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Sample records for 9-1-1 call takers

  1. Can first responders be sent to selected 9-1-1 emergency medical services calls without an ambulance?

    PubMed

    Key, Craig B; Pepe, Paul E; Persse, David E; Calderon, Darrell

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of initially dispatching only first responders (FRs) to selected low-risk 9-1-1 requests for emergency medical services. First responders are rapidly-responding fire crews on apparatus without transport capabilities, with firefighters trained to at least a FR level and in most cases to the basic emergency medical technician (EMT) level. Low-risk 9-1-1 requests include automatic medical alerts (ALERTs), motor vehicle incidents (MVIs) for which the caller was unable to answer any medical dispatch questions designed to prioritize the call, and 9-1-1 call disconnects (D/Cs). A before-and-after study of patient dispositions was conducted using historical controls for comparison. During the historical control phase of six months, one year prior to the study phase, basic life support ambulances (staffed with two basic EMTs) were dispatched to selected low-risk 9-1-1 incidents. During the six-month study phase, a fire FR crew equipped with automated external defibrillators (AEDs) was sent initially without an ambulance to these incidents. For ALERTs (n = 290 in historical group vs. 330 in study group), there was no statistical difference in the transport rate (7% vs 10%), but there was a statistically significant increase in the follow-up use of advanced life support (ALS) (1% vs 4%, p = 0.009). No patient in the ALERTs historical group required airway management, while one patient in the study group received endotracheal intubation. No patient required defibrillation in either group. Analysis of the MVIs showed a significant decrease (p < 0.0001) in the patient transport rate from 39% of controls to 33% of study patients, but no change in the follow-up use of ALS interventions (2% for each group). For both the ALERTs and MVIs, the FR's mean response time was faster than ambulances (p < 0.0001). Among the 9-1-1 D/Cs with FRs only (n = 1,028), 15% were transported and 43 (4%) received subsequent ALS care. Four of these patients (0

  2. Impact of a multimedia campaign to increase intention to call 9-1-1 for stroke symptoms, upstate New York, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Janine M; Maniccia, Dayna M; Spicer, Deborah A; Dennison, Barbara A

    2010-03-01

    Many people are not aware of stroke symptoms, the need for emergency care for those symptoms, and that calling 9-1-1 is recommended. The New York State Department of Health developed and implemented a multimedia campaign to increase stroke symptom awareness and awareness of the need to call 9-1-1. The evaluation of the campaign's impact was a pre/post intervention matched comparison design. A random-digit-dialed list-assisted telephone survey was administered to measure reach of the campaign and change in intention to seek emergency care for stroke by calling 9-1-1 in response to 4 signs or symptoms. A larger proportion of respondents in the intervention region than in the comparison region reported seeing a stroke advertisement and reported the advertisement's message was to call 9-1-1. There was a significant increase between baseline and follow-up in intention to call 9-1-1 for the 4 stroke symptoms. These increases were greater in the intervention region than the comparison region. The differences between intervention and comparison groups in the increases in intention to call 9-1-1 ranged from 9% to 12% for specific stroke symptoms identified in oneself and from 4% to 12% for symptoms identified in another person. This multimedia campaign effectively increased intention to call 9-1-1 for stroke symptoms in the intervention region compared with a region matched for demographics and stroke rates. Multimedia campaigns are effective in increasing awareness of stroke symptoms and intention to immediately call 9-1-1.

  3. Barriers and facilitators to using 9-1-1 and emergency medical services in a limited English proficiency Chinese community.

    PubMed

    Ong, Brandon N; Yip, Mei Po; Feng, Sherry; Calhoun, Rebecca; Meischke, Hendrika W; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Effective communication during a medical emergency is crucial for an appropriate emergency medical services (EMS) response. This exploratory qualitative study explored intentions to use 9-1-1 in a Chinese speaking community and the barriers and facilitators to accessing EMS. Focus groups with Chinese adults who self-reported limited English proficiency were conducted. An inductive iterative approach was used to categorize and connect themes identified in the discussions. Language difficulties, negative perceptions of EMS, perceived costs of using emergency services, and no previous experience with 9-1-1 were commonly described as barriers to calling EMS during emergencies. Positive past experiences with EMS and encountering an emergency situation perceived as too great to manage alone are common facilitators for calling 9-1-1. Further exploration is necessary to assess barriers to calling 9-1-1 unique to specific communities, test findings, and tailor interventions to improve EMS communication.

  4. Coordinating the Global Information Grid Initiative with the NG9-1-1 Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schmitt

    2008-05-01

    As the Department of Defense develops the Global Information Grid, the Department of Transportation develops the Next Generation 9-1-1 system. Close examinations of these initiatives show that the two are similar in architectures, applications, and communications interoperability. These similarities are extracted from the lowest user level to the highest commander rank that will be involved in each network. Once the similarities are brought into perspective, efforts should be made to collaborate between the two departments.

  5. Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larned, Jean Garner

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets is the ultimate goal in order to help those who train, manage and prevent hostage taking events which include police officers, negotiators, recovery personnel, academics and psychologists. The overall lack of literature relating to the topic of captive-taker motivations is another…

  6. Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larned, Jean Garner

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets is the ultimate goal in order to help those who train, manage and prevent hostage taking events which include police officers, negotiators, recovery personnel, academics and psychologists. The overall lack of literature relating to the topic of captive-taker motivations is another…

  7. Is Test Taker Perception of Assessment Related to Construct Validity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined test takers' perception of assessment demand and its impact on the measurement of intended constructs. More than 800 test takers took a pre- and a posttest of College English Test Band 4 and filled in a perception questionnaire to report the skills they perceive as necessary for answering the test. The study found test takers…

  8. Is Test Taker Perception of Assessment Related to Construct Validity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined test takers' perception of assessment demand and its impact on the measurement of intended constructs. More than 800 test takers took a pre- and a posttest of College English Test Band 4 and filled in a perception questionnaire to report the skills they perceive as necessary for answering the test. The study found test takers…

  9. ARE RISK TAKERS MORE PERSUASIVE THAN CONSERVATIVES IN GROUP DISCUSSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLACH, MICHAEL A.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED WHETHER THE PHENOMENON OF SHIFTS TOWARD GREATER RISK TAKING FOLLOWING DISCUSSION OF RISK-RELATED MATERIALS CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO GREATER GENERAL PERSUASIVENESS EXERTED BY RISK TAKERS THAN BY CONSERVATIVES. ITS PROCEDURE WAS TO DISCOVER WHETHER RISK TAKERS WOULD BE JUDGED MORE PERSUASIVE THAN CONSERVATIVES FOLLOWING…

  10. Examining the Fundamental Obstructs of Adopting Cloud Computing for 9-1-1 Dispatch Centers in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the unknown fears of embracing cloud computing which stretches across measurements like fear of change from leaders and the complexity of the technology in 9-1-1 dispatch centers in USA. The problem that was addressed in the study was that many 9-1-1 dispatch centers in USA are still using old…

  11. Examining the Fundamental Obstructs of Adopting Cloud Computing for 9-1-1 Dispatch Centers in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the unknown fears of embracing cloud computing which stretches across measurements like fear of change from leaders and the complexity of the technology in 9-1-1 dispatch centers in USA. The problem that was addressed in the study was that many 9-1-1 dispatch centers in USA are still using old…

  12. In the company of givers and takers.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam

    2013-04-01

    Employees make decisions every day about whether to contribute to others--and their willingness to help is crucial to group and organizational effectiveness. But in a competitive, often zero-sum, world of work, generosity can be a dangerous path. How can leaders foster it without cutting into productivity, undermining fairness, and allowing employees to become doormats? The key, explains Wharton's Adam Grant, is to help givers reach a more nuanced understanding of what generosity is and is not. They'll be better positioned for sustainable giving when they can distinguish generosity from three attributes that often travel with it: timidity, availability, and empathy. Givers can overcome timidity, Grant says, by learning to act as agents--using "relational accounts" to advocate for others while negotiating for themselves. They can set boundaries on when, how, and whom to help. And they can strive to be perspective takers, not just empathizers, gathering knowledge about others that can lead to more-productive allocations of time that will benefit the organization as a whole.

  13. The polyanionic C-terminal tail of human Rad17 regulates interaction with the 9-1-1 complex.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2017-09-02

    In the activation and maintenance of ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint, the interaction between the Rad17-RFC2-5 and 9-1-1 complexes is essential, however, the regulatory mechanism of the interaction is not known. Here we show that vertebrate Rad17 proteins contain a polyanionic 12-amino acid sequence in the C-terminal ends that is important for the 9-1-1 interaction. We demonstrate that the C-terminal tail contains a conserved sequence designated iVERGE that must be intact for the 9-1-1 interaction and contains potential posttranslational modification sites. Our data raise a possibility that the Rad17 C-terminal tail is a molecular switch that regulates the 9-1-1 interaction and the ATR pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stereotype threat? Effects of inquiring about test takers' gender on conceptual test performance in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    It has been found that activation of a stereotype, for example by indicating one's gender before a test, typically alters performance in a way consistent with the stereotype, an effect called "stereotype threat." On a standardized conceptual physics assessment, we found that asking test takers to indicate their gender right before taking the test did not deteriorate performance compared to an equivalent group who did not provide gender information. Although a statistically significant gender gap was present on the standardized test whether or not students indicated their gender, no gender gap was observed on the multiple-choice final exam students took, which included both quantitative and conceptual questions on similar topics.

  15. Dial 9-1-1 for p53: Mechanisms of p53 Activation by Cellular Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ljungman, Mats

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The tumor suppressor protein, p53, is part of the cell's emergency team that is called upon following cellular insult. How do cells sense DNA damage and other cellular stresses and what signal transduction pathways are used to alert p53? How is the resulting nuclear accumulation of p53 accomplished and what determines the outcome of p53 induction? Many posttranslational modifications of p53, such as phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, acetylation and ribosylation, have been shown to occur following cellular stress. Some of these modifications may activate the p53 protein, interfere with MDM2 binding and/or dictate cellular localization of p53. This review will focus on recent findings about how the p53 response may be activated following cellular stress. PMID:10935507

  16. Clusters of Learning Disabled Test Takers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahalan, Cara

    Testing organizations have recently been scrutinized because of the perception that affluent, white male students from the northeast are falsely claiming disabilities to gain extended time on standardized tests for college admission. In response to these assertions, the percentage of learning disabled test takers on the SAT I: Reasoning Test is…

  17. Test Takers and the Validity of Score Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Perie, Marianne; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Clark, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that test takers are as integral to determining validity of test scores as defining target content and conditioning inferences on test use. A principled sustained attention to how students interact with assessment opportunities is essential, as is a principled sustained evaluation of evidence confirming the validity or calling…

  18. Prehospital Trauma Triage Decision-making: A Model of What Happens between the 9-1-1 Call and the Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Cushman, Jeremy T; Lerner, E Brooke; Fisher, Susan G; Seplaki, Christopher L; Veazie, Peter J; Wasserman, Erin B; Dozier, Ann; Shah, Manish N

    2016-01-01

    We describe the decision-making process used by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in order to understand how 1) injured patients are evaluated in the prehospital setting; 2) field triage criteria are applied in-practice; and 3) selection of a destination hospital is determined. We conducted separate focus groups with advanced and basic life support providers from rural and urban/suburban regions. Four exploratory focus groups were conducted to identify overarching themes and five additional confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify initial focus group findings and provide additional detail regarding trauma triage decision-making and application of field triage criteria. All focus groups were conducted by a public health researcher with formal training in qualitative research. A standardized question guide was used to facilitate discussion at all focus groups. All focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Responses were coded and categorized into larger domains to describe how EMS providers approach trauma triage and apply the Field Triage Decision Scheme. We conducted 9 focus groups with 50 EMS providers. Participants highlighted that trauma triage is complex and there is often limited time to make destination decisions. Four overarching domains were identified within the context of trauma triage decision-making: 1) initial assessment; 2) importance of speed versus accuracy; 3) usability of current field triage criteria; and 4) consideration of patient and emergency care system-level factors. Field triage is a complex decision-making process which involves consideration of many patient and system-level factors. The decision model presented in this study suggests that EMS providers place significant emphasis on speed of decisions, relying on initial impressions and immediately observable information, rather than precise measurement of vital signs or systematic application of field triage criteria.

  19. Voices from Test-Takers: Further Evidence for Language Assessment Validation and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; DeLuca, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Test-takers' interpretations of validity as related to test constructs and test use have been widely debated in large-scale language assessment. This study contributes further evidence to this debate by examining 59 test-takers' perspectives in writing large-scale English language tests. Participants wrote about their test-taking experiences in…

  20. Voices from Test-Takers: Further Evidence for Language Assessment Validation and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; DeLuca, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Test-takers' interpretations of validity as related to test constructs and test use have been widely debated in large-scale language assessment. This study contributes further evidence to this debate by examining 59 test-takers' perspectives in writing large-scale English language tests. Participants wrote about their test-taking experiences in…

  1. Test-Takers' Strategic Behaviors in Independent and Integrated Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the strategic behaviors that test-takers reported using when responding to integrated and independent speaking tasks in an English oral proficiency test [the Speaking Section of the Internet-based Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL iBT)] and the relationship between test-takers' strategic behaviors and their…

  2. Exploring Differential Subgroup Functioning on SAT Writing Items: What Happens When English Is Not a Test Taker's Best Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Wind, Stefanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore patterns in model-data fit related to subgroups of test takers from a large-scale writing assessment. Using data from the SAT, a calibration group was randomly selected to represent test takers who reported that English was their best language from the total population of test takers (N = 322,011). A…

  3. Exploring Differential Subgroup Functioning on SAT Writing Items: What Happens When English Is Not a Test Taker's Best Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Wind, Stefanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore patterns in model-data fit related to subgroups of test takers from a large-scale writing assessment. Using data from the SAT, a calibration group was randomly selected to represent test takers who reported that English was their best language from the total population of test takers (N = 322,011). A…

  4. Genome Protection by the 9-1-1 Complex Subunit HUS1 Requires Clamp Formation, DNA Contacts, and ATR Signaling-independent Effector Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Pei Xin; Patel, Darshil R.; Poisson, Kelsey E.; Basuita, Manpreet; Tsai, Charlton; Lyndaker, Amy M.; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Lu, A-Lien; Weiss, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The RAD9A-HUS1-RAD1 (9-1-1) complex is a heterotrimeric clamp that promotes checkpoint signaling and repair at DNA damage sites. In this study, we elucidated HUS1 functional residues that drive clamp assembly, DNA interactions, and downstream effector functions. First, we mapped a HUS1-RAD9A interface residue that was critical for 9-1-1 assembly and DNA loading. Next, we identified multiple positively charged residues in the inner ring of HUS1 that were crucial for genotoxin-induced 9-1-1 chromatin localization and ATR signaling. Finally, we found two hydrophobic pockets on the HUS1 outer surface that were important for cell survival after DNA damage. Interestingly, these pockets were not required for 9-1-1 chromatin localization or ATR-mediated CHK1 activation but were necessary for interactions between HUS1 and its binding partner MYH, suggesting that they serve as interaction domains for the recruitment and coordination of downstream effectors at damage sites. Together, these results indicate that, once properly loaded onto damaged DNA, the 9-1-1 complex executes multiple, separable functions that promote genome maintenance. PMID:25911100

  5. Genome Protection by the 9-1-1 Complex Subunit HUS1 Requires Clamp Formation, DNA Contacts, and ATR Signaling-independent Effector Functions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pei Xin; Patel, Darshil R; Poisson, Kelsey E; Basuita, Manpreet; Tsai, Charlton; Lyndaker, Amy M; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Lu, A-Lien; Weiss, Robert S

    2015-06-12

    The RAD9A-HUS1-RAD1 (9-1-1) complex is a heterotrimeric clamp that promotes checkpoint signaling and repair at DNA damage sites. In this study, we elucidated HUS1 functional residues that drive clamp assembly, DNA interactions, and downstream effector functions. First, we mapped a HUS1-RAD9A interface residue that was critical for 9-1-1 assembly and DNA loading. Next, we identified multiple positively charged residues in the inner ring of HUS1 that were crucial for genotoxin-induced 9-1-1 chromatin localization and ATR signaling. Finally, we found two hydrophobic pockets on the HUS1 outer surface that were important for cell survival after DNA damage. Interestingly, these pockets were not required for 9-1-1 chromatin localization or ATR-mediated CHK1 activation but were necessary for interactions between HUS1 and its binding partner MYH, suggesting that they serve as interaction domains for the recruitment and coordination of downstream effectors at damage sites. Together, these results indicate that, once properly loaded onto damaged DNA, the 9-1-1 complex executes multiple, separable functions that promote genome maintenance.

  6. Chinese College Test Takers' Individual Differences and Reading Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limei

    2016-06-01

    This study reports on the relationships between test takers' individual differences and their performance on a reading comprehension test. A total of 518 Chinese college students (252 women and 256 men; M age = 19.26 year, SD = 0.98) answered a questionnaire and sit for a reading comprehension test. The study found that test takers' L2 language proficiency was closely linked to their test performance. Test takers' employment of strategies was significantly and positively associated with their performance on the test. Test takers' motivation was found to be significantly associated with reading test performance. Test anxiety was negatively related to their use of reading strategies and test performance. The results of the study lent support to the threshold hypothesis of language proficiency. The implications for classroom teaching were provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Validation of an Academic Listening Test: Effects of "Breakdown" Tests and Test Takers' Cognitive Awareness of Listening Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Youngshin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the breakdown effect of a listening comprehension test, whether test takers are affected in comprehending lectures by impediments, and collected test takers' cognitive awareness on test tasks which contain listening breakdown factors how they perceived these impediments. In this context of the study, a "Breakdown" is a test…

  8. Relationships between Chinese College Test Takers' Strategy Use and EFL Reading Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Limei; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relationships between test takers' strategy use and test performance on an EFL reading test. For this study 209 Chinese college students were invited to participate in a reading comprehension test and answer a 30-item strategy use questionnaire. Results showed that two factors underlay test takers' reading test…

  9. Analysis of Test Takers' Metacognitive and Cognitive Strategy Use and EFL Reading Test Performance: A Multi-Sample SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Limei; Goh, Christine C. M.; Kunnan, Antony John

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between test takers' metacognitive and cognitive strategy use through a questionnaire and their test performance on an English as a Foreign Language reading test. A total of 593 Chinese college test takers responded to a 38-item metacognitive and cognitive strategy questionnaire and a 50-item reading test.…

  10. What's in a Topic? Exploring the Interaction between Test-Taker Age and Item Content in High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Jayanti; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigates differential item functioning (DIF) in a listening comprehension test. The study explores the relationship between test-taker age and the items' language domains across multiple test forms. The data comprise test-taker responses (N = 2,861) to a total of 133 unique items, 46 items of which were…

  11. What's in a Topic? Exploring the Interaction between Test-Taker Age and Item Content in High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Jayanti; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigates differential item functioning (DIF) in a listening comprehension test. The study explores the relationship between test-taker age and the items' language domains across multiple test forms. The data comprise test-taker responses (N = 2,861) to a total of 133 unique items, 46 items of which were…

  12. Relationships between Chinese College Test Takers' Strategy Use and EFL Reading Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Limei; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relationships between test takers' strategy use and test performance on an EFL reading test. For this study 209 Chinese college students were invited to participate in a reading comprehension test and answer a 30-item strategy use questionnaire. Results showed that two factors underlay test takers' reading test…

  13. Analysis of Test Takers' Metacognitive and Cognitive Strategy Use and EFL Reading Test Performance: A Multi-Sample SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Limei; Goh, Christine C. M.; Kunnan, Antony John

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between test takers' metacognitive and cognitive strategy use through a questionnaire and their test performance on an English as a Foreign Language reading test. A total of 593 Chinese college test takers responded to a 38-item metacognitive and cognitive strategy questionnaire and a 50-item reading test.…

  14. Misconceptions Regarding Accommodations on High-Stakes Tests: Recommendations for Preparing Disability Documentation for Test Takers with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinckerhoff, Loring C.; Banerjee, Manju

    2007-01-01

    The process of submitting documentation to testing agencies as proof of a disability can be time consuming, expensive, and even intimidating to test takers with learning disabilities. Misconceptions about the accommodations review process employed by testing agencies add to the anxiety that many test takers feel around obtaining approval for…

  15. Response Time as an Indicator of Test Taker Speed: Assumptions Meet Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    The growing presence of computer-based testing has brought with it the capability to routinely capture the time that test takers spend on individual test items. This, in turn, has led to an increased interest in potential applications of response time in measuring intellectual ability and achievement. Goldhammer (this issue) provides a very useful…

  16. Test Takers' Attitudes and Beliefs about the Graduate Management Admission Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Wilder, Gita Z.; Bridgeman, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess test takers' attitudes and beliefs about an admissions test used extensively in graduate schools of business in the United States, the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), and the relationships of these attitudes and beliefs to test performance. A set of attitude and belief items was administered by…

  17. Policies of Global English Tests: Test-Takers' Perspectives on the IELTS Retake Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2016-01-01

    Globalized English proficiency tests such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) are increasingly playing the role of gatekeepers in a globalizing world. Although the use of the IELTS as a "policy tool" for making decisions in the areas of study, work and migration impacts on test-takers' lives and life chances, not…

  18. Listening to Test-Takers: The Use of Supplemental Comments in Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    Supplemental or peripheral responses by test takers are seldom used by examiners, but in this study a program introduced by Thomas Edison State College (New Jersey) to allow the examined student to provide feedback to the testers and graders was studied. Student comment forms were designed to enable the student to identify problems with the test…

  19. Response Time as an Indicator of Test Taker Speed: Assumptions Meet Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    The growing presence of computer-based testing has brought with it the capability to routinely capture the time that test takers spend on individual test items. This, in turn, has led to an increased interest in potential applications of response time in measuring intellectual ability and achievement. Goldhammer (this issue) provides a very useful…

  20. Test Takers' Attitudes and Beliefs about the Graduate Management Admission Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Wilder, Gita Z.; Bridgeman, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess test takers' attitudes and beliefs about an admissions test used extensively in graduate schools of business in the United States, the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), and the relationships of these attitudes and beliefs to test performance. A set of attitude and belief items was administered by…

  1. A Multivariate Multilevel Approach to the Modeling of Accuracy and Speed of Test Takers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein Entink, R. H.; Fox, J. P.; van der Linden, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Response times on test items are easily collected in modern computerized testing. When collecting both (binary) responses and (continuous) response times on test items, it is possible to measure the accuracy and speed of test takers. To study the relationships between these two constructs, the model is extended with a multivariate multilevel…

  2. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  3. Understanding Test-Takers' Perceptions of Difficulty in EAP Vocabulary Tests: The Role of Experiential Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oruç Ertürk, Nesrin; Mumford, Simon E.

    2017-01-01

    This study, conducted by two researchers who were also multiple-choice question (MCQ) test item writers at a private English-medium university in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context, was designed to shed light on the factors that influence test-takers' perceptions of difficulty in English for academic purposes (EAP) vocabulary, with the…

  4. Test-Taker Characteristics and Integrated Speaking Test Performance: A Path-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Hong, He-Ting Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among language proficiency, two selected test-taker characteristics (i.e., topical knowledge and anxiety), and integrated speaking test performance. Data collection capitalized on three sets of instruments: three integrated tasks derived from TOEFL-iBT preparation materials, the state anxiety inventory created…

  5. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  6. Test-Taker Characteristics and Integrated Speaking Test Performance: A Path-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Hong, He-Ting Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among language proficiency, two selected test-taker characteristics (i.e., topical knowledge and anxiety), and integrated speaking test performance. Data collection capitalized on three sets of instruments: three integrated tasks derived from TOEFL-iBT preparation materials, the state anxiety inventory created…

  7. Three Essays on Teacher Education Programs and Test-Takers' Response Times on Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation includes three essays: one essay focuses on the effect of teacher preparation programs on teacher knowledge while the other two focus on test-takers' response times on test items. Essay One addresses the problem of how opportunities to learn in teacher preparation programs influence future elementary mathematics teachers'…

  8. Test-Takers' Interaction with an L2 Video Listening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elvis

    2010-01-01

    Video technology is commonly used in L2 classrooms, but it is rarely used in assessing L2 listening, and there is little research investigating how L2 listeners process video texts (spoken texts that include the visual channel). The purpose of this study is to examine how L2 test-takers interact with a video listening test: the rate L2 listening…

  9. Obstetrician/Gynecologists and Postpartum Mental Health: Differences between CME Course Takers and Nontakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddy, Meaghan A.; Farrow, Victoria A.; Joseph, Gerald F., Jr.; Schulkin, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Continuing medical education (CME) courses are an essential component of professional development. Research indicates a continued need for understanding how and why physicians select certain CME courses, as well as the differences between CME course takers and nontakers. Purpose: Obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) are health care…

  10. Policies of Global English Tests: Test-Takers' Perspectives on the IELTS Retake Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2016-01-01

    Globalized English proficiency tests such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) are increasingly playing the role of gatekeepers in a globalizing world. Although the use of the IELTS as a "policy tool" for making decisions in the areas of study, work and migration impacts on test-takers' lives and life chances, not…

  11. Obstetrician/Gynecologists and Postpartum Mental Health: Differences between CME Course Takers and Nontakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddy, Meaghan A.; Farrow, Victoria A.; Joseph, Gerald F., Jr.; Schulkin, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Continuing medical education (CME) courses are an essential component of professional development. Research indicates a continued need for understanding how and why physicians select certain CME courses, as well as the differences between CME course takers and nontakers. Purpose: Obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) are health care…

  12. Test-Takers' Interaction with an L2 Video Listening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elvis

    2010-01-01

    Video technology is commonly used in L2 classrooms, but it is rarely used in assessing L2 listening, and there is little research investigating how L2 listeners process video texts (spoken texts that include the visual channel). The purpose of this study is to examine how L2 test-takers interact with a video listening test: the rate L2 listening…

  13. On Giving Test Takers a Choice among Constructive Response Items. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiang Bo

    The Law School Admission Council (LSAC) is currently investigating the feasibility and advisability of administering a computerized Law School Admission Test (LSAT). In this context, using data from the College Boards 1989 National Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry Examination for 18,462 test takers and a survey of all AP Chemistry teachers in…

  14. House calls.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Brian K; Tatum, Paul E

    2011-04-15

    House calls provide a unique perspective on patients' environment and health problems. The demand for house calls is expected to increase considerably in future decades as the U.S. population ages. Although study results have been inconsistent, house calls involving multidisciplinary teams may reduce hospital readmissions and long-term care facility stays. Common indications for house calls are management of acute or chronic illnesses, and palliative care. Medicare beneficiaries must meet specific criteria to be eligible for home health services. The INHOMESSS mnemonic provides a checklist for components of a comprehensive house call. In addition to performing a clinical assessment, house calls may involve observing the patient performing daily activities, reconciling medication discrepancies, and evaluating home safety. House calls can be integrated into practice with careful planning, including clustering house calls by geographic location and coordinating visits with other health care professionals and agencies.

