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Sample records for 9-bp deletion polymorphism

  1. Asian-specific mitochondrial genome polymorphism (9-bp deletion) in Hungarian patients with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Pentelenyi, Klara; Remenyi, Viktoria; Gal, Aniko; Milley, Gyorgy Mate; Csosz, Aranka; Mende, Balazs Gusztav; Molnar, Maria Judit

    2016-05-01

    A 9-bp deletion of the mtDNA is known as an anthropological marker of people with East-Asian origin. This 9-bp mtDNA deletion was analyzed in 1073 Hungarians with suspected mitochondrial disease and in 468 healthy control individuals. Fourteen cases with the 9-bp deletion were found in the cohort of mitochondrial patients, and one individual from 468 controls. In six cases the 9-bp deletion was present together with pathogenic major deletions in the mitochondrial genome. In one patient we found a frame shift mutation in the D-loop region, and in another family a pathogenic m.8322 A > G mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene. Although the 9-bp deletion is common in the populations of the Pacific region and Asia, it is present in the Hungarian population as well. This 9-bp deletion may induce instability of the mtDNA and may provoke the introduction of other pathogenic mutations. PMID:25242187

  2. About the {open_quotes}Asian{close_quotes}-specific 9-bp deletion of mtDNA...

    SciTech Connect

    Torroni, A.; Petrozzi, M.; Santolamazza, P.

    1995-08-01

    The 9-bp deletion between the COII and tRNA{sup Lys} genes is due to the lack of one of two adjacent copies of a 9-bp sequence usually present in human mtDNA. This mutation is very common in Asians and populations of Asian ancestry (e.g., Polynesians and Amerinds) and often has been considered and ethnic-specific polymorphism for these populations. We now report the detection of the COII-tRNA{sup Lys} 9-bp deletion in an individual of Italian descent. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the 9-bp deletion has been observed in Europeans. 19 refs.

  3. Mitochondrial intergenic COII/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp deletion, a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Ren, Weihua; Li, Yawei; Li, Rui; Feng, Hongbo; Wu, Shuangting; Mao, Yuhui; Huang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The COII/tRNA(Lys) intergenic 9-bp deletion is one of the most commonly studied human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms. It consists of the loss of one of two tandemly repeated copies of the sequence CCCCCTCTA from a non-coding region located between cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and tRNA(Lys) gene. Most recently, case-control studies have shown a positive association between this deletion with hepatocellular cancer. In this study, we first performed a detailed analysis between this deletion and clinical diseases; moreover, we took the phylogenetic approach to examine the pathogenicity status of 9-bp deletion. PMID:26017042

  4. An Asian-specific 9-bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA is frequently found in Polynesians.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, M; Mickleson, K N; Serjeantson, S W; Prior, J F; Trent, R J

    1989-04-01

    One hundred fifty Polynesians from five different island groups (Samoans, Maoris, Niueans, Cook Islanders, and Tongans) were surveyed for the presence of an Asian-specific length mutation of mitochondrial (mt) DNA by using enzymatic amplification with thermostable Taq DNA polymerase. Ninety-three percent of Polynesians exhibited this 9-bp deletion, including 100% of Samoans, Maoris, and Niueans. The same deletion was also found in 8% of Tolais from New Britain and in 14% of coastal New Guineans. A deletion frequency of 82% in Fijians confirmed their ethnic affinity to Polynesians. In contrast, the deletion was absent in 30 New Guinea highlanders and 31 Australian aborigines, the only exception being an aborigine who also had the Southeast Asian triplicated zeta-globin gene rearrangement in his nuclear DNA. These data support the theories claiming that an independent group of pre-Polynesian ancestors who colonized into the Pacific were ultimately derived from east Asia. PMID:2929595

  5. Origins and dispersal of the mitochondrial DNA region V 9 bp deletion and insertion in Nigeria and the Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Merriwether, D.A.; Huston, S.L.; Bunker, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    An intergenic region V Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 9 bp deletion located between the genes for tRNA{sup LYS} and cytochrome oxidase II was discovered in a small percentage of Nigerian and Ivory Coast natives. Previously this deletion has been described as Asian-specific and has been reported throughout the New World, Asia, S.E. Asia, and the Pacific Islands at frequencies ranging from 0% to 100%. In the New World and the Pacific Islands, the deletion is almost always accompanied by an Hae III restriction site gain at nt 16517. All 9 occurrences of the deletion observed in Africa (from four different populations) co-occur with the Hae III 16517 site gain, indicating that the African deletion probably shares a common origin with the deletion described as {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes}. The deletion was found in Benin and Sokoto, Nigeria in 2/54 Edo Bini, 1/2 Edo Ishan, 3/99 Hausa, 0/18 Fulani, and 0/16 other Nigerians. The deletion was also detected in 3/115 Ivory Coast natives from Abidjan. A 9 bp insertion (triplication) was observed in 1/115 Ivory Coast natives. The triplicated individual also possessed the Hae III 16517 site gain. The fragment containing the African deletion was sequenced and found to be identical in sequence to the Asian deletion region. D-loop sequence of nts 15975 to 00048 revealed that 2 of the 3 Ivory Coast deleted individuals and 1 of the 6 Nigerians deleted (Hausa) had a T-C transition at nt position 16189 which is common in New World-deleted individuals. These results raise the possibility that the occurrence of this deletion predates the separation of Asian and African populations from a common ancestral populations, or that the deletion has occurred more than once in human evolution. Either explanation requires that caution be exercised when using the 9 bp deletion as a population marker.

  6. mtDNA control-region sequence variation suggests multiple independent origins of an "Asian-specific" 9-bp deletion in sub-Saharan Africans.

    PubMed Central

    Soodyall, H.; Vigilant, L.; Hill, A. V.; Stoneking, M.; Jenkins, T.

    1996-01-01

    The intergenic COII/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp deletion in human mtDNA, which is found at varying frequencies in Asia, Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and the New World, was also found in 81 of 919 sub-Saharan Africans. Using mtDNA control-region sequence data from a subset of 41 individuals with the deletion, we identified 22 unique mtDNA types associated with the deletion in Africa. A comparison of the unique mtDNA types from sub-Saharan Africans and Asians with the 9-bp deletion revealed that sub-Saharan Africans and Asians have sequence profiles that differ in the locations and frequencies of variant sites. Both phylogenetic and mismatch-distribution analysis suggest that 9-bp deletion arose independently in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia and that the deletion has arisen more than once in Africa. Within Africa, the deletion was not found among Khoisan peoples and was rare to absent in western and southwestern African populations, but it did occur in Pygmy and Negroid populations from central Africa and in Malawi and southern African Bantu-speakers. The distribution of the 9-bp deletion in Africa suggests that the deletion could have arisen in central Africa and was then introduced to southern Africa via the recent "Bantu expansion." PMID:8644719

  7. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequence variation suggests an independent origin of an {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes} 9-bp deletion in Africans

    SciTech Connect

    Soodyall, H.; Redd, A.; Vigilant

    1994-09-01

    The intergenic noncoding region between the cytochrome oxidase II and lysyl tRNA genes of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is associated with two tandemly arranged copies of a 9-bp sequence. A deletion of one of these repeats has been found at varying frequencies in populations of Asian descent, and is commonly referred to as an {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes} marker. We report here that the 9-bp deletion is also found at a frequency of 10.2% (66/649) in some indigenous African populations, with frequencies of 28.6% (20/70) in Pygmies, 26.6% (12/45) in Malawians and 15.4% (31/199) in southeastern Bantu-speaking populations. The deletion was not found in 123 Khoisan individuals nor in 209 western Bantu-speaking individuals, with the exception of 3 individuals from one group that was admixed with Pygmies. Sequence analysis of the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region reveals that the types associated with the African 9-bp deletion are different from those found in Asian-derived populations with the deletion. Phylogenetic analysis separates the {open_quotes}African{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Asian{close_quotes} 9-bp deletion types into two different clusters which are statistically supported. Mismatch distributions based on the number of differences between pairs of mtDNA types are consistent with this separation. These findings strongly support the view that the 9-bp deletion originated independently in Africa and in Asia.

  8. COII/tRNA[sup Lys] intergenic 9-bp deletion and other mtDNA markers clearly reveal that the Tharus (Southern Nepal) have oriental affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Passarino, G.; Semino, O.; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A.S.; Modiano, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors searched for the East Asian mtDNA 9-bp deletion in the intergenic COII/tRNA[sup Lys] region in a sample of 107 Tharus (50 from central Terai and 57 from eastern Terai), a population whose anthropological origin has yet to be completely clarified. The deletion, detected by electrophoresis of the PCR-amplified nt 7392-8628 mtDNA fragment after digestion with HaeIII, was found in about 8% of both Tharu groups but was found in none of the 76 Hindus who were examined as a non-Oriental neighboring control population. A complete triplication of the 9-bp unit, the second case so far reported, was also observed in one eastern Tharu. All the mtDNAs with the deletion, and that with the triplication, were further characterized (by PCR amplification of the relevant mTDNA fragments and their digestion with the appropriate enzymes) to locate them in the Ballinger et al. phylogeny of East Asian mtDNA haplotypes. The deletion was found to be associated with four different haplotypes, two of which are reported for the first time. One of the deletions and especially the triplication could be best explained by the assumption of novel length-change events. Ballinger's classification of East Asian mtDNA haplotypes is mainly based on the phenotypes for the DdeI site at nt 10394 and the AluI site at nt 10397. Analysis of the entire Tharu sample revealed that more than 70% of the Tharus have both sites, the association of which has been suggested as an ancient East Asian peculiarity. These results conclusively indicate that the Tharus have a predominantly maternal Oriental ancestry. Moreover, they show at least one and perhaps two further distinct length mutations, and this suggests that the examined region is a hot spot of rearrangements. 21 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Human Diallelic Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Weber, James L.; David, Donna; Heil, Jeremy; Fan, Ying; Zhao, Chengfeng; Marth, Gabor

    2002-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of 2,000 human diallelic insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels) distributed throughout the human genome. Candidate indels were identified by comparison of overlapping genomic or cDNA sequences. Average confirmation rate for indels with a ⩾2-nt allele-length difference was 58%, but the confirmation rate for indels with a 1-nt length difference was only 14%. The vast majority of the human diallelic indels were monomorphic in chimpanzees and gorillas. The ratio of deletion:insertion mutations was 4.1. Allele frequencies for the indels were measured in Europeans, Africans, Japanese, and Native Americans. New alleles were generally lower in frequency than old alleles. This tendency was most pronounced for the Africans, who are likely to be closest among the four groups to the original modern human population. Diallelic indels comprise ∼8% of all human polymorphisms. Their abundance and ease of analysis make them useful for many applications. PMID:12205564

  10. [Distribution of a deletion-insertion polymorphism in intergenic region V of mitochondrial DNA among the aboriginal population of Tuva].

    PubMed

    Golubenko, M V; Puzyrev, V P; Saliukov, V B; Kucher, A N; Sanchat, N O

    2000-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA region V deletion-insertion polymorphism was examined in three Tuvinian populations inhabiting western, northeastern, and southeastern parts of the republic. The 9-bp deletion was characterized by nonrandom distribution across the Tuva territory: its frequency in the western population (13.37%) was statistically significantly higher than that in the northeastern (4.62%), and southeastern populations, as well as in Mongols, who are territorially and ethnically close to Tuvinians. The insertion mutation in the region V was detected with a frequency of about 3% in two out of the three populations tested. PMID:10779913

  11. Identification and characterization of three large deletions and a deletion/polymorphism in the CFTR gene.

    PubMed

    Chevalier-Porst, F; Souche, G; Bozon, D

    2005-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is mainly caused by small molecular lesions of the CFTR gene; mutation detection methods based on conventional PCR do not allow the identification of all CF alleles in a population and large deletions may account for a number of these unidentified molecular lesions. It is only recently that the availability of quantitative PCR methodologies made the search for large gene rearrangements easier in autosomal diseases. Using a combination of different methods, nine of the 37 unidentified CF alleles (24%) were found to harbor large deletions in our cohort of 1600 CF alleles. Three are new deletions, and we report the breakpoints of the previously described EX4_EX10del40kb deletion. An intronic deletion polymorphism affecting intron 17b was also found on almost 1% of "normal" chromosomes. Examination of the breakpoint sequences confirmed that intron 17b is indeed a hot spot for deletions, and that most of these rearrangements are caused by non-homologous recombination. PMID:15841482

  12. Screening of mitochondrial mutations and insertion-deletion polymorphism in gestational diabetes mellitus in the Asian Indian population.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran Ali; Shaik, Noor Ahmad; Pasupuleti, Nagarjuna; Chava, Srinivas; Jahan, Parveen; Hasan, Qurratulain; Rao, Pragna

    2015-05-01

    In this study we scrutinized the association between the A8344G/A3243G mutations and a 9-bp deletion polymorphism with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in an Asian Indian population. The A3243G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)) causes mitochondrial encephalopathy myopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), while the A8344G mutation in tRNA(Lys) causes myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF). We screened 140 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM and 140 non-GDM participants for these mutations by PCR-RFLP analysis. Both A3243G and A8344G were associated with GDM (A3243: OR-3.667, 95% CI = 1.001-13.43, p = 0.03; A8344G: OR-11.00, 95% CI = 0.6026-200.8, p = 0.04). Mitochondrial DNA mutations contribute to the development of GDM. Our results conclude that mitochondrial mutations are associated with the GDM women in our population. Thus it is important to screen other mitochondrial mutations in the GDM women. PMID:25972744

  13. [Preplacentation pregnancy loss in cases of angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, P; Konova, E; Komsa-Penkova, R; Kovacheva, K; Nikolov, N; Simeonova, M; Tanchev, St

    2014-01-01

    The balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis processes is critical for establishment and development of early pregnancy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is related with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity which is a key regulator in embryo implantation. Therefor polymorphisms in ACE gene and variation in ACE activity could be associated with an early pregnancy wastage risk. This study investigated carrier status for insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in introne 16 of ACE gene in 71 women with two or more pregnancy loss in preplacentation period (between 10 and 14 weeks of gestation) and 75 women without pregnancy complications. DD genotype for I/D polymorphism was found respectively in 31% and 24% in patients and controls. Heterozygosity of D allele was found correspondingly in 47.9% and 54.7%. The dominant genetic model was used for allele prevalence comparison. D allele in DD genotype was not significantly prevalent in women with early pregnancy wastage compared with the control subjects, OR = 1.42, 95% CI (0.64-3.15). The study found a weak association between I/D polymorphism and preplacentation pregnancy loss. The additive effect over the pregnancy loss risk of I/D polymorphism could be supposed in a presence of other inherited or acquired factors connected with endometrial receptivity and implantation process. PMID:25510065

  14. High Prevalence of the BIM Deletion Polymorphism in Young Female Breast Cancer in an East Asian Country

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Shen, Chen-Yang; Lee, Jih-Hsiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Yang, Chih-Hsin; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, Dwan-Ying; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wu; Chen, I-Chun; Wu, Pei-Fang; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Background A rapid surge of female breast cancer has been observed in young women in several East Asian countries. The BIM deletion polymorphism, which confers cell resistance to apoptosis, was recently found exclusively in East Asian people with prevalence rate of 12%. We aimed to evaluate the possible role of this genetic alteration in carcinogenesis of breast cancer in East Asians. Method Female healthy volunteers (n = 307), patients in one consecutive stage I-III breast cancer cohort (n = 692) and one metastatic breast cancer cohort (n = 189) were evaluated. BIM wild-type and deletion alleles were separately genotyped in genomic DNAs. Results Both cancer cohorts consistently showed inverse associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and patient age (≤35 y vs. 36-50 y vs. >50 y: 29% vs. 22% vs. 15%, P = 0.006 in the consecutive cohort, and 40% vs. 23% vs. 13%, P = 0.023 in the metastatic cohort). In healthy volunteers, the frequencies of the BIM deletion polymorphism were similar (13%-14%) in all age groups. Further analyses indicated that the BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with specific clinicopathologic features, but it was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71) in the consecutive cohort. Conclusions BIM deletion polymorphism may be involved in the tumorigenesis of the early-onset breast cancer among East Asians. PMID:25909194

  15. Insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) as genetic markers in natural populations

    PubMed Central

    Väli, Ülo; Brandström, Mikael; Johansson, Malin; Ellegren, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background We introduce the use of short insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) for genetic analysis of natural populations. Results Sequence reads from light shot-gun sequencing efforts of different dog breeds were aligned to the dog genome reference sequence and gaps corresponding to indels were identified. One hundred candidate markers (4-bp indels) were selected and genotyped in unrelated dogs (n = 7) and wolves (n = 18). Eighty-one and 76 out of 94 could be validated as polymorphic loci in the respective sample. Mean indel heterozygosity in a diverse set of wolves was 19%, and 74% of the loci had a minor allele frequency of >10%. Indels found to be polymorphic in wolves were subsequently genotyped in a highly bottlenecked Scandinavian wolf population. Fifty-one loci turned out to be polymorphic, showing their utility even in a population with low genetic diversity. In this population, individual heterozygosity measured at indel and microsatellite loci were highly correlated. Conclusion With an increasing amount of sequence information gathered from non-model organisms, we suggest that indels will come to form an important source of genetic markers, easy and cheap to genotype, for studies of natural populations. PMID:18211670

  16. Instrumentation for continuous array genotyping of short insertion/deletion polymorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, Terry L.; Dickinson, William; Che, Jian; Fieweger, Kim; Chudyk, Jon; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Yu, Adong; Weber, James L.

    2003-07-01

    Methods for DNA testing are abundant, however, there is still a need for lower cost, higher-throughput genotyping. Much emphasis has been placed on short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Another important polymorphism is the diallelic short insertion/deletion (indel). Our laboratory is using a continuous reel of 384 well arrays on polypropylene tape to genotype indel polymorphisms. The reel of arrays allows low cost automation, and an opportunity to decrease reaction volumes. The diallelic indel is typed by tagging allele-specific PCR primers with a FAM or JOE molecular beacon uniprimer. Our most recent array pattern contains wells that hold a maximum of 1.1 microliters with reaction volumes of 800 nanoliters. Because micro array tape (microtape) is unique, commercial equipment is not yet available. A series of instruments were developed in-house to handle the tape. A pipetting instrument was developed to deliver the DNA samples or other reagents. A solenoid micro-valve aspirating and jetting unit was developed for dispensing a common reaction mix. The arrays are sealed with commercially available microtiter plate seal material prior to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) within a custom built waterbath thermal cycler. The arrays are scanned using an epi-fluorescence detection unit designed to read FAM and JOE fluorescent dyes. The detector uses an argon ion laser for excitation and two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for detection. The resulting images are processed using custom software.

  17. ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism modulates capillary permeability in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dell'omo, Giulia; Penno, Giuseppe; Pucci, Laura; Lucchesi, Daniela; Fotino, Carmen; Del Prato, Stefano; Pedrinelli, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    A D/D (deletion/deletion) polymorphism within the ACE (angiotensin 1-converting enzyme) gene increases the risk of microalbuminuria, a predictor of atherosclerotic vascular disease, in essential hypertension. It is unknown, however, whether this genetic profile is accompanied by disturbed macromolecular permeability of systemic capillary endothelium, possibly in the context of generalized endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, the ACE gene polymorphism was determined by PCR in 79 never-treated uncomplicated hypertensive men and 16 normotensive men as controls. Evaluation variables were TERalb (transcapillary escape rate of albumin; the 1-h decline rate of intravenous (125)I-albumin, a measure of integrity of systemic capillary endothelium), albuminuria and forearm vasodilation to intra-arterial acetylcholine, an index of NO (nitric oxide)-mediated vasomotion, in addition to a series of sensitive parameters of albumin permeation (blood pressure, metabolic status and smoking habits). Analyses were done by comparing D/D homozygotes with grouped I/D (insertion/deletion) and I/I (insertion/insertion) subjects. TERalb was higher in D/D hypertensives, who had higher albuminuria, more frequent microalbuminuria and comparable forearm responsiveness to intra-arterial acetylcholine. Fasting glucose and insulin, insulin sensitivity, 24-h blood pressure, smoking habits and metabolic parameters did not differ between the two groups. TERalb and urine albumin values were positively associated in the hypertensive subjects. In conclusion, ACE D/D homozygosis, independently of several confounding factors, associates with higher TERalb in men with essential hypertension. This may reflect noxious genetic influences on systemic vascular permeability, a critical control mechanism for atherogenesis in the absence of grossly impaired NO-mediated arteriolar responsiveness. The parallel behaviour of TERalb and albuminuria suggests some shared genetically mediated determinant of renal

  18. Mining for single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions / deletions in expressed sequence tag libraries of oil palm.

    PubMed

    Riju, Aykkal; Chandrasekar, Arumugam; Arunachalam, Vadivel

    2007-01-01

    The oil palm is a tropical oil bearing tree. Recently EST-derived SNPs and SSRs are a free by-product of the currently expanding EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) data bases. The development of high-throughput methods for the detection of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and small indels (insertion / deletion) has led to a revolution in their use as molecular markers. Available (5452) Oil palm EST sequences were mined from dbEST of NCBI. CAP3 program was used to assemble EST sequences into contigs. Candidate SNPs and Indel polymorphisms were detected using the perl script auto_snip version 1.0 which has used 576 ESTs for detecting SNPs and Indel sites. We found 1180 SNP sites and 137 indel polymorphisms with frequency 1.36 SNPs / 100 bp. Among the six tissues from which the EST libraries had been generated, mesocarp had high frequency of 2.91 SNPs and indels per 100 bp whereas the zygotic embryos had lowest frequency of 0.15 per 100 bp. We also used the Shannon index to analyze the proportion of ten possible types of SNP/indels. ESTs from tissues of normal apex showed highest values of Shannon index (0.60) whereas abnormal apex had least value (0.02). The present report deals the use of Shannon index for comparing SNP/ indel frequencies mined from ESTlibraries and also confirm that the frequency of SNP occurrence in oil palm to use them as markers for genetic studies. PMID:21670789

  19. Insertion-deletions burden in copy number polymorphisms of the Tibetan population

    PubMed Central

    Veerappa, Avinash M.; Vishweswaraiah, Sangeetha; Lingaiah, Kusuma; Murthy, N. Megha; Suresh, Raviraj V.; Belur, Keshava; Ramachandra, Nallur B.; Tejaswini; Patel, Niveditha B.; Gowda, P. K. Supriya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have been conducted to identify either insertions-deletions (inDels) or copy number variations (CNVs) in humans, but few studies have been conducted to identify both of these forms coexisting in the same region. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To map the functionally significant sites within human genes that are likely to influence human traits and diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this report, we describe an inDel map in the 1051 Tibetan CNV regions obtained through CNV genotyping using Affymetrix Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism 6.0 chip. InDel polymorphisms in these copy number polymorphism regions were identified with a computational approach using the 2500 deoxyribonucleic acid sequences obtained from the 1000 Genome Project. RESULTS: The study identified a total of 95935 inDels that range from 1 bp to several bps in length which were found scattered across regulatory regions, exons and in introns of genes underlying the CNVs. A study on the distribution of inDels revealed that the majority of inDels were found in coding regions of the genome than the noncoding, while within the genes, inDels in intron regions were more followed by exonic regions and finally the regulatory regions. CONCLUSION: Study of inDels in CNV regions contribute to the enhanced understanding of the role played by the two variations and their collective influence on the genome. Further, a collection of these inDel genetic markers will aid in genetic mapping, further understanding of the phenotypic variability, identification of disease genes and in detecting novel CNVs. PMID:25400346

  20. Chromosome replacement and deletion lead to clonal polymorphism of berry color in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Pelsy, Frédérique; Dumas, Vincent; Bévilacqua, Lucie; Hocquigny, Stéphanie; Merdinoglu, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Clonal polymorphism mainly results from somatic mutations that occur naturally during plant growth. In grapevine, arrays of clones have been selected within varieties as a valuable source of diversity, among them clones showing berry color polymorphism. To identify mutations responsible for this color polymorphism, we studied a collection of 33 clones of Pinot noir, Pinot gris, and Pinot blanc. Haplotypes of the L2 cell layer of nine clones were resolved by genotyping self-progenies with molecular markers along a 10.07 Mb region of chromosome 2, including the color locus. We demonstrated that at least six haplotypes could account for the loss of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Four of them resulted from the replacement of sections of the 'colored' haplotype, sized from 31 kb to 4.4 Mb, by the homologous sections of the 'white' haplotype mutated at the color locus. This transfer of information between the two homologous sequences resulted in the partial homozygosity of chromosome 2, associated in one case with a large deletion of 108 kb-long. Moreover, we showed that, in most cases, somatic mutations do not affect the whole plant; instead, they affect only one cell layer, leading to periclinal chimeras associating two genotypes. Analysis of bud sports of Pinot gris support the hypothesis that cell layer rearrangements in the chimera lead to the homogenization of the genotype in the whole plant. Our findings shed new light on the way molecular and cellular mechanisms shape the grapevine genotypes during vegetative propagation, and enable us to propose a scheme of evolutionary mechanism of the Pinot clones. PMID:25835388

  1. Chromosome Replacement and Deletion Lead to Clonal Polymorphism of Berry Color in Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Pelsy, Frédérique; Dumas, Vincent; Bévilacqua, Lucie; Hocquigny, Stéphanie; Merdinoglu, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Clonal polymorphism mainly results from somatic mutations that occur naturally during plant growth. In grapevine, arrays of clones have been selected within varieties as a valuable source of diversity, among them clones showing berry color polymorphism. To identify mutations responsible for this color polymorphism, we studied a collection of 33 clones of Pinot noir, Pinot gris, and Pinot blanc. Haplotypes of the L2 cell layer of nine clones were resolved by genotyping self-progenies with molecular markers along a 10.07 Mb region of chromosome 2, including the color locus. We demonstrated that at least six haplotypes could account for the loss of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Four of them resulted from the replacement of sections of the ‘colored’ haplotype, sized from 31 kb to 4.4 Mb, by the homologous sections of the ‘white’ haplotype mutated at the color locus. This transfer of information between the two homologous sequences resulted in the partial homozygosity of chromosome 2, associated in one case with a large deletion of 108 kb-long. Moreover, we showed that, in most cases, somatic mutations do not affect the whole plant; instead, they affect only one cell layer, leading to periclinal chimeras associating two genotypes. Analysis of bud sports of Pinot gris support the hypothesis that cell layer rearrangements in the chimera lead to the homogenization of the genotype in the whole plant. Our findings shed new light on the way molecular and cellular mechanisms shape the grapevine genotypes during vegetative propagation, and enable us to propose a scheme of evolutionary mechanism of the Pinot clones. PMID:25835388

  2. An investigation into the association between HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Nabiallah; Adib, Minoo; Alsahebfosoul, Fereshteh; Kazemi, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-01-15

    Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G) gene polymorphism and expression rate have recently been suggested to have a potential role in susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of HLA-G gene 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and its plasma level with MS susceptibility. In this study, the HLA-G gene from 212 patients and 210 healthy individuals was amplified using real time PCR and screened for the 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism. In addition, HLA-G plasma levels of the patients were measured and compared to normal controls by ELISA method. Our results revealed that 14 bp insertion in HLA-G could result in lower plasma HLA-G level of the subjects, regardless of their health status and vice versa. Additionally, significant correlation of HLA-G genotype and its plasma level with MS susceptibility was observed. In conclusion, not only HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism could be associated with expression rate of the HLA-G gene and its plasma level, but also could be considered as a risk factor for susceptibility to MS in our study population. PMID:26711580

  3. Linkage Disequilibrium between Two High-Frequency Deletion Polymorphisms: Implications for Association Studies Involving the glutathione-S transferase (GST) Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yongzhong; Marotta, Michael; Eichler, Evan E.; Eng, Charis; Tanaka, Hisashi

    2009-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a large source of genetic variation in humans and have been increasingly studied for disease association. A deletion polymorphism of the gene encoding the cytosolic detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) has been extensively studied for cancer susceptibility (919 studies, from HuGE navigator, http://www.hugenavigator.net/). However, clear conclusions have not been reached. Since the GSTT1 gene is located within a genomic region of segmental duplications (SD), there may be a confounding effect from another, yet-uncharacterized CNV at the same locus. Here we describe a previously uncharacterized 38-kilo-base (kb) long deletion polymorphism of GSTT2B located within a 61-kb DNA inverted repeat. GSTT2B is a duplicated copy of GSTT2, the only paralogue of GSTT1 in humans. A newly developed PCR assay revealed that a microhomology-mediated breakpoint appears to be shared among individuals at high frequency. The GSTT2B deletion polymorphism was in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) (D′ = 0.841) with the neighboring GSTT1 deletion polymorphism in the Caucasian population. Alleles harboring a single deletion were significantly overrepresented (p = 2.22×10−16), suggesting a selection against alleles with both deletions. The deletion alleles are almost certainly the derived ones, because the GSTT2B-GSTT2-GSTT1 genes were strictly retained in chimpanzees. Extremely low GSTT2 mRNA expression was associated with the GSTT2B deletion, suggesting an influence of the deletion on the flanking region and loss of GSTT2 function. Genome-wide LD analysis between deletion polymorphisms further points to the uniqueness of two deletions, because strong LD between deletion polymorphisms might be very rare in humans. These results show a complex genomic organization and unexpected biological functions of CNVs within segmental duplications and emphasize the importance of detailed structural characterization for disease

  4. MULTINDELS-BOV: Zebu traceback method based on DNA insertion-deletion polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Groenner-Penna, M; Croce, E F D; Pimenta, C G; Bicalho, H M S; Pena, S D J

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer and exporter of beef, with a herd of approximately 210 million animals. For the meat industry, a reliable animal traceback from its origin to the consumer market is paramount. Of all available identification systems, DNA is the only one that survives the slaughterhouse and reaches the dish of the consumer. DNA polymorphisms are already used for cattle traceback, but primarily for the subspecies Bos taurus taurus. However, in Brazil, another subspecies, B. taurus indicus predominates. We describe here the development of a DNA traceback method designed primarily for B. taurus indicus (Zebu), without leaving B. taurus taurus aside. We used insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms, which have the advantage of being simple and easily automatable, since in most cases, the variable loci are biallelic. We studied 94 indels, with a difference of two or more base pairs, in DNA pools of 60 Zebu and 60 taurine animals. A set of 22 indels with heterozygosity greater than 0.3 were selected and used to construct two multiplex PCRs. On the basis of the allelic frequency of these indels, the probability of random match was calculated to be 1.12 x 10(-8) for B. taurus indicus and 1.60 x 10(-6) for B. taurus taurus. Moreover, we estimated that an analysis would cost less than US$15.00 per animal. Thus, this system (MULTINDELS-BOV) is perfectly suited for building large genetic databases and offering viable prospects of a national system for cattle traceback DNA in Brazil. PMID:25501139

  5. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients

    SciTech Connect

    Maslen, C.L.; O`Malley, J.P.; Illingworth, D.R.

    1994-09-01

    The insertion/deletion polymorphism in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE/ID) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). Patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are known to be at greatly increased risk for heart disease because of their high levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. We obtained DNA samples from 105 unrelated FH patients and typed them for ACE/ID by PCR analysis. The frequencies of the DD, DI, and II genotypes were 0.381, 0.390, and 0.229, respectively. The allele frequencies were 0.576 for D and 0.423 for I. This is similar to the allele frequencies observed by Cambien et al. in a control population in Toulouse, France. The relative risk for MI or coronary artery disease (CAD) was assessed in patients who were aged 50 years or older. The criteria for CAD was history of coronary arterial bypass surgery. While the relative risk of having had a myocardial infarction was slightly increased from 0.14 (4/28) in the DI + II group to 0.16 (3/19) in the DD genotype, the differences were not statistically significant. The individual`s risk of CAD increased in the DD genotype, (0.579 of the DD population (n=19) compared to 0.321 of the DI + II population (n=28)). Therefore the ACE/ID polymorphism does appear to interact with FH in increasing a DD individual`s risk of heart disease by a factor of 1.8 relative to the DI and II genotypes.

  6. Studies on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Genotype Distributions in Turkish Preeclampsia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bereketoğlu, Ceyhun; Kasap, Mülkiye; Pazarbaşı, Ayfer

    2012-01-01

    Placental, immune and genetic factors are thought to play an important role in preeclampia (PE)'s pathophysiology. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) plays a vital role in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) which regulates blood pressure by converting angiotensin I into a powerfull vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. A deletion polymorphism (D allele) has been reported to be associated with elevated ACE activity. The aim of the this study was to investigate whether there is an association between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and PE. In this study, 120 preeclamptic and 116 normotensive Turkish pregnant women were genotyped for ACE I/D polymorphism and the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of this polymorphism in preeclampsia and controls were evaluated. Codominant, dominant and recessive models were appplied in ACE gene I/D polymorphism. In the codominant model, DD genotype was found significantly more frequent in preeclampsia than controls (P = 0.016). Moreover, in dominant model (DD frequency versus DI+II frequency) there was a significant relation between DD genotype and preeclampsia (P = 0.006). D allele frequency was 64.6% in preeclampsia while it was 56.1% in controls (P = 0.062). In conclusion, there was significant difference in genotype distribution between preeclampsia and controls. PMID:22545216

  7. Screening the dystrophin gene suggests a high rate of polymorphism in general but no exonic deletions in schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Lindor, N.M.; Sobell, J.L.; Thibodeau, S.N.

    1994-03-15

    The dystrophin gene, located at chromosome Xp21, was evaluated as a candidate gene in chronic schizophrenia in response to the report of a large family in which schizophrenia cosegregated with Becker muscular dystrophy. Genomic DNA from 94 men with chronic schizophrenia was evaluated by Southern blot analysis using cDNA probes that span exons 1-59. No exonic deletions were identified. An unexpectedly high rate of polymorphism was calculated in this study and two novel polymorphisms were found, demonstrating the usefulness of the candidate gene approach even when results of the original study are negative. 41 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. The Dominant white, Dun and Smoky color variants in chicken are associated with insertion/deletion polymorphisms in the PMEL17 gene.

    PubMed

    Kerje, Susanne; Sharma, Preety; Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Kim, Hyun; Bagchi, Sonchita; Fredriksson, Robert; Schütz, Karin; Jensen, Per; von Heijne, Gunnar; Okimoto, Ron; Andersson, Leif

    2004-11-01

    Dominant white, Dun, and Smoky are alleles at the Dominant white locus, which is one of the major loci affecting plumage color in the domestic chicken. Both Dominant white and Dun inhibit the expression of black eumelanin. Smoky arose in a White Leghorn homozygous for Dominant white and partially restores pigmentation. PMEL17 encodes a melanocyte-specific protein and was identified as a positional candidate gene due to its role in the development of eumelanosomes. Linkage analysis of PMEL17 and Dominant white using a red jungle fowl/White Leghorn intercross revealed no recombination between these loci. Sequence analysis showed that the Dominant white allele was exclusively associated with a 9-bp insertion in exon 10, leading to an insertion of three amino acids in the PMEL17 transmembrane region. Similarly, a deletion of five amino acids in the transmembrane region occurs in the protein encoded by Dun. The Smoky allele shared the 9-bp insertion in exon 10 with Dominant white, as expected from its origin, but also had a deletion of 12 nucleotides in exon 6, eliminating four amino acids from the mature protein. These mutations are, together with the recessive silver mutation in the mouse, the only PMEL17 mutations with phenotypic effects that have been described so far in any species. PMID:15579702

  9. The PML gene is linked to a megabase-scale insertion/deletion restriction fragment length polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Goy, A.; Xiao, Y.H.; Passalaris, T.

    1995-03-20

    The PML gene located on chromosome band 15q22 is involved with the RAR{alpha} locus (17q21) in a balanced reciprocal translocation uniquely observed in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Physical mapping studies by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the PML gene is flanked by two CpG islands that are separated by a variable distance in normal individuals. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that this is the consequence of a large insertion/deletion polymorphism linked to the PML locus: (1) overlapping fragments obtained with a variety of rare-cutting restriction enzymes demonstrated the same variability in distance between the flanking CpG islands; (2) mapping with restriction enzymes insensitive to CpG methylation confirmed that the findings were not a consequence of variable methylation of CpG dinucleotides; (3) the polymorphism followed a Mendelian inheritance pattern. This polymorphism is localized 3{prime} to the PML locus. There are five common alleles, described on the basis of BssHII fragments, ranging from 220 to 350 kb with increments of approximately 30 kb between alleles. Both heterozygous (61%) and homozygous (391%) patterns were observed in normal individuals. Mega-base-scale insertion/deletion restriction fragment length polymorphisms are very rare and have been described initially in the context of multigene families. Such structures have been also reported as likely regions of genetic instability. High-resolution restriction mapping of this particular structure linked to the PML locus is underway. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Whole-genome experimental identification of insertion/deletion polymorphisms of interspersed repeats by a new general approach

    PubMed Central

    Mamedov, Ilgar Z.; Arzumanyan, Elena S.; Amosova, Anna L.; Lebedev, Yuri B.; Sverdlov, Eugene D.

