaction costs associated with a call. Using a formal empirical test, we are able to

  8. Vocal complexity influences female responses to gelada male calls

    PubMed Central

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that inter-sexual selection drives the evolution of complex vocal communication in birds, but parallel lines of evidence are almost entirely absent in mammals. This dearth of evidence, particularly among primates, limits our understanding of the link between sociality and vocal complexity. Here, we use a playback experiment to quantify how wild female geladas (Theropithecus gelada) respond to three call types that are ‘derived’ (i.e., unique to geladas) and made by males during various affiliative contexts. These derived calls appeared to be highly salient and preferable to females: they looked longer towards and spent more time in proximity to playbacks of male vocal sequences containing one of the derived calls than to sequences containing only common and less elaborate ‘grunt’ calls. Our results provide the first experimental evidence for vocal elaboration as a male-specific strategy to maintain social bonds with females in non-human primates. PMID:26790770

  9. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  10. A new stratification of mourning dove call-count routes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, L.H.; Humphrey, A.B.; MacDonald, D.

    1971-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) call-count survey is a nationwide audio-census of breeding mourning doves. Recent analyses of the call-count routes have utilized a stratification based upon physiographic regions of the United States. An analysis of 5 years of call-count data, based upon stratification using potential natural vegetation, has demonstrated that this uew stratification results in strata with greater homogeneity than the physiographic strata, provides lower error variance, and hence generates greatet precision in the analysis without an increase in call-count routes. Error variance was reduced approximately 30 percent for the contiguous United States. This indicates that future analysis based upon the new stratification will result in an increased ability to detect significant year-to-year changes.

  11. From Checklist to Awareness: Hearing God's Call to Missions.

    PubMed

    Snead, Victoria; Moss, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    This student experience of international community health nursing in Cape Town, South Africa, illustrates the value of missions that provide health training and education to lay persons, and the calling of God to serve him through nursing. PMID:27295232

  12. Telephone calls postdischarge from hospital to home: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hand, Kristin E; Cunningham, Regina S

    2014-02-01

    The oncology population is particularly affected by hospital readmissions because hospitalized patients with cancer often have complex needs. The complexity and diversity of care requirements create substantial challenges in planning for appropriate postdischarge support. Implementing postdischarge telephone calls in the population of patients with cancer could offer a low-cost intervention to address the complex needs of patients during the transition from hospital to home. The goal of the current literature review is to provide an understanding about postdischarge telephone calls in patients with cancer. Findings from this review support the notion that discharge phone calls could improve care continuity for patients transitioning from hospital to home. The literature review outlines information related to telephone call content, timing, and structure for healthcare systems that want to use a postdischarge telephone intervention for patients with cancer. However, additional research is needed to develop and test cancer-specific protocols.

  13. 8. PHOTOCOPY, 1880 STREET SCENE, called 'MULE TRAIN' (SHOWING INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PHOTOCOPY, 1880 STREET SCENE, called 'MULE TRAIN' (SHOWING INDIAN FIREWOOD VENDER WITH HEAD BURDENS OF LIGHT FIREWOOD AND TWO BURROS WITH HEAVIER FIREWOOD LOADS.) - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  14. Should physicians be allowed to use alcohol while on call?

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, J; Desbiens, N

    2005-01-01

    Although physician alcohol use that leads to impairment has been extensively discussed, few statements address the issue of alcohol use of physicians who are on call. In this paper the authors review recent information on physicians' perceptions of alcohol use by themselves and their colleagues while on call. It is argued that conflicts in physicians' perceptions are due to the fact that the larger society has not addressed the question of whether drinking on call is public or private behaviour. The authors argue that when medicine is understood as a practice defined partly in terms of standards of excellence, the present approach of the American Medical Association to prohibit practicing medicine under the influence of alcohol requires a prohibition of drinking alcohol while on call, unless studies determine a clear threshold for drinking alcohol without placing patients at risk. PMID:15634748

  15. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 75 FR 77955 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... press release issued on December 9, 2010, and in this Federal Register notice, the Treasury called for... maturity date of September 15, 2013. The press release and a copy of a sample Large Position Report,...

  17. 5. VIEW OF MISSILE ASSEMBLY CALLED 'FIRE HOUSE,' LOOKING NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF MISSILE ASSEMBLY CALLED 'FIRE HOUSE,' LOOKING NORTH, LOCATED NEAR GATE AT ENTRANCE TO LAUNCH AREA Marilyn Ziemer, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Front elevation of highlift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of high-lift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called U.S. Route 29 or Columbia Pike) is in foreground. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  19. 16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 47 CFR 64.605 - Emergency calling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 64.605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.605 Emergency calling requirements....

  1. 47 CFR 64.704 - Call blocking prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Furnishing of Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.704 Call blocking prohibited. (a)...

  2. The Pope's encyclical as a call for democratic social change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Anabela

    2015-10-01

    The climate change encyclical represents a decisive democratic act. It calls on citizens to challenge dominant politics, power, and consumer culture in the name of tackling one of the world's great socio-environmental issues.

  3. [Calling and mating behaviors of bamboo shoot borer Kumasia kumaso].

    PubMed

    Shu, Jin-Ping; Teng, Ying; Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Deng, Shun; Wang, Hao-Jie

    2012-12-01

    The calling and mating behaviors of Kumasia kumaso were studied in laboratory at (25 1) degrees C and (60 +/- 10) % RH under a cycle 14 L:10 D photo period, and the EAG response of male K. kumaso to female K. kumaso sex gland extracts was also tested. The calling and mating behaviors of K. kumaso could only be observed in scotophase. The females began calling at the first scotophase following emergence, and the peak of calling occurred during the second scotophase and decreased thereafter. The calling of the females commenced 0-4 h after dark, reached the maximum between the 5th and the 7th hour of the scotophase, and terminated during the last 1-2.5 h of the scotophase. Moth age had significant effects on the calling patterns. With increasing moth age, the onset time of calling advanced gradually, and the mean number of calling bouts as well as the calling length per bout had a gradual increase from calling day 1 to day 4 but decreased on day 5. The peak time and terminated time of calling advanced with increasing moth age. The mating of K. kumaso adults initiated during the first scotophase and terminated till the 5th scotophase following emergence, and the peak of mating was observed during the second scotophase. The peak of mating was observed 5.5-7.0 h after dark, and advanced with increasing moth age. Moth age affected the mean onset time of mating and the copulation duration significantly. With increasing moth age, the mean onset time of mating advanced, and the copulation duration decreased. Sex ratio had significant effects on the mating behavior as well. Treatment 2 female:1 male showed a significantly higher mating percentage, but an earlier onset time of mating and shorter copulation duration, as compared with treatment 1 female:1 male. The results of EAG test indicated that the male adults showed a significant EAG response to the sex gland extracts of 2-day-old virgin females. PMID:23479886

  4. Processing of communication calls in Guinea pig auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Shanbhag, Sharad J; Palmer, Alan R; Wallace, Mark N

    2012-01-01

    Vocal communication is an important aspect of guinea pig behaviour and a large contributor to their acoustic environment. We postulated that some cortical areas have distinctive roles in processing conspecific calls. In order to test this hypothesis we presented exemplars from all ten of their main adult vocalizations to urethane anesthetised animals while recording from each of the eight areas of the auditory cortex. We demonstrate that the primary area (AI) and three adjacent auditory belt areas contain many units that give isomorphic responses to vocalizations. These are the ventrorostral belt (VRB), the transitional belt area (T) that is ventral to AI and the small area (area S) that is rostral to AI. Area VRB has a denser representation of cells that are better at discriminating among calls by using either a rate code or a temporal code than any other area. Furthermore, 10% of VRB cells responded to communication calls but did not respond to stimuli such as clicks, broadband noise or pure tones. Area S has a sparse distribution of call responsive cells that showed excellent temporal locking, 31% of which selectively responded to a single call. AI responded well to all vocalizations and was much more responsive to vocalizations than the adjacent dorsocaudal core area. Areas VRB, AI and S contained units with the highest levels of mutual information about call stimuli. Area T also responded well to some calls but seems to be specialized for low sound levels. The two dorsal belt areas are comparatively unresponsive to vocalizations and contain little information about the calls. AI projects to areas S, VRB and T, so there may be both rostral and ventral pathways for processing vocalizations in the guinea pig. PMID:23251604

  5. Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.

    PubMed

    Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

    2007-12-22

    The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species.

  6. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  7. Seasonal and diurnal calling patterns of Ross and leopards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Rowney, Gayle A.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    The temporal calling patterns of two Antarctic pack ice seals, the leopard and Ross seal, were examined. This included seasonal onset and decline of calling (coinciding with their breeding season) as well as diurnal changes. Understanding of calling behavior has important implications for acoustic surveying, since this allows the number of calls to be related to an index of the number of animals present and to estimate abundance. The monthly changes in diurnal calling and haul-out patterns (measured via satellite telemetry) were compared. Underwater acoustic recordings were made between 14 October 2003 and 10 January 2004 off Mawson, Eastern Antarctica (660 44.243S and 690 48.748E). Recordings were made using an Acoustics Recording Package (ARP by Dr. John Hildebrand, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA) which is designed to sit on the seafloor and passively record acoustic signals. The package was deployed at a depth of 1320.7 m. The sampling rate was 500 Hz and the effective bandwidth from 10 to 250 Hz, covering the bandwidth of only the low-frequency calls of the Ross and leopard seal.

  8. A method for calling copy number polymorphism using haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ho Jang, Gun; Christie, Jason D.; Feng, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variation (CNV) are both widespread characteristic of the human genome, but are often called separately on common genotyping platforms. To capture integrated SNP and CNV information, methods have been developed for calling allelic specific copy numbers or so called copy number polymorphism (CNP), using limited inter-marker correlation. In this paper, we proposed a haplotype-based maximum likelihood method to call CNP, which takes advantage of the valuable multi-locus linkage disequilibrium (LD) information in the population. We also developed a computationally efficient algorithm to estimate haplotype frequencies and optimize individual CNP calls iteratively, even at presence of missing data. Through simulations, we demonstrated our model is more sensitive and accurate in detecting various CNV regions, compared with commonly-used CNV calling methods including PennCNV, another hidden Markov model (HMM) using CNP, a scan statistic, segCNV, and cnvHap. Our method often performs better in the regions with higher LD, in longer CNV regions, and in common CNV than the opposite. We implemented our method on the genotypes of 90 HapMap CEU samples and 23 patients with acute lung injury (ALI). For each ALI patient the genotyping was performed twice. The CNPs from our method show good consistency and accuracy comparable to others. PMID:24069028

  9. Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

    Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

  10. Individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling in common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; Thomas, A. Wren

    2013-01-01

    Many vocalizations are encoded with a diversity of acoustic information about the signal producer. Amongst this information content are social categories related to the identity of the caller that are important for determining if and how a signal receiver may interact with that individual. Here we employed a novel playback method in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to test individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling. These experiments utilized custom, interactive playback software that effectively engaged subjects in antiphonal calling using vocalizations produced by a single individual and presented ‘probe’ vocalization stimuli representing a different individual at specific points within bouts of calling. The aim here was to test whether marmosets would recognize that the probe stimulus was a phee call produced by a different individual. Data indicated that marmosets were able to detect the change in caller identity; subjects produced significantly fewer antiphonal call responses to probe than control stimuli and, in some conditions, exhibited a shorter latency to produce the vocal response. These data suggest that marmosets recognize the identity of the individual during bouts of antiphonal calling. Furthermore, these results provide a methodological foundation for implementing the probe playback procedure to examine a broader range of social categorization during vocal interactions. PMID:22277952

  11. Ultrasonic frogs show hyperacute phonotaxis to female courtship calls.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun-Xian; Feng, Albert S; Xu, Zhi-Min; Yu, Zu-Lin; Arch, Victoria S; Yu, Xin-Jian; Narins, Peter M

    2008-06-12

    Sound communication plays a vital role in frog reproduction, in which vocal advertisement is generally the domain of males. Females are typically silent, but in a few anuran species they can produce a feeble reciprocal call or rapping sounds during courtship. Males of concave-eared torrent frogs (Odorrana tormota) have demonstrated ultrasonic communication capacity. Although females of O. tormota have an unusually well-developed vocal production system, it is unclear whether or not they produce calls or are only passive partners in a communication system dominated by males. Here we show that before ovulation, gravid females of O. tormota emit calls that are distinct from males' advertisement calls, having higher fundamental frequencies and harmonics and shorter call duration. In the field and in a quiet, darkened indoor arena, these female calls evoke vocalizations and extraordinarily precise positive phonotaxis (a localization error of <1 degrees ), rivalling that of vertebrates with the highest localization acuity (barn owls, dolphins, elephants and humans). The localization accuracy of O. tormota is remarkable in light of their small head size (interaural distance of <1 cm), and suggests an additional selective advantage of high-frequency hearing beyond the ability to avoid masking by low-frequency background noise. PMID:18469804

  12. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve S.; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

  13. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  14. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  15. BayesCall: A model-based base-calling algorithm for high-throughput short-read sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Stevens, Kristian; Song, Yun S

    2009-10-01

    Extracting sequence information from raw images of fluorescence is the foundation underlying several high-throughput sequencing platforms. Some of the main challenges associated with this technology include reducing the error rate, assigning accurate base-specific quality scores, and reducing the cost of sequencing by increasing the throughput per run. To demonstrate how computational advancement can help to meet these challenges, a novel model-based base-calling algorithm, BayesCall, is introduced for the Illumina sequencing platform. Being founded on the tools of statistical learning, BayesCall is flexible enough to incorporate various features of the sequencing process. In particular, it can easily incorporate time-dependent parameters and model residual effects. This new approach significantly improves the accuracy over Illumina's base-caller Bustard, particularly in the later cycles of a sequencing run. For 76-cycle data on a standard viral sample, phiX174, BayesCall improves Bustard's average per-base error rate by approximately 51%. The probability of observing each base can be readily computed in BayesCall, and this probability can be transformed into a useful base-specific quality score with a high discrimination ability. A detailed study of BayesCall's performance is presented here. PMID:19661376

  16. Voice over internet protocol with prepaid calling card solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunadi, Tri

    2001-07-01

    The VoIP technology is growing up rapidly, it has big network impact on PT Telkom Indonesia, the bigger telecommunication operator in Indonesia. Telkom has adopted VoIP and one other technology, Intelligent Network (IN). We develop those technologies together in one service product, called Internet Prepaid Calling Card (IPCC). IPCC is becoming new breakthrough for the Indonesia telecommunication services especially on VoIP and Prepaid Calling Card solutions. Network architecture of Indonesia telecommunication consists of three layer, Local, Tandem and Trunck Exchange layer. Network development researches for IPCC architecture are focus on network overlay hierarchy, Internet and PSTN. With this design hierarchy the goal of Interworking PSTN, VoIP and IN calling card, become reality. Overlay design for IPCC is not on Trunck Exchange, this is the new architecture, these overlay on Tandem and Local Exchange, to make the faster call processing. The nodes added: Gateway (GW) and Card Management Center (CMC) The GW do interfacing between PSTN and Internet Network used ISDN-PRA and Ethernet. The other functions are making bridge on circuit (PSTN) with packet (VoIP) based and real time billing process. The CMC used for data storage, pin validation, report activation, tariff system, directory number and all the administration transaction. With two nodes added the IPCC service offered to the market.

  17. Individual right whales call louder in increased environmental noise.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Johnson, Mark; Nowacek, Douglas; Tyack, Peter L

    2011-02-23

    The ability to modify vocalizations to compensate for environmental noise is critical for successful communication in a dynamic acoustic environment. Many marine species rely on sound for vital life functions including communication, navigation and feeding. The impacts of significant increases in ocean noise levels from human activities are a current area of concern for the conservation of marine mammals. Here, we document changes in calling behaviour by individual endangered North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in increased background noise. Right whales, like several bird and primate species, respond to periods of increased noise by increasing the amplitude of their calls. This behaviour may help maintain the communication range with conspecifics during periods of increased noise. These call modifications have implications for conservation efforts for right whales, affecting both the way whales use sound to communicate and our ability to detect them with passive acoustic monitoring systems.