  15. On Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness of using emergency call boxes for establishing a safe campus environment allowing for more immediate response to emergencies. Technology's influence on the future of campus call boxes is highlighted. (GR)

  16. What is wrong with 'being a pill-taker'? The special case of statins.

    PubMed

    Polak, Louisa

    2016-11-16

    In an interview study of decision-making about statins, many participants said they took pills regularly, yet described themselves as 'not really pill-takers'. This paper explores this paradox and its implications. The practice of pill-taking itself can constitute a challenge to the presentation of moral adequacy, beyond the potential for rendering stigmatised illnesses visible. Meeting this challenge involves a complex process of calibrating often-conflicting moral imperatives: to be concerned, but not too concerned, over one's health; to be informed, but not over-informed; and deferential but not over-deferential to medical expertise. This calibration reflects a broader tension between rival tropes: embracing medical progress and resisting medicalisation. Participants who take statins present them as unquestionably necessary; 'needing' pills, as opposed to choosing to take them, serves as a defence against the devalued identity of being a pill-taker. However, needing to take statins offers an additional threat to identity, because taking statins is widely perceived to be an alternative strategy to 'choosing a healthy lifestyle'. This perception underpins a responsibilising health promotion discourse that shapes and complicates the work participants do to avoid presenting themselves as 'pill-takers'. The salience of this discourse should be acknowledged where discussions of medicalisation use statins as an example.

  17. Passionate scholarship 2001-2010: a vision for making academe safer for joyous risk-takers.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Kathleen T

    2010-01-01

    What is passionate scholarship? According to students and graduates from a nursing doctoral program interviewed 10 years ago, passionate scholars must risk committing to a personally meaningful and socially relevant topic close to the heart. This insight spawned a string of exploratory inquiries and educational interventions in search of the "ideal conditions" that foster passionate scholarship. Updating the findings of that original study published in Advances in Nursing Science in 2001, this article describes a 3-year, faculty development initiative. Beyond increasing scholarly productivity, the findings suggest that turning faculty groups into communities of scholarly caring can make academic environments safer for passionate risk-takers.

  18. The Advice Taker/Inquirer, a system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntactic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  19. The advice taker/inquirer: A system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntatic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  20. Aggressive regulator or passive price-taker: what role should HIPCs (health insurance purchasing cooperatives) play?

    PubMed

    Wicks, E K

    1993-01-01

    Despite extensive variations on the theme, managed competition continues to be the favored model of federal and state governments in crafting health reform. A critical element in managed competition is the establishment of health insurance purchasing cooperatives (HIPCs), which band together the collective buying power of individuals or employers to give them market "clout". Policymakers must decide whether they want a HIPC to be an aggressive regulator--using its power to force changes among health plans--or a passive price-taker that contracts with plans meeting key criteria.

  1. The Advice Taker/Inquirer, a system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntactic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  2. The advice taker/inquirer: A system for high-level acquisition of expert knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromp, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Advice Taker/Inquirer (AT/I) is a domain-independent program that is used to construct, monitor, and improve an expert system. In the learning phase, an expert teaches a strategy to the AT/I by providing it with declarative and procedural knowledge, expressed in the expert's domain-specific vocabulary. The expert can modify any advice given to the system earlier, and any advice dependent on the altered advice is reviewed automatically for syntatic and sematic soundness. Knowledge acquisition and methods for ensuring the integrity of the knowledge base in an expert system is discussed.

  3. Examining Linguistic Characteristics of Paraphrase in Test-Taker Summaries. Research Report. ETS RR-12-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill; Flor, Michael; Tetreault, Joel; Madnani, Nitin; Holtzman, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This annotation study is designed to help us gain an increased understanding of paraphrase strategies used by native and nonnative English speakers and how these strategies might affect test takers' essay scores. Toward that end, this study aims to examine and analyze the paraphrase and the types of linguistic modifications used in paraphrase in…

  4. Investigating the Validity of an Integrated Listening-Speaking Task: A Discourse-Based Analysis of Test Takers' Oral Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Kellie; Elder, Catherine; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Performance on integrated tasks requires candidates to engage skills and strategies beyond language proficiency alone, in ways that can be difficult to define and measure for testing purposes. While it has been widely recognized that stimulus materials impact test performance, our understanding of the way in which test takers make use of these…

  5. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  6. Investigating the Validity of an Integrated Listening-Speaking Task: A Discourse-Based Analysis of Test Takers' Oral Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Kellie; Elder, Catherine; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Performance on integrated tasks requires candidates to engage skills and strategies beyond language proficiency alone, in ways that can be difficult to define and measure for testing purposes. While it has been widely recognized that stimulus materials impact test performance, our understanding of the way in which test takers make use of these…

  7. Test Takers' Attitudes about the TOEFL iBT[TM]. TOEFL iBT Research Report. RR-10-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Attali, Yigal

    2010-01-01

    The principal aims of this study, a conceptual replication of an earlier investigation of the TOEFL[R] computer-based test, or TOEFL CBT, in Buenos Aires, Cairo, and Frankfurt, were to assess test takers' reported acceptance of the TOEFL Internet-based test, or TOEFL iBT[TM], and its associations with possible determinants of this acceptance and…

  8. The Rights and Responsibility of Test Takers When Large-Scale Testing Is Used for Classroom Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Barneveld, Christina; Brinson, Karieann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify conflicts in the rights and responsibility of Grade 9 test takers when some parts of a large-scale test are marked by teachers and used in the calculation of students' class marks. Data from teachers' questionnaires and students' questionnaires from a 2009-10 administration of a large-scale test of…

  9. Soccer penalty takers' uniform colour and pre-penalty kick gaze affect the impressions formed of them by opposing goalkeepers.

    PubMed

    Greenlees, Iain; Leyland, Alex; Thelwell, Richard; Filby, William

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of soccer players' uniform colour and gaze behaviour on the impressions that are formed of them by opposing goalkeepers. Twelve soccer goalkeepers observed video footage, filmed from between the goalposts to simulate their usual viewpoint, of four players preparing to take a penalty kick. Each of the four players displayed a different combination of gaze (either 90% or 10% with gaze operationalized as looking directly at the camera) and uniform colour (red or white). Goalkeepers rated each player on a series of descriptors (e.g. confidence, composure, assertiveness) and rated their expectancies for successfully saving penalty kicks from that player. Analysis revealed that those penalty takers displaying 90% gaze were perceived to possess positive characteristics to a greater extent than penalty takers displaying 10% gaze. Results also revealed penalty takers wearing red were perceived to possess positive characteristics to a greater extent than those wearing white. Goalkeepers reported higher expectancies of saving penalties from penalty takers displaying 10% gaze and wearing white uniforms than any of the other combinations. Our results therefore support the potential importance of gaze and uniform colour in the formation of impressions and expectancies in sport.

  10. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  11. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  12. Test Takers' Beliefs and Experiences of a High-Stakes Computer-Based English Listening and Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Test takers' beliefs or experiences have been overlooked in most validation studies in language education. Meanwhile, a mutual exclusion has been observed in the literature, with little or no dialogue between validation studies and studies concerning the uses and consequences of testing. To help fill these research gaps, a group of Senior III…

  13. Test Takers' Beliefs and Experiences of a High-Stakes Computer-Based English Listening and Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    Test takers' beliefs or experiences have been overlooked in most validation studies in language education. Meanwhile, a mutual exclusion has been observed in the literature, with little or no dialogue between validation studies and studies concerning the uses and consequences of testing. To help fill these research gaps, a group of Senior III…

  14. Selfie-Takers Prefer Left Cheeks: Converging Evidence from the (Extended) selfiecity Database.

    PubMed

    Manovich, Lev; Ferrari, Vera; Bruno, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    According to previous reports, selfie takers in widely different cultural contexts prefer poses showing the left cheek more than the right cheek. This posing bias may be interpreted as evidence for a right-hemispheric specialization for the expression of facial emotions. However, earlier studies analyzed selfie poses as categorized by human raters, which raises methodological issues in relation to the distinction between frontal and three-quarter poses. Here, we provide converging evidence by analyzing the (extended) selfiecity database which includes automatic assessments of head rotation and of emotional expression. We confirm a culture- and sex-independent left-cheek bias and report stronger expression of negative emotions in selfies showing the left cheek. These results are generally consistent with a psychobiological account of a left cheek bias in self-portraits but reveal possible unexpected facts concerning the relation between side bias and lateralization of emotional expression.

  15. Selfie-Takers Prefer Left Cheeks: Converging Evidence from the (Extended) selfiecity Database

    PubMed Central

    Manovich, Lev; Ferrari, Vera; Bruno, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    According to previous reports, selfie takers in widely different cultural contexts prefer poses showing the left cheek more than the right cheek. This posing bias may be interpreted as evidence for a right-hemispheric specialization for the expression of facial emotions. However, earlier studies analyzed selfie poses as categorized by human raters, which raises methodological issues in relation to the distinction between frontal and three-quarter poses. Here, we provide converging evidence by analyzing the (extended) selfiecity database which includes automatic assessments of head rotation and of emotional expression. We confirm a culture- and sex-independent left-cheek bias and report stronger expression of negative emotions in selfies showing the left cheek. These results are generally consistent with a psychobiological account of a left cheek bias in self-portraits but reveal possible unexpected facts concerning the relation between side bias and lateralization of emotional expression. PMID:28928683

  16. Ensuring NCLEX-RN success for first-time test-takers.

    PubMed

    Norton, Colleen K; Relf, Michael V; Cox, Catherine W; Farley, Jean; Lachat, Maryanne; Tucker, Michelle; Murray, Jason

    2006-01-01

    A major indicator of baccalaureate nursing program effectiveness is the pass rate on the National Council Licensure Examinations, Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) among first-time candidates. This article highlights the scope, instructional methods, and outcomes of the remediation program at Georgetown University School of Nursing & Health Studies (GU-NHS). With implementation of the multifaceted program, the NCLEX-RN pass rate for first-time takers at GU-NHS has been consistently above the national mean among all first-time candidates. Although it is impossible to determine which strategy made the greatest contribution to the success of the program, the cumulative effect is impressive and indicates the students are prepared for the challenge of the examination and contemporary nursing practice.

  17. Exploratory analysis of real personal emergency response call conversations: considerations for personal emergency response spoken dialogue systems.

    PubMed

    Young, Victoria; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex

    2016-11-14

    The purpose of this study was to derive data from real, recorded, personal emergency response call conversations to help improve the artificial intelligence and decision making capability of a spoken dialogue system in a smart personal emergency response system. The main study objectives were to: develop a model of personal emergency response; determine categories for the model's features; identify and calculate measures from call conversations (verbal ability, conversational structure, timing); and examine conversational patterns and relationships between measures and model features applicable for improving the system's ability to automatically identify call model categories and predict a target response. This study was exploratory and used mixed methods. Personal emergency response calls were pre-classified according to call model categories identified qualitatively from response call transcripts. The relationships between six verbal ability measures, three conversational structure measures, two timing measures and three independent factors: caller type, risk level, and speaker type, were examined statistically. Emergency medical response services were the preferred response for the majority of medium and high risk calls for both caller types. Older adult callers mainly requested non-emergency medical service responders during medium risk situations. By measuring the number of spoken words-per-minute and turn-length-in-words for the first spoken utterance of a call, older adult and care provider callers could be identified with moderate accuracy. Average call taker response time was calculated using the number-of-speaker-turns and time-in-seconds measures. Care providers and older adults used different conversational strategies when responding to call takers. The words 'ambulance' and 'paramedic' may hold different latent connotations for different callers. The data derived from the real personal emergency response recordings may help a spoken dialogue system

  18. Test Takers' Writing Activities during the "TOEFL iBT"® Writing Tasks: A Stimulated Recall Study. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-25. ETS Research Report No. RR-15-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the writing activities that test takers engage in when responding to the writing tasks in the "TOEFL iBT"[superscript R] test and to examine the effects of task type and test-taker English language proficiency (ELP) and keyboarding skills on the frequency and distribution of these activities. Each of 22 test…

  19. The Speaking Section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT): Test-Takers' Reported Strategic Behaviors. TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Huang, Li-Shih; Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study responds to the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) research agenda concerning the need to understand the processes and knowledge that test-takers utilize. Specifically, it investigates the strategic behaviors test-takers reported using when taking the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT). It also investigates…

  20. Accommodated Test Taker Trends and Performance for the June 1993 through February 1998 LSAT Administrations. Technical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Andrea E.; Dalessandro, Susan P.; Reese, Lynda M.

    This report describes trends related to accommodations in testing for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and summarizes the performance of accommodated LSAT takers for the 1993-1994 through 1997-1998 testing years. Data show that the number of requests for accommodated testing increased steadily from the 1994-1995 through 1996-1997 LSAT testing…

  1. An Examination of Rater Orientations and Test-Taker Performance on English-for-Academic-Purposes Speaking Tasks. TOEFL® Monograph Series. MS-29. ETS RR-05-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Annie; Iwashita, Noriko; McNamara, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This report documents two coordinated exploratory studies into the nature of oral English-for-academic-purposes (EAP) proficiency. Study I used verbal-report methodology to examine field experts? rating orientations, and Study II investigated the quality of test-taker discourse on two different Test of English as a Foreign Language? (TOEFL®) task…

  2. A call center primer.

    PubMed

    Durr, W

    1998-01-01

    Call centers are strategically and tactically important to many industries, including the healthcare industry. Call centers play a key role in acquiring and retaining customers. The ability to deliver high-quality and timely customer service without much expense is the basis for the proliferation and expansion of call centers. Call centers are unique blends of people and technology, where performance indicates combining appropriate technology tools with sound management practices built on key operational data. While the technology is fascinating, the people working in call centers and the skill of the management team ultimately make a difference to their companies.

  3. Continuous Non-invasive finger cuff CareTaker® comparable to invasive intra-arterial pressure in patients undergoing major intra-abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Irwin; Deal, Edward; Spitz, Francis; Baruch, Martin; Allen, I Elaine; Seaman, Julia E; Pukenas, Erin; Jean, Smith

    2017-03-21

    Despite increased interest in non-invasive arterial pressure monitoring, the majority of commercially available technologies have failed to satisfy the limits established for the validation of automatic arterial pressure monitoring by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). According to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standards, the group-average accuracy and precision are defined as acceptable if bias is not greater than 5 mmHg and standard deviation is not greater than 8 mmHg. In this study, these standards are used to evaluate the CareTaker® (CT) device, a device measuring continuous non-invasive blood pressure via a pulse contour algorithm called Pulse Decomposition Analysis. A convenience sample of 24 patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were consented to participate in this IRB approved pilot study. Each patient was monitored with a radial arterial catheter and CT using a finger cuff applied to the contralateral thumb. Hemodynamic variables were measured and analyzed from both devices for the first thirty minutes of the surgical procedure including the induction of anesthesia. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic and diastolic blood pressures continuously collected from the arterial catheter and CT were compared. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between arterial catheter and CT blood pressure measurements, a Bland-Altman analysis, and polar and 4Q plots were created. The correlation of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were 0.92, 0.86, 0.91, respectively (p < 0.0001 for all the comparisons). The Bland-Altman comparison yielded a bias (as measured by overall mean difference) of -0.57, -2.52, 1.01 mmHg for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively with a standard deviation of 7.34, 6.47, 5.33 mmHg for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The polar plot indicates little bias between the two

  4. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  5. Compare Gene Calls

    SciTech Connect

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L.

    2016-07-05

    Compare Gene Calls (CGC) is a Python code used for combining and comparing gene calls from any number of gene callers. A gene caller is a computer program that predicts the extends of open reading frames within genomes of biological organisms.

  6. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  7. The Power of CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C., Ed.

    The book provides an overview of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) written by specialists in specific areas of electronic media. Its nine chapters include: "The Power of the Computer in Language Education" (Martha C. Pennington); "Elements of CALL Methodology: Development, Evaluation, and Implementation" (Philip L. Hubbard); "Second…

  8. When lawyers call clinicians.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H

    2010-07-01

    Every psychiatrist, psychologist, and psychotherapist gets calls from attorneys from time to time, often with a request involving a patient. Patients sometimes ask their clinicians to become involved in their legal matters. Such calls and requests may sound straightforward, but they are often misleading, incomplete, or misunderstood. One should avoid being reflexively "helpful" when a lawyer calls or a patient makes such a special request. There may be no obligation to respond, or to respond immediately, although subpoenas must not be ignored; promptly contacting an appropriate supervisor, facility risk manager, malpractice insurance carrier, or one's own attorney is often the best course of action. Office staff such as secretaries and receptionists should also be trained and cautioned regarding the principles discussed here.

  9. Calling in the Feds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Corkin F.

    1995-01-01

    A Georgia superintendent (and former teacher) angered board and community members by calling in federal authorities to help eliminate de facto segregation in two schools serving 1,200 students. At issue were a discriminatory track system and unintegrated cheerleading teams. Sidebars explain the U.S. Education Department's Office for Civil Rights…

  10. A Call for Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Albert

    Albert Shanker, President of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), speaks about the national testing of teachers and calls for the creation of a new and better national examination for new teachers. While members of the AFT have a few differences with some of the current reform proposals, the AFT in general supports the overwhelming majority…

  11. When Crises Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

  12. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  13. Wake-Up Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

  14. When Crises Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

  15. Wake-Up Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

  16. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  17. Breast Cancer Screening in Saudi Arabia: Free but Almost No Takers

    PubMed Central

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Wilson, Shelley; Daoud, Farah; Tuffaha, Marwa; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Memish, Ziad A.; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mammography ensures early diagnosis and a better chance for treatment and recovery from breast cancer. We conducted a national survey to investigate knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among Saudi women aged 50 years or older in order to inform the breast cancer national health programs. Materials and Methods The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health-care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. Female respondents were asked about knowledge and practices of self and clinical breast exams, as well as mammography. Results Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Among respondents, 1,135 were women aged 50 years or older and were included in this analysis. About 89% of women reported not having a clinical breast exam in the past year, and 92% reported never having a mammogram. Women living in Al Sharqia had the highest rate of mammography use. Women who were educated, those who had received a routine medical exam within the last two years, and those who were diagnosed with hypertension were more likely to have had a mammogram in the past two years. Discussion Our results show very low rates of breast cancer screening in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a country with free health services. This calls for educational campaigns to improve breast cancer screening. Addressing the barriers for breast cancer screening is a public health imperative. PMID:25774520

  18. Call it worm sleep

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F.; Raizen, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans stops feeding and moving during a larval transition stage called lethargus and following exposure to cellular stressors. These behaviors have been termed “sleep-like states”. We argue that these behaviors should instead be called “sleep”. Sleep during lethargus is similar to sleep regulated by circadian timers in insects and mammals, and sleep in response to cellular stress is similar to sleep induced by sickness in other animals. Sleep in mammals and Drosophila shows molecular and functional conservation with C. elegans sleep. The simple neuroanatomy and powerful genetic tools of C. elegans have yielded insights into sleep regulation and hold great promise for future research into sleep regulation and function. PMID:26747654

  19. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  20. The identification of acute stroke: an analysis of emergency calls.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie P; Carter, Bernie; Ford, Gary A; Gibson, Josephine M E; Leathley, Michael J; McAdam, Joanna J; O'Donnell, Mark; Punekar, Shuja; Quinn, Tom; Watkins, Caroline L

    2013-08-01

    Accurate dispatch of emergency medical services at the onset of acute stroke is vital in expediting assessment and treatment. We examined the relationship between callers' description of potential stroke symptoms to the emergency medical dispatcher and the subsequent classification and prioritisation of emergency medical services response. To identify key 'indicator' words used by people making emergency calls for suspected stroke, comparing these with the subsequent category of response given by the emergency medical dispatcher. A retrospective chart review (hospital and emergency medical services) in North West England (October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007) identified digitally recorded emergency medical services calls, which related to patients who had a diagnosis of suspected stroke at some point on the stroke pathway (from the emergency medical services call taker through to final medical diagnosis). Using content analysis, words used to describe stroke by the caller were recorded. A second researcher independently followed the same procedure in order to produce a list of 'indicator' words. Description of stroke-specific and nonstroke-specific problems reported by the caller was compared with subsequent emergency medical services dispatch coding and demographic features. Six hundred forty-three calls were made to emergency medical services of which 592 (92%) had complete emergency medical services and hospital data. The majority of callers were female (67%) and family members (55%). The most frequently reported problems first said by callers to the emergency medical dispatcher were collapse or fall (26%) and stroke (25%). Callers who identified that the patient was having a stroke were correct in 89% of cases. Calls were dispatched as stroke in 45% of cases, of which 83% had confirmed stroke. Of the first reported problems, Face Arm Speech Test stroke symptoms were mentioned in less than 5% of calls, with speech problems being the most common symptom. No

  1. [Who is Called "Schizophrenic"?].

    PubMed

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Kaladjian, Arthur; Besnier, Nathalie; Cermolacce, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Someone is called "schizophrenic" when suffering from a disorder described in 1911, for the first time by a Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in a book entitled "Dementia Praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien". In this book, Bleuler proposes a two-faced approach: one centered on the disease, the other on the person. Bleuler's main contribution was to show the importance of the latter in the determinism of clinical pictures and illness course, thus opening the way to more anthropological approaches to the schizophrenic self. Taking these approaches into account, at a time when naturalistic models of the illness are prevailing, is far from being of no consequence, as far as the effectiveness of our therapeutic actions is at issue.

  2. The Census Taker's Hat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugués, Rubén

    Magnetic monopoles have rivaled black holes as the most beautiful and elusive entities in the world of theoretical physics since they were first considered in the early twentieth century. They naturally arise in electromagnetism and have immediate implications on the underlying symmetries, both dynamical and internal, at both the classical and quantum level. In this article we will recap some facts about magnetic monopoles in electromagnetism, in particular notions regarding their contribution to the angular momentum of a system and how these concepts are related to the quantization condition for the product of the charges of a fundamental electric pole and magnetic pole. We then proceed to consider magnetic poles in general relativity and briefly address similar considerations in this theory.

  3. The linguistic and interactional factors impacting recognition and dispatch in emergency calls for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a mixed-method linguistic analysis study protocol.

    PubMed

    Riou, Marine; Ball, Stephen; Williams, Teresa A; Whiteside, Austin; O'Halloran, Kay L; Bray, Janet; Perkins, Gavin D; Cameron, Peter; Fatovich, Daniel M; Inoue, Madoka; Bailey, Paul; Brink, Deon; Smith, Karen; Della, Phillip; Finn, Judith

    2017-07-09

    Emergency telephone calls placed by bystanders are crucial to the recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), fast ambulance dispatch and initiation of early basic life support. Clear and efficient communication between caller and call-taker is essential to this time-critical emergency, yet few studies have investigated the impact that linguistic factors may have on the nature of the interaction and the resulting trajectory of the call. This research aims to provide a better understanding of communication factors impacting on the accuracy and timeliness of ambulance dispatch. A dataset of OHCA calls and their corresponding metadata will be analysed from an interdisciplinary perspective, combining linguistic analysis and health services research. The calls will be transcribed and coded for linguistic and interactional variables and then used to answer a series of research questions about the recognition of OHCA and the delivery of basic life-support instructions to bystanders. Linguistic analysis of calls will provide a deeper understanding of the interactional dynamics between caller and call-taker which may affect recognition and dispatch for OHCA. Findings from this research will translate into recommendations for modifications of the protocols for ambulance dispatch and provide directions for further research. The study has been approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (HR128/2013) and the St John Ambulance Western Australia Research Advisory Group. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and communicated to key audiences, including ambulance dispatch professionals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Call bell requests, call bell response time, and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Roszell, Sheila; Jones, Cheryl B; Lynn, Mary R

    2009-01-01

    Based in the center of nursing activity, the nurse call system has potential to gather basic data such as the number of calls and the response time. Analyzing this information may shed light on performance and patient satisfaction. This study used a correlational design to examine results from a patient satisfaction survey administered at discharge in relation to the number of call bell requests from the patient's room and call bell response time.

  5. Information Sharing from 9-1-1 Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    GPS global positioning system HDSSC Homeland Defense and Security Standardization Collaboration IC intelligence community ISE Information...intelligence community ( IC ), law enforcement entities, and military stakeholders from collaborating when working to ensure the safety of the American...not intelligence; rather gathering is a critical aspect of the intelligence cycle that must be completed so that information can be sent to IC for

  6. Next Generation 9-1-1 Preservation Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2010-03-15

    Senate - 03/15/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. A Comparison of Achievement Gaps and Test-Taker Characteristics on Computer-Delivered and Paper-Delivered "Praxis I"® Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-14-35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Jonathan; Brenneman, Meghan; Castellano, Karen; Lin, Peng; Miller, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Test providers are increasingly moving toward exclusively administering assessments by computer. Computerized testing is becoming more desirable for test takers because of increased opportunities to test, faster turnaround of individual scores, or perhaps other factors, offering potential benefits for those who may be struggling to pass licensure…

  8. Investigating the Relationship between Test-Taker Background Characteristics and Test Performance in a Heterogeneous English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) Test Population: A Factor Analytic Approach. Research Report. ETS RR-15-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manna, Venessa F.; Yoo, Hanwook

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the heterogeneity in the English-as-a-second-language (ESL) test population by modeling the relationship between test-taker background characteristics and test performance as measured by the "TOEFL iBT"® using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with covariate approach. The background characteristics studied…

  9. CALL Essentials: Principles and Practice in CALL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2005-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer innovative teachers exciting ways to enhance their pedagogy and capture their students' attention. These technologies have created a growing field of inquiry, computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As new technologies have emerged, teaching professionals have adapted them to support teachers and learners in…

  10. Making CALL Work: Towards Normalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Andrea; Bax, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The aim of CALL practitioners is to work towards a state where computers are fully integrated into pedagogy, a state of "normalisation." This article draws on a qualitative research study into two EFL settings to discuss obstacles to normalisation and ways of overcoming them. It identifies a number of key features which appear to be significant in…

  11. Formative Considerations Using Integrative CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Philip; Shaver, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Addresses technical and learning issues relating to a formative implementation of a computer assisted language learning (CALL) browser-based intermediate Russian program. Instruction took place through a distance education implementation and in a grouped classroom using a local-area network. Learners indicated the software was clear, motivating,…

  12. An Evaluation Framework for CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2016-01-01

    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  13. Learning as Calling and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

  14. When to Call Your Pediatrician

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Medical Home > When to Call Your Pediatrician Family Life Listen ... nonprescription drugs, inhalers, supplements, vitamins, herbal products, or home ... These are especially helpful if your child has an injury that may require a tetanus ...