    2005-01-01

    A new experimental technique for genome-wide detection of integration sites of polymorphic retroelements (REs) is described. The technique allows one to reveal the absence of a retroelement in an individual genome provided that this retroelement is present in at least one of several other genomes under comparison. Since quite a number of genomes are compared simultaneously, the search for polymorphic REs insertions is very efficient. The technique includes two whole-genome selective PCR amplifications of sequences flanking REs: one for a particular genome and another one for a mixture of ten different genomes. A subsequent subtractive hybridization of the obtained amplicons with DNA of a particular genome as driver results in isolation of polymorphic insertions. The technique was successfully applied for identification of 41 new polymorphic human AluYa5/Ya8 insertions. Among them, 18 individual Alu elements first sequenced in this work were not found in the available human genome databases. This result suggests that significant part of polymorphic REs were not identified during genome sequencing and remain to be detected and characterized. The proposed method does not depend on preliminary knowledge of evolutionary history of retroelements and can be applied for identification of insertion/deletion polymorphic markers in genomes of different species. PMID:15673711

  11. A new insertion/deletion fragment polymorphism of inhibin-α gene associated with follicular cysts in Large White sows

    PubMed Central

    LI, Wanhong; CHEN, Shuxiong; LI, Hongjiao; LIU, Zhuo; ZHAO, Yun; CHEN, Lu; ZHOU, Xu; LI, Chunjing

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian follicular cysts are anovulatory follicular structures that lead to infertility. Hormones play key roles in the formation and persistence of cysts. Inhibins are heterodimeric gonadal glycoprotein hormones that belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. These hormones suppress the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. In this report, partial fragment of inhibin-α (INHA) subunit gene of Large White pig was detected from the genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction. The sequence showed a 283 bp fragment insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in INHA subunit gene. A total of 49 Large White sows with cystic follicles and 152 normal sows were screened for this polymorphism. The relationship of INHA I/D polymorphisms with follicular cysts was investigated. The distribution of I/D was significantly different between cystic and normal sows, thereby suggesting that the INHA subunit gene might be a potential biological marker for breeding programs in pig. PMID:26521695

  12. A new insertion/deletion fragment polymorphism of inhibin-α gene associated with follicular cysts in Large White sows.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanhong; Chen, Shuxiong; Li, Hongjiao; Liu, Zhuo; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Lu; Zhou, Xu; Li, Chunjing

    2016-05-18

    Ovarian follicular cysts are anovulatory follicular structures that lead to infertility. Hormones play key roles in the formation and persistence of cysts. Inhibins are heterodimeric gonadal glycoprotein hormones that belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. These hormones suppress the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. In this report, partial fragment of inhibin-α (INHA) subunit gene of Large White pig was detected from the genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction. The sequence showed a 283 bp fragment insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in INHA subunit gene. A total of 49 Large White sows with cystic follicles and 152 normal sows were screened for this polymorphism. The relationship of INHA I/D polymorphisms with follicular cysts was investigated. The distribution of I/D was significantly different between cystic and normal sows, thereby suggesting that the INHA subunit gene might be a potential biological marker for breeding programs in pig. PMID:26521695

  13. Association of an HLA-G 14-bp Insertion/Deletion polymorphism with high HBV replication in chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Laaribi, A B; Zidi, I; Hannachi, N; Ben Yahia, H; Chaouch, H; Bortolotti, D; Zidi, N; Letaief, A; Yacoub, S; Boudabous, A; Rizzo, R; Boukadida, J

    2015-10-01

    Identification of an HLA-G 14-bp Insertion/Deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism at the 3' untranslated region of HLA-G revealed its importance in HLA-G mRNA stability and HLA-G protein level variation. We evaluated the association between the HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism in patients with chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a case-control study. Genomic DNA was extracted from 263 patients with chronic HBV hepatitis and 246 control subjects and was examined for the HLA-G 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism by PCR. The polymorphic variants were genotyped in chronic HBV seropositive cases stratified according to HBV DNA levels, fibrosis stages and in a control population. There was no statistical significant association between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and increased susceptibility to HBV infection neither for alleles (P = 0.09) nor for genotypes (P = 0.18). The stratification of HBV patients based on HBV DNA levels revealed an association between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and an enhanced HBV activity with high HBV DNA levels. In particular, the Ins allele was significantly associated with high HBV DNA levels (P = 0.0024, OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.2-2.4). The genotype Ins/Ins was associated with a 2.5-fold (95% CI, 1.29-4.88) increased risk of susceptibility to high HBV replication compared with the Del/Del and Ins/Del genotypes. This susceptibility is linked to the presence of two Ins alleles. No association was observed between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and fibrosis stage of HBV infection. We observed an association between the 14-bp Ins/Del polymorphism and high HBV replication characterized by high HBV DNA levels in chronic HBV patients. These results suggest a potential prognostic value for disease outcome evaluation. PMID:25619305

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in TBX1 in individuals with and without 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heike, Carrie L.; Starr, Jacqueline R.; Rieder, Mark J.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Edwards, Karen L.; Stanaway, Ian; Crawford, Dana C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a wide range of clinical features. TBX1 has been proposed as a candidate gene for some of the features in this condition. Polymorphisms in the non-deleted TBX1, which may affect the function of the sole TBX1 gene in individuals with the 22q11.2DS, may be a key to understanding the phenotypic variability among individuals with a shared deletion. Comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery by resequencing candidate genes can identify genetic variants that influence a given phenotype. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the sequence variability in TBX1 by identifying all common SNPs in this gene. METHODS We resequenced TBX1 in 29 children with a documented 22q11.2 deletion and 95 non-deleted, healthy individuals. We estimated allele frequencies, performed tagSNP selection, and inferred haplotypes. We also compared SNP frequencies between 22q11.2DS and control samples. RESULTS We identified 355 biallelic markers among the 190 chromosomes resequenced in the control panel. The vast majority of the markers identified were SNPs (n=331), and the remainder indels (n=24). We did not identify SNPs or indels in the cis- regulatory element (FOX–binding site) upstream of TBX1. In children with 22q11.2DS we detected 187 biallelic markers, six of which were indels. Four of the seven coding SNPs identified in the controls were identified in children with 22q11.2DS. CONCLUSIONS This comprehensive SNP discovery data can be used to select SNPs to genotype for future association studies assessing the role of TBX1 and phenotypic variability in individuals with 22q11.2DS. PMID:19645056

  15. Association of angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and familial hypercholesterolemia in the Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of the association between genotype and phenotype is of great importance for the prediction of multiple diseases and pathophysiological conditions. The relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) Insertion/Deletion (I/D) polymorphism and Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) has been not fully investigated in all the ethnicities. In this study we sought to determine the frequency of I/D polymorphism genotypes of ACE gene in Saudi patients with FH. Results This is a case–control study carried out purely in Saudi population. Genomic DNA was isolated from 128 subjects who have participated in this study. ACE gene I/D polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in 64 FH cases and 64 healthy controls. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to genotype distribution. Furthermore, we did not find any significant difference in the frequency of ACE I/D polymorphism in FH subjects when stratified by gender (p = 0.43). Conclusion Our data suggest that ACE gene I/D polymorphism examined in this study has no role in predicting the occurrence and diagnosis of FH. PMID:24289455

  16. An angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with Pakistani asthmatic cases and controls.

    PubMed

    Saba, Nusrat; Yusuf, Osman; Rehman, Sadia; Munir, Saeeda; Ahmad, Sheeraz; Mansoor, Atika; Raja, Ghazala K

    2016-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease due to inflammation of the airways of lungs that is clinically characterized by variable symptoms including wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a major role in fibrous tissue formation and is highly expressed in lungs. The main aim of this research work was to study the role of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, rs4646994, in asthma in Pakistani patients. A total of 854 subjects, including 333 asthma patients and 521 ethnically matched controls, were studied. The ACE (I/D) polymorphism was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Chi-square, Fisher's exact and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests were used to compare groups. Homozygous insertion genotype II (p less than 0.0001, OR=3.38) and insertion allele (I) was significantly more frequent in Pakistani asthmatics than in healthy controls (p=0.0007, OR=1.40). The ID genotype (p less than 0.0001, OR=0.43) and the deletion allele (D) were associated with protection of disease in Pakistani patients (p=0.0007, OR=0.71). These data suggest the involvement of ACE I/D polymorphism in asthma risk in the Pakistani population. This marker may be an important indication in the molecular mechanism of asthma and can become a useful tool in risk assessment and help in designing strategy to combat disease. PMID:27581935

  17. The association between the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, H P V; Ururahy, M A G; Souza, K S C; Loureiro, M B; Oliveira, Y M C; Oliveira, G H M; Luchessi, A D; Carvalho, K T C; Freitas, J C O C; Donadi, E A; Hirata, R D C; Almeida, M G; Arrais, R F; Hirata, M H; Rezende, A A

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial disease that has a strong genetic component. The HLA-G is a nonclassical HLA class I locus that is associated with immunomodulatory functions, including downregulation of innate and adaptive immune responses and induction of immune tolerance. However, there is currently limited information about the involvement of HLA-G in T1D susceptibility. This case-control study aims to investigate the T1D susceptibility association of alleles and genotypes of a widely investigated 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the HLA-G and to provide further evidence of the frequency distribution of class II HLA-DR-DQ-risk genotypes in T1D children and adolescents in the Brazilian population. The deletion allele and the homozygous deletion genotype are associated with susceptibility to T1D and the insertion allele and the heterozygous deletion/insertion genotype are associated with protection from T1D. We also confirm that genetic susceptibility to T1D is associated with the DRB1*03:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 and DRB1*04-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02 haplotypes in Brazilian northeast region. The DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 genotype conferred the highest detected risk for T1D. Our results identify a novel association of the 14-bp deletion allele and the homozygous deletion genotype with T1D development and provide additional evidence of the importance of HLA class II heterozygous DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 genotype in T1D susceptibility. PMID:26492519

  18. Association between a functional insertion/deletion polymorphism in IL1A gene and risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Linbo; Zhu, Xinxin; Li, Zhihui; Li, Lijuan; Wang, Tao; Hu, Huaizhong; Guo, Wanli; Chen, Peng; Zhu, Jingqiang; Zhang, Lin

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs3783553) locating in the miR-122 target gene IL1A 3' untranslated region was related to the risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral venous blood of 273 patients with PTC and 509 controls. The IL1A rs3783553 polymorphism was genotyped by using a polymerase chain reaction assay. No significant difference of the distribution of the IL1A rs3783553 polymorphism was observed between PTC patients and controls. However, patients carrying the IL1A rs3783553 ins/ins genotype and ins allele had significantly decreased risks for developing T3 and T4 when compared with patients carrying the IL1A rs3783553 del/del genotype and del allele (ins/ins vs. del/del: OR = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-0.54; ins vs. del: OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.41-0.83, respectively). These results suggest that the rs3783553 polymorphism may be used as a genetic marker to predict the size/extension of PTC. PMID:24453029

  19. ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy: clinical implications of genetic information.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20-40% of diabetic patients develop nephropathy which is the leading cause of ESRD in developed countries. The ACE I/D polymorphism is thought to be a marker for functional polymorphism which regulates circulating and tissue ACE activity. While the initial study found a protective effect of the II genotype on the development of nephropathy in IDDM patients, subsequent studies have addressed the role of ACE I/D polymorphism in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. RAAS blockers are the first line drugs for the treatment hypertension associated with diabetes and have been widely used in everyday clinical practice for the purpose of reducing proteinuria in patients with various renal diseases. However, the antiproteinuric effect of RAAS blockers is variable and the percentage of reducing proteinuria is in the range of 20-80%. The antiproteinuric effect of RAAS blockers may be related to a number of factors: the type or the dose of RAAS blockers, the duration of therapy, the level of sodium intake, and the type of patient's ACE I/D genotype. Besides the nongenetic factors, drug responses, can be influenced by ACE gene polymorphism. In this review, we discuss the relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy and therapeutic response of RAAS blockers. PMID:25587546

  20. Possible association between DBH 19 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia with tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Hui, Li; Han, Mei; Huang, Xu Feng; Ye, Min Jie; Zheng, Ke; He, Jin Cai; Lv, Meng Han; Zhang, Bao Hua; Soares, Jair C; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Overactivity of dopaminergic neurotransmission is a putative mechanism of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Previous studies have found dysfunction in plasma dopamine beta-hydoxylase (DBH) in schizophrenia with TD. Moreover, DBH, whose activity and levels are strongly controlled by the DBH gene, is a key enzyme in the conversion of dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) associated with excited behavior. This study examined whether the DBH5'-insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism was associated with excited behavior in schizophrenia with TD. The presence of the DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism was determined in 741 schizophrenia with TD (n = 345) and without TD (n = 396). The Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were used to assess the severity of TD and psychopathology of schizophrenia. There was no significant difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism between schizophrenia with and without TD (both p > 0.05). However, the excited symptoms score was significantly different to the DBH5'-Ins/Del genotypic groups in schizophrenia with TD (p < 0.05) but not in the two groups of non-TD and total patients (both p > 0.05). The excited symptoms score was higher in TD patients with the Del/Del genotype than those with Ins alleles (p = 0.015). Our findings suggest that the DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism may not contribute directly to the development of TD in schizophrenia, but it may be involved in the excited behavior of TD patients. PMID:25336319

  1. Population genetic analysis of insertion-deletion polymorphisms in a Brazilian population using the Investigator DIPplex kit.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Palha, Teresinha de Jesus Brabo; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; Cavalcante, Giovanna Chaves; Marrero, Andrea; de Souza, Ilíada Rainha; Seki Uehara, Clineu Julien; Silveira da Motta, Carlos Henrique Ares; Koshikene, Daniela; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; de Carvalho, Elizeu Fagundes; Chemale, Gustavo; Freitas, Jorge M; Alexandre, Lídia; Paranaiba, Renato T F; Soler, Mirella Perruccio; Santos, Sidney

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the diversity of 30 insertion/deletion (INDEL) markers (Investigator(®) DIPplex kit) in a sample of 519 individuals from six Brazilian states and to evaluate their applicability in forensic genetics. All INDEL markers were found to be highly polymorphic in the Brazilian population and were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To determine their forensic suitability in the Brazilian population, the markers were evaluated for discrimination power, match probability and exclusion power. The combined discrimination power (CDP), combined match power (CMP) and combined power of exclusion (CPE) were higher than 0.999999, 3.4 × 10(-13) and 0.9973, respectively. Further comparison of 29 worldwide populations revealed significant genetic differences between continental populations and a closer relationship between the Brazilian and European populations. PMID:26036184

  2. The Association of GSTM1 Deletion Polymorphism with Lung Cancer Risk in Chinese Population: Evidence from an Updated Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiyan; Yang, Siyu; Liu, Jing; Shao, Fuye; Wang, Haiyu; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the association of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) deletion polymorphism with genetic susceptibility of lung cancer in Chinese population. However, the results remained controversial. The aim of this study was to clarify the association of GSTM1 deletion polymorphism with lung cancer risk in Chinese population. Systematic searches were performed through the search engines of Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI and Wanfang Medical Online. The pooled effects were calculated by STATA 10.0 software package and Review Manager 5.0.24. Overall, we observed an association of GSTM1 deletion polymorphism with increased lung cancer risk in Chinese population (odds ratio (OR) = 1.46, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.32–1.66 for null genotype vs. present genotype) based on 53 studies including 7,833 cases and 10,353 controls. We also observed an increased risk of GSTM1 null genotype for lung cancer in stratified analyses by source of control, smoking status and histological type. The findings suggest that GSTM1 deletion polymorphism may contribute to lung cancer risk in Chinese population. Further, well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are required to verify the results. PMID:25797617

  3. Implications of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in health and disease: a snapshot review

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Paul R

    2010-01-01

    This review considers the 250+ papers concerning the association of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs1799752) and various disease conditions published in 2009. The deletion allele occurs in approximately 55% of the population and is associated with increased activity of the ACE enzyme. It might be predicted that the D allele, therefore, might be associated with pathologies involving increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system. The D allele was seen to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension, pre-eclampsia, heart failure, cerebral infarct, diabetic nephropathy, encephalopathy, asthma, severe hypoglycaemia in diabetes, gastric cancer (in Caucasians) and poor prognosis following kidney transplant. On the positive side, the D allele appears to offer protection against schizophrenia and chronic periodontitis and confers greater up-per-body strength in old age. The I allele, meanwhile, offers improved endurance/athletic performance and aerobic capacity as determined by lung function tests, although it does increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma and obstructive sleep apnoea in hypertensives. PMID:21537387

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and risk of restenosis after directional coronary atherectomy followed by stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Canosi, Umberto; Angelica Merlini, Piera; Bernardi, Francesco; Repetto, Alessandra; Bramucci, Ezio; Ferrario, Maurizio; Angoli, Luigi; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Ferraresi, Paolo; Marchetti, Giovanna; Tavazzi, Luigi; Ardissino, Diego

    2004-04-01

    The D allele of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with higher plasma and tissue ACE levels, which enhance the stimulus for neo-intimal hyperplasia. Plaque debulking before stenting reduces the plaque-related determinants of in-stent restenosis and provides an ideal clinical model for studying neointimal hyperplasia. We prospectively studied 113 consecutive patients undergoing elective DCA followed by stent implantation. The presence of I/D in ACE genome DNA was analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction. Follow-up coronary angiography was performed 6-12 months after DCA, and all of the angiograms were quantitatively analysed. The baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of the patients with a D/D (33%), I/D (52%) and I/I (15%) genotype were well balanced. There were no significant differences in minimal lumen diameter before and after the procedure or at follow-up, and no significant differences in acute gain, late loss or the loss index. Our results indicate that ACE I/D polymorphism does not influence the risk of developing angiographic restenosis in patients undergoing DCA followed by stent implantation. PMID:15045142

  5. Association between sHLA-G and HLA-G 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphism in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Zidi, Inès; Ben Yahia, Hamza; Bortolotti, Daria; Mouelhi, Leila; Laaribi, Ahmed Baligh; Ayadi, Shema; Zidi, Nour; Houissa, Fatma; Debbech, Radhouane; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Najjar, Taoufik; Di Luca, Dario; Rizzo, Roberta

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the HLA-G 14-bp deletion/insertion (Del/Ins) polymorphism and soluble (s) HLA-G production in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We analyzed also the sHLA-G molecules by ELISA and western blot in plasma samples. Among unselected patients, the 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism was not significantly associated with increased CD risk neither for alleles (P = 0.371) nor for genotypes (P = 0.625). However, a significant association was reported between the 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism and CD, in particular in young-onset CD patients for alleles [P = 0.020, odds ratio (OR) = 2.438, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-5.25] but not with adult-onset CD patients. A significant association was reported concerning the genotype Ins/Ins for young-onset CD patients (P = 0.029, OR = 3.257, 95% CI: 1.08-9.77). We observed also a significant increase in sHLA-G measured by ELISA in CD patients compared to controls (P = 0.002). The 14-bp Del/Del and 14-bp Del/Ins genotypes are the high HLA-G producers. Among sHLA-G(positive) patients, 43% of subjects present dimers of HLA-G. The presence of dimers seems to be related to the advanced stages of the disease. The 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of CD particularly in young-onset CD patients and controls sHLA-G plasma levels. Dimers of sHLA-G are frequent in advanced disease stages. The above findings indicate that the genetic 14-bp Del/Ins polymorphism in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene is associated with the risk of CD and suggest a role for sHLA-G as a prognostic marker for progressive disease. PMID:25577194

  6. Positive Selection on a Regulatory Insertion-Deletion Polymorphism in FADS2 Influences Apparent Endogenous Synthesis of Arachidonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Ye, Kaixiong; Gadgil, Maithili S; Carlson, Susan E; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Zhang, Ji Yao; Park, Hui Gyu; Ojukwu, Kinsley; Zou, James; Hyon, Stephanie S; Joshi, Kalpana S; Gu, Zhenglong; Keinan, Alon; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are bioactive components of membrane phospholipids and serve as substrates for signaling molecules. LCPUFA can be obtained directly from animal foods or synthesized endogenously from 18 carbon precursors via the FADS2 coded enzyme. Vegans rely almost exclusively on endogenous synthesis to generate LCPUFA and we hypothesized that an adaptive genetic polymorphism would confer advantage. The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-bp insertion-deletion within FADS2, is associated with basal FADS1 expression, and coordinated induction of FADS1 and FADS2 in vitro. Here, we determined rs66698963 genotype frequencies from 234 individuals of a primarily vegetarian Indian population and 311 individuals from the US. A much higher I/I genotype frequency was found in Indians (68%) than in the US (18%). Analysis using 1000 Genomes Project data confirmed our observation, revealing a global I/I genotype of 70% in South Asians, 53% in Africans, 29% in East Asians, and 17% in Europeans. Tests based on population divergence, site frequency spectrum, and long-range haplotype consistently point to positive selection encompassing rs66698963 in South Asian, African, and some East Asian populations. Basal plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid (ARA) status was 8% greater in I/I compared with D/D individuals. The biochemical pathway product-precursor difference, ARA minus linoleic acid, was 31% and 13% greater for I/I and I/D compared with D/D, respectively. This study is consistent with previous in vitro data suggesting that the insertion allele enhances n-6 LCPUFA synthesis and may confer an adaptive advantage in South Asians because of the traditional plant-based diet practice. PMID:27188529

  7. Positive Selection on a Regulatory Insertion–Deletion Polymorphism in FADS2 Influences Apparent Endogenous Synthesis of Arachidonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Ye, , Kaixiong; Gadgil, Maithili S.; Carlson, Susan E.; O’Brien, Kimberly O.; Zhang, Ji Yao; Park, Hui Gyu; Ojukwu, Kinsley; Zou, James; Hyon, Stephanie S.; Joshi, Kalpana S.; Gu, Zhenglong; Keinan, Alon; Brenna, J.Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are bioactive components of membrane phospholipids and serve as substrates for signaling molecules. LCPUFA can be obtained directly from animal foods or synthesized endogenously from 18 carbon precursors via the FADS2 coded enzyme. Vegans rely almost exclusively on endogenous synthesis to generate LCPUFA and we hypothesized that an adaptive genetic polymorphism would confer advantage. The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-bp insertion–deletion within FADS2, is associated with basal FADS1 expression, and coordinated induction of FADS1 and FADS2 in vitro. Here, we determined rs66698963 genotype frequencies from 234 individuals of a primarily vegetarian Indian population and 311 individuals from the US. A much higher I/I genotype frequency was found in Indians (68%) than in the US (18%). Analysis using 1000 Genomes Project data confirmed our observation, revealing a global I/I genotype of 70% in South Asians, 53% in Africans, 29% in East Asians, and 17% in Europeans. Tests based on population divergence, site frequency spectrum, and long-range haplotype consistently point to positive selection encompassing rs66698963 in South Asian, African, and some East Asian populations. Basal plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid (ARA) status was 8% greater in I/I compared with D/D individuals. The biochemical pathway product–precursor difference, ARA minus linoleic acid, was 31% and 13% greater for I/I and I/D compared with D/D, respectively. This study is consistent with previous in vitro data suggesting that the insertion allele enhances n-6 LCPUFA synthesis and may confer an adaptive advantage in South Asians because of the traditional plant-based diet practice. PMID:27188529

  8. EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion and polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in never-smoking female lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Yi; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Li, Yao-Jen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Liao, Kuo-Meng; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chen, Chih-Yi; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Hsia, Jiun-Yi; Chuang, Cheng-Yen; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Hsiung, Chao A; Shen, Chen-Yang; Chang, Gee-Chen; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-01-15

    We explored potential associations between genetic polymorphisms in genes related to DNA repair and detoxification metabolism and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in a cohort of 410 never-smoking patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of EGFR mutation status in association with the genotypes of DNA repair and detoxification metabolism genes were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. We found an association between in-frame deletion in EGFR exon 19 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800566C/T located in NQO1 (aOR, 2.2 with 95% CI, 1.0-4.8) in female never-smokers. The SNP rs744154C/G in ERCC4 was also associated with the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion both in never-smokers (aOR, 1.7 with 95% CI, 1.0-3.0) and female never-smokers (aOR, 1.9 with 95% CI, 1.0-3.6). Although the association was marginally significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the A/A genotype of rs1047840 in EXO1 was associated with a 7.6-fold increase in the occurrence of the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion in female never-smokers. Moreover, risk alleles in NQO1, ERCC4 and EXO1 were associated with an increasing aOR of the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion both in never-smokers (p = 0.007 for trend) and female never-smokers (p = 0.002 for trend). Our findings suggest that the in-frame deletion in EGFR exon 19 is associated with polymorphisms in DNA repair and detoxification metabolism genes in never-smoking lung adenocarcinoma patients, especially in females. PMID:22573488

  9. Distribution of Angiotensin-1 Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion and α-Actinin-3 Codon 577 Polymorphisms in Turkish Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Ulucan, Korkut; Sercan, Canan; Biyikli, Türker

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) gene and α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene polymorphisms are considered to be the most important candidate genes for genetic predisposition to human athletic performance. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the distribution of ACE and ACTN3 polymorphisms for the first time in male Turkish soccer players. In this prospective study, our cohort consisted of 25 professional players, all with Turkish ancestry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction length polymorphism was used for the characterization of the genotype of ACTN3 and single PCR for ACE. For ACE genotype, 16%, 44%, and 40% of the players had insertion/insertion (II), insertion/deletion (ID), and deletion/deletion (DD) genotypes, respectively, whereas 20% had XX, 36% had RX, and 44% had RR genotypes for ACTN3. When we examined the allelic percentages, for ACE, D allele was recorded as 62 and I as 38, and for ACTN3, R allele was 62 and X was 38. Our results were in agreement with the previous reports, indicating the presence of ACTN3 D and ACE X allele in soccer players. We suggest that ACE and ACTN3 genotypes are important biomarkers for genetic counseling for the individuals who are prone to be successful soccer players. PMID:26448692

  10. The association of GSTT1 deletion polymorphism with lung cancer risk among Chinese population: evidence based on a cumulative meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yadong; Yang, Haiyan; Wang, Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies investigating the relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) gene deletion polymorphism and lung cancer risk among Chinese population produced inconsistent results. To obtain a precise conclusion, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between GSTT1 deletion polymorphism and lung cancer risk among Chinese population. Methods The databases of Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wanfang Med Online, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched. The strength of the association was assessed by odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Overall, we found an increased lung cancer risk among subjects carrying GSTT1 null genotype compared with those carrying present genotype (OR =1.31, 95% CI: 1.12–1.52) on the basis of 20 studies with 3,351 cases and 4,683 controls. We also observed an increased risk of lung cancer among subjects carrying GSTT1 null genotype compared with those carrying present genotype in stratified analyses (OR =1.31, 95% CI: 1.11–1.55 for healthy subjects-based control; OR =2.29, 95% CI: 1.84–2.85 for squamous cell carcinoma and OR =1.47, 95% CI: 1.22–1.77 for adenocarcinoma, respectively). Conclusion This meta-analysis suggested that GSTT1 deletion polymorphism might contribute to lung cancer risk among Chinese population. PMID:26491361

  11. Distribution of Angiotensin-1 Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion and α-Actinin-3 Codon 577 Polymorphisms in Turkish Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Ulucan, Korkut; Sercan, Canan; Biyikli, Türker

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) gene and α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene polymorphisms are considered to be the most important candidate genes for genetic predisposition to human athletic performance. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the distribution of ACE and ACTN3 polymorphisms for the first time in male Turkish soccer players. In this prospective study, our cohort consisted of 25 professional players, all with Turkish ancestry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction length polymorphism was used for the characterization of the genotype of ACTN3 and single PCR for ACE. For ACE genotype, 16%, 44%, and 40% of the players had insertion/insertion (II), insertion/deletion (ID), and deletion/deletion (DD) genotypes, respectively, whereas 20% had XX, 36% had RX, and 44% had RR genotypes for ACTN3. When we examined the allelic percentages, for ACE, D allele was recorded as 62 and I as 38, and for ACTN3, R allele was 62 and X was 38. Our results were in agreement with the previous reports, indicating the presence of ACTN3 D and ACE X allele in soccer players. We suggest that ACE and ACTN3 genotypes are important biomarkers for genetic counseling for the individuals who are prone to be successful soccer players. PMID:26448692

  12. GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion do not affect selenium and mercury status in mildly exposed Amazonian women in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ariana V; Rita Cardoso, Bárbara; Zavarize, Bruna; Almondes, Kaluce; Bordon, Isabella; Hare, Dominic J; Teixeira Favaro, Déborah Inês; Franciscato Cozzolino, Silvia Maria

    2016-11-15

    Mercury is potent toxicant element, but its toxicity can be reduced by forming a complex with selenium for safe excretion. Considering the impact of mercury exposure in the Amazon region and the possible interaction between these two elements, we aimed to assess the effects of Pro198Leu polymorphism to GPX1 and GSTM1 deletion, on mercury levels in a population from Porto Velho, an urban locality in the Brazilian Amazon region. Two hundred women from the capital city of Rondônia state were recruited for this study with 149 deemed suitable to participate. We assessed dietary intake using 24-hour recall. Selenium levels in plasma and erythrocytes were measured using hydride generation quartz tube atomic absorption spectroscopy and total hair mercury using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Oxidative stress parameters (GPx activity, oxygen radical absorbency capacity [ORAC] and malondialdehyde [MDA]) were also analyzed. All participants were genotyped for Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion. We observed that this population presented high prevalence of selenium deficiency, and also low levels of mercury, likely due to food habits that did not include selenium-rich food sources or significant consumption of fish (mercury biomagnifiers) regularly. Univariate statistical analysis showed that Pro198Leu and GSTM1 genotypes did not affect selenium and mercury levels in this population. Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion had no effect on mercury levels in mildly exposed people, suggesting these genetic variants impact mercury levels only in highly exposed populations. PMID:27450956

  13. Heterozygous deletions at the ZEB1 locus verify haploinsufficiency as the mechanism of disease for posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy type 3.

    PubMed

    Liskova, Petra; Evans, Cerys J; Davidson, Alice E; Zaliova, Marketa; Dudakova, Lubica; Trkova, Marie; Stranecky, Viktor; Carnt, Nicole; Plagnol, Vincent; Vincent, Andrea L; Tuft, Stephen J; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2016-07-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) lack a molecular diagnosis. We evaluated 14 unrelated probands who had a clinical diagnosis of PPCD who were previously determined to be negative for mutations in ZEB1 by direct sequencing. A combination of techniques was used including whole-exome sequencing (WES), single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array copy number variation (CNV) analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, and long-range PCR. Segregation of potentially pathogenic changes with disease was confirmed, where possible, in family members. A putative run of homozygosity on chromosome 10 was identified by WES in a three-generation PPCD family, suggestive of a heterozygous deletion. SNP array genotyping followed by long-range PCR and direct sequencing to define the breakpoints confirmed the presence of a large deletion that encompassed multiple genes, including ZEB1. Identification of a heterozygous deletion spanning ZEB1 prompted us to further investigate potential CNVs at this locus in the remaining probands, leading to detection of two additional heterozygous ZEB1 gene deletions. This study demonstrates that ZEB1 mutations account for a larger proportion of PPCD than previously estimated, and supports the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of ZEB1 is the underlying molecular mechanism of disease for PPCD3. PMID:26508574

  14. The association of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 polymorphisms and lifestyle habits with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Jing, Fangyuan; Mao, Yingying; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Yingjun; Cai, Shaofang; Li, Qilong; Ma, Xinyuan; Jin, Mingjuan; Chen, Kun

    2014-09-01

    The PI3K signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other neoplasm. Somatic phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) mutations and deletions or epigenetic silencing have been observed in multiple tumor types including CRC. To assess the association of PTEN polymorphisms and lifestyle habits with CRC risk in Chinese population, we carried out a case-control study which included 545 cases and 522 controls. In the present study, we genotyped eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PTEN and found that rs11202607 was associated with increased CRC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.90). Stratification analysis by lifestyle habits showed a stronger association between rs11202607 and CRC risk among never tea drinkers than that among tea-drinkers (OR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.29-3.22), and significant additive interaction between rs10490920 and tea drinking status was observed. Our study provided the evidence of an association between PTEN polymorphisms and the risk of CRC and significant additive interaction between PTEN polymorphism and tea drinking. Studies with larger sample size and further investigations into the mechanism are warranted to clarify the role of PTEN in colorectal carcinogenesis and the association between PTEN genetic variations, environment exposure, and CRC risk. PMID:24935469

  15. Restriction-deletion polymorphism of region V of mitochondrial DNA in several populations of native inhabitants of Siberia and the Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, A.V.; Kazakovtseva, M.A.; Bibe, B.P.; Karafet, T.M.; Osipova, L.P.; Voevoda, M.I.; Avksentyuk, A.V.; Astakhova, T.I.; Shields, G.F.

    1994-11-01

    The distribution of a deletion and of an Ava II site in region V of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was studied in five populations of native inhabitants of the Asian part of Russia, including Chukchi, Asian Eskimos, Evenks, Buryats, and Northern Sel`kups. A deletion with a frequency of 6.3% was found only in Buryats; in Chukchi and Eskimos the Ava II site was not found. A maximal frequency of 11.3% was observed in Evenks. A comparison with published data was conducted; it revealed a gradient of decreasing frequency of the deletion from southeast Asia to the north, with its complete absence in the circumpolar regions. In the territory of northeast Asia, all three mitotypes are found, formed by a combination of two polymorphic markers of mtDNA region V, which were found earlier in humans in the Americas. The data obtained necessitates a more detailed analysis of the population polymorphism of mtDNA in this region of Asia. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. DHFR 19-bp Deletion and SHMT C1420T Polymorphisms and Metabolite Concentrations of the Folate Pathway in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Cristiani Cortez; Raimundo, Aline Maria Zanchetta de Aquino; Oliveira, Luciana Dutra; Zampieri, Bruna Lancia; Marucci, Gustavo Henrique; Biselli, Joice Matos; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Haddad, Renato; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Vannucchi, Hélio; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) results from the presence and expression of three copies of the genes located on chromosome 21. Studies have shown that, in addition to overexpression of the Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) gene, polymorphisms in genes involved in folate/homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism may also influence the concentrations of metabolites of this pathway. Aim: Investigate the association between Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) 19-base pair (bp) deletion and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) C1420T polymorphisms and serum folate and plasma Hcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in 85 individuals with DS. Methods: Molecular analysis of the DHFR 19-bp deletion and SHMT C1420T polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by difference in the size of fragments and real-time PCR allelic discrimination, respectively. Serum folate was quantified by chemiluminescence and plasma Hcy and MMA by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Individuals with DHFR DD/SHMT TT genotypes presented increased folate concentrations (p=0.004) and the DHFR II/SHMT TT genotypes were associated with increased MMA concentrations (p=0.008). In addition, the MMA concentrations were negatively associated with age (p=0.04). Conclusion: There is an association between DHFR DD/SHMT TT and DHFR II/SHMT TT combined genotypes and folate and MMA concentrations in individuals with DS. PMID:23421317

  17. The 19-bp deletion polymorphism of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate: evidence for a protective role

    PubMed Central

    RAFIGHDOOST, Firoozeh; RAFIGHDOOST, Amir; RAFIGHDOOST, Houshang; RIGI-LADEZ, Mohammad-Ayoob; HASHEMI, Mohammad; ESKANDARI-NASAB, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NS-CL/P) are among the most common congenital birth defects worldwide. Several lines of evidence point to the involvement of folate, as well as folate metabolizing enzymes in risk reduction of orofacial clefts. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme participates in the metabolic cycle of folate and has a crucial role in DNA synthesis, a fundamental feature of gestation and development. A functional polymorphic 19-bp deletion within intron-1 of DHFR has been associated with the risk of common congenital malformations. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible association between DHFR 19-bp deletion polymorphism and susceptibility to NS-CL/P in an Iranian population. Material and Methods The current study recruited 100 NS-CL/P patients and 100 healthy controls. DHFR 19-bp deletion was determined using an allele specific-PCR method. Results We observed the DHFR 19-bp homozygous deletion genotype (D/D) vs. homozygous wild genotype (WW) was more frequent in controls than in NS-CL/P patients (25% vs. 13%), being associated with a reduced risk of NS-CL/P in both codominant (OR=0.33, P=0.027) and recessive (OR=0.45, P=0.046) tested inheritance models. We also stratified the cleft patients and reanalyzed the data. The association trend for CL+CL/P group compared to the controls revealed that the DD genotype in both codominant (OR=0.30, P=0.032) and recessive models (OR=0.35, P=0.031) was associated with a reduced risk of CL+CL/P. Conclusions Our results for the first time suggested the DHFR 19-bp D/D genotype may confer a reduced risk of NS-CL/P and might act as a protective factor against NS-CL/P in the Iranian subjects. PMID:26221921

  18. Pooled analysis indicates that the GSTT1 deletion, GSTM1 deletion, and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms do not modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Spurdle, Amanda B.; Fahey, Paul; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Easton, Douglas; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Simard, Jacques; Rebbeck, Tim R.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    The GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 detoxification genes all have functional polymorphisms that are common in the general population. A single study of 320 BRCA1/2 carriers previously assessed their effect in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. This study showed no evidence for altered risk of breast cancer for individuals with the GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion variants, but did report that the GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695) variant was associated with increased breast cancer risk in carriers. We investigated the association between these three GST polymorphisms and breast cancer risk using existing data from 718 women BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from Australia, the UK, Canada, and the USA. Data were analyzed within a proportional hazards framework using Cox regression. There was no evidence to show that any of the polymorphisms modified disease risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers, and there was no evidence for heterogeneity between sites. These results support the need for replication studies to confirm or refute hypothesis-generating studies. PMID:19921428

  19. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in intron 16 of ACE gene in idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion: case-control study, systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pereza, Nina; Ostojić, Saša; Zdravčević, Matea; Volk, Marija; Kapović, Miljenko; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-02-01

    The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in intron 16 of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE) has been extensively studied as a predisposing factor for idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (IRSA). A case-control study including 149 women with ≥3 spontaneous abortions and 149 controls was performed to test the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with IRSA. A systematic review was conducted of previous case-control studies, with strict selection criteria for meta-analyses. We also aimed to evaluate the potential differences in summary estimates between studies defining IRSA as ≥2 and ≥3 spontaneous abortions. Genotyping was performed by PCR, and systematic review conducted using PubMed and Scopus. There was no association of the polymorphism with IRSA in Slovenian women. Sixteen case-control studies, showing substantial differences regarding IRSA definition and selection criteria for women were identified. Meta-analysis was performed and included four studies defining IRSA as ≥2 spontaneous abortions and the current study, which defined IRSA as ≥3 spontaneous abortions. Based on random effects model, meta-analysis conducted on 1192 patients and 736 controls showed no association with IRSA under dominant(DD+IDvsII) and recessive(DDvsID+II) genetic models. Well-designed studies are needed to evaluate the role of ACE I/D polymorphism in IRSA defined as ≥3 spontaneous abortions. PMID:26673102

  20. InPhaDel: integrative shotgun and proximity-ligation sequencing to phase deletions with single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anand; Edge, Peter; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Bansal, Vikas; Bafna, Vineet

    2016-07-01

    Phasing of single nucleotide (SNV), and structural variations into chromosome-wide haplotypes in humans has been challenging, and required either trio sequencing or restricting phasing to population-based haplotypes. Selvaraj et al demonstrated single individual SNV phasing is possible with proximity ligated (HiC) sequencing. Here, we demonstrate HiC can phase structural variants into phased scaffolds of SNVs. Since HiC data is noisy, and SV calling is challenging, we applied a range of supervised classification techniques, including Support Vector Machines and Random Forest, to phase deletions. Our approach was demonstrated on deletion calls and phasings on the NA12878 human genome. We used three NA12878 chromosomes and simulated chromosomes to train model parameters. The remaining NA12878 chromosomes withheld from training were used to evaluate phasing accuracy. Random Forest had the highest accuracy and correctly phased 86% of the deletions with allele-specific read evidence. Allele-specific read evidence was found for 76% of the deletions. HiC provides significant read evidence for accurately phasing 33% of the deletions. Also, eight of eight top ranked deletions phased by only HiC were validated using long range polymerase chain reaction and Sanger. Thus, deletions from a single individual can be accurately phased using a combination of shotgun and proximity ligation sequencing. InPhaDel software is available at: http://l337x911.github.io/inphadel/. PMID:27105843

  1. InPhaDel: integrative shotgun and proximity-ligation sequencing to phase deletions with single nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anand; Edge, Peter; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Bansal, Vikas; Bafna, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    Phasing of single nucleotide (SNV), and structural variations into chromosome-wide haplotypes in humans has been challenging, and required either trio sequencing or restricting phasing to population-based haplotypes. Selvaraj et al. demonstrated single individual SNV phasing is possible with proximity ligated (HiC) sequencing. Here, we demonstrate HiC can phase structural variants into phased scaffolds of SNVs. Since HiC data is noisy, and SV calling is challenging, we applied a range of supervised classification techniques, including Support Vector Machines and Random Forest, to phase deletions. Our approach was demonstrated on deletion calls and phasings on the NA12878 human genome. We used three NA12878 chromosomes and simulated chromosomes to train model parameters. The remaining NA12878 chromosomes withheld from training were used to evaluate phasing accuracy. Random Forest had the highest accuracy and correctly phased 86% of the deletions with allele-specific read evidence. Allele-specific read evidence was found for 76% of the deletions. HiC provides significant read evidence for accurately phasing 33% of the deletions. Also, eight of eight top ranked deletions phased by only HiC were validated using long range polymerase chain reaction and Sanger. Thus, deletions from a single individual can be accurately phased using a combination of shotgun and proximity ligation sequencing. InPhaDel software is available at: http://l337x911.github.io/inphadel/. PMID:27105843

  2. Plasma Kallikrein and Angiotensin I-converting enzyme N- and C-terminal domain activities are modulated by the insertion/deletion polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S S; Barros, C C; Moraes, M R; Russo, F J; Haro, A S; Rosa, T S; Alves, M F; Pesquero, J B; Carmona, A K; Bacurau, R F P; Araújo, R C

    2010-04-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is recognized as one of the main effector molecules involved in blood pressure regulation. In the last few years some polymorphisms of ACE such as the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism have been described, but their physiologic relevance is poorly understood. In addition, few studies investigated if the specific activity of ACE domain is related to the I/D polymorphism and if it can affect other systems. The aim of this study was to establish a biochemical and functional characterization of the I/D polymorphism and correlate this with the corresponding ACE activity. For this purpose, 119 male brazilian army recruits were genotyped and their ACE plasma activities evaluated from the C- and N-terminal catalytic domains using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides, specific for the C-domain (Abz-LFK(Dnp)OH), N-domain (Abz-SDK(Dnp)P-OH) and both C- and N-domains (Abz-FRK(Dnp)P-OH). Plasma kallikrein activity was measured using Z-Phe-Arg-AMC as substrate and inhibited by selective plasma kallikrein inhibitor (PKSI). Some physiological parameters previously described related to the I/D polymorphism such as handgrip strength, blood pressure, heart rate and BMI were also evaluated. The genotype distribution was II n=27, ID n=64 and DD n=28. Total plasma ACE activity of both domains in II individuals was significantly lower in comparison to ID and DD. This pattern was also observed for C- and N-domain activities. Difference between ID and DD subjects was observed only with the N-domain specific substrate. Blood pressure, heart rate, handgrip strength and BMI were similar among the genotypes. This polymorphism also affected the plasma kallikrein activity and DD group presents high activity level. Thus, our data demonstrate that the I/D ACE polymorphism affects differently both ACE domains without effects on handgrip strength. Moreover, this polymorphism influences the kallikrein-kinin system of normotensive individuals

  3. Fast high-throughput screening of angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism by variable programmed electric field strength-based microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yucheng; Kim, Su-Kang; Zhang, Peng; Woo, Nain; Kang, Seong Ho

    2016-08-15

    An insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been associated with susceptibility to various diseases in numerous studies. Traditionally, slab gel electrophoresis (SGE) after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to genotype this ACE I/D polymorphism. In this study, single- and multi-channel microchip electrophoresis (ME) methods based on variable programmed electric field strength (PEFS) (i.e., low constant, high constant, (+)/(-) staircase, and random electric field strengths) were developed for fast high-throughput screening of this specific polymorphism. The optimum PEFS conditions were set as 470V/cm for 0-9s, 129V/cm for 9-13s, 470V/cm for 13-13.9s, 294V/cm for 13.9-16s, and 470V/cm for 16-20s for single-channel ME, and 615V/cm for 0-22.5s, 231V/cm for 22.5-28.5s, and 615V/cm for 28.5-40s for multi-channel ME, respectively. In the multi-channel PEFS-ME, target ACE I/D polymorphism DNA fragments (D=190bp and I=490bp) were identified within 25s without loss of resolving power, which was ∼300 times faster than conventional SGE. In addition, PCR products of the ACE gene from human blood samples were detected after only 10 cycles by multi-channel PEFS-ME, but not by SGE. This parallel detection multichannel-based PEFS-ME method offers a powerful tool for fast high-throughput ACE I/D polymorphism screening with high sensitivity. PMID:27322633

  4. Deletion of the Activating NKG2C Receptor and a Functional Polymorphism in its Ligand HLA-E in Psoriasis Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xue; Chen, Haoyan; Gupta, Rashmi; Paz-Altschul, Oscar; Bowcock, Anne M.; Liao, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory, immune-mediated disease of the skin. Several studies have suggested that natural killer (NK) cells and their receptors may be important for its pathogenesis. Here, we examined whether deletion of the activating natural killer receptor gene NKG2C, which has a frequency of 20% in the European population, was associated with psoriasis susceptibility. The NKG2C deletion and a functional polymorphism in its ligand HLA-E were genotyped in a Caucasian cohort of 611 psoriasis cases and 493 controls. We found that the NKG2C deletion was significantly increased in cases compared to controls (0.258 vs. 0.200, p=0.0012, OR=1.43 [1.15–1.79]). The low-expressing HLA-E*01:01 allele was associated with psoriasis (p=0.0018), although this association was dependent on HLA-C. Our findings support a potential immunoregulatory role for NK cells in psoriasis and suggest the importance of future studies to investigate the contribution of NK cells and their regulatory receptors to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:24079744

  5. Deletion of the activating NKG2C receptor and a functional polymorphism in its ligand HLA-E in psoriasis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xue; Chen, Haoyan; Gupta, Rashmi; Paz-Altschul, Oscar; Bowcock, Anne M; Liao, Wilson

    2013-10-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory, immune-mediated disease of the skin. Several studies have suggested that natural killer (NK) cells and their receptors may be important for its pathogenesis. Here, we examined whether deletion of the activating natural killer receptor gene NKG2C, which has a frequency of 20% in the European population, was associated with psoriasis susceptibility. The NKG2C deletion and a functional polymorphism in its ligand HLA-E were genotyped in a Caucasian cohort of 611 psoriasis cases and 493 controls. We found that the NKG2C deletion was significantly increased in cases compared with controls [0.258 vs 0.200, P = 0.0012, OR = 1.43 (1.15-1.79)]. The low-expressing HLA-E*01:01 allele was associated with psoriasis (P = 0.0018), although this association was dependent on HLA-C. Our findings support a potential immunoregulatory role for NK cells in psoriasis and suggest the importance of future studies to investigate the contribution of NK cells and their regulatory receptors to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:24079744

  6. Association between angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and renal scar risk in children vesicoureteral reflex: a reappraise meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Jin-Wei; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Liu, Ying; Fu, Yu; Liu, Tong-Zu; Pei, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflex(VUR) is a common disease in children. Some studies indicated that the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism associated with the renal scar in VUR, but not all researchers agreed with it. To clarify the effect of ACE I/D polymorphism on renal scar risk in children with VUR, we performed the present meta-analysis. PubMed, CNKI, CBM, and Embase databases were searched for studies that examined the relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and renal scar risk in children with VUR. The Stata 12.0 software was used for statistical analyses. 11 case-control studies with 1,032 VUR patients were analyzed. The results showed that the DD genotype and D allele were associated with renal scar risk in overall VUR patients, DD vs. DI + II: OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.04–2.49, P = 0.03; DD vs. II: OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.20–2.65, P < 0.01; D vs. I: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.02–1.86, P = 0.04. Similar results were revealed in Turks, but not in Caucasians and Asians. Our meta-analysis indicated that the ACE DD genotype may increase the risk of renal scar in children with VUR. PMID:27506878

  7. Association between angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and renal scar risk in children vesicoureteral reflex: a reappraise meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ai, Jin-Wei; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Liu, Ying; Fu, Yu; Liu, Tong-Zu; Pei, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflex(VUR) is a common disease in children. Some studies indicated that the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism associated with the renal scar in VUR, but not all researchers agreed with it. To clarify the effect of ACE I/D polymorphism on renal scar risk in children with VUR, we performed the present meta-analysis. PubMed, CNKI, CBM, and Embase databases were searched for studies that examined the relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and renal scar risk in children with VUR. The Stata 12.0 software was used for statistical analyses. 11 case-control studies with 1,032 VUR patients were analyzed. The results showed that the DD genotype and D allele were associated with renal scar risk in overall VUR patients, DD vs. DI + II: OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.04-2.49, P = 0.03; DD vs. II: OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.20-2.65, P < 0.01; D vs. I: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.02-1.86, P = 0.04. Similar results were revealed in Turks, but not in Caucasians and Asians. Our meta-analysis indicated that the ACE DD genotype may increase the risk of renal scar in children with VUR. PMID:27506878

  8. Relationship between the 19 base pair deletion polymorphism in DHFR and unmetabolized folic and in plasma and RBC folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A 19 base pair (bp) deletion allele of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme that makes folic acid metabolically active and reduces dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate to stimulate folate turnover, has been implicated in folate related health outcomes. Objective: Examine the effect ...