  18. CCall--healthy and successful work in call centres.

    PubMed

    Benninghoven, Alfred; Bindzius, Fritz; Braun, Detlef; Cramer, Jutta; Ellegast, Rolf; Flowerday, Udo; Genz, Andreas; von der Heyden, Thomas; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang; Schittly, Dagmar; Schweer, Ralf; Stamm, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Call centre workplaces are in many ways a challenge to occupational health and safety. The occupation itself can be described as an IT information technology-supported, communication-intensive form of work with often unusual working hours and a high rate of part-time employment. Data on the employee turnover as well as absenteeism related to occupational disability is quite contradictory. Occupational safety and its proponents still have to find new ways into the corporate structures and cultures of this relatively new and rapidly growing branch of industry. In a 2-year research and development project, using a holistic approach and under consideration of all the relevant disciplines, call centre workplaces were studied, and organisational measures were developed and field tested by putting them into practice. Practical help was developed for a sustainable strategy for successful and healthy work in call centres.

  19. Great Lakes agreement calls for binational science priorities and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    An amended Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA), signed by officials from Canada and the United States at a 7 September ceremony in Washington, D. C., will facilitate efforts by the two countries to “restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Waters of the Great Lakes.” The agreement calls on the countries to cooperate and collaborate; develop programs, practices, and technology necessary to better understand the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem; and eliminate or reduce environmental threats to Great Lakes waters. The amended GLWQA specifically calls for the establishment of “binational priorities for science and action to address current and future threats” to the quality of Great Lakes waters within 18 months. In addition, the agreement calls on the International Joint Commission (IJC) to establish a Great Lakes science advisory board.

  20. Making judgment calls. The ultimate act of leadership.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Noel M; Bennis, Warren G

    2007-10-01

    According to the traditional view, judgment is an event: You make a decision and then move on. Yet Tichy, of the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business, and Bennis, of the University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business, found that good leadership judgment occurs not in a single moment but throughout a process. From their research into the complex phenomenon of leadership judgment, the authors also found that most important judgment calls reside in one of three domains: people, strategy, and crisis. Understanding the essence of leadership judgment is crucial. A leader's calls determine an organization's success or failure and deliver the verdict on his or her career. The first phase of the judgment process is preparation--identifying and framing the issue that demands a decision and aligning and mobilizing key stakeholders. Second is the call itself, And third is acting on the call, learning and adjusting along the way. Good leaders use a "story line"--an articulation of a company's identity, direction, and values--to inform their actions throughout the judgment process. Boeing CEO Jim McNerney, for instance, focused on a story line of Boeing as a world-class competitor and ethical leader to make a judgment call that launched the company's recovery from a string of ethical crises. Good leaders also take advantage of "redo loops" throughout the process, reconsidering the parameters of the decision, relabeling the problem, and redefining the goal in a way that more and more people can accept. Procter & Gamble's A.G. Lafley and Best Buy's Brad Anderson have both used redo loops--in preparation and execution, respectively--to strengthen not only support for their calls but also the outcomes.

  1. Automated Telephone Calls Improved Completion of Fecal Occult Blood Testing

    PubMed Central

    Mosen, David M.; Feldstein, Adrianne C.; Perrin, Nancy; Rosales, A. Gabriela; Smith, David H.; Liles, Elizabeth G.; Schneider, Jennifer L.; Lafata, Jennifer E.; Myers, Ronald E.; Kositch, Michael; Hickey, Thomas; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis is improved by early diagnosis, screening rates remain low. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of an automated telephone intervention on completion of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). RESEARCH DESIGN Subjects In this randomized controlled trial conducted at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, a not-for-profit health maintenance organization, 5,905 eligible patients aged 51–80, at average risk for CRC and due for CRC screening, were randomly assigned to an automated telephone intervention (n=2,943) or usual care (UC; n=2,962). The intervention group received up to 3 one-minute automated telephone calls that provided a description and health benefits of FOBT. During the call, patients could request that an FOBT kit be mailed to their home. Those who requested but did not return the cards received an automated reminder call. Measures Cox proportional hazard method was used to determine the independent effect of automated telephone calls on completion of an FOBT, after adjusting for age, gender, and prior CRC screening. RESULTS By 6 months post call initiation, 22.5% in the intervention and 16.0% in UC had completed an FOBT. Those in the intervention group were significantly more likely to complete an FOBT (HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.10–1.56) compared to UC. Older patients (aged 71–80 vs. aged 51–60) were also more likely to complete FOBT (HR = 1.48, 95% CI=1.07–2.04). CONCLUSIONS Automated telephone calls increased completion of FOBT. Further research is needed to evaluate automated telephone interventions among diverse populations and in other clinical settings. PMID:20508529

  2. Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Archer, Charles J.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-05-11

    Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt including creating a thread; receiving an interrupt having an interrupt type; determining whether a value of a semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled; if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are not disabled: calling, by the thread, one or more preconfigured functions in dependence upon the interrupt type of the interrupt; yielding the thread; and if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled: setting the value of the semaphore to represent to a kernel that interrupts are hard-disabled; and hard-disabling interrupts at the kernel.

  3. Host-Based Data Exfiltration Detection via System Call Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M; Jewell, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    The host-based detection of malicious data exfiltration activities is currently a sparse area of research and mostly limited to methods that analyze network traffic or signature based detection methods that target specific processes. In this paper we explore an alternative method to host-based detection that exploits sequences of system calls and new collection methods that allow us to catch these activities in real time. We show that system calls sequences can be found to reach a steady state across processes and users, and explore the viability of new methods as heuristics for profiling user behaviors.

  4. The 193 call center, a meaningful public service!

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Maud; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

    2012-01-01

    This article is the first part of an on-going ergonomic work analysis with the emergency services call center set up by the Fire Department of the Military Police of São Paulo. The final objective of the research is to identify the prescribed task, the real work executed and strategies used by workers to meet the demands of the job. Starting by identifying the tasks and activities developed, this article analyzes the work of the emergency services call center which is of vital importance to the organizational structure, since it is the start point for the process that results in fulfilling the corporation's mission.

  5. [So-called medullary fibromas of the kidney].

    PubMed

    Postnov, Iu V; Perov, Iu L; Gribunov, Iu P

    1978-01-01

    This is the first description in the national literature of morphology of the so-called medullar fibromas of the human kidney which are considered to be hormonally-active (producing prostaglandines) tumours or tumour-like focal hyperplasias of interstitial cells of the kidney medullary layer.

  6. Development of the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonneson, Mary E.; Hartsough, Don M.

    1987-01-01

    Constructed and tested Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale, rating scale of caller behavior, as an outcome measure at telephone hotline facility. Psychology students rated caller behavior on role-played audiotapes. Items having respectable item-total correlations comprise final version of scale which detected meaningful differences among audiotapes.…

  7. Celebrating the Story of My First Contribution to CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Seghayer, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    In the realm of second language acquisition, investigations of the efficacy of multimedia annotations for learning unknown lexical items has attracted considerable interest during the past decade. This commentary discusses the story of my first contribution to the field of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) 14 years ago. In particular, it…

  8. 75 FR 34487 - Sunshine Act Meetings (by Conference Call)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings (by Conference Call) DATE AND TIMES: June 25, 2010, 1 p.m.-3 p.m. PLACE: NCD... CONSIDERED: National Summit on Disability Policy 2010. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Mark...

  9. A Topical Bibliography on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2009-01-01

    This bibliography aims to serve the language teacher educators who are working in the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) by making a collection of 1732 bibliographic entries, which stem from mainly books and journal articles in English that date back to 1980 and provide good discussions on the theory of technology in language…

  10. Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.

    2011-01-01

    This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

  11. Dream Catchers: "Margin Call," "Boss," and Climbing the Beanstalk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Two recent popular entertainments, "Margin Call" (Barnum, Dodson, Jenckes, Moosa, Quinto & Chandor, 2011) and "Boss" (Safinia, 2011), depict powerful and successful groups of bosses confronting sudden, extreme threats. They are forced to react quickly and sacrifice important values to achieve survival of their organizations. In these emergencies,…

  12. Campbell's monkeys concatenate vocalizations into context-specific call sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Primate vocal behavior is often considered irrelevant in modeling human language evolution, mainly because of the caller's limited vocal control and apparent lack of intentional signaling. Here, we present the results of a long-term study on Campbell's monkeys, which has revealed an unrivaled degree of vocal complexity. Adult males produced six different loud call types, which they combined into various sequences in highly context-specific ways. We found stereotyped sequences that were strongly associated with cohesion and travel, falling trees, neighboring groups, nonpredatory animals, unspecific predatory threat, and specific predator classes. Within the responses to predators, we found that crowned eagles triggered four and leopards three different sequences, depending on how the caller learned about their presence. Callers followed a number of principles when concatenating sequences, such as nonrandom transition probabilities of call types, addition of specific calls into an existing sequence to form a different one, or recombination of two sequences to form a third one. We conclude that these primates have overcome some of the constraints of limited vocal control by combinatorial organization. As the different sequences were so tightly linked to specific external events, the Campbell's monkey call system may be the most complex example of ‘proto-syntax’ in animal communication known to date. PMID:20007377

  13. Social Calls Predict Foraging Success in Big Brown Bats

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    Animals foraging in the dark are simultaneously engaged in prey pursuit, collision avoidance and interactions with conspecifics, making efficient, non-visual communication essential. A variety of birds and mammals emit food-associated calls that inform, attract, or repel conspecifics [e.g., 1]. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are insectivorous aerial hawkers that may forage near conspecifics and are known to emit social calls [e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5]. Calls recorded in a foraging setting might attract [e.g., 6] or repel conspecifics [7] and could denote territoriality or food-claiming. Here, we provide evidence that a social call emitted only by male bats, exclusively in a foraging context [5], the “frequency-modulated bout” (FMB), is used to claim food and is individually distinct. Bats were studied individually and in pairs in a flight room equipped with synchronized high-speed stereo video and audio recording equipment, while sex and experience with a foraging task were experimentally manipulated. Male bats emitting the FMB showed greater success in capturing prey. Following FMB emission, inter-bat distance, diverging flight, and the other bat’s distance to the prey each increased. These findings highlight the importance and utility of vocal communication for a nocturnal animal mediating interactions with conspecifics in a fast-paced foraging setting. PMID:24684936

  14. Answering the Call: How Group Mentoring Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altus, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring programs answer the call for social justice for many students who are in success-inhibiting environments. This study employed a case study design to investigate the perceived benefits from a group mentoring program. Data was collected from pre- and post-assessments focus groups, and artifacts. Four participant benefits were revealed:…

  15. Impact of Cold-Calling on Student Voluntary Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallimore, Elise J.; Hertenstein, Julie H.; Platt, Marjorie B.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discussion is perhaps the most frequently used "active learning" strategy. However, instructors are often concerned about students who are less inclined to participate voluntarily. They worry that students not involved in the discussion might have lower quality learning experiences. Although instructors might consider whether to call on…

  16. A Call for Change: Providing Solutions for Black Male Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Lewis, Sharon; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata; Palacios, Moses

    2012-01-01

    In October 2010, the Council of the Great City Schools released a major report on the academic status of African American males, "A Call for Change: The Social and Educational Factors Contributing to the Outcomes of Black Males in Urban Schools." The report was the first phase of the Council's efforts to recommit the energies of the nation's urban…

  17. Social calls predict foraging success in big brown bats.

    PubMed

    Wright, Genevieve Spanjer; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-04-14

    Animals foraging in the dark are engaged simultaneously in prey pursuit, collision avoidance, and interactions with conspecifics, making efficient nonvisual communication essential. A variety of birds and mammals emit food-associated calls that inform, attract, or repel conspecifics (e.g.,). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are insectivorous aerial hawkers that may forage near conspecifics and are known to emit social calls (e.g.,). Calls recorded in a foraging setting might attract (e.g.,) or repel conspecifics and could denote territoriality or food claiming. Here, we provide evidence that the "frequency-modulated bout" (FMB), a social call emitted only by male bats (exclusively in a foraging context), is used to claim food and is individually distinct. Bats were studied individually and in pairs in a flight room equipped with synchronized high-speed stereo video and audio recording equipment while sex and experience with a foraging task were experimentally manipulated. Male bats emitting the FMB showed greater success in capturing prey. Following FMB emission, interbat distance, diverging flight, and the other bat's distance to the prey each increased. These findings highlight the importance and utility of vocal communication for a nocturnal animal mediating interactions with conspecifics in a fast-paced foraging setting. PMID:24684936

  18. Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls.

    PubMed

    Briefer, Elodie F; Padilla de la Torre, Monica; McElligott, Alan G

    2012-09-22

    Parent-offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids' calls 7-13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers' responses to calls of their previous kids with their responses to the same calls at five weeks postpartum. Subjects tended to respond more to their own kids at five weeks postpartum than 11-17 months later, but displayed stronger responses to their previous kids than to familiar kids from other females. Acoustic analyses showed that it is unlikely that mothers were responding to their previous kids simply because they confounded them with the new kids they were currently nursing. Therefore, our results provide evidence for strong, long-term vocal memory capacity in goats. The persistence of offspring vocal recognition beyond weaning could have important roles in kin social relationships and inbreeding avoidance.

  19. 10 CFR 1045.20 - Ongoing call for declassification proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.20 Ongoing call... from the public or agencies or contractors for declassification of RD and FRD information on an ongoing basis. Declassification proposals for RD and FRD information shall be forwarded to the Chief...

  20. 78 FR 31977 - NASA Asteroid Initiative Call for Ideas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Asteroid Initiative Call for Ideas AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... announces a public forum to provide a status on the agency's asteroid initiative planning and to encourage...: This meeting will be streamed live online. Viewing options will be posted at...

  1. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ninad B.; Wohlgemuth, Melville J.; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

  2. The Heart of Higher Education: A Call to Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Parker J.; Zajonc, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    From Parker Palmer, best-selling author of "The Courage to Teach", and Arthur Zajonc, professor of physics at Amherst College and director of the academic program of the Center for Contemplative Mind in Society, comes this call to revisit the roots and reclaim the vision of higher education. "The Heart of Higher Education" proposes an approach to…

  3. The advertisement call of Ameerega pulchripecta (Silverstone, 1976)(Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    PubMed

    Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    The name Ameerega picta was once used to denote a lineage of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) distributed throughout most of the Amazon basin (Silverstone 1976); more recently, to describe a phenetic group involving at least 18 species, Lötters et al. (2007) pointed out that some of the lineages were indeed derived from the former A. picta. Among them, the nominal species with the widest distribution is A. hahneli (Haddad & Martins 1994; Twomey & Brown 2008), also an alleged complex of poorly defined species (Grant et al. 2006; Fouquet et al. 2007; Roberts et al. 2007). The mate-recognition signal, the advertisement call, was part of the evidence used to revalidate A. hahneli as a different species from A. picta. Although the advertisement call has been described for one or few individuals of other species in the group (Haddad & Martins 1994; Costa et al. 2006; Twomey & Brown 2008; Lötters et al. 2009), namely A. flavopicta, A. braccata and A. boehmei, and A. hahneli, we still lack a formal description for A. pulchripecta, the sister taxon of A. hahneli (Twomey & Brown 2008). Its call has been qualitatively described as similar to A. hahneli's call, but "deeper-voiced" (Lötters et al. 2007). PMID:27395723

  4. Rethinking Transfer: Learning from CALL Teacher Education as Consequential Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Chin-chi

    2015-01-01

    Behind CALL teacher education (CTE) there is an unproblematized consensus of transfer, which suggests a positivist and tool-centered view of learning gains that differs from the sociocultural focus of recent teacher education research. Drawing on Beach's (2003) conceptualization of transfer as "consequential transition," this…

  5. Eisenhower's Farewell Call: Arguing for an Alert and Knowledgeable Citizenry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapanen, Larry

    In his January 17, 1961 farewell address, President Dwight D. Eisenhower warned Americans to be wary of the "military-industrial complex." He called for "an alert and knowledgeable citizenry" which would assure the proper meshing of the military and industrial defense machinery with peaceful methods and goals. Eisenhower's comments reflected his…

  6. A Call for Student Involvement in the Push for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Megan

    2011-01-01

    As readers of "Assessment Update" know, the call for assessment is sweeping over the globe, so much so that faculty and administrators are finding it difficult to ignore it--though many may wish they could. Unfortunately, awareness does not lead to an increase in assessment implementation because fear of assessment is still widespread. The push…

  7. Building Fluent Performance in a Customer Call Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Carl; Sweeney, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the potential for improving training and coaching program effectiveness by using fluency-development methods. Describes the revision of a new-hire training program in a customer call center that applied a fluency-based approach to reduce training time by one-third, accelerate productivity readiness, and surpass benchmark productivity…

  8. A Call for Cooperative Pluralism from Me to We.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Mako

    This collection of training materials describes an educational philosophy for elementary level instruction called cooperative pluralism. This approach complements and strengthens traditional multicultural educational approaches while blending them with cooperative learning and democratic education. The following materials are included: (1) brief…

  9. 47 CFR 64.605 - Emergency calling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... providers of VRS and IP Relay to which § 64.605(b) applies. (2) Each provider of Internet-based TRS shall... VRS and IP Relay—(1) Scope. The following requirements are only applicable to providers of VRS or IP... provider handling the call. (2) E911 Service. As of December 31, 2008: (i) VRS or IP Relay providers...