  15. Close Call: Breaking the Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Contrary to a rule to never teach students to lead climb, an instructor taught several youth to lead climb at a parent's request. These students planned to pursue rock climbing on their own after they left school, and preparing them was deemed a safety precaution. Analysis of this "close call" offers guidelines for introducing students…

  16. The So-Called Face

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-21

    The so-called Face on Mars can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this NASA Mars Odyssey image. This 3-km long knob was first imaged by NASA Viking spacecraft in the 1970 and to some resembled a face carved into the rocks of Mars.

  17. Call for improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  18. Call to Restore Mesopotamian Marshlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Call to restore Mesopotamian marshlands When the current military conflict in Iraq has concluded, a rehabilitation of that country should include a full assessment and action plan for restoring the marshlands of Mesopotamia, the United Nations Environment Programme said on 22 March. The marshlands, also known as the Fertile Crescent, could disappear within three to five years, according to UNEP. UNEP Executive Director Klaus Toepfer said the loss of the marshlands ``is an environmental catastrophe for this region and underscores the huge pressures facing wetlands and freshwater ecosystems across the world.''

  19. What Do Monkey Calls Mean?

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Advice-Taker/Inquirer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    such as was done by the Player-Type System [ MORGADO and MARTINS 1978] in the SUNY/AB Poker System, can proably be implemented through the Definition...ae,,ssing L(1968), pp. 403-417. ( MORGADO and MARTINS 1978] Morgado , E. J. M., and Martins, J. E. P., "User-defined player types." In Prieur, J. R... Morgado , E. J. N., Martins, J. E. P., and Findler,. N. V., Lsexz1Giik MEE: - -- -23- tlig Pokehr SysemVoum TTT:in ILL. nia pn ±jhg fnkyl Tournam.ei Mode

  1. Utilization of emergency medical services in a large urban area: description of call types and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Kevin G; Silverman, Robert A; Freese, John; Braun, James D; Kaufman, Bradley J; Isaacs, Douglas; Werner, Andrew; Webber, Mayris; Hall, Charles B; Prezant, David J

    2011-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) systems are used by the public for a range of medically related problems. To understand and analyze the patterns of EMS utilization and trends over time in a large urban EMS system so that we may better direct efforts toward improving those services. The 63 call type designations from all New York City (NYC) 9-1-1 EMS calls between 1999 and 2007 were obtained and grouped into 10 broad and 30 specific medical categories. Aggregated numbers of total EMS calls and individual categories were divided by NYC resident population estimates to determine utilization rates. Temporal trends were evaluated for statistical significance with Spearman's rho (ρ). There were 9,916,904 EMS calls between 1999 and 2007, with an average of 1,101,878 calls/year. Utilization rates increased from 129.5 to 141.9 calls/1,000 residents/year over the study period (average annual rise of 1.16%). Among all medical/surgical call types (excluding trauma), there was an average annual increase of 1.8%/year. The most substantial increases were among "psychiatric/drug related" (+5.6%/year), "generalized illness" (+3.2%/year), and "environmental related" calls (+2.9%/year). The largest decrease was among "respiratory" calls (-1.2%/year), specifically for "asthma" (-5.0%/year). For trauma call types, there was an annual average decrease of 0.4%/year, with the category of "violence related" calls having the greatest decline (-3.3%/year). There was an increase in overall EMS utilization rates, though not all call types rose uniformly. Rather, a number of significant trends were identified reflecting either changing medical needs or changing patterns of EMS utilization in NYC's population.

  2. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public: Federal...

  3. Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martin

    1987-01-01

    Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

  4. Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martin

    1987-01-01

    Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

  5. Probabilistic priority assessment of nurse calls.

    PubMed

    Ongenae, Femke; Myny, Dries; Dhaene, Tom; Defloor, Tom; Van Goubergen, Dirk; Verhoeve, Piet; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip

    2014-05-01

    Current nurse call systems are very static. Call buttons are fixed to the wall, and systems do not account for various factors specific to a situation. We have developed a software platform, the ontology-based Nurse Call System (oNCS), which supports the transition to mobile and wireless nurse call buttons and uses an intelligent algorithm to address nurse calls. This algorithm dynamically adapts to the situation at hand by taking the profile information of staff and patients into account by using an ontology. This article describes a probabilistic extension of the oNCS that supports a more sophisticated nurse call algorithm by dynamically assigning priorities to calls based on the risk factors of the patient and the kind of call. The probabilistic oNCS is evaluated through implementation of a prototype and simulations, based on a detailed dataset obtained from 3 nursing departments of Ghent University Hospital. The arrival times of nurses at the location of a call, the workload distribution of calls among nurses, and the assignment of priorities to calls are compared for the oNCS and the current nurse call system. Additionally, the performance of the system and the parameters of the priority assignment algorithm are explored. The execution time of the nurse call algorithm is on average 50.333 ms. Moreover, the probabilistic oNCS significantly improves the assignment of nurses to calls. Calls generally result in a nurse being present more quickly, the workload distribution among the nurses improves, and the priorities and kinds of calls are taken into account.

  6. 78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...--whether the call is significantly delayed, the called party's phone never rings, the caller hears false..., as well as aiding consumers and industry by adopting a rule prohibiting false ring signaling. In the... of 1934, as amended (the Act); Established a Rural Call Completion Task Force to investigate...

  7. Calling in Work: Secular or Sacred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael F.; Pickering, N. K.; Shin, J. Y.; Dik, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarship indicates that people who view their work as a calling are more satisfied with their work and their lives. Historically, calling has been regarded as a religious experience, although modern researchers frequently have adopted a more expansive and secular conceptualization of calling, emphasizing meaning and personal fulfillment…

  8. Bird calls: their potential for behavioral neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Birdsongs are always part of larger set of sound signals. Every bird uses a repertoire of calls for communication. Calls are shorter and simpler than songs, with a much larger range of functions. Whereas songs are specialized for application in reproduction and territoriality, calls also serve such functions as signaling about food, maintaining social cohesion, contact calls, synchronizing and coordinating flight, and the resolution of aggressive and sexual conflicts. Alarm calls of various kinds are a major component, including distress, mobbing, and hawk alarm calls. Call repertoires vary greatly in size, up to 20 or so distinct call types. Rough estimates for songbirds range between 5 and 10, but some birds, especially galliforms, may have twice as many. Call usage is often sexually dimorphic and commonly varies seasonally and with physiological state. Most calls appear to be innate, but more and more examples of developmental plasticity in bird calls are emerging. Some display well-defined local dialects. A case is made for the value to avian behavioral neurobiology of including bird calls in studies of the psychophysics and sensory physiology of signal perception. They may also help to extend the range of neurobiological investigations of the song system to include circuitry controlling such functionally related behaviors as aggression and reproduction.

  9. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding...

  10. Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

  11. Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

  12. 20 CFR 702.313 - Informal conferences; how called; when called.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal conferences; how called; when called... Adjudication Procedures Action by District Directors § 702.313 Informal conferences; how called; when called. Informal conferences may be called upon not less than 10 days' notice to the parties, unless the...

  13. Bonobos Extract Meaning from Call Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Zanna; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Studies on language-trained bonobos have revealed their remarkable abilities in representational and communication tasks. Surprisingly, however, corresponding research into their natural communication has largely been neglected. We address this issue with a first playback study on the natural vocal behaviour of bonobos. Bonobos produce five acoustically distinct call types when finding food, which they regularly mix together into longer call sequences. We found that individual call types were relatively poor indicators of food quality, while context specificity was much greater at the call sequence level. We therefore investigated whether receivers could extract meaning about the quality of food encountered by the caller by integrating across different call sequences. We first trained four captive individuals to find two types of foods, kiwi (preferred) and apples (less preferred) at two different locations. We then conducted naturalistic playback experiments during which we broadcasted sequences of four calls, originally produced by a familiar individual responding to either kiwi or apples. All sequences contained the same number of calls but varied in the composition of call types. Following playbacks, we found that subjects devoted significantly more search effort to the field indicated by the call sequence. Rather than attending to individual calls, bonobos attended to the entire sequences to make inferences about the food encountered by a caller. These results provide the first empirical evidence that bonobos are able to extract information about external events by attending to vocal sequences of other individuals and highlight the importance of call combinations in their natural communication system. PMID:21556149

  14. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

  15. Development and Validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Eldridge, Brandy M.; Steger, Michael F.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    Research on work as a calling is limited by measurement concerns. In response, the authors introduce the multidimensional Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Brief Calling scale (BCS), instruments assessing presence of, and search for, a calling. Study 1 describes CVQ development using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis…

  16. Disentangling the Link between Perceiving a Calling and Living a Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Autin, Kelsey L.

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested there is an important distinction between perceiving a calling and living a calling. With a sample of 542 working adults, the current study examined (a) the degree to which perceiving a calling and living a calling differed according to yearly income and level of educational attainment and (b) potential mediators that may…

  17. When They Talk about CALL: Discourse in a Required CALL Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates preservice teachers' discourse about CALL in a required CALL class which combines theory and practice. Thirty-three students in a Linguistics MA program CALL course were observed over a 10-week quarter. For all of these students, it was their first formal exposure to CALL as a discipline. Communication in the class…

  18. A CALL for Improved School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Richard; Kelley, Carolyn; Shaw, James

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) is a formative assessment that provides feedback to schools on the research-based leadership practices necessary to improve teaching and learning. Instead of focusing on an individual leader, CALL measures leadership practices in tasks carried out by actors across the school and…

  19. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  20. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  1. The function of Barbary macaque copulation calls.

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S

    1998-01-01

    In a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. It has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. Two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. The first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). The second proposes that copulation calling results in a female being mated by many males, thus promoting competition at the level of sperm (sperm competition hypothesis). In this paper, I give results from the first experimental study to test these hypotheses. Playback was used to examine the function of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Gibraltar. Although rank did not affect lone males' likelihood of approaching copulation calls, when playbacks were given to pairs of males only the higher ranking individual approached. Moreover, females were mated significantly sooner after playback of their copulation call than after playback of a control stimulus. These results suggest that the copulation calls of female Barbary macaques play a key role in affecting patterns of male reproductive behaviour, not only providing an indirect mechanism of female choice, but also promoting sperm competition by reducing the interval between copulations. Potential fitness benefits of inciting male-male competition at these two levels are discussed. PMID:9523431

  2. 78 FR 21891 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... facilities-based originating long distance providers to record and retain data on call completion rates to... originating long-distance voice service providers to collect data on call answer rates, and to report those... allow the Commission to monitor the performance of long-distance telephone service providers in order to...

  3. Kindness Curbs Kids' Name-Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxon, Rebekah

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the impact of name-calling towards the student's academic performance and emotions and cites some measures on how should teachers address this problem in order to facilitate effective learning among students. Psychologists recognize that name-calling and other forms of verbal bullying and harassment are more…

  4. CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy, Ed.; Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Essays on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include: "Computer-Enhanced Language Learning Environments" (Joy Egbert, Chin-chi Chao, Elizabeth Hanson-Smith); "Theory and Research Interaction via Computers" (Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Classroom Practice: Creating Interactive CALL Activities" (Joy Egbert); "CALL…

  5. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have... letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Aircraft telegraph 5 letters KAAAA through KZZZZ. WAAAA through WZZZZ. Aircraft telegraph and telephone 5 letters 2 KAAAA through KZZZZ. WAAAA through WZZZZ....

  6. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have... letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Aircraft telegraph 5 letters KAAAA through KZZZZ. WAAAA through WZZZZ. Aircraft telegraph and telephone 5 letters 2 KAAAA through KZZZZ. WAAAA through WZZZZ....

  7. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have... letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Aircraft telegraph 5 letters KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ. Aircraft telegraph and telephone 5 letters 2 KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ....

  8. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have... letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Aircraft telegraph 5 letters KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ. Aircraft telegraph and telephone 5 letters 2 KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ....

  9. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... U.S. call sign allocations listed below, call sign blocks AAA through AEZ and ALA through ALZ have... letters, 4 digits KA2000 through KZ9999. Aircraft telegraph 5 letters KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ. Aircraft telegraph and telephone 5 letters 2 KAAAA through KZZZZ.WAAAA through WZZZZ....

  10. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calling in. 401.64 Section 401.64 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every...

  11. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  12. Applying Pedagogical Principles to CALL Courseware Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, David H.

    This paper on the application of principles to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) first clarifies the the relationships between the capabilities of the computer (and computer-controlled technology) and the main approaches to second language learning. Fourteen common types of CALL programs are briefly reviewed. A "relational" classification…

  13. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations.

  14. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105

  15. Evaluation of CALL: Initial Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allum, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary learning theory suggests that productive recall should strengthen learning of new vocabulary items (Nation, 2001). CALL can provide both the opportunities for productive recall and the feedback to motivate repeated efforts to reproduce new items. The latter capability appears to give CALL some advantages over paper-based exercises, in…

  16. A CALL for Improved School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Richard; Kelley, Carolyn; Shaw, James

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) is a formative assessment that provides feedback to schools on the research-based leadership practices necessary to improve teaching and learning. Instead of focusing on an individual leader, CALL measures leadership practices in tasks carried out by actors across the school and…

  17. Integrated Language Skills CALL Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin; Agawa, Grant

    2013-01-01

    The importance of a structured learning framework or interrelated frameworks is the cornerstone of a solid English as a foreign language (EFL) computer-assisted language learning (CALL) curriculum. While the benefits of CALL are widely promoted in the literature, there is often an endemic discord separating theory and practice. Oftentimes the…

  18. Bat echolocation calls: Orientation to communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, M. Brock

    2004-05-01

    Bats hunting flying insects adjust the design of their echolocation calls according to the situation in which they forage and stage in an attack. Changes in call design across attack sequences alert other bats within earshot to the presence of prey, demonstrating a continuum in roles for biosonar signals between orientation and communication. Many aerial-feeding bats change the design of their echolocation calls in the presence of echolocating conspecifics. Bats may change frequency parameters, durations, and/or intensities of their calls. While a variety of free-tailed bats (Molossidae Otomops martiensseni, Tadarida teniotis, Molossus molossus) consistently change their echolocation calls when more than one bat is flying in an area, at least one sheath-tailed bat (Emballonuridae Taphozous perforatus) does not. Changes in echolocation calls may maximize jamming avoidance and/or enhance the communicative function of the calls. The data for molossids support the hypothesis that when hunting some species fly in formation. Here, variation in individual call design could provide positional information and reduce the chances of mid-air collisions.

  19. The acceptability of an emergency medical dispatch system to people who call 999 to request an ambulance

    PubMed Central

    O'Cathain, A; Turner, J; Nicholl, J

    2002-01-01

    Methods: Postal questionnaires to two systematic random samples of approximately 500 named callers to one ambulance service before, and one year after, the introduction of EMD. Results: The response rate was 72% (355 of 493) before, and 63% (297 of 466) after, EMD. There was a reduction, from 81% (284 of 349) to 70% (200 of 286), in the proportion of callers who found all the questions asked by the call taker relevant, although this did not adversely affect the proportion of callers who were very satisfied with the 999 call, which increased from 78% (268 of 345) to 86% (247 of 287). The proportion of callers who reported receiving first aid advice increased from 7% (23 of 323) to 43% (117 of 272) and general information from 13% (41 of 315) to 58% (157 of 269). Satisfaction levels with the amount of advice given increased, while satisfaction with response times remained stable at 76% (254 of 320) very satisfied before and 78% (217 of 279) after EMD. The proportion of respondents very satisfied with the service in general increased from 71% (238 of 336) to 79% (220 of 277). There was evidence in respondents' written comments of two potential problems with EMD from the caller's viewpoint. Firstly, some callers were advised to take actions that were subsequently not needed; secondly, a small number of callers felt that the ambulance crew did not treat the situation as seriously as they would have liked. Conclusions: Introducing EMD increases the amount of first aid and general advice given to callers, and satisfaction with these aspects of the service, while maintaining satisfaction with response times. Overall satisfaction with the service increased. However, some changes may be needed to prevent a small amount of dissatisfaction directly associated with EMD. PMID:11904272

  20. Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging

  1. Test Procedures for Toll Call Certification Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-07

    REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERED (U) Test Procedures for Toll CallFia Se86-Ar7 Certification AlternativesFiaSe86-Ar7 6. PERFORMING ORG . REPORT NUMBER 1. AUTHOR(e...toll call sampling is to use the toll call 21 a a C3a En L~a cmaL-a Lna ac C3 a cc u _3 to a- aa aL 4r C14 I Lo a_ V ’ Iara a D r- w U 4 c * a I’ aDUJ

  2. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  3. Audience effects in chimpanzee copulation calls

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Audience effects arise when the signaling behavior of animals is affected by the presence of others. Whilst this phenomenon has been documented in numerous animal species, very little research has addressed what effect the listening audience has in the mating context. In this article we discuss our recent findings that the production of chimpanzee copulation calls is effected by the presence of potentially eavesdropping females and males. We relate these results to understanding the function of primate copulation calls in addition to what more they can tell us about the cognitive processes underlying primate call production. PMID:19641752

  4. Arginine vasotocin promotes calling behavior and call changes in male túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Kime, Nicole M; Whitney, Tina K; Davis, Ellen S; Marler, Catherine A

    2007-01-01

    In the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, males alter calling behavior with changes in their social environment, adding 'chucks' to their advertisement calls in response to the calls of conspecific males. Other studies demonstrate that adding chucks increases the attractiveness of calls to females but also increases the risk of bat predation. In the current study, subcutaneous injections of the neuropeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) significantly increased chuck production in male túngara frogs. The effects of AVT on chuck production did not depend on the presence of playback stimuli, suggesting that AVT increased either the males' general motivation to produce chucks or their responsiveness to the calls of distant males. Injections of AVT also increased the probability that males would call and decreased the latency to call after injection, supporting the hypothesis that AVT influences motivation to call. Finally, AVT inhibited a drop in call rate after the termination of a playback stimulus and increased call rate at a lower dose of AVT. The effects of AVT on chucks and call rate appear to be independent of each other, as there was no correlation between change in chuck production and change in call rate in individual males. We conclude that AVT may play an important role in socially-mediated call changes that result from competition for mates. The behavioral changes induced by AVT might increase a male's attractiveness to females, and also may be consistent with an aggressive response to another túngara frog male. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must not...

  6. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-12-03

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech.

  7. Administrator Bolden Calls Underwater NEEMO Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    From outside their underwater laboratory in Florida, NASA Astronaut and NEEMO 16 Commander Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger and European Space Agency astronaut Timothy Peake took a call from NASA Admini...

  8. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  9. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/97 PMID:23206277

  10. President Obama Calls Atlantis and Station Crews

    NASA Image and Video Library

    President Barack Obama called the crews of Atlantis and the International Space Station today, noting that the final shuttle mission also "ushers in an exciting new era to push the frontiers of spa...

  11. Calling cards for DNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoyi; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David

    2007-01-01

    Identifying genomic targets of transcription factors is fundamental for understanding transcriptional regulatory networks. Current technology enables identification of all targets of a single transcription factor, but there is no realistic way to achieve the converse: identification of all proteins that bind to a promoter of interest. We have developed a method that promises to fill this void. It employs the yeast retrotransposon Ty5, whose integrase interacts with the Sir4 protein. A DNA-binding protein fused to Sir4 directs insertion of Ty5 into the genome near where it binds; the Ty5 becomes a “calling card” the DNA-binding protein leaves behind in the genome. We constructed customized calling cards for seven transcription factors of yeast by including in each Ty5 a unique DNA sequence that serves as a “molecular bar code.” Ty5 transposition was induced in a population of yeast cells, each expressing a different transcription factor–Sir4 fusion and its matched, bar-coded Ty5, and the calling cards deposited into selected regions of the genome were identified, revealing the transcription factors that visited that region of the genome. In each region we analyzed, we found calling cards for only the proteins known to bind there: In the GAL1–10 promoter we found only calling cards for Gal4; in the HIS4 promoter we found only Gcn4 calling cards; in the PHO5 promoter we found only Pho4 and Pho2 calling cards. We discuss how Ty5 calling cards might be implemented for mapping all targets of all transcription factors in a single experiment. PMID:17623806

  12. ALG: automated genotype calling of Luminex assays.

    PubMed

    Bourgey, Mathieu; Lariviere, Mathieu; Richer, Chantal; Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-05-06

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most commonly used polymorphic markers in genetics studies. Among the different platforms for SNP genotyping, Luminex is one of the less exploited mainly due to the lack of a robust (semi-automated and replicable) freely available genotype calling software. Here we describe a clustering algorithm that provides automated SNP calls for Luminex genotyping assays. We genotyped 3 SNPs in a cohort of 330 childhood leukemia patients, 200 parents of patient and 325 healthy individuals and used the Automated Luminex Genotyping (ALG) algorithm for SNP calling. ALG genotypes were called twice to test for reproducibility and were compared to sequencing data to test for accuracy. Globally, this analysis demonstrates the accuracy (99.6%) of the method, its reproducibility (99.8%) and the low level of no genotyping calls (3.4%). The high efficiency of the method proves that ALG is a suitable alternative to the current commercial software. ALG is semi-automated, and provides numerical measures of confidence for each SNP called, as well as an effective graphical plot. Moreover ALG can be used either through a graphical user interface, requiring no specific informatics knowledge, or through command line with access to the open source code. The ALG software has been implemented in R and is freely available for non-commercial use either at http://alg.sourceforge.net or by request to mathieu.bourgey@umontreal.ca.

  13. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  14. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  15. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  16. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  17. On call: alert or unsafe? A report of the AORN on-call electronic task force.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Trudy A G; Gluesing, Rebecca E; White, Karen Y; Dunkel, Wanda L; Burlingame, Byron L

    2007-10-01

    Research has linked health care providers' long work hours with patient care errors. Perioperative staff members often work extended hours because of long shifts and being on call. AORN's on-call electronic task force conducted a survey of nurses to determine their work load, call scheduling, and experiences related to fatigue. Of the 1,013 respondents, 67.7% said they had experienced effects of sleep deprivation. A follow-up survey revealed that few call programs are in compliance with AORN's recommended practices. Compliant call programs are detailed for adaptation in other perioperative settings.

  18. Calling behavior of spotted owls in Northern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Jospeh L. Ganey

    1990-01-01

    I studied the calling behavior of radio-tagged Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in northern Arizona. Owls used a variety of calls, with three call types (Four-note Location Call, Contact Call, and Bark Series) accounting for 86% of calling bouts heard. These calls were used by both sexes, but in significantly different proportions....

  19. The communicative content of the common marmoset phee call during antiphonal calling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; Mandel, Katherine; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    Vocalizations are a dominant means of communication for numerous species, including nonhuman primates. These acoustic signals are encoded with a rich array of information available to signal receivers that can be used to guide species-typical behaviors. Here we examined the communicative content of common marmoset phee calls, the species-typical long distance contact call, during antiphonal calling. This call type has a relatively stereotyped acoustic structure, consisting of a series of long tonal pulses. Analyses revealed that calls could be reliably classified based on the individual identity and social group of the caller. Our analyses did not, however, correctly classify phee calls recorded under different social contexts, though differences were evident along individual acoustic parameters. Further tests of antiphonal calling interactions showed that spontaneously produced phee calls differ from antiphonal phee calls in their peak and end frequency, which may be functionally significant. Overall, this study shows that the marmoset phee call has a rich communicative content encoded in its acoustic structure available to conspecifics during antiphonal calling exchanges. PMID:20549761

  20. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  1. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate.

  2. Dispatching function calls across accelerator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jacob, Arpith C.; Sallenave, Olivier H.

    2017-01-10

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method for dispatching a function call includes receiving, at a supervisor processing element (PE) and from an origin PE, an identifier of a target device, a stack frame of the origin PE, and an address of a function called from the origin PE. The supervisor PE allocates a target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the origin PE to a new stack frame on a call stack of the target PE. The supervisor PE instructs the target PE to execute the function. The supervisor PE receives a notification that execution of the function is complete. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the target PE to the stack frame of the origin PE. The supervisor PE releases the target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE instructs the origin PE to resume execution of the program.

  3. Dispatching function calls across accelerator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jacob, Arpith C.; Sallenave, Olivier H.

    2017-01-17

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method for dispatching a function call includes receiving, at a supervisor processing element (PE) and from an origin PE, an identifier of a target device, a stack frame of the origin PE, and an address of a function called from the origin PE. The supervisor PE allocates a target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the origin PE to a new stack frame on a call stack of the target PE. The supervisor PE instructs the target PE to execute the function. The supervisor PE receives a notification that execution of the function is complete. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the target PE to the stack frame of the origin PE. The supervisor PE releases the target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE instructs the origin PE to resume execution of the program.

  4. Hourly associations between heat and ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The response speed of ambulance calls is very crucial to rescue patients suffering immediately life threatening conditions. The serious health outcomes might be caused by exposing to extreme heat only several hours before. However, limited evidence is available on this topic. This study aims to examine the hourly association between heat and ambulance calls, to improve the ambulance services and to better protect health. Hourly data on ambulance calls for non-accidental causes, temperature and air pollutants (PM10, NO2, and O3) were collected from Brisbane, Australia, during 2001 and 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the associations between hourly ambulance calls and temperature during warm season (Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, and Mar), while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were performed for sex and age groups. Ambulance calls peaked at 10am for all groups, except those aged <15 years at 19pm, while temperature was hottest at 13pm. The hourly heat-ambulance calls relationships were non-linear for all groups, with thresholds between 27 °C and 31 °C. The associations appeared immediately, and lasted for about 24 h. There were no significant modification effect by sex and age. The findings suggest that hot hourly temperatures (>27 °C) increase the demands of ambulance. This information is helpful to increase the efficiency of ambulance service then save lives, for example, preparing more ambulance before appearance of extremely hot temperature in combination with weather forecast. Also, people should better arrange their time for outdoor activities to avoid exposing to extreme hot temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Speech privacy in customer service call centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    Customer service call centers are a special type of open plan office with different design considerations and different acoustical goals. Workers want a high degree of visual and verbal contact with adjacent members of their team, but customers do not want to hear crosstalk from other conversations. Achieving the correct balance between these conflicting goals is a challenge for the architect and acoustic consultant. This paper will present several case studies of different call centers with acoustic measurements, user comments, and other subjective assessment methods.