  9. Association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion-Deletion Polymorphism with Hypertension in Emiratis with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Interaction with Obesity Status

    PubMed Central

    Alsafar, Habiba; Hassoun, Ahmed; Almazrouei, Shaikha; Kamal, Wala; Almaini, Mustafa; Odama, Unini; Rais, Naushad

    2015-01-01

    The association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension has been extensively studied throughout various ethnic populations but largely with inconsistent findings. We investigated these associations in Emirati population and their interaction with obesity status. Saliva samples were collected from a total of 564 Emiratis (277 T2DM and 297 healthy). DNA was extracted and the samples were genotyped for ACE I/D polymorphism by a PCR based method followed by gel electrophoresis. Upon evaluation of the ACE I/D polymorphism amongst all T2DM, hypertensive patients, and respective controls regardless of obesity status, ACE DD genotype was not found to be associated with either T2DM [odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, p = 0.086] or hypertension [odd ratio (OR) = 1.02, p = 0.93]. When the genetic variants amongst the nonobese and obese population were analyzed separately, the risk genotype ACE DD conferred significantly increased risk of hypertension in nonobese population [odds ratio (OR) = 1.80, p = 0.02] but was found to be protective against the hypertension in the obese group ((OR) = 0.54, p = 0.01). However, there was no effect of obesity status on the association of ACE genotypes with T2DM. The risk of hypertension associated with ACE DD is modulated by obesity status and hence future genetic association studies should take obesity into account for the interpretation of data. We also confirmed that ACE I/D polymorphism is not associated with T2DM risk in Emirati population. PMID:26491214

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism (insertion/deletion) and liver fibrosis in Turkish patients from the western Black Sea region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turhan, N K; Ilikhan, S Uygun; Hamamcioglu, A C; Ustundag, Y; Dursun, A; Kokturk, F

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis B, chronic viral hepatitis C, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and secondary biliary cirrhosis are important health issues worldwide. While an association between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion (ACE gene I/D) polymorphism and liver fibrosis has been demonstrated in rat studies, the results of clinical studies area have been contradictory. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and liver fibrosis in a large group of Turkish patients from the western Black Sea region. In 418 patients with different etiologies, ACE gene I/D polymorphism and serum ACE levels were investigated. The distribution of the "DD", "ID", "II" genotypes of the ACE gene were 32.5, 48.8, and 18.7% in the mild to moderate fibrosis group (N = 246, F:1-3 according to Ishak's score) and 39.0, 44.2, and 16.9% in the advanced fibrosis group (N = 172, F:4-6 according to Ishak's score). A significant correlation between serum ACE levels and ACE gene alleles was identified (P < 0.001): serum ACE levels of patients with D alleles were higher than those of patients with I alleles [44 (min 7-max 101) versus 29 (min 7-max 96)]. Patients with advanced fibrosis were also found to be older than those with mild to moderate fibrosis (P < 0.001). No significant association was noted between the patient gender and fibrosis severity. We conclude that ACE I/D polymorphism is not associated with the degree of liver fibrosis. PMID:26681055

  11. A complex insertion/deletion polymorphism in the compositionally biased region of the ZFHX3 gene in patients with coronary heart disease in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shunchang; Zhang, Wenwu; Chen, Xi; Peng, Yunsheng; Chen, Qunrong

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world and has both genetic and environmental precipitants. Genetic factors are significant in determining the level of risk factors in individuals. Variants in ZFHX3 gene are associated with atrial fibrillation in individuals of European ancestry. The aim of this study was to analyze the polymorphisms in the compositionally biased region of the ZFHX3 gene in patients with coronary heart disease in a Chinese population, and to explore their associations with coronary heart disease. We recruited 278 CHD patients and 358 age and sex matched healthy controls in a Chinese Han population, polymorphisms in the compositionally biased region of the ZFHX3 gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction followed by DNA sequencing. The genotype frequencies were calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the non-parametric mood median test. A complex insertion/deletion polymorphism was identified in the compositionally biased region of the ZFHX3 gene in a Chinese population. Six common genotypes (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)4GGT(GGC)8, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)5GGT(GGC)8, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)5GGT(GGC)7, (GGC)2GGTGGCAGT(GGC)5GGT(GGC)10, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)5GGT(GGC)5, and (GGC)4GGT(GGC)8 were found in both CHD patients and healthy controls, there was no significant difference in the six genotype frequencies between CHD patients and healthy controls. Rare genotypes (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)2GGT(GGC)2GGT(GGC)6, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT (GGC)8, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)3GGT(GGC)8, and (GGC)6GGT(GGC)8 were only identified in healthy controls. Rare genotypes (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)4GGT(GGC)5, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)4GGT(GGC)4, and (GGC)4GGTGGCGGT(GGC)6 were only found in CHD patients. The compositionally biased region of the ZFHX3 gene contains a poly-Gly sequence. A complex insertion/deletion polymorphism exists in this region in a Chinese population, clinical significance of some rare genotypes should be explored for

  12. Polymorphism Analysis Reveals Reduced Negative Selection and Elevated Rate of Insertions and Deletions in Intrinsically Disordered Protein Regions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tahsin; Douglas, Gavin M.; Patel, Priyenbhai; Nguyen Ba, Alex N.; Moses, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered protein regions are abundant in eukaryotic proteins and lack stable tertiary structures and enzymatic functions. Previous studies of disordered region evolution based on interspecific alignments have revealed an increased propensity for indels and rapid rates of amino acid substitution. How disordered regions are maintained at high abundance in the proteome and across taxa, despite apparently weak evolutionary constraints, remains unclear. Here, we use single nucleotide and indel polymorphism data in yeast and human populations to survey the population variation within disordered regions. First, we show that single nucleotide polymorphisms in disordered regions are under weaker negative selection compared with more structured protein regions and have a higher proportion of neutral non-synonymous sites. We also confirm previous findings that nonframeshifting indels are much more abundant in disordered regions relative to structured regions. We find that the rate of nonframeshifting indel polymorphism in intrinsically disordered regions resembles that of noncoding DNA and pseudogenes, and that large indels segregate in disordered regions in the human population. Our survey of polymorphism confirms patterns of evolution in disordered regions inferred based on longer evolutionary comparisons. PMID:26047845

  13. Developmental validation of an X-Insertion/Deletion polymorphism panel and application in HAN population of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suhua; Sun, Kuan; Bian, Yingnan; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Zheng; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    InDels are short-length polymorphisms characterized by low mutation rates, high inter-population diversity, short amplicon strategy and simplicity of laboratory analysis. This work describes the developmental validation of an X-InDels panel amplifying 18 bi-allelic markers and Amelogenin in one single PCR system. Developmental validation indicated that this novel panel was reproducible, accurate, sensitive and robust for forensic application. Sensitivity testing of the panel was such that a full profile was obtainable even with 125 pg of human DNA with intra-locus balance above 70%. Specificity testing was demonstrated by the lack of cross-reactivity with a variety of commonly encountered animal species and microorganisms. For the stability testing in cases of PCR inhibition, full profiles have been obtained with hematin (≤1000 μM) and humic acid (≤150 ng/μL). For the forensic investigation of the 18 X-InDels in the HAN population of China, no locus deviated from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium. Since they are independent from each other, the CDPfemale was 0.999999726 and CDPmale was 0.999934223. The forensic parameters suggested that this X-Indel panel is polymorphic and informative, which provides valuable X-linked information for deficient relationship cases where autosomal markers are uninformative. PMID:26655948

  14. The angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion–deletion polymorphism in a white British patient cohort with obstetric cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Müllenbach, Roman; Tetlow, Natasha; Bennett, Amanda; Pipkin, Fiona Broughton; Morgan, Linda; Williamson, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The DD genotype of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is over-represented in Finnish patients with obstetric cholestasis (OC). The purpose of this study was to establish whether this genotype is associated with cholestasis in UK cases. In a retrospective case-control study, we determined the ACE insertion/deletion frequencies in 166 British cases and 100 control women by polymerase chain reaction analysis. No significant difference in allele frequencies was found between these groups, but allele frequencies differed significantly between Finnish and UK OC cases (P = 0.0005). The prevalence of the DD genotype is lower in UK cases than in controls (χ2 [1 d.f.] = 4.32, P = 0.05) and the odds ratio for OC associated with the DD genotypeis 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.30–0.97. In contrast to Finnish OC cases, the DD genotype of the ACE is not increased in UK cases.

  15. Prevalence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in South Indian population with hypertension and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, R; Kumaresan, R; Giri, P

    2015-01-01

    Context: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with a high risk of developing further severe complications such as, cardiovascular disease and eventually End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) leading to death. Hypertension plays a key role in the progression of renal failure and is also a chief risk factor for the occurrence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Aim: This study investigates the possible association of insertion (I) and deletion (D) polymorphism of ACE gene in patients of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) with and without hypertension (HT). Settings and Design: Total 120 participants with 30 members in each group (Control, HT, CKD and CKD-HT) were chosen followed by informed consent. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected and subjected to biochemical analyses and nested PCR amplification was performed to genotype the DNA, for ACE I/D using specific primers. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 13. Allele and genotypic frequency was calculated by direct gene counting method. Comparison of the different genotypes was done by using Chi square test. Odd's ratios were calculated with a 95% confidence interval limit. Results: The ACE genotype were distributed as II, 27 (90%); DD, 2 (6.67%) and ID, 1 (3.33%) in control, II, 1 (3.33%); DD, 5 (16.67%) and ID, 24 (80%) in HT, II, 4 (13.33%); DD, 24 (80%) and ID, 2 (6.67%) in CKD and II, 0 (0%); DD, 2 (6.67%) and ID, 28 (93.33%) in CKD-HT group. Conclusions: D allele of ACE gene confers a greater role in genetic variations underlying CKD and hypertension. This result suggest that CKD patients should be offered analysis for defects in ACE I/D polymorphisms, especially if they are hypertensive. PMID:26440392

  16. Characterization of 114 insertion/deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms, and selection for a global INDEL panel for human identification.

    PubMed

    LaRue, Bobby L; Lagacé, Robert; Chang, Chien-Wei; Holt, Allison; Hennessy, Lori; Ge, Jianye; King, Jonathan L; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bi-Allelic Insertions and Deletions (INDELs) are a powerful set of genetic markers for Human Identification (HID). They have certain desirable features, such as low mutation rates, no stutter, and potentially small amplicon sizes that could prove effective in some circumstances. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of 114 INDELs in four North American populations (Caucasian, African American, Southwest Hispanic, and Asian) to estimate their distribution in major global populations. Of the 114 INDELs a primary panel of 38 candidate markers was selected that met the criteria of (1) a minimum allele frequency of greater than 0.20 across the populations studied; (2) general concordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectations; (3) relatively low FST based on the major populations; (4) physical distance between markers greater than 40 Mbp; and (5) a lack of linkage disequilibria between syntenic markers. Additionally, another 11 supplemental markers were selected for an expanded panel of 49 markers which met the above criteria, with the exception that they are separated at least by 20 Mbp. The resulting panels had Random Match Probabilities that were at least 10(-16) and 10(-19), respectively, and combined FST values of approximately 0.02. Given these findings, these INDELs should be useful for HID. PMID:24296037

  17. Limits to the role of palindromy in deletion formation.

    PubMed Central

    Weston-Hafer, K; Berg, D E

    1991-01-01

    We tested the effect of palindromy on deletion formation. This involved a study of reversion of insertion mutations in the pBR322 amp gene at a site where deletions end either in 9-bp direct repeats or in adjoining 4-bp direct repeats. Inserts of palindromic DNAs ranging from 10 to more than 26 bp and related nonpalindromic DNAs were compared. The frequency of deletions (selected as Ampr revertants) was stimulated by palindromy only at lengths greater than 26 bp. The 4-bp direct repeats, one component of which is located in the palindromic insert, were used preferentially as deletion endpoints with palindromes of at least 18 bp but not of 16 or 10 bp. We interpret these results with a model of slippage during DNA replication. Because deletion frequency and deletion endpoint location depend differently on palindrome length, we propose that different factors commit a molecule to undergo deletion and determine exactly where deletion endpoints will be. PMID:1846137

  18. Case of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome with a large deletion in the ALDH3A2 gene confirmed by single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaboon, Nagwa E A; Jelani, Musharraf; Almramhi, Mona M; Mohamoud, Hussein S A; Al-Aama, Jumana Y

    2015-07-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is a neurocutaneous disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. SLS patients are characterized by lipid metabolism error, primarily leading to cardinal signs of ichthyosis, spasticity and mental retardation. Additional signs include short stature, epilepsy, retinal abnormalities and photophobia. More than 90 mutations of the ALDH3A2 gene have been reported for SLS, and such variants can be successfully detected at a rate of 94% by direct DNA sequencing. We performed direct sequencing of ALDH3A2 gene from the index patient, however, no mutation could be detected. HumanCytoSNPs12 array analysis and subsequent targeted single nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed a novel deletion mutation at chromosome 17p11.2. This 67-Kb region includes the first five coding exons of ALDH3A2, and is flanked by rs2245639 and rs962801. To the best of our knowledge, this mutation is novel and our findings broaden the mutation spectrum of ALDH3A2 causing SLS phenotype. PMID:25855245

  19. A comparative study of insertion/deletion polymorphisms applied among Southwest, South and Northwest Chinese populations using Investigator(®) DIPplex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Lv, Meili; Zaumsegel, Daniel; Zhang, Lushun; Liu, Fengji; Xiang, Jihua; Li, Jun; Schneider, Peter M; Liang, Weibo; Zhang, Lin

    2016-03-01

    The low mutation rates, short amplicon sizes and length variation characteristics of biallelic insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) are features that allow combining advantages of both STR and SNP markers for genetic analysis. The Qiagen Investigator DIPplex kit contains 30 biallelic autosomal INDELs plus Amelogenin for forensic personal identification and parentage testing. This study compares general performances, forensic and population data collected in 7 Chinese ethnic populations (Han, Tibetan, Yi, Zhuang, Dong, Miao and Uyghur) from three areas (Southwest, South and Northwest) of China by DIPplex kit. There were no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of the 30 markers in all the tested populations after Bonferroni correction. The combined matching probabilities ranged from 1.4273×10(-10) for the Dong minority to 1.2817×10(-12) for the Uyghur minority. The combined power of paternity exclusion was from 0.9854 to 0.9968. All pairwise genetic differences (FST) between the seven ethnic groups were less than 0.05, and the results of STRUCTURE analysis did not indicate the presence of substructures suggesting genetic similarity among the populations in these three areas. The DIPplex kit can be used as a good additional tool for forensic personal identification in these three areas of China. PMID:26656953

  20. -141C insertion/deletion polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene is associated with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population: Evidence from an ethnic group-specific meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yinglin; Chen, Kaiyuan; Li, Duolu; Han, Chao; Kan, Quancheng

    2016-09-01

    Accumulate evidence has implicated dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms in the etiology of schizophrenia. A single nucleotide polymorphism, -141C insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) (rs1799732), in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor gene has been linked to schizophrenia; however, the data are inconclusive. This study investigated whether the -141C polymorphism is associated with the risk of schizophrenia in different ethnic groups by performing a meta-analysis. A total of 24 case-control studies examining the association between -141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia were identified according to established inclusion criteria. Significant association was revealed between -141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia risk in dominant genetic model (Ins/Ins + Ins/Del versus Del/Del) (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.81, z = 2.41, P = 0.02) in Chinese Han but not in Caucasian, Japanese or India populations. Our results indicate that -141C Ins/Del polymorphism might be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia in Chinese Han population. PMID:26346037

  1. Meta-analysis of the human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism as a risk factor for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, N; Jarjanazi, H; Sun, C; Iversen, A C

    2015-09-01

    The non-classical major histocompatibility complex, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, plays an important role in pregnancy. HLA-G mediates proper interaction between maternal immune cells and fetal trophoblasts invading the uterine wall, to ensure successful placental development and function. Several HLA-G gene variants have been shown to be associated with development of preeclampsia (PE), but the reported associations of the HLA-G 14 base pair (bp) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism (rs66554220) with PE are inconsistent. In this meta-analysis of HLA-G 14 bp I/D in each member of the family triad, we estimated risk (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval) of associations with PE based on nine published offspring, nine mother and three father case-control studies. No significant increased risk associations between PE and HLA-G 14 bp I/D were detected in any of the family triad members (offspring: OR = 1.08-1.21, P = 0.57-0.74; mothers: OR = 1.11-1.28, P = 0.07-0.44; fathers: OR = 1.09-1.65, P = 0.07-0.70). Of the 20 comparisons performed, 14 (70%) were non-heterogeneous and seven of these had zero heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). Sensitivity treatment confirmed robustness for the overall lack of association for HLA-G 14 bp I/D. In subgroup analysis, significant association between HLA-G 14 bp I/D and PE was shown in offspring from primipara (OR = 1.66-1.95, P = 0.04) and European Caucasian pregnancies (OR = 1.37-2.03, P = 0.02-0.03). However, heterogeneity and sensitivity tests suggest that further investigation is needed to determine if HLA-G 14 bp I/D is involved in trophoblast HLA-G expression and PE development in these subgroups. PMID:26202804

  2. A 19-base pair deletion polymorphism in dihydrofolate reductase is associated with increased unmetabolized folic acid in plasma and decreased red blood cell folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolate (THF). A 19-bp noncoding deletion allele maps to intron 1, beginning 60 bases from the splice donor site, and has been implicated in neural tube defects and cancer, presumably by influencing folate metabolism. T...

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion-deletion polymorphism is a risk marker for Alzheimer's disease in a Chinese population: a meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Piao, Jin-hua; Ma, Ke; Lu, Na

    2015-08-01

    It has long been known that the polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) are associated to increase risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Chinese population. However, consistent results were not obtained among studies. This study is aimed to clarify the association between ACE insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism (rs1799752) and AD. Literatures were searched from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP databases without language restrictions. Eleven separate studies were suitable for the inclusion criterion. The selected studies contained 2,763 Chinese participants, including 1,383 in AD group and 1,380 controls. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to assess the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and AD. Our case-control data indicated that ACE insertion is a risk allele in all genetic models: additive model (I vs. D: OR = 1.32, 95 % CI 1.07-1.62, P = 0.008), dominant model (II + ID vs. DD: OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.08-2.41, P = 0.02) and recessive model (II vs. ID + DD: OR = 1.39, 95 % CI 1.07-1.81, P = 0.01). Heterogeneity between studies was significant (P < 0.10) but not in stratification defined by the selection of controls (P > 0.10). After stratification according to the selection of controls, the carrier of ACE I allele remained a high risk for AD in population-based samples subgroup (I vs. D: P = 0.008, OR = 1.32, 95 % CI 1.07-1.61, P(heterogeneity) = 0.47, I (2) = 0 %). Our study provided solid evidence suggesting that ACE gene I/D polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for AD in Chinese population. PMID:25596842

  4. Evolutionary history of the COII/tRNALys intergenic 9 base pair deletion in human mitochondrial DNAs from the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Redd, A J; Takezaki, N; Sherry, S T; McGarvey, S T; Sofro, A S; Stoneking, M

    1995-07-01

    Length changes in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are potentially useful markers for inferring the evolutionary history of populations. One such length change is a nine base pair (9-bp) deletion that is located in the intergenic region between the COII gene and the Lysine tRNA gene (COII/tRNALys intergenic region). This deletion has been used as a genetic marker to trace descent from peoples of East Asian origin. A geographic cline of the deletion frequency across modern Pacific Islander populations suggests that the deletion may be useful for tracing prehistoric Polynesian origins and affinities. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation within two variable segments of the control region (CR) permits a number of inferences regarding the evolutionary history of the 9-bp deletion that cannot be determined from frequency data alone. We obtained CR sequences from 74 mtDNAs with the 9-bp deletion from Indonesia, coastal Papua New Guinea (PNG), and American Samoa. Phylogenetic and pairwise distribution analysis of these CR sequences pooled with previously published CR sequences reveals that the deletion arose independently in Africa and Asia and suggests possible multiple origins of the deletion in Asia. A clinal increase of the frequency of the 9-bp deletion across the three Pacific populations is associated with a decrease in CR sequence diversity, consistent with founder events. Furthermore, analysis of pairwise difference distributions indicates an expansion time of proto-Polynesians that began 5,500 yr ago from Southeast Asia. These results are consistent with the express train model of Polynesian origins. PMID:7659016

  5. Study of the association between the donors and recipients angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism and the acute renal allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Azmandian, Jalal; Mohamadifar, Mohamadamir; Rahmanian-Koshkaki, Sara; Mehdipoor, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Mohamad-Hadi; Saburi, Amin; Mandegary, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in various pathophysiological conditions including renal function. ACE levels are under genetic control. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association between the donors and recipients ACE-I/D gene polymorphism and risk of acute rejection outcome in renal allograft recipients. Patients and Methods: ACE-I/D polymorphism was determined in 200 donor-recipient pairs who had been referred to Afzalipour hospital in Kerman. ACE-I/D polymorphism was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Acute rejection (AR) during at least six months post-transplantation was defined as a 20% increase in creatinine level from the postoperative baseline in the absence of other causes of graft dysfunction which responded to antirejection therapy. Results: The observed allele frequencies were II 9.8%, ID 35.6% and DD 44.4% in donors and II 9.8%, ID 35.1% and DD 52.7% in recipients. There were no significant association between ACE genotypes and AR episodes (ORID=0.96 [0.18-5.00] and ORDD: 1.24 [0.25-6.07] for the donors) and (ORID: 0.29 [0.06-1.45] and ORDD: 0.75 [0.19-2.90] for the recipients). Conclusions: It seems that donor and recipient ACE-I/D genotype might not be a risk factor for acute renal allograft rejection. However, due to conflicting results from this and other studies, multicenter collaborative studies with more participants and concomitant evaluation of ACE polymorphism with other polymorphisms in renin–angiotensin system (RAS) are suggested to determine whether ACE genotypes are significant predictors of renal allograft rejection. PMID:26311652

  6. Molecular analysis of a deletion polymorphism in alpha satellite of human chromosome 17: evidence for homologous unequal crossing-over and subsequent fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Waye, J S; Willard, H F

    1986-01-01

    The human alpha satellite DNA family is organized into chromosome-specific subsets characterized by distinct higher-order repeats based on a approximately 171 basepair monomer unit. On human chromosome 17, the predominant form of alpha satellite is a 16-monomer (16-mer) higher-order repeat present in 500-1000 copies per chromosome 17. In addition, less abundant 15-monomer and 14-monomer repeats are also found constitutively on chromosome 17. Polymorphisms in the form of different higher-order repeat lengths have been described for this subset, the most prominent polymorphism being a 13-monomer (13-mer) higher-order repeat present on approximately 35% of all chromosomes 17. To investigate the nature of this polymorphism, we have cloned, sequenced and compared the relevant regions of the 13-mer to the previously characterized 16-mer repeat. The results show that the repeats are virtually identical, with the principal difference being the exclusion of three monomers from the 13-mer repeat. We propose that the 13-mer is the product of an isolated homologous recombination event between two monomers of the 16-mer repeat. Sequence comparisons reveal the approximate site of recombination and flanking regions of homology. This recombination site corresponds to a position within the alphoid monomer which has been previously implicated in an independent homologous recombination event, suggesting that there may exist a preferred register for recombination in alphoid DNA. We suggest that these events are representative of an ongoing process capable of reorganizing the satellite subset of a given chromosome, thereby contributing to the establishment of chromosome-specific alpha satellite subsets. Images PMID:3763396

  7. Association between susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelination and T-cell receptor Jbeta1-Cbeta1 polymorphism rather than Vbeta deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Bahk, Y Y; Kappel, C A; Rasmussen, G; Kim, B S

    1997-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces demyelinating disease in susceptible mouse strains after intracerebral inoculation. The clinical symptoms and histopathology of the central nervous system appear to be similar to those of human multiple sclerosis (MS), and thus, this system provides an excellent infectious animal model for studying MS. The virus-induced demyelination is immune mediated, and the genes involved in the immune response such as those for the T-cell receptor beta-chain and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes are known to influence disease susceptibility. To define whether the T-cell receptor Jbeta-Cbeta or Vbeta genes are associated with susceptibility, we have analyzed F2 mice from crosses of susceptible SJL/J (Vbeta(a)-JCbeta(b)) mice and resistant C57L (Vbeta(a)-JCbeta(a)) mice. Our results indicate that susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelination is associated with restriction fragment length polymorphism reflecting the T-cell receptor Jbeta1-Cbeta1 region rather than the Vbeta polymorphism. This association becomes stronger when the MHC haplotype is considered in the linkage analysis. However, differences in the T-cell receptor alpha-chain haplotype have no significant influence on the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelination. PMID:9094705

  8. Association and interaction of NFKB1 rs28362491 insertion/deletion ATTG polymorphism and PPP1R13L and CD3EAP related to lung cancer risk in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiaoyang; Wang, Huiwen; Vogel, Ulla; Wang, Chunhong; Hou, Wei; Ma, Yegang

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells 1 (NFKB1) gene encodes p105 and p50 kD which are both subunits of the transcription factor NF-kB, involved in a wide variety of diseases and pathological states associated with inflammation, immunity, and tumorigenesis. The NFKB1 rs28362491 polymorphism in the promoter region (-94 insertion/deletion ATTG) has been associated with risk of various cancers. Our study aims were to evaluate the associations of NFKB1 rs28362491 polymorphism and interactions of this single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and PPP1R13L and CD3EAP and smoking duration in relation to lung cancer risk in a Chinese population. The study population consisted of 544 Chinese lung cancer cases and 550 cancer-free matched (age, sex, and ethnicity) controls. No associations were found between NFKB1 rs28362491 and lung cancer risk. CD3EAP rs967591 was associated with increased lung cancer risk in the dominant model [OR (95 % CI) = 1.38 (1.05-1.80), P = 0.018]. The common haplotype containing PPP1R13L rs1970764(G), CD3EAP rs967591(A), and CD3EAP rs735482(C) was associated with lung cancer [adjusted OR (95 % CI) = 1.29 (1.03-1.62), P = 0.028]. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis revealed two-way and three-way interactions between CD3EAP rs735482 and smoking and between NFKB1 rs28362491, PPP1R13L rs1970764, and smoking. In conclusion, we were able to reproduce previously found associations between PPP1R13L and CD3EAP polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in an increased study group, and we found interactions between NFKB1 rs28362491-PPP1R13L rs1970764 and smoking duration and between CD3EAP rs735482 and smoking duration. These results suggest that these genes and smoking are part of the same biological pathway leading to smoking-induced lung cancer. PMID:26563375

  9. Limits to the role of palindromy in deletion formation

    SciTech Connect

    Weston-Hafer, K.; Berg, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors tested the effect of palindromy on deletion formation. This involved a study of reversion of insertion mutations in the pBR322 amp gene at a site where deletions and either in 9-bp direct repeats or in adjoining 4-bp direct repeats. Inserts of palindromic DNAs ranging from 10 to more than 26 bp and related nonpalindromic DNAs were compared. The frequency of deletions (selected as Amp{sup r} revertants) was stimulated by palindromy only at lengths greater than 26 bp. The 4-bp direct repeats, one component of which is located in the palindromic insert, were used preferentially as deletion endpoints with palindromes of at least 18 bp but not of 16 or 10 bp. The authors interpret these results with a model of slippage during DNA replication. Because deletion frequency and deletion endpoint location depend differently on palindrome length, the authors propose that different factors commit a molecule to undergo deletion and determine exactly where deletion endpoints will be.

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene deletion polymorphism determines an increase in frequency of migraine attacks in patients suffering from migraine without aura.

    PubMed

    Paterna, S; Di Pasquale, P; D'Angelo, A; Seidita, G; Tuttolomondo, A; Cardinale, A; Maniscalchi, T; Follone, G; Giubilato, A; Tarantello, M; Licata, G

    2000-01-01

    Many authors have reported an association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-D allele and coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism underlying the positive associations between the ACE-D alleles and diseases are not yet clear. Previous reports showed an association between migraine without aura and ACE-D allele polymorphism. The study is aimed to evaluate if the DD genotype could also be associated with the frequency and duration of migraine without aura. In 302 patients suffering from migraine without aura (at least for 1 year), with no history of cardiovascular diseases and major risk factors for ischemic events, the genotypes of the ACE gene, plasma ACE activity, and the frequency (weekly) and duration of migraine attacks were evaluated. No drugs were given before (4 weeks) and during the study. The same evaluations were performed in 201 subjects without migraine. The molecular biologist and the physician evaluating the patient data were blinded to the clinical history and ACE-DD gene determination. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Plasma ACE activity was performed by the HPLC method. The groups were similar for sex, age and smoking habit (migraines: 302 patients (200 F/102 M), mean age 37.8 +/- 8.2 years; control: 201 subjects (127 F/74 M), mean age 37.5 +/- 9.3 years). Patients with migraine without aura showed higher incidence of the ACE-DD gene (48.34%) than control subjects (37.32%), p < 0.05. The frequency of migraine (average attacks per week) was higher in patients with DD (2.11 +/- 1.9) than in patients with ID (1.54 +/- 1. 44), p < 0.05. No difference in duration of migraine attacks (hours per week) was observed. Plasma ACE activity was increased in patients with the ACE-DD gene. Our data suggest that ACE-DD gene polymorphism could have an important role in determining migraine attacks and the frequency of these attacks. Further data are needed through further studies

  11. A new genomic tool, ultra-frequently cleaving TaqII/sinefungin endonuclease with a combined 2.9-bp recognition site, applied to the construction of horse DNA libraries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomics and metagenomics are currently leading research areas, with DNA sequences accumulating at an exponential rate. Although enormous advances in DNA sequencing technologies are taking place, progress is frequently limited by factors such as genomic contig assembly and generation of representative libraries. A number of DNA fragmentation methods, such as hydrodynamic sharing, sonication or DNase I fragmentation, have various drawbacks, including DNA damage, poor fragmentation control, irreproducibility and non-overlapping DNA segment representation. Improvements in these limited DNA scission methods are consequently needed. An alternative method for obtaining higher quality DNA fragments involves partial digestion with restriction endonucleases (REases). We have shown previously that class-IIS/IIC/IIG TspGWI REase, the prototype member of the Thermus sp. enzyme family, can be chemically relaxed by a cofactor analogue, allowing it to recognize very short DNA sequences of 3-bp combined frequency. Such frequently cleaving REases are extremely rare, with CviJI/CviJI*, SetI and FaiI the only other ones found in nature. Their unusual features make them very useful molecular tools for the development of representative DNA libraries. Results We constructed a horse genomic library and a deletion derivative library of the butyrylcholinesterase cDNA coding region using a novel method, based on TaqII, Thermus sp. family bifunctional enzyme exhibiting cofactor analogue specificity relaxation. We used sinefungin (SIN) – an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) analogue with reversed charge pattern, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), to convert the 6-bp recognition site TaqII (5′-GACCGA-3′ [11/9]) into a theoretical 2.9-bp REase, with 70 shortened variants of the canonical recognition sequence detected. Because partial DNA cleavage is an inherent feature of the Thermus sp. enzyme family, this modified TaqII is uniquely suited to quasi-random library generation. Conclusions

  12. 3p deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Anupam; Khetarpal, S

    2013-08-01

    3p deletion is a rare cytogenetic finding. Here we describe a 3 months old male with congenital malformations. His karyotype revealed 3p deletion 46,XY,del(3)(p25-pter). The child had flexion deformity of wrist and elbow which has never been reported before. PMID:24036645

  13. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A.; Morris, M. A.

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion, not bradykinin B2 receptor -58T/C gene polymorphism, associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-related cough in Chinese female patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y J; Tsai, J C

    2001-11-01

    To investigate the genetic susceptibility associated with cough related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes, 189 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients with proteinuria or hypertension treated with perindopril were studied. Cough was considered to be present if the patients had been bothered by a cough during treatment and if they had had related symptoms for at least 2 weeks without an identifiable cause. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used to detect polymorphisms of ACE and bradykinin B2-receptor genes. After 8 weeks of treatment, 49.2% (93 of 189) of our NIDDM patients were found to be suffering from ACEI-related cough. ACEI-related cough was mainly associated with female patients, with 71.7% (76 of 106) of female and only 20.5% (17 of 83) of male patients experiencing cough after ACEI treatment. There was a significant association of ACE II genotype with ACEI-related cough. The genotype frequencies were 58.2% for II, 47.8% for ID, and 16.7% for DD in patients with ACEI-associated cough and 41.8% for II, 52.2% for ID, and 83.3% for DD in subjects without ACEI-associated cough (chi(2) = 10.268; df = 2, P =.006). As female patients made up the majority of the subjects suffering from ACEI-related cough, we further analyzed the association of ACE I/D genotype with ACEI-related cough separately by sex. Male patients with ACEI-related cough were not associated with ACE I/D genotype distribution, while female patients were strongly associated with ACE I/D genotype polymorphism (chi(2) = 16.12; df = 2; P <.001). There was no association between the bradykinin B2 receptor gene -58T/C polymorphism with ACEI-related cough. In conclusion, our results indicate that Chinese diabetic female subjects are susceptible to ACEI-related cough, and this susceptibility may be genetically predetermined. PMID:11699055

  15. Deletions of the elastin gene in Williams Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, F.; Nickerson, E.; McCaskill, C.

    1994-09-01

    To investigate deletions in the elastin gene in patients with Williams Syndrome (WS), we screened 37 patients and their parents for deletions in the elastin gene by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using cosmid cELN272 containing the 5{prime} end of the elastin gene and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer pair which amplifies intron 17 in the elastin gene, producing a polymorphic amplification product. Thirty-two patients have been investigated by both the FISH and PCR techniques, one patient was studied only by PCR, and 4 patients were studied only by FISH. Overall, 34 of 37 patients (92%) were deleted for the elastin gene. Using the PCR marker, 14 patients were informative and 12 were shown to be deleted [maternal (n=5) and paternal (n=7)]. Using cosmid cELN272, 33 of 36 patients demonstrated a deletion of chromosome 7q11.23. In one family, both the mother and daughter were deleted due to an apparently de novo deletion arising in the mother. Three patients were not deleted using the elastin cosmid; 2 of these patients have classic WS. Another non-deleted patient has the typical facial features and hypercalcemia but normal intelligence. These three patients will be important in delineating the critical region(s) responsible for the facial features, hypercalcemia, mental retardation and supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). There was not an absolute correlation between deletions in elastin and SVAS, although these individuals may be at risk for other cardiovascular complications such as hypertention. Since the majority of WS patients are deleted for a portion of the elastin gene, most likely this marker will be an important diagnostic tool, although more patients will need to be studied. Those patients who are not deleted but clinically have WS will be missed using only this one marker. Expansion of the critical region to other loci and identification of additional markers will be essential for identifying all patients with WS.

  16. Proper Interval Vertex Deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanger, Yngve

    Deleting a minimum number of vertices from a graph to obtain a proper interval graph is an NP-complete problem. At WG 2010 van Bevern et al. gave an O((14k + 14) k + 1 kn 6) time algorithm by combining iterative compression, branching, and a greedy algorithm. We show that there exists a simple greedy O(n + m) time algorithm that solves the Proper Interval Vertex Deletion problem on \\{claw,net,allowbreak tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5,C_6\\}-free graphs. Combining this with branching on the forbidden structures claw,net,tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5, and C 6 enables us to get an O(kn 6 6 k ) time algorithm for Proper Interval Vertex Deletion, where k is the number of deleted vertices.

  17. Prioritizing sequence polymorphisms for potential association with phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The millions of SNP, insertions and deletions revealed by next generation sequencing (NGS), are certain to include polymorphisms responsible for phenotypic variation. Distinguishing causal from benign variants may allow genomic predictions that are robust across populations. While variants underly...

  18. It Is Not All about Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms: Comparison of Mobile Genetic Elements and Deletions in Listeria monocytogenes Genomes Links Cases of Hospital-Acquired Listeriosis to the Environmental Source

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinning; Holmes, Nadine; Martinez, Elena; Howard, Peter; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The control of food-borne outbreaks caused by Listeria monocytogenes in humans relies on the timely identification of food or environmental sources and the differentiation of outbreak-related isolates from unrelated ones. This study illustrates the utility of whole-genome sequencing for examining the link between clinical and environmental isolates of L. monocytogenes associated with an outbreak of hospital-acquired listeriosis in Sydney, Australia. Comparative genomic analysis confirmed an epidemiological link between the three clinical and two environmental isolates. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis showed that only two SNPs separated the three human outbreak isolates, which differed by 19 to 20 SNPs from the environmental isolates and 71 to >10,000 SNPs from sporadic L. monocytogenes isolates. The chromosomes of all human outbreak isolates and the two suspected environmental isolates were syntenic. In contrast to the genomes of background sporadic isolates, all epidemiologically linked isolates contained two novel prophages and a previously unreported clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) locus subtype sequence. The mobile genetic element (MGE) profile of these isolates was distinct from that of the other serotype 1/2b reference strains and sporadic isolates. The identification of SNPs and clonally distinctive MGEs strengthened evidence to distinguish outbreak-related isolates of L. monocytogenes from cocirculating endemic strains. PMID:26311854

  19. It Is Not All about Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms: Comparison of Mobile Genetic Elements and Deletions in Listeria monocytogenes Genomes Links Cases of Hospital-Acquired Listeriosis to the Environmental Source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinning; Holmes, Nadine; Martinez, Elena; Howard, Peter; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-11-01

    The control of food-borne outbreaks caused by Listeria monocytogenes in humans relies on the timely identification of food or environmental sources and the differentiation of outbreak-related isolates from unrelated ones. This study illustrates the utility of whole-genome sequencing for examining the link between clinical and environmental isolates of L. monocytogenes associated with an outbreak of hospital-acquired listeriosis in Sydney, Australia. Comparative genomic analysis confirmed an epidemiological link between the three clinical and two environmental isolates. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis showed that only two SNPs separated the three human outbreak isolates, which differed by 19 to 20 SNPs from the environmental isolates and 71 to >10,000 SNPs from sporadic L. monocytogenes isolates. The chromosomes of all human outbreak isolates and the two suspected environmental isolates were syntenic. In contrast to the genomes of background sporadic isolates, all epidemiologically linked isolates contained two novel prophages and a previously unreported clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) locus subtype sequence. The mobile genetic element (MGE) profile of these isolates was distinct from that of the other serotype 1/2b reference strains and sporadic isolates. The identification of SNPs and clonally distinctive MGEs strengthened evidence to distinguish outbreak-related isolates of L. monocytogenes from cocirculating endemic strains. PMID:26311854

  20. Constitutional Ip36 deletion in a child with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Biegel, J.A.; Zackai, E.H.; Scher, C.D.; Emanuel, B.S. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia ); White, P.S.; Marshall, H.N.; Fujimori, Minoru; Brodeur, G.M. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a child with dysmorphic features, as well as developmental and growth delay, who developed neuroblastoma at 5 mo of age. Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes revealed an interstitial deletion of 1p36.1 [r arrow] 1p36.2, which was apparent only with high-resolution banding. Molecular analysis with a collection of polymorphic DNA probes for 1p confirmed an interstitial deletion involving subbands of 1p36. Deletions of this region are a common finding in neuroblastoma cells from patients with advanced stages of disease. Therefore, these results (a) suggest that constitutional deletion of this region predisposed the patient to the development of neuroblastoma and (b) support the localization of a neuroblastoma tumor-suppressor locus to 1p36. 48 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Recurring exon deletions in the HP (haptoglobin) gene contribute to lower blood cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Linda M; Salem, Rany M; Handsaker, Robert E; Peloso, Gina M; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel N; McCarroll, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    One of the first protein polymorphisms identified in humans involves the abundant blood protein haptoglobin. Two exons of the HP gene (encoding haptoglobin) exhibit copy number variation that affects HP protein structure and multimerization. The evolutionary origins and medical relevance of this polymorphism have been uncertain. Here we show that this variation has likely arisen from many recurring deletions, more specifically, reversions of an ancient hominin-specific duplication of these exons. Although this polymorphism has been largely invisible to genome-wide genetic studies thus far, we describe a way to analyze it by imputation from SNP haplotypes and find among 22,288 individuals that these HP exonic deletions associate with reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels. We further show that these deletions, and a SNP that affects HP expression, appear to drive the strong association of cholesterol levels with SNPs near HP. Recurring exonic deletions in HP likely enhance human health by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. PMID:26901066

  2. Molecular cytogenetic detection of chromosome 15 deletions in patients with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.E.; Weksberg, R.; Shuman, C.

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are clinically distinct genetic disorders involving alterations of chromosome 15q11-q13. Approximately 75% of individuals with PWS and AS have deletions within 15q11-q13 by molecular analysis. We have evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the clinical laboratory detection of del(15)(q11q13) using the cosmid probes D15S11 and GABRB3 (ONCOR, Gaithersburg, NY). 4/4 PWS and 1/1 AS patients previously identified as having cytogenetic deletions were deleted for both probes. In a prospectively ascertained series of 54 patient samples referred to rule out either PWS or AS, 8 were deleted for D15S11 and GABRB3. In addition, an atypical deletion patient with PWS was also identified who was found to be deleted for GABRB3 but not D15S11. The SNRPN locus was also deleted in this patient. Only 4 of the 9 patient samples having molecular cytogenetic deletions were clearly deleted by high resolution banding (HRB) analysis. The microscopic and submicroscopic deletions have been confirmed by dinucleotide (CA) repeat analysis. Microsatellite polymorphism analysis was also used to demonstrate that five non-deletion patients in this series had biparental inheritance of chromosome 15, including region q11-q13. Deletions were not detected by either HRB, FISH or microsatellite polymorphism analysis in samples obtained from parents of the deletion patients. Methylation studies of chromosome 15q11-q13 are in progress for this series of PWS and AS families. FISH analysis of chromosome 15q11-q13 in patients with PWS and AS is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for deletion detection.