  10. 47 CFR 64.605 - Emergency calling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... providers of VRS and IP Relay to which § 64.605(b) applies. (2) Each provider of Internet-based TRS shall... VRS and IP Relay—(1) Scope. The following requirements are only applicable to providers of VRS or IP... provider handling the call. (2) E911 Service. As of December 31, 2008: (i) VRS or IP Relay providers...

  11. 47 CFR 64.605 - Emergency calling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... providers of VRS and IP Relay to which § 64.605(b) applies. (2) Each provider of Internet-based TRS shall... VRS and IP Relay—(1) Scope. The following requirements are only applicable to providers of VRS or IP... provider handling the call. (2) E911 Service. As of December 31, 2008: (i) VRS or IP Relay providers...

  12. 47 CFR 64.605 - Emergency calling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... providers of VRS and IP Relay to which § 64.605(b) applies. (2) Each provider of Internet-based TRS shall... VRS and IP Relay—(1) Scope. The following requirements are only applicable to providers of VRS or IP... provider handling the call. (2) E911 Service. As of December 31, 2008: (i) VRS or IP Relay providers...

  13. 75 FR 16163 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a debenture recall...

  14. 40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. The south queen post (called 'king post' in the 1755 account for scantling for the Greater Meeting House) of the third truss from the east end. Note the numerals for assembling the truss members and the plaster marks from the 1755 Monthly Meeting Room. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. School Social Workers and a Renewed Call to Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Alfred L., Jr.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article calls for school social workers to work in schools to reform school systems that have historically failed and are currently failing African American children. While the hope of education is to assist students to realize their potential, school systems across the nation are not reaching this goal. School social work has a duty, a…

  16. Education in Utah: A Call to Action. Addendum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Clarifications to recommendations made in the Utah Education Reform Committee report, "A Call to Action," are presented in this addendum. Earlier recommendations relating to teachers are revised and clarified and new ones relating to class size, teachers' duties, instructional materials, and the student-parent-school relationship are added.…

  17. Empirical regularities of opening call auction in Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Gao-Feng; Ren, Fei; Ni, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-01-01

    We study the statistical regularities of an opening call auction using the ultra-high-frequency data of 22 liquid stocks traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in 2003. The distribution of the relative price, defined as the relative difference between the order price in the opening call auction and the closing price on the last trading day, is asymmetric and that the distribution displays a sharp peak at the zero relative price and a relatively wide peak at the negative relative price. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method is adopted to investigate the long-term memory of relative order prices. We further study the statistical regularities of order sizes in the opening call auction, and observe a phenomenon of number preference, known as order size clustering. The probability density function (PDF) of order sizes could be well fitted by a q-Gamma function, and the long-term memory also exists in order sizes. In addition, both the average volume and the average number of orders decrease exponentially with the price level away from the best bid or ask price level in the limit-order book (LOB) established immediately after the opening call auction, and a price clustering phenomenon is observed.

  18. 2005 Annual Report on Our Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "2005 Annual Report on Our Call to Action: Pursuit of Excellence" details the school system's significant progress toward meeting the identified milestones within each of the system's four strategic goal areas. The overall trend data continue to provide strong evidence of the effectiveness of our strategies and initiatives detailed in "Our…

  19. States Mull Obama's Call to Raise Compulsory-Attendance Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama's call for every state to require school attendance until age 18 may spark a flurry of action in some statehouses, but changing attendance laws will do little by itself to drive down the nation's dropout rates, experts on the issue say. In his State of the Union address last month, President Obama said states should require…

  20. Call centers and noise-induced hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Beyan, Ayse Coskun; Demiral, Yucel; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Ergor, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Noise is defined as unwelcome sound. It has been estimated that 16% of adult hearing loss in the world is due to noise exposure at the workplace. This report offers a case that diagnosed with hearing loss of whom working as a call center operator at home. Home agent operators should be explored. PMID:26960789

  1. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Maximum transmitter power will be either 2.5 watts plate input to the final stage or 1 watt output. (2) Antenna gain shall not exceed zero dBd (referred to a half-wave dipole) in any horizontal direction. (3... stations of the licensee. (2) Maximum transmitter power for call boxes will be either 2.5 watts input...

  2. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  3. Evaluation of a Pharmacy Resident Inpatient On-Call Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatoum, Hind T.

    1993-01-01

    The 440 interventions completed by pharmacy residents in an inpatient on-call program were analyzed for their source (self-initiated, solicited by physician or staff pharmacist), type (selection of dosage, schedule, drug level monitoring, route of administration), impact on quality of care, cost of care, and clinical significance. (Author/MSE)

  4. Towards Model-Driven End-User Development in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod; Gruba, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce end-user development (EUD) processes to the CALL software development community. EUD refers to the active participation of end-users, as non-professional developers, in the software development life cycle. Unlike formal software engineering approaches, the focus in EUD on means/ends development is…

  5. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and...

  6. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and...

  7. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and...

  8. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and...

  9. Probing the Process Called "Behavior-Based Interviewing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Bill

    1996-01-01

    Describes a growing trend in job hiring called Behavior-Based Interviewing in which the interviewer questions the job applicant on past behavior and uses this information as a predictor of the applicant's future behavior and consequently whether this behavior successfully matches the job applied for. Provides detailed description of this process.…

  10. An automated device for provoking and capturing wildlife calls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Skrivseth, Jesse; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Some animals exhibit call-and-response behaviors that can be exploited to facilitate detection. Traditionally, acoustic surveys that use call-and-respond techniques have required an observer's presence to perform the broadcast, record the response, or both events. This can be labor-intensive and may influence animal behavior and, thus, survey results. We developed an automated acoustic survey device using commercially available hardware (e.g., laptop computer, speaker, microphone) and an author-created (JS) software program ("HOOT") that can be used to survey for any animal that calls. We tested this device to determine 1) deployment longevity, 2) effective sampling area, and 3) ability to detect known packs of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Idaho, USA. Our device was able to broadcast and record twice daily for 6–7 days using the internal computer battery and surveyed an area of 3.3–17.5 km2 in relatively open habitat depending on the hardware components used. We surveyed for wolves at 2 active rendezvous sites used by closely monitored, radiocollared wolf packs and obtained 4 responses across both packs over 3 days of sampling. We confirmed reproduction in these 2 packs by detecting pup howls aurally from the resulting device recordings. Our device can broadcast and record animal calls and the computer software is freely downloadable. This automated survey device can be used to collect reliable data while reducing the labor costs traditionally associated with acoustic surveys.

  11. An automated device for provoking and capturing Wildlife calls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, D.E.; Skrivseth, J.; Mitchell, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Some animals exhibit call-and-response behaviors that can be exploited to facilitate detection. Traditionally, acoustic surveys that use call-and-respond techniques have required an observer's presence to perform the broadcast, record the response, or both events. This can be labor-intensive and may influence animal behavior and, thus, survey results. We developed an automated acoustic survey device using commercially available hardware (e.g., laptop computer, speaker, microphone) and an author-created (JS) software program ("HOOT") that can be used to survey for any animal that calls. We tested this device to determine 1) deployment longevity, 2) effective sampling area, and 3) ability to detect known packs of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Idaho, USA. Our device was able to broadcast and record twice daily for 6-7 days using the internal computer battery and surveyed an area of 3.3-17.5 km in relatively open habitat depending on the hardware components used. We surveyed for wolves at 2 active rendezvous sites used by closely monitored, radiocollared wolf packs and obtained 4 responses across both packs over 3 days of sampling. We confirmed reproduction in these 2 packs by detecting pup howls aurally from the resulting device recordings. Our device can broadcast and record animal calls and the computer software is freely downloadable. This automated survey device can be used to collect reliable data while reducing the labor costs traditionally associated with acoustic surveys. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  12. 75 FR 14622 - Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils AGENCY: Bureau of Land... of this notice is to request public nominations for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Resource... recommendations to the BLM on land use planning and management of the National System of Public Lands within...

  13. Dialogue-Based Call: A Case Study on Teaching Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlugter, P.; Knott, A.; McDonald, J.; Hall, C.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a computer assisted language learning (CALL) system that uses human-machine dialogue as its medium of interaction. The system was developed to help students learn the basics of the Maori language and was designed to accompany the introductory course in Maori running at the University of Otago. The student engages in a task-based…

  14. Mining of Business-Oriented Conversations at a Call Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Nasukawa, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hideo

    Recently it has become feasible to transcribe textual records from telephone conversations at call centers by using automatic speech recognition. In this research, we extended a text mining system for call summary records and constructed a conversation mining system for the business-oriented conversations at the call center. To acquire useful business insights from the conversational data through the text mining system, it is critical to identify appropriate textual segments and expressions as the viewpoints to focus on. In the analysis of call summary data using a text mining system, some experts defined the viewpoints for the analysis by looking at some sample records and by preparing the dictionaries based on frequent keywords in the sample dataset. However with conversations it is difficult to identify such viewpoints manually and in advance because the target data consists of complete transcripts that are often lengthy and redundant. In this research, we defined a model of the business-oriented conversations and proposed a mining method to identify segments that have impacts on the outcomes of the conversations and can then extract useful expressions in each of these identified segments. In the experiment, we processed the real datasets from a car rental service center and constructed a mining system. With this system, we show the effectiveness of the method based on the defined conversation model.

  15. Toward an Ecological CALL: Update to Garrett (1991)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This introduction to the 2009 "Modern Language Journal" Focus Issue uses the lens of an ecological perspective on the acquisition of second languages to provide additional insights into the contributions by various computer-assisted language learning (CALL) scholars to this update on Garrett (1991), "Technology in the service of language learning:…

  16. 77 FR 12646 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for..., Government Securities Dealer Statistics Unit, 4th Floor, 33 Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045; or... Department's large position reporting rules under the Government Securities Act regulations (17 CFR part...

  17. 78 FR 17469 - Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Government Securities: Call for Large Position Reports AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... Securities Dealer Statistics Unit, 4th Floor, 33 Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045; or faxed to 212...; Government Securities Regulations Staff, Department of the Treasury, at 202-504-3632....

  18. Educational Leadership and Social Activism: A Call for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lauren P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to argue for a social activist stance in educational leadership that fundamentally addresses social change and human emancipation. This call for social activism is framed within neoliberal, neoconservative, and authoritarian populist discourses in the USA, which to social justice educators and leaders had devastating…

  19. 12. CLOSEUP OF THE CURRENT TRASH RAKELIFTING MECHANISM (CALLED 'JAWS' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP OF THE CURRENT TRASH RAKE-LIFTING MECHANISM (CALLED 'JAWS' BY THE PRESENT OPERATORS), LOOKING WEST. THIS EQUIPMENT WAS REMOVED IN AUTUMN OF 1996. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  20. TADtool: visual parameter identification for TAD-calling algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Kai; Hug, Clemens B.; Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Vaquerizas, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Eukaryotic genomes are hierarchically organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). The computational identification of these domains and their associated properties critically depends on the choice of suitable parameters of TAD-calling algorithms. To reduce the element of trial-and-error in parameter selection, we have developed TADtool: an interactive plot to find robust TAD-calling parameters with immediate visual feedback. TADtool allows the direct export of TADs called with a chosen set of parameters for two of the most common TAD calling algorithms: directionality and insulation index. It can be used as an intuitive, standalone application or as a Python package for maximum flexibility. Availability and implementation: TADtool is available as a Python package from GitHub (https://github.com/vaquerizaslab/tadtool) or can be installed directly via PyPI, the Python package index (tadtool). Contact: kai.kruse@mpi-muenster.mpg.de, jmv@mpi-muenster.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27318199

  1. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.

  2. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-01

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms.

  3. Perspectives of Nurses and Patients on Call Light Technology

    PubMed Central

    Galinato, Jose; Montie, Mary; Patak, Lance; Titler, Marita

    2015-01-01

    Call lights are prevalent in inpatient healthcare facilities across the nation. While call light use directly influences the delivery of nursing care, there remain significant gaps both in research and technology that can impact the quality of care and patient satisfaction. This study examines the perception of nurses and patients on the use of a new call communication solution, Eloquence™, in the acute care inpatient setting. Eighteen patients were recruited for the study and participated in individual semi-structured interviews during their hospital stay. Eighteen nurses were recruited and participated in focus groups for this study. Qualitative descriptive methods were used to analyze the data. Results revealed themes of usability, improved communication, and suggestions for improvement to the alpha prototype design. After a demonstration of the use and capability of Eloquence™, nurse and patient participants found Eloquence™ as a welcomed advancement in nurse call technology that has the potential to improve workflow and patient outcomes. In addition, the participants also proposed ideas on how to further develop the technology to improve its use. PMID:26176639

  4. Behavior Modification Project: Reducing and Controlling Calling Out Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Deborah Anne

    The purpose of this study was to determine which behavior modification procedures were the most effective in reducing and controlling the inappropriate calling out behavior of a fifth-grade socially and emotionally disturbed student. Three phases of interventions were involved. As the study began, the resource room instructor was using a behavior…

  5. 47 CFR 80.459 - Digital selective calling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital selective calling. 80.459 Section 80.459 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Public Coast Stations Use of Telegraphy § 80.459 Digital...

  6. Superior Ambulance Call Out Rate Forecasting Using Meteorological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Thornes, J. E.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.

    2015-12-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use call out data obtained from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) and meteorological data from a central London meteorological station. A time-series analysis was utilized to understand the relation between temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants and different call out categories. There are statistically significant relationships between mean temperature and ambulance callout rate for most of the categories investigated. Most categories show a negative dependence on temperature, i.e. call outs increase with decreasing temperature but some categories showed a positive dependence such as alcohol related call outs. Relative humidity is significant for some categories but in general is much less important than temperature. Significant time lag effects were observed for most of the categories related to infectious illnesses, which are transferrable through human contact. These findings support the opinion that ambulance attendance callouts records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather forecasts.

  7. Development of echolocation calls in the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii.

    PubMed

    Vater, M; Kössl, M; Foeller, E; Coro, F; Mora, E; Russell, I J

    2003-10-01

    Adult mustached bats employ Doppler-sensitive sonar to hunt fluttering prey insects in acoustically cluttered habitats. The echolocation call consists of 4-5 harmonics, each composed of a long constant frequency (CF) component flanked by brief frequency modulations (FM). The 2nd harmonic CF component (CF2) at 61 kHz is the most intense, and analyzed by an exceptionally sharply tuned auditory system. The maturation of echolocation calls and the development of Doppler-shift compensation was studied in Cuba where large maternity colonies are found in hot caves. In the 1st postnatal week, infant bats did not echolocate spontaneously but could be induced to vocalize CF-FM signals by passive body motion. The CF2 frequency emitted by the smallest specimens was at 48 kHz (i.e., 0.4 octaves lower than the adult signal). CF-FM signals were spontaneously produced in the 2nd postnatal week at a CF2 frequency of 52 kHz. The CF2 frequencies of induced and spontaneous calls shifted upward to reach a value of 60.5 kHz in the 5th postnatal week. Standard deviations of CF2 frequency were large (up to +/-1.5 kHz) in the youngest bats and dropped to values of +/-250 Hz at the end of the 3rd postnatal week. Some individuals in the 4th and 5th postnatal weeks emitted with adultlike frequency precision of about +/-100 Hz. In the youngest bats, the 1st harmonic CF component (CF1) was up to 22 dB stronger than CF2. Adultlike relative levels of CF1 (-28 dB relative to CF2) were reached in the 5th postnatal week. In spontaneously emitted CF-FM calls, the duration of the CF2 component gradually increased with age from 5 ms to maximum values of 18 ms. Durations of the CF2 component in induced calls averaged 7 +/- 2.6 ms in the 1st postnatal week and 8.2 +/- 1.5 ms in the 5th postnatal week. There were no age-related changes in duration of the terminal FM sweep (3 +/- 0.4 ms) in both induced and spontaneous calls. The magnitude of the terminal FM sweep in spontaneous calls was not correlated

  8. What Does CALL Have to Offer Computer Science and What Does Computer Science Have to Offer CALL?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushion, Steve

    2006-01-01

    We will argue that CALL can usefully be viewed as a subset of computer software engineering and can profit from adopting some of the recent progress in software development theory. The unified modelling language has become the industry standard modelling technique and the accompanying unified process is rapidly gaining acceptance. The manner in…

  9. Predictive model for determining the quality of a call

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voznak, M.; Rozhon, J.; Partila, P.; Safarik, J.; Mikulec, M.; Mehic, M.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the predictive model for speech quality estimation is described. This model allows its user to gain the information about the speech quality in VoIP networks without the need of performing the actual call and the consecutive time consuming sound file evaluation. This rapidly increases usability of the speech quality measurement especially in high load networks, where the actual processing of all calls is rendered difficult or even impossible. This model can reach its results that are highly conformant with the PESQ algorithm only based on the network state parameters that are easily obtainable by the commonly used software tools. Experiments were carried out to investigate whether different languages (English, Czech) have an effect on perceived voice quality for the same network conditions and the language factor was incorporated directly into the model.