  6. What is this thing called growth?

    Treesearch

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1954-01-01

    What is this thing called "growth"? We foresters are constantly thinking in terms of growth. We use growth data to evaluate a forest property. We use them to determine how much we can cut. We use them to weigh the results of a type of cutting.

  7. CALL--Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bax, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

  8. CALL--Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bax, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

  9. The TATL Framework for CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Chiaráin, Neasa; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2015-01-01

    The Theory Actions Technology Learner context (TATL) framework provides an initial analysis tool to guide Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) development. It entails joint consideration of four key factors that need to be considered prior and during development activities: (1) the underlying pedagogical theory; (2) the learning tasks…

  10. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request for... Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board) with the requested materials in response to the...

  11. Modeling Learning Processes in Lexical CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin; Laurillard, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Studies the performance of a novice Spanish student using a Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system designed for vocabulary enlargement. Results indicate that introspective evidence may be used to validate performance data within a theoretical framework that characterizes the learning approach as "surface" or "deep." (25 references)…

  12. A History of Commitment in CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan

    The evolution of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is examined, focusing on what has changed and what has not changed much during that time. A variety of changes are noted: the development of multimedia capabilities, color, animation, and technical improvement of audio and video quality; availability of databases, better fit between…

  13. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  14. Why We Like to Call Ourselves Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzlez, Christina; Gandara, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the complex and subtle reasons why many people of Spanish-speaking ancestry, both Latin Americans and Spaniards, like to call themselves Latinos. Among other things, this word, coined by the Mediterranean countries to resist Anglo dominance in the 19th century, is currently being used by people of Spanish-speaking ancestry…

  15. Answering the Call of the Wild.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experience during his sabbatical leave of visiting the country about which Jack London wrote in "Call of the Wild" and other books. The journey which was initiated to learn more about the author and gather interesting teaching materials for teaching Literature. (NH)

  16. "The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Tammy

    This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history,…

  17. Learner Activities in a Collaborative CALL Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses different research approaches in CALL and makes a case for applying grounded theory (GT) to data gathered from an electronic role-play conducted in L2. The article shows that this method can help gain a better understanding of what learners do when engaged in the task. Through the process of open coding, four…

  18. Web-Based CALL to Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Mei; Zhang, Ruiming

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated effectiveness of Web-based CALL on listening comprehension. Both students' academic performance and attitudes were examined. T-tests were used to analyze the results of students' academic performance. Descriptive statistics interpreted students' attitudes toward this learning. Students' participation was also recorded.…

  19. "The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Tammy

    This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history,…

  20. Educational Use of Databases in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the idea that databases are very useful tools for teaching languages over the Internet. Databases in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are commonly used in three ways: for reference sources such as dictionaries, in the management of large websites, and for data processing such as language tests and learners'…

  1. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policy makers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. U.S. Secretary of…

  2. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policy makers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. U.S. Secretary of…

  3. Modeling Learning Processes in Lexical CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin; Laurillard, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Studies the performance of a novice Spanish student using a Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system designed for vocabulary enlargement. Results indicate that introspective evidence may be used to validate performance data within a theoretical framework that characterizes the learning approach as "surface" or "deep." (25 references)…

  4. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  5. Academic Freedom: A Call for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Anna

    The need for research on academic freedom as it applies to the K-12 level is addressed. The existing literature in the area of academic freedom, while often critical, rhetorical, and prescriptive, never calls for research. Indeed, there are very few examples of research in this area. Two separate ERIC (Educational Research Information Center)…

  6. A Simple Selection System Called "Jobmatch."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheibar, Paul

    1979-01-01

    An automated candidate-job matching system called "Jobmatch" has been implemented at Citibank, in New York City, involving job analysis, performance appraisal techniques, clerical employment, and internal mobility. A job task scale is used by supervisor and employee to determine job and candidate matching through a series of computer…

  7. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  8. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  9. Why We Like to Call Ourselves Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzlez, Christina; Gandara, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the complex and subtle reasons why many people of Spanish-speaking ancestry, both Latin Americans and Spaniards, like to call themselves Latinos. Among other things, this word, coined by the Mediterranean countries to resist Anglo dominance in the 19th century, is currently being used by people of Spanish-speaking ancestry…

  10. A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

  11. Becoming a Strategic Language Learner in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines what it means to be a strategic language learner in the context of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). It looks at the possible roles for language learner strategies at their crucial intersection with language learning technology. We will first consider what language learner strategies have been represented in…

  12. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policymakers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. Secretary of…

  13. Using Software Design Methods in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The phrase "software design" is not one that arouses the interest of many CALL practitioners, particularly those from a humanities background. However, software design essentials are simply logical ways of going about designing a system. The fundamentals include modularity, anticipation of change, generality and an incremental approach. While CALL…

  14. Don't Call It School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    "Homeschooling," "deschooling," and "unschooling" are commonly used terms in the alternative-education world, but each lacks specificity. In this article, the author describes what he discovered during several visits to North Star. Known officially as North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens, it is not as structured as a so-called "free"…

  15. A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

  16. Peer support telephone calls for improving health.

    PubMed

    Dale, Jeremy; Caramlau, Isabela O; Lindenmeyer, Antje; Williams, Susan M

    2008-10-08

    Peer support telephone calls have been used for a wide range of health-related concerns. However, little is known about their effects. To assess the effects of peer support telephone calls in terms of physical (e.g. blood pressure), psychological (e.g. depressive symptoms), and behavioural health outcomes (e.g. uptake of mammography) and other outcomes. We searched: The Cochrane Library databases (CENTRAL, DARE, CDSR) (issue 4 2007); MEDLINE (OVID) (January 1966 to December 2007); EMBASE (OVID) (January 1985 to December 2007); CINAHL (Athens) (January 1966 to December 2007), trials registers and reference lists of articles, with no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials of peer support interventions delivered by telephone call. Two review authors independently extracted data. We present results narratively and in tabular format. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity between studies. We included seven studies involving 2492 participants.Peer support telephone calls were associated with an increase in mammography screening, with 49% of women in the intervention group and 34% of women in the control group receiving a mammogram since the start of the intervention (P calls were found to maintain mammography screening uptake for baseline adherent women (P = 0.029).Peer support telephone calls for post myocardial infarction patients were associated at six months with a change in diet in the intervention and usual care groups of 54% and 44% respectively (P = 0.03). In another study for post myocardial infarction patients there were no significant differences between groups for self-efficacy, health status and mental health outcomes.Peer support telephone calls were associated with greater continuation of breastfeeding in mothers at 3 months post partum (P = 0.01).Peer support telephone calls were associated with reduced depressive symptoms in mothers with postnatal depression (Edinburgh

  17. Calling behaviour under climate change: geographical and seasonal variation of calling temperatures in ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Llusia, Diego; Márquez, Rafael; Beltrán, Juan F; Benítez, Maribel; do Amaral, José P

    2013-09-01

    Calling behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent and critical for sexual selection and reproduction in a variety of ectothermic taxa, including anuran amphibians, which are the most globally threatened vertebrates. However, few studies have explored how species respond to distinct thermal environments at time of displaying calling behaviour, and thus it is still unknown whether ongoing climate change might compromise the performance of calling activity in ectotherms. Here, we used new audio-trapping techniques (automated sound recording and detection systems) between 2006 and 2009 to examine annual calling temperatures of five temperate anurans and their patterns of geographical and seasonal variation at the thermal extremes of species ranges, providing insights into the thermal breadths of calling activity of species, and the mechanisms that enable ectotherms to adjust to changing thermal environments. All species showed wide thermal breadths during calling behaviour (above 15 °C) and increases in calling temperatures in extremely warm populations and seasons. Thereby, calling temperatures differed both geographically and seasonally, both in terrestrial and aquatic species, and were 8-22 °C below the specific upper critical thermal limits (CTmax ) and strongly associated with the potential temperatures of each thermal environment (operative temperatures during the potential period of breeding). This suggests that calling behaviour in ectotherms may take place at population-specific thermal ranges, diverging when species are subjected to distinct thermal environments, and might imply plasticity of thermal adjustment mechanisms (seasonal and developmental acclimation) that supply species with means of coping with climate change. Furthermore, the thermal thresholds of calling at the onset of the breeding season were dissimilar between conspecific populations, suggesting that other factors besides temperature are needed to trigger the onset of reproduction. Our

  18. Calling dynamics and call synchronization in a local group of unison bout callers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Douglas L; Jones, Russell L; Ratnam, Rama

    2014-01-01

    In many species of chorusing frogs, callers can rapidly adjust their call timing with reference to neighboring callers so as to maintain call rate while minimizing acoustic interference. The rules governing the interactions, in particular, who is listening to whom are largely unknown, presumably influenced by distance between callers, caller density, and intensities of interfering calls. We report vocal interactions in a unison bout caller, the green tree frog (Hyla cinerea). Using a microphone array, we monitored bouts from a local group of six callers embedded in a larger chorus. Data were analyzed in a 21-min segment at the peak of the chorus. Callers within this group were localized and their voices were separated for analysis of spatio-temporal interactions. We show that callers in this group: (1) synchronize with one another, (2) prefer to time their calls antiphonally, almost exactly at one-third and two-thirds of the call intervals of their neighbors, (3) tolerate call collision when antiphonal calling is not possible, and (4) perform discrete phase-hopping between three preferred phases when tracking other callers. Further, call collision increases and phase-locking decreases, with increasing inter-caller spacing. We conclude that the precise phase-positioning, phase-tracking, and phase-hopping minimizes acoustic jamming while maintaining chorus synchrony.

  19. CALL from the Margins: Effective Dissemination of CALL Research and Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The symbolic location of EUROCALL's 2004 conference in Vienna offered to both new members from Eastern Europe and established members from the West an opportunity to review the relationship between computer assisted language learning (CALL) and language teaching in general. CALL is defined as an "academic field that explores the role of…

  20. Choreography of the 9-1-1 checkpoint complex: DDK puts a check on the checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Paek, Andrew L; Weinert, Ted

    2010-11-24

    Checkpoint proteins respond to DNA damage by halting the cell cycle until the damage is repaired. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Furuya et al. (2010) provide evidence that checkpoint proteins need to be removed from sites of damage in order to properly repair it.

  1. A resolution designating April 2013 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2013-04-23

    04/23/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S2904; text as passed Senate: CR S2903) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. A resolution designating April 2010 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2010-04-14

    04/14/2010 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S2326-2327; text as passed Senate: CR S2326-2327; text of measure as introduced: CR S2300) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. A resolution designating April 2011 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2011-03-30

    03/30/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S2000; text as passed Senate: CR S2000; text of measure as introduced: CR S1995) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. A resolution designating April 2010 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2010-04-14

    04/14/2010 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. A resolution designating April 2013 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2013-04-23

    04/23/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. A resolution designating April 2010 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2010-04-14

    Senate - 04/14/2010 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. A resolution designating April 2011 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2011-03-30

    03/30/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. 78 FR 21879 - Improving 9-1-1 Reliability; Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... outages during the ``derecho'' windstorm that affected large portions of the United States in June 2012... (PSHSB or Bureau) January 10, 2013, report titled Impact of the June 2012 Derecho on Communications Networks and Services: Report and Recommendations (Derecho Report), which is available at http://www.fcc...

  9. A resolution designating April 2013 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2013-04-23

    Senate - 04/23/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. A resolution designating April 2011 as "National 9-1-1 Education Month".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2011-03-30

    Senate - 03/30/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Bergland calls action a 'farcical episode'

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Bob Bergland, general manager of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) calls the Senate's failure to pass the rural electric financing plan an inglorious finale to the administration's attempts to keep the bill from on-the-record debate and a vote on the Senate floor. NRECA had led the move to develop a plan to ensure the solvency of the Revolving Fund, which is the major source of financing for North Dakota's and the nation's rural co-ops. The death of S.1300 will mean higher electric rates for consumers in a few years and renewed efforts to dismantle the Rural Electrification Administration (REA). Delays by Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker and others helped to kill the bill in accord with the White House plan for eliminating government involvement in rural electric financing. The 53 Senators who sought a Senate vote say the administration is unfair to rural areas. Bergland calls for unified resistance.

  12. Variant Calling From Next Generation Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nancy F

    2016-01-01

    The use of next generation nucleotide sequencing to discover and genotype small sequence variants has led to numerous insights into the molecular causes of various diseases. This chapter describes the use of freely available software to align next generation sequencing reads to a reference and then to use the resulting alignments to call, annotate, view, and filter small sequence variants. The suggested variant calling workflow includes read alignment with novoalign, the removal of polymerase chain reaction duplicate sequences with samtools or bamUtils, and the detection of variants with Freebayes or bam2mpg software. ANNOVAR is then used to annotate the predicted variants using gene models, population frequencies, and predicted mutation severity, producing variant files which can be viewed and filtered with the variant display tool VarSifter.

  13. Postoperative telephone calls: timing is everything.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Jane

    2009-07-01

    Having nurses contact same-day surgical patients by telephone early in the patients' recovery process may help guide recovery, but there are no guidelines as to the best time to make these calls. A convenience sample of 77 patients undergoing same-day knee arthroscopy surgery at a large health care center in the northeastern United States was recruited to examine the best time for telephone follow-up by a nurse. Overall patient experiences and teaching-learning needs also were investigated through open-ended questions. Findings suggest that continuous contact by nurses in the recovery period helped patients discuss and process the surgical experience. Telephone calls may be the most helpful to patients between 12 and 24 hours after surgery.

  14. Surveys of calling amphibians in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Batie, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians have received increased attention in recent years from the scientific community and general public alike. Many populations throughout the world have declined, or have been extirpated, often without an apparent cause. Concern about the status of amphibians has translated into a growing interest in systematic and statistically sound monitoring programs. Several extensive efforts to monitor populations of calling amphibians are in place, and more are under development. Necessary for the design of appropriate surveys is an understanding of the behavior, especially vocalization, of the various species, and how it varies by geographic location and environmental conditions. In 1995 we conducted roadside surveys of calling amphibians along 44 routes in North Dakota. We describe results of that survey, with special attention given to variables that influence detectability of calling amphibians. Unlike similar studies, we accounted for the amount of time observers spent listening for amphibians under different conditions. We found that the optimal conditions for a single survey for North Dakota in that year would be in early June, between the hours of 2300 and 0130, with ambient temperatures above 13 deg. C, and with no rain and little or no wind or moonlight. Multiple surveys in a year would yield better results, of course, especially for the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), which is most active earlier in the season. Studies such as ours should be replicated in space and time to ensure a well-designed survey.

  15. Evaluating erroneous offside calls in soccer

    PubMed Central

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Noël, Benjamin; Memmert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects declines with increases in the visual angle separating distant objects. We explored whether these laboratory-measured limits on visual attentional spread generalize to a real life context: offside calls by soccer assistant referees. We coded all offside calls from a full year of first division German soccer matches. By determining the x-y coordinates of the relevant players and assistant referee on the soccer field we were able to calculate how far assistant referees had to spread their visual attention to perform well. Counterintuitively, assistant referees made fewer errors when they were farther away from the action due to an advantageous (smaller) visual angle on the game action. The pattern held even when we accounted for individual differences in a laboratory-based attentional spread measure of ten of the assistant referees. Our finding that errors are linked to smaller visual angles may explain the complaints of fans in some situations: Those seated directly behind the assistant referee, further from the players, might actually have it easier to make the right call because the relevant players would form a smaller visual angle. PMID:28333996

  16. Call progress time measurement in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasnabish, Bhumip

    1999-11-01

    Usually a voice call is established through multiple stages in IP telephony. In the first stage, a phone number is dialed to reach a near-end or call-originating IP-telephony gateway. The next stages involve user identification through delivering an m-digit user-id to the authentication and/or billing server, and then user authentication by using an n- digit PIN. After that, the caller is allowed (last stage dial tone is provided) to dial a destination phone number provided that authentication is successful. In this paper, we present a very flexible method for measuring call progress time in IP telephony. The proposed technique can be used to measure the system response time at every stage. It is flexible, so that it can be easily modified to include new `tone' or a set of tones, or `voice begin' can be used in every stage to detect the system's response. The proposed method has been implemented using scripts written in Hammer visual basic language for testing with a few commercially available IP telephony gateways.

  17. Evaluating erroneous offside calls in soccer.

    PubMed

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Noël, Benjamin; Memmert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects declines with increases in the visual angle separating distant objects. We explored whether these laboratory-measured limits on visual attentional spread generalize to a real life context: offside calls by soccer assistant referees. We coded all offside calls from a full year of first division German soccer matches. By determining the x-y coordinates of the relevant players and assistant referee on the soccer field we were able to calculate how far assistant referees had to spread their visual attention to perform well. Counterintuitively, assistant referees made fewer errors when they were farther away from the action due to an advantageous (smaller) visual angle on the game action. The pattern held even when we accounted for individual differences in a laboratory-based attentional spread measure of ten of the assistant referees. Our finding that errors are linked to smaller visual angles may explain the complaints of fans in some situations: Those seated directly behind the assistant referee, further from the players, might actually have it easier to make the right call because the relevant players would form a smaller visual angle.

  18. Communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats: Examination by acoustic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Yoko; Nagato, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    We classified communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus abramus) by acoustic characteristics D. The Japanese pipistrelles emitted communication calls that were completely different from FM echolocation calls. Data showed that in general duration of communication calls was longer than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 1 ms; long CF communication call, 50 ms) and that frequency of commu-nication calls were lower than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 80-40 kHz; long CF communication call, about 14 kHz). Typical classified communication calls were as follows: slightly short CF call (20 ms, 14 kHz), short CF call (5 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long CF call (30 ms, 14 kHz), long CF call (50 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long FM call (15 ms, 30-15 kHz), long FM call (20 ms, 25-15 kHz), complicated FM call (10-50 ms, 25-15 kHz), short intermittent CF call (1 ms, 14 kHz) and noise call (20-100 ms, below 60 kHz). Details will be discussed more specifically. [Research supported by a grant to RCAST at Doshisha Univ. from MEXT and by the Innovative Cluster Creation Project promoted by MEXT.

  19. SNP calling by sequencing pooled samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Performing high throughput sequencing on samples pooled from different individuals is a strategy to characterize genetic variability at a small fraction of the cost required for individual sequencing. In certain circumstances some variability estimators have even lower variance than those obtained with individual sequencing. SNP calling and estimating the frequency of the minor allele from pooled samples, though, is a subtle exercise for at least three reasons. First, sequencing errors may have a much larger relevance than in individual SNP calling: while their impact in individual sequencing can be reduced by setting a restriction on a minimum number of reads per allele, this would have a strong and undesired effect in pools because it is unlikely that alleles at low frequency in the pool will be read many times. Second, the prior allele frequency for heterozygous sites in individuals is usually 0.5 (assuming one is not analyzing sequences coming from, e.g. cancer tissues), but this is not true in pools: in fact, under the standard neutral model, singletons (i.e. alleles of minimum frequency) are the most common class of variants because P(f) ∝ 1/f and they occur more often as the sample size increases. Third, an allele appearing only once in the reads from a pool does not necessarily correspond to a singleton in the set of individuals making up the pool, and vice versa, there can be more than one read – or, more likely, none – from a true singleton. Results To improve upon existing theory and software packages, we have developed a Bayesian approach for minor allele frequency (MAF) computation and SNP calling in pools (and implemented it in a program called snape): the approach takes into account sequencing errors and allows users to choose different priors. We also set up a pipeline which can simulate the coalescence process giving rise to the SNPs, the pooling procedure and the sequencing. We used it to compare the performance of snape to that

  20. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the cr-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

  1. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  2. [Emergency calls in the Samu system].

    PubMed

    Barrier, G

    2001-07-01

    The French emergency medical system is public and medical. Named Samu, it is almost entirely managed by anesthesiologists specially trained for emergency medical assistance and advanced medical support. The system comprises a reception and dispatching center for emergency calls, directly connected to police and firemen, but assuring patient confidentiality. This fixed center is managing mobile units which are Medical Intensive Care Ambulances (MICA named Smur in France). The Samu's mission consists in performing urgent individual medical assistance and also medical services for treatment of mass casualties. It is also to find adequate hospital units for the patients, to perform medical transport and to be a consultant for general practitioners in emergency.

  3. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor. Abbreviation: AII 2-(arylimino)imidazolidine AIO 2-(arylimino)oxazolidine AIT 2-(arylimino)thiazolidine CBO 2-(4-chlorobenzylamino)-2-(4-phenyl)oxazoline CDM chlordimeform Confs number of conformers DIP 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)piperidine Features/Confs total number of features divided by the number of conformers (summed over the entire family of conformers) HBA hydrogen-bond acceptor HBAl hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid HBD hydrogen-bond donor Hp hydrophobic HpAl hydrophobic aliphatic HpAr hydrophobic aromatic mp melting point MTO 2-(3-methyl benzylthio)-2-oxazoline NI negative ionizable NIO 2-(1-naphthylimino)oxazolidine OA octopamine ODA 2-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3,4-oxadiazine

  4. Report calls for Earth science education "revolution"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With just 7% of U.S. high school students taking classes in Earth and space science, in contrast to 88% studying biology, a new report calls for a "revolution" in Earth science education in the nation's schools, from kindergarten through 12th grade.The June 2002 report, "Blueprint for Change, notes that an increased emphasis on the Earth as a system and the expanded use of Internet resources is causing Earth and space science education to undergo "a revolution that is reshaping the nature and content of what is taught."

  5. Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

  6. [Headache patient at the emergency call service].

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    Headache is a common symptom, sometimes concealing a severe illness. It is the primary task of the doctor on call to find out whether the headache is a symptom of serious incidence needing diagnosis urgently to prevent death or permanent disability. Dangerous headaches are associated with easily remembered warning signs: sudden onset, the first or worst headache in life, disturbance of consciousness in connection with the headache, onset at age over 50, worsening of headache in the lying position, a neurological deficit associated with the headache, or papilledema.

  7. The variant call format and VCFtools.

    PubMed

    Danecek, Petr; Auton, Adam; Abecasis, Goncalo; Albers, Cornelis A; Banks, Eric; DePristo, Mark A; Handsaker, Robert E; Lunter, Gerton; Marth, Gabor T; Sherry, Stephen T; McVean, Gilean; Durbin, Richard

    2011-08-01

    The variant call format (VCF) is a generic format for storing DNA polymorphism data such as SNPs, insertions, deletions and structural variants, together with rich annotations. VCF is usually stored in a compressed manner and can be indexed for fast data retrieval of variants from a range of positions on the reference genome. The format was developed for the 1000 Genomes Project, and has also been adopted by other projects such as UK10K, dbSNP and the NHLBI Exome Project. VCFtools is a software suite that implements various utilities for processing VCF files, including validation, merging, comparing and also provides a general Perl API. http://vcftools.sourceforge.net

  8. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

    2011-11-01

    Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals.

  9. CallWall: tracking resident calls to improve clinical utilization of pathology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Buck, Thomas P; Connor, Ian M; Horowitz, Gary L; Arnaout, Ramy A

    2011-07-01

    Clinical pathology (CP) laboratories are used for millions of tests each year. These lead to thousands of calls to CP residents. However, although laboratory utilization is a frequent topic of study, clinical utilization--the content of the interactions between clinicians and CP residents--is not. Because it reflects questions about laboratory utilization, clinical utilization could suggest ways to improve both training and care by reducing diagnostic error. To build and implement a secure, scalable Web-based system to allow CP residents at any hospital to track the calls they receive, the interaction's context, and the action taken as a result, with evidence where applicable, and to use this system to report on clinical utilization at a major academic hospital. Entries were analyzed from a nearly year-long period to describe the clinical utilization of CP at a large academic teaching hospital. Sixteen residents logged 847 calls during 10 months, roughly evenly distributed among transfusion medicine, chemistry, microbiology, and hematopathology. Calls covered 94 different analytes in chemistry and 71 different organisms or tests in microbiology. Analysis revealed areas where CP can improve clinical care through educating the clinical services, for example, about ordering Rh immune globulin, testosterone testing, and diagnosis of tick-borne diseases. Documenting calls also highlighted patterns among residents. Clinical utilization is a potentially rich knowledge base for improving patient care and resident training. Our resident call-tracking system is a useful way for measuring clinical utilization and mining it for actionable information.

  10. Calling at a cost: elevated nestling calling attracts predators to active nests

    PubMed Central

    Haff, Tonya M.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Begging by nestling birds has been used to test evolutionary models of signalling but theory has outstripped evidence. Eavesdropping predators potentially impose a cost on begging that ensures signal honesty, yet little experimental evidence exists for such a cost at active nests because the use of artificial nests, long playback bouts and absence of parents may have exaggerated costs. We broadcast short periods (1 h) of either nestling vocalizations or background noise at active white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, nests. Nestlings called naturally during both treatments, allowing us to test whether elevated calling increases risk, a key but rarely tested assumption of evolutionary models. Predators visited nests exclusively during periods of elevated calling. Furthermore, playbacks affected neither adult visits nor nestling activity, suggesting that calling alone attracted predators. Adults gave alarm calls and nestlings usually called less when predators approached nests. Predation risk to broods is, therefore, likely to fluctuate substantially over short periods of time, depending on nestling hunger and whether adults or young have detected predators. This study confirms a present-day cost of nestling begging, demonstrates that this cost can be incurred over short periods and supports the importance of parent–offspring antipredator strategies in reducing predation risk. PMID:21288937

  11. Calling at a cost: elevated nestling calling attracts predators to active nests.

    PubMed

    Haff, Tonya M; Magrath, Robert D

    2011-08-23

    Begging by nestling birds has been used to test evolutionary models of signalling but theory has outstripped evidence. Eavesdropping predators potentially impose a cost on begging that ensures signal honesty, yet little experimental evidence exists for such a cost at active nests because the use of artificial nests, long playback bouts and absence of parents may have exaggerated costs. We broadcast short periods (1 h) of either nestling vocalizations or background noise at active white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, nests. Nestlings called naturally during both treatments, allowing us to test whether elevated calling increases risk, a key but rarely tested assumption of evolutionary models. Predators visited nests exclusively during periods of elevated calling. Furthermore, playbacks affected neither adult visits nor nestling activity, suggesting that calling alone attracted predators. Adults gave alarm calls and nestlings usually called less when predators approached nests. Predation risk to broods is, therefore, likely to fluctuate substantially over short periods of time, depending on nestling hunger and whether adults or young have detected predators. This study confirms a present-day cost of nestling begging, demonstrates that this cost can be incurred over short periods and supports the importance of parent-offspring antipredator strategies in reducing predation risk. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  12. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Reber, Stephan A; Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2013-08-22

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships.