  3. Deletion (2)(q37)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; Tolworthy, J.A.; Young, R.S.

    1994-06-01

    We report on a 5-month-old girl with widely spaced nipples, redundant nuchal skin, coarctation of the aorta, anal atresia with distal fistula, postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia, and sparse scalp hair. Initial clinical assessment suggested the diagnosis of Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Chromosome analysis showed a 46,XX,del(2)(q37) karyotype in peripheral lymphocytes. We compare her findings to those of other reported patients with terminal deletions of 2q. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Recurring exon deletions in the haptoglobin (HP) gene associate with lower blood cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Boettger, Linda M.; Salem, Rany M.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Peloso, Gina; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel; McCarroll, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Two exons of the human haptoglobin (HP) gene exhibit copy number variation that affects HP multimerization and underlies one of the first protein polymorphisms identified in humans. The evolutionary origins and medical significance of this polymorphism have been uncertain. Here we show that this variation has likely arisen from the recurring reversion of an ancient hominin-specific duplication of these exons. Though this polymorphism has been largely invisible to genome-wide genetic studies to date, we describe a way to analyze it by imputation from SNP haplotypes and find among 22,288 individuals that these HP exonic deletions associate with reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels. We show that these deletions, and a SNP that affects HP expression, are the likely drivers of the strong but complex association of cholesterol levels to SNPs near HP. Recurring exonic deletions in the haptoglobin gene likely enhance human health by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. PMID:26901066

  5. Preferential Deletion Events in the Direct Repeat Locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Schürch, Anita C.; Kremer, Kristin; Kiers, Albert; Boeree, Martin J.; Siezen, Roland J.; van Soolingen, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The “Harlingen” IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) cluster has linked over 100 tuberculosis cases in The Netherlands since 1993. Four Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that were epidemiologically linked to this cluster had different spoligotype patterns, as well as slightly divergent IS6110 profiles, compared to the majority of the isolates. Sequencing of the direct repeat (DR) locus revealed sequence polymorphisms at the putative deletion sites. These deletion footprints provided evidence for independent deletions of the central region of the DR locus in three isolates, while the different genotype of the fourth isolate was explained by transmission. Our finding suggests that convergent deletions in the DR locus occur frequently. However, deletion footprints are not suitable to detect convergent deletions in the DR because they seem to be exceptional. Deletion footprints in the DR were not described previously, and we did not observe them in any public M. tuberculosis complex sequences. We conclude that preferential deletions in the DR loci of closely related strains are usually an unnoted event that interferes with clustering of closely related strains. PMID:21325559

  6. Preferential deletion events in the direct repeat locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Schürch, Anita C; Kremer, Kristin; Kiers, Albert; Boeree, Martin J; Siezen, Roland J; van Soolingen, Dick

    2011-04-01

    The "Harlingen" IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) cluster has linked over 100 tuberculosis cases in The Netherlands since 1993. Four Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that were epidemiologically linked to this cluster had different spoligotype patterns, as well as slightly divergent IS6110 profiles, compared to the majority of the isolates. Sequencing of the direct repeat (DR) locus revealed sequence polymorphisms at the putative deletion sites. These deletion footprints provided evidence for independent deletions of the central region of the DR locus in three isolates, while the different genotype of the fourth isolate was explained by transmission. Our finding suggests that convergent deletions in the DR locus occur frequently. However, deletion footprints are not suitable to detect convergent deletions in the DR because they seem to be exceptional. Deletion footprints in the DR were not described previously, and we did not observe them in any public M. tuberculosis complex sequences. We conclude that preferential deletions in the DR loci of closely related strains are usually an unnoted event that interferes with clustering of closely related strains. PMID:21325559

  7. Prostate cancer and glutathione S-transferase deletions

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Saima Shakil; Masood, Nosheen; Yasmin, Azra

    2015-01-01

    GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms have been studied in many populations to evaluate their association with prostate cancer risk with contrasting results. The current study was aimed to find out the association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms with prostate cancer in Pakistani men. This case control study included pathologically confirmed prostate cancer patients and age matched male controls. Epidemiological data was collected by a standard questionnaire and presence or absence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene was observed by multiplex PCR using CYP1A1 as housekeeping gene. Prostate cancer was more prevalent in age of >60 years and most of the patients were at stage IV (70 %) and have undergone surgery. Family history of cancer, smoking, metastasis and surgery were found to be significant (P<0.05) risk factors in prostate cancer development. Gleason score 7 was most prevalent (40.5 %) in prostate cancer patients. Source of drinking water, residential area, occupation, eating habits and number of family members had no association (P>0.05) with prostate cancer risk. No significant association was found when comparing GSTM1 (OR=0.78) and GSTT1 (OR=0.89) gene deletions with prostate cancer risk. Smoking and TNM staging were also not associated with deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Comparison of dual null deletion of both genes with prostate cancer also showed non-significant associations. Deletion of GSTM1 gene at stage IV prostate cancer patients was significantly higher compared with other stages of cancer while no significance was shown by GSTT1 gene deletion. GSTM1, GSTT1 and deletion of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes do not contribute towards increased risk of prostate cancer in Pakistani population. PMID:26600754

  8. De novo proximal interstitial deletions of 14q: Cytogenetic and molecular investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, S.K.; Anderson, K.L.; Orr-Urtregar, A.; Craigen, W.J.; Lupski, J.R.; Shaffer, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    We report on 2 unrelated patients who had chromosome analysis performed because of psychomotor delay, failure to thrive, and minor anomalies. Each patient had a novel proximal 14q deletion (q11.2 to q21.1 in patient 737 and q12 to q22 in patient 777). Polymorphic (C-A){sub n} microsatellite markers distributed along the length of chromosome 14q were examined in both patients and their parents in order to determine which marker loci were deleted. The deletion in patient 737 was found to be paternal in origin, based on the analysis of 2 marker loci (D14S54 and D14S70), thus assigning these loci to the deleted interval q11.2 q21.1. Furthermore, 3 loci were not deleted (TCRD, D14S50, and D14S80), suggesting that they are within or proximal to 14q11.2. In the other family (patient 777), none of the markers were fully informative, but the deleted chromosome was determined to be paternally derived based on cytogenetic heteromorphisms. Despite having overlapping proximal 14q deletions, these 2 patients shared few phenotypic similarities except for failure to thrive, micrognathia, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Therefore, a distinct proximal 14q deletion syndrome is not yet apparent. However, the molecular analyses facilitated the localization of several 14q DNA markers to the deletion regions in these 2 patients, while excluding other markers from each deletion. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  9. The evolution and functional impact of human deletion variants shared with archaic hominin genomes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Lung; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karakoc, Emre; Ajay, Jerry; Gokcumen, Omer

    2015-04-01

    Allele sharing between modern and archaic hominin genomes has been variously interpreted to have originated from ancestral genetic structure or through non-African introgression from archaic hominins. However, evolution of polymorphic human deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes has yet to be studied. We identified 427 polymorphic human deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes, approximately 87% of which originated before the Human-Neandertal divergence (ancient) and only approximately 9% of which have been introgressed from Neandertals (introgressed). Recurrence, incomplete lineage sorting between human and chimp lineages, and hominid-specific insertions constitute the remaining approximately 4% of allele sharing between humans and archaic hominins. We observed that ancient deletions correspond to more than 13% of all common (>5% allele frequency) deletion variation among modern humans. Our analyses indicate that the genomic landscapes of both ancient and introgressed deletion variants were primarily shaped by purifying selection, eliminating large and exonic variants. We found 17 exonic deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes, including those leading to three fusion transcripts. The affected genes are involved in metabolism of external and internal compounds, growth and sperm formation, as well as susceptibility to psoriasis and Crohn's disease. Our analyses suggest that these "exonic" deletion variants have evolved through different adaptive forces, including balancing and population-specific positive selection. Our findings reveal that genomic structural variants that are shared between humans and archaic hominin genomes are common among modern humans and can influence biomedically and evolutionarily important phenotypes. PMID:25556237

  10. Detecting high-resolution polymorphisms in human coding loci by combining PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis.

    PubMed

    Poduslo, S E; Dean, M; Kolch, U; O'Brien, S J

    1991-07-01

    A strategy is described that allows the development of polymorphic genetic markers to be characterized in individual genes. Segments of the 3' untranslated regions are amplified, and polymorphisms are detected by digestion with frequently cutting enzymes and with the detection of single-stranded conformation polymorphisms. This allows these genes, or DNA segments, to be placed on the linkage maps of human chromosomes. Polymorphisms in two genes have been identified using this approach. A HaeIII polymorphism was detected in the KIT proto-oncogene, physically assigned to chromosome 4q11-12. This polymorphism is linked to other chromosome 4p markers and is in linkage disequilibrium with a HindIII polymorphism previously described at this locus. We have also identified in the insulin-like growth factor1 receptor gene (IGF1R) a 2-bp deletion that is present at a frequency of .25 in the Caucasian population. Pedigree analysis with this insertion/deletion polymorphism placed the IGF1R gene at the end of the current linkage map of chromosome 15q, consistent with the physical assignment of 15q2526. Thus, polymorphisms in specific genes can be used to related the physical, genetic, and comparative maps of mammalian genomes and to simplify the testing of candidate genes for human diseases. PMID:1676559

  11. Mutations and a polymorphism in the tuberin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Northup, H.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Au, K.S.; Rodriguez, E.

    1994-09-01

    Two deletions and a polymorphism have been identified in the recently described tuberin gene. The tuberin gene (designated TSC2) when mutated causes tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Fifty-three affected individuals (30 from families with multiple affected and 23 isolated cases) were screened with the tuberin cDNA for gross deletions or rearrangements. Both deletions were found in families with multiple affected members (family designations: HOU-5 and HOU-22). The approximate size of the deletion in HOU-5 is ten kilobases and eliminates a BamHI restriction site. The deletion includes a portion of the 5{prime} half of the tuberin cDNA. The deletion in HOU-22 occurs in the 3{prime} half of the gene. The deletions are being further characterized. A HindIII restriction site polymorphism was detected by a 0.5 kilobase probe from the 5{prime} coding region of the tuberin gene in an individual from a family linked to chromosome 9 (posterior probability of linkage 93%). The polymorphism did not segregate with TSC in the family. The family had previously been shown to give negative results with multiple markers on chromosome 16. The polymorphism was also seen in one individual among a panel of 20 randomly selected unaffected individuals. Thirty-five additional affected probands (five from families and 30 isolated cases) are being tested with the tuberin cDNA. Testing for subtle mutations is our panel of 80 affected probands is underway utilizing SSCP. Additional mutations or polymorphisms detected will be reported. The tuberin cDNA was a kind gift of The European Chromosome 16 Tuberous Sclerosis Consortium.

  12. A 3-bp deletion in the HBS1L-MYB intergenic region on chromosome 6q23 is associated with HbF expression

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, John J.; Sherva, Richard M.; Chen, Zhi-yi; Luo, Hong-yuan; Chu, Benjamin F.; Ha, Shau Yin; Li, Chi Kong; Lee, Anselm C. W.; Li, Rever C. H.; Li, Chi Keung; Yuen, Hui Leung; So, Jason C. C.; Ma, Edmond S. K.; Chan, Li Chong; Chan, Vivian; Sebastiani, Paola; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is regulated as a multigenic trait. By genome-wide association study, we confirmed that HBS1L-MYB intergenic polymorphisms (HMIP) and BCL11A polymorphisms are highly associated with HbF in Chinese β-thalassemia heterozygotes. In this population, the variance in HbF resulting from the HMIP is 13.5%; that resulting from the BCL11A polymorphism is 6.4%. To identify the functional variant in HMIP, we used 1000 Genomes Project data, single nucleotide polymorphism imputation, comparisons of association results across populations, potential transcription factor binding sites, and analysis of phylogenetic conservation. Based on these studies, a hitherto unreported association between HbF expression and a 3-bp deletion, between 135 460 326 and 135 460 328 bp on chromosome 6q23 was found. This 3-bp deletion is in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs9399137, which is the single nucleotide polymorphism in HMIP most significantly associated with HbF among Chinese, Europeans, and Africans. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed erythropoiesis-related transcription factors binding to this region in K562 cells. Based on transient expression of a luciferase reporter plasmid, the DNA fragment encompassing the 3-bp deletion polymorphism has enhancer-like activity that is further augmented by the introduction of the 3-bp deletion. This 3-bp deletion polymorphism is probably the most significant functional motif accounting for HMIP modulation of HbF in all 3 populations. PMID:21385855

  13. Molecular analysis of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene in Spanish individuals: Deletion detection and familial diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Patino, A.; Garcia-Delgado, M.; Narbona, J.

    1995-11-06

    Deletion studies were performed in 26 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients through amplification of nine different exons by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA from paraffin-embedded muscle biopsies was analyzed in 12 of the 26 patients studied. Optimization of this technique is of great utility because it enables analysis of material stored in pathology archives. PCR deletion detection, useful in DMD-affected boys, is problematic in determining the carrier state in female relatives. For this reason, to perform familial linkage diagnosis, we made use of a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (STRP, or short tandem repeat polymorphism) located in intron 49 of the gene. We designed a new pair of primers that enabled the detection of 22 different alleles in relatives in the 14 DMD families studied. The use of this marker allowed familial diagnosis in 11 of the 14 DMD families and detection of de novo deletions in 3 of the probands. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Genomic anatomy of the Tyrp1 (brown) deletion complex

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Ian M.; Wilming, Laurens; Lee, Angela W.; Taylor, Martin S.; Gautier, Phillipe; Barlow, Karen; Wallis, Justine; Martin, Sancha; Glithero, Rebecca; Phillimore, Ben; Pelan, Sarah; Andrew, Rob; Holt, Karen; Taylor, Ruth; McLaren, Stuart; Burton, John; Bailey, Jonathon; Sims, Sarah; Squares, Jan; Plumb, Bob; Joy, Ann; Gibson, Richard; Gilbert, James; Hart, Elizabeth; Laird, Gavin; Loveland, Jane; Mudge, Jonathan; Steward, Charlie; Swarbreck, David; Harrow, Jennifer; North, Philip; Leaves, Nicholas; Greystrong, John; Coppola, Maria; Manjunath, Shilpa; Campbell, Mark; Smith, Mark; Strachan, Gregory; Tofts, Calli; Boal, Esther; Cobley, Victoria; Hunter, Giselle; Kimberley, Christopher; Thomas, Daniel; Cave-Berry, Lee; Weston, Paul; Botcherby, Marc R. M.; White, Sharon; Edgar, Ruth; Cross, Sally H.; Irvani, Marjan; Hummerich, Holger; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Johnson, Dabney; Hunsicker, Patricia R.; Little, Peter F. R.; Hubbard, Tim; Campbell, R. Duncan; Rogers, Jane; Jackson, Ian J.

    2006-01-01

    Chromosome deletions in the mouse have proven invaluable in the dissection of gene function. The brown deletion complex comprises >28 independent genome rearrangements, which have been used to identify several functional loci on chromosome 4 required for normal embryonic and postnatal development. We have constructed a 172-bacterial artificial chromosome contig that spans this 22-megabase (Mb) interval and have produced a contiguous, finished, and manually annotated sequence from these clones. The deletion complex is strikingly gene-poor, containing only 52 protein-coding genes (of which only 39 are supported by human homologues) and has several further notable genomic features, including several segments of >1 Mb, apparently devoid of a coding sequence. We have used sequence polymorphisms to finely map the deletion breakpoints and identify strong candidate genes for the known phenotypes that map to this region, including three lethal loci (l4Rn1, l4Rn2, and l4Rn3) and the fitness mutant brown-associated fitness (baf). We have also characterized misexpression of the basonuclin homologue, Bnc2, associated with the inversion-mediated coat color mutant white-based brown (Bw). This study provides a molecular insight into the basis of several characterized mouse mutants, which will allow further dissection of this region by targeted or chemical mutagenesis. PMID:16505357

  15. Genomic anatomy of the Tyrp1 (brown) deletion complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsicker, Patricia R; Johnson, Dabney K

    2006-01-01

    Chromosome deletions in the mouse have proven invaluable in the dissection of gene function. The brown deletion complex comprises >28 independent genome rearrangements, which have been used to identify several functional loci on chromosome 4 required for normal embryonic and postnatal development. We have constructed a 172-bacterial artificial chromosome contig that spans this 22- egabase (Mb) interval and have produced a contiguous, finished, and manually annotated sequence from these clones. The deletion complex is strikingly gene- oor, containing only 52 protein-coding genes (of which only 39 are supported by human homologues) and has several further notable genomic features, including several segments of >1 Mb, apparently devoid of a coding sequence. We have used sequence polymorphisms to finely map the deletion breakpoints and identify strong candidate genes for the known phenotypes that map to this region, including three lethal loci (l4Rn1, l4Rn2, and l4Rn3) and the fitness mutant brown-associated fitness (baf). We have also characterized misexpression of the basonuclin homologue, Bnc2, associated with the inversion-ediated coat color mutant white-based brown (Bw). This study provides a molecular insight into the basis of several characterized mouse mutants, which will allow further dissection of this region by targeted or chemical mutagenesis.

  16. A deletion and a duplication in distal 22q11.2 deletion syndrome region. Clinical implications and review

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Luis; Nevado, Julián; Santos, Fernando; Heine-Suñer, Damià; Martinez-Glez, Victor; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Palomo, Rebeca; Delicado, Alicia; Pajares, Isidora López; Palomares, María; García-Guereta, Luis; Valverde, Eva; Hawkins, Federico; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals affected with DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes present with both phenotypic diversity and variable expressivity. The most frequent clinical features include conotruncal congenital heart defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency, hypocalcemia and a characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism. The etiology in most patients is a 3 Mb recurrent deletion in region 22q11.2. However, cases of infrequent deletions and duplications with different sizes and locations have also been reported, generally with a milder, slightly different phenotype for duplications but with no clear genotype-phenotype correlation to date. Methods We present a 7 month-old male patient with surgically corrected ASD and multiple VSDs, and dysmorphic facial features not clearly suggestive of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and a newborn male infant with cleft lip and palate and upslanting palpebral fissures. Karyotype, FISH, MLPA, microsatellite markers segregation studies and SNP genotyping by array-CGH were performed in both patients and parents. Results Karyotype and FISH with probe N25 were normal for both patients. MLPA analysis detected a partial de novo 1.1 Mb deletion in one patient and a novel partial familial 0.4 Mb duplication in the other. Both of these alterations were located at a distal position within the commonly deleted region in 22q11.2. These rearrangements were confirmed and accurately characterized by microsatellite marker segregation studies and SNP array genotyping. Conclusion The phenotypic diversity found for deletions and duplications supports a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in the vicinity of the LCRC-LCRD interval of the 22q11.2 chromosomal region, whereas the high presence of duplications in normal individuals supports their role as polymorphisms. We suggest that any hypothetical correlation between the clinical phenotype and the size and location of these alterations may be masked by other genetic and/or epigenetic modifying factors. PMID

  17. Polymorphic light eruption

    MedlinePlus

    ... outdoors. Wear a sun hat. Wear sunglasses with UV protection. Use a lip balm with sunscreen. Alternative Names Polymorphic light eruption; Photodermatosis; PMLE Images Polymorphic light eruption on ...

  18. ATLAS DQ2 Deletion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleynik, Danila; Petrosyan, Artem; Garonne, Vincent; Campana, Simone

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management project DQ2 is responsible for the replication, access and bookkeeping of ATLAS data across more than 100 distributed grid sites. It also enforces data management policies decided on by the collaboration and defined in the ATLAS computing model. The DQ2 Deletion Service is one of the most important DDM services. This distributed service interacts with 3rd party grid middleware and the DQ2 catalogues to serve data deletion requests on the grid. Furthermore, it also takes care of retry strategies, check-pointing transactions, load management and fault tolerance. In this paper special attention is paid to the technical details which are used to achieve the high performance of service, accomplished without overloading either site storage, catalogues or other DQ2 components. Special attention is also paid to the deletion monitoring service that allows operators a detailed view of the working system.

  19. Interstitial deletion of 11(p11.2p12): A newly described contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving the gene for hereditary multiple exostoses

    SciTech Connect

    Potocki, L.; Shaffer, L.G.

    1996-03-29

    Individuals with deletions of the proximal portion of the short arm of chromosome 11 share many manifestations including mental retardation, biparietal foramina, minor facial anomalies, and multiple cartilaginous exostoses. The finding of multiple exostoses in these patients is remarkable as the disorder hereditary multiple exostoses, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, has recently been mapped by linkage to three regions, including proximal 11p. We report the clinical and molecular findings in an additional patient with an 11(p11.2p12) deletion. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis demonstrated a de novo, paternally derived deletion for markers which have been shown to be tightly linked to the 11p locus (EXT2). These data support the location of EXT2 within this region and also provide information regarding the ordering of polymorphic markers on 11p. Deletion 11(p11.2p12) is a rare, yet specific, deletion syndrome involving the EXT2 locus, a gene for parietal foramina, and a mental retardation locus, and therefore can be classified as a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. SNP array mapping of chromosome 20p deletions: genotypes, phenotypes, and copy number variation.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Binita M; Thiel, Brian D; Gai, Xiaowu; Conlin, Laura K; Munoz, Pedro S; Glessner, Joseph; Clark, Dinah; Warthen, Daniel M; Shaikh, Tamim H; Mihci, Ercan; Piccoli, David A; Grant, Struan F A; Hakonarson, Hakon; Krantz, Ian D; Spinner, Nancy B

    2009-03-01

    The use of array technology to define chromosome deletions and duplications is bringing us closer to establishing a genotype/phenotype map of genomic copy number alterations. We studied 21 patients and five relatives with deletions of the short arm of chromosome 20 using the Illumina HumanHap550 SNP array to: 1) more accurately determine the deletion sizes; 2) identify and compare breakpoints; 3) establish genotype/phenotype correlations; and 4) investigate the use of the HumanHap550 platform for analysis of chromosome deletions. Deletions ranged from 95 kb to 14.62 Mb, and all of the breakpoints were unique. Eleven patients had deletions between 95 kb and 4 Mb and these individuals had normal development, with no anomalies outside of those associated with Alagille syndrome (AGS). The proximal and distal boundaries of these 11 deletions constitute a 5.4-Mb region, and we propose that haploinsufficiency for only 1 of the 12 genes in this region causes phenotypic abnormalities. This defines the JAG1-associated critical region, in which deletions do not confer findings other than those associated with AGS. The other 10 patients had deletions between 3.28 Mb and 14.62 Mb, which extended outside the critical region, and, notably, all of these patients had developmental delay. This group had other findings such as autism, scoliosis, and bifid uvula. We identified 47 additional polymorphic genome-wide copy number variants (>20 SNPs), with 0 to 5 variants called per patient. Deletions of the short arm of chromosome 20 are associated with relatively mild and limited clinical anomalies. The use of SNP arrays provides accurate high-resolution definition of genomic abnormalities. PMID:19058200

  1. A 50 kb L1-type deletion mutation of the HEXB gene in Sandhoff disease

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.X.; Wakamatsu, N.; Akerman, B.R.

    1994-09-01

    Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting from mutations of the HEXB gene encoding the {beta}-subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A. A 16 kb deletion spanning the promoter region to intron 5 of the HEXB gene, occurring in {approximately}25% of mutant alleles, is the most common mutation known. We have identified a second large deletion in a patient with the severe, infantile form of Sandhoff disease. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis revealed that the proband, a carrier sister and their mother had one dose of the HEXB gene. This was distinguished through the identification of several polymorphic sites between the promoter and exon 5 (father heterozygous at all sites, others {open_quotes}hemizygous{close_quotes}). Using a combination of pulse field electrophoresis and fine mapping by Southern blot analysis, we found that the deletion begins {approximately}25 kb 5{prime} of the HEXB promoter and ends within a BamHI/MscI fragment in intron 6. Sequence analysis of the region abutting the site of the deletion in intron 6 suggests that the deletion arose from recombination between L1-type sequence repeats. The second mutation, inherited from the father, was found by SSCP analysis and direct sequencing of exon 1 PCR products to be C{sub 185}{yields}T (S62T) and was not present in 60 control chromosomes.

  2. Molecular Definition of the 22q11 Deletions in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Bernice; Goldberg, Rosalie; Carlson, Christine; Gupta, Ruchira Das; Sirotkin, Howard; Collins, John; Dunham, Ian; O'Donnell, Hilary; Scambler, Peter; Shprintzen, Robert; Kucherlapati, Raju

    1995-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a common genetic disorder among individuals with cleft palate and is associated with hemizygous deletions in human chromosome 22q11. Toward the molecular definition of the deletions, we constructed a physical map of 22q11 in the form of overlapping YACs. The physical map covers >9 cM of genetic distance, estimated to span 5 Mb of DNA, and contains a total of 64 markers. Eleven highly polymorphic short tandem-repeat polymorphic (STRP) markers were placed on the physical map, and 10 of these were unambiguously ordered. The 11 polymorphic markers were used to type the DNA from a total of 61 VCFS patients and 49 unaffected relatives. Comparison of levels of heterozygosity of these markers in VCFS patients and their unaffected relatives revealed that four of these markers are commonly hemizygous among VCFS patients. To confirm these results and to define further the breakpoints in VCFS patients, 15 VCFS individuals and their unaffected parents were genotyped for the 11 STRP markers. Haplotypes generated from this study revealed that 82% of the patients have deletions that can be defined by the STRP markers. The results revealed that all patients who have a deletion share a common proximal breakpoint, while there are two distinct distal breakpoints. Markers D22S941 and D22S944 appear to be consistently hemizygous in patients with deletions. Both of these markers are located on a single nonchimeric YAC that is 400 kb long. The results also show that the parental origin of the deleted chromosome does not have any effect on the phenotypic manifestation ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:7762562

  3. A region of consistent deletion in neuroblastoma maps within human chromosome 1p36.2-36.3

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.S.; Maris, J.M.; Beltinger, C.

    1995-06-06

    Deletion of the short arm of human chromosome 1 is the most common cytogenetic abnormality observed in neuroblastoma. To characterize the region of consistent deletion, we performed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies on 122 neuroblastoma tumor samples with 30 distal chromosome 1p polymorphisms. LOH was detected in 32 of the 122 tumors (26%). A single region of LOH, marked distally by D1Z2 and proximally by D1S228, was detected in all tumors demonstrating loss. Also, cells from a patient with a constitutional deletion of 1p36, and from a neuroblastoma cell line with a small 1p36 deletion, were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cells from both sources had interstitial deletions of 1p36.2-36.3 which overlapped the consensus region of LOH defined by the tumors. Interstitial deletion in the constitutional case was confirmed by allelic loss studies using the panel of polymorphic markers. Four proposed candidate genes-DAN, ID3 (heir-1), CDC2L1 (p58), and TNFR2-were shown to lie outside of the consensus region of allelic loss, as defined by the above deletions. These results more precisely define the location of a neuroblastoma suppressor gene within 1p36.2-36.3, eliminating 33 centimorgans of proximal 1p36 from consideration. Furthermore, a consensus region of loss, which excludes the four leading candidate genes, was found in all tumors with 1p36 LOH. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Delineation of the critical deletion region for congenital heart defects, on chromosome 8p23.1.

    PubMed Central

    Devriendt, K; Matthijs, G; Van Dael, R; Gewillig, M; Eyskens, B; Hjalgrim, H; Dolmer, B; McGaughran, J; Bröndum-Nielsen, K; Marynen, P; Fryns, J P; Vermeesch, J R

    1999-01-01

    Deletions in the distal region of chromosome 8p (del8p) are associated with congenital heart malformations. Other major manifestations include microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, mental retardation, and a characteristic hyperactive, impulsive behavior. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations in nine unrelated patients with a de novo del8p, by using the combination of classic cytogenetics, FISH, and the analysis of polymorphic DNA markers. With the exception of one large terminal deletion, all deletions were interstitial. In five patients, a commonly deleted region of approximately 6 Mb was present, with breakpoints clustering in the same regions. One patient without a heart defect or microcephaly but with mild mental retardation and characteristic behavior had a smaller deletion within this commonly deleted region. Two patients without a heart defect had a more proximal interstitial deletion that did not overlap with the commonly deleted region. Taken together, these data allowed us to define the critical deletion regions for the major features of a del8p. PMID:10090897

  5. Genetics Home Reference: 18q deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veltman JA, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM. Genotype-phenotype mapping of chromosome 18q deletions by high-resolution array ... L, Pihko H. 18q deletions: clinical, molecular, and brain MRI findings of 14 individuals. Am J Med ...

  6. The Evolution and Functional Impact of Human Deletion Variants Shared with Archaic Hominin Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Lung; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karakoc, Emre; Ajay, Jerry; Gokcumen, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Allele sharing between modern and archaic hominin genomes has been variously interpreted to have originated from ancestral genetic structure or through non-African introgression from archaic hominins. However, evolution of polymorphic human deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes has yet to be studied. We identified 427 polymorphic human deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes, approximately 87% of which originated before the Human–Neandertal divergence (ancient) and only approximately 9% of which have been introgressed from Neandertals (introgressed). Recurrence, incomplete lineage sorting between human and chimp lineages, and hominid-specific insertions constitute the remaining approximately 4% of allele sharing between humans and archaic hominins. We observed that ancient deletions correspond to more than 13% of all common (>5% allele frequency) deletion variation among modern humans. Our analyses indicate that the genomic landscapes of both ancient and introgressed deletion variants were primarily shaped by purifying selection, eliminating large and exonic variants. We found 17 exonic deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes, including those leading to three fusion transcripts. The affected genes are involved in metabolism of external and internal compounds, growth and sperm formation, as well as susceptibility to psoriasis and Crohn’s disease. Our analyses suggest that these “exonic” deletion variants have evolved through different adaptive forces, including balancing and population-specific positive selection. Our findings reveal that genomic structural variants that are shared between humans and archaic hominin genomes are common among modern humans and can influence biomedically and evolutionarily important phenotypes. PMID:25556237

  7. Gross deletions involving IGHM, BTK, or Artemis: a model for genomic lesions mediated by transposable elements.

    PubMed

    van Zelm, Menno C; Geertsema, Corinne; Nieuwenhuis, Nicole; de Ridder, Dick; Conley, Mary Ellen; Schiff, Claudine; Tezcan, Ilhan; Bernatowska, Ewa; Hartwig, Nico G; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Litzman, Jiri; Kondratenko, Irina; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2008-02-01

    Most genetic disruptions underlying human disease are microlesions, whereas gross lesions are rare with gross deletions being most frequently found (6%). Similar observations have been made in primary immunodeficiency genes, such as BTK, but for unknown reasons the IGHM and DCLRE1C (Artemis) gene defects frequently represent gross deletions ( approximately 60%). We characterized the gross deletion breakpoints in IGHM-, BTK-, and Artemis-deficient patients. The IGHM deletion breakpoints did not show involvement of recombination signal sequences or immunoglobulin switch regions. Instead, five IGHM, eight BTK, and five unique Artemis breakpoints were located in or near sequences derived from transposable elements (TE). The breakpoints of four out of five disrupted Artemis alleles were located in highly homologous regions, similar to Ig subclass deficiencies and Vh deletion polymorphisms. Nevertheless, these observations suggest a role for TEs in mediating gross deletions. The identified gross deletion breakpoints were mostly located in TE subclasses that were specifically overrepresented in the involved gene as compared to the average in the human genome. This concerned both long (LINE1) and short (Alu, MIR) interspersed elements, as well as LTR retrotransposons (ERV). Furthermore, a high total TE content (>40%) was associated with an increased frequency of gross deletions. Both findings were further investigated and confirmed in a total set of 20 genes disrupted in human disease. Thus, to our knowledge for the first time, we provide evidence that a high TE content, irrespective of the type of element, results in the increased incidence of gross deletions as gene disruption underlying human disease. PMID:18252213

  8. Gross Deletions Involving IGHM, BTK, or Artemis: A Model for Genomic Lesions Mediated by Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    van Zelm, Menno C.; Geertsema, Corinne; Nieuwenhuis, Nicole; de Ridder, Dick; Conley, Mary Ellen; Schiff, Claudine; Tezcan, Ilhan; Bernatowska, Ewa; Hartwig, Nico G.; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Litzman, Jiri; Kondratenko, Irina; van Dongen, Jacques J.M.; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    Most genetic disruptions underlying human disease are microlesions, whereas gross lesions are rare with gross deletions being most frequently found (6%). Similar observations have been made in primary immunodeficiency genes, such as BTK, but for unknown reasons the IGHM and DCLRE1C (Artemis) gene defects frequently represent gross deletions (∼60%). We characterized the gross deletion breakpoints in IGHM-, BTK-, and Artemis-deficient patients. The IGHM deletion breakpoints did not show involvement of recombination signal sequences or immunoglobulin switch regions. Instead, five IGHM, eight BTK, and five unique Artemis breakpoints were located in or near sequences derived from transposable elements (TE). The breakpoints of four out of five disrupted Artemis alleles were located in highly homologous regions, similar to Ig subclass deficiencies and Vh deletion polymorphisms. Nevertheless, these observations suggest a role for TEs in mediating gross deletions. The identified gross deletion breakpoints were mostly located in TE subclasses that were specifically overrepresented in the involved gene as compared to the average in the human genome. This concerned both long (LINE1) and short (Alu, MIR) interspersed elements, as well as LTR retrotransposons (ERV). Furthermore, a high total TE content (>40%) was associated with an increased frequency of gross deletions. Both findings were further investigated and confirmed in a total set of 20 genes disrupted in human disease. Thus, to our knowledge for the first time, we provide evidence that a high TE content, irrespective of the type of element, results in the increased incidence of gross deletions as gene disruption underlying human disease. PMID:18252213

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  15. Central 22q11.2 deletions.

    PubMed

    Rump, Patrick; de Leeuw, Nicole; van Essen, Anthonie J; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien C; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Swinkels, Mariëlle E M; Oostdijk, Wilma; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; Reardon, Willie; de Munnik, Sonja; Ruiter, Mariken; Frumkin, Ayala; Lev, Dorit; Evers, Christina; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M

    2014-11-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes. Most patients have a deletion resulting from a recombination of low copy repeat blocks LCR22-A and LCR22-D. Loss of the TBX1 gene is considered the most important cause of the phenotype. A limited number of patients with smaller, overlapping deletions distal to the TBX1 locus have been described in the literature. In these patients, the CRKL gene is deleted. Haploinsufficiency of this gene has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. To distinguish these deletions (comprising the LCR22-B to LCR22-D region) from the more distal 22q11.2 deletions (located beyond LCR22-D), we propose the term "central 22q11.2 deletions". In the present study we report on 27 new patients with such a deletion. Together with information on previously published cases, we review the clinical findings of 52 patients. The prevalence of congenital heart anomalies and the frequency of de novo deletions in patients with a central deletion are substantially lower than in patients with a common or distal 22q11.2 deletion. Renal and urinary tract malformations, developmental delays, cognitive impairments and behavioral problems seem to be equally frequent as in patients with a common deletion. None of the patients had a cleft palate. Patients with a deletion that also encompassed the MAPK1 gene, located just distal to LCR22-D, have a different and more severe phenotype, characterized by a higher prevalence of congenital heart anomalies, growth restriction and microcephaly. Our results further elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome spectrum. PMID:25123976

  16. Constitutional and mosaic large NF1 gene deletions in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, S A; Colman, S D; Ho, V T; Abernathy, C R; Arn, P H; Weiss, L; Schwartz, C; Saul, R A; Wallace, M R

    1998-01-01

    A set of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients was screened for large NF1 gene deletions by comparing patient and parent genotypes at 10 intragenic polymorphic loci. Of 67 patient/parent sets (47 new mutation patients and 20 familial cases), five (7.5%) showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH), indicative of NF1 gene deletion. These five patients did not have severe NF1 manifestations, mental retardation, or dysmorphic features, in contrast to previous reports of large NF1 deletions. All five deletions were de novo and occurred on the maternal chromosome. However, two patients showed partial LOH, consistent with somatic mosaicism for the deletion, suggesting that mosaicism may be more frequent in NF1 than previously recognised (and may have bearing on clinical severity). We suggest that large NF1 deletions (1) are not always associated with unusual clinical features, (2) tend to occur more frequently on maternal alleles, and (3) are an important mechanism for constitutional and somatic mutations in NF1 patients. Images PMID:9643287

  17. Distinct germline polymorphisms underlie glioma morphologic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Robert B.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Johnson, Derek; Fridley, Brooke L.; Decker, Paul A.; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Kollmeyer, Thomas M.; Rynearson, Amanda L.; Fink, Stephanie; Rice, Terri; McCoy, Lucie S.; Halder, Chandralekha; Kosel, Matthew L.; Giannini, Caterina; Tihan, Tarik; O’Neill, Brian P.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Yang, Ping; Wiemels, Joseph; Wiencke, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Two recent genome-wide association studies reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in (or near) TERT (5p15), CCDC26 (8q24), CDKN2A/B (9p21), PHLDB1 (11q23), and RTEL1 (20q13) are associated with infiltrating glioma. From these reports it was not clear if the SNP associations predispose to glioma in general or whether they are specific to certain glioma grades or morphologic subtypes. To identify hypothesized associations between susceptibility loci and tumor subtype, we genotyped two case/control groups composed of the spectrum of infiltrating glioma subtypes, and stratified the analyses by type. We report that specific germline polymorphisms are associated with different glioma subtypes. CCDC26 (8q24) region polymorphisms are strongly associated with oligodendroglial tumor risk (rs4295627, OR=2.05, p=8.3*10−11), but not glioblastoma risk. The opposite is true of RTEL (20q13) region polymorphisms which are significantly associated with glioblastoma (rs2297440, OR = 0.56, p= 4.6*10−10) but not oligodendroglial tumor. The SNPs in or near CCDC26 (8q24) are associated with oligodendroglial tumors regardless of combined 1p and 19q deletion status; however, the association is greatest for those with combined deletion (rs4295627, OR=2.77, p=2.6*10-9). These observations generate hypotheses concerning the possible mechanisms by which specific SNPs (or alterations in linkage disequilibrium with such SNPs) are associated with glioma development. PMID:21356187

  18. Incomplete penetrance and phenotypic variability of 6q16 deletions including SIM1

    PubMed Central

    El Khattabi, Laïla; Guimiot, Fabien; Pipiras, Eva; Andrieux, Joris; Baumann, Clarisse; Bouquillon, Sonia; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Delobel, Bruno; Demurger, Florence; Dessuant, Hélène; Drunat, Séverine; Dubourg, Christelle; Dupont, Céline; Faivre, Laurence; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Jaillard, Sylvie; Journel, Hubert; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Malan, Valérie; Masurel, Alice; Marle, Nathalie; Missirian, Chantal; Moerman, Alexandre; Moncla, Anne; Odent, Sylvie; Palumbo, Orazio; Palumbo, Pietro; Ravel, Aimé; Romana, Serge; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Valduga, Mylène; Vermelle, Marie; Carella, Massimo; Dupont, Jean-Michel; Verloes, Alain; Benzacken, Brigitte; Delahaye, Andrée

    2015-01-01

    6q16 deletions have been described in patients with a Prader–Willi-like (PWS-like) phenotype. Recent studies have shown that certain rare single-minded 1 (SIM1) loss-of-function variants were associated with a high intra-familial risk for obesity with or without features of PWS-like syndrome. Although SIM1 seems to have a key role in the phenotype of patients carrying 6q16 deletions, some data support a contribution of other genes, such as GRIK2, to explain associated behavioural problems. We describe 15 new patients in whom de novo 6q16 deletions were characterised by comparative genomic hybridisation or single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis, including the first patient with fetopathological data. This fetus showed dysmorphic facial features, cerebellar and cerebral migration defects with neuronal heterotopias, and fusion of brain nuclei. The size of the deletion in the 14 living patients ranged from 1.73 to 7.84 Mb, and the fetus had the largest deletion (14 Mb). Genotype–phenotype correlations confirmed the major role for SIM1 haploinsufficiency in obesity and the PWS-like phenotype. Nevertheless, only 8 of 13 patients with SIM1 deletion exhibited obesity, in agreement with incomplete penetrance of SIM1 haploinsufficiency. This study in the largest series reported to date confirms that the PWS-like phenotype is strongly linked to 6q16.2q16.3 deletions and varies considerably in its clinical expression. The possible involvement of other genes in the 6q16.2q16.3-deletion phenotype is discussed. PMID:25351778

  19. Incomplete penetrance and phenotypic variability of 6q16 deletions including SIM1.

    PubMed

    El Khattabi, Laïla; Guimiot, Fabien; Pipiras, Eva; Andrieux, Joris; Baumann, Clarisse; Bouquillon, Sonia; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Delobel, Bruno; Demurger, Florence; Dessuant, Hélène; Drunat, Séverine; Dubourg, Christelle; Dupont, Céline; Faivre, Laurence; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Jaillard, Sylvie; Journel, Hubert; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Malan, Valérie; Masurel, Alice; Marle, Nathalie; Missirian, Chantal; Moerman, Alexandre; Moncla, Anne; Odent, Sylvie; Palumbo, Orazio; Palumbo, Pietro; Ravel, Aimé; Romana, Serge; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Valduga, Mylène; Vermelle, Marie; Carella, Massimo; Dupont, Jean-Michel; Verloes, Alain; Benzacken, Brigitte; Delahaye, Andrée

    2015-08-01

    6q16 deletions have been described in patients with a Prader-Willi-like (PWS-like) phenotype. Recent studies have shown that certain rare single-minded 1 (SIM1) loss-of-function variants were associated with a high intra-familial risk for obesity with or without features of PWS-like syndrome. Although SIM1 seems to have a key role in the phenotype of patients carrying 6q16 deletions, some data support a contribution of other genes, such as GRIK2, to explain associated behavioural problems. We describe 15 new patients in whom de novo 6q16 deletions were characterised by comparative genomic hybridisation or single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis, including the first patient with fetopathological data. This fetus showed dysmorphic facial features, cerebellar and cerebral migration defects with neuronal heterotopias, and fusion of brain nuclei. The size of the deletion in the 14 living patients ranged from 1.73 to 7.84 Mb, and the fetus had the largest deletion (14 Mb). Genotype-phenotype correlations confirmed the major role for SIM1 haploinsufficiency in obesity and the PWS-like phenotype. Nevertheless, only 8 of 13 patients with SIM1 deletion exhibited obesity, in agreement with incomplete penetrance of SIM1 haploinsufficiency. This study in the largest series reported to date confirms that the PWS-like phenotype is strongly linked to 6q16.2q16.3 deletions and varies considerably in its clinical expression. The possible involvement of other genes in the 6q16.2q16.3-deletion phenotype is discussed. PMID:25351778

  20. Polymorphism of SARS-CoV genomes.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Bao, Qi-Yu; Tian, Wei; Xu, Jian-Cheng; Feng, Ming-Guang; Yang, Huan-Ming

    2006-04-01

    In this work, severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome BJ202 (AY864806) was completely sequenced. The genome was directly accessed from the stool sample of a patient in Beijing. Comparative genomics methods were used to analyze the sequence variations of 116 SARS-CoV genomes (including BJ202) available in the NCBI GenBank. With the genome sequence of GZ02 as the reference, there were 41 polymorphic sites identified in BJ202 and a total of 278 polymorphic sites present in at least two of the 116 genomes. The distribution of the polymorphic sites was biased over the whole genome. Nearly half of the variations (50.4%, 140/278) clustered in the one third of the whole genome at the 3' end (19.0 kb-29.7 kb). Regions encoding Orf10-11, Orf3/4, E, M and S protein had the highest mutation rates. A total of 15 PCR products (about 6.0 kb of the genome) including 11 fragments containing 12 known polymorphic sites and 4 fragments without identified polymorphic sites were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that 3 unique polymorphic sites of BJ202 (positions 13 804, 15 031 and 20 792) along with 3 other polymorphic sites (26 428, 26 477 and 27 243) all contained 2 kinds of nucleotides. It is interesting to find that position 18379 which has not been identified to be polymorphic in any of the other 115 published SARS-CoV genomes is actually a polymorphic site. The nucleotide composition of this site is A (8) to G (6). Among 116 SARS-CoV genomes, 18 types of deletions and 2 insertions were identified. Most of them were related to a 300 bp region (27,700-28,000) which encodes parts of the putative ORF9 and ORF10-11. A phylogenetic tree illustrating the divergence of whole BJ202 genome from 115 other completely sequenced SARS-CoVs was also constructed. BJ202 was phylogeneticly closer to BJ01 and LLJ-2004. PMID:16625834

  1. Survival motor neuron (SMN) polymorphism in relation to congenital arthrogryposis in two Piedmont calves (piemontese)

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    The term arthrogryposis refers to a symptom complex that is characterised by congenital limb contractures. Arthrogryposis has been reported in man, in farm animals and in pets. Several forms have been reported to have a genetic origin in man. In Brown Swiss and Holstein Friesian cattle, congenital contractures have been recorded and classified as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). The survival motor neuron gene (SMN) has been suggested as a candidate gene for SMA. In the last 20 years, the National Association of Piedmont Cattle have recorded arthrogryposis cases. We cloned and sequenced SMN cDNA extracted from the spinal cord samples of two animals: one Piedmont calf showing a severe clinical form of arthrogryposis and one normal Piedmont calf. In the affected calf, more than 50% of the 5'end clones showed a ATG > TTG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 1 that should determine a Met > Leu aminoacid change (single point mutation M3L). This mutation is associated with a 9 bp increase length of 5'UTR and to a TTC → TTT silent mutation in exon 1. No single point mutation or 5'end polymorphism was shown in healthy animals and in the remaining 50% of the clones from the affected calf. We hypothesise a possible pathogenic effect of the 5'end-exon 1 polymorphism. PMID:12927089

  2. Type I oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) associated with a large deletion of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.A.; Wick, P.A.; Holmes, S.A.; Schnur, R.E. |

    1994-09-01

    OCA1 is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin is reduced or absent in skin, hair, and eyes, due to deficient enzymatic activity of tyrosinase. TYR consists of 5 exons spanning over 65 kb at 11q14-q21. Analyses of TYR in >400 unrelated patients with OCA1 have identified more than 50 different point mutations; however, no large deletions have been detected. Here we report a large deletion of TYR in a Caucasian boy with OCA1B. Simultaneous SSCP/heteroduplex screening and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the patient was apparently homozygous for a previously described TYR mutation, adjacent to the 3` splice site of IVS2 (-7, t{r_arrow}a). To distinguish between possible gene deletion vs. maternal uniparental isodisomy, we characterized several chromosome 11 polymorphisms. Maternal uniparental isodisomy was excluded by the patient`s heterozygosity for alleles at D11S35 (11q21-122) and HBG2 (11p15.5). In addition, the patient failed to inherit paternal alleles at an MboI RFLP in exon 1 of TYR and at a TaqI RFLP in the promoter region of the gene. To detect a possible submicroscopic deletion, we performed quantitative Southern blot hybridization using a full length TYR cDNA. Compared with controls, both the patient and his father appeared deleted for two or three TYR-derived PstI fragments; the two TYRL-derived fragments appeared normal. These data indicate that the patient and his father have a partial TYR deletion, including at least exons 1, 2, and IVS2. Based on the organization of the gene, this deletion is at least 50 kb in size. The patient is thus hemizygous for the maternally-inherited mutation in IVS2, accounting for his OCA1B phenotype.