  10. Restoring rape survivors: justice, advocacy, and a call to action.

    PubMed

    Koss, Mary P

    2006-11-01

    Rape results in mental and physical health, social, and legal consequences. For the latter, restorative justice-based programs might augment community response, but they generate controversy among advocates and policy makers. This article identifies survivors' needs and existing community responses to them. Survivors feel their legal needs are most poorly met due to justice system problems that can be summarized as attrition, retraumatization, and disparate treatment across gender, class, and ethnic lines. Empirical data support each problem and the conclusion that present justice options are inadequate. The article concludes by identifying common ground in advocacy and restorative justice goals and calls for a holistic approach to the needs of rape survivors that includes advocating for expanded justice alternatives. A call to action is issued to implement restorative alternatives to expand survivor choice and offender accountability. Conventional and restorative justice are often viewed as mutually exclusive whereas the author argues they are complementary.

  11. Methodological challenges collecting parent phone-call healthcare utilization data.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Paula; Crawford, Sybil; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan

    2016-02-01

    Recommendations by the National Institute of Nursing Research and other groups have strongly encouraged nurses to pay greater attention to cost-effectiveness analysis when conducting research. Given the increasing prominence of translational science and comparative effective research, cost-effective analysis has become a basic tool in determining intervention value in research. Tracking phone-call communication (number of calls and context) with cross-checks between parents and healthcare providers is an example of this type of healthcare utilization data collection. This article identifies some methodological challenges that have emerged in the process of collecting this type of data in a randomized controlled trial: Parent education Through Simulation-Diabetes (PETS-D). We also describe ways in which those challenges have been addressed with comparison data results, and make recommendations for future research.

  12. Dimensionality of organizational justice in a call center context.

    PubMed

    Flint, Douglas; Haley, Lynn M; McNally, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-01

    Summary.-Employees in three call centers were surveyed about their perceptions of organizational justice. Four factors were measured: distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether a two-, three-, or four-factor model best fit the call center data. A three-factor model of distributive, procedural, and informational justice provided the best fit to these data. The three-factor model that showed the best fit does not conform to any of the more traditional models identified in the organizational justice literature. This implies that the context in which organizational justice is measured may play a role in identifying which justice factors are relevant to employees. Findings add to the empirical evidence on the dimensionality of organizational justice and imply that dimensionality of organizational justice is more context-dependent than previously thought.

  13. Five benefits of call recording for medical practices.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Despite documentation's essential positioning in medical practices of all sizes and specialties, one aspect of patient and insurance provider interaction remains overlooked in the majority of practices: telephone-based communication. In many cases, patient and payment information exchanged via telephone is logged with little more than a note typed or written in the patient file. This leads to "he said/she said" disagreements with regard to patient service, consultations, and coding; reduced payments from insurance providers; incomplete patient records; liability exposure; and a host of other problems. In this article, call recording professional Roland Murphy explains how a call recording solution can fill the gaps in documentation, increase practice revenues, and improve patient care without excessive investment costs and while protecting patient confidentiality. PMID:20480782

  14. Vocal Corollary Discharge Communicates Call Duration to Vertebrate Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Corollary discharge is essential to an animal's ability to filter self-generated from external stimuli. This includes acoustic communication, although direct demonstration of a corollary discharge that both conveys a vocal motor signal and informs the auditory system about the physical attributes of a self-generated vocalization has remained elusive for vertebrates. Here, we show the underlying synaptic activity of a neuronal vocal corollary discharge pathway in the hindbrain of a highly vocal species of fish. Neurons carrying the vocal corollary discharge are specifically adapted for the transmission of duration information, a predominant acoustic cue. The results reveal that vertebrates, like some insects, have a robust corollary discharge conveying call duration. Along with evidence for the influence of vocal duration on auditory encoding in mammals, these new findings suggest that linking vocal motor and corollary discharge pathways with pattern generating, call duration neurons is a shared network character across the animal kingdom. PMID:24285884

  15. [Calling patients on the eve of their day surgery procedure].

    PubMed

    Boule, Marie; Darribère, Véronique; Derouard, Nathalie; Goyenetche, Maryline; Peyroulet, Christel; Coquet, Marie-Monique

    2015-01-01

    In day surgery, the call on the eve of the procedure is a key stage in the patient's care pathway. Systematically carried out by the nurse, it helps to establish a relationship of trust with the nursing team. Through this exchange, the nurse ensures various aspects of the patient management are taken care of and optimises the organisation of the following day's programme. A team from Pau shares its practice. PMID:26145999

  16. Psychopharmacology training in clinical psychology: a renewed call for action.

    PubMed

    Julien, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of psychopharmacology is essential for a clinical psychologist to practice his/her profession, regardless of whether one desires to become licensed to prescribe psychoactive medications. This commentary reiterates a call made almost 20 years ago for all practitioners to gain and utilize this knowledge. Without psychopharmacology knowledge, one is extremely limited in the ability to interact with medical prescribers and to optimally serve their patients as a valued member of the health care team.

  17. CEE/CA: Report calls for decriminalization of sex work.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-04-01

    In December 2005, the Central and Eastern European Harm Reduction Network (CEEHRN) released a report calling for the decriminalization of sex work in the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEE/CA). The report brings together a wealth of published and original information concerning sex work, laws regulating sex work, epidemiological data regarding HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), services available to sex workers, and human rights abuses faced by sex workers.

  18. [Calling patients on the eve of their day surgery procedure].

    PubMed

    Boule, Marie; Darribère, Véronique; Derouard, Nathalie; Goyenetche, Maryline; Peyroulet, Christel; Coquet, Marie-Monique

    2015-01-01

    In day surgery, the call on the eve of the procedure is a key stage in the patient's care pathway. Systematically carried out by the nurse, it helps to establish a relationship of trust with the nursing team. Through this exchange, the nurse ensures various aspects of the patient management are taken care of and optimises the organisation of the following day's programme. A team from Pau shares its practice.

  19. 39. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. Connection of a queen post (called ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. GARRET TRUSS DETAIL. Connection of a queen post (called 'king post' in the 1755 account for scantling for the Greater Meeting House) and the bottom chord at the south side of the second truss from the east end. Note the rose head nails and plaster stains from the walls of the 1755 Monthly Meeting Room. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Towards Agent-Oriented Approach to a Call Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashamalla, Amir Nabil; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    There is more chance of a completed sale if the end customers and relationship managers are suitably matched. This in turn can reduce the number of calls made by a call centre reducing operational costs such as working time and phone bills. This chapter is part of ongoing research aimed at helping a CMC to make better use of its personnel and equipment while maximizing the value of the service it offers to its client companies and end customers. This is accomplished by ensuring the optimal use of resources with appropriate real-time scheduling and load balancing and matching the end customers to appropriate relationship managers. In a globalized market, this may mean taking into account the cultural environment of the customer, as well as the appropriate profile and/or skill of the relationship manager to communicate effectively with the end customer. The chapter evaluates the suitability of a MAS to a call management system and illustrates the requirement analysis phase using i* models.

  1. Interspecific variation of warning calls in piranhas: a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mélotte, Geoffrey; Vigouroux, Régis; Michel, Christian; Parmentier, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic communication as a driving force in clade diversification. All piranha species showed the same kind of sound-producing mechanism: sonic muscles originate on vertebrae and attach to a tendon surrounding the bladder ventrally. Contractions of the sound-producing muscles force swimbladder vibration and dictate the fundamental frequency. It results the calling features of the eight piranha species logically share many common characteristics. In all the species, the calls are harmonic sounds composed of multiple continuous cycles. However, the sounds of Serrasalmus elongatus (higher number of cycles and high fundamental frequency) and S. manueli (long cycle periods and low fundamental frequency) are clearly distinguishable from the other species. The sonic mechanism being largely conserved throughout piranha evolution, acoustic communication can hardly be considered as the main driving force in the diversification process. However, sounds of some species are clearly distinguishable despite the short space for variations supporting the need for specific communication. Behavioural studies are needed to clearly understand the eventual role of the calls during spawning events. PMID:27782184

  2. Concatenation of 'alert' and 'identity' segments in dingoes' alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Eloïse C; Allen, Andrew P; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent signals can be formed by the uninterrupted concatenation of multiple call types. One such signal is found in dingoes, Canis familiaris dingo. This stereotyped, multicomponent 'bark-howl' vocalisation is formed by the concatenation of a noisy bark segment and a tonal howl segment. Both segments are structurally similar to bark and howl vocalisations produced independently in other contexts (e.g. intra- and inter-pack communication). Bark-howls are mainly uttered in response to human presence and were hypothesized to serve as alarm calls. We investigated the function of bark-howls and the respective roles of the bark and howl segments. We found that dingoes could discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar howl segments, after having only heard familiar howl vocalisations (i.e. different calls). We propose that howl segments could function as 'identity signals' and allow receivers to modulate their responses according to the caller's characteristics. The bark segment increased receivers' attention levels, providing support for earlier observational claims that barks have an 'alerting' function. Lastly, dingoes were more likely to display vigilance behaviours upon hearing bark-howl vocalisations, lending support to the alarm function hypothesis. Canid vocalisations, such as the dingo bark-howl, may provide a model system to investigate the selective pressures shaping complex communication systems. PMID:27460289

  3. Report Calls for National Commitment to Protect Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A widely-anticipated report on the ecological health of ocean waters and coastal areas of the United States calls for extensive restoration and greatly improved protection of these resources. The report of the independent, non-partisan Pew Oceans Commission, released on 4 June, specifically calls for wholesale reforms in ocean governance, in fisheries and coastal management, and in federal laws and regulations pertaining to ocean and coastal pollution. It also calls for a doubling of the amount of money that the federal government spends on ocean-related research. The result of three years of research on ocean and coastal resources issues, the report declares that ``America's oceans are in a crisis'' from pollution, unwise and overuse of some resources, the pressures of human population on coastal areas, and other problems. It identifies the root cause, however, as ``a failure of both perspective and governance,'' in which regulation and management are approached with an out-of-date and non-unified set of laws and programs that were made ``on a crisis-by-crisis, sector-by-sector basis.''

  4. Nonlinear acoustics in cicada mating calls enhance sound propagation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Derke R; Nuttall, Albert H; Katz, Richard A; Carter, G Clifford

    2009-02-01

    An analysis of cicada mating calls, measured in field experiments, indicates that the very high levels of acoustic energy radiated by this relatively small insect are mainly attributed to the nonlinear characteristics of the signal. The cicada emits one of the loudest sounds in all of the insect population with a sound production system occupying a physical space typically less than 3 cc. The sounds made by tymbals are amplified by the hollow abdomen, functioning as a tuned resonator, but models of the signal based solely on linear techniques do not fully account for a sound radiation capability that is so disproportionate to the insect's size. The nonlinear behavior of the cicada signal is demonstrated by combining the mutual information and surrogate data techniques; the results obtained indicate decorrelation when the phase-randomized and non-phase-randomized data separate. The Volterra expansion technique is used to fit the nonlinearity in the insect's call. The second-order Volterra estimate provides further evidence that the cicada mating calls are dominated by nonlinear characteristics and also suggests that the medium contributes to the cicada's efficient sound propagation. Application of the same principles has the potential to improve radiated sound levels for sonar applications.

  5. Variation in call pitch among killer whale ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Nystuen, Jeffrey A

    2008-03-01

    Vocal structure can vary between populations due to variation in ecology-dependent selection pressures, such as masking by background noise and the presence of eavesdroppers. Signalers can overcome these obstacles to effective communication by avoiding frequencies that overlap with background noise or the audible range of eavesdroppers. In the Northeastern Pacific three "ecotypes" of killer whale coexist in sympatry, but differ from one another in their diet and habitat use. The minimum frequency (F(min)) and the frequency containing the peak energy between 0 and 10 kHz (F(peak)) of a random sample of calls produced by a population of each ecotype was measured. The offshore ecotype produced calls with a significantly higher F(min) than the other ecotypes, which could be a strategy to avoid masking by low frequency chronic bandlimited wind noise found in the offshore environment. The resident ecotype produced calls with a significantly higher F(min) and F(peak) than the transient ecotype. This could be to reduce detection by their salmonid prey, which has a narrow band, low frequency auditory range.

  6. Call diversity of wild male orangutans: a phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ross, Marina Davila; Geissmann, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Over the past 20 years several studies have attempted to clarify orangutan systematics based on DNA sequences and karyological and morphological data; however, the systematic and phylogenetic relationships among orangutan taxa remain controversial. Surprisingly, few systematic studies have used data from wild-living orangutans of exactly known provenance. Furthermore, most of these studies pooled data from huge geographic areas in their analyses, thus ignoring possibly distinct subpopulations. This study represents a new approach to orangutan systematics that uses orangutan long calls. Long calls are species-specific vocalizations used by many nonhuman primates, and data on their acoustical and temporal structures have been used to assess the relationships among, and phylogenies of, several primate taxa. Altogether, 78 long calls from wild-living orangutans from five populations in Borneo and five in Sumatra were included in the analyses. Aside from the chiefly paraphyletic topology of cladistic results, which neither support nor reject a Borneo-Sumatra dichotomy, bootstrap values support three monophyletic clades (northwest Borneo, northeast-east Borneo, and Ketambe) that corroborate geographic groups. The shortest trees and multivariate analyses provide some support for a closer relationship between Sumatran and specific Bornean demes than between particular Bornean demes themselves, indicating that conservation management should be based on orangutans from different populations rather than on just the two island-specific groups.

  7. I don't know why I called you.

    PubMed

    Farroni, Jeffrey S; Gallagher, Colleen M

    2014-01-01

    This case study details a request from a patient family member who calls our service without an articulated ethical dilemma. The issue that arose involved the conflict between continuing further medical interventions versus transitioning to supportive or palliative care and transferring the patient home. Beyond the resolution of the ethical dilemma, this narrative illustrates an approach to ethics consultation that seeks practical resolution of ethical dilemmas in alignment with patient goals and values. Importantly, the family's suffering is addressed through a relationship driven, humanistic approach that incorporates elements of compassion, empathy and dialog. PMID:24748261

  8. Data-adaptive algorithms for calling alleles in repeat polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Stoughton, R; Bumgarner, R; Frederick, W J; McIndoe, R A

    1997-01-01

    Data-adaptive algorithms are presented for separating overlapping signatures of heterozygotic allele pairs in electrophoresis data. Application is demonstrated for human microsatellite CA-repeat polymorphisms in LiCor 4000 and ABI 373 data. The algorithms allow overlapping alleles to be called correctly in almost every case where a trained observer could do so, and provide a fast automated objective alternative to human reading of the gels. The algorithm also supplies an indication of confidence level which can be used to flag marginal cases for verification by eye, or as input to later stages of statistical analysis. PMID:9059812

  9. West African Ebola epidemic: lessons and a call to action

    PubMed Central

    Ameme, Donne Kofi

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in terms of magnitude and spread. A year after the index case had been identified in a remote village in Guinea, over 17,000 cases and 6,000 deaths were reported in Africa and beyond. Many interventions have been implemented but the outbreak rages on. This paper examines key gaps in the interventions and calls for evidence-based actions to reverse the trend and prevent future epidemics of this proportion. PMID:26740834

  10. [When should the nephrologist be called in the emergency room?].