  13. "That's why they call it practice".

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Colleen T; Mauksch, Larry B

    2014-12-01

    The authors discuss how, as their residency family medicine practices are transforming into Patient-Centered Medical Homes, they are witnessing shifting expectations for everyone: medical assistant, faculty and resident physician, licensed practical nurse, behavioral health clinician. At all levels of experience and expertise, they are called on to change. In the health care context, "practice" has multiple meanings. Practice, in the sense of "the clinical scope of work we do every day" corresponds to Merriam Webster's first definition of the word, "to be professionally engaged in" or "to do or perform often, customarily, or habitually." In this editorial, the authors call upon their colleagues to recognize the second definition of "practice" and build in opportunities to "train by repeated exercises" within day to day clinical activity. By this they mean, build in mechanisms to prompt reflection on your work, every day, seeking and incorporating feedback from others on your team. Effective primary care systems protect time for practice and learning. These organizations demonstrate "adaptive reserve," consisting of action and reflection cycles, facilitative leadership, a learning culture, the ability to improvise, and effective relationships and communication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Stephan A.; Townsend, Simon W.; Manser, Marta B.

    2013-01-01

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

  15. Glucocorticoid and androgen signaling pathways diverge between advertisement calling and non-calling fish.

    PubMed

    Genova, Rachel M; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Knapp, Rosemary; Fergus, Daniel; Bass, Andrew H

    2012-09-01

    Behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms of social vocalization in teleost fish are influenced by the glucocorticoid cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11kT). The relative abundance of both 11kT, which binds to androgen receptors (ARα, ARβ), and cortisol, which binds to glucocorticoid receptors (GR-1, GR-2), is regulated by 11β-hydroxylase (11βH) that converts 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and testosterone to 11β-OH-testosterone, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) that converts cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone and 11β-OH-testosterone to 11kT. In midshipman fish, we tested the hypothesis that plasma steroid levels, mRNA abundance for 11βH and 11βHSD in the vocal muscle and testis (known site of 11kT synthesis), and mRNA abundances for ARs and GRs in vocal muscle, would differ between males that did or did not recently produce 'hum' advertisement calls. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that non-calling male vocal muscle had significantly higher mRNA levels for all receptors except ARα, and a strong trend for higher 11βHSD; 11βH was similar to that in calling males. Calling males had higher plasma and testis 11kT, but lower plasma cortisol, levels. Testis enzyme levels did not differ between male groups, although calling males showed a positive linear correlation between plasma 11kT and testis 11βHSD mRNA levels, consistent with testis being the main source of plasma 11kT. We propose that higher vocal muscle 11βHSD levels in non-calling males reflect increased local conversion of elevated cortisol to cortisone, providing protection from cortisol-related toxicity, while increased receptor expression in non-calling males functions as a preparatory mechanism for meeting the physiological demands of future vocalization.

  16. OnlineCall: fast online parameter estimation and base calling for illumina's next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Das, Shreepriya; Vikalo, Haris

    2012-07-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing platforms are becoming increasingly cost-effective and capable of providing enormous number of reads in a relatively short time. However, their accuracy and read lengths are still lagging behind those of conventional Sanger sequencing method. Performance of next-generation sequencing platforms is fundamentally limited by various imperfections in the sequencing-by-synthesis and signal acquisition processes. This drives the search for accurate, scalable and computationally tractable base calling algorithms capable of accounting for such imperfections. Relying on a statistical model of the sequencing-by-synthesis process and signal acquisition procedure, we develop a computationally efficient base calling method for Illumina's sequencing technology (specifically, Genome Analyzer II platform). Parameters of the model are estimated via a fast unsupervised online learning scheme, which uses the generalized expectation-maximization algorithm and requires only 3 s of running time per tile (on an Intel i7 machine @3.07GHz, single core)-a three orders of magnitude speed-up over existing parametric model-based methods. To minimize the latency between the end of the sequencing run and the generation of the base calling reports, we develop a fast online scalable decoding algorithm, which requires only 9 s/tile and achieves significantly lower error rates than the Illumina's base calling software. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the proposed online parameter estimation scheme efficiently computes tile-dependent parameters, which can thereafter be provided to the base calling algorithm, resulting in significant improvements over previously developed base calling methods for the considered platform in terms of performance, time/complexity and latency. A C code implementation of our algorithm can be downloaded from http://www.cerc.utexas.edu/OnlineCall/.

  17. OnlineCall: fast online parameter estimation and base calling for illumina's next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shreepriya; Vikalo, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Next-generation DNA sequencing platforms are becoming increasingly cost-effective and capable of providing enormous number of reads in a relatively short time. However, their accuracy and read lengths are still lagging behind those of conventional Sanger sequencing method. Performance of next-generation sequencing platforms is fundamentally limited by various imperfections in the sequencing-by-synthesis and signal acquisition processes. This drives the search for accurate, scalable and computationally tractable base calling algorithms capable of accounting for such imperfections. Results: Relying on a statistical model of the sequencing-by-synthesis process and signal acquisition procedure, we develop a computationally efficient base calling method for Illumina's sequencing technology (specifically, Genome Analyzer II platform). Parameters of the model are estimated via a fast unsupervised online learning scheme, which uses the generalized expectation–maximization algorithm and requires only 3 s of running time per tile (on an Intel i7 machine @3.07GHz, single core)—a three orders of magnitude speed-up over existing parametric model-based methods. To minimize the latency between the end of the sequencing run and the generation of the base calling reports, we develop a fast online scalable decoding algorithm, which requires only 9 s/tile and achieves significantly lower error rates than the Illumina's base calling software. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the proposed online parameter estimation scheme efficiently computes tile-dependent parameters, which can thereafter be provided to the base calling algorithm, resulting in significant improvements over previously developed base calling methods for the considered platform in terms of performance, time/complexity and latency. Availability: A C code implementation of our algorithm can be downloaded from http://www.cerc.utexas.edu/OnlineCall/ Contact: hvikalo@ece.utexas.edu Supplementary information

  18. Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  19. [The so-called "fox tapeworm"].

    PubMed

    Eckert, J; Ammann, R

    1990-01-01

    The so-called "fox tapeworm" (Echinococcus multilocularis), the causative agent of a severe disease in man (alveolar echinococcosis), is presently under public discussion in Switzerland. Therefore, actual information is provided on the life cycle of the parasite, epidemiology, disease in humans, symptomatology, diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis. It is recommended that in endemic regions hunters handling foxes should wear protective gloves, dead foxes should be transported in plastic bags and wild fruits, berries and vegetables should be carefully washed and--if possible--heated to more than 70 degrees C for some minutes prior to consumption. After contact with foxes or other final hosts (dogs, cats) infected with E. multilocularis, persons should be monitored with the highly sensitive and specific Em2-ELISA for serum antibodies aiming at an early diagnosis and treatment of a potential infection.

  20. So-called Spontaneous Human Combustion.

    PubMed

    Levi-Faict, Thierry W; Quatrehomme, Gérald

    2011-09-01

    A well-documented case of so-called Spontaneous Human Combustion is reported. Review of the literature shows that these strange observations have been reported since the 17th century, even in famous novels. There are several main features that may lead to help the diagnosis: the vicinity of the body is intact or nearly intact, some parts of the body are turned into ashes (usually the middle third of the body), whereas other parts are intact or nearly intact, burning of the body usually occurs postmortem, the cause of death is usually natural, there is often (but not always) high concentrations of blood alcohol, there is a source of heat near the body. It is indispensable to rule out a homicide by the examination of the body in situ, the autopsy, the toxicological and histopathological samples, the arson assessment, and a thorough police inquiry. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Khaleel A.; Fuzessery, Zoltan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations, or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. PMID:25142131

  2. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing.

  3. Call of duty: the effects of phone calls on blood donor motivation.

    PubMed

    Bruhin, Adrian; Goette, Lorenz; Roethlisberger, Adrian; Markovic, Alexander; Buchli, Regula; Frey, Beat M

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of interventions aimed at increasing turnout among voluntary blood donors. We use a retrospective natural experiment with all 40,653 donors who were repeatedly invited to blood drives in Zurich, Switzerland, between 2010 and 2013. The intervention is a quasi-randomized phone call informing donors of a current shortage of their blood type. The panel structure of the data allows identification of different types of donors reacting to the phone call. Our analysis reveals two types. Type 1 donors make up 27.1% of the population. They are highly motivated and exhibit a baseline donation rate of 59.4% (p < 0.001). The phone call raises their probability to donate by 9.9% at the upcoming blood drive (p < 0.001). However, the phone call reduces their donation rate by 2.3% (p = 0.003) at each future blood drive. In contrast, the 72.9% of Type 2 donors exhibit a low baseline donation rate of 5.8% (p < 0.001). The phone call raises their probability to donate by 5.8% at the upcoming blood drive (p < 0.001). Moreover, the phone call leads to habit formation in Type 2 donors and increases their donation rate by 2.1% at the next blood drive (p = 0.03). Behavioral interventions are effective at increasing donation rates in the short run. However, they can crowd out the intrinsic motivation of the most motivated donors. Thus, blood donation services should avoid interventions for highly motivated donors and target them at irregular donors. Our results also sound a warning on using other interventions. © 2015 AABB.

  4. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    PubMed

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  5. 75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY... Data Call Survey. DHS previously published this information collection request (ICR) in the Federal... consequences on a regional or national scale. The IP Data Call is administered out of IP/IICD. The IP Data Call...

  6. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  7. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  8. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  9. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  10. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  11. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  12. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request to call election. 81.5 Section 81.5 Indians... FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.5 Request to call election. (a) The Secretary shall authorize the calling of an... tribal government. (b) The Secretary shall authorize the calling of an election to adopt a...

  13. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for selective calling equipment... for selective calling equipment. This section specifies the requirements for voluntary digital selective calling (DSC) equipment and selective calling equipment installed in ship and coast stations,...

  14. CALL and Less Commonly Taught Languages: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) researchers face many challenges in developing effective, high-quality CALL. CALL research has a very strong focus on the Most Commonly Taught Languages (MCLTs), particularly English. CALL researchers working with Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs) face further constraints. LCTLs can range from…

  15. 31 CFR 348.2 - Redemption/call/reinvestment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redemption/call/reinvestment. 348.2... COMPENSATION SECURITIES § 348.2 Redemption/call/reinvestment. (a) Redemption by financial agents. The... Management Service, Washington, DC. (b) Call by the Treasury. The securities are subject to call...

  16. Call to reverse decline in ODA.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    In November 1997, the UN Secretary-General noted that population assistance was a development success story that has resulted in increased life expectancy, child survival, and use of family planning as well as decreased maternal mortality, family size, and population growth. Despite this success, development activities are at a critical juncture because official development assistance has dropped to its lowest level. The financial target agreed upon at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development called for $5.7 billion from donors, yet donors are committing only a small percentage of official development assistance to population programs. The income of the UN Population Fund will drop 8-10% for 1997 with the result that critical demands for reproductive health care will not be met. Because this will have critical consequences beyond the population field, the Secretary-General appealed to all nations to contribute to the highest level possible. In response to this statement, a Japanese newspaper asked why the Japanese government had cut donations by as much as 40% and urged the government to reconsider its reductions in donations to the UN.

  17. DOCSS: doctors on-call smartphone study.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, M K; Nason, G J; Liddy, S; Fitzgerald, C W; Kelly, M E; Shields, C

    2014-12-01

    Smartphones have revolutionised our demands for constant access to information. The usage of smartphones in the clinical setting is becoming widespread. The aim of our study was to assess smartphone ownership and usage across a cohort of interns. A voluntary novel questionnaire was distributed to interns in two university hospitals. Details regarding smartphone ownership and usage were assessed. Likert scales were utilised for analysis. Sixty-one (74.4 %) interns responded to the survey. Sixty (98.4 %) owned a smartphone with iPhone(®) being the most popular (76.7 %). Fifty-five (91.6 %) interns have downloaded medical applications ('apps'), while 29 (52.3 %) reported paying for them. Regarding smartphone use on-call, 30 (50 %) interns agreed it aids diagnoses, 26 (43 %) agree it helped in interpreting laboratory values, 31 (51.7 %) agreed it helped in dosing of medication and 33 (55 %) agreed it was of assistance in medical emergency protocols. Forty-two (70 %), 42 (70 %) and 46 (76.7 %) interns agreed or strongly agreed smartphones have a positive influence on them in terms of levels of stress, confidence and level of knowledge, respectively. Smartphone usage is widespread among our intern cohort. The introduction of hospital applications with local guidelines would be welcomed; however, this may require informed patient consent regarding their use.

  18. Another call to increase STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

  19. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Ibarrola-de Andrés, Carolina; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed. PMID:23919110

  20. From Systematic Review to Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Sawin, Erika Metzler; Sobel, Linda L; Annan, Sandra L; Schminkey, Donna L

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and criminal justice concern with significant impacts; especially high rates are seen among rural Hispanic American (HA) communities, the fastest growing population in the United States. They experience additional barriers to care including extreme poverty, lesser education, gender norms, and language and immigration issues. A systematic literature review was conducted using Cooper's framework to identify evidence supporting associations between interventions and prevention, reduction, and elimination of IPV among rural HA women. Searches conducted on databases including CINAHL, PubMed, Medline, Women's Studies International, MedicLatina, and JSTOR used the MeSH terms Hispanic Americans (Latino/a and Hispanic), domestic violence, and intimate partner violence. Selected studies were published between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014. Of the 617 yielded articles, only 6 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, none closely examined rurality or provided valid and reliable measures of outcomes, instead reporting program descriptions and suggested interventions. We identify key findings to guide program, screening, and tool development. Our study identifies a gap in knowledge, research, and effective practices and issues a call for action to create evidence-based tools to prevent, reduce, and eliminate IPV in these underserved populations.

  1. Contemporary spirituality: a call to wholeness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, H

    1986-06-01

    Our society and thus our health care organizations are beset by a dualistic perspective that identifies some groups as embodying "masculine" characteristics that are desirable, implying that other groups are less valuable. This perspective, visible in ageism, sexism, and racism, threatens the call to live and heal as Jesus lived and healed, which is the cornerstone of the Catholic health care ministry. A contemporary wholistic spirituality must be articulated that emphasizes individual responsibility for living as a person who believes in the dignity of all persons created by God. Modifying the language of health care is one way to better reflect a wholistic orientation. Two expressions that require special attention are "health care provider" and "patient." Substituting "health care promoter" and "client" for these terms would emphasize the health care ministry's role in helping persons with health care needs to be involved in the healing process. Since a health care organization's effectiveness depends on its members' commitment to healing, it is imperative that the organization's values be modeled and communicated to the members through the organization's decisions and activities. It likewise is important that those involved in the healing ministry reflect on their spirituality, their relationships with self, God, and others, to monitor those values that affect their relationships and experiences.

  2. McNamara calls for action now.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    Robert McNamara outlined a 6 point global family planning (FP) program he designed to expand FP services to answer unmet need. The plan calls for Fp spending to increase to US$8 billion by 2000. For the US this would mean an increase from US$800 million to US$3.5 billion. This amount is very, very small compared to the total amount spent on official development assistance projected for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. It is easily within the capabilities of OECD countries to meet this goal. The plan would develop a system in which the World Bank and the UNFPA would work together with each developing country to establish population target levels. The World Bank would assume responsibility for organizing external financing and serve as a last resort source of financing. Japan must also begin to take a leadership role more in line with its economic power. Currently it spends only .32% of its GNP to aid developing countries, despite the fact that its per capita income is 20% larger than any other OECD member. This means raising spending form US$9 billion to US$14.5 billion. This could be done easily by raising it US$500 million/year and planning to increase this US$1 billion by 2000.

  3. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise. PMID:21345867

  4. Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James

    2016-06-01

    Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.

  5. Introducing Psychometrical Validation of Questionnaires in CALL Research: The Case of Measuring Attitude towards CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewaetere, M.; Desmet, P.

    2009-01-01

    The great majority of questionnaires measuring non-observable constructs such as attitude towards CALL are often developed from a specific point of view and are seldom followed by psychometrical validation. Psychometrical properties of the questionnaire, such as construct validity and reliability, then remain unanswered too often, laying a heavy…

  6. Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

    PubMed

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-12-09

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  7. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales

    PubMed Central

    Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Dunlop, Rebecca A.; Goldizen, Anne W.; Garland, Ellen C.; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined. PMID:26093396

  8. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Goldizen, Anne W; Garland, Ellen C; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined.

  9. Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    Guest Editors:

    Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK

    Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks.

    Scope of Submission

    The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
    • WDM node architectures
    • Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion
    • Routing protocols
    • WDM switching and routing
    • Quality of service
    • Performance measurement and evaluation
    • Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control
    • Traffic measurement and field trials
    • Optical burst and packet switching
    • OBS/OPS node architectures
    • Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms
    • Contention resolution/avoidance strategies
    • Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.)
    • Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping

    • From Test Takers to Test Makers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Kari

      2009-01-01

      As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…

    • From Test Takers to Test Makers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Kari

      2009-01-01

      As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…

    • OVarCall: Bayesian Mutation Calling Method Utilizing Overlapping Paired-End Reads.

      PubMed

      Moriyama, Takuya; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru

      2017-03-01

      Detection of somatic mutations from tumor and matched normal sequencing data has become a standard approach in cancer research. Although a number of mutation callers have been developed, it is still difficult to detect mutations with low allele frequency even in exome sequencing. We expect that overlapping paired-end read information is effective for this purpose, but no mutation caller has modeled overlapping information statistically in a proper form in exome sequence data. Here, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical method, OVar- Call (https://github.com/takumorizo/OVarCall), where overlapping paired-end read information improves the accuracy of low allele frequency mutation detection. Firstly, we construct two generative models: one is for reads with somatic variants generated from tumor cells and the other is for reads that does not have somatic variants but potentially includes sequence errors. Secondly, we calculate marginal likelihood for each model using a variational Bayesian algorithm to compute Bayes factor for the detection of somatic mutations. We empirically evaluated the performance of OVarCall and confirmed its better performance than other existing methods.

    • [Characteristics of courtship calls of Microhyla ornata (Anura: Microhylidae)].

      PubMed

      Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Lin, Zhi-Hua

      2013-02-01

      During breeding season in May, 2012, we recorded and analyzed the courtship calls and the acoustic parameters of the male Microhyla ornate in Lishui, Zhejiang province using an IC recorder (SX950) and the sound software Praat. We observed that the male M. ornate produced calls characterized by a single harmonic call structure, multiple pulses (7, 9-16) and spindle amplitudes. Analyses of the calls revealed several interesting findings: the dominant frequency of all calls ranged from 1.22-4.09 kHz (n=233); their average values composed of different numbers of pulses were similar and that call duration increased with numbers of pulses; and pulse duration among different multi-pulse call groups was nearly identical, but it was equal or less in the last pulse than other pulses. By contrast, our analyses also showed that pulse interval was negatively correlated with call duration, i.e. the shorter in call duration, the longer in pulse interval among the different numbers of pulses call groups. Within the 7-pulse call group, calls exhibited the largest in pulse interval and the smallest in pulse rate, while those calls in 16-pulse were the opposite. Except that the 7- and 16-pulse call groups were both significantly different in pulse rate with other multi-pulse call groups, we found that pulse rates expressed different variations between pair-wise comparisons of the remaining call groups. As for call intensity, significant differences were only found between the 16-pulse call group and the other call groups, while pairwise comparisons of the remaining groups were not significant. After conducting our initial analyses, we compared the calls of the M. ornate population from Lishui with populations from five other localities-Hangzhou, Xuancheng, Karnoor, Bajipe and Padil-and found that the call structures were similar among the different populations, being single harmonic, while we observed differences in call dominant frequency, call duration, pulse duration and pulse

    • Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

      PubMed Central

      Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

      2014-01-01

      In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

    • Real-world solutions for orthopaedic on-call problems.

      PubMed

      Agnew, Samuel G; Blotter, Robert H; Kosmatka, Paul K; Rudin, Guy J

      2012-01-01

      An increasing percentage of emergency departments are reporting an inadequate number of on-call specialists. This situation is causing a growing crisis in emergency department on-call coverage for patients requiring orthopaedic care. Many orthopaedic surgeons are electing to opt out of emergency department on-call service. For many reasons, including a dwindling supply of eager participants, more medical groups are finding it difficult to fulfill their on-call obligations. This problem demands a variety of strategies to address the multiple causative factors that occur in practice settings. Initially, it may be necessary to incentivize on-call service so more surgeons are willing to participate. Incentives may include improving the group governance and bylaws to avoid confusion on the rules for providing on-call coverage. The on-call experience may require financial improvements, outsourcing with locum tenens, or a complete restructuring of the on-call arrangement with the formation of a hospitalist program.

    • Male monkeys remember which group members have given alarm calls

      PubMed Central

      Wich, Serge A; de Vries, Han

      2005-01-01

      Primates give alarm calls in response to the presence of predators. In some species, such as the Thomas langur (Presbytis thomasi), males only emit alarm calls if there is an audience. An unanswered question is whether the audience's behaviour influences how long the male will continue his alarm calling. We tested three hypotheses that might explain the alarm calling duration of male Thomas langurs: the fatigue, group size and group member behaviour hypotheses. Fatigue and group size did not influence male alarm calling duration. We found that males only ceased calling shortly after all individuals in his group had given at least one alarm call. This shows that males keep track of and thus remember which group members have called. PMID:16608694

    • Male monkeys remember which group members have given alarm calls.

      PubMed

      Wich, Serge A; de Vries, Han

      2006-03-22

      Primates give alarm calls in response to the presence of predators. In some species, such as the Thomas langur (Presbytis thomasi), males only emit alarm calls if there is an audience. An unanswered question is whether the audience's behaviour influences how long the male will continue his alarm calling. We tested three hypotheses that might explain the alarm calling duration of male Thomas langurs: the fatigue, group size and group member behaviour hypotheses. Fatigue and group size did not influence male alarm calling duration. We found that males only ceased calling shortly after all individuals in his group had given at least one alarm call. This shows that males keep track of and thus remember which group members have called.

    • Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

      2016-01-01

      This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

    • Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

      2016-01-01

      This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

    • Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator for Call for Fire

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2013-09-01

      release; distribution is unlimited UNTRAINED FORWARD OBSERVER ( UFO ) TRANSLATOR FOR CALL FOR FIRE by Regan R. King September 2013 Thesis...DATE September 2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNTRAINED FORWARD OBSERVER ( UFO ) TRANSLATOR FOR CALL...application, which we call the Untrained Forward Observer ( UFO ) Translator, capable of assisting untrained observers in performing Call for Fire by asking a

  1. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCall-backâ pay. 778.221 Section 778.221 Labor Regulations...Regular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest of... minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments made pursuant to employment agreements. Typically, such...

  2. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure.

  3. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  4. Linguistics, Procedure and Technique in CALL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torsani, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Research in CALL education has identified a series of goals and constraints for technology in language education that need to be taken into account when designing a CALL syllabus. This article presents a theoretical framework for syllabus design based on the identification of three areas of expertise within CALL: linguistic knowledge, procedural…

  5. 76 FR 17933 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate... significant consequences on a regional or national scale. The IP Data Call is administered out of the IP Infrastructure Information Collection Division (IICD). The IP Data Call provides opportunities for states and...

  6. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  7. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  8. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  9. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  10. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently displayed...

  11. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  12. Investigating CALL in the Classroom: Situational Variables to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liutkus, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm in second language pedagogy has Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) playing a significant role. Much of the literature to-date claims that CALL can have a positive impact on students' second language acquisition (SLA). Mixed method of research produces data to investigate if CALL positively affects student language…

  13. Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling's domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a…

  14. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP, to...

  15. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP, to...

  16. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP, to...

  17. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP, to...

  18. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital...

  19. Calling and Career Preparation: Investigating Developmental Patterns and Temporal Precedence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas; Herrmann, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a calling and career development are assumed to be closely related. However, the nature of and reason for this relationship have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized the existence of reciprocal effects between calling and three dimensions of career preparation and assessed the change of the presence of a calling,…

  20. Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sheri L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college…

  1. Correlates of Gay-Related Name-Calling in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…

  2. Heterospecific Acoustic Interference: Effects on Calling in Oophaga pumilio

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stefanie; Parada, Humberto; Narins, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Call rate suppression is a common short-term solution for avoiding acoustic interference in animals. It has been widely documented between and within frog species, but the effects of non-anuran calling on frog vocalizations is less well known. Heterospecific acoustic interference on the calling of Oophaga pumilio (Bauer, 1994) (formerly Dendrobates pumilio) males was studied in a lowland, wet tropical forest in SE Nicaragua. Acoustic playback experiments were conducted to characterize the responses of O. pumilio males to interfering calls of cicadas, two species of crickets and a sympatric dendrobatid frog, Phyllobates lugubris. Call rate, call bout duration, percent of time calling, dominant frequency and latency to first-call were analyzed. Significant call rate suppression was observed during all stimulus playbacks, yet no significant differences were found in spontaneous call rates during pre- and post-playback trials. Dominant frequency significantly decreased after P. lugubris playback and first-call latency significantly decreased in response to both cicada and tree cricket playbacks. These results provide robust evidence that O. pumilio males can dynamically modify their calling pattern in unique ways, depending on the source of the heterospecific acoustic interference. PMID:20953296

  3. Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sheri L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college…

  4. Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling's domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a…

  5. The Additional Uses of CALL in the Endangered Language Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the additional uses of CALL in the Endangered Language (EL) context. It briefly reviews ELs and reports on CALL for ELs in general. It then reviews the extra uses of CALL for ELs; these include changing negative attitudes towards the language, arousing interest in the language and contributing to language maintenance and…

  6. Correlates of Gay-Related Name-Calling in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…

  7. Calling and Career Preparation: Investigating Developmental Patterns and Temporal Precedence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas; Herrmann, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a calling and career development are assumed to be closely related. However, the nature of and reason for this relationship have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized the existence of reciprocal effects between calling and three dimensions of career preparation and assessed the change of the presence of a calling,…

  8. Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

  9. 29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-call time. 785.17 Section 785.17 Labor Regulations... On-call time. An employee who is required to remain on call on the employer's premises or so close thereto that he cannot use the time effectively for his own purposes is working while “on call”....