  3. Molecular definition of 22q11 deletions in 151 velo-cardio-facial syndrome patients.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, C; Sirotkin, H; Pandita, R; Goldberg, R; McKie, J; Wadey, R; Patanjali, S R; Weissman, S M; Anyane-Yeboa, K; Warburton, D; Scambler, P; Shprintzen, R; Kucherlapati, R; Morrow, B E

    1997-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a relatively common developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies and conotruncal heart defects. Many VCFS patients have hemizygous deletions for a part of 22q11, suggesting that haploinsufficiency in this region is responsible for its etiology. Because most cases of VCFS are sporadic, portions of 22q11 may be prone to rearrangement. To understand the molecular basis for chromosomal deletions, we defined the extent of the deletion, by genotyping 151 VCFS patients and performing haplotype analysis on 105, using 15 consecutive polymorphic markers in 22q11. We found that 83% had a deletion and >90% of these had a similar approximately 3 Mb deletion, suggesting that sequences flanking the common breakpoints are susceptible to rearrangement. We found no correlation between the presence or size of the deletion and the phenotype. To further define the chromosomal breakpoints among the VCFS patients, we developed somatic hybrid cell lines from a set of VCFS patients. An 11-kb resolution physical map of a 1,080-kb region that includes deletion breakpoints was constructed, incorporating genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated by the hybridization selection method. The ordered markers were used to examine the two separated copies of chromosome 22 in the somatic hybrid cell lines. In some cases, we were able to map the chromosome breakpoints within a single cosmid. A 480-kb critical region for VCFS has been delineated, including the genes for GSCL, CTP, CLTD, HIRA, and TMVCF, as well as a number of novel ordered ESTs. PMID:9326327

  4. 78 FR 56679 - Procurement List; Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... 8/2/2013 (78 FR 46927-46928), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  5. Mitochondrial Mutations and Polymorphisms in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Adolfo; Martin, Maureen V.; Rollins, Brandi; Moon, Emily A.; Bunney, William E.; Macciardi, Fabio; Lupoli, Sara; Smith, Erin N.; Kelsoe, John; Magnan, Christophe N.; van Oven, Mannis; Baldi, Pierre; Wallace, Douglas C.; Vawter, Marquis P.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial deficiencies with unknown causes have been observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) in imaging and postmortem studies. Polymorphisms and somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were investigated as potential causes with next generation sequencing of mtDNA (mtDNA-Seq) and genotyping arrays in subjects with SZ, BD, major depressive disorder (MDD), and controls. The common deletion of 4,977 bp in mtDNA was compared between SZ and controls in 11 different vulnerable brain regions and in blood samples, and in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of BD, SZ, and controls. In a separate analysis, association of mitochondria SNPs (mtSNPs) with SZ and BD in European ancestry individuals (n = 6,040) was tested using Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) and Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2) datasets. The common deletion levels were highly variable across brain regions, with a 40-fold increase in some regions (nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus and amygdala), increased with age, and showed little change in blood samples from the same subjects. The common deletion levels were increased in the DLPFC for BD compared to controls, but not in SZ. Full mtDNA genome resequencing of 23 subjects, showed seven novel homoplasmic mutations, five were novel synonymous coding mutations. By logistic regression analysis there were no significant mtSNPs associated with BD or SZ after genome wide correction. However, nominal association of mtSNPs (p < 0.05) to SZ and BD were found in the hypervariable region of mtDNA to T195C and T16519C. The results confirm prior reports that certain brain regions accumulate somatic mutations at higher levels than blood. The study in mtDNA of common polymorphisms, somatic mutations, and rare mutations in larger populations may lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:22723804

  6. Polymorphous computing fabric

    DOEpatents

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw; Gokhale, Maya B.; McCabe, Kevin Peter

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  7. Determining the population frequency of the CFHR3/CFHR1 deletion at 1q32.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Lucy V; Strain, Lisa; Staniforth, Scott J; Moore, Iain; Marchbank, Kevin; Kavanagh, David; Goodship, Judith A; Cordell, Heather J; Goodship, Timothy H J

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to measure the copy number of CFHR3 and CFHR1 in DNA samples from 238 individuals from the UK and 439 individuals from the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel. We have then calculated the allele frequency and frequency of homozygosity for the copy number polymorphism represented by the CFHR3/CFHR1 deletion. There was a highly significant difference between geographical locations in both the allele frequency (X(2)  = 127.7, DF = 11, P-value = 4.97x10(-22)) and frequency of homozygosity (X(2)  = 142.3, DF = 22, P-value = 1.33x10(-19)). The highest frequency for the deleted allele (54.7%) was seen in DNA samples from Nigeria and the lowest (0%) in samples from South America and Japan. The observed frequencies in conjunction with the known association of the deletion with AMD, SLE and IgA nephropathy is in keeping with differences in the prevalence of these diseases in African and European Americans. This emphasises the importance of identifying copy number polymorphism in disease. PMID:23613724

  8. GSTT1 deletion is related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-induced DNA damage and lymphoma progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Xiong, Jie; Jia, Xiao-E; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Shi, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jun-Min; Chen, Sai-Juan; Zhao, Wei-Li

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationship between genetic susceptibility and carcinogenic exposure is important in cancer development. Polymorphisms in detoxification enzymes of the glutathione-S-transferases (GST) family are associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Here we investigated the molecular connection of the genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 to the response of lymphocytes to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In neoplastic situation, GSTT1 deletions were more frequently observed in lymphoma patients (54.9%) than in normal controls (42.0%, P = 0.009), resulting in an increased risk for lymphoma in individuals with GSTT1-null genotype (Odds ratio = 1.698, 95% confidence interval = 1.145-2.518). GSTT1 gene and protein expression were accordingly decreased in GSTT1-deleting patients, consistent with activated profile of cell cycle regulation genes. Mimicking environmental exposure using long-term repeat culture with low-dose PAH metabolite Hydroquinone, malignant B- and T-lymphocytes presented increased DNA damage, pCHK1/MYC expression and cell proliferation, which were counteracted by ectopic expression of GSTT1. Moreover, GSTT1 expression retarded xenograft tumor formation of Hydroquinone-treated lymphoma cells in nude mice. In non-neoplastic situation, when zebrafish was exposed to PAH Benzo(a)pyrene, molecular silencing of gstt1 enhanced the proliferation of normal lymphocytes and upregulated myca expression. Collectively, these findings suggested that GSTT1 deletion is related to genetic predisposition to lymphoma, particularly interacting with environmental pollutants containing PAH. PMID:24586676

  9. 1p36 deletion syndrome: an update

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Valerie K; Zaveri, Hitisha P; Scott, Daryl A

    2015-01-01

    Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are the most common terminal deletions in humans. Medical problems commonly caused by terminal deletions of 1p36 include developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, vision problems, hearing loss, short stature, distinctive facial features, brain anomalies, orofacial clefting, congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. Although 1p36 deletion syndrome is considered clinically recognizable, there is significant phenotypic variation among affected individuals. This variation is due, at least in part, to the genetic heterogeneity seen in 1p36 deletions which include terminal and interstitial deletions of varying lengths located throughout the 30 Mb of DNA that comprise chromosome 1p36. Array-based copy number variant analysis can easily identify genomic regions of 1p36 that are deleted in an affected individual. However, predicting the phenotype of an individual based solely on the location and extent of their 1p36 deletion remains a challenge since most of the genes that contribute to 1p36-related phenotypes have yet to be identified. In addition, haploinsufficiency of more than one gene may contribute to some phenotypes. In this article, we review recent successes in the effort to map and identify the genes and genomic regions that contribute to specific 1p36-related phenotypes. In particular, we highlight evidence implicating MMP23B, GABRD, SKI, PRDM16, KCNAB2, RERE, UBE4B, CASZ1, PDPN, SPEN, ECE1, HSPG2, and LUZP1 in various 1p36 deletion phenotypes. PMID:26345236

  10. Common promoter deletion is associated with 3.9-fold differential transcription of ovine CCR5 and reduced proviral level of ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CCR5 is a chemokine receptor that regulates immune cell recruitment in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A human CCR5 coding deletion (termed delta-32) results in strong resistance to HIV infection, and polymorphisms in CCR5 regulatory regions have been ...

  11. Polymorphism, Genetic Effect and Association with Egg Production Traits of Chicken Matrix Metalloproteinases 9 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guiyu; Jiang, Yunliang

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are key enzymes involved in cell and tissue remodeling during ovarian follicle development and ovulation. The control of MMP9 transcription in ovarian follicles occurs through a core promoter region (−2,400 to −1,700 bp). The aim of this study was to screen genetic variations in the core promoter region and examine MMP9 transcription regulation and reproduction performance. A single cytosine deletion/insertion polymorphism was found at −1954 C+/C−. Genetic association analysis indicated significant correlation between the deletion genotype (C−) with total egg numbers at 28 weeks (p = 0.031). Furthermore, luciferase-reporter assay showed the deletion genotype (C−) had significantly lower promoter activity than the insertion genotype (C+) in primary granulosa cells (p<0.01). Therefore, the identified polymorphism could be used for marker-assisted selection to improve chicken laying performance. PMID:25358310

  12. Deletions in the genomes of fifteen inbred mouse lines and their possible implications for fat accumulation*

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Armin O.; Dempfle, Astrid; Brockmann, Gudrun A.

    2007-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are pieces of genomic DNA of 1000 base pairs or longer which occur in a given genome at a different frequency than in a reference genome. Their importance as a source for phenotypic variability has been recognized only in the last couple of years. Chromosomal deletions can be seen as a special case of CNVs where stretches of DNA are missing in certain lines when compared to the reference genome of the mouse line C57BL/6, for example. Based upon more than 8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fifteen inbred mouse lines which were determined in a whole genome chip based resequencing project by Perlegen Sciences, we detected 20 166 such long chromosomal deletions. They cover altogether between 4.4 million and 8.8 million base pairs, depending on the mouse line. Thus, their extent is comparable to that of SNPs. The chromosomal deletions were found by searching for clusters of missing values in the genotyping data by applying bioinformatics and biostatistical methods. In contrast to isolated missing values, clusters are likely the consequence of missing DNA probe rather than of a failed hybridization or deficient oligos. We analyzed these deletion sites in various ways. Twenty-two percent of these deletion sites overlap with exons; they could therefore affect a gene’s functioning. The corresponding genes seem to exist in alternative forms, a phenomenon that reminds of the alternative forms of mRNA generated during gene splicing. We furthermore detected statistically significant association between hundreds of deletion sites and fat weight at the age of eight weeks. PMID:17973337

  13. Generating CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Monoallelic Deletions to Study Enhancer Function in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Sakthi D; Mitchell, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Enhancers control cell identity by regulating tissue-specific gene expression in a position and orientation independent manner. These enhancers are often located distally from the regulated gene in intergenic regions or even within the body of another gene. The position independent nature of enhancer activity makes it difficult to match enhancers with the genes they regulate. Deletion of an enhancer region provides direct evidence for enhancer activity and is the gold standard to reveal an enhancer's role in endogenous gene transcription. Conventional homologous recombination based deletion methods have been surpassed by recent advances in genome editing technology which enable rapid and precisely located changes to the genomes of numerous model organisms. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing can be used to manipulate the genome in many cell types and organisms rapidly and cost effectively, due to the ease with which Cas9 can be targeted to the genome by a guide RNA from a bespoke expression plasmid. Homozygous deletion of essential gene regulatory elements might lead to lethality or alter cellular phenotype whereas monoallelic deletion of transcriptional enhancers allows for the study of cis-regulation of gene expression without this confounding issue. Presented here is a protocol for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated deletion in F1 mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (Mus musculus(129) x Mus castaneus). Monoallelic deletion, screening and expression analysis is facilitated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) between the two alleles which occur on average every 125 bp in these cells. PMID:27078492

  14. Polymorphisms in the glutathione pathway modulate cystic fibrosis severity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) clinically manifests with various levels of severity, which are thought to be modulated by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), modifier genes, and the environment. This study verified whether polymorphisms in modifier genes associated with glutathione (GSH) metabolism influence CF severity. Methods A cross-sectional study of 180 CF patients was carried out from 2011 to 2012. We analyzed CFTR mutations, polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions, GSTP1 + 313A > G, GCLC-129C > T, and GCLC-3506A > G) in modifier genes and CF clinical severity as assessed by 28 clinical and laboratory variables. Results Significant associations were found between modifier gene polymorphisms and particular phenotypes or genotype changes. These included GCLC-129C > T with a higher frequency of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid to CC genotype (p = 0.044), and GCLC-3506A > G with a higher frequency of the no-mucoid P. aeruginosa (NMPA) to AA genotype (p = 0.012). The GSTT1 deletion was associated with a higher frequency of the NMPA to homozygous deletion (p = 0.008), GSTP1 + 313A > G with a minor risk of osteoporosis (p = 0.036), and patient age ≤ 154 months (p = 0.044) with the AA genotype. The Bhalla score was associated with GCLC-3506A > G (p = 0.044) and GSTM1/GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms (p = 0.02), while transcutaneous hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels were associated with GSTT1 deletions (p = 0.048). Conclusion CF severity is associated with polymorphisms in GSH pathways and CFTR mutations. PMID:24593045

  15. Mitochondrial DNA deletion in a patient with combined features of Leigh and Pearson syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Blok, R.B.; Thorburn, D.R.; Danks, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a heteroplasmic 4237 bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion in an 11 year old girl who has suffered from progressive illness since birth. She has some features of Leigh syndrome (global developmental delay with regression, brainstem dysfunction and lactic acidosis), together with other features suggestive of Pearson syndrome (history of pancytopenia and failure to thrive). The deletion was present at a level greater than 50% in skeletal muscle, but barely detectable in skin fibroblasts following Southern blot analysis, and only observed in blood following PCR analysis. The deletion spanned nt 9498 to nt 13734, and was flanked by a 12 bp direct repeat. Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, NADH dehydrogenase subunits 3, 4L, 4 and 5, and tRNAs for glycine, arginine, histidine, serine({sup AGY}) and leucine({sup CUN}) were deleted. Southern blotting also revealed an altered Apa I restriction site which was shown by sequence analysis to be caused by G{r_arrow}A nucleotide substitution at nt 1462 in the 12S rRNA gene. This was presumed to be a polymorphism. No abnormalities of mitochondrial ultrastructure, distribution or of respiratory chain enzyme complexes I-IV in skeletal muscle were observed. Mitochondrial disorders with clinical features overlapping more than one syndrome have been reported previously. This case further demonstrates the difficulty in correlating observed clinical features with a specific mitochondrial DNA mutation.

  16. Deletion mapping on chromosome 1p in well-differentiated gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ezaki, T.; Yanagisawa, A.; Ohta, K.; Aiso, S.; Watanabe, M.; Hibi, T.; Kato, Y.; Nakajima, T.; Ariyama, T.; Inazawa, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Horii, A.

    1996-01-01

    To define the region on the short arm of chromosome 1 that is thought to include one or more tumour-suppressor genes for gastric cancers, we carried out loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies in 26 gastric adenocarcinomas, using three restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and nine microsatellite markers. All tumours were informative with at least one locus; three revealed replication errors (RERs) at multiple microsatellite loci, and interstitial or telomeric allelic deletions were observed in 12 cases. Deletion mapping of these tumours defined a commonly deleted region between two loci, D1S201 and D1S197, that are 13 cM apart. As two loci within the commonly deleted region, D1S57 (pYNZ2) and D1S62 (pTHI54), were mapped respectively to 1p35 and 1p34.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, we conclude that a locus likely to contain a tumour-suppressor gene for gastric cancer is located within a 13 cM region encompassing two chromosomal bands. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8595154

  17. Genetic Analysis of the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Gene Polymorphisms among Essential Hypertensive Patients in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsian, Nooshin; Ismail, Patimah; Ahmadloo, Salma; Eskandarian, Narges; Etemad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) considerably influences blood pressure regulation through water and sodium homoeostasis. Several of the studies have utilized anonymous genetic polymorphic markers and made inconsequent claims about the ANP relevant disorders. Thus, we screened Insertion/Deletion (ID) and G191A polymorphisms of ANP to discover sequence variations with potential functional significance and to specify the linkage disequilibrium pattern between polymorphisms. The relationships of detected polymorphisms with EH with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) status were tested subsequently. Method. ANP gene polymorphisms (I/D and A191G) were specified utilizing mutagenically separated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 320 subjects including 163 EH case subjects and 157 controls. Result. This case-control study discovered a significant association between I/D polymorphisms of ANP gene in EH patient without T2DM. However, the study determined no association between G191A polymorphisms of ANP in EH with or without T2DM. In addition, sociodemographic factors in the case and healthy subjects exhibited strong differences (P < 0.05). Conclusion. As a risk factor, ANP gene polymorphisms may affect hypertension. Despite the small sample size in this study, it is the first research assessing the ANP gene polymorphisms in both EH and T2DM patients among Malaysian population. PMID:27413750

  18. Kcne2 deletion promotes atherosclerosis and diet-dependent sudden death.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Min; Nguyen, Dara; Hu, Zhaoyang; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. An estimated half of cases involve genetic predisposition. Sequence variants in human KCNE2, which encodes a cardiac and epithelial K(+) channel β subunit, cause inherited cardiac arrhythmias. Unexpectedly, human KCNE2 polymorphisms also associate with predisposition to atherosclerosis, with unestablished causality or mechanisms. Here, we report that germline Kcne2 deletion promotes atherosclerosis in mice, overcoming the relative resistance of this species to plaque deposition. In female western diet-fed mice, Kcne2 deletion increased plaque deposition >6-fold and also caused premature ventricular complexes and sudden death. The data establish causality for the first example of ion channel-linked atherosclerosis, and demonstrate that the severity of Kcne2-linked cardiac arrhythmias is strongly diet-dependent. PMID:26307149

  19. [Genetic and clinical characteristics of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kozlova, Iu O; Zabnenkova, V V; Shilova, N V; Min'zhenkova, M E; Antonenko, V G; Kotlukova, N P; Simonova, L V; Kazanceva, I A; Levchenko, E G; Bombardirova, T D; Zolotukhina, T V; Poliakov, A V

    2014-05-01

    In a group of 140 patients with typical phenotype, the 22q11.2 microdeletion was detected in 43 patients (32%) using FISH and MLPA methods. There were no deletions of other chromosomal loci leading to phenotypes similar to the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Sequencing of the TBX1 gene did not detect any mutations, except for some common neutral polymorphisms. For the first time in the Russian Federation, the diagnostic efficiency of 22q11.2DS appeared to be 32%, as a result of the application of a combination of genetic approaches for a large group of patients with suspected 22q11.2DS. PMID:25715476

  20. Polymorphism of triphenyl phosphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, J.; Davydova, N. A.; Drozd, M.

    2014-03-01

    The glass-forming liquid triphenyl phosphite (TPP) has recently attracted much attention due to the possible existence of a polyamorphism, i.e., the existence of two or more amorphous phases. In the present work we provide experimental evidence of the existence of a polymorphism in TPP. In addition to the already known conventional crystalline phase, which melts at 299.1 K, it has been found that TPP can crystallize in another polymorphic phase. The new polymorph can be obtained from the liquid phase due to direct cooling from the room temperature up to 245 K where it is held for 15 min and then heated up to 270 K. At 270 K crystallization of the new polymorph occurs, which melts at 291.6 K.

  1. Adaptive gains through repeated gene loss: parallel evolution of cyanogenesis polymorphisms in the genus Trifolium (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Kooyers, Nicholas J.; Small, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release following tissue damage) was first noted in populations of white clover more than a century ago, and subsequent decades of research have established this system as a classic example of an adaptive chemical defence polymorphism. Here, we document polymorphisms for cyanogenic components in several relatives of white clover, and we determine the molecular basis of this trans-specific adaptive variation. One hundred and thirty-nine plants, representing 13 of the 14 species within Trifolium section Trifoliastrum, plus additional species across the genus, were assayed for cyanogenic components (cyanogenic glucosides and their hydrolysing enzyme, linamarase) and for the presence of underlying cyanogenesis genes (CYP79D15 and Li, respectively). One or both cyanogenic components were detected in seven species, all within section Trifoliastrum; polymorphisms for the presence/absence (PA) of components were detected in six species. In a pattern that parallels our previous findings for white clover, all observed biochemical polymorphisms correspond to gene PA polymorphisms at CYP79D15 and Li. Relationships of DNA sequence haplotypes at the cyanogenesis loci and flanking genomic regions suggest independent evolution of gene deletions within species. This study thus provides evidence for the parallel evolution of adaptive biochemical polymorphisms through recurrent gene deletions in multiple species. PMID:24958921

  2. Polymorphic amplified typing sequences (PATS) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) yield comparable results in the strain typing of a diverse set of bovine Escherichia coli O157 isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The PCR-based Escherichia coli O157 (O157) strain typing system, Polymorphic Amplified Typing Sequences (PATS), targets insertions-deletions (Indels) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the XbaI and AvrII(BlnI) restriction enzyme sites, respectively, besides amplifying four known virulenc...

  3. Method for introducing unidirectional nested deletions

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, John J.; Quesada, Mark A.; Randesi, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment in the context of a cloning vector which contains an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes utilizing the same cloning vector. An optimal vector, PZIP is described. Methods for introducing unidirectional deletions into a terminal location of a cloned DNA sequence which is inserted into the vector of the present invention are also disclosed. These methods are useful for introducing deletions into either or both ends of a cloned DNA insert, for high throughput sequencing of any DNA of interest.

  4. 9q22 Deletion - First Familial Case

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only 29 cases of constitutional 9q22 deletions have been published and all have been sporadic. Most associate with Gorlin syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, MIM #109400) due to haploinsufficiency of the PTCH1 gene (MIM *601309). Methods and Results We report two mentally retarded female siblings and their cognitively normal father, all carrying a similar 5.3 Mb microdeletion at 9q22.2q22.32, detected by array CGH (244 K). The deletion does not involve the PTCH1 gene, but instead 30 other gene,s including the ROR2 gene (MIM *602337) which causing both brachydactyly type 1 (MIM #113000) and Robinow syndrome (MIM #268310), and the immunologically active SYK gene (MIM *600085). The deletion in the father was de novo and FISH analysis of blood lymphocytes did not suggest mosaicism. All three patients share similar mild dysmorphic features with downslanting palpebral fissures, narrow, high bridged nose with small nares, long, deeply grooved philtrum, ears with broad helix and uplifted lobuli, and small toenails. All have significant dysarthria and suffer from continuous middle ear and upper respiratory infections. The father also has a funnel chest and unilateral hypoplastic kidney but the daughters have no malformations. Conclusions This is the first report of a familial constitutional 9q22 deletion and the first deletion studied by array-CGH which does not involve the PTCH1 gene. The phenotype and penetrance are variable and the deletion found in the cognitively normal normal father poses a challenge in genetic counseling. PMID:21693067

  5. Deletion mapping of genetic regions associated with apomixis in Hieracium.

    PubMed

    Catanach, Andrew S; Erasmuson, Sylvia K; Podivinsky, Ellen; Jordan, Brian R; Bicknell, Ross

    2006-12-01

    Although apomixis has been quoted as a technology with the potential to deliver benefits similar in scale to those achieved with the Green Revolution, very little is currently known of the genetic mechanisms that control this trait in plants. To address this issue, we developed Hieracium, a genus of daisies native to Eurasia and North America, as a genetic model to study apomixis. In a molecular mapping study, we defined the number of genetic loci involved in apomixis, and we explored dominance and linkage relationships between these loci. To avoid difficulties often encountered with inheritance studies of apomicts, we based our mapping effort on the use of deletion mutagenesis, coupled with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) as a genomic fingerprinting tool. The results indicate that apomixis in Hieracium caespitosum is controlled at two principal loci, one of which regulates events associated with the avoidance of meiosis (apomeiosis) and the other, an unlinked locus that controls events associated with the avoidance of fertilization (parthenogenesis). AFLP bands identified as central to both loci were isolated, sequenced, and used to develop sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. The validity of the AFLP markers was verified by using a segregating population generated by hybridization. The validity of the SCAR markers was verified by their pattern of presence/absence in specific mutants. The mutants, markers, and genetic data derived from this work are now being used to isolate genes controlling apomixis in this system. PMID:17047034

  6. IAP gene deletion and conditional knockout models.

    PubMed

    Silke, John; Vaux, David L

    2015-03-01

    Gene deletion studies have helped reveal the unique and overlapping roles played by IAP proteins. Crossing IAP mutant mice has helped unravel the complex feed-back regulatory circuits in which cIAP1, cIAP2 and XIAP allow innate defensive responses to microbial pathogens, without the development of auto-inflammatory syndromes. Deletion of genes for Survivin and its homologs in yeasts, invertebrates and mammals has shown that it functions differently, as it is not a regulator of innate immunity or apoptosis, but acts together with INCENP, aurora kinase B and Borealin to allow chromosome segregation during mitosis. PMID:25545814

  7. Identification of null alleles and deletions from SNP genotypes for an intercross between domestic and wild chickens.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Lucy; Carlborg, Örjan; Marklund, Stefan; Johansson, Anna M

    2013-08-01

    We analyzed genotypes from ~10K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two families of an F2 intercross between Red Junglefowl and White Leghorn chickens. Possible null alleles were found by patterns of incompatible and missing genotypes. We estimated that 2.6% of SNPs had null alleles compared with 2.3% with genotyping errors and that 40% of SNPs in which a parent and offspring were genotyped as different homozygotes had null alleles. Putative deletions were identified by null alleles at adjacent markers. We found two candidate deletions that were supported by fluorescence intensity data from a 60K SNP chip. One of the candidate deletions was from the Red Junglefowl, and one was present in both the Red Junglefowl and White Leghorn. Both candidate deletions spanned protein-coding regions and were close to a previously detected quantitative trait locus affecting body weight in this population. This study demonstrates that the ~50K SNP genotyping arrays now available for several agricultural species can be used to identify null alleles and deletions in data from large families. We suggest that our approach could be a useful complement to linkage analysis in experimental crosses. PMID:23708300

  8. Detailed gene dose analysis reveals recurrent focal gene deletions in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ivanov Öfverholm, Ingegerd; Tran, Anh Nhi; Olsson, Linda; Zachariadis, Vasilios; Heyman, Mats; Rudd, Eva; Syk Lundberg, Elisabeth; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Johansson, Bertil; Nordgren, Ann; Barbany, Gisela

    2016-09-01

    To identify copy number alterations (CNAs) in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL), array comparative genomic hybridization was performed on 50 cases; detected CNAs were validated in a cohort of 191 cases analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Apart from CNAs involving leukemia-associated genes, recurrent deletions targeting genes not previously implicated in BCP ALL, e.g. INIP, IRF1 and PDE4B, were identified. Deletions of the DNA repair gene INIP were exclusively found in cases with t(12;21), and deletions of SH2B3 were associated with intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (p < 0.001). A majority of BTLA deletions (7/11; 64%) affected samples with gain of 21q chromosome material, suggesting that BTLA deletions are associated with both germline and somatic gain of chromosome 21. In cases without known risk-associated cytogenetic markers, CNAs associated with adverse prognosis were identified in 50% (10/20), indicating that a majority of these cases could be assigned to distinct genetic subtypes. PMID:27090575

  9. A Deletion Involving CD38 and BST1 Results in a Fusion Transcript in a Patient With Autism and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ceroni, Fabiola; Sagar, Angela; Simpson, Nuala H.; Gawthrope, Alex J.T.; Newbury, Dianne F.; Pinto, Dalila; Francis, Sunday M.; Tessman, Dorothy C.; Cook, Edwin H.; Monaco, Anthony P.; Maestrini, Elena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Jacob, Suma

    2015-01-01

    CD38 encodes a ligand in the oxytocin signaling pathway. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with low serum oxytocin levels in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. Oxytocin disruption has been hypothesized to account for features of ASD, including impaired communication and social behavior, based on animal studies. Recent human studies have shown administration of oxytocin improving emotion recognition, promoting social behavior, and improving auditory processing of social stimuli in ASD patients. In addition to its role in oxytocin signaling, CD38 is involved in the regulation of calcium concentration in airway smooth muscle with impairment of CD38 being implicated in airway diseases like asthma. While a number of studies have implicated rare chromosomal deletions and duplications in helping determine genetic risk for autism, there are to our knowledge no reports describing rearrangements involving CD38 or deletions in patients with ASD. Here, we present two sisters diagnosed with autism and with features of regression—previously acquired speech lost in the second year of life. The younger sister, who also had asthma, inherited a maternal deletion of 4p15.32 that results in a BST1-CD38 fusion transcript. Their mother's deletion was mosaic and she was not affected. Although further work is required to assess functional consequences of the fusion transcript, we hypothesize that the proband's deletion may have served as a risk factor for autism that, when combined with other susceptibility variants, resulted in a more severe presentation than her sister. PMID:24634087

  10. Thrombophilic polymorphisms in Israel.

    PubMed

    Zoossmann-Diskin, Avshalom; Gazit, Ephraim; Peleg, Leah; Shohat, Mordechai; Turner, David

    2008-01-01

    Three thrombophilic polymorphisms, FV G1691A, FII G20210A and MTHFR C677T were investigated in Israeli populations by FRET, (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) real-time PCR. We observe extensive variability in the frequencies of each of the polymorphisms, as has been observed in the study of other polymorphisms in these populations. Very high allele frequencies for FV G1691A (the highest 0.087 in Turkish and Greek Jews) and FII G20210A (the highest 0.061 in Georgian Jews) in some of the Israeli populations justify a clinical investigation to assess their risk for venous thrombosis. Principal Coordinates Analysis demonstrates that the Jewish populations are interspersed among the non-Jewish populations. The resemblance of some Jewish populations to certain non-Jewish populations coincides with findings based on classical markers. PMID:18583164

  11. Phenotypic variability in Angelman syndrome: comparison among different deletion classes and between deletion and UPD subjects.

    PubMed

    Varela, Monica Castro; Kok, Fernando; Otto, Paulo Alberto; Koiffmann, Celia Priszkulnik

    2004-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) can result from either a 15q11-q13 deletion (del), paternal uniparental disomy (UPD), imprinting, or UBE3A mutations. Here, we describe the phenotypic and behavioral variability detected in 49 patients with different classes of deletions and nine patients with UPD. Diagnosis was made by methylation pattern analysis of exon 1 of the SNRPN-SNURF gene and by microsatellite profiling of loci within and outside the 15q11-q13 region. There were no major phenotypic differences between the two main classes (BP1-BP3; BP2-BP3) of AS deletion patients, except for the absence of vocalization, more prevalent in patients with BP1-BP3 deletions, and for the age of sitting without support, which was lower in patients with BP2-BP3 deletions. Our data suggest that gene deletions (NIPA1, NIPA2, CYF1P1, GCP5) mapped to the region between breakpoints BP1 and BP2 may be involved in the severity of speech impairment, since all BP1-BP3 deletion patients showed complete absence of vocalization, while 38.1% of the BP2-BP3 deletion patients were able to pronounce syllabic sounds, with doubtful meaning. Compared to UPD patients, deletion patients presented a higher incidence of swallowing disorders (73.9% del x 22.2% UPD) and hypotonia (73.3% del x 28.57% UPD). In addition, children with UPD showed better physical growth, fewer or no seizures, a lower incidence of microcephaly, less ataxia and higher cognitive skills. As a consequence of their milder or less typical phenotype, AS may remain undiagnosed, leading to an overall underdiagnosis of the disease. PMID:15470370

  12. The extensive polymorphism of KIR genes

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Derek; Gonzelez, Faviel

    2010-01-01

    The functions of human natural killer (NK) cells are controlled by diverse families of antigen receptors. Prominent among these are the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), a family of genes clustered in one of the most variable regions of the human genome. Within this review we discuss the vast polymorphism of the KIR gene complex which rivals that of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) complex. There are several aspects to this polymorphism. Initially there is presence/absence of individual KIR genes, with four of these genes, termed framework genes, being present in all individuals tested to date, except on those very occasional instances when the gene has been deleted. Within each gene, alleles are present at different frequencies. We provide details of a new website that enables convenient searching for data on KIR gene, allele and genotype frequencies in different populations and show how these frequencies vary in different worldwide populations and the high probability of individuals differing in their KIR repertoire when both gene and allele polymorphism is considered. The KIR genes present in an individual may be classified into A and/or B haplotypes, which respectively have a more inhibitory role or a more activating role on the function of the NK cell. Family studies have been used to ascertain the make-up of these haplotypes, inclusion of allele typing enabling determination of whether one or two copies of a particular gene is present. In addition to genetic diversification the KIR gene complex shows differences at the functional level with different alleles having different protein expression levels and different avidity with their HLA ligand. PMID:20028428

  13. Possible deletion of a developmentally regulated heavy-chain variable region gene in autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Olee, Tsaiwei; Kozin, F.; Carson, D.A.; Chen, P.P. ); Olsen, N.J. ); Siminovitch, K.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Several autoantibody-associated variable region (V) genes are preferentially expressed during early ontogenic development, suggesting strongly that they are of developmental and physiological importance. As such, it is possible that polymorphisms in one or more of these genes may alter susceptibility to autoimmune disease. The authors have searched extensively for a probe related to a developmentally regulated V gene that has the power to differentiate among highly homologous V genes in human populations. Using such a probe (i.e., Humhv3005/P1) related to both anti-DNA and anti-IgG autoantibodies, they studied restriction fragment length polymorphisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus and found an apparent heavy-chain V (V{sub H}) gene deletion that was nearly restricted to the autoimmune patients. These data suggest that deletions of physiologically important V{sub H} genes may increase the risk of autoimmunity through indirect effects on the development and homeostasis of the B-cell repertoire.

  14. A deletion mutant defines DQ beta variants with DR4 positive DQw3 positive haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Nepom, B S; Kim, S J; Nepom, G T

    1986-10-01

    We describe the production of an HLA deletion mutation by radiation mutagenesis of a DR4- and DQw3-homozygous, Dw4- and Dw14-heterozygous cell line designed to analyze polymorphisms associated with DR4 and DQw3. Southern blot analysis confirms a deletion of class I and class II genes on one haplotype. Variation in DQ beta alleles associated with DQw3 was previously described by characteristic RFLP patterns for a DQ beta bene. One pattern, which correlated precisely with A-10-83 monoclonal antibody reactivity (TA10), defined an allele which we call DQ"3.1". The mutant cell line has lost the polymorphic bands on Southern blots corresponding to the DQ"3.1" allele, while the intact Dw14 haplotype retains the alternate allele at DQ beta which is DQw-3 positive. TA10-negative. These data demonstrate the segregation of two DQw3 positive DQ beta allelic variants, both associated with DR4, which can be distinguished on the basis of both RFLP and monoclonal antibody reactivity. PMID:2875977

  15. Disappearing Polymorphs Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; Lancaster, Robert W; Bernstein, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Nearly twenty years ago, Dunitz and Bernstein described a selection of intriguing cases of polymorphs that disappear. The inability to obtain a crystal form that has previously been prepared is indeed a frustrating and potentially serious problem for solid-state scientists. This Review discusses recent occurrences and examples of disappearing polymorphs (as well as the emergence of elusive crystal forms) to demonstrate the enduring relevance of this troublesome, but always captivating, phenomenon in solid-state research. A number of these instances have been central issues in patent litigations. This Review, therefore, also highlights the complex relationship between crystal chemistry and the law. PMID:26031248

  16. Deletion 5q35.3

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; Tedrowe, N.A.; Tolworthy, J.A.; Patterson, R.M.; Ryan, S.G.; Young, R.S.

    1994-06-01

    The authors report on a 15-month-old boy with a de novo deletion of the terminal band of 5q, macrocephaly, mild retrognathia, anteverted nares with low flat nasal bridge, telecanthus, minor earlobe anomalies, bellshaped chest, diastasis recti, short fingers, and mild developmental delay.

  17. 78 FR 77106 - Procurement List; Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... INFORMATION: Deletions On 11/8/2013 (78 FR 67129-67130) and 11/15/2013 (78 FR 68823- 68824), the Committee for... Building and Courthouse, 205 4th Street, Coeur d'Alene, ID, U.S. Federal Building, St. Maries, ID NPA: TESH, Inc., Coeur d'Alene, ID Contracting Activity: GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION, FPDS AGENCY...

  18. Deletion of GPIHBP1 causing severe chylomicronemia.

    PubMed

    Rios, Jonathan J; Shastry, Savitha; Jasso, Juan; Hauser, Natalie; Garg, Abhimanyu; Bensadoun, André; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2012-05-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a hydrolase that cleaves circulating triglycerides to release fatty acids to the surrounding tissues. The enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells and is transported to its site of action on the capillary endothelium by glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1). Inactivating mutations in LPL; in its cofactor, apolipoprotein (Apo) C2; or in GPIHBP1 cause severe hypertriglyceridemia. Here we describe an individual with complete deficiency of GPIHBP1. The proband was an Asian Indian boy who had severe chylomicronemia at 2 months of age. Array-based copy-number analysis of his genomic DNA revealed homozygosity for a 17.5-kb deletion that included GPIHBP1. A 44-year-old aunt with a history of hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis was also homozygous for the deletion. A bolus of intravenously administered heparin caused a rapid increase in circulating LPL and decreased plasma triglyceride levels in control individuals but not in two GPIHBP1-deficient patients. Thus, short-term treatment with heparin failed to attenuate the hypertriglyceridemia in patients with GPIHBP1 deficiency. The increasing resolution of copy number microarrays and their widespread adoption for routine cytogenetic analysis is likely to reveal a greater role for submicroscopic deletions in Mendelian conditions. We describe the first neonate with complete GPIHBP1 deficiency due to homozygosity for a deletion of GPIHBP1. PMID:22008945

  19. 78 FR 23543 - Procurement List Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Deletions On 3/8/2013 (78 FR 15000) and 11/2/2012 (77 FR 66181... NSN: 6545-01-168-6893--First Aid Kit, ] Small Craft NSN: 6545-01-141-9476--Medical Equipment Set...--Medical Equipment Set, X-Ray, Field NSN: 6545-00-920-7125--First Aid Kit, Gun Crew NPA: Ontario...

  20. Interstitial deletion (6)q13q15

    SciTech Connect

    Gershoni-Baruch, R.; Mandel, H.; Bar El, H.; Bar-Nizan, N.; Borochowitz, Z.; Dar, Hanna

    1996-04-24

    We report on a 2-year-old child with psychomotor retardation, facial and urogenital anomalies. His chromosome constitution was 46,XY,del(6)(q13q15). This case further contributes to the karyotype-phenotype correlation of proximal deletion 6q syndromes. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 76 FR 65501 - Procurement List; Proposed Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM... Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Deletions from the Procurement.... Comments Must Be Received On or Before: 11/21/2011. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who...

  2. 22q11 deletion syndrome: current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Delil, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11 is characterized by the presence of chromosome-specific low-copy repeats or segmental duplications. This region of the chromosome is very unstable and susceptible to mutations. The misalignment of low-copy repeats during nonallelic homologous recombination leads to the deletion of the 22q11.2 region, which results in 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). The 22q11.2 deletion is associated with a wide variety of phenotypes. The term 22q11DS is an umbrella term that is used to encompass all 22q11.2 deletion-associated phenotypes. The haploinsufficiency of genes located at 22q11.2 affects the early morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arches, heart, skeleton, and brain. TBX1 is the most important gene for 22q11DS. This syndrome can ultimately affect many organs or systems; therefore, it has a very wide phenotypic spectrum. An increasing amount of information is available related to the pathogenesis, clinical phenotypes, and management of this syndrome in recent years. This review summarizes the current clinical and genetic status related to 22q11DS. PMID:26056486

  3. Polymorphisms within the promoter and the intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene in a population of bulimic patients.