    PubMed

    Favre, Nathalie; Burnier, Michel; Kissling, Sébastien

    2016-02-24

    Nephrology emergencies are not the most frequent in the emergency room but they often generate some diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Most common renal emergencies are due most often to acute renal failure whatever the cause, electrolytes disturbances, hypertensive crisis and less frequently intoxications or acute decompensation of chronic kidney diseases. The goal of this paper is to review some of these clinical situations both in the diagnostic and therapeutic perspective but essentially to discuss when the nephrologist should be called in the emergency room so that the coordination of care is optimal for the patients.

  11. Call sign intelligibility improvement using a spatial auditory display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    1993-01-01

    A spatial auditory display was used to convolve speech stimuli, consisting of 130 different call signs used in the communications protocol of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center, to different virtual auditory positions. An adaptive staircase method was used to determine intelligibility levels of the signal against diotic speech babble, with spatial positions at 30 deg azimuth increments. Non-individualized, minimum-phase approximations of head-related transfer functions were used. The results showed a maximal intelligibility improvement of about 6 dB when the signal was spatialized to 60 deg or 90 deg azimuth positions.

  12. Report Calls for U.S. National Sustainability Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    The White House should issue an executive order establishing a U.S. national sustainability policy, according to a new report by a committee of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies. The 28 June report found that sustainability issues inherently involve connections among environmental, economic, and social issues and that the U.S. federal government "is generally not organized or operated to deal with this complexity." The report calls for a sustainability policy to address intertwined environmental, economic, and societal issues that require interagency cooperation.

  13. Nursing as a learning discipline: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Androwich, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the electronic health record and numerous mobile, wireless tools with the capacity to capture, store, and transmit prodigious amounts of data, both using and creating evidence-based content and analytics for clinical decision support, requires that all care providers rethink approaches to care delivery. The nursing profession is called to acutely appreciate and support the vision of documentation systems that provide optimal decision support at the point of care, represent nursing knowledge, and are also capable of capturing care delivery outcomes that can be used to inform future care and improve the health of the public.

  14. A harmonized immunization schedule for Canada: A call to action

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, NE; Bortolussi, R

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization systematically reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of new and old vaccines, and sets a ‘minimum’ recommended schedule. However, in contrast to other industrialized countries where single, harmonized countrywide immunization schedules are de rigeur, Canada has a confusing system, with each province and territory defining its own schedule – and none are the same. The time has come to rectify this decades-old patient equity and safety problem. The Canadian Paediatric Society calls for a harmonized schedule to improve the health and safety of Canadian children and youth. PMID:22211070

  15. [When should the nephrologist be called in the emergency room?].

    PubMed

    Favre, Nathalie; Burnier, Michel; Kissling, Sébastien

    2016-02-24

    Nephrology emergencies are not the most frequent in the emergency room but they often generate some diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Most common renal emergencies are due most often to acute renal failure whatever the cause, electrolytes disturbances, hypertensive crisis and less frequently intoxications or acute decompensation of chronic kidney diseases. The goal of this paper is to review some of these clinical situations both in the diagnostic and therapeutic perspective but essentially to discuss when the nephrologist should be called in the emergency room so that the coordination of care is optimal for the patients. PMID:27039605

  16. Developmental venous anomalies (DVA): the so-called venous angioma.

    PubMed

    Lasjaunias, P; Burrows, P; Planet, C

    1986-01-01

    Following a review of the literature it is possible to demonstrate the "normality" of the so called venous angiomas. They should be named Developmental Venous Anomaly (DVA). They illustrate in their two extreme types (superficial and deep) the hemodynamic equilibrium of the transcortical venous drainage in the periependymal zones. Venous ectasias and varices which can be encountered, associated with DVA constitute an acquired feature in relation to a venous outlet obstacle. The sinus pericranii represents an extracerebral DVA, but also corresponds to a normal variation. As any extreme anatomical variant, each DVA corresponds to a weak situation which may express itself clinically; only rare situations justify a radical treatment.

  17. Energy in the '80s: a call for leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The theme of this conference - Energy in the '80s: A Call for Leadership - was selected to focus attention on what was believed to be what America needs now - to get on with the tasks at hand. This proceedings of the Public Awareness Symposium, held on February 19, featured six speakers; the address of Senator Jackson at the banquet on February 20, which concluded the conference is also included; a separate abstract was prepared for each of these seven presentations. Also, the society-sponsored technical session papers are listed in Appendix A, and the Engineering/Communication scholarships are noted in Appendix B.

  18. Experimental Manipulation of the Microbial Functional Amyloid Called Curli

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yizhou; Smith, Daniel R.; Hufnagel, David A.; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Curli are proteinaceous fibrous structures produced on the surface of many gram-negative bacteria. As a major constituent of the extracellular matrix, curli mediate interactions between the bacteria and its environment, and as such, curli play a critical role in bio film formation. Curli fibers share biophysical properties with a growing number of remarkably stable and ordered protein aggregates called amyloid. Here we describe experimental methods to study the biogenesis and assembly of curli by exploiting their amyloid properties. We also present methods to analyze curli-mediated biofilm formation. These approaches are straightforward and can easily be adapted to study other bacterially produced amyloids. PMID:23299728

  19. Calling ET or not Even Answering the Phone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, A.

    The complex query (in the Title) can be divided into two more simple questions: To Send or not to Send? ("Calling") and To Answer or not to Answer? ("Answering"). The second question will be vital maybe tomorrow morning (if the SETI-signal was detected) or maybe never. And in any case, such answering requires a careful analysis of any ET-message received. The first question is quite suitable and feasible for analysis right now. There are two `pro' arguments: Asteroid Hazard and Loss of Interest.

  20. Call sign intelligibility improvement using a spatial auditory display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    1993-04-01

    A spatial auditory display was used to convolve speech stimuli, consisting of 130 different call signs used in the communications protocol of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center, to different virtual auditory positions. An adaptive staircase method was used to determine intelligibility levels of the signal against diotic speech babble, with spatial positions at 30 deg azimuth increments. Non-individualized, minimum-phase approximations of head-related transfer functions were used. The results showed a maximal intelligibility improvement of about 6 dB when the signal was spatialized to 60 deg or 90 deg azimuth positions.

  1. Calling and Life Satisfaction: It's Not about Having It, It's about Living It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Allan, Blake A.; Autin, Kelsey L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relation of career calling to life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 553 working adults, with a specific focus on the distinction between perceiving a calling (sensing a calling to a career) and living a calling (actualizing one's calling in one's current career). As hypothesized, the relation of perceiving a…

  2. Perceptual uncertainty and line-call challenges in professional tennis.

    PubMed

    Mather, George

    2008-07-22

    Fast-moving sports such as tennis require both players and match officials to make rapid accurate perceptual decisions about dynamic events in the visual world. Disagreements arise regularly, leading to disputes about decisions such as line calls. A number of factors must contribute to these disputes, including lapses in concentration, bias and gamesmanship. Fundamental uncertainty or variability in the sensory information supporting decisions must also play a role. Modern technological innovations now provide detailed and accurate physical information that can be compared against the decisions of players and officials. The present paper uses this psychophysical data to assess the significance of perceptual limitations as a contributor to real-world decisions in professional tennis. A detailed analysis is presented of a large body of data on line-call challenges in professional tennis tournaments over the last 2 years. Results reveal that the vast majority of challenges can be explained in a direct highly predictable manner by a simple model of uncertainty in perceptual information processing. Both players and line judges are remarkably accurate at judging ball bounce position, with a positional uncertainty of less than 40mm. Line judges are more reliable than players. Judgements are more difficult for balls bouncing near base and service lines than those bouncing near side and centre lines. There is no evidence for significant errors in localization due to image motion. PMID:18426755

  3. Call 4 Concern: patient and relative activated critical care outreach.

    PubMed

    Odell, Mandy; Gerber, Karin; Gager, Melanie

    Patients can experience unexpected deterioration in their physiological condition that can lead to critical illness, cardiac arrest, admission to the intensive care unit and death. While ward staff can identify deterioration through monitoring physiological signs, these signs can be missed, interpreted incorrectly or mismanaged. Rapid response systems using early warning scores can fail if staff do not follow protocols or do not notice or manage deterioration adequately. Nurses often notice deterioration intuitively because of their knowledge of individual patients. Patients and their relatives have the greatest knowledge of patients, and can often pick up subtle signs physiological deterioration before this is identified by staff or monitoring systems. However, this ability has been largely overlooked. Call 4 Concern (C4C) is a scheme where patients and relatives can call critical care teams directly if they are concerned about a patient's condition- it is believed to be the first of its kind in the UK. A C4C feasibility project ran for six months, covering patients being transferred from the intensive care unit to general wards. C4C has the potential to prevent clinical deterioration and is valued by patients and relatives. Concerns of ward staff could be managed through project management. As it is relatively new, this field offers further opportunities for research. PMID:21139519

  4. Population Characteristics May Reduce the Levels of Individual Call Identity

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, María del Mar; Caferri, Eleonora; Méndez, Maria; Godoy, José A.; Campioni, Letizia; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo), we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success) among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1) similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2) high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other’s vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network. PMID:24204869

  5. Group calls for space policies to transcend politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    At a 22 May briefing, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) called on Congress to “establish space exploration policy goals which transcend partisan political differences.” AIAA president and former NASA administrator Michael Griffin said the “goal of establishing human capability to b e a space-faring species is not a short-term goal,” nor is it a goal that belongs to only one political party. “We will not reach long-term goals without a stable, coherent, sensible plan that transcends elections and leaders,” said Griffin, who has provided advice to Republican U.S. presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Griffin pointed to NASA's 2008 authorization as providing the kind of vision needed for NASA. The act called for human return to the Moon and preparation for the capability for permanent bases on the Moon, among other things, he said. “That's the kind of thing that we need. All of the goals espoused by the 2008 act were long-term, generational, strategic in scope,” Griffin said, adding that the act, which had bipartisan support, demonstrated “the kind of societal support, rather than political support, that I believe our space program deserves.”

  6. Population characteristics may reduce the levels of individual call identity.

    PubMed

    Delgado, María del Mar; Caferri, Eleonora; Méndez, Maria; Godoy, José A; Campioni, Letizia; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo), we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success) among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1) similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2) high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other's vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network. PMID:24204869

  7. 77 FR 56710 - Proposed Information Collection (Call Center Satisfaction Survey): Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Call Center Satisfaction Survey): Comment Request AGENCY... information needed from Veterans regarding their recent experience in contacting VA call centers. DATES... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: VBA Call Center Satisfaction...

  8. 76 FR 2712 - Sara Lee Corporation, Master Data, Cash Applications, Deductions, Collections, Call Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ..., Collections, Call Center, Information Technology, Accounts Payable, General Accounts, Financial Accounts..., Collections, Call Center, Information Technology, Accounts Payable, General Accounts, Financial Accounting..., Deductions, Collections, Call Center, Information Technology, Accounts Payable, General Accounts,...

  9. Systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a service representative

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Scott H.; Johnson, Joel A.; Neiswanger, Jeffery R.; Twitchell, Kevin E.

    2004-03-09

    The present invention includes systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a customer service representative. In one embodiment of the invention, a system configured to distribute a telephone call within a network includes a distributor adapted to connect with a telephone system, the distributor being configured to connect a telephone call using the telephone system and output the telephone call and associated data of the telephone call; and a plurality of customer service representative terminals connected with the distributor and a selected customer service representative terminal being configured to receive the telephone call and the associated data, the distributor and the selected customer service representative terminal being configured to synchronize, application of the telephone call and associated data from the distributor to the selected customer service representative terminal.

  10. Emulating multitasking system calls for a multicluster machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchinsky, A.

    1986-05-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe an implementation of an emulator which provides primitives for the creation and control of multiple tasks within a single program. The introduction reviews the Cedar architecture, and the notion of processor clusters, which this emulator is aimed at. Next, we describe the function of each primitive and give some examples of programs issuing calls to the emulator. Then we describe the implementation details of the emulator and give an outline of the compilation-link-emulation process. We also look at some algorithms for making the emulator generate timing and utilization statistics for the multiple cluster machine. Finally, we explain how the emulator's primitives interface with other library systems written for Fortran support. 15 refs., 15 figs.

  11. NWF takes up call for natural resources protection

    SciTech Connect

    Hair, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    The natural resource damage provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund) and the related provisions of law dealing with oil spills are often overlooked and grossly underestimated. The broad authority and duties found in these provisions are unique among the federal statutes. The least understood provision of this act charges federal and state officials, local officers, and even Indian tribes with legally representing any fish, wildlife, plants, surface water, ground water, and other natural resources that are damaged by toxic spills or releases. These officials or officers are called government ''trustees'' and must seek money damages to restore the damaged resource. This paper discusses the unique provisions of Superfund and the difficulties encountered when implementing this law.

  12. Legal Network report calls for decriminalization of prostitution in Canada.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2005-12-01

    In December 2005 the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released Sex, work, rights: reforming Canadian criminal laws on prostitution. The report examines the ways in which the prostitution-related provisions of the Criminal Code, and their enforcement, have criminalized many aspects of sex workers' lives and have promoted their social marginalization. Evidence indicates that the criminal law has contributed to health and safety risks, including the risk of HIV infection, faced by sex workers. The Legal Network calls for the decriminalization of prostitution in Canada, and for other legal and policy reforms that respect the human rights and promote the health of sex workers. Despite the report's Canadian focus, its human rights analysis is relevant to the situation of sex workers in other countries where prostitution is illegal and sex workers face rights abuses. In this article, Glenn Betteridge, the principal author of the report, briefly sets out the case for law reform.

  13. Critical opportunities for public health law: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michelle M; Wood, Jennifer; Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Swanson, Jeffrey W

    2013-11-01

    Although legal interventions are responsible for many sentinel public health achievements, law is underutilized as a tool for advancing population health. Our purpose was to identify critical opportunities for public health lawmaking. We articulated key criteria and illustrated their use with 5 examples. These opportunities involve significant health problems that are potentially amenable to change through law and for which an effective legal intervention is available: optimizing graduated driver licensing laws, increasing tax rates on alcoholic beverages, regulating sodium in foods, enacting laws to facilitate reversal of opioid overdoses, and improving mental health interventions in the college setting. We call for a national conversation about critical opportunities for public health law to advance evidence-based policymaking.

  14. Adoption activities on the Internet: a call for regulation.

    PubMed

    Roby, Jini L; White, Holly

    2010-07-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents, sometimes through an adoption brokerage service. International adoptions can also be plagued by unethical practices as the Internet has become available in both developed and developing countries. These activities, although offering the benefits of privacy and convenience, also pose serious problems of potential fraud, exploitation, and, most important, lack of professional consideration of the child's best interest. In this article, the authors review the landscape of current Internet-based adoption activities, examine the benefits and risks of Internet-based adoption activities, and call for social work self-regulation and leadership. PMID:20632655

  15. EMF in its infancy: A call for openness

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.E.

    1991-05-01

    The author feels we are still in the awareness stage of EMF; the public is, for the most part, receptive to information and there is no real consus. He notes that it is this that shapes the approach of his company, PSI Energy, to public concerns about EMF: (1) when someone calls about EMF, they may just have heard about the subject; (2) someone concerned about EMF may or may not turn immediately to their local utility for information; and (3) PSI feels that, wherever a person turns, he or she should get good, factual information that permits an informed judgment. Those beliefs led directly to an important part of PSI's communications strategy: networking. Basically, networking is getting the information reprints, brochures, etc. - into the hands of the media, association's, state boards of health, etc. so that point (3) above can be handled for an anxious inquirer.

  16. Apollo 8 Commander Frank Borman Receives Presidential Call

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 8 Astronaut Frank Borman, commander of the first manned Saturn V space flight into Lunar orbit, accepted a phone call from the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson prior to launch. Borman, along with astronauts William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) pilot, and James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot, launched aboard the Apollo 8 mission on December 21, 1968 and returned safely to Earth on December 27, 1968. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  17. [Comments on the definition of so-called "new addictions"].