  10. 28 CFR 540.102 - Monitoring of inmate telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of inmate telephone calls. 540... inmate telephone calls. The Warden shall establish procedures that enable monitoring of telephone... call to an attorney. The Warden shall notify an inmate of the proper procedures to have an...

  11. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement... Certified Public Accountants, to determine whether the call tracking system accurately tracks payphone...

  12. 78 FR 35956 - Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Conference Call. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and... Advisory Council (RAC) Subgroup will host a conference call. DATES: The Utah RAC Subgroup will host...

  13. 77 FR 18258 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a debenture call of... impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at...

  14. 75 FR 16163 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing... the Secretary of the Treasury, announces the call of all FHA debentures, with a coupon rate of 5..., ``outstanding'' as of March 31, 2010. The date of the call is July 1, 2010. The debentures will be redeemed...

  15. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on collect telephone calls. 64... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall...

  16. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50... PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial or recalculated PRLPs, Treasury may issue a data call to insurers for insured loss information. Submission of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In...), however, writing a qualified covered call option and owning the optioned stock is not treated as...

  18. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP,...

  19. 29 CFR 1912.25 - Call of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Call of meetings. 1912.25 Section 1912.25 Labor Regulations...) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Operation of Advisory Committees § 1912.25 Call of meetings. No advisory committee shall hold any meeting except at the call of, or with the advance approval, of the...

  20. 28 CFR 540.103 - Inmate telephone calls to attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate telephone calls to attorneys. 540.103 Section 540.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL... calls to attorneys. The Warden may not apply frequency limitations on inmate telephone calls...

  1. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  2. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  3. Does Vessel Noise Affect Oyster Toadfish Calling Rates?

    PubMed

    Luczkovich, Joseph J; Krahforst, Cecilia S; Hoppe, Harry; Sprague, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    The question we addressed in this study is whether oyster toadfish respond to vessel disturbances by calling less when vessels with lower frequency spectra are present in a sound recording and afterward. Long-term data recorders were deployed at the Neuse (high vessel-noise site) and Pamlico (low vessel-noise site) Rivers. There were many fewer toadfish detections at the high vessel-noise site than the low-noise station. Calling rates were lower in the high-boat traffic area, suggesting that toadfish cannot call over loud vessel noise, reducing the overall calling rate, and may have to call more often when vessels are not present.

  4. Divergence of a stereotyped call in northern resident killer whales.

    PubMed

    Grebner, Dawn M; Parks, Susan E; Bradley, David L; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Capone, Dean E; Ford, John K B

    2011-02-01

    Northern resident killer whale pods (Orcinus orca) have distinctive stereotyped pulsed call repertoires that can be used to distinguish groups acoustically. Repertoires are generally stable, with the same call types comprising the repertoire of a given pod over a period of years to decades. Previous studies have shown that some discrete pulsed calls can be subdivided into variants or subtypes. This study suggests that new stereotyped calls may result from the gradual modification of existing call types through subtypes. Vocalizations of individuals and small groups of killer whales were collected using a bottom-mounted hydrophone array in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia in 2006 and 2007. Discriminant analysis of slope variations of a predominant call type, N4, revealed the presence of four distinct call subtypes. Similar to previous studies, there was a divergence of the N4 call between members of different matrilines of the same pod. However, this study reveals that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N4 call, indicating that divergence in the N4 call is not the result of individual differences, but rather may indicate the gradual evolution of a new stereotyped call.

  5. Individual Distinctiveness in Call Types of Wild Western Female Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Roberta; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication. PMID:25029238

  6. Antismoking television advertising and socioeconomic variations in calls to Quitline

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Wakefield, Melanie; Spittal, Matt; Durkin, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the socioeconomic variations in call rates to the Quitline (Victoria, Australia) and in the impact of anti‐tobacco television advertising on call rates. Design The outcome measure was the number of calls to the Quitline in Victoria for each week for each socioeconomic group for the period January 2001 to March 2004. Socioeconomic status (SES) was derived from the caller's postcode using the Index of Socioeconomic Disadvantage provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The exposure measure was weekly Target Audience Rating Points (TARPs, a standard measure of television advertising weight) for anti‐tobacco advertising broadcast in Victoria over the same period. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the interaction of SES and TARPs in their effect on the number of Quitline calls. Results SES and call rates were positively associated. Adjusted call rate was 57% (95% CI 45% to 69%) higher in the highest than the lowest SES quintile. SES differences in call rates were stable over time. In the study period, the effect of the presence or increasing levels of antismoking TARPs on call rates did not vary across categories of SES. Conclusions In the study period, different SES groups had a similar level of responsiveness to antismoking television advertisements, at least as measured by the rate of calls to the Quitline. However, the present media campaigns are not likely to diminish SES differences in call rates, and more needs to be done to encourage disadvantaged groups to call the Quitline. PMID:17372288

  7. Antismoking television advertising and socioeconomic variations in calls to Quitline.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Wakefield, Melanie; Spittal, Matt; Durkin, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    To assess the socioeconomic variations in call rates to the Quitline (Victoria, Australia) and in the impact of anti-tobacco television advertising on call rates. The outcome measure was the number of calls to the Quitline in Victoria for each week for each socioeconomic group for the period January 2001 to March 2004. Socioeconomic status (SES) was derived from the caller's postcode using the Index of Socioeconomic Disadvantage provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The exposure measure was weekly Target Audience Rating Points (TARPs, a standard measure of television advertising weight) for anti-tobacco advertising broadcast in Victoria over the same period. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the interaction of SES and TARPs in their effect on the number of Quitline calls. SES and call rates were positively associated. Adjusted call rate was 57% (95% CI 45% to 69%) higher in the highest than the lowest SES quintile. SES differences in call rates were stable over time. In the study period, the effect of the presence or increasing levels of antismoking TARPs on call rates did not vary across categories of SES. In the study period, different SES groups had a similar level of responsiveness to antismoking television advertisements, at least as measured by the rate of calls to the Quitline. However, the present media campaigns are not likely to diminish SES differences in call rates, and more needs to be done to encourage disadvantaged groups to call the Quitline.

  8. The Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service: High Frequency of Nontransported Calls

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Sherwin E.; Gaskin, Pamela S.; Byer, David; Cadogan, W. L.; Brathwaite, Andrew; Nielsen, Anders L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System) instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%). Nineteen (19%) percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (P = 0.01). Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made. PMID:23198147

  9. The Phonetics and Phonology of the Polish Calling Melodies.

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, Amalia; Żygis, Marzena; Jaskuła, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Two calling melodies of Polish were investigated, the routine call, used to call someone for an everyday reason, and the urgent call, which conveys disapproval of the addressee's actions. A Discourse Completion Task was used to elicit the two melodies from Polish speakers using twelve names from one to four syllables long; there were three names per syllable count, and speakers produced three tokens of each name with each melody. The results, based on eleven speakers, show that the routine calling melody consists of a low F0 stretch followed by a rise-fall-rise; the urgent calling melody, on the other hand, is a simple rise-fall. Systematic differences were found in the scaling and alignment of tonal targets: the routine call showed late alignment of the accentual pitch peak, and in most instances lower scaling of targets. The accented vowel was also affected, being overall louder in the urgent call. Based on the data and comparisons with other Polish melodies, we analyze the routine call as LH* !H-H% and the urgent call as H* L-L%. We discuss the results and our analysis in light of recent findings on calling melodies in other languages, and explore their repercussions for intonational phonology and the modeling of intonation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The information that receivers extract from alarm calls in suricates.

    PubMed Central

    Manser, M B; Bell, M B; Fletcher, L B

    2001-01-01

    Field observations and acoustic analyses have shown that suricate (Suricata suricatta) alarm calls vary in their acoustic structure depending on predator type. In this study, we tested whether receivers respond appropriately when hearing a call in the absence of a predator. Although the only way for suricates to escape from predators is to retreat to boltholes, responses to playbacks could be divided into distinct categories. The subjects responded differently to alarm calls given in response to aerial or terrestrial predators and to recruitment calls emitted in response to snakes and deposits on the ground. Suricates also showed rather distinct responses to low, medium and high urgency aerial calls. Differences in the responses were less obvious for different levels of urgency in the terrestrial and recruitment calls. Suricate receivers thus gain information about both the predator type and level of urgency from the acoustic structures of their calls. PMID:11747568

  11. Campbell's Monkeys Use Affixation to Alter Call Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Human language has evolved on a biological substrate with phylogenetic roots deep in the primate lineage. Here, we describe a functional analogy to a common morphological process in human speech, affixation, in the alarm calls of free-ranging adult Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli). We found that male alarm calls are composed of an acoustically variable stem, which can be followed by an acoustically invariable suffix. Using long-term observations and predator simulation experiments, we show that suffixation in this species functions to broaden the calls' meaning by transforming a highly specific eagle alarm to a general arboreal disturbance call or by transforming a highly specific leopard alarm call to a general alert call. We concluded that, when referring to specific external events, non-human primates can generate meaningful acoustic variation during call production that is functionally equivalent to suffixation in human language. PMID:19915663

  12. Economic evaluation of the differential benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; So, Ching; Chau, June; Law, Antony Kwan Pui; Tam, Stanley Ku Fu; McGhee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    home visits and telephone calls are two often used approaches in transitional care, but their differential economic effects are unknown. to examine the differential economic benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support. cost-effectiveness analysis conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT). patients discharged from medical units randomly assigned to control (control, N = 210), home visits with calls (home, N = 196) and calls only (call, N = 204). cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted from the societal perspective comparing monetary benefits and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. the home arm was less costly but less effective at 28 days and was dominating (less costly and more effective) at 84 days. The call arm was dominating at both 28 and 84 days. The incremental QALY for the home arm was -0.0002/0.0008 (28/84 days), and the call arm was 0.0022/0.0104 (28/84 days). When the three groups were compared, the call arm had a higher probability being cost-effective at 84 days but not at 28 days (home: 53%, call: 35% (28 days) versus home: 22%, call: 73% (84 days)) measuring against the NICE threshold of £20,000. the original RCT showed that the bundled intervention involving home visits and calls was more effective than calls only in the reduction of hospital readmissions. This study adds a cost perspective to inform policymakers that both home visits and calls only are cost-effective for transitional care support, but calls only have a higher chance of being cost-effective for a sustained period after intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  13. Treatment with arginine vasotocin alters mating calls and decreases call attractiveness in male túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Kime, Nicole M; Whitney, Tina K; Ryan, Michael J; Rand, A Stanley; Marler, Catherine A

    2010-01-15

    The peptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) and its mammalian homolog arginine vasopressin modulate a variety of social behaviors in vertebrates. In anurans, AVT influences the production of advertisement calls, the acoustic signals that males use to attract females and repel rival males. In this study, we investigate the effects of AVT on call characteristics in the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Túngara frogs produce a "whine" that is important for species recognition; they may also produce a second, attractive call component, the "chuck". We used a field playback experiment to determine changes in male calling behavior following treatment with AVT. A previous study showed that AVT alters call rate and the production of chucks; in the current analysis, we focus on changes in the whine. Males produce shorter whines with higher initial frequencies following treatment with AVT. Call changes do not vary with a social stimulus. We also used female phonotaxis experiments to investigate the effects of call changes on female mate choice. Females disfavor the calls produced by males treated with exogenous AVT. We suggest that AVT influences motivation to call and the motor control of call production, but that over-stimulation of the vocal system limited the production of attractive calls in this experimental context.

  14. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430].

  15. Propagation of natural toad calls in a Mediterranean terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Penna, Mario; Llusia, Diego; Márquez, R

    2012-12-01

    Propagation patterns of animal acoustic signals provide insights into the evolution of signal design to convey signaler's information to potential recipients. However, propagation properties of vertebrate calls have been rarely studied using natural calls from individuals; instead playback calls broadcast through loudspeakers have been used extensively, a procedure that may involve acoustical and physical features differing from natural sounds. Measurements of the transmission characteristics of natural advertisement calls, which are simple tonal sounds, of the Iberian midwife toad, Alytes cisternasii, were carried out, and the results were compared with previously published results broadcasting recorded calls of the same species. Measurements of sound pressure level (SPL) of calls from individual male A. cisternasii revealed that the call amplitude decreases at distances of 1-8 m from the source at rates averaging 1-5 dB above spherical transmission loss in an omni-directional pattern. A comparison between SPLs of natural calls in the current study and of playback calls from a previous study showed that patterns of propagation did not differ in average values, but variance was significantly higher for natural calls. Results suggest that using broadcast signals for transmission experiments may result in a simplification of the conditions in which actual animals communicate in nature.

  16. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Ikkyu

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  17. Reducing juvenile delinquency with automated cell phone calls.

    PubMed

    Burraston, Bert O; Bahr, Stephen J; Cherrington, David J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 70 juvenile probationers (39 treatment and 31 controls), we evaluated the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program that combined cognitive-behavioral training and automated phone calls. The cognitive-behavioral training contained six 90-min sessions, one per week, and the phone calls occurred twice per day for the year following treatment. Recidivism was measured by whether they were rearrested and the total number of rearrests during the 1st year. To test the impact of the phone calls, those who received phone calls were divided into high and low groups depending on whether they answered more or less than half of their phone calls. Those who completed the class and answered at least half of their phone calls were less likely to have been arrested and had fewer total arrests.

  18. 40 CFR 155.48 - Data Call-In.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data Call-In. 155.48 Section 155.48... STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.48 Data Call-In. The Agency may issue a Data Call-In notice under FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) at any time if the Agency believes that the...

  19. Calling 911! What role does the pediatrician play?

    PubMed

    Grossman, Devin; Kunkov, Sergey; Kaplan, Carl; Crain, Ellen F

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare admission rates and medical interventions among children whose caregivers called their child's primary care provider (PCP) before taking an ambulance to the pediatric emergency department (PED) versus those who did not. This was a prospective cohort study of patients brought to an urban, public hospital PED via emergency medical system (EMS). Children were included if the caregiver called 911 to have them transported via EMS and was present in the PED. The main variable was whether the child's PCP was called before EMS utilization. Study outcomes were medical interventions, such as intravenous line insertion or laboratory tests, and hospital admission. χ Test and logistic regression were used to evaluate the relationship of the main variable to the study outcomes. Six hundred fourteen patients met inclusion criteria and were enrolled. Five hundred eighty-five patients (95.3%) were reported to have a PCP. Seventy-four caregivers (12.1%) called their child's PCP before calling EMS. Two hundred seventy-seven patients (45.1%) had medical interventions performed; of these, 42 (15.2%) called their PCP (P = 0.03). Forty-two patients (6.8%) were admitted; among these, 14 (33.3%) called their PCP (P < 0.01). Adjusting for triage level, patients whose caregiver called the PCP before calling EMS were 3.2 times (95% confidence interval, 1.9-5.2 times) more likely to be admitted and 1.7 times (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9 times) more likely to have a medical intervention compared with patients whose caregivers did not call their child's PCP. Children were more likely to be admitted or require a medical intervention if their caregiver called their PCP before calling EMS. The availability of a PCP for telephone triage may help to optimize EMS utilization.

  20. Nonlinear Acoustics in Cicada Mating Calls Enhance Sound Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    NUWC-NPT Reprint Report 11,907 1 March 2009 Nonlinear Acoustics in Cicada Mating Calls Enhance Sound Propagation Derke R. Hughes Albert H...vol. 125, no. 2, February 2009. Nonlinear acoustics in cicada mating calls enhance sound propagation Derke R. Hughes,3 Albert H. Nuttall,h Richard A...2008; revised 31 October 2008; accepted 15 November 2008) An analysis of cicada mating calls, measured in field experiments, indicates that the very

  1. Heart rate variability changes in physicians working on night call.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Birgitta; Persson, Roger; Flisberg, Per; Ørbaek, Palle

    2011-03-01

    Adverse effects by night-call duty have become an important occupational health issue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the heart rate variability (HRV) differed during recovery from day work and night-call duty between distinct physician specialities. We studied the impact of a 16-h night-call duty on autonomic balance, measured by HRV, among two physician groups differing with respect to having to deal with life-threatening conditions while on call. Nineteen anaesthesiologists (ANEST) and 16 paediatricians and ear, nose and throat surgeons (PENT) were monitored by ambulatory digital Holter electrocardiogram (ECG). Heart rate variability was analysed between 21:00 and 22:00 after an ordinary workday, on night call and in the evening post-call. Absolute and normalized high-frequency power (HF, HFnu) were the main outcome variables, expressing parasympathetic influence on the heart. ANEST had lower HF power than PENT while on night call and post-daytime work (p < 0.05), but not at post-night call. In the whole group of physicians, HFnu was lower on call and post-daytime work compared with post-night-call duty (p < 0.05). The physiological recovery after night duty seemed sufficient in terms of HRV patterns for HFnu, reflecting autonomic balance and did not differ between specialities. However, the less dynamic HRV after daytime work and during night-call duty in the ANEST group may indicate a higher physiological stress level. These results may contribute to the improvement of night-call schedules within the health care sector.

  2. 40 CFR 155.48 - Data Call-In.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Call-In. 155.48 Section 155.48... STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.48 Data Call-In. The Agency may issue a Data Call-In notice under FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) at any time if the Agency believes that...

  3. Sleep Quality of Call Handlers Employed in International Call Centers in National Capital Region of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Raja, J D; Bhasin, S K

    2016-10-01

    Call center sector in India is a relatively new and fast growing industry driving employment and growth in modern India today. Most international call centers in National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi operate at odd work hours corresponding to a time suitable fortheir international customers. The sleep quality of call handlers employed in these call centers is in jeopardy owing to their altered sleep schedule. To assess the sleep quality and determine its independent predictors among call handlers employed in international call centers in NCR of Delhi. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted on 375 call handlers aged 18-39 years employed in international call centers in NCR of Delhi. Sleep quality was assessed using Athens Insomnia scale along with a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 24.6 (SD 2.4) years. 78% of participants were male. 83.5% of respondents were unmarried. 44.3% of call handlers were cigarette smokers. Physical ailments were reported by 37% call handlers. 77.6% of call handlers had somesuspicion of insomnia or suspected insomnia; the rest had no sleep problem. Smoking, poor social support, heavy workload, lack of relaxation facility at office, and prolonged travel time to office were independent predictors of sleep quality (p<0.05). Call handlers have to compromise upon their sleep owing to the contemporary work settings in call centers. Safeguarding their health becomes an occupational health challenge to public health specialists.

  4. Impact of Hurricane Ike on Texas poison center calls.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2009-10-01

    On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas, resulting in the mandatory evacuation of 8 counties before landfall and the declaration of disaster areas in 29 counties afterward. This study evaluated whether Hurricane Ike affected the pattern of Texas poison center calls. Texas poison center calls received from the disaster area counties were identified for 3 time periods: August 12 to September 10, 2008 (preevacuation), September 11 to 13, 2008 (evacuation and hurricane landfall), and September 14 to 30, 2008 (postevacuation). For selected types of calls, the mean daily call volume during time periods 2 and 3 was compared with a baseline range (BR) derived from the mean daily call volume during time period 1. During the evacuation and landfall period, gasoline exposure calls were higher than expected (mean 3, BR -1 to 2). During the postevacuation period, higher than expected numbers of calls were observed for gasoline exposures (mean 5, BR -1 to 2) and carbon monoxide exposures (mean 3, BR -1-1). During an evacuation, certain calls such as those involving gasoline exposures may increase. After a hurricane, calls such as those involving carbon monoxide and gasoline exposures may increase.

  5. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls-the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)-across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal.

  6. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    PubMed

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  7. TADtool: visual parameter identification for TAD-calling algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Kai; Hug, Clemens B; Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Vaquerizas, Juan M

    2016-10-15

    Eukaryotic genomes are hierarchically organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). The computational identification of these domains and their associated properties critically depends on the choice of suitable parameters of TAD-calling algorithms. To reduce the element of trial-and-error in parameter selection, we have developed TADtool: an interactive plot to find robust TAD-calling parameters with immediate visual feedback. TADtool allows the direct export of TADs called with a chosen set of parameters for two of the most common TAD calling algorithms: directionality and insulation index. It can be used as an intuitive, standalone application or as a Python package for maximum flexibility.

  8. Recall accuracy of mobile phone calls among Japanese young people.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, Soichi; Arima, Takuji; Sato, Yasuto; Kojimahara, Noriko; Taki, Masao; Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the recall accuracy of mobile phone calls among young people using new software-modified phone (SMP) technology. A total of 198 Japanese students aged between 10 and 24 years were instructed to use a SMP for 1 month to record their actual call statuses. Ten to 12 months after this period, face-to-face interviews were conducted to obtain the self-reported call statuses during the monitoring period. Using the SMP record as the gold standard of validation, the recall accuracy of phone calls was evaluated. A total of 19% of the participants (34/177) misclassified their laterality (i.e., the dominant side of ear used while making calls), with the level of agreement being moderate (κ-statistics, 0.449). The level of agreement between the self-reports and SMP records was relatively good for the duration of calls (Pearson's r, 0.620), as compared with the number of calls (Pearson's r, 0.561). The recall was prone to small systematic and large random errors for both the number and duration of calls. Such a large random recall error for the amount of calls and misclassification of laterality suggest that the results of epidemiological studies of mobile phone use based on self-assessment should be interpreted cautiously.

  9. Professional learning needs in using video calls identified through workshops.

    PubMed

    Statton, Sarah; Jones, Ray; Thomas, Martin; North, Tracie; Endacott, Ruth; Frost, Adrian; Tighe, Dazzle; Wilson, Gail

    2016-05-10

    Most people want to die at home but only half do. Supporting patients in rural locations is challenging. Video calls such as Skype, might help but are not routinely used; we should consider learning needs to increase uptake and ensure effective use. We aimed to identify learning needs of healthcare professionals (HCPs) in using video calls to support patients (and their carers) to die at home. Face-to-face workshops were held in five Southwest England locations. Participants discussed advantages, disadvantages, scenarios for use, and the learning needs of video call users. Ideas were documented on flipcharts and discussions audio-recorded. The 116 participants included nurses, allied HCPs, doctors and previously bereaved volunteers. Lists of advantages, disadvantages, scenarios and learning needs were compiled and circulated to participants. In a subsequent online workshop, 21 participants ranked seven groups of learning needs in priority order. Most participants thought video calls could be used to advantage in many end-of-life scenarios, especially in rural areas. Seven themes, covering 59 learning needs for HCPs, were identified (in priority order): (i) confidence and technical ability in using video calls; (ii) being aware of how video calls fit into clinical practice; (iii) managing video calls; (iv) communication skills on 'camera'; (v) understanding how patients and families may be affected by video call use; (vi) presenting video calls as an option to patients and families to assess their readiness; (vii) normal professional skills that become essential for effective video calls. Although almost ubiquitous, video call software is not routinely and effectively used in British clinical practice. Supporting patients and families at end-of-life is one example where it could be used to advantage, but clinicians need to plan and practise before using it in real situations. Learning needs were identified that could be developed into learning modules and/or courses.

  10. [French national survey on incoming phone calls in oncology departments].

    PubMed

    Joly, Florence; Guillot, Aline; Vano, Yann-Alexandre; Spaeth, Dominique; Topart, Delphine; Roffet, Pascal; El Amarti, Rachid; Hasbini, Ali; Fléchon, Aude

    2017-06-01

    Oral therapies have shifted the follow-up of patients with cancer from hospital to home. As a consequence, the number of incoming calls has increased. To understand the source, reasons, management and burden of calls, we underwent a French national survey. The objective was to describe the way calls are managed in oncology departments. The study was a prospective survey in a representative sample of French oncology specialists using oral therapies. Among 51 participating onco/radiotherapy departments, 86 % of specialists were oncologists or hematologists and 14 % radiation oncologists. Eighty percent were from public centers and 20 % from private ones. The median number of calls/week was 110. Sixty-six percent of calls were from patients and families and 23 % from general practitioners. Upon calls reception by the secretaries, half of them corresponded to a medical question. Sixty-five percent of centers did not have an established specific procedure and 70 % of responders did not specifically train their teams to address the management of calls. Sixty-five percent of the specialists spent more than 30min/day. Most of them considered it disturbing medical activities. Sixty-six percent of patients calls were related to adverse effects of treatments. Twenty-two percent of specialists declared at least one severe adverse effect linked to misinterpretation of a call. With the increase of oral therapies, incoming phone calls represent an important burden of work. To improve calls management, adaptations of organizations are needed. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Why We All Need Call Waiting on Our Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that you can go all day without a single call on your phone and then suddenly you get two calls at once? This is actually not as uncommon as it sounds and there is a mathematical reason for why we should expect it to happen, believe it or not.

  12. 22 CFR 214.32 - Calling of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calling of advisory committee meetings. 214.32 Section 214.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.32 Calling of advisory committee meetings. (a) No advisory committee...

  13. 22 CFR 214.32 - Calling of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calling of advisory committee meetings. 214.32 Section 214.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.32 Calling of advisory committee meetings. (a) No advisory committee...

  14. 16 CFR § 1018.21 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calling of meetings. § 1018.21 Section § 1018.21 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.21 Calling of meetings. Advisory committees shall, as a general rule...

  15. 16 CFR 1018.21 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calling of meetings. 1018.21 Section 1018.21 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.21 Calling of meetings. Advisory committees shall, as a general rule, meet four...

  16. 16 CFR 1018.21 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calling of meetings. 1018.21 Section 1018.21 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.21 Calling of meetings. Advisory committees shall, as a general rule, meet four...

  17. Why We All Need Call Waiting on Our Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that you can go all day without a single call on your phone and then suddenly you get two calls at once? This is actually not as uncommon as it sounds and there is a mathematical reason for why we should expect it to happen, believe it or not.