    PubMed

    Lauzurica, N; Hurtado, A; Escartí, A; Delgado, M; Barrios, V; Morandé, G; Soriano, J; Jáuregui, I; González-Valdemoro, M I; García-Camba, E; Fuentes, J A

    2003-12-11

    The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene is a firm candidate to explain eating disorders. In this association study, two different polymorphisms were analysed: a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in intron 2 and a deletion/insertion polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region. The hypothesis that these gene polymorphisms may be a susceptibility factor in bulimia nervosa (BN) was explored in a female population of 102 purgative bulimics. BN patients who have suffered preceding anorexia nervosa (AN) episodes formed the so-called previous AN bulimic patient group. In our sample of normal-eater controls and purging type bulimics, regardless of whether or not the BN patients had suffered prior AN episodes, no differences were found considering the frequencies of genotypes, alleles or haplotypes of both polymorphic regions of the 5-HTT gene. PMID:14625025

  4. Molecular diagnosis of PMP22 gene duplications and deletions: comparison of different methods.

    PubMed

    Stangler Herodez, Spela; Zagradisnik, B; Erjavec Skerget, A; Zagorac, A; Kokalj Vokac, N

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques can be used to diagnose Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuro pathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), but no technique combines simplicity with high sensitivity. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was applied to develop an efficient and sensitive test for the detection of duplication/deletion of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. The study sample included 70 probands that had each been previously analysed by fluorescence in situ hibridization (FISH) and the restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) assay, both of which detect a unique recombination fragment uniquely present in most patients with the duplication. A total of nine duplications and 19 deletions were detected in the 70 probands using MLPA, and there was 100% concordance between MPLA and FISH. A single duplication was missed by the RFLP-PCR assay, which accords with the lower sensitivity of this method. It is concluded that the MLPA allows accurate detection of PMP22 gene duplications/deletions and could be used for the molecular diagnosis of these two neuropathies. PMID:19930872

  5. A common deletion at D6S265 in the hemochromatosis gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Pyper, W.R.; Burt, M.J.; Powell, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    Positional cloning of the hemochromatosis (HC) gene on chromosome 6p has utilized a number of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. While the putative HC gene has been localized within 1 cM of HLA-A, definition of the genetic limits of the HC locus has been controversial. Isolation and characterization of additional markers within this region will enable construction of a physical map upon which the HC gene can located. D6S265 is one such microsatellite, physically mapped within 120 kb centromeric of HLA-A. Recombinant and linkage analysis of this dinucleotide repeat in 24 Australian families segregating for HC positioned D6S265 within 1 cM of the HC gene, while allele association analysis showed allele 1 to be significantly increased in HC patients ({chi}{sup 2}=41.4, p<0.001, RR=5.75). In 6 of the 24 HC families, a D6265 locus deletion was found to segregate with HLA-A25 and HLA-A26 alleles. The D6S265 locus deletion was not associated with expression of HC. This study enables us to exclude candidate HC genes from the deleted region involving D6S265, and gives further support for an area of instability in the HLA class I region.

  6. EFFECTS OF COMT GENOTYPE ON BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMATOLOGY IN THE 22q11.2 DELETION SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Bearden, Carrie E.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Lynch, David R.; Monterossso, John R.; Sokol, Set; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Saitta, Sulagna C.; Harris, Stacy E.; Moss, Edward; Wang, Paul P.; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Simon, Tony J.

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome) is associated with elevated rates of psychosis, and is also characterized by severe attentional difficulties and executive dysfunction. Behavioral manifestations of this syndrome could result from haploinsufficiency of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, located within the 22q11 region. The goal of the present study was to examine COMT genotype in relation to behavioral symptomatology in this syndrome. Val158/108Met was genotyped in 38 patients (16 Met/-, 22 Val/-) with confirmed 22q11.2 deletions who had received the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as part of a comprehensive evaluation. Results indicated that the Val genotype was associated with significantly greater internalizing and externalizing behavioral symptomatology in children with 22q11.2 deletions. Val allele status was associated with a greater-than-four-fold increase in risk for clinically significant behavior problems in children with this syndrome. These data are consistent with previous findings of increased psychopathology associated with the Val genotype in normal individuals and suggest that a functional genetic polymorphism in the 22q11 region may influence behavior in individuals with COMT haploinsufficiency. PMID:15846854

  7. Mitochondrial DNA deletions detected by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, Lía; Laurito, Sergio R; Loos, Mariana A; Eiroa, Hernán D; de Pinho, Silvina; Lubieniecki, Fabiana; Arroyo, Hugo A; Pereyra, Marcela F; Kauffman, Marcelo A; Roqué, María

    2016-07-01

    The genetic diagnosis algorithm for mitochondrial (mt) diseases starts looking for deletions and common mutations in mtDNA. MtDNA's special features, such as large and variable genome copies, heteroplasmy, polymorphisms, and its duplication in the nuclear genome as pseudogenes (NUMTs), make it vulnerable to diagnostic misleading interpretations. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) is used to detect copy number variations in nuclear genes and its application on mtDNA has not been widely spread. We report three Kearns Sayre Syndrome patients and one Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia adult, whose diagnostic mtDNA deletions were detected by MLPA using a very low amount of DNA. This managed to "dilute" the NUMT interference as well as enhance MLPA's efficiency. By this report, we conclude that when MLPA is performed upon a reduced amount of DNA, it can detect effectively mtDNA deletions. We propose MLPA as a possible first step method in the diagnosis of mt diseases. PMID:26114318

  8. Commonly deleted region on the long arm of chromosome 7 in differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Nishizuka, S.; Tamura, G.; Terashima, M.; Satodate, R.

    1997-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at several chromosomal loci is a common event in human malignancies. Frequent LOH on the long arm of chromosome 7 has been reported in various human malignancies, and investigators have identified the most common site of LOH as 7q31.1. We have identified ten chromosomal loci, including chromosome 7q, that have been shown by previous allelotype study to be sites of frequent LOH in differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach. In the present study, we performed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microsatellite analysis to define the common deleted region on 7q, using 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers in matched tumour and non-tumour DNAs from 53 patients with primary gastric carcinoma of the differentiated type. LOH at any locus on 7q occurred in 34% (18 out of 53) of the tumours. Although many tumours exhibited total or large interstitial deletions, we determined the smallest common deleted region to be at D7S480 (7q31.1). This is identical to the region identified for other human malignancies. These observations indicate that a putative tumour suppressor gene at 7q31.1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Images Figure 1 PMID:9413943

  9. Enzyme polymorphisms in Canarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-two accessions of Canarium involving seven species, C. ovatum, C. album, C. megalanthum, C. harveyi, C. indicum, C. mehenbethene, and C. odontophyllum were studied for isozyme polymorphisms. Starch gel electrophoresis with a histidine-citrate buffer system (pH 6.5) was employed to assay six en...

  10. Polymorphous Perversity in Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

    2012-01-01

    Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

  11. Investigation of Uranium Polymorphs

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-08-01

    The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. As an example, most production schemes for UO3 result in a mixture of up to six or more different polymorphic phases, and small differences in these conditions will affect phase genesis that ultimately result in measureable changes to the end product. As a result, this feature of the UO3-water system may be useful as a means for determining process history. This research effort attempts to better characterize the UO3-water system with a variety of optical techniques for the purpose of developing some predictive capability for estimating process history in polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Three commercially relevant preparation methods for the production of UO3 were explored. Previously unreported low temperature routes to β- and γ-UO3 were discovered. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic libraries were established for pure and mixed polymorphic forms of UO3 in addition to the common hydrolysis products of UO3. An advantage of the sensitivity of optical fluorescence microscopy over XRD has been demonstrated. Preliminary aging studies of the α and γ forms of UO3 have been conducted. In addition, development of a 3-D phase field model used to predict phase genesis of the system was initiated. Thermodynamic and structural constants that will feed the model have been gathered from the literature for most of the UO3 polymorphic phases.

  12. Molecular characterization of two proximal deletion breakpoint regions in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, S.L.; Huang, B.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct mental retardation syndromes caused by paternal and maternal deficiencies, respectively, in chromosome 15q11{minus}q13. Approximately 70% of these patients have a large deletion of {approximately}4 Mb extending from D15S9 (ML34) through D15S12 (IR10A). To further characterize the deletion breakpoints proximal to D15S9, three new polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed that showed observed heterozygosities of 60%-87%. D15S541 and D15S542 were isolated for YAC A124A3 containing the D15S18 (IR39) locus. D15S543 was isolated from a cosmid cloned from the proximal right end of YAC 254B5 containing the D15S9 (ML34) locus. Gene-centromere mapping of these markers, using a panel of ovarian teratomas of known meiotic origin, extended the genetic map of chromosome 15 by 2-3 cM toward the centromere. Analysis of the more proximal S541/S542 markers on 53 Prader-Willi and 33 Angelman deletion patients indicated two classes of patients: 44% (35/80) of the informative patients were deleted for these markers (class I), while 56% (45/80) were not deleted (class II), with no difference between PWS and AS. In contrast, D15S543 was deleted in all informative patients (13/48) or showed the presence of a single allele (in 35/48 patients), suggesting that this marker is deleted in the majority of PWS and AS cases. These results confirm the presence of two common proximal deletion breakpoint regions in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and are consistent with the same deletion mechanism being responsible for paternal and maternal deletions. One breakpoint region lies between D15S541/S542 and D15S543, with an additional breakpoint region being proximal to D15S541/S542. 46 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Frequency of HLA-G exon 8 polymorphisms and kidney allograft outcome in Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Aghdaie, Mahdokht H; Azarpira, Negar; Kazemi, Kurosh; Geramizadeh, Bita; Darai, Masumeh; Malekhoseini, Seid Ali

    2011-06-01

    The 14-bp polymorphism in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene is associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and the patterns of alternative isoform splicing and may influence the functionality of the HLA-G molecule. HLA-G expression was related to allograft acceptance and fewer episodes of acute rejection during heart, kidney and liver-kidney transplantation. In order to determine a possible correlation between the 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and kidney allograft outcome in our population, genomic DNA was isolated from 144 patients who had received isolated kidney allografts. The recipients was divided into two groups, grafts presenting features of rejection group and a non-rejection group, and compared them with a control group of 100 healthy subjects. There was no significant difference in allelic frequencies of 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism between normal controls and kidney transplant patients. No significant difference was found between the RG and the NRG regarding the 14-bp genotypes and alleles. Therefore, additional studies with more sample size from other populations with analysis of other HLA-G polymorphisms are necessary to define this polymorphism as a valuable clinical marker. PMID:21107725

  14. Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Saba; Azam, Aisha; Maqsood, Sundus Ijaz; Muslim, Irfan; Bashir, Shaheena; Fazal, Nosheen; Riaz, Moeen; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Ishaq, Mazhar; Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Qamar, Raheel; Azam, Maleeha

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR) as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID) polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion) polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–3.36]) and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR) (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098–4.620]), while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR). PMID:26658948

  15. Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Saba; Azam, Aisha; Maqsood, Sundus Ijaz; Muslim, Irfan; Bashir, Shaheena; Fazal, Nosheen; Riaz, Moeen; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Ishaq, Mazhar; Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Qamar, Raheel; Azam, Maleeha

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR) as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID) polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion) polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-3.36]) and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR) (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098-4.620]), while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR). PMID:26658948

  16. Association of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid mutation with polymorphism in CYP2E1 gene in oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rahul; Mehrotra, Divya; Catapano, Carlo; Choubey, Vimal; Sarin, Rajiv; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Stuti

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral carcinogenesis is a complex process affected by genetic as well as environmental factors. CYP2E1 gene is involved in metabolism of number of compounds and carcinogens. Its normal functioning is required for homeostasis of free radical. Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) is 10–100 times more susceptible to damage than nuclear DNA. Mitochondrial DNA large scale deletions are well documented in oral cancer. However, the relationship between CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and mtDNA damage is still not documented in literature. Materials and Methods Case–control study involving 50 subjects was carried out. Deoxyribonucleic acid extraction was done from study subject tissue samples. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was done to confirm CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms. The PCR amplification was done for mtDNA 4977 bp deletion. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 11.5 with χ2 tests. Results c1c1 and DD polymorphisms are prevalent in North Indian population having oral cancer. These polymorphisms are significantly associated with mtDNA 4977 bp deletion. Conclusion Mitochondrial DNA damage induced by wild CYP2E1 forms and imperfect DNA repair in mtDNA may act synergistically to greatly enhance oral cancer risk. PMID:25756024

  17. [Intraspecific polymorphism of the sucrose synthase genes in Russian and Kazakhstan potato cultivars].

    PubMed

    Slugina, M A; Boris, K V; Kakimzhanova, A A; Kochieva, E Z

    2014-06-01

    In 12 different Russian and Kazakhstan potato cultivars, the polymorphism of the glycosyltransferase domain of the sucrose synthase gene was first examined, as well as the polymorphism of the sucrose synthase domain fragment of the same gene in the potato cultivars of Kazakhstan breed. It was demonstrated that the examined sequences contained point mutations, as well as insertions and deletions, including those not described earlier. Amino acid substitutions specific to heat- and drought-tolerant varieties were also identified and could be associated with the development of abiotic stress resistance. PMID:25715458

  18. VarySysDB: a human genetic polymorphism database based on all H-InvDB transcripts.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Makoto K; Matsumoto, Ryuzou; Hayakawa, Yosuke; Sanbonmatsu, Ryoko; Gough, Craig; Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Imanishi, Tadashi; Gojobori, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Creation of a vast variety of proteins is accomplished by genetic variation and a variety of alternative splicing transcripts. Currently, however, the abundant available data on genetic variation and the transcriptome are stored independently and in a dispersed fashion. In order to provide a research resource regarding the effects of human genetic polymorphism on various transcripts, we developed VarySysDB, a genetic polymorphism database based on 187,156 extensively annotated matured mRNA transcripts from 36,073 loci provided by H-InvDB. VarySysDB offers information encompassing published human genetic polymorphisms for each of these transcripts separately. This allows comparisons of effects derived from a polymorphism on different transcripts. The published information we analyzed includes single nucleotide polymorphisms and deletion-insertion polymorphisms from dbSNP, copy number variations from Database of Genomic Variants, short tandem repeats and single amino acid repeats from H-InvDB and linkage disequilibrium regions from D-HaploDB. The information can be searched and retrieved by features, functions and effects of polymorphisms, as well as by keywords. VarySysDB combines two kinds of viewers, GBrowse and Sequence View, to facilitate understanding of the positional relationship among polymorphisms, genome, transcripts, loci and functional domains. We expect that VarySysDB will yield useful information on polymorphisms affecting gene expression and phenotypes. VarySysDB is available at http://h-invitational.jp/varygene/. PMID:18953038

  19. High-throughput polymorphism detection and genotyping in Brassica napus using next-generation RAD sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The complex genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) is not well understood despite the economic importance of the species. Good knowledge of sequence variation is needed for genetics approaches and breeding purposes. We used a diversity set of B. napus representing eight different germplasm types to sequence genome-wide distributed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) fragments for polymorphism detection and genotyping. Results More than 113,000 RAD clusters with more than 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 125 insertions/deletions were detected and characterized. About one third of the RAD clusters and polymorphisms mapped to the Brassica rapa reference sequence. An even distribution of RAD clusters and polymorphisms was observed across the B. rapa chromosomes, which suggests that there might be an equal distribution over the Brassica oleracea chromosomes, too. The representation of Gene Ontology (GO) terms for unigenes with RAD clusters and polymorphisms revealed no signature of selection with respect to the distribution of polymorphisms within genes belonging to a specific GO category. Conclusions Considering the decreasing costs for next-generation sequencing, the results of our study suggest that RAD sequencing is not only a simple and cost-effective method for high-density polymorphism detection but also an alternative to SNP genotyping from transcriptome sequencing or SNP arrays, even for species with complex genomes such as B. napus. PMID:22726880

  20. YAC contigs covering an 8-megabase region of 3p deleted in the small-cell lung cancer cell line U2020

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.; Bolin, R.; Drabkin, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Somatic deletions of chromosome 3p occur at high frequencies in cancers of kidney, breast, cervix, head and neck, nasopharynx, and lung. The frequency of 3p deletion in lung cancer approaches 100% among small cell lesions and 70 to 80% in non-small cell lesions. This evidence strongly implies that one or more tumor suppressor genes of potentially widespread significance reside within the deleted region(s). Precise definition of the deleted target region(s) has been difficult due to the extensive area(s) lost and use of markers with low informativeness. However, improved definition remains essential to permit isolation of putative tumor suppressor genes from 3p. The identification of several small, homozygous 3p deletions in lung cancer cell lines has provided a critical resource that will assist this search. The U2020 cell line contains a small homozygous deletion that maps to a very proximal region of 3p and includes the marker D3S3. We previously identified a subset of DNA markers located within the deleted region and determined their relative order by pulsed-field gel mapping studies. In the present report, we describe the development of YAC contigs that span the majority of the deleted region and link up to flanking markers on both sides. The centromere proximal portion of the contig crosses the breakpoint from an X;3 translocation located within 3p12 providing both location and orientation to the map. PCR-based (CA){sub n} microsatellite polymorphisms have been localized within and flanking the deletion region. These markers should greatly facilitate loss-of-heterozygosity studies of this region in human cancer. The contig provides a direct means for isolation of putative tumor suppressor genes from this segment of 3p. 51 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A 1.5-Mb deletion in 17p11.2-p12 is frequently observed in Italian families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, D.; Pandolfo, M. |; Pareyson, D.; Sghirlanzoni, A.; Di Donato, S.; Roa, B.B.; Abbas, N.E.; Lupski, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mononeuropathies. A 1.5-Mb deletion in chromosome 17p11.2-p12 has been associated with HNPP. Duplication of the same 1.5-Mb region is known to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1A), a more severe peripheral neuropathy characterized by symmetrically slowed nerve conduction velocity (NCV). The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion appear to be the reciprocal products of a recombination event involving a repeat element (CMT1A-REP) that flanks the 1.5-Mb region involved in the duplication/deletion. Patients from nine unrelated Italian families who were diagnosed with HNPP on the basis of clinical, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations were analyzed by molecular methods for DNA deletion on chromosome 17p. In all nine families, Southern analysis using a CMT1A-REP probe detected a reduced hybridization signal of a 6.0-kb EcoRI fragment mapping within the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating deletion of one copy of CMT1A-REP in these HNPP patients. Families were also typed with a polymorphic (CA){sub n} repeat and with RFLPs corresponding to loci D17S122, D17S125, and D17S61, which all map within the deleted region. Lack of allelic transmission from affected parent to affected offspring was observed in four informative families, providing an independent indication for deletion. Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of SacII-digested genomic DNA detected junction fragments specific to the 1.5-Mb HNPP deletion in seven of nine Italian families included in this study. These findings suggest that a 1.5-Mb deletion on 17p11.2-p12 is the most common mutation associated with HNPP. 51 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (which is also known by several ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: 22q13.3 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions 22q13.3 deletion syndrome 22q13.3 deletion syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description 22q13.3 deletion syndrome , which is also commonly known as ...

  4. Characterization of five partial deletions of the factor VIII gene

    SciTech Connect

    Youssoufian, H.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Aronis, S.; Tsiftis, G.; Phillips, D.G.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked disorder of coagulation caused by a deficiency of factor VIII. By using cloned DNA probes, the authors have characterized the following five different partial deletions of the factor VIII gene from a panel of 83 patients with hemophilia A: (i) a 7-kilobase (kb) deletion that eliminates exon 6; (ii) a 2.5-kb deletion that eliminates 5' sequences of exon 14; (iii) a deletion of at least 7 kb that eliminates exons 24 and 25; (iv) a deletion of at least 16 kb that eliminates exons 23-25; and (v) a 5.5-kb deletion that eliminates exon 22. The first four deletions are associated with severe hemophilia A. By contrast, the last deletion is associated with moderate disease, possibly because of in-frame splicing from adjacent exons. None of those patients with partial gene deletions had circulating inhibitors to factor VIII. One deletion occurred de novo in a germ cell of the maternal grandmother, while a second deletion occurred in a germ cell of the maternal grandfather. These observations demonstrate that de novo deletions of X-linked genes can occur in either male or female gametes.

  5. 76 FR 14942 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ..., XRAW7M8 USPFO Activity IA ARNG, Johnston, IA. ] Deletions On 1/21/2011 (76 FR 3879-3880), the Committee... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to and deletions from...

  6. Duplication/deletion of chromosome 8p

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, J.H.

    1995-09-11

    The article by Guo et al. provides evidence for deletion of D8S596 loci (assigned to 8p23) in at least some patients with inverted duplications of 8p. Cytogenetic break points forming the inverted duplication are remarkably similar among most of their patients and those reported previously, suggesting a common mechanism for this interesting rearrangement. Why should similar breaks occur in 8p and why is a FISH signal absent in the distal short arm when the ONCOR digoxigenin-labeled probe for loci D8S596 is used? Other studies also indicate that duplication for the region 8p12-p22 is associated with a deletion distal to the duplication itself. 4 refs.

  7. 78 FR 37525 - Procurement List; Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Deletions On 4/12/2013 (78 FR 21916); 4/26/2013 (78 FR 24732-24733); 5/3/2013 (78 FR 25970-25971); and 5/10/2013 (78 FR 27368-27369), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or..., Black NSN: 7530-01-587-8929L--DAYMAX System, 2012, JR Deluxe Planner, 6- hole, Black w/logo NSN:...

  8. Conditional Deletion of Pten Causes Bronchiolar Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E.; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R.; Loudy, Dave E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (PtenΔ/Δ) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by β-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, β-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles. PMID:17921358

  9. Carboxyl terminal deletion analysis of tryptophan hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Mockus, S M; Kumer, S C; Vrana, K E

    1997-10-17

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serotonin and participates (in a non-rate-limiting fashion) in melatonin biosynthesis. In rabbit, TPH exists as a tetramer of four identical 51007 dalton (444 amino acids) protein subunits. An intersubunit binding domain responsible for tetramer formation of TPH was identified by assessing the role of a carboxyl terminal leucine heptad and 4-3 hydrophobic repeat. These repeats are conserved in all of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and have been shown to be required for the assembly of tyrosine hydroxylase tetramers. Polymerase chain reaction was utilized to create three TPH carboxyl terminal deletions (C delta8, C delta12 and C delta17) that sequentially remove members of the leucine heptad and 4-3 hydrophobic repeat. Each deletion and full-length recombinant TPH was expressed in bacteria to obtain soluble enzyme extracts for subsequent activity and structural analysis. It was found that removal of 8, 12 or 17 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of TPH did not significantly alter enzymatic activity when compared to full-length recombinant TPH. However, the macromolecular structure of the deletions was dramatically affected as determined by dimeric and monomeric profiles on size exclusion chromatography. It can be concluded that amino acids 428-444 (the C-terminal 17 amino acids) comprise an intersubunit binding domain that is required for tetramer formation of TPH, but that tetramer assembly is not essential for full enzymatic activity. PMID:9392522

  10. Probabilistic phylogenetic inference with insertions and deletions.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Elena; Eddy, Sean R

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental task in sequence analysis is to calculate the probability of a multiple alignment given a phylogenetic tree relating the sequences and an evolutionary model describing how sequences change over time. However, the most widely used phylogenetic models only account for residue substitution events. We describe a probabilistic model of a multiple sequence alignment that accounts for insertion and deletion events in addition to substitutions, given a phylogenetic tree, using a rate matrix augmented by the gap character. Starting from a continuous Markov process, we construct a non-reversible generative (birth-death) evolutionary model for insertions and deletions. The model assumes that insertion and deletion events occur one residue at a time. We apply this model to phylogenetic tree inference by extending the program dnaml in phylip. Using standard benchmarking methods on simulated data and a new "concordance test" benchmark on real ribosomal RNA alignments, we show that the extended program dnamlepsilon improves accuracy relative to the usual approach of ignoring gaps, while retaining the computational efficiency of the Felsenstein peeling algorithm. PMID:18787703

  11. A review of 18p deletions.

    PubMed

    Hasi-Zogaj, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Heard, Patricia; Carter, Erika; Soileau, Bridgette; Hill, Annice; Rupert, David; Perry, Brian; Atkinson, Sidney; O'Donnell, Louise; Gelfond, Jon; Lancaster, Jack; Fox, Peter T; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-09-01

    Since 18p- was first described in 1963, much progress has been made in our understanding of this classic deletion condition. We have been able to establish a fairly complete picture of the phenotype when the deletion breakpoint occurs at the centromere, and we are working to establish the phenotypic effects when each gene on 18p is hemizygous. Our aim is to provide genotype-specific anticipatory guidance and recommendations to families with an 18p- diagnosis. In addition, establishing the molecular underpinnings of the condition will potentially suggest targets for molecular treatments. Thus, the next step is to establish the precise effects of specific gene deletions. As we look forward to deepening our understanding of 18p-, our focus will continue to be on the establishment of robust genotype-phenotype correlations and the penetrance of these phenotypes. We will continue to follow our 18p- cohort closely as they age to determine the presence or absence of some of these diagnoses, including spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), and dystonia. We will also continue to refine the critical regions for other phenotypes as we enroll additional (hopefully informative) participants into the research study and as the mechanisms of the genes in these regions are elucidated. Mouse models will also be developed to further our understanding of the effects of hemizygosity as well as to serve as models for treatment development. PMID:26250845

  12. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism Modifies Exercise-Induced Muscle Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, David; Brogioli, Michael; Maier, Thomas; White, Andy; Waldron, Sarah; Rittweger, Jörn; Toigo, Marco; Wettstein, Jessica; Laczko, Endre; Flück, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A silencer region (I-allele) within intron 16 of the gene for the regulator of vascular perfusion, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is implicated in phenotypic variation of aerobic fitness and the development of type II diabetes. We hypothesised that the reportedly lower aerobic performance in non-carriers compared to carriers of the ACE I-allele, i.e. ACE-DD vs. ACE-ID/ACE-II genotype, is associated with alterations in activity-induced glucose metabolism and capillarisation in exercise muscle. Methods Fifty-three, not-specifically trained Caucasian men carried out a one-legged bout of cycling exercise to exhaustion and/or participated in a marathon, the aim being to identify and validate genotype effects on exercise metabolism. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), serum glucose and lipid concentration, glycogen, and metabolite content in vastus lateralis muscle based on ultra-performance lipid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), were assessed before and after the cycling exercise in thirty-three participants. Serum metabolites were measured in forty subjects that completed the marathon. Genotype effects were assessed post-hoc. Results Cycling exercise reduced muscle glycogen concentration and this tended to be affected by the ACE I-allele (p = 0.09). The ACE-DD genotype showed a lower maximal RER and a selective increase in serum glucose concentration after exercise compared to ACE-ID and ACE-II genotypes (+24% vs. +2% and –3%, respectively). Major metabolites of mitochondrial metabolism (i.e. phosphoenol pyruvate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, L-Aspartic acid, glutathione) were selectively affected in vastus lateralis muscle by exercise in the ACE-DD genotype. Capillary-to-fibre ratio was 24%-lower in the ACE-DD genotype. Individuals with the ACE-DD genotype demonstrated an abnormal increase in serum glucose to 7.7 mM after the marathon. Conclusion The observations imply a genetically modulated role for ACE in control of glucose import and oxidation in working skeletal muscle. ACE-DD genotypes thereby transit into a pre-diabetic state with exhaustive exercise, which relates to a lowered muscle capillarisation, and deregulation of mitochondria-associated metabolism. PMID:26982073

  13. Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India

    PubMed Central

    Chinniah, Rathika; Vijayan, Murali; Thirunavukkarasu, Manikandan; Mani, Dhivakar; Raju, Kamaraj; Ravi, Padma Malini; Sivanadham, Ramgopal; C, Kandeepan; N, Mahalakshmi; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Seven human-specific Alu markers were studied in 574 unrelated individuals from 10 endogamous groups and 2 hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR-SSP, and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, and genotypes were assigned for various Alu loci. Average heterozygosity among caste populations was in the range of 0.292–0.468. Among tribes, the average heterozygosity was higher for Paliyan (0.3759) than for Kani (0.2915). Frequency differences were prominent in all loci studied except Alu CD4. For Alu CD4, the frequency was 0.0363 in Yadavas, a traditional pastoral and herd maintaining population, and 0.2439 in Narikuravars, a nomadic gypsy population. The overall genetic difference (Gst) of 12 populations (castes and tribes) studied was 3.6%, which corresponds to the Gst values of 3.6% recorded earlier for Western Asian populations. Thus, our study confirms the genetic similarities between West Asian populations and South Indian castes and tribes and supported the large scale coastal migrations from Africa into India through West Asia. However, the average genetic difference (Gst) of Kani and Paliyan tribes with other South Indian tribes studied earlier was 8.3%. The average Gst of combined South and North Indian Tribes (CSNIT) was 9.5%. Neighbor joining tree constructed showed close proximity of Kani and Paliyan tribal groups to the other two South Indian tribes, Toda and Irula of Nilgiri hills studied earlier. Further, the analysis revealed the affinities among populations and confirmed the presence of North and South India specific lineages. Our findings have documented the highly diverse (micro differentiated) nature of South Indian tribes, predominantly due to isolation, than the endogamous population groups of South India. Thus, our study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India through West Asian corridor. PMID:27315142

  14. Mice with a heterozygous Lrp6 deletion have impaired fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Travis A; Vivanco, Juan F; Zahatnansky, Juraj; Moren, Andrew J Vander; Mason, James J; Williams, Bart O

    2016-01-01

    Bone fracture non-unions, the failure of a fracture to heal, occur in 10%–20% of fractures and are a costly and debilitating clinical problem. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is critical in bone development and fracture healing. Polymorphisms of linking low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), a Wnt-binding receptor, have been associated with decreased bone mineral density and fragility fractures, although this remains controversial. Mice with a homozygous deletion of Lrp6 have severe skeletal abnormalities and are not viable, whereas mice with a heterozygous deletion have a combinatory effect with Lrp5 to decrease bone mineral density. As fracture healing closely models embryonic skeletal development, we investigated the process of fracture healing in mice heterozygous for Lrp6 (Lrp6 +/−) and hypothesized that the heterozygous deletion of Lrp6 would impair fracture healing. Mid-diaphyseal femur fractures were induced in Lrp6 +/− mice and wild-type controls (Lrp6 +/+). Fractures were analyzed using micro-computed tomography (μCT) scans, biomechanical testing, and histological analysis. Lrp6 +/− mice had significantly decreased stiffness and strength at 28 days post fracture (PF) and significantly decreased BV/TV, total density, immature bone density, and mature area within the callus on day-14 and -21 PF; they had significantly increased empty callus area at days 14 and 21 PF. Our results demonstrate that the heterozygous deletion of Lrp6 impairs fracture healing, which suggests that Lrp6 has a role in fracture healing.

  15. Polymorphism of phosphoric oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, W.L.; Faust, G.T.; Hendricks, S.B.

    1943-01-01

    The melting points and monotropic relationship of three crystalline forms of phosphoric oxide were determined by the method of quenching. Previous vapor pressure data are discussed and interpreted to establish a pressure-temperature diagram (70 to 600??) for the one-component system. The system involves three triple points, at which solid, liquid and vapor (P4O10) coexist in equilibrium, namely: 420?? and 360 cm., 562?? and 43.7 cm. and 580?? and 55.5 cm., corresponding to the hexagonal, orthorhombic and stable polymorphs, respectively, and at least two distinct liquids, one a stable polymer of the other, which are identified with the melting of the stable form and the hexagonal modification, respectively. Indices of refraction of the polymorphs and glasses were determined. The density and the thermal, hygroscopic and structural properties of the several phases are discussed.

  16. Characterization of a large deletion in the {beta}-globin gene cluster in a newborn with hemoglobin FE

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, E.; Dietz, L.; Shafer, F.

    1994-09-01

    A sample on a newborn with hemoglobin FE screen results was obtained to investigate whether E/E or B/{beta}{degrees} thalassemia was present using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. The newborn appeared homozygous for the hemoglobin E mutation in our initial study, but the parents` genotypes did not support this diagnosis. The father is homozygous for the absence of the hemoglobin E mutation (non E/non E) and the mother is heterozygous (E/non E) for this mutation. The limitation of PCR analysis is an assumption that the amplification of the two {beta}-globin alleles is equivalent. A large deletion on one {beta}-globin gene, which would produce E/{beta}{degrees} thalassemia, would be missed if it included part or the entire region subjected to amplification. The family results were consistent with either non-paternity, sample mix-up or such a deletion of the {beta}-globin gene in the father and child. To rule out the possibility of non-paternity, two polymorphic loci (HLA on chromosome 6 and a VNTR system of chromosome 17) that are outside of the {beta}-globin gene were analyzed and show that inheritance is consistent and the likelihood of a sample mix-up is then reduced. We therefore believe there is a gene deletion in this family. At the present time, analyses of the RFLPs that are 5{prime} of the {beta}-globin gene cluster show that the polymorphisms most distal from the 5{prime} {beta}-globin gene are not being inherited as expected. These results support our interpretation that a deletion exists in the father and was inherited by the child. The father`s clinical picture of possible HPFH (the father has 12% hemoglobin F) also supports the interpretation of a deletion in this family. Deletions of the {beta}-globin gene within this ethnic group are rare. Currently, Southern blots on the family are being probed to determine the extent of the putative deletion.

  17. Facts and fictions about polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Reutzel-Edens, Susan M; Bernstein, Joel

    2015-12-01

    We present new facts about polymorphism based on (i) crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, a database built over 50 years of community effort), (ii) 229 solid form screens conducted at Hoffmann-La Roche and Eli Lilly and Company over the course of 8+ and 15+ years respectively and (iii) a dataset of 446 polymorphic crystals with energies and properties computed with modern DFT-d methods. We found that molecular flexibility or size has no correlation with the ability of a compound to be polymorphic. Chiral molecules, however, were found to be less prone to polymorphism than their achiral counterparts and compounds able to hydrogen bond exhibit only a slightly higher propensity to polymorphism than those which do not. Whilst the energy difference between polymorphs is usually less than 1 kcal mol(-1), conformational polymorphs are capable of differing by larger values (up to 2.5 kcal mol(-1) in our dataset). As overall statistics, we found that one in three compounds in the CSD are polymorphic whilst at least one in two compounds from the Roche and Lilly set display polymorphism with a higher estimate of up to three in four when compounds are screened intensively. Whilst the statistics provide some guidance of expectations, each compound constitutes a new challenge and prediction and realization of targeted polymorphism still remains a holy grail of materials sciences. PMID:26400501

  18. [Polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulfate].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Huang, Hai-Wei; Wu, Jian-Min; Shi, Ya-Qin; Yang, La-Hu

    2013-08-01

    This paper is to report the polymorphism of raw materials of clopidogrel bisulfate at home and abroad. By the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD), samples are roughly classified into two groups, except one patent material. And the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) examination showed more detailed information for these materials. The results of the study could provide comprehensive basis for the quality evaluation of clopidogrel bisulfate. PMID:24187849

  19. Y-chromosome polymorphism: Possible largest Y chromosome in man?

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, D.S.K.; Al-Awadi, S.A.; Bastaki, L.

    1994-09-01

    The role of variations (inversions/deletion or duplication) in the heterochromatin in gonadal development and function, reproductive fitness, and malignant disease has been extensively studied. However, the causal-relationship of large Y (Yqh+) and repeated fetal loss has not been established unequivocally. An Arab couple (?Bedouin origin) with a history of repeated abortions were investigated. Karyotype analysis of the husband showed a very large Y chromosome, confirmed by GTG-, QFQ- and CBG-banding techniques. C-banding showed discontinuous distribution of the heterochromatin blocks separated by pale bands. The origin of the large heterochromatin segment could be due to tandem duplication of the Yq region or translocation (Yq:Yq). No other relatives (males) of the propositus have been available for investigation. Polymorphism of the Y chromosome could be attributed to evolutionary changes from an ancestral type, either by deletion or duplication of the heterochromatin segment. More detailed studies on isolated, aboriginal/tribal human populations will enable us to better understand the significance of the Y chromosome polymorphism.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of Arabidopsis expression level polymorphisms with simple inheritance.

    PubMed

    Plantegenet, Stephanie; Weber, Johann; Goldstein, Darlene R; Zeller, Georg; Nussbaumer, Cindy; Thomas, Jérôme; Weigel, Detlef; Harshman, Keith; Hardtke, Christian S

    2009-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, gene expression level polymorphisms (ELPs) between natural accessions that exhibit simple, single locus inheritance are promising quantitative trait locus (QTL) candidates to explain phenotypic variability. It is assumed that such ELPs overwhelmingly represent regulatory element polymorphisms. However, comprehensive genome-wide analyses linking expression level, regulatory sequence and gene structure variation are missing, preventing definite verification of this assumption. Here, we analyzed ELPs observed between the Eil-0 and Lc-0 accessions. Compared with non-variable controls, 5' regulatory sequence variation in the corresponding genes is indeed increased. However, approximately 42% of all the ELP genes also carry major transcription unit deletions in one parent as revealed by genome tiling arrays, representing a >4-fold enrichment over controls. Within the subset of ELPs with simple inheritance, this proportion is even higher and deletions are generally more severe. Similar results were obtained from analyses of the Bay-0 and Sha accessions, using alternative technical approaches. Collectively, our results suggest that drastic structural changes are a major cause for ELPs with simple inheritance, corroborating experimentally observed indel preponderance in cloned Arabidopsis QTL. PMID:19225455

  1. FLCN intragenic deletions in Chinese familial primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yibing; Zhu, Chengchu; Zou, Wei; Ma, Dehua; Min, Haiyan; Chen, Baofu; Ye, Minhua; Pan, Yanqing; Cao, Lei; Wan, Yueming; Zhang, Wenwen; Meng, Lulu; Mei, Yuna; Yang, Chi; Chen, Shilin; Gao, Qian; Yi, Long

    2015-05-01

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a significant clinical problem, affecting tens of thousands patients annually. Germline mutations in the FLCN gene have been implicated in etiology of familial PSP (FPSP). Most of the currently identified FLCN mutations are small indels or point mutations that detected by Sanger sequencing. The aim of this study was to determine large FLCN deletions in PSP families that having no FLCN sequence-mutations. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays and breakpoint analyses were used to detect and characterize the deletions. Three heterozygous FLCN intragenic deletions were identified in nine unrelated Chinese families including the exons 1-3 deletion in two families, the exons 9-14 deletion in five families and the exon 14 deletion in two families. All deletion breakpoints are located in Alu repeats. A 5.5 Mb disease haplotype shared in the five families with exons 9-14 deletion may date the appearance of this deletion back to approximately 16 generations ago. Evidences for founder effects of the other two deletions were also observed. This report documents the first identification of founder mutations in FLCN, as well as expands mutation spectrum of the gene. Our findings strengthen the view that MLPA analysis for intragenic deletions/duplications, as an important genetic testing complementary to DNA sequencing, should be used for clinical molecular diagnosis in FPSP. PMID:25807935

  2. Phenotypic characterization of rare interstitial deletion of chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Samira; Helmy, Nivine A.; Mahmoud, Wael M.; El-Ruby, Mona O.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 is rare. Patients with interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 differ from those with terminal deletions. Phenotypes may be variable, depending upon the specific length and location of the deleted portion. Here, we report on a boy exhibiting most of the congenital malformations encountered in terminal 4q syndrome. The conventional karyotyping and Fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed a de novo interstitial del (4)(q31q32). The current report is a further document highlighting that deletion of segment q31 could be contributing to the expression of most of the phenotype of 4q deletion syndrome. Using array comparative genome hybridization methodology is recommended for investigating further cases with similar segmental interstitial deletions to support and delineate findings and to define genes implicated in the pathogenesis of the disorder.

  3. Impact of UGT2B17 Gene Deletion on the Pharmacokinetics of 17-Hydroexemestane in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanly M; Atchley, Daniel H; Murphy, Michael A; Gurley, Bill J; Kamdem, Landry K

    2016-07-01

    Exemestane is an aromatase inhibitor drug used for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer. 17-Hydroexemestane, the major and biologically active metabolite of exemestane in humans, is eliminated via glucuronidation by the polymorphic UGT2B17 phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme. Previous microsomal studies have shown that UGT2B17 gene deletion affects the intrinsic hepatic clearances of 17-hydroexemestane in vitro. In this open-label study we set out to assess the effect of UGT2B17 gene deletion on the pharmacokinetics of 17-hydroexemestane in healthy female volunteers with and without UGT2B17. To achieve this goal, 14 healthy postmenopausal women (8 carriers of the homozygous UGT2B17 wild-type allele and 6 carriers of the homozygous UGT2B17 gene-deletion allele) were enrolled and invited to receive a single 25-mg oral dose of exemestane. Pharmacokinetics was assessed over 72 hours postdosing. Our results showed that there were statistically significant differences in plasma 17-hydroexemestane AUC0-∞ (P = .0007) and urine 17-hydroexemestane C24h (P = .001) between UGT2B17 genotype groups. Our data suggest that UGT2B17 gene deletion influences 17-hydroexemestane pharmacokinetics in humans. PMID:26608382

  4. Podocyte-specific deletion of Myh9 encoding nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 2A predisposes mice to glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Duncan B; Zhang, Jidong; George, Britta; Léon, Catherine; Gachet, Christian; Wong, Hetty; Parekh, Rulan; Holzman, Lawrence B

    2011-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the MYH9 locus to chronic kidney disease among African-Americans, particularly glomerular diseases such as HIV nephropathy and idiopathic focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). However, these MYH9 SNPs are intronic, and despite extensive sequencing, a causal variant remains elusive. To investigate the role of MYH9 in kidney disease, we selectively deleted Myh9 from mouse podocytes and found that mutant C57BL/6 mice did not develop renal insufficiency or proteinuria compared to control littermates, even when the mice were aged for 9 months. To explain the surprisingly normal phenotype, we considered genetic redundancy with the paralog Myh10 in podocytes, but we found that Myh10 was not expressed in podocytes in Myh9-deficient or control mice. We tested whether Myh9 podocyte deletion predisposed mice to glomerulopathy in response to injury by doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), and we found that Myh9 podocyte-deleted mice developed proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, while control mice were resistant. In summary, Myh9 podocyte deletion in C57BL/6 mice results in susceptibility to experimental doxorubicin hydrochloride glomerulopathy. We review evidence that MYH9 dysfunction in humans results in similar susceptibility and place our data, the first examination of Myh9 kidney disease in experimental animals, in the context of recent findings in human kidney disease, including the role of APOL1. PMID:21402784

  5. Escape from Het-6 Incompatibility in Neurospora Crassa Partial Diploids Involves Preferential Deletion within the Ectopic Segment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. L.; Yang, C. J.; Metzenberg, R. L.; Glass, N. L.