    PubMed

    Wiesbeck, G A; Täschner, K L

    1993-06-01

    To apply the term "addiction" to non-substantial addiction-like behavior is both problematic and useful. It is problematic because the uncritical application of the term has led to an inflation of addictions. If everything is called addiction the term is losing its predicative power and is getting meaningless. In the field of non-substantial addicted behavior we have been given the chance to study the phenomenon addiction in "pure" form without disturbing influences of any substance. To apply the term "addiction" to non-substantial addicted behavior is possible in principle. Von Gebsattel 1954 and Giese 1962 have already referred to this. However, it requires well-defined criterias. A strictly composition of the term would be recommendable. PMID:8333099

  18. Leading IDSs heed the call to invest in IT.

    PubMed

    Coddington, Dean C; Moore, Keith D

    2002-02-01

    Case studies of 11 leading integrated delivery systems (IDSs) found all of these organizations are committed to investing in the development of sophisticated IT systems. The case-study IDSs' primary concerns regarding IT investments were related to achieving adequate financial and patient care returns, accessing capital, finding qualified IT staff, finding reliable IT vendors, achieving physician acceptance, and sharing software and IT solutions with other IDSs. Among the competitive advantages these IDSs have gained from advanced IT capabilities are improved patient satisfaction due to superior service outcomes and the IDS's ability to access clinical information from any point within its delivery system, reduced prescription errors and adverse drug reactions, enhanced quality-improvement efforts, reduced costs associated with telephone calls and paper processing, and enhanced ability to recruit clinical personnel. PMID:11842500

  19. Entrepreneurship research and practice: a call to action for psychology.

    PubMed

    Hisrich, Robert; Langan-Fox, Janice; Grant, Sharon

    2007-09-01

    Entrepreneurship is a major source of employment, economic growth, and innovation, promoting product and service quality, competition, and economic flexibility. It is also a mechanism by which many people enter the society's economic and social mainstream, aiding culture formation, population integration, and social mobility. This article aims to illuminate research opportunities for psychologists by exposing gaps in the entrepreneurship literature and describing how these gaps can be filled. A "call to action" is issued to psychologists to develop theory and undertake empirical research focusing on five key topic areas: the personality characteristics of entrepreneurs, the psychopathology of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurship education, and international entrepreneurship. Methodological issues are discussed and recommendations provided. It is shown that psychologists can help identify the factors that influence new venture creation and success and inform the construction of public policy to facilitate entrepreneurship.

  20. Critical Opportunities for Public Health Law: A Call for Action

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jennifer; Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Ibrahim, Jennifer K.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Although legal interventions are responsible for many sentinel public health achievements, law is underutilized as a tool for advancing population health. Our purpose was to identify critical opportunities for public health lawmaking. We articulated key criteria and illustrated their use with 5 examples. These opportunities involve significant health problems that are potentially amenable to change through law and for which an effective legal intervention is available: optimizing graduated driver licensing laws, increasing tax rates on alcoholic beverages, regulating sodium in foods, enacting laws to facilitate reversal of opioid overdoses, and improving mental health interventions in the college setting. We call for a national conversation about critical opportunities for public health law to advance evidence-based policymaking. PMID:24028265

  1. 16-hour call duty schedules: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Charles; Saad, Nathalie; Carrier, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Since 1 July 2012, as a result of a labour arbitration ruling in the province of Quebec and the subsequent agreement negotiated by the Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec, all 3,400 medical residents training in Quebec have been on a 16-hour duty schedule for in-house calls. This is a major change within medical teaching sites, as well as a professional and educational challenge for physicians-in-training and their supervisors. The Quebec ruling now raises similar issues for all medical residents in Canada because of its legal basis, namely the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. PMID:25559990

  2. 16-hour call duty schedules: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Charles; Saad, Nathalie; Carrier, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Since 1 July 2012, as a result of a labour arbitration ruling in the province of Quebec and the subsequent agreement negotiated by the Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec, all 3,400 medical residents training in Quebec have been on a 16-hour duty schedule for in-house calls. This is a major change within medical teaching sites, as well as a professional and educational challenge for physicians-in-training and their supervisors. The Quebec ruling now raises similar issues for all medical residents in Canada because of its legal basis, namely the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

  3. 16-hour call duty schedules: the Quebec experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since 1 July 2012, as a result of a labour arbitration ruling in the province of Quebec and the subsequent agreement negotiated by the Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec, all 3,400 medical residents training in Quebec have been on a 16-hour duty schedule for in-house calls. This is a major change within medical teaching sites, as well as a professional and educational challenge for physicians-in-training and their supervisors. The Quebec ruling now raises similar issues for all medical residents in Canada because of its legal basis, namely the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. PMID:25559990

  4. A call for a backward design to knowledge translation

    PubMed Central

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Fadlallah, Racha

    2015-01-01

    Despite several calls to support evidence-informed policy-making, variations in uptake of evidence into policy persist. This editorial brings together and builds on previous Knowledge Translation (KT) frameworks and theories to present a simple, yet, holistic approach for promoting evidence-informed policies. The proposed conceptual framework is characterized by its impact-oriented approach and its view of KT as a continuum from the evidence synthesis stage to uptake and evaluation, while highlighting capacity and resource requirement at every step. A practical example is given to guide readers through the different steps of the framework. With a growing interest in strengthening evidence-informed policy-making, there is a need to continuously develop theories to understand and improve the science of KT and its implementation within the field of policy-making. PMID:25584357

  5. Tracking Career Outcomes for Postdoctoral Scholars: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Christine; Lindstaedt, Bill; Rotman, Erik; Watkins, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    The oversupply of postdoctoral scholars relative to available faculty positions has led to calls for better assessment of career outcomes. Here, we report the results of a study of postdoctoral outcomes at the University of California, San Francisco, and suggest that institutions have an obligation to determine where their postdoc alumni are employed and to share this information with current and future trainees. Further, we contend that local efforts will be more meaningful than a national survey, because of the great variability in training environment and the classification of postdoctoral scholars among institutions. We provide a framework and methodology that can be adopted by others, with the goal of developing a finely grained portrait of postdoctoral career outcomes across the United States. PMID:27152650

  6. Call sign intelligibility improvement using a spatial auditory display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    1994-01-01

    A spatial auditory display was designed for separating the multiple communication channels usually heard over one ear to different virtual auditory positions. The single 19 foot rack mount device utilizes digital filtering algorithms to separate up to four communication channels. The filters use four different binaural transfer functions, synthesized from actual outer ear measurements, to impose localization cues on the incoming sound. Hardware design features include 'fail-safe' operation in the case of power loss, and microphone/headset interfaces to the mobile launch communication system in use at KSC. An experiment designed to verify the intelligibility advantage of the display used 130 different call signs taken from the communications protocol used at NASA KSC. A 6 to 7 dB intelligibility advantage was found when multiple channels were spatially displayed, compared to monaural listening. The findings suggest that the use of a spatial auditory display could enhance both occupational and operational safety and efficiency of NASA operations.

  7. Adoption activities on the Internet: a call for regulation.

    PubMed

    Roby, Jini L; White, Holly

    2010-07-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents, sometimes through an adoption brokerage service. International adoptions can also be plagued by unethical practices as the Internet has become available in both developed and developing countries. These activities, although offering the benefits of privacy and convenience, also pose serious problems of potential fraud, exploitation, and, most important, lack of professional consideration of the child's best interest. In this article, the authors review the landscape of current Internet-based adoption activities, examine the benefits and risks of Internet-based adoption activities, and call for social work self-regulation and leadership.

  8. [Reviewing the so-called ″Living Will″].

    PubMed

    Agulles Simó, Pau

    2010-01-01

    Cases like those of Terry Schiavo or Eluana Englaro have given rise to a lot of discussions at all levels. What both of them have in common is that, beyond the reasons given for terminating their lives and the methods used to achieve it, their destiny was not decided by them. This has resulted in a lot of heated debates in the public sphere as well as in the juridical, political, medical and speculative-ethical fields. Many people have been led to ask themselves: ″Wouldn't a better solution have been found if the desire of both persons had been known without any shadow of doubt, in the case that they had foreseen the situation in which they eventually found themselves in?″. The concept of the so-called Living Will appears to be a good solution for such cases. However, in the years in which attempts have been made to introduce this into practice, important ethical questions regarding end-of-life situations have come up: Can everything in my life, including when and how I die, be part of a legacy? Is a person who enjoys good health in a position to autonomously determine how he would like to be treated if, in an uncertain future, he ends up in a situation where he is incapable of communicating his wishes? Is the ordinary citizen capable of domineering the multiplicity of treatments, diagnosis and prognosis which medical science has to offer? Is it the same thing to forego a complicated treatment as to renounce artificial feeding and hydration? This article examines all these arguments, offering at the same time the case for and the case against the so-called Living Will. PMID:20886910

  9. Exploring the relationship between patient call-light use rate and nurse call-light response time in acute care settings.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Larson, Janet L

    2011-03-01

    Patient call-light usage and nurse responsiveness to call lights are two intertwined concepts that could affect patients' safety during hospital stays. Little is known about the relationship between call-light usage and call-light response time. Consequently, this exploratory study examined the relationship between the patient-initiated call-light use rate and the nursing staff's average call-light response time in a Michigan community hospital. It used hospital archived data retrieved from the call-light tracking system for the period from February 2007 through June 2008. Curve estimation regression and multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results showed that the call-light response time was not affected by the total nursing hours or RN hours. The nurse call-light response time was longer when the patient call-light use rate was higher and the average length of stay was shorter. It is likely that a shorter length of stay contributes to the nursing care activity level on the unit because it is associated with a higher frequency of patient admissions/discharges and treatment per patient-day. This suggests that the nursing care activity level on the unit and number of call-light alarms could affect nurse call-light response time, independently of the number of nurses available to respond.

  10. First Language of Test Takers and Fairness Assessment Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Dorans, Neil J.; Liang, Longjuan

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades, those who take tests in the United States have exhibited increasing diversity with respect to native language. Standard psychometric procedures for ensuring item and test fairness that have existed for some time were developed when test-taking groups were predominantly native English speakers. A better understanding of…

  11. College Student Success Course Takers' Perceptions of College Student Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoops, Leah D.; Artrip, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    College student success courses are designed to help students develop effective self-regulating learning (SRL) skills. Little research has examined students' perceptions of SRL at course end. The purpose of this study was to examine student perceptions of "what makes an effective college student" in regards to SRL after course…

  12. From glue to gasoline: how competition turns perspective takers unethical.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jason R; Kilduff, Gavin J; Galinsky, Adam D; Sivanathan, Niro

    2013-10-01

    Perspective taking is often the glue that binds people together. However, we propose that in competitive contexts, perspective taking is akin to adding gasoline to a fire: It inflames already-aroused competitive impulses and leads people to protect themselves from the potentially insidious actions of their competitors. Overall, we suggest that perspective taking functions as a relational amplifier. In cooperative contexts, it creates the foundation for prosocial impulses, but in competitive contexts, it triggers hypercompetition, leading people to prophylactically engage in unethical behavior to prevent themselves from being exploited. The experiments reported here establish that perspective taking interacts with the relational context--cooperative or competitive--to predict unethical behavior, from using insidious negotiation tactics to materially deceiving one's partner to cheating on an anagram task. In the context of competition, perspective taking can pervert the age-old axiom "do unto others as you would have them do unto you" into "do unto others as you think they will try to do unto you."

  13. Advertisement call of Scinax camposseabrai (Bokermann, 1968) (Anura: Hylidae), with comments on the call of three species of the Scinax ruber clade.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Gabriel; Zina, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Scinax camposseabrai was allocated into the Scinax ruber clade by Caramaschi & Cardoso (2006) by overall similarities as snout not pointed, breeding in open areas, and an advertisement calls with multipulsed notes. This assumption about the call was based solely on an onomatopoeia provided by Bokermann (1968). Herein we provide a formal description of the advertisement call of S. camposseabrai and compare it with described calls of other S. ruber clade species. Additionally, we provide descriptions of the advertisement calls of three sympatric species of the S. ruber clade: S. eurydice (Bokermann), S. pachycrus (Miranda-Ribeiro) and S. cf. x-signatus. PMID:27394262

  14. Female reciprocal calling in the Iberian midwife toad ( Alytes cisternasii) varies with male call rate and dominant frequency: implications for sexual selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Jaime

    2001-10-01

    Male midwife toads ( Alytes cisternasii) responded differently depending on the call frequency and call rate of other males. I tested female Iberian midwife toads with the same set of stimuli used earlier with males. Females responded faster to high call rates, and female vocal activity was greater in response to low-frequency male calls. Thus, in both sexes, the vocal response differs in the same direction according to signal frequency variation, but the magnitude of the response is greater in males than in females. In the light of these results, I discuss the implications for sexual selection of this reciprocal calling.

  15. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by...

  16. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by...

  17. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by...

  18. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by...

  19. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by...

  20. 49 CFR 198.37 - State one-call damage prevention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State one-call damage prevention program. 198.37... REGULATIONS FOR GRANTS TO AID STATE PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Adoption of One-Call Damage Prevention Program § 198.37 State one-call damage prevention program. A State must adopt a one-call damage...

  1. Linking CALL and SLA: Using the IRIS Database to Locate Research Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Zöe; Marsden, Emma

    2014-01-01

    To establish an evidence base for future computer-assisted language learning (CALL) design, CALL research needs to move away from CALL versus non-CALL comparisons, and focus on investigating the differential impact of individual coding elements, that is, specific features of a technology which might have an impact on learning (Pederson, 1987).…

  2. College Students' Perceptions of Calling in Work and Life: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Isaac; Dik, Bryan J.; Banning, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined open-ended responses from 295 college students to questions regarding how they define the construct of calling, how having a calling influences their career development, and the extent to which the term "calling" may apply to areas of life other than work. Results indicated that students perceived a calling as originating from…

  3. Enhancing the Autonomous Use of CALL: A New Curriculum Model in EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen; Craig, Hana

    2013-01-01

    This action research study evaluates the effectiveness of a CALL Learner Autonomy (CALL LA) course at a Japanese university. The "C course" blends face-to-face instruction and independent study in a CALL environment. It aims to enhance learners' autonomous use of CALL in the acquisition of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). In…

  4. Insight into the so-called spatial reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Kokubo, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko; Shigaki, Keizo

    2013-10-01

    Up to now, there have been a great number of studies that demonstrate the effect of spatial topology on the promotion of cooperation dynamics (namely, the so-called "spatial reciprocity"). However, most researchers probably attribute it to the positive assortment of strategies supported by spatial arrangement. In this paper, we analyze the time course of cooperation evolution under different evolution rules. Interestingly, a typical evolution process can be divided into two evident periods: the enduring (END) period and the expanding (EXP) period where the former features that cooperators try to endure defectors' invasion and the latter shows that perfect C clusters fast expand their area. We find that the final cooperation level relies on two key factors: the formation of the perfect C cluster at the end of the END period and the expanding fashion of the perfect C cluster during the EXP period. For deterministic rule, the smooth expansion of C cluster boundaries enables cooperators to reach a dominant state, whereas, the rough boundaries for stochastic rule cannot provide a sufficient beneficial environment for the evolution of cooperation. Moreover, we show that expansion of the perfect C cluster is closely related to the cluster coefficient of interaction topology. To some extent, we present a viable method for understanding the spatial reciprocity mechanism in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  5. Insight into the so-called spatial reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Kokubo, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko; Shigaki, Keizo

    2013-10-01

    Up to now, there have been a great number of studies that demonstrate the effect of spatial topology on the promotion of cooperation dynamics (namely, the so-called “spatial reciprocity”). However, most researchers probably attribute it to the positive assortment of strategies supported by spatial arrangement. In this paper, we analyze the time course of cooperation evolution under different evolution rules. Interestingly, a typical evolution process can be divided into two evident periods: the enduring (END) period and the expanding (EXP) period where the former features that cooperators try to endure defectors’ invasion and the latter shows that perfect C clusters fast expand their area. We find that the final cooperation level relies on two key factors: the formation of the perfect C cluster at the end of the END period and the expanding fashion of the perfect C cluster during the EXP period. For deterministic rule, the smooth expansion of C cluster boundaries enables cooperators to reach a dominant state, whereas, the rough boundaries for stochastic rule cannot provide a sufficient beneficial environment for the evolution of cooperation. Moreover, we show that expansion of the perfect C cluster is closely related to the cluster coefficient of interaction topology. To some extent, we present a viable method for understanding the spatial reciprocity mechanism in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  6. Public - private 'partnerships' in health - a global call to action.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2004-07-28

    The need for public-private partnerships arose against the backdrop of inadequacies on the part of the public sector to provide public good on their own, in an efficient and effective manner, owing to lack of resources and management issues. These considerations led to the evolution of a range of interface arrangements that brought together organizations with the mandate to offer public good on one hand, and those that could facilitate this goal though the provision of resources, technical expertise or outreach, on the other. The former category includes of governments and intergovernmental agencies and the latter, the non-profit and for-profit private sector. Though such partnerships create a powerful mechanism for addressing difficult problems by leveraging on the strengths of different partners, they also package complex ethical and process-related challenges. The complex transnational nature of some of these partnership arrangements necessitates that they be guided by a set of global principles and norms. Participation of international agencies warrants that they be set within a comprehensive policy and operational framework within the organizational mandate and involvement of countries requires legislative authorization, within the framework of which, procedural and process related guidelines need to be developed. This paper outlines key ethical and procedural issues inherent to different types of public-private arrangements and issues a Global Call to Action. PMID:15282025

  7. Brain evolution relating to family, play, and the separation call.

    PubMed

    MacLean, P D

    1985-04-01

    Mammals stem from the mammal-like reptiles (therapsids) that were widely prevalent in Pangaea 250 million years ago. In the evolutionary transition from reptiles to mammals, three key developments were (1) nursing, in conjunction with maternal care; (2) audiovocal communication for maintaining maternal-offspring contact; and (3) play. The separation call perhaps ranks as the earliest and most basic mammalian vocalization, while play may have functioned originally to promote harmony in the nest. How did such family related behavior develop? In its evolution, the forebrain of advanced mammals has expanded as a triune structure that anatomically and chemically reflects ancestral commonalities with reptiles, early mammals, and late mammals. Recent findings suggest that the development of the behavioral triad in question may have depended on the evolution of the thalamocingulate division of the limbic system, a derivative from early mammals. The thalamocingulate division (which has no distinctive counterpart in the reptilian brain) is, in turn, geared in with the prefrontal neocortex that, in human beings, may be inferred to play a key role in familial acculturation.