  18. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  19. Enhancing Online CALL Design: The Case for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemard, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Whilst the potential of online Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in terms of access, immediacy and exposure is widely acknowledged, as yet remarkably little is known about its impact on the user population, be they language teachers or learners. Indeed, beyond its technological development, online CALL design is still affected by a dearth…

  20. Best practices for world-class call centers.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Quality, not quantity, counts more in performance measures for best-practice call centers. Spend money on effective upfront training to save later through increased employee and customer loyalty. Give structured feedback and strong internal support to call-center representatives.

  1. Does Teachers' Confidence with CALL Equal Innovative and Integrated Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, G.; Plakans, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between confidence and CALL--specifically the use of audio and video technology among language teachers. Through logged usage of CALL, the authors tracked seven teachers at two large universities in the United States over a term. These teachers were also interviewed periodically in order to gain insight into…

  2. Antibiotic stewardship: a call for action by the urologic community.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Bartoletti, Ricardo; Cek, Mete; Grabe, Magnus; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Pickard, Robert; Bjerklund-Johansen, Truls E

    2013-09-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and lack of new antibiotics in the near future calls for a variety of coordinated strategies called "Antibiotic stewardship", to improve antibiotic use with the goal of enhancing patient health outcomes and reducing emergence of resistance to antibiotics.

  3. Critical Considerations for Planning and Implementing a CALL Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul

    2009-01-01

    The field of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has transformed dramatically--from the days of the behaviourist approach that dominated CALL in the 1970s to the dynamism of Interactive approach in the 1990s under the immense influence of information communication technology (ICT). Regardless of these periodic changes and improvements,…

  4. 43 CFR 1784.4-1 - Calls for nominations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calls for nominations. 1784.4-1 Section 1784.4-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.4-1 Calls for nominations. Except where...

  5. 43 CFR 1784.4-1 - Calls for nominations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calls for nominations. 1784.4-1 Section 1784.4-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.4-1 Calls for nominations. Except where...

  6. 7 CFR 7.7 - Calling of elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calling of elections. 7.7 Section 7.7 Agriculture... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.7 Calling of elections. (a) Each election of community... not later than December 30 each year. Each such election shall be held in accordance with...

  7. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call...

  8. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call...

  9. CALL: Using What We Know to Avoid Reinventing the Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shield, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written about Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) both from the point of view of its history and its definition. While it is not the aim of this paper to revisit such issues in detail, it opens with an overview of some of the major issues around definitions of CALL and the related terms that have emerged over the years to…

  10. CALL in the Year 2000: A Look Back from 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    This commentary offers a brief reflection on the state of CALL in 1997, when "Language Learning & Technology" was launched with my paper entitled "CALL in the year 2000: Still in search of research paradigms?" The point of my 1997 paper was to suggest the potential value of research on second language learning for the study…

  11. Implications of Research on Human Memory for CALL Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of what is generally accepted about how human memory works as it applied to computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses a number of interactions from various CALL products in light of the research summarized. (Author/VWL)

  12. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  13. Dialogue-Based CALL: An Overview of Existing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibauw, Serge; François, Thomas; Desmet, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Dialogue-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) covers applications and systems allowing a learner to practice the target language in a meaning-focused conversational activity with an automated agent. We first present a common definition for dialogue-based CALL, based on three features: dialogue as the activity unit, computer as the…

  14. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution.

  15. Implications of Research on Human Memory for CALL Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of what is generally accepted about how human memory works as it applied to computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses a number of interactions from various CALL products in light of the research summarized. (Author/VWL)

  16. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  17. The Multidimensionality of Calling: Conceptualization, Measurement and a Bicultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmaier, Tamara; Abele, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    The experience of a calling may be seen as the ultimate form of subjective career success that has many positive consequences for individuals and organizations. We are here concerned with the conceptualization of a new multidimensional measure of calling, the MCM. In the first two studies we employed a qualitative approach and came up with five…

  18. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  19. Called to Do Meaningful Work: A Blessing or a Curse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vuuren, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Two groups of people are particularly inclined to mention a calling when talking about their work motivation: those who are spiritual (because the concept of calling originated in the religious realm) and those in serving occupations (such as hospitals, schools, and nongovernmental organizations). Because Christian professors are in both groups,…

  20. The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

  1. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  2. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  3. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Mobile-Satellite Service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of...

  4. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  5. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Mobile-Satellite Service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of...

  6. Heeding the Call for Change: Suggestions for Curricular Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Lynn Arthur, Ed.

    The "call for change" issued by the Board of Governors of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) in "A Call For Change: Recommendations for the Mathematical Preparation of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991" may appear at first glance to concern only the mathematical preparation of teachers. However, two ingredients combine…

  7. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  8. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory…

  9. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial...

  10. Called to Do Meaningful Work: A Blessing or a Curse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vuuren, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Two groups of people are particularly inclined to mention a calling when talking about their work motivation: those who are spiritual (because the concept of calling originated in the religious realm) and those in serving occupations (such as hospitals, schools, and nongovernmental organizations). Because Christian professors are in both groups,…

  11. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  12. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  13. Results from Organizational Development Interventions in a Technology Call Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Call center staff answered calls in 4 treatments: alignment job design (n=35), autonomous work teams (n=35), high-involvement work processes (n=43), and controls (n=36). Job satisfaction improved in alignment job design and high-involvement treatments, most significantly in the latter. Skill level and attitude toward autonomous work might have…

  14. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory…

  15. CALL in the Year 2000: A Look Back from 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    This commentary offers a brief reflection on the state of CALL in 1997, when "Language Learning & Technology" was launched with my paper entitled "CALL in the year 2000: Still in search of research paradigms?" The point of my 1997 paper was to suggest the potential value of research on second language learning for the study…

  16. Intra- and interspecific calling in a Tropical Owl Community

    Treesearch

    Paula L. Enriquez; J. Luis Rangel Salazar

    1997-01-01

    We studied the intra- and interspecific responses to playback of pre-recorded calls by five tropical humid forest owl species at La Selva preserve in northeastern Costa Rica from April to September 1995. Response to conspecific broadcast calls differed among species (X² = 24.4; df = 1; P Otus guatemalae...

  17. The Multidimensionality of Calling: Conceptualization, Measurement and a Bicultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmaier, Tamara; Abele, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    The experience of a calling may be seen as the ultimate form of subjective career success that has many positive consequences for individuals and organizations. We are here concerned with the conceptualization of a new multidimensional measure of calling, the MCM. In the first two studies we employed a qualitative approach and came up with five…

  18. Consumer Experiences Calling Toll-Free Corporate Hotlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Charles L.; Smart, Denise T.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that dimensions that contribute to caller satisfaction (of toll-free corporate hotlines) included operator characteristics such as knowledge, courtesy, and interest; specific behaviors such as apologizing for a problem, thanking the consumer for calling, and encouraging them to call again; and reducing time placed on "hold." (SR)

  19. Immunisation hotline calls as five-in-one vaccine introduced.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Jeffes, Lisa; Finlay, Fiona

    2006-04-01

    Announcement of the introduction of the five-in-one vaccine (DTaP/IPV/Hib) into the primary immunisation schedule was made on 9 August 2004. In this study all calls to the immunisation hotline were recorded between 9 August 2004 and 19 November 2004, noting who called and the nature of their enquiry. A total of 208 calls were received during the study period, and of these 23 (11.1%) related to the new vaccine. Calls were from parents (10/23, 43%), health visitors (9/23, 39%) and practice nurses (3/23, 13%). A variety of themes were covered in calls including local availability of the five-in-one vaccine, vaccine safety, mercury content and efficacy. Calls not connected with the new vaccine concerned mostly adolescent MMR (17.3%) as there was a local mumps epidemic. Others related to clarification of a child's immunisation status (13.5%), primary MMR immunisation (13.5%), vaccination scheduling or administration difficulties (12%), other schedule (12.5%) and non-schedule vaccines (2.4%), vaccine reactions (2.4%), travel vaccines (6%), BCG (6%), and a few miscellaneous queries (3%). Overall questions about the new five-in-one vaccine accounted for an extra 23 calls to the immunisation hotline during the study period (11.1% of calls).

  20. Formal and Informal CALL Preparation and Teacher Attitude toward Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a general lack of a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) presence in teacher preparation programs. There is also evidence that teachers obtain a majority of their CALL knowledge from informal sources and personal experience rather than through formalized preparation. Further, graduates of these programs…

  1. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ensure that any software, personnel or any other network changes do not adversely affect its payphone... calls; and (iv) Determine the identities of the payphone service providers to which the Completing... noncompensable calls; (iv) Its criteria used to determine the identities of the payphone service providers...

  2. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ensure that any software, personnel or any other network changes do not adversely affect its payphone... calls; and (iv) Determine the identities of the payphone service providers to which the Completing... noncompensable calls; (iv) Its criteria used to determine the identities of the payphone service providers...

  3. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ensure that any software, personnel or any other network changes do not adversely affect its payphone... calls; and (iv) Determine the identities of the payphone service providers to which the Completing... noncompensable calls; (iv) Its criteria used to determine the identities of the payphone service providers...

  4. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ensure that any software, personnel or any other network changes do not adversely affect its payphone... calls; and (iv) Determine the identities of the payphone service providers to which the Completing... noncompensable calls; (iv) Its criteria used to determine the identities of the payphone service providers...

  5. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval of...

  6. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval of...

  7. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval of...

  8. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval of...

  9. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval of...

  10. 47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Call preemption prohibition. 10.510 Section 10.510 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption prohibition. Devices marketed for public use under part 10...

  11. 47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call preemption prohibition. 10.510 Section 10.510 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption prohibition. Devices marketed for public use under part 10...

  12. 22 CFR 214.32 - Calling of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calling of advisory committee meetings. 214.32 Section 214.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.32 Calling of advisory committee meetings. (a) No advisory...

  13. 16 CFR 1018.21 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calling of meetings. 1018.21 Section 1018.21 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.21 Calling of meetings. Advisory committees shall, as a general rule, meet...

  14. Called to Teach: A Study of Highly Motivated Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serow, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the belief that teaching is not merely a job but a calling, analyzing survey and interview data from 527 preservice teachers. Compared to other preservice teachers, those who felt a calling displayed significantly more enthusiasm, commitment to teaching, and willingness to accept sacrifices and extra duties. (SM)

  15. 47 CFR 32.6621 - Call completion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call completion services. 32.6621 Section 32... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6621 Call completion services. This account shall include costs incurred in helping customers place and complete...

  16. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance by conference telephone call. 6.4 Section 6.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings...

  17. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  18. 47 CFR 64.704 - Call blocking prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call blocking prohibited. 64.704 Section 64.704 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.704 Call blocking prohibited. (a)...

  19. Evidence That Calls-Based and Mobility Networks Are Isomorphic

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Michele; Hausmann, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Social relations involve both face-to-face interaction as well as telecommunications. We can observe the geography of phone calls and of the mobility of cell phones in space. These two phenomena can be described as networks of connections between different points in space. We use a dataset that includes billions of phone calls made in Colombia during a six-month period. We draw the two networks and find that the call-based network resembles a higher order aggregation of the mobility network and that both are isomorphic except for a higher spatial decay coefficient of the mobility network relative to the call-based network: when we discount distance effects on the call connections with the same decay observed for mobility connections, the two networks are virtually indistinguishable. PMID:26713730

  20. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively.

  1. Addressee Errors in ATC Communications: The Call Sign Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monan, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Communication errors involving aircraft call signs were portrayed in reports of 462 hazardous incidents voluntarily submitted to the ASRS during an approximate four-year period. These errors resulted in confusion, disorder, and uncoordinated traffic conditions and produced the following types of operational anomalies: altitude deviations, wrong-way headings, aborted takeoffs, go arounds, runway incursions, missed crossing altitude restrictions, descents toward high terrain, and traffic conflicts in flight and on the ground. Analysis of the report set resulted in identification of five categories of errors involving call signs: (1) faulty radio usage techniques, (2) call sign loss or smearing due to frequency congestion, (3) confusion resulting from similar sounding call signs, (4) airmen misses of call signs leading to failures to acknowledge or readback, and (5) controller failures regarding confirmation of acknowledgements or readbacks. These error categories are described in detail and several associated hazard mitigating measures that might be aken are considered.

  2. Deceptive copulation calls attract female visitors to peacock leks.

    PubMed

    Dakin, Roslyn; Montgomerie, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Theory holds that dishonest signaling can be stable if it is rare. We report here that some peacocks perform specialized copulation calls (hoots) when females are not present and the peacocks are clearly not attempting to copulate. Because these solo hoots are almost always given out of view of females, they may be dishonest signals of male mating attempts. These dishonest calls are surprisingly common, making up about a third of all hoot calls in our study populations. Females are more likely to visit males after they give a solo hoot call, and we confirm using a playback experiment that females are attracted to the sound of the hoot. Our findings suggest that both sexes use the hoot call tactically: females to locate potential mates and males to attract female visitors. We suggest that the solo hoot may be a deceptive signal that is acquired and maintained through reward-based learning.

  3. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Simon W.; Manser, Marta B.

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the ‘unpredictability hypothesis’ by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

  4. Computer-assisted scheduling of radiology resident call.

    PubMed

    Larson, T C; Larson, S L; Harle, T S

    1986-05-01

    The difficulties inherent in assigning an entire residency group fair and equivalent daily call prompted the development of a computerized scheduling program at The University of Texas at Houston. Written in COBOL, the program is run on a CDC mainframe computer. Logic parameters restrict the number and frequency of calls per month, and each resident is coded for five available call types at two university hospitals. The foundation of the program's operation is an arbitrary point scale applied to each call type determined by its difficulty and time commitment. Residents' point totals each month are roughly balanced within a prescribed range, with call exchanges made by the computer if necessary. The computer-generated schedules are flexible and equitable, require little manual correction, and save time for the chief resident and the residency secretary.

  5. Medical resident driving simulator performance following a night on call.

    PubMed

    Ware, J Catesby; Risser, Mathew R; Manser, Thomas; Karlson, Karl H

    2006-01-01

    This study compared driving simulation performance after night call and after being off call in 22 medical residents and 1 medical student in a prospective within-subjects counterbalanced design. The results demonstrated an unexpected interaction between call and sex wherein men performed more poorly after night call than women as measured by lane variance and crash frequency. Secondary measures, including caffeine, actigraphy, and subjective total sleep time, did not differ between men and women. Collectively, results of this study and others suggest that medical residents are at risk when driving after a night on call and support the need for resident education to address sleep needs, consequences of sleep disruption, postcall recovery sleep, and countermeasures that may reduce residents' driving risks.

  6. Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

    2010-07-01

    Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed.

  7. Titi monkey call sequences vary with predator location and type

    PubMed Central

    Cäsar, Cristiane; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Young, Robert J.; Byrne, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Animal alarm calls can encode information about a predator's category, size, distance or threat level. In non-human primates, alarm calls typically refer to broad classes of disturbances, in some instances to specific predators. Here, we present the results of a field experiment with a New World primate, the black-fronted titi monkey (Callicebus nigrifrons), designed to explore the information conveyed by their alarm call system. Adults produced sequences consisting of two main alarm call types that conveyed, in different parts of the utterance, information about a predator's type and location. In particular, sequence compositions differed depending on whether the predator was a mammalian carnivore or a raptor, and whether it was detected in a tree or on the ground. This is the first demonstration of a sequence-based alarm call system in a non-human animal that has the capacity to encode both location and type of predatory threat. PMID:24004492

  8. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of

  9. Calling behavior of blue and fin whales off California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, Erin Marie

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an effective means for evaluating cetacean presence in remote regions and over long time periods, and may become an important component of cetacean abundance surveys. To use passive acoustic recordings for abundance estimation, an understanding of the behavioral ecology of cetacean calling is crucial. In this dissertation, I develop a better understanding of how blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus ) whales use sound with the goal of evaluating passive acoustic techniques for studying their populations. Both blue and fin whales produce several different call types, though the behavioral and environmental context of these calls have not been widely investigated. To better understand how calling is used by these whales off California I have employed both new technologies and traditional techniques, including acoustic recording tags, continuous long-term autonomous acoustic recordings, and simultaneous shipboard acoustic and visual surveys. The outcome of these investigations has led to several conclusions. The production of blue whale calls varies with sex, behavior, season, location, and time of day. Each blue whale call type has a distinct behavioral context, including a male-only bias in the production of song, a call type thought to function in reproduction, and the production of some calls by both sexes. Long-term acoustic records, when interpreted using all call types, provide a more accurate measure of the local seasonal presence of whales, and how they use the region annually, seasonally and daily. The relative occurrence of different call types may indicate prime foraging habitat and the presence of different segments of the population. The proportion of animals heard calling changes seasonally and geographically relative to the number seen, indicating the calibration of acoustic and visual surveys is complex and requires further study on the motivations behind call production and the behavior of calling whales

  10. Lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) great call reveals individual caller identity.

    PubMed

    Terleph, Thomas A; Malaivijitnond, S; Reichard, U H

    2015-07-01

    Gibbons (family Hylobatidae) produce loud, elaborate vocalizations (songs), often in well-coordinated male/female duets. The female's great call, the most conspicuous phrase of the gibbon vocal repertoire, functions primarily to mediate territorial defense. Despite the fact that lar gibbons (Hylobates lar) are the most widely distributed and well researched hylobatid species and produce a rich vocal repertoire, the individual-specificity of their great calls has not previously been quantified. In addition, spectral and temporal features of notes occurring at specific locations within the lar great call have not been described. Here we provide such a description, and test the hypothesis that great calls are statistically discriminable between a large sample of individual callers. We compared recordings of great calls from 14 wild lar females in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Our analyses of principal components derived from spectral and temporal measures, as well as spectrograms from the entire great call, indicate that acoustic variation is sufficient to allow identification of individual callers (83.5% discriminability based on principal components, and inter-individual call variation exceeding intra-individual variation in overall spectrogram). These vocalizations potentially allow individual recognition of animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Spectrographic Analysis of Carrion Crow Calls and Their Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Hisashi; Yokota, Yasunari

    In recent years, damage to agricultural products, livestock, and power transmission systems by crows is regarded as a serious problem; countermeasures against crow damage are urgently necessary. This paper proposed a method for detecting crow calls in various environmental sounds. If detection and discernment of crow calls were possible, various actions could be undertaken to prevent the damage. Wildlife call detection, not only that for crows, should be executed in extremely noisy environments. We then introduced both a spectrograph estimation technique with AR modeling in which AR coefficients are temporally smoothed and interpolated and a background noise elimination technique to obtain higher-quality crow call templates. The input sounds are compared with these templates by DP matching in the metric vector space of a logarithmic cepstrum. Every input sound whose minimal distance to the template database is less than the specified threshold value is detected as a crow call. The maximal detection performance can be obtained when five call templates in the template database are utilized; the implication is that carrion crows have five distinguishable call patterns. It is shown that the proposed method achieves 95% detection rate when 1.66% misdetection rate is allowed.

  12. The association between advertising and calls to a tobacco quitline.

    PubMed

    Mosbaek, Craig H; Austin, Donald F; Stark, Michael J; Lambert, Lori C

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the cost effectiveness of different types of television and radio advertisements and the time of day in which advertisements were placed in generating calls to the Oregon tobacco quitline. Cost effectiveness was measured by cost per call, calculated as the cost of advertising divided by the number of quitline calls generated by that advertising. Advertising was bought in one-week or two-week blocks and included 27 daytime television buys, 22 evening television buys and 31 radio buys. Cost effectiveness varied widely by medium, time of day and advertisement used. Daytime television was seven times more cost effective than evening television and also more cost effective than radio. The most effective advertisements at generating quitline calls were real life testimonials by people who lost family members to tobacco and advertisements that deal practically with how to quit. Placement of television advertisements during the day versus the evening can increase an advertisement's effectiveness in generating calls to a quitline. Some advertising messages were more effective than others in generating calls to a quitline. Quitline providers can apply findings from previous research when planning media campaigns. In addition, call volume should be monitored in order to assess the cost effectiveness of different strategies to promote use of the quitline.

  13. The association between advertising and calls to a tobacco quitline

    PubMed Central

    Mosbaek, Craig H; Austin, Donald F; Stark, Michael J; Lambert, Lori C

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the cost effectiveness of different types of television and radio advertisements and the time of day in which advertisements were placed in generating calls to the Oregon tobacco quitline. Design Cost effectiveness was measured by cost per call, calculated as the cost of advertising divided by the number of quitline calls generated by that advertising. Advertising was bought in one‐week or two‐week blocks and included 27 daytime television buys, 22 evening television buys and 31 radio buys. Results Cost effectiveness varied widely by medium, time of day and advertisement used. Daytime television was seven times more cost effective than evening television and also more cost effective than radio. The most effective advertisements at generating quitline calls were real life testimonials by people who lost family members to tobacco and advertisements that deal practically with how to quit. Conclusions Placement of television advertisements during the day versus the evening can increase an advertisement's effectiveness in generating calls to a quitline. Some advertising messages were more effective than others in generating calls to a quitline. Quitline providers can apply findings from previous research when planning media campaigns. In addition, call volume should be monitored in order to assess the cost effectiveness of different strategies to promote use of the quitline. PMID:18048626

  14. Can a gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) generalize call classes?

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Amanda L; de Freitas, Mafalda; Wu, Gi-Mick; Janik, Vincent M

    2015-11-01

    Past researchers have found that gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) are capable of classifying vocal signals by call type using a trained set, but were unable to generalize to novel exemplars (Shapiro, Slater, & Janik, 2004). Given the importance of auditory categorization in communication, it would be surprising if the animals were unable to generalize acoustically similar calls into classes. Here, we trained a juvenile gray seal to discriminate novel calls into 2 classes, "growls" and "moans," by vocally matching call types (i.e., the seal moaned when played a moan and growled when played a growl). Our method differed from the previous study as we trained the animal using a comparatively large set of exemplars with standardized durations, consisting of both the seal's own calls and those of 2 other seals. The seal successfully discriminated growls and moans for both her own (94% correct choices) and the other seals' (87% correct choices) calls. We used a generalized linear model (GLM) and found that the seal's performance significantly improved across test sessions, and that accuracy was higher during the first presentation of a sound from her own repertoire but decreased after multiple exposures. This pattern was not found for calls from unknown seals. Factor analysis for mixed data (FAMD) identified acoustic parameters that could be used to discriminate between call types and individuals. Growls and moans differed in noise, duration and frequency parameters, whereas individuals differed only in frequency. These data suggest that the seal could have gained information about both call type and caller identity using frequency cues.

  15. National survey of pharmacy residency on-call programs.

    PubMed

    Holder, Martina; Smith, Kelly M; Fugit, Ann; Macaulay, Tracy; Cook, Aaron M

    2013-10-01

    The results of a national survey to evaluate on-call practices and responsibilities of pharmacy residents nationwide, as well as opinions related to duty-hour changes, are reported. A 39-question survey was distributed to 1292 residency program directors (RPDs) listed in the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) online residency directory, which includes programs in all stages of the accreditation process. The survey opened on November 7, 2011, and closed on November 28, 2011. The survey collected demographic information and answers to questions about the residency's on-call component (if applicable) and barriers to the creation of an on-call component. Respondents were also asked to indicate their support of or opposition to the adoption of the 2011 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour rules and identify the areas of greatest concern. Of the 1292 RPDs listed in the ASHP online residency directory to whom the survey was sent, 521 surveys were completed, yielding a response rate of 40%. Of these, 471 identified their residency program as including or excluding an on-call component. Of the 138 programs with on-call services, 102 programs (74%) indicated the inclusion of an overnight experience. Programs that did not utilize an on-call component indicated barriers such as a perceived lack of demand (39%) and duty-hour limitations (21%). Common on-call activities included drug information consults and therapeutic drug monitoring. There was not a clear consensus from RPDs regarding the adoption of the 2011 ACGME duty-hour standards. Among usable responses to a survey of pharmacy residency programs, 29% indicated that their program included an on-call component. On-call programs varied greatly in activities, location, hours, and requirements.

  16. Eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls: from mechanisms to consequences.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; Fallow, Pamela M; Radford, Andrew N

    2015-05-01

    Animals often gather information from other species by eavesdropping on signals intended for others. We review the extent, benefits, mechanisms, and ecological and evolutionary consequences of eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls. Eavesdropping has been shown experimentally in about 70 vertebrate species, and can entail closely or distantly related species. The benefits of eavesdropping include prompting immediate anti-predator responses, indirect enhancement of foraging or changed habitat use, and learning about predators. Eavesdropping on heterospecifics can provide more eyes looking for danger, complementary information to that from conspecifics, and potentially information at reduced cost. The response to heterospecific calls can be unlearned or learned. Unlearned responses occur when heterospecific calls have acoustic features similar to that used to recognize conspecific calls, or acoustic properties such as harsh sounds that prompt attention and may allow recognition or facilitate learning. Learning to recognize heterospecific alarm calls is probably essential to allow recognition of the diversity of alarm calls, but the evidence is largely indirect. The value of eavesdropping on different species is affected by problems of signal interception and the relevance of heterospecific alarm calls to the listener. These constraints on eavesdropping will affect how information flows among species and thus affect community function. Some species are 'keystone' information producers, while others largely seek information, and these differences probably affect the formation and function of mixed-species groups. Eavesdroppers might also integrate alarm calls from multiple species to extract relevant and reliable information. Eavesdropping appears to set the stage for the evolution of interspecific deception and communication, and potentially affects communication within species. Overall, we now know that eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls is an important

  17. An empirical analysis of the corporate call decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Murray Dean

    1998-12-01

    In this thesis we provide insights into the behavior of financial managers of utility companies by studying their decisions to redeem callable preferred shares. In particular, we investigate whether or not an option pricing based model of the call decision, with managers who maximize shareholder value, does a better job of explaining callable preferred share prices and call decisions than do other models of the decision. In order to perform these tests, we extend an empirical technique introduced by Rust (1987) to include the use of information from preferred share prices in addition to the call decisions. The model we develop to value the option embedded in a callable preferred share differs from standard models in two ways. First, as suggested in Kraus (1983), we explicitly account for transaction costs associated with a redemption. Second, we account for state variables that are observed by the decision makers but not by the preferred shareholders. We interpret these unobservable state variables as the benefits and costs associated with a change in capital structure that can accompany a call decision. When we add this variable, our empirical model changes from one which predicts exactly when a share should be called to one which predicts the probability of a call as the function of the observable state. These two modifications of the standard model result in predictions of calls, and therefore of callable preferred share prices, that are consistent with several previously unexplained features of the data; we show that the predictive power of the model is improved in a statistical sense by adding these features to the model. The pricing and call probability functions from our model do a good job of describing call decisions and preferred share prices for several utilities. Using data from shares of the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PGE) we obtain reasonable estimates for the transaction costs associated with a call. Using a formal empirical test, we are able to

  18. Base-calling for next-generation sequencing platforms.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing platforms are dramatically reducing the cost of DNA sequencing. With these technologies, bases are inferred from light intensity signals, a process commonly referred to as base-calling. Thus, understanding and improving the quality of sequence data generated using these approaches are of high interest. Recently, a number of papers have characterized the biases associated with base-calling and proposed methodological improvements. In this review, we summarize recent development of base-calling approaches for the Illumina and Roche 454 sequencing platforms.