    1996-01-01

    Self-incompatible het-6(OR)/het-6(PA) partial diploids of Neurospora crassa were selected from a cross involving the translocation strain, T(IIL -> IIIR)AR18, and a normal sequence strain. About 25% of the partial diploids exhibited a marked increase in growth rate after 2 weeks, indicating that ``escape'' from het-6 incompatibility had occurred. Near isogenic tester strains with different alleles (het-6(OR) and het-6(PA)) were constructed and used to determine that 80 of 96 escape strains tested were het-6(PA), retaining the het-6 allele found in the normal-sequence LGII position; 16 were het-6(OR), retaining the allele in the translocated position. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 45 escape strains were examined with probes made from cosmids that spanned the translocated region. Along with electrophoretic analysis of chromosomes from three escape strains, RFLPs showed that escape is associated with deletion of part of one or the other of the duplicated DNA segments. Deletions ranged in size from ~70 kbp up to putatively the entire 270-kbp translocated region but always included a 35-kbp region wherein we hypothesize het-6 is located. The deletion spectrum at het-6 thus resembles other cases where mitotic deletions occur such as of tumor suppressor genes and of the hprt gene (coding for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase) in humans. PMID:8889517

  6. A novel AAT-deletion mutation in the coding sequence of the BCO2 gene in yellow-fat rabbits.

    PubMed

    Strychalski, Janusz; Brym, Paweł; Czarnik, Urszula; Gugołek, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    The carcasses of yellow-fat rabbits may be attractive to modern consumers, because they have a relatively high content of biologically active compounds. One of the main candidate genes associated with the yellow-fat trait is β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2). This study is the first report of the novel AAT-deletion mutation at codon 248 of the BCO2 gene, which has been found in homozygous yellow-fat rabbits. The deletion mutation, located at the beginning of exon 6, results in the absence of asparagine in protein. We also developed a PCR-RFLP test that supports intravital genotyping of indel polymorphism based on genomic DNA. PMID:26002694

  7. Identifying a Deletion Affecting Total Lung Capacity Among Subjects in the COPDGene Study Cohort.

    PubMed

    Begum, Ferdouse; Ruczinski, Ingo; Li, Shengchao; Silverman, Edwin K; Cho, Michael H; Lynch, David A; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Crapo, James; Scharpf, Robert B; Parker, Margaret M; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Beaty, Terri H

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease with both environmental and genetic risk factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple genomic regions influencing risk of COPD. To thoroughly investigate the genetic etiology of COPD, however, it is also important to explore the role of copy number variants (CNVs) because the presence of structural variants can alter gene expression and can be causal for some diseases. Here, we investigated effects of polymorphic CNVs on quantitative measures of pulmonary function and chest computed tomography (CT) phenotypes among subjects enrolled in COPDGene, a multisite study. COPDGene subjects consist of roughly one-third African American (AA) and two-thirds non-Hispanic white adult smokers (with or without COPD). We estimated CNVs using PennCNV on 9,076 COPDGene subjects using Illumina's Omni-Express genome-wide marker array. We tested for association between polymorphic CNV components (defined as disjoint intervals of copy number regions) for several quantitative phenotypes associated with COPD within each racial group. Among the AAs, we identified a polymorphic CNV on chromosome 5q35.2 located between two genes (FAM153B and SIMK1, but also harboring several pseudo-genes) giving genome-wide significance in tests of association with total lung capacity (TLCCT ) as measured by chest CT scans. This is the first study of genome-wide association tests of polymorphic CNVs and TLCCT . Although the ARIC cohort did not have the phenotype of TLCCT , we found similar counts of CNV deletions and amplifications among AA and European subjects in this second cohort. PMID:26643968

  8. Caspase-8 polymorphisms result in reduced Alemtuzumab-induced T-cell apoptosis and worse survival after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, B E; Lee, F; Krishnamurthy, S; Byrne, J L; Seedhouse, C; Mayor, N P; Maldonado-Torres, H; Saudemont, A; Marsh, S G E; Madrigal, J A; Russell, N H

    2015-02-01

    Allo-SCT using unrelated donors is a curative treatment for patients with hematological disorders. The best donor is one matched for 10/10 HLA alleles, however studies have shown an additional survival benefit when considering other genetic factors. It has been shown that a six-nucleotide insertion/deletion polymorphism in the CASP8 gene promoter results in reduced susceptibility of T lymphocytes to undergo apoptosis. In 186 SCT recipients, we found a significantly better OS in those who received a transplant from a WT/WT donor compared with donors with a deletion (3 years: 52 vs 34%; P=0.03; multivariate analysis; RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38-0.98, P=0.04). This was more marked when both the patient and the donor had a deletion (3 years OS: 62% compared with 36%, P=0.01). As the majority of these patients received Alemtuzumab during conditioning, we went on to analyze the in vitro effect of the polymorphism on Alemtuzumab-induced apoptosis. We showed statistically significantly higher percentages of apoptotic naïve CD4 (P<0.0005) and CD8 (P<0.0005) T cells in WT/WT donors in comparison with donors with a deletion. These data imply an unrecognized role for the CASP8 promoter polymorphism on survival following unrelated SCT particularly in the context of T-cell depletion with Alemtuzumab. PMID:25347010

  9. Landscape of insertion polymorphisms in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Goldberg, Liat; Aplan, Peter D

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide substitutions, small (<50 bp) insertions or deletions (indels), and large (>50 bp) deletions are well-known causes of genetic variation within the human genome. We recently reported a previously unrecognized form of polymorphic insertions, termed templated sequence insertion polymorphism (TSIP), in which the inserted sequence was templated from a distant genomic region, and was inserted in the genome through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; class 1 TSIPs show target site duplication, polyadenylation, and preference for insertion at a 5'-TTTT/A-3' sequence, suggesting a LINE-1 based insertion mechanism, whereas class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double strand break by nonhomologous end joining. To gain a more complete picture of TSIPs throughout the human population, we evaluated whole-genome sequence from 52 individuals, and identified 171 TSIPs. Most individuals had 25-30 TSIPs, and common (present in >20% of individuals) TSIPs were found in individuals throughout the world, whereas rare TSIPs tended to cluster in specific geographic regions. The number of rare TSIPs was greater than the number of common TSIPs, suggesting that TSIP generation is an ongoing process. Intriguingly, mitochondrial sequences were a frequent template for class 2 insertions, used more commonly than any nuclear chromosome. Similar to single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases, and can be useful in tracking historical migration of populations. PMID:25745018

  10. Functional genetic polymorphisms and female reproductive disorders: Part II—endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Tempfer, C.B.; Simoni, M.; Destenaves, B.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Endometriosis has a strong genetic component, and numerous genetic studies have been reported. METHODS We have systematically reviewed these studies and included 114 in our final selection. RESULTS We found no consistent evidence linking endometriosis with specific polymorphisms in genes encoding inflammatory mediators, proteins involved in sex steroid metabolism, vascular function and tissue remodelling. Although a number of polymorphisms have been associated with endometriosis in selected populations, the associations have not been independently confirmed, either because only single studies were carried out on these markers/genes or because other studies reported no association. The most solid evidence linking specific polymorphisms to endometriosis came from studies investigating glutathione-S-transferase, a phase II detoxification enzyme. Carriage of the GSTT1 null deletion variant showed consistent association with endometriosis with a 29% increased risk; however, it cannot be excluded that this result was due to publication bias, and this association should be independently confirmed in large-scale, well-designed case–control studies. CONCLUSIONS The evidence of an association between genetic polymorphisms and endometriosis is weak. Carriage of the GSTT1 null deletion may moderately increase the risk of this disease. We suggest that the methodology of association studies should be improved in order to identify and validate associations in endometriosis. PMID:18805939

  11. LEPR, ADBR3, IRS-1 and 5-HTT genes polymorphisms do not associate with obesity.

    PubMed

    Mergen, Hatice; Karaaslan, Cağatay; Mergen, Mehmet; Deniz Ozsoy, Ergi; Ozata, Metin

    2007-02-01

    Obesity is a growing problem and is associated with numerous medical conditions. In several genes coding for molecules involved in the regulation of body weight (fat mass) and thermogenesis, polymorphisms have been reported which possibly modify human obesity risk. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of the following polymorphisms in the following genes in 262 obese (BMI > or = 30) and 138 control (BMI < or = 25) subjects: leptin receptor (LEPR)-Gln223Arg, B3-adrenergic receptor (B3-AR)-Trp64Arg, serotonin transporter (5-HTT)--a 44-base pair insertion/deletion functional polymorphism in the 5-HTTLPR and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)-Gly972Arg. Our hypothesis was that these polymorphisms would occur more frequently in the obese population. The polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction genotyping in study population. In our results, no strong associations were observed between BMI status and these polymorphisms. Weak, though significant, association coefficients obtained with HTT and LEPR loci indicate that the genotype numbers at these loci may depend on BMI status to some extent. PMID:17124363

  12. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  13. Method for introducing unidirectional nested deletions

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, J.J.; Quesada, M.A.; Randesi, M.

    1999-07-27

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector. The cloning vector has an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe. 1 fig.

  14. Method for introducing unidirectional nested deletions

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, John J.; Quesada, Mark A.; Randesi, Matthew

    1999-07-27

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

  15. Whole genome HBV deletion profiles and the accumulation of preS deletion mutant during antiviral treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV), because of its error-prone viral polymerase, has a high mutation rate leading to widespread substitutions, deletions, and insertions in the HBV genome. Deletions may significantly change viral biological features complicating the progression of liver diseases. However, the clinical conditions correlating to the accumulation of deleted mutants remain unclear. In this study, we explored HBV deletion patterns and their association with disease status and antiviral treatment by performing whole genome sequencing on samples from 51 hepatitis B patients and by monitoring changes in deletion variants during treatment. Clone sequencing was used to analyze preS regions in another cohort of 52 patients. Results Among the core, preS, and basic core promoter (BCP) deletion hotspots, we identified preS to have the highest frequency and the most complex deletion pattern using whole genome sequencing. Further clone sequencing analysis on preS identified 70 deletions which were classified into 4 types, the most common being preS2. Also, in contrast to the core and BCP regions, most preS deletions were in-frame. Most deletions interrupted viral surface epitopes, and are possibly involved in evading immuno-surveillance. Among various clinical factors examined, logistic regression showed that antiviral medication affected the accumulation of deletion mutants (OR = 6.81, 95% CI = 1.296 ~ 35.817, P = 0.023). In chronic carriers of the virus, and individuals with chronic hepatitis, the deletion rate was significantly higher in the antiviral treatment group (Fisher exact test, P = 0.007). Particularly, preS2 deletions were associated with the usage of nucleos(t)ide analog therapy (Fisher exact test, P = 0.023). Dynamic increases in preS1 or preS2 deletions were also observed in quasispecies from samples taken from patients before and after three months of ADV therapy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that preS2 deletions alone

  16. Effects of genetic variations in the dystonia protein torsinA: identification of polymorphism at residue 216 as protein modifier.

    PubMed

    Kock, Norman; Naismith, Teresa V; Boston, Heather E; Ozelius, Laurie J; Corey, David P; Breakefield, Xandra O; Hanson, Phyllis I

    2006-04-15

    Four naturally occurring sequence variations have been found in the coding region of the DYT1 gene encoding torsinA. One of these, a 3 bp (DeltaGAG) deletion, underlies dominantly inherited cases of early-onset torsion dystonia. Others, including a single nucleotide polymorphism that replaces aspartic acid (D) at residue 216 with histidine (H) in 12% of normal alleles and two other rare deletions, have not been clearly associated with disease. To gain insight into how these sequence variations affect torsinA, we used the structure of the related protein ClpB to provide a model of torsinA's AAA+ domain. Motifs important for ATP hydrolysis-sensor 1 and sensor 2-were identified, mutagenized and used to validate predictions of this model. Inspection revealed that the DeltaGAG deletion associated with dystonia removes one residue from an alpha-helix in the C-terminal portion of the AAA+ domain. The resulting distortion in torsinA structure may underlie this mutant's known tendency to produce ER-derived inclusions as well as its proposed loss of function. The D/H polymorphism at residue 216 falls in the N-terminal portion of the AAA+ domain near the sensor 1 motif. Surprisingly, cells expressing torsinA with the polymorphic histidine developed inclusions similar to those associated with DeltaGAG-torsinA, indicating that this change may also affect torsinA structure. Introducing H216 into DeltaGAG-torsinA reduced its tendency to form inclusions, suggesting that the two changes offset each other. Our findings point to a structural basis for the defects associated with the disease-linked DeltaGAG deletion in torsinA. They also suggest possible connections between the allelic polymorphism at residue 216 and the penetrance of DYT1 dystonia, as well as a possible role for this polymorphism in related disease states. PMID:16537570

  17. Group II Intron-Anchored Gene Deletion in Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Kaizhi; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium plays an important role in commercial and medical use, for which targeted gene deletion is difficult. We proposed an intron-anchored gene deletion approach for Clostridium, which combines the advantage of the group II intron “ClosTron” system and homologous recombination. In this approach, an intron carrying a fragment homologous to upstream or downstream of the target site was first inserted into the genome by retrotransposition, followed by homologous recombination, resulting in gene deletion. A functional unknown operon CAC1493–1494 located in the chromosome, and an operon ctfAB located in the megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum DSM1731 were successfully deleted by using this approach, without leaving antibiotic marker in the genome. We therefore propose this approach can be used for targeted gene deletion in Clostridium. This approach might also be applicable for gene deletion in other bacterial species if group II intron retrotransposition system is established. PMID:21304965

  18. Assessing Trace Evidence Left by Secure Deletion Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Paul; Craiger, Philip

    Secure deletion programs purport to permanently erase files from digital media. These programs are used by businesses and individuals to remove sensitive information from media, and by criminals to remove evidence of the tools or fruits of illegal activities. This paper focuses on the trace evidence left by secure deletion programs. In particular, five Windows-based secure deletion programs are tested to determine if they leave identifiable signatures after deleting a file. The results show that the majority of the programs leave identifiable signatures. Moreover, some of the programs do not completely erase file metadata, which enables forensic investigators to extract the name, size, creation date and deletion date of the "deleted" files.

  19. Hepatitis B virus: DNA polymerase activity of deletion mutants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Hong, Y B; Jung, G

    1999-02-01

    The hepadnavirus P gene product is a multifunctional protein with priming, DNA- and RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, and RNase H activities. Nested N- or C-terminal deletion mutations and deletions of domain(s) in human HBV polymerase have been made. Wild-type and deletion forms of MBP-fused HBV polymerase were expressed in E. coli, purified by amylose column chromatography, and the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activities of the purified proteins were compared. Deletion of the terminal protein or spacer regions reduced enzyme activity to 70%, respectively. However, deletion of the RNase H domain affected polymerase activity more than that of the terminal protein or spacer region. The polymerase domain alone or the N-terminal deletion of the polymerase domain still exhibited enzymatic activity. In this report, it is demonstrated that the minimal domain for the polymerizing activity of the HBV polymerase is smaller than the polymerase domain. PMID:10205676

  20. Are there ethnic differences in deletions in the dystrophin gene?

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, M.; Verma, I.C.

    1997-01-20

    We studied 160 cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) drawn from all parts of India, using multiplex PCR of 27 exons. Of these, 103 (64.4%) showed intragenic deletions. Most (69.7%) of the deletions involved exons 45-51. The phenotype of cases with deletion of single exons did not differ significantly from those with deletion of multiple exons. The distribution of deletions in studies from different countries was variable, but this was accounted for either by the small number of cases studied, or by fewer exons analyzed. It is concluded that there is likely to be no ethnic difference with respect to deletions in the DMD gene. 38 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Role of Metabolic Enzymes P450 (CYP) on Activating Procarcinogen and their Polymorphisms on the Risk of Cancers.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Feng, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are the most important metabolizing enzyme family exists among all organs. Apart from their role in the deactivation of most endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, they also mediate most procarcinogens oxidation to ultimate carcinogens. There are several modes of CYP450s activation of procarcinogens. 1) Formation of epoxide and diol-epoxides intermediates, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mediates PAHs oxidation to epoxide intermediates; 2) Formation of diazonium ions, such as CYP2A6, CYP2A13 and CYP2E1 mediates activation of most nitrosamines to unstable metabolites, which can rearrange to give diazonium ions. 3) Formation of reactive semiquinones and quinines, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transformation of estradiol to catechol estrogens, subsequently formation semiquinones; 4) Formation of toxic O-esterification, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 metabolizes PhIP to N(2)-acetoxy-PhIP and N(2)-sulfonyloxy-PhIP, which are carcinogenic metabolites. 5) Formation of free radical, such as CYP2E1 is involved in activation tetrachloromethane to free radicals. While for CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, only a minor role has been found in procarcinogens activation. In addition, as the gene polymorphisms reflected, the polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1A2 (- 163C/A and -2467T/delT), CYP1B1 (-48G/C, -119G/T and -432G/C), CYP2E1 (-1293G/C and -1053 C/T) have been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), and CYP2E1 (PstI/Rsa and 9-bp insertion) have an association with higher risk colon cancers, whereas CYP1A2 (-163C/A and -3860G/A) polymorphism is found to be among the protective factors. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1B1 -432G/C, CYP2B6 (-516G/T and -785A/G) may increase the risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 are responsible for most of the procarcinogens activation, and their gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of

  2. Polymorphic Electronic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphic electronics is a nascent technological discipline that involves, among other things, designing the same circuit to perform different analog and/or digital functions under different conditions. For example, a circuit can be designed to function as an OR gate or an AND gate, depending on the temperature (see figure). Polymorphic electronics can also be considered a subset of polytronics, which is a broader technological discipline in which optical and possibly other information- processing systems could also be designed to perform multiple functions. Polytronics is an outgrowth of evolvable hardware (EHW). The basic concepts and some specific implementations of EHW were described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: The essence of EHW is to design, construct, and test a sequence of populations of circuits that function as incrementally better solutions of a given design problem through the selective, repetitive connection and/or disconnection of capacitors, transistors, amplifiers, inverters, and/or other circuit building blocks. The evolution is guided by a search-and-optimization algorithm (in particular, a genetic algorithm) that operates in the space of possible circuits to find a circuit that exhibits an acceptably close approximation of the desired functionality. The evolved circuits can be tested by computational simulation (in which case the evolution is said to be extrinsic), tested in real hardware (in which case the evolution is said to be intrinsic), or tested in random sequences of computational simulation and real hardware (in which case the evolution is said to be mixtrinsic).

  3. Polymorphisms in the phosducin (PDC) gene on chromosome 1q25-32

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, P.; Mansergh, F.C.; Farrar, G.J.

    1994-09-01

    Phosducin (33 kDa protein or MEKA) is a principal water-soluble phosphoprotein in the rod and cone photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. This protein modulates the phototransduction cascade by binding to the beta and gamma subunit complexes of transducin. The PDC gene has been mapped to 1q25-32, the region of linkage of two hereditary retinal degenerative disorders; autosomal dominant juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma and one form of autosomal recessive RP. Using previously published sequence data, PCR primers were designed to amplify the coding and 5{prime} flanking regions of the PDC gene. Direct sequencing revealed three polymorphisms in the 5{prime} flanking region, two of which were in regions highly homologous between humans and mice. Analysis of the polymorphisms was then extended to larger population samples using SSCPE and denaturing gel analysis. The first polymorphism PDC1 resulted from an insertion of a G residue at position -653/4. Allele frequencies were determined to be 0.51 (insG) and 0.49 (normal) giving a PIC value of 0.50. A deletion of a T residue at position -488 was the basis of the PDC2 polymorphism with allele frequencies of 0.88 (normal) and 0.12 (delT) and a PIC value of 0.21. Interestingly, the allele with an inserted G residue in PDC1 always segregrated with the deleted T allele in PDC2. The third polymorphism PDC3 was caused by a T or G residue at position -1083. Allele frequencies of 0.26 (G residue) and 0.74 (T residue) were determined from an analysis of 80 individuals with an overall PIC value of 0.39. The identification of these three polymorphisms in the PDC gene will be useful for future genetic linkage studies of chromosome 1q in inherited retinopathies.

  4. Genetic polymorphism in three glutathione s-transferase genes and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Woldegiorgis, S.; Ahmed, R.C.; Zhen, Y.; Erdmann, C.A.; Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    2002-04-01

    The role of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme family is to detoxify environmental toxins and carcinogens and to protect organisms from their adverse effects, including cancer. The genes GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 code for three GSTs involved in the detoxification of carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene. In humans, GSTM1 is deleted in about 50% of the population, GSTT1 is absent in about 20%, whereas the GSTP1 gene has a single base polymorphism resulting in an enzyme with reduced activity. Epidemiological studies indicate that GST polymorphisms increase the level of carcinogen-induced DNA damage and several studies have found a correlation of polymorphisms in one of the GST genes and an increased risk for certain cancers. We examined the role of polymorphisms in genes coding for these three GST enzymes in breast cancer. A breast tissue collection consisting of specimens of breast cancer patients and non-cancer controls was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence or absence of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and for GSTP1 single base polymorphism by PCR/RFLP. We found that GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions occurred more frequently in cases than in controls, and GSTP1 polymorphism was more frequent in controls. The effective detoxifier (putative low-risk) genotype (defined as presence of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and GSTP1 wild type) was less frequent in cases than controls (16% vs. 23%, respectively). The poor detoxifier (putative high-risk) genotype was more frequent in cases than controls. However, the sample size of this study was too small to provide conclusive results.

  5. Intergenic Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Polymorphism Upstream of rocA Alters Toxin Production and Enhances Virulence in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Luchang; Olsen, Randall J; Horstmann, Nicola; Shelburne, Samuel A; Fan, Jia; Hu, Ye; Musser, James M

    2016-07-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms are ubiquitous in bacteria. However, only a small fraction of them has been functionally studied. Here, we report an intergenic VNTR polymorphism that confers an altered level of toxin production and increased virulence in Streptococcus pyogenes The nature of the polymorphism is a one-unit deletion in a three-tandem-repeat locus upstream of the rocA gene encoding a sensor kinase. S. pyogenes strains with this type of polymorphism cause human infection and produce significantly larger amounts of the secreted cytotoxins S. pyogenes NADase (SPN) and streptolysin O (SLO). Using isogenic mutant strains, we demonstrate that deleting one or more units of the tandem repeats abolished RocA production, reduced CovR phosphorylation, derepressed multiple CovR-regulated virulence factors (such as SPN and SLO), and increased virulence in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. The phenotypic effect of the VNTR polymorphism was nearly the same as that of inactivating the rocA gene. In summary, we identified and characterized an intergenic VNTR polymorphism in S. pyogenes that affects toxin production and virulence. These new findings enhance understanding of rocA biology and the function of VNTR polymorphisms in S. pyogenes. PMID:27141081

  6. An intronic deletion in the PROM1 gene leads to autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Eidinger, Osnat; Leibu, Rina; Newman, Hadas; Rizel, Leah; Perlman, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the genetic basis for autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) in a consanguineous Israeli Jewish family. Methods Patients underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation, including eye examination, visual field testing, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and electrophysiological tests, electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potential (VEP). Genome-wide homozygosity mapping using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was performed to identify homozygous regions shared among two of the affected individuals. Mutation screening of the underlying gene was performed with direct sequencing. In silico and in vitro analyses were used to predict the effect of the identified mutation on splicing. Results The affected family members are three siblings who have various degrees of progressive visual deterioration, glare, color vision abnormalities, and night vision difficulties. Visual field tests revealed central scotomas of different extension. Cone and rod ERG responses were reduced, with cones more severely affected. Homozygosity mapping revealed several homozygous intervals shared among two of the affected individuals. One included the PROM1 gene. Sequence analysis of the 26 coding exons of PROM1 in one affected individual revealed no mutations in the coding sequence or in intronic splice sites. However, in intron 21, proximate to the intron–exon junction, we observed a homozygous 10 bp deletion between positions −26 and −17 (c.2281–26_-17del). The deletion was linked to a known SNP, c.2281–6C>G. The deletion cosegregated with the disease in the family, and was not detected in public databases or in 101 ethnically-matched control individuals. In silico analysis predicted that this deletion would lead to altered intron 21 splicing. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that a recognition site for the SRSF2 splicing factor is located within the deleted sequence. The in vitro splicing assay demonstrated that c.2281–26_-17del leads to

  7. Chromosome 22q11 deletion presenting as the Potter sequence.

    PubMed

    Devriendt, K; Moerman, P; Van Schoubroeck, D; Vandenberghe, K; Fryns, J P

    1997-05-01

    A female fetus with the Potter sequence, caused by unilateral renal agenesis and contralateral multicystic renal dysplasia, was found to have a submicroscopic deletion in chromosome 22q11. The only associated anomaly was agenesis of the uterus and oviducts (Von Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster anomaly). The deletion was inherited from the father, who presented the typical velocardiofacial syndrome phenotype, but no urological anomalies. This observation further extends the clinical spectrum associated with a deletion in 22q11. PMID:9152843

  8. Analysis of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile male subjects.

    PubMed

    Almeamar, Hussein Ali; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Ismail, Patimah; Nadkarni, Prashan; Fawzi, Nora

    2013-04-01

    Complete deletions in the AZF (a, b, and c) sub-regions of the Y-chromosome have been shown to contribute to unexplained male infertility. However, the role of partial AZFc deletions in male infertility remains to be verified. Three types of partial AZFc deletions have been identified. They are gr/gr, b1/b3, and b2/b3 deletions. A recent meta-analysis showed that ethnic and geographical factors might contribute to the association of partial AZFc deletions with male infertility. This study analyzed the association of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile males. Fifty two oligozoospermic infertile males and 63 fertile controls were recruited to this study. Screening for partial AZFc deletions was done using the two sequence-tagged sites approach (SY1291 and SY1191) which were analyzed using both the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis and the high resolution melt, HRM method. Gr/gr deletions were found in 11.53% of the cases and 9.52% of the controls (p = 0.725). A B2/b3 deletion was found in one of the cases (p = 0.269). No B1/b3 deletions were identified in this study. The results of HRM analysis were consistent with those obtained using the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis method. The HRM analysis was highly repeatable (95% limit of agreement was -0.0879 to 0.0871 for SY1191 melting temperature readings). In conclusion, our study showed that partial AZFc deletions were not associated with male infertility in Malaysian subjects. HRM analysis was a reliable, repeatable, fast, cost-effective, and semi-automated method which can be used for screening of partial AZFc deletions. PMID:23231020

  9. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  10. Enhanced Deletion Formation by Aberrant DNA Replication in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Saveson, C. J.; Lovett, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    Repeated genes and sequences are prone to genetic rearrangements including deletions. We have investigated deletion formation in Escherichia coli strains mutant for various replication functions. Deletion was selected between 787 base pair tandem repeats carried either on a ColE1-derived plasmid or on the E. coli chromosome. Only mutations in functions associated with DNA Polymerase III elevated deletion rates in our assays. Especially large increases were observed in strains mutant in dnaQ, the ε editing subunit of Pol III, and dnaB, the replication fork helicase. Mutations in several other functions also altered deletion formation: the α polymerase (dnaE), the γ clamp loader complex (holC, dnaX), and the β clamp (dnaN) subunits of Pol III and the primosomal proteins, dnaC and priA. Aberrant replication stimulated deletions through several pathways. Whereas the elevation in dnaB strains was mostly recA- and lexA-dependent, that in dnaQ strains was mostly recA- and lexA-independent. Deletion product analysis suggested that slipped mispairing, producing monomeric replicon products, may be preferentially increased in a dnaQ mutant and sister-strand exchange, producing dimeric replicon products, may be elevated in dnaE mutants. We conclude that aberrant Polymerase III replication can stimulate deletion events through several mechanisms of deletion and via both recA-dependent and independent pathways. PMID:9177997

  11. 77 FR 40344 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ..., Fort Gordon, GA. Deletion Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification I certify that the following action... Housekeeping Services, Winn Army Community Hospital, 1061 Harmon Avenue, Fort Stewart, GA. NPA:...

  12. Large Deletions at the SHOX Locus in the Pseudoautosomal Region Are Associated with Skeletal Atavism in Shetland Ponies.

    PubMed

    Rafati, Nima; Andersson, Lisa S; Mikko, Sofia; Feng, Chungang; Raudsepp, Terje; Pettersson, Jessica; Janecka, Jan; Wattle, Ove; Ameur, Adam; Thyreen, Gunilla; Eberth, John; Huddleston, John; Malig, Maika; Bailey, Ernest; Eichler, Evan E; Dalin, Göran; Chowdary, Bhanu; Andersson, Leif; Lindgren, Gabriella; Rubin, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal atavism in Shetland ponies is a heritable disorder characterized by abnormal growth of the ulna and fibula that extend the carpal and tarsal joints, respectively. This causes abnormal skeletal structure and impaired movements, and affected foals are usually killed. In order to identify the causal mutation we subjected six confirmed Swedish cases and a DNA pool consisting of 21 control individuals to whole genome resequencing. We screened for polymorphisms where the cases and the control pool were fixed for opposite alleles and observed this signature for only 25 SNPs, most of which were scattered on genome assembly unassigned scaffolds. Read depth analysis at these loci revealed homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for two partially overlapping large deletions in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of chromosome X/Y in cases but not in the control pool. One of these deletions removes the entire coding region of the SHOX gene and both deletions remove parts of the CRLF2 gene located downstream of SHOX. The horse reference assembly of the PAR is highly fragmented, and in order to characterize this region we sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones by single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. This considerably improved the assembly and enabled size estimations of the two deletions to 160-180 kb and 60-80 kb, respectively. Complete association between the presence of these deletions and disease status was verified in eight other affected horses. The result of the present study is consistent with previous studies in humans showing crucial importance of SHOX for normal skeletal development. PMID:27207956

  13. Large Deletions at the SHOX Locus in the Pseudoautosomal Region Are Associated with Skeletal Atavism in Shetland Ponies

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, Nima; Andersson, Lisa S.; Mikko, Sofia; Feng, Chungang; Raudsepp, Terje; Pettersson, Jessica; Janecka, Jan; Wattle, Ove; Ameur, Adam; Thyreen, Gunilla; Eberth, John; Huddleston, John; Malig, Maika; Bailey, Ernest; Eichler, Evan E.; Dalin, Göran; Chowdary, Bhanu; Andersson, Leif; Lindgren, Gabriella; Rubin, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal atavism in Shetland ponies is a heritable disorder characterized by abnormal growth of the ulna and fibula that extend the carpal and tarsal joints, respectively. This causes abnormal skeletal structure and impaired movements, and affected foals are usually killed. In order to identify the causal mutation we subjected six confirmed Swedish cases and a DNA pool consisting of 21 control individuals to whole genome resequencing. We screened for polymorphisms where the cases and the control pool were fixed for opposite alleles and observed this signature for only 25 SNPs, most of which were scattered on genome assembly unassigned scaffolds. Read depth analysis at these loci revealed homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for two partially overlapping large deletions in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of chromosome X/Y in cases but not in the control pool. One of these deletions removes the entire coding region of the SHOX gene and both deletions remove parts of the CRLF2 gene located downstream of SHOX. The horse reference assembly of the PAR is highly fragmented, and in order to characterize this region we sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones by single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. This considerably improved the assembly and enabled size estimations of the two deletions to 160−180 kb and 60−80 kb, respectively. Complete association between the presence of these deletions and disease status was verified in eight other affected horses. The result of the present study is consistent with previous studies in humans showing crucial importance of SHOX for normal skeletal development. PMID:27207956

  14. Loss of both CSF1R (FMS) alleles in patients with myelodysplasia and a chromosome 5 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Boultwood, J.; Rack, K.; Buckle, V.J.; Wainscoat, J.S. ); Kelly, S. ); Madden, J.; Oscier, D.G. ); Sakaguchi, A.Y.; Wang, Lingmei )

    1991-07-15

    A high proportion of patients with myelodysplasia show characteristic karyotypic abnormalities in bone marrow cells. The most distinctive of the myelodysplastic syndromes is the 5q- syndrome characterized by refractory anemia, poorly lobulated megakaryocytes, and an interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q deletion) as the sole karyotypic abnormality. Recently, several genes encoding hemopoietic growth factors and receptors, have been localized to the long arm of chromosome 5, and there has been much speculation that deletion of one or more of these genes may be critical to the pathogenesis of the associated myeloid disorders. One candidate gene is CSF1R. The authors have carried out a molecular examination of the CSF1R, both on the 5q- chromosome and on the apparently normal homologous chromsome 5, in 10 patients with myelodysplasia and a 5q deletion. They have found, using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and gene dosage experiments, that all 10 patients showed deletion of CSF1R. The homozygous CSF1R loss has been confirmed in 2 patients by an in situ hybridization technique comparing the signal in affected cells to that in control sex-mismatched cells on the same slides. This loss of one CSF1R allele, together with loss in some cells of the remaining allele on the homologous chromsome 5, in patients with myelodysplasia indicates that this is a region of critical gene loss on 5q. The loss of the hemopoietic growth factor receptor gene CSF1R may be important in the pathogenesis of human myeloid leukemia.

  15. A nucleotide deletion and frame-shift cause analbuminemia in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Caridi, Gianluca; Gulec, Elif Yilmaz; Campagnoli, Monica; Lugani, Francesca; Onal, Hasan; Kilic, Duzgun; Galliano, Monica; Minchiotti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital analbuminemia is an autosomal recessive disorder, in which albumin, the major blood protein, is present only in a minute amount. The condition is a rare allelic heterogeneous defect, only about seventy cases have been reported worldwide. To date, more than twenty different mutations within the albumin gene have been found to cause the trait. In our continuing study of the molecular genetics of congenital analbuminemia, we report here the clinical and biochemical findings and the mutation analysis of the gene in two Turkish infants. For the molecular analysis, we used our strategy, based on the screening of the gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism, heteroduplex analysis and direct DNA sequencing. The results showed that both patients are homozygous for the deletion of a cytosine residue in exon 5, in a stretch of four cytosines starting from nucleotide position 524 and ending at position 527 (NM_000477.5(ALB):c.527delC). The subsequent frame-shift inserts a stop codon in position 215, markedly reducing the size of the predicted protein product. The parents are both heterozygous for the same mutation, for which we propose the name Erzurum from the city of origin of the family. In conclusion, our results show that in this family congenital analbuminemia is caused by a novel frame-shift/deletion defect, confirm the inheritance of the trait, and contribute to advance our understanding of the molecular basis underlying this condition. PMID:27346974

  16. A 57-bp deletion in the ovine KAP6-1 gene affects wool fibre diameter.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Gong, H; Li, S; Luo, Y; Hickford, J G H

    2015-08-01

    High glycine-tyrosine keratin-associated proteins (HGT-KAPs) are predominantly present in the orthocortex of wool fibres. They vary in abundance in different wools and have been implicated in regulating wool fibre properties, but little is known about the functional roles of these proteins in the fibre matrix. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction--single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis to screen for variation in a gene encoding the ovine HGT-KAP6-1 protein. We identified three gene variants (A, B and C). Variants A and B were similar to each other, with only three nucleotide differences occurring downstream of the coding sequence. However, variant C had a 57-bp deletion that would notionally result in a loss of 19 amino acids in the protein. The presence of C was found to be associated with an increase in mean fibre diameter (MFD), fibre diameter standard deviation (FDSD), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter (CVFD) and prickle factor (percentage of fibres over 30 microns; PF). Sheep of genotype BC produced wool of greater MFD, FDSD and PF than sheep of genotypes AA, AB and BB. The CVFD was greater in the BC sheep than the AB sheep. The results suggest that variation in ovine KRTAP6-1 affects wool fibre diameter-associated traits and that the 57-bp deletion in this gene would lead to coarser wool with greater FDSD, CVFD and PF. PMID:25782086

  17. A nucleotide deletion and frame-shift cause analbuminemia in a Turkish family

    PubMed Central

    Caridi, Gianluca; Gulec, Elif Yilmaz; Campagnoli, Monica; Lugani, Francesca; Onal, Hasan; Kilic, Duzgun; Galliano, Monica; Minchiotti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital analbuminemia is an autosomal recessive disorder, in which albumin, the major blood protein, is present only in a minute amount. The condition is a rare allelic heterogeneous defect, only about seventy cases have been reported worldwide. To date, more than twenty different mutations within the albumin gene have been found to cause the trait. In our continuing study of the molecular genetics of congenital analbuminemia, we report here the clinical and biochemical findings and the mutation analysis of the gene in two Turkish infants. For the molecular analysis, we used our strategy, based on the screening of the gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism, heteroduplex analysis and direct DNA sequencing. The results showed that both patients are homozygous for the deletion of a cytosine residue in exon 5, in a stretch of four cytosines starting from nucleotide position 524 and ending at position 527 (NM_000477.5(ALB):c.527delC). The subsequent frame-shift inserts a stop codon in position 215, markedly reducing the size of the predicted protein product. The parents are both heterozygous for the same mutation, for which we propose the name Erzurum from the city of origin of the family. In conclusion, our results show that in this family congenital analbuminemia is caused by a novel frame-shift/deletion defect, confirm the inheritance of the trait, and contribute to advance our understanding of the molecular basis underlying this condition. PMID:27346974

  18. Multiple crm- mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia. Evidence for 13 alleles, including four deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, H H; Leitersdorf, E; Goldstein, J L; Brown, M S; Russell, D W

    1988-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in fibroblasts from 132 subjects with the clinical syndrome of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were analyzed by immunoprecipitation with an anti-LDL receptor monoclonal antibody. 16 of the 132 cell strains (12%) synthesized no immunodetectable LDL receptor protein, indicating the presence of two mutant genes that failed to produce cross-reacting material (crm- mutations). DNA and mRNA from 15 of the 16 crm- patients, representing 30 crm- genes, were available for further study. Haplotype analysis based on 10 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) suggested that the 30 crm- genes represent 13 mutant alleles. Four of the alleles produced no mRNA. Three of these four mRNA- alleles had large deletions ranging from 6 to 20 kb that eliminated the promoter region of the gene. The fourth mRNA- allele did not contain any deletion or alteration in the promoter sequence; the reason for the mRNA- phenotype was not apparent. Nine alleles were positive for mRNAs, of which three encoded mRNAs of abnormal size. One of the abnormal mRNAs was produced by a gene harboring a deletion, and another was produced by a gene with a complex rearrangement. The third abnormal-sized mRNA (3.1 kb larger than normal) was produced by an allele that had no detectable alterations as judged by Southern blotting. The other six mRNA+ alleles appeared normal by Southern blotting and produced normal-sized mRNA but no receptor protein. The current studies demonstrate that mRNA analysis coupled with haplotype determination by Southern blot analysis can be used to classify crm- mutations at a genetic locus where multiple alleles exist. Images PMID:3343347

  19. Genome-wide analysis identifies 16q deletion associated with survival, molecular subtypes, mRNA expression, and germline haplotypes in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Nordgard, Silje H; Johansen, Fredrik E; Alnaes, Grethe I G; Bucher, Elmar; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Naume, Bjørn; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N

    2008-08-01

    Breast carcinomas are characterized by DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) with biological and clinical significance. This explorative study integrated CNA, expression, and germline genotype data of 112 early-stage breast cancer patients. Recurrent CNAs differed substantially between tumor subtypes classified according to expression pattern. Deletion of 16q was overrepresented in Luminal A, and a predictor of good prognosis, both overall and for the nonluminal A subgroups. The deleted region most significantly associated with survival mapped to 16q22.2, harboring the genes TXNL4B and DXH38, whose expression was strongly correlated with the deletion. The area most frequently deleted resided on 16q23.1, 3.5 MB downstream of the area most significantly associated with survival, and included the tumor suppressor gene ADAMTS18 and the cell recognition gene CNTNAP4. Whole-genome association analysis identified germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their corresponding haplotypes, residing on several different chromosomes, to be associated with deletion of 16q. The genes where these SNPs reside encode proteins involved in the extracellular matrix (CHST3 and SPOCK2), in regulation of the cell cycle (JMY, PTPRN2, and Cwf19L2) and chromosome stability (KPNB1). PMID:18398821

  20. Effects on the transcriptome upon deletion of a distal element cannot be predicted by the size of the H3K27Ac peak in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Yu Gyoung; Hung, Yuli; Yao, Lijing; Grimmer, Matthew R.; Do, Albert; Bhakta, Mital S.; O'Geen, Henriette; Segal, David J.; Farnham, Peggy J.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). A molecular understanding of the functional consequences of this genetic variation is complicated because most GWAS SNPs are located in non-coding regions. We used epigenomic information to identify H3K27Ac peaks in HCT116 colon cancer cells that harbor SNPs associated with an increased risk for CRC. Employing CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases, we deleted a CRC risk-associated H3K27Ac peak from HCT116 cells and observed large-scale changes in gene expression, resulting in decreased expression of many nearby genes. As a comparison, we showed that deletion of a robust H3K27Ac peak not associated with CRC had minimal effects on the transcriptome. Interestingly, although there is no H3K27Ac peak in HEK293 cells in the E7 region, deletion of this region in HEK293 cells decreased expression of several of the same genes that were downregulated in HCT116 cells, including the MYC oncogene. Accordingly, deletion of E7 causes changes in cell culture assays in HCT116 and HEK293 cells. In summary, we show that effects on the transcriptome upon deletion of a distal regulatory element cannot be predicted by the size or presence of an H3K27Ac peak. PMID:26743005

  1. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. PMID:27016340

  2. Detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in unexplained mental retardation: a general strategy using hypervariable subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, A O

    1993-01-01

    Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here I describe and analyze a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, approximately 50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomeres should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. PMID:8352277

  3. Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Aastha; Iyengar, Asha R.; Patil, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety-related traits have been attributed to sequence variability in the genes coding for serotonin transmission in  the brain. Two alleles, termed long (L) and short (S) differing by 44 base pairs, are found in a polymorphism identified in the promoter region of serotonin transporter gene. The presence of the short allele  and SS and LS genotypes is found to be associated with the reduced expression of this gene decreasing the uptake of serotonin in the brain leading to various anxiety-related traits. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is an oral mucosal disease with varied etiology including the presence of stress, anxiety, and genetic influences. The present study aimed to determine this serotonin transporter gene polymorphism in patients with RAS and compare it with normal individuals. Materials and Methods: This study included 20 subjects with various forms of RAS and 20 normal healthy age- and gender-matched individuals. Desquamated oral mucosal cells were collected for DNA extraction and subjected to polymerase chain reaction for studying insertion/deletion in the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region. Cross tabulations followed by Chi-square tests were performed to compare the significance of findings, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The LS genotype was the most common genotype found in the subjects with aphthous stomatitis (60%) and controls (40%). The total percentage of LS and SS genotypes and the frequency of S allele were found to be higher in the subjects with aphthous stomatitis as compared to the control group although a statistically significant correlation could not be established, P = 0.144 and 0.371, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, occurrence of RAS was not found to be associated with polymorphic promoter region in serotonin transporter gene. PMID:27274339

  4. Physical and genetic mapping of amplified fragment length polymorphisms and the leaf rust resistance Lr3 gene on chromosome 6BL of wheat.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, M J; Altieri, E; Ingala, L R; Perera, E; Sacco, F; Naranjo, T

    2006-01-01

    The Argentinian wheat cultivar Sinvalocho MA carries the Lr3 gene for leaf rust resistance on distal chromosome 6BL. In this cultivar, 33 spontaneous susceptible lines were isolated and cytogenetically characterized by C-banding. The analysis revealed deletions on chromosome 6BL in most lines. One line was nulli-6B, two lines were ditelo 6BS, two, three, and ten lines had long terminal deletions of 40, 30, and 20%, respectively, three lines showed very small terminal deletions, and one line had an intercalary deletion of 11%. Physical mapping of 55 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers detected differences between deletions and led to the division of 6BL into seven bins delimited by deletion breakpoints. The most distal bin, with a length smaller than 5% of 6BL, contained 22 AFLP markers and the Lr3 gene. Polymorphism for nine AFLPs between Sinvalocho MA and the rust leaf susceptible cultivar Gamma 6 was used to construct a linkage map of Lr3. This gene is at a genetic distance of 0.9 cM from a group of seven closely linked AFLPs. The location of the gene in a high recombinogenic region indicated a physical distance of approximately 1 Mb to the markers. PMID:16215730

  5. 23 CFR 658.11 - Additions, deletions, exceptions, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additions, deletions, exceptions, and restrictions. 658.11 Section 658.11 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS § 658.11 Additions, deletions, exceptions,...

  6. 75 FR 16755 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 1/15/2010 (75 FR 2510) and 2/5/2010 (75 FR 5970-5971), the Committee for Purchase... Installation Contracting Command, Ft. Lewis, WA. Deletions On 2/5/2010 (75 FR 5970-5971), the Committee for... products are deleted from the Procurement List: Products Inkjet Cartridge NSN: 7510-01-544-0833 NSN:...

  7. 29 CFR 1610.20 - Deletion of exempted matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deletion of exempted matters. 1610.20 Section 1610.20 Labor... Production or Disclosure Under 5 U.S.C. 552 § 1610.20 Deletion of exempted matters. Where requested records contain matters which are exempted under 5 U.S.C. 552(b) but which matters are reasonably segregable...

  8. 29 CFR 1610.20 - Deletion of exempted matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of exempted matters. 1610.20 Section 1610.20 Labor... Production or Disclosure Under 5 U.S.C. 552 § 1610.20 Deletion of exempted matters. Where requested records contain matters which are exempted under 5 U.S.C. 552(b) but which matters are reasonably segregable...