  8. mHealth for midwives: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Speciale, Anna Maria; Freytsis, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The use of mobile phones has grown exponentially in the last decade including in some of the most remote and low-resource regions of the world. With the geographic expansion of mobile phone use, information and communication technology for development (ICT4D) was born, and innovative uses for mobile technologies in various fields including health care have emerged. This use of mobile technology in health care is known as mHealth. mHealth interventions are being used internationally to improve maternal and child health. Be it the use of a mobile phone to call for emergency transport, remote consultation, or large-scale short message service (SMS)-based community education programs, mHealth is demonstrating its utility in reproductive health programs throughout the world. This article describes the evolution and challenges of mHealth, discusses the role of mHealth in achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, and addresses the potential impact of mHealth for midwives. mHealth represents a new area of global health that warrants the attention of midwifery advocates. Midwifery leadership in the field of mHealth at this early stage of its development will ensure future health programming that is relevant to the needs of women and the midwives who care for them. PMID:23317302

  9. Responsibilities and resources of on-call public health doctors.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, J; Mackenzie, I; Pearson, N

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the resource available for public health doctors to carry out statutory responsibilities out-of-hours by a postal questionnaire survey of consultants in communicable disease control (CsCDC) in England and Wales. The questionnaire requested details of local District Health Authority (DHA) population profile, major incident and outbreak policies, the background of the CCDC, out-of-hours communication, access and resources, reference materials and medical equipment carried by the public health doctor on duty. The CsCDC from 96% (121/126) DHAs in England and Wales responded. Whilst 85% (101/119) of public health doctors carried policies on infectious disease when on duty, only 28% (32/116) carried policies on dealing with chemical incidents and 25% (28/111) carried the District policy to deal with radiation hazards. Twenty-six per cent (32/121) of public health physicians had no access to their District headquarters. There is a wide variation in the standard of resources available to on-call public health doctors in England and Wales; following Department of Health and Department of the Environment guidance, Health Authorities need to ensure that they have adequate arrangements in the event of any major incident or outbreak.

  10. Probabilistic eruption forecasting and the call for an evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Woo, Gordon

    2007-11-01

    One of the most critical practical actions to reduce volcanic risk is the evacuation of people from threatened areas during volcanic unrest. Despite its importance, this decision is usually arrived at subjectively by a few individuals, with little quantitative decision support. Here, we propose a possible strategy to integrate a probabilistic scheme for eruption forecasting and cost-benefit analysis, with an application to the call for an evacuation of one of the highest risk volcanoes: Vesuvius. This approach has the following merits. First, it incorporates a decision-analysis framework, expressed in terms of event probability, accounting for all modes of available hazard knowledge. Secondly, it is a scientific tool, based on quantitative and transparent rules that can be tested. Finally, since the quantitative rules are defined during a period of quiescence, it allows prior scrutiny of any scientific input into the model, so minimizing the external stress on scientists during an actual emergency phase. Whilst we specifically report the case of Vesuvius during the MESIMEX exercise, the approach can be generalized to other types of natural catastrophe.

  11. The last word on the so-called 'Rowell's syndrome'?

    PubMed

    Antiga, E; Caproni, M; Bonciani, D; Bonciolini, V; Fabbri, P

    2012-05-01

    To date, 71 patients having the so-called 'Rowell's syndrome' (RS) have been reported in the literature. However, most of them did not show all the clinical and serological features first described by Rowell and co-workers in 1963. Moreover, since then, subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been identified and the diagnostic criteria as well as the clinical features of erythema multiforme (EM) defined. Accordingly several authors have questioned the existence of RS over the past years. In the present paper, the main clinical, histopathological and immunopathological features of both SCLE and EM are described and all of the cases of RS reported in the literature are also reviewed in depth. A real association between discoid LE and EM was present only in a minority of cases and could be considered a mere coincidence. As for other associations, e.g. those between CLE and lichen planus or psoriasis, the coexistence of CLE and EM does not justify the framing of a separate syndrome as suggested by Rowell et al. PMID:22170759

  12. Illustration of Ares I Launch Vehicle With Call Outs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Named for the Greek god associated with Mars, the NASA developed Ares launch vehicles will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. This is an illustration of the Ares I with call outs. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to the primary mission of carrying crews of four to six astronauts to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station, or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Ares I employs a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine derived from the J-2 engine used on the Apollo second stage will power the Ares I second stage. The Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. Ares I is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of January 2007.

  13. Illustration of Ares V Launch Vehicle With Call Outs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The NASA developed Ares rockets, named for the Greek god associated with Mars, will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. This is an illustration of the Ares V with call outs. The Ares V is a heavy lift launch vehicle that will use five RS-68 liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen engines mounted below a larger version of the space shuttle external tank, and two five-segment solid propellant rocket boosters for the first stage. The upper stage will use the same J-2X engine as the Ares I and past Apollo vehicles. The Ares V can lift more than 286,000 pounds to low Earth orbit and stands approximately 360 feet tall. This versatile system will be used to carry cargo and the components into orbit needed to go to the moon and later to Mars. Ares V is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of January 2007.

  14. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  15. Perspectives on Sensory Processing Disorder: A Call for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lucy J.; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.; Brett-Green, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is sensory processing disorder (SPD). In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term MSI in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families. PMID:19826493

  16. A protein called immaturin controlling sexual immaturity in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Haga, N; Hiwatashi, K

    1981-01-15

    As in many metazoans, clones of some species of Paramecium have, after conjugation, a period of immaturity during which the cells cannot mate. The duration of immaturity is measured by the number of cell generations, which remains fairly constant, although duration in time varies with rate of cell reproduction. Genic involvement is shown by mutants with reduced periods of immaturity. In three different groups of Paramecium species, the cytoplasm of immature cells apparently contains the same substance which represses mating activity when injected into sexually mature cells. The immaturity-inducing substance seems to be absent from sexually mature cells, as brei made not only from mature cells in the stationary phase (mating-reactive cells), but also from those in the log phase (mating-non-reactive cells), does not repress mating activity when injected into mature cells. Variations in the amount of the substance during immaturity suggest that it controls the duration of the period. We have isolated and partially characterized the substance-a single protein called immaturin. The activity of immaturin is dose dependent and associated with a heat-labile protein of molecular weight (MW) 10,000. PMID:7453818

  17. Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.

    PubMed

    DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations.

  18. John Call Dalton, Jr., MD: America's first neurophysiologist.

    PubMed

    Fine, E J; Manteghi, T; Sobel, S H; Lohr, L A

    2000-09-26

    Before the discoveries of John Call Dalton, Jr., MD (1824-1889), innervation of laryngeal muscles, long-term effects of cerebellar lesions, and consequences of raised intracranial pressure were poorly understood. Dalton discovered that the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles adducted the vocal cords during inspiration. He confirmed Flourens' observations that acute ablation of the cerebellum of pigeons caused loss of coordination. Dalton observed that properly cared for pigeons gradually recovered "coordinating power." Dalton observed that prolonged raised intracranial pressure caused tachycardia and then fatal bradycardia in dogs. Before Dalton published his photographic atlas of the human brain, neuroanatomy atlases were sketched by Europeans and imported into the United States. Dalton's atlas of the human brain contained precise photographs of vertical and horizontal sections that equal modern works. Before Dalton introduced live demonstrations of animals, physiology was taught by recitation of texts only. Dalton was the first American-born professor to teach physiology employing demonstrations of live animals operated on under ether anesthesia. He wrote an essay advocating experimentation on animals as the proper method of acquiring knowledge of function and that humane animal experimentation would ultimately improve the health of man and animals. His eloquent advocacy for humane experimental physiology quelled attacks by contemporaneous antivivisectionists. Dalton was America's first experimental neurophysiologist.

  19. mHealth for midwives: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Speciale, Anna Maria; Freytsis, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The use of mobile phones has grown exponentially in the last decade including in some of the most remote and low-resource regions of the world. With the geographic expansion of mobile phone use, information and communication technology for development (ICT4D) was born, and innovative uses for mobile technologies in various fields including health care have emerged. This use of mobile technology in health care is known as mHealth. mHealth interventions are being used internationally to improve maternal and child health. Be it the use of a mobile phone to call for emergency transport, remote consultation, or large-scale short message service (SMS)-based community education programs, mHealth is demonstrating its utility in reproductive health programs throughout the world. This article describes the evolution and challenges of mHealth, discusses the role of mHealth in achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, and addresses the potential impact of mHealth for midwives. mHealth represents a new area of global health that warrants the attention of midwifery advocates. Midwifery leadership in the field of mHealth at this early stage of its development will ensure future health programming that is relevant to the needs of women and the midwives who care for them.

  20. Experimental investigation of observation error in anuran call surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClintock, B.T.; Bailey, L.L.; Pollock, K.H.; Simons, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Occupancy models that account for imperfect detection are often used to monitor anuran and songbird species occurrence. However, presenceabsence data arising from auditory detections may be more prone to observation error (e.g., false-positive detections) than are sampling approaches utilizing physical captures or sightings of individuals. We conducted realistic, replicated field experiments using a remote broadcasting system to simulate simple anuran call surveys and to investigate potential factors affecting observation error in these studies. Distance, time, ambient noise, and observer abilities were the most important factors explaining false-negative detections. Distance and observer ability were the best overall predictors of false-positive errors, but ambient noise and competing species also affected error rates for some species. False-positive errors made up 5 of all positive detections, with individual observers exhibiting false-positive rates between 0.5 and 14. Previous research suggests false-positive errors of these magnitudes would induce substantial positive biases in standard estimators of species occurrence, and we recommend practices to mitigate for false positives when developing occupancy monitoring protocols that rely on auditory detections. These recommendations include additional observer training, limiting the number of target species, and establishing distance and ambient noise thresholds during surveys. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  1. The acoustic calls of blue whales off California with gender data.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M A; Calambokidis, J; Teranishi, A M; Hildebrand, J A

    2001-04-01

    The acoustic calls of blue whales off California are described with visual observations of behavior and with acoustic tracking. Acoustic call data with corresponding position tracks are analyzed for five calling blue whales during one 100-min time period. Three of the five animals produced type A-B calls while two produced another call type which we refer to as type D. One of the animals producing the A-B call type was identified as male. Pauses in call production corresponded to visually observed breathing intervals. There was no apparent coordination between the calling whales. The average call source level was calculated to be 186 dB re: 1 muPa at 1 m over the 10-110-Hz band for the type B calls. On two separate days, female blue whales were observed to be silent during respective monitoring periods of 20 min and 1 h.

  2. The 3D Elevation Program initiative: a call for action

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Constance, Eric W.; Heidemann, Hans Karl; Jason, Allyson L.; Lukas, Vicki; Saghy, David L.; Stoker, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative is accelerating the rate of three-dimensional (3D) elevation data collection in response to a call for action to address a wide range of urgent needs nationwide. It began in 2012 with the recommendation to collect (1) high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data for the conterminous United States (CONUS), Hawaii, and the U.S. territories and (2) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska. Specifications were created for collecting 3D elevation data, and the data management and delivery systems are being modernized. The National Elevation Dataset (NED) will be completely refreshed with new elevation data products and services. The call for action requires broad support from a large partnership community committed to the achievement of national 3D elevation data coverage. The initiative is being led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and includes many partners—Federal agencies and State, Tribal, and local governments—who will work together to build on existing programs to complete the national collection of 3D elevation data in 8 years. Private sector firms, under contract to the Government, will continue to collect the data and provide essential technology solutions for the Government to manage and deliver these data and services. The 3DEP governance structure includes (1) an executive forum established in May 2013 to have oversight functions and (2) a multiagency coordinating committee based upon the committee structure already in place under the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP). The 3DEP initiative is based on the results of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) that was funded by NDEP agencies and completed in 2011. The study, led by the USGS, identified more than 600 requirements for enhanced (3D) elevation data to address mission-critical information requirements of 34 Federal agencies, all 50 States, and a sample of private sector companies and Tribal and local

  3. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d'Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise document, we required that

  4. Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1987-05-29

    On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes in gas/brine ratio or solution gas chemistry that would accompany pressure dropping below the bubble point pressure. Changes of about the same magnitude as the scatter in

  5. Flow tests of the Gladys McCall well

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, P.L.; Hayden, C.G.; Rogers, L.A. )

    1992-04-01

    This report pulls together the data from all of the geopressured-geothermal field research conducted at the Gladys McCall well. The well produced geopressured brine containing dissolved natural gas from the Lower Miocene sands at a depth of 15,150 to 16,650 feet. More than 25 million barrels of brine and 727 million standard cubic feet of natural gas were produced in a series of flow tests between December 1982 and October 1987 at various brine flow rates up to 28,000 barrels per day. Initial short-term flow tests for the Number 9 Sand found the permeability to be 67 to 85 md (millidarcies) for a brine volume of 85 to 170 million barrels. Initial short-term flow tests for the Number 8 Sand found a permeability of 113 to 132 md for a reservoir volume of 430 to 550 million barrels of brine. The long-term flow and buildup test of the Number 8 Sand found that the high-permeability reservoir connected to the wellbore (measured by the short-term flow test) was connected to a much larger, low-permeability reservoir. Numerical simulation of the flow and buildup tests required this large connected reservoir to have a volume of about 8 billion barrels (two cubic miles of reservoir rock) with effective permeabilities in the range of 0.2 to 20 md. Calcium carbonate scale formation in the well tubing and separator equipment was a problem. During the first 2 years of production, scale formation was prevented in the surface equipment by injection of an inhibitor upstream of the choke. Starting in 1985, scale formation in the production tubing was successfully prevented by injecting inhibitor pills'' directly into the reservoir. Corrosion and/or erosion of surface piping and equipment, as well as disposal well tubing, was also significant.