  19. CALL and the Man/Machine Interface. Proceedings of the Annual Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Workshop (4th, London, England, 1985). CALL Report 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eric, Comp.

    The proceedings of the workshop on the interface between humans and machines in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include the texts of four papers, descriptions of the software demonstrated, an information exchange section, a report of the plenary session, a comment on the workshop, a list of participants, a review of current research in…

  20. Age related decline in female lar gibbon great call performance suggests that call features correlate with physical condition.

    PubMed

    Terleph, Thomas A; Malaivijitnond, S; Reichard, U H

    2016-01-05

    White-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) are small Asian apes known for living in stable territories and producing loud, elaborate vocalizations (songs), often in well-coordinated male/female duets. The female great call, the most conspicuous phrase of the repertoire, has been hypothesized to function in intra-sexual territorial defense. We therefore predicted that characteristics of the great call would correlate with a caller's physical condition, and thus might honestly reflect resource holding potential (RHP). Because measurement of RHP is virtually impossible for wild animals, we used age as a proxy, hypothesizing that great call climaxes are difficult to produce and maintain over time, and that older adults will therefore perform lower quality great calls than young adults. To test this we analyzed the great call climaxes of 15 wild lar gibbon females at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand and 2 captive females at Leo Conservation Center, Greenwich, CT. Findings show that call climaxes correlate with female age, as young animals (n = 8, mean age: 12.9 years) produced climaxes with a higher frequency range (delta F0), maximum F0 frequency and duty cycle than old animals (n = 9, mean age: 29.6 years). A permuted discriminant function analysis also correctly classified calls by age group. During long song bouts the maximum F0 frequency of great call climaxes' also decreased. Additional data support the hypothesis that short high notes, associated with rapid inhalation as an individual catches its breath, reflect increased caller effort. Older females produced more high notes than younger females, but the difference only approached statistical significance, suggesting that calling effort may be similar across different ages. Finally, for the first time in this species, we measured peak intensity of calls in captive females. They were capable of producing climaxes in excess of 100 dB at close range (2.7 m). Age and within-bout differences in the lar gibbon

  1. Front elevation of highlift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of high-lift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called U.S. Route 29 or Columbia Pike) is in foreground. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  2. Vocal complexity influences female responses to gelada male calls

    PubMed Central

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that inter-sexual selection drives the evolution of complex vocal communication in birds, but parallel lines of evidence are almost entirely absent in mammals. This dearth of evidence, particularly among primates, limits our understanding of the link between sociality and vocal complexity. Here, we use a playback experiment to quantify how wild female geladas (Theropithecus gelada) respond to three call types that are ‘derived’ (i.e., unique to geladas) and made by males during various affiliative contexts. These derived calls appeared to be highly salient and preferable to females: they looked longer towards and spent more time in proximity to playbacks of male vocal sequences containing one of the derived calls than to sequences containing only common and less elaborate ‘grunt’ calls. Our results provide the first experimental evidence for vocal elaboration as a male-specific strategy to maintain social bonds with females in non-human primates. PMID:26790770

  3. Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162446.html Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure People who added this practice to a healthy ... in people who are at risk for developing hypertension, a new study finds. "Patients with pre-hypertension [ ...

  4. Suzanne Newton's "I Will Call it Georgie's Blues".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes Suzanne Newton's children's book, "I Will Call It Georgie's Blues." Includes discussion questions about the book, and a list of activities. Provides an annotated bibliography of fiction, picture books, nonfiction, and biography titles about jazz and jazz musicians. (AEF)

  5. Should physicians be allowed to use alcohol while on call?

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, J; Desbiens, N

    2005-01-01

    Although physician alcohol use that leads to impairment has been extensively discussed, few statements address the issue of alcohol use of physicians who are on call. In this paper the authors review recent information on physicians' perceptions of alcohol use by themselves and their colleagues while on call. It is argued that conflicts in physicians' perceptions are due to the fact that the larger society has not addressed the question of whether drinking on call is public or private behaviour. The authors argue that when medicine is understood as a practice defined partly in terms of standards of excellence, the present approach of the American Medical Association to prohibit practicing medicine under the influence of alcohol requires a prohibition of drinking alcohol while on call, unless studies determine a clear threshold for drinking alcohol without placing patients at risk. PMID:15634748

  6. Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164202.html Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you've got a family history of colon or rectal cancers, you probably ...

  7. Telephone calls postdischarge from hospital to home: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hand, Kristin E; Cunningham, Regina S

    2014-02-01

    The oncology population is particularly affected by hospital readmissions because hospitalized patients with cancer often have complex needs. The complexity and diversity of care requirements create substantial challenges in planning for appropriate postdischarge support. Implementing postdischarge telephone calls in the population of patients with cancer could offer a low-cost intervention to address the complex needs of patients during the transition from hospital to home. The goal of the current literature review is to provide an understanding about postdischarge telephone calls in patients with cancer. Findings from this review support the notion that discharge phone calls could improve care continuity for patients transitioning from hospital to home. The literature review outlines information related to telephone call content, timing, and structure for healthcare systems that want to use a postdischarge telephone intervention for patients with cancer. However, additional research is needed to develop and test cancer-specific protocols.

  8. CALLING SONG DISPLACEMENT IN A ZONE OF OVERLAP AND HYBRIDIZATION.

    PubMed

    Benedix, J H; Howard, Daniel J

    1991-12-01

    The ground crickets Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius meet in a mosaic zone of overlap and hybridization stretching from the East Coast to at least Illinois. To test whether male calling song differences were enhanced in sympatry, we analyzed the songs of crickets from inside and outside the zone of overlap along two transects. No evidence of calling song displacement was found in A. socius males from populations within the zone of overlap. On the other hand, A. fasciatus displayed calling song displacement in three populations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the selective pressure exerted by the challenge from a related species is frequency dependent. While not a conclusive demonstration, the observed shifts in calling song are strongly suggestive of reproductive character displacement. © 1991 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Senate committee calls for major new spending on health care.

    PubMed

    Garmaise, David

    2002-12-01

    Senator Michael Kirby's committee says that the federal government should invest $6.5 billion more each year. It calls for the establishment of new national programs to pay for catastrophic drug costs and to expand home and palliative care.

  10. 43 CFR 3921.60 - Call for applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Pre-Sale Activities § 3921.60 Call for applications. If, as a result of the analysis of the expression of leasing...

  11. Blood Shortage Prompts Red Cross Call for Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Blood Shortage Prompts Red Cross Call for Donations Says decline in donors seen over holidays To ... 2017 FRIDAY, Jan. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Blood donations to the American Red Cross have slumped recently, ...

  12. 16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 5. VIEW OF MISSILE ASSEMBLY CALLED 'FIRE HOUSE,' LOOKING NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF MISSILE ASSEMBLY CALLED 'FIRE HOUSE,' LOOKING NORTH, LOCATED NEAR GATE AT ENTRANCE TO LAUNCH AREA Marilyn Ziemer, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  16. The Pope's encyclical as a call for democratic social change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Anabela

    2015-10-01

    The climate change encyclical represents a decisive democratic act. It calls on citizens to challenge dominant politics, power, and consumer culture in the name of tackling one of the world's great socio-environmental issues.

  17. [Calling and mating behaviors of bamboo shoot borer Kumasia kumaso].

    PubMed

    Shu, Jin-Ping; Teng, Ying; Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Deng, Shun; Wang, Hao-Jie

    2012-12-01

    The calling and mating behaviors of Kumasia kumaso were studied in laboratory at (25 1) degrees C and (60 +/- 10) % RH under a cycle 14 L:10 D photo period, and the EAG response of male K. kumaso to female K. kumaso sex gland extracts was also tested. The calling and mating behaviors of K. kumaso could only be observed in scotophase. The females began calling at the first scotophase following emergence, and the peak of calling occurred during the second scotophase and decreased thereafter. The calling of the females commenced 0-4 h after dark, reached the maximum between the 5th and the 7th hour of the scotophase, and terminated during the last 1-2.5 h of the scotophase. Moth age had significant effects on the calling patterns. With increasing moth age, the onset time of calling advanced gradually, and the mean number of calling bouts as well as the calling length per bout had a gradual increase from calling day 1 to day 4 but decreased on day 5. The peak time and terminated time of calling advanced with increasing moth age. The mating of K. kumaso adults initiated during the first scotophase and terminated till the 5th scotophase following emergence, and the peak of mating was observed during the second scotophase. The peak of mating was observed 5.5-7.0 h after dark, and advanced with increasing moth age. Moth age affected the mean onset time of mating and the copulation duration significantly. With increasing moth age, the mean onset time of mating advanced, and the copulation duration decreased. Sex ratio had significant effects on the mating behavior as well. Treatment 2 female:1 male showed a significantly higher mating percentage, but an earlier onset time of mating and shorter copulation duration, as compared with treatment 1 female:1 male. The results of EAG test indicated that the male adults showed a significant EAG response to the sex gland extracts of 2-day-old virgin females.

  18. Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.

    PubMed

    Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

    2007-12-22

    The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species.

  19. The Call to Excellence--No Room for Complacency.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The call of the nurse is to promote, protect, and support health in all areas of life. Christian nurses are further called to imitate Jesus Christ. Yet, complacency is a common attitude among nurses. With new national standards of collecting and publicly reporting patient perceptions of care, positive nursing attitudes and excellent care are imperative to successful outcomes. What does it mean to seek professional excellence?

  20. Optimizing System Call Latency of ARM Virtual Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sok, Song-Woo; Jung, Young-Woo; Lee, Cheol-Hun

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces ViMo-S, a type 1 hypervisor for ARMv7 and ARMv8-based ARM server systems. It supports full virtualization to run existing operating systems and applications unmodified. It uses ARM hardware virtualization extensions to optimize the performance of virtual machines, especially system call latency. Therefore, its virtual machines’ system call latency is near physical machine’s, while other hypervisors like Xen and KVM show relatively slower and unstable performances in benchmark tests.

  1. Dialogue Management for an Automated Multilingual Call Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Dialogue Management for an Automated Multilingual Call Center Hilda Hardy, Tomek Strzalkowski and Min Wu Institute for Informatics, Logics and...VESCYS, and Viel et Cie. Introduction The AMITIÉS project (Automated Multilingual Interac- tion with Information and Services) has been estab- lished...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dialogue Management for an Automated Multilingual Call Center 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  2. Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

    Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

  3. Calling by concluding sentinels: coordinating cooperation or revealing risk?

    PubMed

    Hollén, Linda I; Bell, Matthew B V; Russell, Alexis; Niven, Fraser; Ridley, Amanda R; Radford, Andrew N

    2011-01-01

    Efficient cooperation requires effective coordination of individual contributions to the cooperative behaviour. Most social birds and mammals involved in cooperation produce a range of vocalisations, which may be important in regulating both individual contributions and the combined group effort. Here we investigate the role of a specific call in regulating cooperative sentinel behaviour in pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor). 'Fast-rate chuck' calls are often given by sentinels as they finish guard bouts and may potentially coordinate the rotation of individuals as sentinels, minimising time without a sentinel, or may signal the presence or absence of predators, regulating the onset of the subsequent sentinel bout. We ask (i) when fast-rate chuck calls are given and (ii) what effect they have on the interval between sentinel bouts. Contrary to expectation, we find little evidence that these calls are involved in regulating the pied babbler sentinel system: observations revealed that their utterance is influenced only marginally by wind conditions and not at all by habitat, while observations and experimental playback showed that the giving of these calls has no effect on inter-bout interval. We conclude that pied babblers do not seem to call at the end of a sentinel bout to maximise the efficiency of this cooperative act, but may use vocalisations at this stage to influence more individually driven behaviours.

  4. Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Kiriazis, Judith; Slobodchikoff, C N

    2006-07-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. The escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, and standing upright outside the burrow for coyotes and dogs. Within these two categories there were differences in response. For hawks, only the prairie dogs that were in the direct flight path of a stooping red-tailed hawk ran to their burrows and dove inside, while for humans and human alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and diving inside. For coyotes and coyote alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and standing alert at the burrow rims, while for domestic dogs and playbacks of alarm calls for domestic dogs the prairie dogs assumed an alert posture wherever they were feeding, but did not run to their burrows. These responses to both the live predators and to predator-elicited alarm calls suggest that the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs contain meaningful referential information about the categories of predators that approach a colony of prairie dogs.

  5. Reproducibility of Variant Calls in Replicate Next Generation Sequencing Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yuan; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Wang, Bailing; Hess, Kenneth R.; Symmans, W. Fraser; Shi, Weiwei; Pusztai, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide alterations detected by next generation sequencing are not always true biological changes but could represent sequencing errors. Even highly accurate methods can yield substantial error rates when applied to millions of nucleotides. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of nucleotide variant calls in replicate sequencing experiments of the same genomic DNA. We performed targeted sequencing of all known human protein kinase genes (kinome) (~3.2 Mb) using the SOLiD v4 platform. Seventeen breast cancer samples were sequenced in duplicate (n=14) or triplicate (n=3) to assess concordance of all calls and single nucleotide variant (SNV) calls. The concordance rates over the entire sequenced region were >99.99%, while the concordance rates for SNVs were 54.3-75.5%. There was substantial variation in basic sequencing metrics from experiment to experiment. The type of nucleotide substitution and genomic location of the variant had little impact on concordance but concordance increased with coverage level, variant allele count (VAC), variant allele frequency (VAF), variant allele quality and p-value of SNV-call. The most important determinants of concordance were VAC and VAF. Even using the highest stringency of QC metrics the reproducibility of SNV calls was around 80% suggesting that erroneous variant calling can be as high as 20-40% in a single experiment. The sequence data have been deposited into the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA) with accession number EGAS00001000826. PMID:26136146

  6. A method for calling copy number polymorphism using haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ho Jang, Gun; Christie, Jason D.; Feng, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variation (CNV) are both widespread characteristic of the human genome, but are often called separately on common genotyping platforms. To capture integrated SNP and CNV information, methods have been developed for calling allelic specific copy numbers or so called copy number polymorphism (CNP), using limited inter-marker correlation. In this paper, we proposed a haplotype-based maximum likelihood method to call CNP, which takes advantage of the valuable multi-locus linkage disequilibrium (LD) information in the population. We also developed a computationally efficient algorithm to estimate haplotype frequencies and optimize individual CNP calls iteratively, even at presence of missing data. Through simulations, we demonstrated our model is more sensitive and accurate in detecting various CNV regions, compared with commonly-used CNV calling methods including PennCNV, another hidden Markov model (HMM) using CNP, a scan statistic, segCNV, and cnvHap. Our method often performs better in the regions with higher LD, in longer CNV regions, and in common CNV than the opposite. We implemented our method on the genotypes of 90 HapMap CEU samples and 23 patients with acute lung injury (ALI). For each ALI patient the genotyping was performed twice. The CNPs from our method show good consistency and accuracy comparable to others. PMID:24069028

  7. Individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Wren Thomas, A

    2012-05-01

    Many vocalizations are encoded with a diversity of acoustic information about the signal producer. Amongst this information content are social categories related to the identity of the caller that are important for determining if and how a signal receiver may interact with that individual. Here, we employed a novel playback method in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to test individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling. These experiments utilized custom, interactive playback software that effectively engaged subjects in antiphonal calling using vocalizations produced by a single individual and presented 'probe' vocalization stimuli representing a different individual at specific points within bouts of calling. The aim here was to test whether marmosets would recognize that the probe stimulus was a phee call produced by a different individual. Data indicated that marmosets were able to detect the change in caller identity; subjects produced significantly fewer antiphonal call responses to probe than control stimuli and, in some conditions, exhibited a shorter latency to produce the vocal response. These data suggest that marmosets recognize the identity of the individual during bouts of antiphonal calling. Furthermore, these results provide a methodological foundation for implementing the probe playback procedure to examine a broader range of social categorization during vocal interactions.

  8. Seasonal and diurnal calling patterns of Ross and leopards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Rowney, Gayle A.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    The temporal calling patterns of two Antarctic pack ice seals, the leopard and Ross seal, were examined. This included seasonal onset and decline of calling (coinciding with their breeding season) as well as diurnal changes. Understanding of calling behavior has important implications for acoustic surveying, since this allows the number of calls to be related to an index of the number of animals present and to estimate abundance. The monthly changes in diurnal calling and haul-out patterns (measured via satellite telemetry) were compared. Underwater acoustic recordings were made between 14 October 2003 and 10 January 2004 off Mawson, Eastern Antarctica (660 44.243S and 690 48.748E). Recordings were made using an Acoustics Recording Package (ARP by Dr. John Hildebrand, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA) which is designed to sit on the seafloor and passively record acoustic signals. The package was deployed at a depth of 1320.7 m. The sampling rate was 500 Hz and the effective bandwidth from 10 to 250 Hz, covering the bandwidth of only the low-frequency calls of the Ross and leopard seal.

  9. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  10. Distress calls may honestly signal bird quality to predators.

    PubMed

    Laiolo, Paola; Tella, José L; Carrete, Martina; Serrano, David; López, Guillermo

    2004-12-07

    In predator-prey interactions, both interactors may benefit from sharing information about prey vulnerability. We examined the relationship between calls used to discourage close predators (distress calls) and the health condition of the caller to test whether these signals are reliable indicators of prey quality. The structure of calls from captured lesser short-toed larks Calandrella rufescens was related to their body condition and T-cell-mediated immunocompetence. Birds in better nutritional and immunological condition utter harsher calls (i.e. they spread the call energy over a wider range of frequency) than birds in poorer conditions. Hence, the harshness of distress calls seems honestly to signal the health status of prey and thus their ability to escape, on which the predator might base its optimal foraging choice. Previous studies have investigated the honesty of songs that have evolved via sexual selection, but this is the first study, to our knowledge, the demonstrates a relationship between individual quality and a vocalization primarily shaped by natural selection.

  11. Distress calls may honestly signal bird quality to predators.

    PubMed Central

    Laiolo, Paola; Tella, José L; Carrete, Martina; Serrano, David; López, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    In predator-prey interactions, both interactors may benefit from sharing information about prey vulnerability. We examined the relationship between calls used to discourage close predators (distress calls) and the health condition of the caller to test whether these signals are reliable indicators of prey quality. The structure of calls from captured lesser short-toed larks Calandrella rufescens was related to their body condition and T-cell-mediated immunocompetence. Birds in better nutritional and immunological condition utter harsher calls (i.e. they spread the call energy over a wider range of frequency) than birds in poorer conditions. Hence, the harshness of distress calls seems honestly to signal the health status of prey and thus their ability to escape, on which the predator might base its optimal foraging choice. Previous studies have investigated the honesty of songs that have evolved via sexual selection, but this is the first study, to our knowledge, the demonstrates a relationship between individual quality and a vocalization primarily shaped by natural selection. PMID:15801619

  12. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Wright, Genevieve S; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

    2013-01-01

    Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  13. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve S.; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

  14. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  15. Missing call bias in high-throughput genotyping.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenqing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Ying; Li, Rui; Lin, Rong; Jin, Li

    2009-03-13

    The advent of high-throughput and cost-effective genotyping platforms made genome-wide association (GWA) studies a reality. While the primary focus has been invested upon the improvement of reducing genotyping error, the problems associated with missing calls are largely overlooked. To probe into the effect of missing calls on GWAs, we demonstrated experimentally the prevalence and severity of the problem of missing call bias (MCB) in four genotyping technologies (Affymetrix 500 K SNP array, SNPstream, TaqMan, and Illumina Beadlab). Subsequently, we showed theoretically that MCB leads to biased conclusions in the subsequent analyses, including estimation of allele/genotype frequencies, the measurement of HWE and association tests under various modes of inheritance relationships. We showed that MCB usually leads to power loss in association tests, and such power change is greater than what could be achieved by equivalent reduction of sample size unbiasedly. We also compared the bias in allele frequency estimation and in association tests introduced by MCB with those by genotyping errors. Our results illustrated that in most cases, the bias can be greatly reduced by increasing the call-rate at the cost of genotyping error rate. The commonly used 'no-call' procedure for the observations of borderline quality should be modified. If the objective is to minimize the bias, the cut-off for call-rate and that for genotyping error rate should be properly coupled in GWA. We suggested that the ongoing QC cut-off for call-rate should be increased, while the cut-off for genotyping error rate can be reduced properly.

  16. Economies of Scale: 9-1-1 Center Consolidation as a Means to Strengthen the Homeland Security Enterprise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Stockton, CA, have seen revenue declines that threaten their ability to provide core, essential services. This has forced local governments to consider...during operational policy development as well. Initially, there was active participation and buy-in from employees, but this declined in relatively...functions and allows the mid- managers to fully run BOEC operations. Director Turley advised that BOEC staffing levels had declined since the late

  17. Correlated evolution between hearing sensitivity and social calls in bats.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Kirsten M; Moss, Cynthia F; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2006-12-22

    Echolocating bats are auditory specialists, with exquisite hearing that spans several octaves. In the ultrasonic range, bat audiograms typically show highest sensitivity in the spectral region of their species-specific echolocation calls. Well-developed hearing in the audible range has been commonly attributed to a need to detect sounds produced by prey. However, bat pups often emit isolation calls with low-frequency components that facilitate mother-young reunions. In this study, we examine whether low-frequency hearing in bats exhibits correlated evolution with (i) body size; (ii) high-frequency hearing sensitivity or (iii) pup isolation call frequency. Using published audiograms, we found that low-frequency hearing sensitivity is not dependent on body size but is related to high-frequency hearing. After controlling for high-frequency hearing, we found that low-frequency hearing exhibits correlated evolution with isolation call frequency. We infer that detection and discrimination of isolation calls have favoured enhanced low-frequency hearing because accurate parental investment is critical: bats have low reproductive rates, non-volant altricial young and must often identify their pups within large crèches.

  18. Rapid Response Team composition, resourcing and calling criteria in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daryl; Drennan, Kelly; Hart, Graeme K; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Web, Steven A R

    2012-05-01

    Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) have been introduced into at least 60% of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) - equipped Australian hospitals to review deteriorating ward patients. Most studies have assessed their impact on patient outcome and less information exists on team composition or aspects of their calling criteria. We obtained information on team composition, resourcing and details of activation criteria from 39 of 108 (36.1%) RRT-equipped Australian hospitals. We found that all 39 teams operated 24/7 (h/days), but only 10 (25.6%) had received additional funding for the service. Although 38/39 teams, were physician-led medical emergency teams, in 7 (17.9%) sites the most senior member would be unlikely to have advanced airway skills. Three quarters of calling criteria were structured into "ABCD", and approximately 40% included cardiac and/or respiratory arrest as a calling criterion. Thresholds for calling criteria varied widely (particularly for respiratory rate and heart rate), as did the wording of the worried/concerned criterion. There was also wide variation in the number and nature of additional activation criteria. Our findings imply the likelihood of significant practice variation in relation to RRT composition, staff skill set and activation criteria between hospitals. We recommend improved resourcing of RRTs, training of the team members, and consideration for improved standardisation of calling criteria across institutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of the Shenzhen Emergency Medical Service Call Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Man Lo, Shuk; Min Yu, Yi; Larry Lee, Lap Yip; Eliza Wong, Mi Ling; Ying Chair, Sek; J Kalinowski, Edward; Jimmy Chan, Tak Shing

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Shenzhen, the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system has been in service since 1997. This study aims to examine the operation of Shenzhen 120 EMS center and to identify the reasons of calling EMS. METHODS: In this retrospective quantitative descriptive study, the data from the Shenzhen 120 EMS registry in 2011 were analyzed. RESULTS: Shenzhen 120 EMS center is a communication command center. When the number of 120 are dialed, it is forwarded to the closest appropriate hospital for ambulance dispatch. In 2011, the Shenzhen 120 EMS center received 153 160 ambulance calls, with an average of 420 calls per day. Calling emergency services was mainly due to traffic accidents. Trauma and other acute diseases constituted a majority of ambulance transports. The adult patients aged 15–60 years are the principal users of EMS. There are no recognized ‘paramedic’ doctors and nurses. The pre-hospital emergency service is under the operation of emergency departments of hospitals. Shenzhen at present does not have specialized pre-hospital training for doctors and nurses in post-trauma management. Moreover, specialized pre-hospital training, financial support, and public health education on proper use of EMS should be emphasized. CONCLUSION: The Shenzhen 120 EMS center has its own epidemiology characteristics. Traumatic injury and traffic accident are the main reasons for calling ambulance service. In-depth study emphasizing the distribution and characteristics of trauma patients is crucial to the future development of EMS. PMID:25215072

  20. Female bonobos use copulation calls as social signals

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Zanna; Pika, Simone; Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    During mating events, females of many primate species produce loud and distinct vocalizations known as ‘copulation calls’. The adaptive significance of these signals is considered to be in promoting the caller's direct reproductive success. Here, we investigated copulation calling in bonobos (Pan paniscus), a species in which females produce these vocalizations during sexual interactions with partners of both sexes. Females were more likely to call when mating with males than with females. We also observed a positive relationship between the likelihood of calling and partner rank, regardless of partner sex. Sexual activity generally increased with swelling size (an indicator of reproductive state) and, during their peak swelling, females called more with male than with female partners. Female bonobos are unusual among the non-human primates in terms of their heightened socio-sexuality. Our results suggest that in this species, copulation calls have undergone an evolutionary transition from a purely reproductive to a more general social function, reflecting the intrinsic evolutionary links between vocal behaviour and social cognition. PMID:21325305