  6. Asian American mental health: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Sue, Stanley; Yan Cheng, Janice Ka; Saad, Carmel S; Chu, Joyce P

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General's report Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed since its publication in 2001. This article highlights advances and illuminates gaps in the knowledge gained about the mental health and psychotherapeutic treatment of Asian Americans in the past decade. Though larger epidemiological surveys point to lower prevalence rates of mental illness in Asian Americans, further advances are needed in culturally valid assessment and quantification of cultural biases in symptom reporting in order to draw definitive conclusions about the state of Asian American mental health. A focus on prevalence in Asian Americans as a whole also shrouds important subgroup elevations such as heightened suicide risk in Asian elderly women or greater posttraumatic stress disorder in Southeast Asian refugees. Despite important developments in our knowledge about mental health prevalence, help-seeking behaviors, and culturally competent treatments for Asian Americans, it appears that troublingly low rates of service utilization still remain even when one accounts for the seemingly low prevalence rates among Asian Americans. Some progress has been made in the cultural adaptations of psychotherapy treatments for Asian Americans. In order to reduce mental health care disparities, greater efforts are needed to provide outreach at the community level and to bridge the gap between mental health and other medical or alternative health facilities. We call for innovation and provide recommendations to address these issues in the next decade.

  7. Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    While the most common photographs of Earth taken from space show the planet covered in blue water, NASA has managed to produce detailed color images, using satellite imagery, that show the remarkable variation of colors that actually make up the oceanic surface. An ocean s color is determined by the interaction of surface waters with sunlight, and surface waters can contain any number of different particles and dissolved substances, which could then change the color. Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet? The particles are mostly phytoplankton, the microscopic, single-celled ocean plants that are the primary food source for much marine life. Remote detection of phytoplankton provides information about the uptake and cycling of carbon by the ocean through photosynthesis, as well as the overall health of the water. Inorganic particles and substances dissolved in the water also affect its color, particularly in coastal regions. Satellite images can be used to calculate the concentrations of these materials in surface waters, as well as the levels of biological activity. The satellites allow a global view that is not available from ship or shore. NASA s orbiting satellites offer a unique vantage point for studying the oceans. By resolving the biological, chemical, and physical conditions in surface waters, they have allowed the oceanographic community to make huge leaps in its understanding of oceanographic processes on regional and global fronts. The study of ocean color, in particular, has been integral in helping researchers understand the natural and human-induced changes in the global environment and establishing the role of the oceans in the biochemical cycles of elements that influence the climate and the distribution of life on Earth.

  8. Calling International Rescue: knowledge lost in literature and data landslide!

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Teresa K.; Kell, Douglas B.; McDermott, Philip; Marsh, James; Pettifer, Steve R.; Thorne, David

    2009-01-01

    We live in interesting times. Portents of impending catastrophe pervade the literature, calling us to action in the face of unmanageable volumes of scientific data. But it isn't so much data generation per se, but the systematic burial of the knowledge embodied in those data that poses the problem: there is so much information available that we simply no longer know what we know, and finding what we want is hard – too hard. The knowledge we seek is often fragmentary and disconnected, spread thinly across thousands of databases and millions of articles in thousands of journals. The intellectual energy required to search this array of data-archives, and the time and money this wastes, has led several researchers to challenge the methods by which we traditionally commit newly acquired facts and knowledge to the scientific record. We present some of these initiatives here – a whirlwind tour of recent projects to transform scholarly publishing paradigms, culminating in Utopia and the Semantic Biochemical Journal experiment. With their promises to provide new ways of interacting with the literature, and new and more powerful tools to access and extract the knowledge sequestered within it, we ask what advances they make and what obstacles to progress still exist? We explore these questions, and, as you read on, we invite you to engage in an experiment with us, a real-time test of a new technology to rescue data from the dormant pages of published documents. We ask you, please, to read the instructions carefully. The time has come: you may turn over your papers… PMID:19929850

  9. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke.

  10. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke. PMID:24566608

  11. Breathing and calling: neuronal networks in the Xenopus laevis hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Zornik, Erik; Kelley, Darcy B

    2007-03-20

    Xenopus laevis is an aquatic anuran with a complex vocal repertoire. Unlike terrestrial frogs, vocalizations are independent of respiration, and a single muscle group--the laryngeal dilators--produces underwater calls. We sought to identify the premotor neural network that underlies vocal behaviors. Vocal patterns generated by premotor networks control laryngeal motor neurons in cranial nucleus (n.) IX-X. Glottal motor neurons, active during respiration, are also present in n.IX-X. We used horseradish peroxidase (HRP), Lucifer yellow, and fluorescently conjugated dextrans to characterize the organization of n.IX-X and to trace premotor neuron projections. Premotor nuclei include the inferior reticular formation (Ri) adjacent to n.IX-X and the pretrigeminal nucleus of the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), the primary descending input to n.IX-X. Intramuscular HRP injections revealed a spatially segregated pattern, with glottal motor neurons in anterior n.IX-X and laryngeal motor neurons in the caudal portion of the nucleus. Dextran injections identified commissural n.IX-X neurons that project to the contralateral motor nucleus and DTAM-projecting n.IX-X neurons. Both neuronal types are clustered in anteromedial n.IX-X, closely associated with glottal motor neurons. Ri neurons project to ipsilateral and contralateral DTAM. Projections from DTAM target n.IX-X bilaterally, and all four identified subtypes receive DTAM input. In contrast, Ri neurons receive little input from DTAM. We hypothesize that connectivity between neurons in n.IX-X, Ri and DTAM may provide mechanisms to generate laryngeal and glottal activity patterns and that DTAM may coordinate vocal and respiratory motor pools, perhaps acting to switch between these two mutually exclusive behaviors.

  12. Calling International Rescue: knowledge lost in literature and data landslide!

    PubMed

    Attwood, Teresa K; Kell, Douglas B; McDermott, Philip; Marsh, James; Pettifer, Steve R; Thorne, David

    2009-12-15

    We live in interesting times. Portents of impending catastrophe pervade the literature, calling us to action in the face of unmanageable volumes of scientific data. But it isn't so much data generation per se, but the systematic burial of the knowledge embodied in those data that poses the problem: there is so much information available that we simply no longer know what we know, and finding what we want is hard - too hard. The knowledge we seek is often fragmentary and disconnected, spread thinly across thousands of databases and millions of articles in thousands of journals. The intellectual energy required to search this array of data-archives, and the time and money this wastes, has led several researchers to challenge the methods by which we traditionally commit newly acquired facts and knowledge to the scientific record. We present some of these initiatives here - a whirlwind tour of recent projects to transform scholarly publishing paradigms, culminating in Utopia and the Semantic Biochemical Journal experiment. With their promises to provide new ways of interacting with the literature, and new and more powerful tools to access and extract the knowledge sequestered within it, we ask what advances they make and what obstacles to progress still exist? We explore these questions, and, as you read on, we invite you to engage in an experiment with us, a real-time test of a new technology to rescue data from the dormant pages of published documents. We ask you, please, to read the instructions carefully. The time has come: you may turn over your papers...

  13. African leaders back OAU call to save children from AIDS.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Africa's government heads adopted a 6-point resolution in Tunisia in June at a summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) which stresses pre-teen sex education as a key to saving African children from AIDS. They also called on the OAU secretary-general to collaborate with the secretary-general of the UN and the director-general of the World Health Organization in mobilizing resources for an agenda against the pandemic. The African leaders pledged to make sustained efforts to eradicate AIDS and address the issue of the child in Africa. They also committed themselves to consider incorporating sex education programs with special emphasis on AIDS in the curricula of schools for pre-teenage children. Almost 2/3 of HIV infections in Africa occur in people aged 24 years and under. According to estimates, AIDS will have orphaned around 4 million African children by the year 2000. Already, in some of the worst hit areas, more than 50% of children under 15 years have lost a parent. Nearly 1 million African children under 5 years of age have themselves been infected with HIV via maternal transmission, transfusion of infected blood or contaminated syringes. In many places older children nurse sick parents, and grandparents struggle to support grandchildren as families take in orphaned children. Governments should enforce policies that discourage the isolation of children infected by HIV. Families and communities must be helped to provide for children's needs. Recognizing the vulnerability of women to HIV/AIDS and children, governments should increase the educational and employment opportunities of women as well as social support for both women and children. Children need skills as well as knowledge to help them delay intercourse. For young people already engaging in sexual intercourse, education programs must stress non-penetrative forms of sex and condom use as the most effective protection against HIV.

  14. Calling International Rescue: knowledge lost in literature and data landslide!

    PubMed

    Attwood, Teresa K; Kell, Douglas B; McDermott, Philip; Marsh, James; Pettifer, Steve R; Thorne, David

    2009-12-15

    We live in interesting times. Portents of impending catastrophe pervade the literature, calling us to action in the face of unmanageable volumes of scientific data. But it isn't so much data generation per se, but the systematic burial of the knowledge embodied in those data that poses the problem: there is so much information available that we simply no longer know what we know, and finding what we want is hard - too hard. The knowledge we seek is often fragmentary and disconnected, spread thinly across thousands of databases and millions of articles in thousands of journals. The intellectual energy required to search this array of data-archives, and the time and money this wastes, has led several researchers to challenge the methods by which we traditionally commit newly acquired facts and knowledge to the scientific record. We present some of these initiatives here - a whirlwind tour of recent projects to transform scholarly publishing paradigms, culminating in Utopia and the Semantic Biochemical Journal experiment. With their promises to provide new ways of interacting with the literature, and new and more powerful tools to access and extract the knowledge sequestered within it, we ask what advances they make and what obstacles to progress still exist? We explore these questions, and, as you read on, we invite you to engage in an experiment with us, a real-time test of a new technology to rescue data from the dormant pages of published documents. We ask you, please, to read the instructions carefully. The time has come: you may turn over your papers... PMID:19929850

  15. Need for recovery among male technical distal on-call workers.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Hardy A; Bültmann, Ute; de Looze, Michiel P; Koolhaas, Wendy; Kantermann, Thomas; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine whether need for recovery differs between workers (i) not on-call, (ii) on-call but not called and (iii) on-call and called, and (2) investigate the associations between age, health, work and social characteristics with need for recovery for the three scenarios (i-iii). Cross-sectional data of N = 169 Dutch distal on-call workers were analysed with multivariate logistic regression. Need for recovery differed significantly between the three scenarios (i-iii), with lowest need for recovery for scenario (i) 'not on-call' and highest need for recovery for scenario (iii) 'on-call and called'. Poor mental health and high work-family interference were associated with higher need for recovery in all three scenarios (i-iii), whereas high work demands was only associated with being on-call (ii and iii). The results suggest that the mere possibility of being called affects the need for recovery, especially in workers reporting poor mental health, high-work demands and work-family interference. Practitioner summary: On-call work is a scarcely studied but demanding working time arrangement. We examined need for recovery and its associations with age, health, work and social characteristics among distal on-call workers. The results suggest that the mere possibility of being called can affect worker well-being and need for recovery.

  16. CALL FOR PAPERS: Progress in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General dedicated to the subject of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics as featured in the International Conference in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (PSQM03), 15--19 July 2003, University of Valladolid, Spain (http://metodos.fam.cie.uva.es/~susy_qm_03/). Participants at that meeting, as well as other researchers working in this area or in related fields, are invited to submit a research paper to this issue. The Editorial Board has invited Irina Areféva, David J Fernández, Véronique Hussin, Javier Negro, Luis M Nieto and Boris F Samsonov to act as Guest Editors for the special issue. Their criteria for acceptance of contributions are as follows: bullet The subject of the paper should be in the general area covered by the PSQM03 conference. bullet Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual mechanisms of the journal. bullet Papers should present substantial new results (they should not be simply reviews of authors' own work that is already published elsewhere). The guidelines for the preparation of contributions are as follows: bullet DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 15 January 2004. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear in approximately September 2004. bullet There is a page limit of 15 pages per research contribution. Further advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. bullet Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa or by e-mail to jphysa@iop.org, quoting `JPhysA special issue --- PSQM03'. Submissions should ideally be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. Please see the web site for further information on electronic submissions. bullet Authors unable to submit by email may send hard copy contributions to: Journal of Physics A, Institute of Physics Publishing

  17. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Spin Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coolen, Ton; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Sourlas, Nicolas; Wong, Michael

    2007-10-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical dedicated to the subject of the conference `Viewing The World Through Spin Glasses', in honour of David Sherrington on the occasion of his 65th birthday, 31 August-1 September 2007 (http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/\\verb.~.ppzjpg/DS2007/). Invited speakers and participants at that meeting and other researchers working in the field are invited to submit a research paper to this issue. The Editorial Board has invited Ton Coolen, Hidetoshi Nishimori, Nicolas Sourlas and Michael Wong to serve as Guest Editors for the special issue. Their criteria for acceptance of contributions are as follows: •The subject of the paper should relate to the subject of the conference (see the website of the conference http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/\\verb.~.ppzjpg/DS2007/). •Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedure of the journal. •Conference papers may be based on already published work but should either contain significant additional new results and/or insights or give a survey of the present state of the art, a critical assessment of the present understanding of a topic, and a discussion of open problems. •Papers submitted by non-participants should be original and contain substantial new results. The guidelines for the preparation of contributions are the following: •The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 1 December 2007. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear in July 2008. •There is a nominal page limit of 16 printed pages per contribution. For papers exceeding this limit, the Guest Editors reserve the right to request a reduction in length. •Further advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. •Contributions to the special issue should, if possible, be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa or by

  18. Harp Seals Do Not Increase Their Call Frequencies When It Gets Noisier.

    PubMed

    Terhune, John M; Bosker, Thijs

    2016-01-01

    Some species avoid low-frequency masking by shifting their calls to higher frequencies. We addressed the hypothesis that Pagophilus groenlandicus (harp seals) will make more high-frequency underwater calls to avoid low-frequency conspecific masking as calling rates increase. The spectral shapes at high and low calling rates were compared (after equalizing the broadband amplitudes). There were no significant differences between the spectral shapes. Pagophilus groenlandicus do not alter the proportions of low- and high-frequency calls as it gets noisier. This suggests that they may not shift their calling frequencies when encountering low-frequency, broadband anthropogenic noise.

  19. Harp Seals Do Not Increase Their Call Frequencies When It Gets Noisier.

    PubMed

    Terhune, John M; Bosker, Thijs

    2016-01-01

    Some species avoid low-frequency masking by shifting their calls to higher frequencies. We addressed the hypothesis that Pagophilus groenlandicus (harp seals) will make more high-frequency underwater calls to avoid low-frequency conspecific masking as calling rates increase. The spectral shapes at high and low calling rates were compared (after equalizing the broadband amplitudes). There were no significant differences between the spectral shapes. Pagophilus groenlandicus do not alter the proportions of low- and high-frequency calls as it gets noisier. This suggests that they may not shift their calling frequencies when encountering low-frequency, broadband anthropogenic noise. PMID:26611080

  20. Stability of acoustic individuality in the alarm calls of wild yellow ground squirrels Spermophilus fulvus and contrasting calls from trapped and free-ranging callers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosova, Vera A.; Volodin, Ilya A.; Volodina, Elena V.; Vasilieva, Nina A.

    2010-08-01

    The questions of individuality and stability of cues to identity in vocal signals are of considerable importance from theoretical and conservation perspectives. While individuality in alarm calls has been reported for many sciurids, it is not well-documented that the vocal identity encoded in the alarm calls is stable between different encounters with predators. Previous studies of two obligate hibernating rodents, speckled ground squirrels Spermophilus suslicus, and yellow ground squirrels Spermophilus fulvus demonstrated that, after hibernation, most individuals could not be identified reliably by their alarm calls. Moreover, in most speckled ground squirrels, individual patterns of alarm calls changed progressively over as little as 2 weeks. However, these previous data have been obtained using the collection of alarm calls from trapped animals. Here, we examined ten free-ranging dye-marked yellow ground squirrels to determine whether their alarm calls retain the cues to individuality between two encounters of surrogate predators (humans), separated on average by 3 days. Discriminant function analysis showed that the alarm calls of individual yellow ground squirrels were very similar within a recording session, providing very high individual distinctiveness. However, in six of the ten animals, the alarm calls were unstable between recording sessions. Also, we examined ten dye-marked individuals for consistency of acoustic characteristics of their alarm calls between the encounters of humans, differing in techniques of call collection, from free-ranging vs trapped animals. We found differences only in two variables, both related to sound degradation in the environment. Data are discussed in relation to hypotheses explaining the adaptive utility of acoustic individuality in alarm calls.