  9. 76 FR 82282 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  10. 75 FR 18164 - Procurement List: Proposed Additions and Deletions

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    2010-05-14

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  12. 5 CFR 1631.17 - Deletion of exempted information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Production or Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552 § 1631.17 Deletion of exempted information. Where requested records contain matters which are exempted under 5 U.S.C... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deletion of exempted information....

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  16. 75 FR 52723 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition and Deletion

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  17. 77 FR 22288 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

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  1. 37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...

  2. 37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...

  3. 37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...

  4. 37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...

  5. 37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...

  6. Linguistic and Psychomotor Development in Children with Chromosome 14 Deletions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampini, Laura; D'Odorico, Laura; Zanchi, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Neri, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The present study focussed on a specific type of rare genetic condition: chromosome 14 deletions. Children with this genetic condition often show developmental delays and brain and neurological problems, although the type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the size and location of the deleted genetic material. The specific aim of the…

  7. 78 FR 75912 - Procurement List; Addition and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 6/28/2013 (78 FR 38952-38953), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... Services Administration, Fort Worth, TX Deletion On 11/1/2013 (78 FR 65618), the Committee for Purchase... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition and Deletion AGENCY: Committee...

  8. 49 CFR 7.6 - Deletion of identifying detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying detail. 7.6 Section 7.6... To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.6 Deletion of identifying detail. Whenever it is determined to be necessary to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, identifying details will be...

  9. Association between XPD (Lys751G1n) Polymorphism and Lung Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Motovali-Bashi, Majid; Rezaei, Hojatollah; Dehghanian, Fariba; Rezaei, Halimeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective People are usually susceptible to carcinogenic aromatic amines, present in cigarrette smoke and polluted environment, which can cause DNA damage. Therefore, maintenance of genomic DNA integrity is a direct result of proper function of DNA repair enzymes. Polymorphic diversity could affect the function of repair enzymes and thus augment the risk of different cancers. Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) gene encodes one of the most prominent repair enzymes and the polymorphisms of this gene are thought to be of importance in lung cancer risk. This gene encodes the helicase, which is a component of transcription factor IIH and an important part of the nucleotide excision repair system. Studies reveal that individuals with Lys751Gln polymorphism of XPD gene have a low repairing capacity to delete the damages of ultraviolet light among other XPD polymorphisms. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, first Lys751Gln polymorphism was genotyped, then its association with lung cancer risk was analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood sample of 640 individuals from Iran (352 healthy individuals and 288 patients). Allele frequencies and heterozygosity of Lys751Gln polymorphism were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results According to statistical analyses, lung cancer risk in individuals with Lys751Gln polymorphism (Odd Ratio=1.8, 95% Confidence Interval 0.848-3.819) is approximately twice as high as that of Lys/Lys genotype, however 751Gln/Gln genotype did not relate to lung cancer risk (Odd Ratio=0.7, 95% Confidence Interval 0/307-1/595). Conclusion This study suggests that heterozygous polymorphism (Lys/Gln) increases the sensitivity of lung cancer risk, while homozygous polymorphism (Lys/Lys) probably decreases its risk and C allele frequency shows no remarkable increase in the patients. PMID:24611140

  10. Highly efficient targeted chromosome deletions using CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    He, Zuyong; Proudfoot, Chris; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Lillico, Simon G

    2015-05-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has emerged as an intriguing new technology for genome engineering. It utilizes the bacterial endonuclease Cas9 which, when delivered to eukaryotic cells in conjunction with a user-specified small guide RNA (gRNA), cleaves the chromosomal DNA at the target site. Here we show that concurrent delivery of gRNAs designed to target two different sites in a human chromosome introduce DNA double-strand breaks in the chromosome and give rise to targeted deletions of the intervening genomic segment. Predetermined genomic DNA segments ranging from several-hundred base pairs to 1 Mbp can be precisely deleted at frequencies of 1-10%, with no apparent correlation between the size of the deleted fragment and the deletion frequency. The high efficiency of this technique holds promise for large genomic deletions that could be useful in generation of cell and animal models with engineered chromosomes. PMID:25362885

  11. Attenuation of Monkeypox Virus by Deletion of Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lopera, Juan G.; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an emerging pathogen from Africa that causes disease similar to smallpox. Two clades with different geographic distributions and virulence have been described. Here, we utilized bioinformatic tools to identify genomic regions in MPXV containing multiple virulence genes and explored their roles in pathogenicity; two selected regions were then deleted singularly or in combination. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that these regions play a significant role in MPXV replication, tissue spread, and mortality in mice. Interestingly, while deletion of either region led to decreased virulence in mice, one region had no effect on in vitro replication. Deletion of both regions simultaneously also reduced cell culture replication and significantly increased the attenuation in vivo over either single deletion. Attenuated MPXV with genomic deletions present a safe and efficacious tool in the study of MPX pathogenesis and in the identification of genetic factors associated with virulence. PMID:25462353

  12. Attenuation of monkeypox virus by deletion of genomic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopera, Juan G.; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an emerging pathogen from Africa that causes disease similar to smallpox. Two clades with different geographic distributions and virulence have been described. Here, we utilized bioinformatic tools to identify genomic regions in MPXV containing multiple virulence genes and explored their roles in pathogenicity; two selected regions were then deleted singularly or in combination. In vitro and in vivostudies indicated that these regions play a significant role in MPXV replication, tissue spread, and mortality in mice. Interestingly, while deletion of either region led to decreased virulence in mice, one region had no effect on in vitro replication. Deletion of both regions simultaneously also reduced cell culture replication and significantly increased the attenuation in vivo over either single deletion. Attenuated MPXV with genomic deletions present a safe and efficacious tool in the study of MPX pathogenesis and in the identification of genetic factors associated with virulence.

  13. Molecular Mimicry and Clonal Deletion: A Fresh Look

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Noel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I trace the historic background of clonal deletion and molecular mimicry, two major pillars underlying our present understanding of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. Clonal deletion originated as a critical element of the clonal selection theory of antibody formation in order to explain tolerance of self. If we did have complete clonal deletion, there would be major voids, the infamous “black holes”, in our immune repertoire. For comprehensive, protective adaptive immunity, full deletion is necessarily a rare event. Molecular mimicry, the sharing of epitopes among self and non-self antigens, is extraordinary common and provides the evidence that complete deletion of self-reactive clones is rare. If molecular mimicry were not common, protective adaptive immunity could not be all-encompassing. By taking a fresh look at these two processes together we can envision their evolutionary basis and understand the need for regulatory devices to prevent molecular mimicry from progressing to autoimmune disease. PMID:25172771

  14. Molecular mimicry and clonal deletion: A fresh look.

    PubMed

    Rose, Noel R

    2015-06-21

    In this article, I trace the historic background of clonal deletion and molecular mimicry, two major pillars underlying our present understanding of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. Clonal deletion originated as a critical element of the clonal selection theory of antibody formation in order to explain tolerance of self. If we did have complete clonal deletion, there would be major voids, the infamous "black holes", in our immune repertoire. For comprehensive, protective adaptive immunity, full deletion is necessarily a rare event. Molecular mimicry, the sharing of epitopes among self and non-self antigens, is extraordinary common and provides the evidence that complete deletion of self-reactive clones is rare. If molecular mimicry were not common, protective adaptive immunity could not be all-encompassing. By taking a fresh look at these two processes together we can envision their evolutionary basis and understand the need for regulatory devices to prevent molecular mimicry from progressing to autoimmune disease. PMID:25172771

  15. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material. PMID:27484579

  16. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  17. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H; Sietsma, J; Offerman, S E

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR's) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR's with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR's. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material. PMID:27484579

  18. Three distinct commonly deleted regions of chromosome arm 16q in human primary and metastatic prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Komiya, A; Emi, M; Kuramochi, H; Shiraishi, T; Yatani, R; Shimazaki, J

    1996-12-01

    Human prostate cancers frequently show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at loci on the long arm of chromosome 16 (16q). In this study, we analyzed prostate cancer specimens from 48 patients (Stage B, 20 cases; Stage C, 10 cases; cancer death, 18 cases) for allelic loss on 16q, using either restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)- or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Allelic losses were observed in 20 (42%) of 48 cases, all of which were informative with at least one locus. Detailed deletion mapping identified three distinct commonly deleted regions on this chromosome arm: q22.1-q22.3, q23.2-q24.1, and q24.3-qter. On the basis of a published sex-averaged framework map, the estimated sizes of the commonly deleted regions were 4.7 (16q22.1-q22.3), 17.2 (16q23.2-q24.1) and 8.4 cM (16q24.3-qter). Allelic losses on 16q were observed more frequently in the cancer-death cases (11 of 18; 61%) than in early-stage tumor cases (9 of 30; 30%; P < 0.05). In 7 of 11 patients from whom DNA was available from metastatic cancers as well as from normal tissues and primary tumors, the primary cancer foci had no detectable abnormality of 16q, but the metastatic tumors showed LOH. These results suggest that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes on 16q plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. We also analyzed exons 5-8 of the E-cadherin gene, located at 16q22.1, in tumor DNA by means of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing, but we detected no somatic mutations in this candidate gene. PMID:8946204

  19. Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy in Golden Retriever Dogs Is Caused by a Deletion in the Mitochondrial tRNATyr Gene

    PubMed Central

    Baranowska, Izabella; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Nennesmo, Inger; Holmqvist, Erik; Heidrich, Nadja; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Andersson, Göran; Wagner, E. Gerhart H.; Hedhammar, Åke; Wibom, Rolf; Andersson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Sensory ataxic neuropathy (SAN) is a recently identified neurological disorder in golden retrievers. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected dogs belong to one maternal lineage, and a statistical analysis showed that the disorder has a mitochondrial origin. A one base pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene was identified at position 5304 in affected dogs after re-sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of seven individuals. The deletion was not found among dogs representing 18 different breeds or in six wolves, ruling out this as a common polymorphism. The mutation could be traced back to a common ancestor of all affected dogs that lived in the 1970s. We used a quantitative oligonucleotide ligation assay to establish the degree of heteroplasmy in blood and tissue samples from affected dogs and controls. Affected dogs and their first to fourth degree relatives had 0–11% wild-type (wt) sequence, while more distant relatives ranged between 5% and 60% wt sequence and all unrelated golden retrievers had 100% wt sequence. Northern blot analysis showed that tRNATyr had a 10-fold lower steady-state level in affected dogs compared with controls. Four out of five affected dogs showed decreases in mitochondrial ATP production rates and respiratory chain enzyme activities together with morphological alterations in muscle tissue, resembling the changes reported in human mitochondrial pathology. Altogether, these results provide conclusive evidence that the deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene is the causative mutation for SAN. PMID:19492087

  20. hSNF5/INI1 inactivation is mainly associated with homozygous deletions and mitotic recombinations in rhabdoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Rousseau-Merck, M F; Versteege, I; Legrand, I; Couturier, J; Mairal, A; Delattre, O; Aurias, A

    1999-07-01

    The chromatin-remodeling hSNF5/INI1 gene has recently been shown to act as a tumor suppressor gene in rhabdoid tumors (RTs). In an attempt to further characterize the main chromosomal mechanisms involved in hSNF5/INI1 inactivation in RTs, we report here the molecular cytogenetic data obtained in 12 cell lines harboring hSNF5/INI1 mutations and/or deletions in relation to the molecular genetic analysis using polymorphic markers extended to both extremities of chromosome 22q. On the whole, mitotic recombination occurring in the proximal part of chromosome 22q, as demonstrated in five cases, and nondisjunction/duplication, highly suspected in two cases (processes leading respectively to partial or complete isodisomy), appear to be major mechanisms associated with hSNF5/INI1 inactivation. Such isodisomy accompanies each of the RTs exhibiting two cytogenetically normal chromosomes 22. This results in homozygosity for the mutation at the hSNF5/INI1 locus. An alternate mechanism accounting for hSNF5/INI1 inactivation observed in these tumors is homozygous deletion in the rhabdoid consensus region. This was observed in each of the four tumors carrying a chromosome 22q abnormality and, in particular, in the three tumors with chromosomal translocations. Only one case of our series illustrates the mutation/deletion classical model proposed for the double-hit inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene. PMID:10397258

  1. Deletion of the entire NF1 gene detected by FISH: Four deletion patients associated with severe manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Wi, Bai-Lin; Austin, M.A.; Schneider, G.H.; Boles, R.G.; Korf, B.R.

    1995-12-04

    Genetic analysis of NF1 has indicated a wide diversity of mutations, including chromosome rearrangements, deletions, insertions, duplications, and point mutations. Recently, five severely affected individuals have been found by Kayes et al. to have deletions encompassing the entire gene. These deletions were detected by quantitative Southern analysis. To simplify deletion detection, we have employed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using intragenic probes. Thirteen unrelated individuals with NF1 have been studied. Among six with severe manifestations, four have been found to have deletions detected by probes cFF13, cFB5D, cP5, yA43A9, yA113D7 and yD8F4. All four deletion patients have severe developmental delay, minor and major anomalies (including one with bilateral iris colobomas), and multiple cutaneous neurofibromas or plexiform neurofibromas which were present before age 5 years. FISH provides a simple and rapid means of identification of NF1 gene deletions and will allow more rigorous testing of the hypothesis that such deletions are associated with severe manifestations. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Polymorphisms and Mutations of Human TMPRSS6 in Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, E.; Van Geet, C.; te Loo, D.M.W.M.; Gelbart, T.; Crain, K.; Truksa, J; Lee, P.L

    2009-01-01

    Male subjects with iron deficiency from the general population were examined for polymorphisms or sporadic mutations in TMPRSS6 to identify genetic risk factors for iron deficiency anemia. Three uncommon non-synonymous polymorphisms were identified, G228D, R446W, and V795I (allele frequencies 0.0074, 0.023 and 0.0074 respectively), of which the R446W polymorphism appeared to be overrepresented in the anemic population. In addition, three children with iron refractory iron deficiency anemia, and one sibling with iron responsive iron deficiency anemia were also examined for polymorphisms or sporadic mutations in TMPRSS6. Two children (family 1) were compound heterozygotes for a L674F mutation and a previously described splicing defect predicted to cause skipping of exon 13 (IVS13+1 G>A). One child from the second family was homozygous for a deletion (497T) causing a frameshift (L166X+36) and premature termination. The sibling and mother from the second family were compound heterozygotes for the L166X mutation and the uncommon R446W polymorphism. Although in vitro expression studies demonstrated that the R446W isoform was biologically similar to wildtype Tmprss6, clinical data indicate that the R446W produces a milder disease when carried in trans with severe mutation in Tmprss6. The four children carrying mutations in TMPRSS6 all exhibited inappropriately high urinary hepcidin levels for the degree of iron deficiency. PMID:19818657

  3. Nucleation of polymorphic amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Auer, Stefan

    2015-03-10

    One and the same protein can self-assemble into amyloid fibrils with different morphologies. The phenomenon of fibril polymorphism is relevant biologically because different fibril polymorphs can have different toxicity, but there is no tool for predicting which polymorph forms and under what conditions. Here, we consider the nucleation of polymorphic amyloid fibrils occurring by direct polymerization of monomeric proteins into fibrils. We treat this process within the framework of our newly developed nonstandard nucleation theory, which allows prediction of the concentration dependence of the nucleation rate for different fibril polymorphs. The results highlight that the concentration dependence of the nucleation rate is closely linked with the protein solubility and a threshold monomer concentration below which fibril formation becomes biologically irrelevant. The relation between the nucleation rate, the fibril solubility, the threshold concentration, and the binding energies of the fibril building blocks within fibrils might prove a valuable tool for designing new experiments to control the formation of particular fibril polymorphs. PMID:25762329

  4. Anthrax Susceptibility: Human Genetic Polymorphisms Modulating ANTXR2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Minglei; Ye, Bingyu; Shen, Wenlong; Li, Ping; Xing, Lingyue; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Hou, Lihua; Xu, Junjie; Zhao, Zhihu; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax toxin causes anthrax pathogenesis and expression levels of ANTXR2 (anthrax toxin receptor 2) are strongly correlated with anthrax toxin susceptibility. Previous studies found that ANTXR2 transcript abundance varies considerably in individuals of different ethnic/geographical groups, but no eQTLs (expression quantitative trait loci) have been identified. By using 3C (chromatin conformation capture), CRISPR-mediated genomic deletion and dual-luciferase reporter assay, gene loci containing cis-regulatory elements of ANTXR2 were localized. Two SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) at the conserved CREB-binding motif, rs13140055 and rs80314910 in the promoter region of the gene, modulating ANTXR2 promoter activity were identified. Combining these two regulatory SNPs with a previously reported SNP, rs12647691, for the first time, a statistically significant correlation between human genetic variations and anthrax toxin sensitivity was observed. These findings further our understanding of human variability in ANTXR2 expression and anthrax toxin susceptibility. PMID:26703731

  5. Anthrax Susceptibility: Human Genetic Polymorphisms Modulating ANTXR2 Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Minglei; Ye, Bingyu; Shen, Wenlong; Li, Ping; Xing, Lingyue; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Hou, Lihua; Xu, Junjie; Zhao, Zhihu; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax toxin causes anthrax pathogenesis and expression levels of ANTXR2 (anthrax toxin receptor 2) are strongly correlated with anthrax toxin susceptibility. Previous studies found that ANTXR2 transcript abundance varies considerably in individuals of different ethnic/geographical groups, but no eQTLs (expression quantitative trait loci) have been identified. By using 3C (chromatin conformation capture), CRISPR-mediated genomic deletion and dual-luciferase reporter assay, gene loci containing cis-regulatory elements of ANTXR2 were localized. Two SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) at the conserved CREB-binding motif, rs13140055 and rs80314910 in the promoter region of the gene, modulating ANTXR2 promoter activity were identified. Combining these two regulatory SNPs with a previously reported SNP, rs12647691, for the first time, a statistically significant correlation between human genetic variations and anthrax toxin sensitivity was observed. These findings further our understanding of human variability in ANTXR2 expression and anthrax toxin susceptibility. PMID:26703731

  6. Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERVK9) Structural Polymorphism With Haplotypic HLA-A Allelic Associations

    PubMed Central

    Kulski, Jerzy K.; Shigenari, Atsuko; Shiina, Takashi; Ota, Masao; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; James, Ian; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2008-01-01

    The frequency and HLA-A allelic associations of a HERVK9 DNA structural polymorphism located in close proximity to the highly polymorphic HLA-A gene within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region were determined in Japanese, African Americans, and Australian Caucasians to better understand its human population evolutionary history. The HERVK9 insertion or deletion was detected as a 3′ LTR or a solo LTR, respectively, by separate PCR assays. The average insertion frequency of the HERVK9.HG was significantly different (P < 1.083e−6) between the Japanese (0.59) and the African Americans (0.34) or Australian Caucasians (0.37). LD analysis predicted a highly significant (P < 1.0e−5) linkage between the HLA-A and HERVK9 alleles, probably as a result of hitchhiking (linkage). Evolutionary time estimates of the solo, 5′ and 3′ LTR nucleotide sequence divergences suggest that the HERVK9 was inserted 17.3 MYA with the first structural deletion occurring 15.1 MYA. The LTR/HLA-A haplotypes appear to have been formed mostly during the past 3.9 MY. The HERVK9 insertion and deletion, detected by a simple and economical PCR method, is an informative genetic and evolutionary marker for the study of HLA-A haplotype variations, human migration, the origins of contemporary populations, and the possibility of disease associations. PMID:18757922

  7. Characteristics of A20 gene polymorphisms in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lihua; Zhang, Fan; Shen, Qi; Chen, Shaohua; Wang, Xu; Wang, Liang; Yang, Lijian; Wu, Xiuli; Huang, Suming; Schmidt, Christian A; Li, Yangqiu

    2014-12-01

    A20 is a repressor of NF-κB and was recently shown to be frequently inactivated by deletions or mutations in several types of lymphomas including T-cell lymphoma. Little is known about the characteristics of A20 mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In this study, we analyzed A20 polymorphisms and characterized their features in 11 cases with T-ALL, 30 samples from healthy Chinese individuals, and 3 cells lines including CCRF-CEM, Molt-4, and Toledo cells. Two frequent A20 polymorphisms were found: a CCT deletion at position 12384 and a nucleotide exchange (A to C) at position 13751 (rs2307859 and rs661561). The homozygous form (CC) of rs661561 was detected in all 10 cases with detectable T-ALL, while only 80% (24/30) of the healthy controls had this genotype. We found one T-ALL case without the above frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in which a T to G mutation at position 12486 was found, which results in an amino acid exchange (Phe127Cys; rs2230926). Similar results were found in Molt-4 cells, which lack the frequent SNPs but have a heterozygous polymorphism at position 13749 (C > T) (rs5029948). Interestingly, the T-ALL case with the Phe127Cys mutation and Molt-4 cells demonstrated a high A20 copy number as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification with three primer sets that cover different regions of the A20 gene, corresponding to a high A20 and low NF-κB expression level. In conclusion, we characterized the features of A20 polymorphisms in T-ALL, and found that a low frequency A20 mutation, which was thought to be involved in malignant T-ALL development, might function differently in T cell lymphomas. PMID:24611736

  8. Association of 5-HT3B Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with the Efficacy of Ondansetron for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Rim; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Eun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common problem after general anesthesia. Although 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have significantly reduced PONV, over 35% of patients treated with ondansetron can experience PONV. In this study, we investigated whether the Y129S and -100_-102AAG deletion polymorphisms of the 5-HT3B receptor gene affect the efficacy of ondansetron in preventing PONV. Materials and Methods Two hundred and forty-five adult patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled. Ondansetron 0.1 mg/kg was intravenously administered 30 minutes before the end of surgery. Genomic DNA was prepared from blood samples using a nucleic acid isolation device. Both the Y129S variant and the -100_-102AAG deletion variant were screened for using a single base primer extension assay and a DNA direct sequencing method, respectively. The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and clinical outcomes of ondansetron treatment was investigated. Results Among the 5-HT3B AAG deletion genotypes, the incidence of PONV was higher in patients with the homomutant than with other genotypes during the first 2 hours after surgery (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in the incidence of PONV among genotypes at 2-24 hours after surgery. In the Y129S variants of the 5-HT3B receptor gene, there were no significant differences in the incidence of PONV among genotypes during the first 2 hours and at 2-24 hours after surgery. Conclusion The response to ondansetron for PONV was significantly influenced by the -100_-102AAG deletion polymorphisms of the 5-HT3B gene. Thus, the -100_-102AAG deletion variants may be a pharmacogenetic predictor for responsiveness to ondansetron for PONV. PMID:26256989

  9. Triadin Deletion Induces Impaired Skeletal Muscle Function*

    PubMed Central

    Oddoux, Sarah; Brocard, Julie; Schweitzer, Annie; Szentesi, Peter; Giannesini, Benoit; Brocard, Jacques; Fauré, Julien; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Bendahan, David; Lunardi, Joël; Csernoch, Laszlo; Marty, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Triadin is a multiple proteins family, some isoforms being involved in muscle excitation-contraction coupling, and some having still unknown functions. To obtain clues on triadin functions, we engineered a triadin knock-out mouse line and characterized the physiological effect of triadin ablation on skeletal muscle function. These mice presented a reduced muscle strength, which seemed not to alter their survival and has been characterized in the present work. We first checked in these mice the expression level of the different proteins involved in calcium homeostasis and observed in fast muscles an increase in expression of dihydropyridine receptor, with a large reduction in calsequestrin expression. Electron microscopy analysis of KO muscles morphology demonstrated the presence of triads in abnormal orientation and a reduction in the sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisternae volume. Using calcium imaging on cultured myotubes, we observed a reduction in the total amount of calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Physiological studies have been performed to evaluate the influence of triadin deletion on skeletal muscle function. Muscle strength has been measured both on the whole animal model, using hang test or electrical stimulation combined with NMR analysis and strength measurement, or on isolated muscle using electrical stimulation. All the results obtained demonstrate an important reduction in muscle strength, indicating that triadin plays an essential role in skeletal muscle function and in skeletal muscle structure. These results indicate that triadin alteration leads to the development of a myopathy, which could be studied using this new animal model. PMID:19843516

  10. Fungal ABC transporter deletion and localization analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Weber, Stefan S; Nijland, Jeroen G; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2012-01-01

    Fungal cells are highly complex as their metabolism is compartmentalized harboring various types of subcellular organelles that are bordered by one or more membranes. Knowledge about the intracellular localization of transporter proteins is often required for the understanding of their biological function. Among different approaches available, the localization analysis based on the expression of GFP fusions is commonly used as a relatively fast and cost-efficient method that allows visualization of proteins of interest in both live and fixed cells. In addition, inactivation of transporter genes is an important tool to resolve their specific function. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the deletion and localization analysis of ABC transporters in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. It includes construction of expression plasmids, their transformation into fungal strains, cultivation of transformants, microscopy analysis, as well as additional protocols on staining of fungal cells with organelle-specific dyes like Hoechst 33342, MitoTracker DeepRed, and FM4-64. PMID:22183644

  11. Total beta-globin gene deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, N.; Miyakawa, F.; Hunt, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    The distribution of {beta}-thalassemia [{beta}{sup Th}] mutations is unique to each ethnic group. Most mutations affect one or a few bases; large deletions have been rare. Among families screened in Hawaii, [{beta}{sup Th}] heterozygotes were diagnosed by microcytosis, absence of abnormal hemoglobins on isoelectric focusing, and raised Hb A{sub 2} by chromatography. Gene frequency for {beta}{sup Th} was 0.02 in Filipinos. In Filipinos, polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for {beta}{sup Th} mutations detected a mutation in only 6 of 42 {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes; an IVS2-666 C/T polymorphism showed non-heterozygosity in 37 and heterozygosity in only 5 of these {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes. One {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} major patient and his mother had no mutation detected by allele-specific oligomer hybridization; PCR failed to amplify any DNA from his {beta}-globin gene. After a total {beta}-globin gene deletion [{beta}{sup Del}] was found in a Filipino family in Ontario, specific PCR amplification for {beta}{sup Del} detected this in 43 of 53 {beta}{sup Th} Filipino samples tested; the above {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} patient was a ({beta}{sup Del}/{beta}{sup Del}) homozygote. The {beta}{sup Del} may account for over 60% of all {beta}{sup Th} alleles in Filipinos; this is the highest proportion of a deletion {beta}{sup Th} mutation reported from any population. Most but not all {beta}{sup Del} heterozygotes had high Hb F [5.13 {plus_minus} 3.94 mean {plus_minus} 1 s.d.] compared to the codon 41/42 four base deletion common in Chinese [2.30 {plus_minus} 0.86], or to {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes with normal {alpha}-globin genes [2.23 {plus_minus} 0.80].

  12. New polymorphous computing fabric.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinski, C.; Gokhale, M.; McCabe, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  13. Diagnostic Detection of Allelic Losses and Imbalances by Next-Generation Sequencing: 1p/19q Co-Deletion Analysis of Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Dubbink, Hendrikus J; Atmodimedjo, Peggy N; van Marion, Ronald; Krol, Niels M G; Riegman, Peter H J; Kros, Johan M; van den Bent, Martin J; Dinjens, Winand N M

    2016-09-01

    Cancer cells are genomically unstable and accumulate tumor type-specific molecular aberrations, which may represent hallmarks for predicting prognosis and targets for therapy. Co-deletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q marks gliomas with an oligodendroglioma component and predicts a better prognosis and response to chemotherapy. In the current study, we present a novel method to detect chromosome 1p/19q co-deletion or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a diagnostic setting, based on single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and next-generation sequencing (NGS). We selected highly polymorphic SNPs distributed evenly over both chromosome arms. To experimentally determine the sensitivity and specificity of targeted SNP analysis, we used DNAs extracted from 49 routine formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded glioma tissues and compared the outcome with diagnostic microsatellite-based LOH analysis and calculated estimates. We show that targeted SNP analysis by NGS allows reliable detection of 1p and/or 19q deletion in a background of 70% of normal cells according to calculated outcomes, is more sensitive than microsatellite-based LOH analysis, and requires much less DNA. This specific and sensitive SNP assay is broadly applicable for simultaneous allelic imbalance analysis of multiple genomic regions and can be incorporated easily into NGS mutation analyses. The combined mutation and chromosomal imbalance analysis in a single NGS assay is suited perfectly for routine glioma diagnostics and other diagnostic molecular pathology applications. PMID:27461031

  14. A novel MERTK deletion is a common founder mutation in the Faroe Islands and is responsible for a high proportion of retinitis pigmentosa cases

    PubMed Central

    Duno, Morten; Batbayli, Mustafa; Vilhelmsen, Kaj; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to elucidate the genetic background of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in a Faroe Islands population, a genetic isolate in the North Atlantic Ocean. Methods Blood samples were collected from subjects diagnosed with RP and their families. DNA from affected individuals underwent single nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis and homozygosity mapping followed by sequence analysis of candidate genes. Results We identified 25 cases of nonsyndromic RP corresponding to a prevalence of 1 in 1,900. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed a homozygous region on chromosome 2q, common to patients in four families, which harbored the RP gene MER tyrosine kinase protooncogene (MERTK). A deletion of 91 kb was identified in seven patients, representing 30% of the analyzed Faroese cases of nonsyndromic RP. The clinical course of six patients who were homozygous for the deletion showed onset in the first decade followed by a rapid deterioration of both rod and cone photoreceptor function. Early macular involvement was present, in accordance with that of other reported patients with MERTK mutations. Conclusions Previous studies have shown a frequency of less than 1% of MERTK mutations in RP patients. The 91-kb deletion encompassing exons 1–7 of MERTK is a common founder mutation in the Faroe Islands, responsible for around 30% of RP, and together with mutations in protocadherin 21 (PCDH21) accounts for more than half of the retinal dystrophy cases. PMID:21677792

  15. Recurrent deletions of IKZF1 in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, Jasmijn D.E.; Beuling, Eva; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Obulkasim, Askar; Baruchel, André; Trka, Jan; Reinhardt, Dirk; Sonneveld, Edwin; Gibson, Brenda E.S.; Pieters, Rob; Zimmermann, Martin; Zwaan, C. Michel; Fornerod, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    IKAROS family zinc finger 1/IKZF1 is a transcription factor important in lymphoid differentiation, and a known tumor suppressor in acute lymphoid leukemia. Recent studies suggest that IKZF1 is also involved in myeloid differentiation. To investigate whether IKZF1 deletions also play a role in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia, we screened a panel of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia samples for deletions of the IKZF1 locus using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and for mutations using direct sequencing. Three patients were identified with a single amino acid variant without change of IKZF1 length. No frame-shift mutations were found. Out of 11 patients with an IKZF1 deletion, 8 samples revealed a complete loss of chromosome 7, and 3 cases a focal deletion of 0.1–0.9Mb. These deletions included the complete IKZF1 gene (n=2) or exons 1–4 (n=1), all leading to a loss of IKZF1 function. Interestingly, differentially expressed genes in monosomy 7 cases (n=8) when compared to non-deleted samples (n=247) significantly correlated with gene expression changes in focal IKZF1-deleted cases (n=3). Genes with increased expression included genes involved in myeloid cell self-renewal and cell cycle, and a significant portion of GATA target genes and GATA factors. Together, these results suggest that loss of IKZF1 is recurrent in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and might be a determinant of oncogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia with monosomy 7 PMID:26069293

  16. Genomic subtraction for cloning DNA corresponding to deletion mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, D; Ausubel, F M

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a technique, called genomic subtraction, for isolating the DNA that is absent in deletion mutants. The method removes from wild-type DNA the sequences that are present in both the wild-type and the deletion mutant genomes. The DNA that corresponds to the deleted region remains. Enrichment for the deleted sequences is achieved by allowing a mixture of denatured wild-type and biotinylated mutant DNA to reassociate. After reassociation, the biotinylated sequences are removed by binding to avidin-coated beads. This subtraction process is then repeated several times. In each cycle we hybridize the unbound wild-type DNA from the previous round with fresh biotinylated deletion mutant DNA. The unbound DNA from the final cycle is ligated to adaptors and amplified by using one strand of the adaptor as a primer in the polymerase chain reaction. The amplified sequences can then be used to probe a genomic library. We applied genomic subtraction to a yeast strain that has a 5-kilobase deletion, corresponding to 1/4000th of the genome. In the experiment reported here, three rounds of subtraction were sufficient to accurately identify genomic clones containing sequences that are missing in the deletion mutant. We discuss the limitations and some potential applications of the method. Images PMID:2408039

  17. A strong deletion bias in nonallelic gene conversion.

    PubMed

    Assis, Raquel; Kondrashov, Alexey S

    2012-01-01

    Gene conversion is the unidirectional transfer of genetic information between orthologous (allelic) or paralogous (nonallelic) genomic segments. Though a number of studies have examined nucleotide replacements, little is known about length difference mutations produced by gene conversion. Here, we investigate insertions and deletions produced by nonallelic gene conversion in 338 Drosophila and 10,149 primate paralogs. Using a direct phylogenetic approach, we identify 179 insertions and 614 deletions in Drosophila paralogs, and 132 insertions and 455 deletions in primate paralogs. Thus, nonallelic gene conversion is strongly deletion-biased in both lineages, with almost 3.5 times as many conversion-induced deletions as insertions. In primates, the deletion bias is considerably stronger for long indels and, in both lineages, the per-site rate of gene conversion is orders of magnitudes higher than that of ordinary mutation. Due to this high rate, deletion-biased nonallelic gene conversion plays a key role in genome size evolution, leading to the cooperative shrinkage and eventual disappearance of selectively neutral paralogs. PMID:22359514

  18. Targeted chromosomal deletions in human cells using zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach for generating targeted deletions of genomic segments in human and other eukaryotic cells using engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs). We found that ZFNs designed to target two different sites in a human chromosome could introduce two concurrent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the chromosome and give rise to targeted deletions of the genomic segment between the two sites. Using this method in human cells, we were able to delete predetermined genomic DNA segments in the range of several-hundred base pairs (bp) to 15 mega-bp at frequencies of 10(-3) to 10(-1). These high frequencies allowed us to isolate clonal populations of cells, in which the target chromosomal segments were deleted, by limiting dilution. Sequence analysis revealed that many of the deletion junctions contained small insertions or deletions and microhomologies, indicative of DNA repair via nonhomologous end-joining. Unlike other genome engineering tools such as recombinases and meganucleases, ZFNs do not require preinsertion of target sites into the genome and allow precise manipulation of endogenous genomic scripts in animal and plant cells. Thus, ZFN-induced genomic deletions should be broadly useful as a novel method in biomedical research, biotechnology, and gene therapy. PMID:19952142

  19. A 1.5 Mb submicroscopic deletion in 17p11.2-p12 is frequently observed in Italian families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, D.; Roa, B.B.; Abbas, N.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mononeuropathies that was recently associated with a 1.5 Mb deletion in chromosome 17p11.2-p12. Duplication of the same region is known to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), a more severe peripheral neuropathy characterized by symmetrically slowed nerve conduction velocity. The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion are reciprocal recombination products involving a repeat element (CMT1A-REP) which flanks the 1.5 Mb region involved in the duplication/deletion. Patients from 9 unrelated HNPP Italian families were clinically, electrophysiologically and histologically evaluated. Families were typed with a polymorphic (CA){sub n} repeat and with RFLPs corresponding to loci D17S122, D17S125 and D17S61, which all map within the deleted region. Lack of allelic transmission from affected parent to affected offspring was observed in four informative families, suggesting the presence of deletion. Southern blot analysis of EcoRI digested genomic DNA from HNPP patients and control subjects was performed using a probe mapping within the CMT1A-REP elements. A reduced hybridization signal of a 6.0 kb EcoRI fragment, mapping within the distal CMT1A-REP, was observed in all HNPP patients suggesting the loss of one copy of this fragment in the HNPP-deleted chromosome. PFGE analysis of SacII digested genomic DNA from selected HNPP subjects showed the presence of a junction fragment which has previously been found in association with the 1.5 Mb HNPP deletion. Evidence for deletion could be demonstrated in all 9 families suggesting that the 17p11.2-p12 deletion is commonly associated with HNPP.

  20. Impact of partial DAZ1/2 deletion and partial DAZ3/4 deletion on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuening; Li, Muyan; Xiao, Feifan; Teng, Ruobing; Zhang, Chengdong; Lan, Aihua; Gu, Kailong; Li, Jiatong; Wang, Di; Li, Hongtao; Jiang, Li; Zeng, Siping; He, Min; Huang, Yi; Guo, Peifen; Zhang, Xinhua; Yang, Xiaoli

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the effect of the partial DAZ1/2 deletion and partial DAZ3/4 deletion on male infertility through a comprehensive literature search. All case-control studies related to partial DAZ1/2 and DAZ3/4 deletions and male infertility risk were included in our study. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association and its precision, respectively. Eleven partial DAZ1/2 deletion and nine partial DAZ3/4 deletion studies were included. Partial DAZ1/2 deletion was significantly associated with male infertility risk in the overall analysis (ORs=2.58, 95%CI: 1.60-4.18, I(2)=62.1%). Moreover, in the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, partial DAZ1/2 deletion was significantly associated with male infertility risk in the East Asian populations under the random effect model (ORs=2.96, 95%CI: 1.87-4.71, I(2)=51.3%). Meanwhile, the analysis suggested that partial DAZ3/4 deletion was not associated with male infertility risk in East-Asian ethnicity (ORs=1.02, 95%CI: 0.54-1.92, I(2)=71.3%), but not in Non-East Asian under the random effect model (ORs=3.56, 95%CI: 1.13-11.23, I(2)=0.0%,). More interestingly, partial DAZ1/2 deletion was associated with azoospermia (ORs=2.63, 95%CI: 1.19-5.81, I(2)=64.7%) and oligozoospermia (ORs=2.53, 95%CI: 1.40-4.57, I(2)=51.8%), but partial DAZ3/4 deletion was not associated with azoospermia (ORs=0.71, 95%CI: 0.23-2.22, I(2)=71.7%,) and oligozoospermia (ORs=1.21, 95%CI: 0.65-2.24, I(2)=55.5%). In our meta-analysis, partial DAZ1/2 deletion is a risk factor for male infertility and different ethnicities have different influences, whereas partial DAZ3/4 deletion has no effect on fertility but partial DAZ3/4 deletion might have an impact on Non-East Asian male. PMID:26232607

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphism: its impact on cardiac remodeling

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Felipe Neves; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Mourilhe-Rocha, Ricardo; Duque, Gustavo Salgado; Gondar, Alyne Freitas Pereira; Neves, Luiza Maceira de Almeida; Bittencourt, Marcelo Imbroinise; Pozzan, Roberto; de Albuquerque, Denilson Campos

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphisms as a predictor of echocardiographic outcomes on heart failure is yet to be established. The local profile should be identified so that the impact of those genotypes on the Brazilian population could be identified. This is the first study on exclusively non-ischemic heart failure over a follow-up longer than 5 years. Objective To determine the distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphism variants and their relation with echocardiographic outcome of patients with non-ischemic heart failure. Methods Secondary analysis of the medical records of 111 patients and identification of the angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphism variants, classified as DD (Deletion/Deletion), DI (Deletion/Insertion) or II (Insertion/Insertion). Results The cohort means were as follows: follow-up, 64.9 months; age, 59.5 years; male sex, 60.4%; white skin color, 51.4%; use of beta-blockers, 98.2%; and use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blocker, 89.2%. The angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphism distribution was as follows: DD, 51.4%; DI, 44.1%; and II, 4.5%. No difference regarding the clinical characteristics or treatment was observed between the groups. The final left ventricular systolic diameter was the only isolated echocardiographic variable that significantly differed between the angiotensin-converting enzyme genetic polymorphisms: 59.2 ± 1.8 for DD versus 52.3 ± 1.9 for DI versus 59.2 ± 5.2 for II (p = 0.029). Considering the evolutionary behavior, all echocardiographic variables (difference between the left ventricular ejection fraction at the last and first consultation; difference between the left ventricular systolic diameter at the last and first consultation; and difference between the left ventricular diastolic diameter at the last and first consultation) differed between the genotypes (p = 0.024; p = 0.002; and p = 0

  2. Molecular characterization of CPS1 deletions by array CGH

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Zhan, Hongli; Li, Fangyuan; Chen, Li-Chieh; Brundage, Ellen K.; Pursley, Amber N.; Schmitt, Eric S.; Häberle, Johannes; Wong, Lee-Jun C.

    2016-01-01

    CPSI deficiency usually results in severe hyperammonemia presenting in the first days of life warranting prompt diagnosis. Most CPS1 defects are non-recurrent, private mutations, including point mutation, small insertions and deletions. In this study, we report the detection of large deletions varying from 1.4 kb to >130 kb in the CPS1 gene of 4 unrelated patients by targeted array CGH. These results underscore the importance of analysis of large deletions when only one mutation or no mutations are identified in cases where CPSI deficiency is strongly indicated. PMID:20855223

  3. Ectrodactyly and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletion 7q

    SciTech Connect

    McElveen, C.; Carvajal, M.V.; Moscatello, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on an individual with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, unusual face, scoliosis, and cleft feet and cleft right hand. The chromosomal study showed a proximal interstitial deletion 7q (q11.23q22). From our review of the literature, 11 patients have been reported with ectrodactyly (split hand/split foot malformation) and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletions or rearrangements of 7q. The critical segment for ectrodactyly seems to be located between 7q21.2 and 7q22.1. This malformation is present in 41% of the patients whose deletion involves the critical segment. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Marino, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Swillen, Ann; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Zackai, Elaine H; Emanuel, Beverly S; Vermeesch, Joris R; Morrow, Bernice E; Scambler, Peter J; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common chromosomal microdeletion disorder, estimated to result mainly from de novo non-homologous meiotic recombination events occurring in approximately 1 in every 1,000 fetuses. The first description in the English language of the constellation of findings now known to be due to this chromosomal difference was made in the 1960s in children with DiGeorge syndrome, who presented with the clinical triad of immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism and congenital heart disease. The syndrome is now known to have a heterogeneous presentation that includes multiple additional congenital anomalies and later-onset conditions, such as palatal, gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities, autoimmune disease, variable cognitive delays, behavioural phenotypes and psychiatric illness - all far extending the original description of DiGeorge syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach involving paediatrics, general medicine, surgery, psychiatry, psychology, interventional therapies (physical, occupational, speech, language and behavioural) and genetic counselling. Although common, lack of recognition of the condition and/or lack of familiarity with genetic testing methods, together with the wide variability of clinical presentation, delays diagnosis. Early diagnosis, preferably prenatally or neonatally, could improve outcomes, thus stressing the importance of universal screening. Equally important, 22q11.2DS has become a model for understanding rare and frequent congenital anomalies, medical conditions, psychiatric and developmental disorders, and may provide a platform to better understand these disorders while affording opportunities for translational strategies across the lifespan for both patients with 22q11.2DS and those with these associated features in the general population. PMID:27189754

  5. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Marino, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Swillen, Ann; Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Scambler, Peter J.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common chromosomal microdeletion disorder, estimated to result mainly from de novo non-homologous meiotic recombination events occurring in approximately 1 in every 1,000 fetuses. The first description in the English language of the constellation of findings now known to be due to this chromosomal difference was made in the 1960s in children with DiGeorge syndrome, who presented with the clinical triad of immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism and congenital heart disease. The syndrome is now known to have a heterogeneous presentation that includes multiple additional congenital anomalies and later-onset conditions, such as palatal, gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities, autoimmune disease, variable cognitive delays, behavioural phenotypes and psychiatric illness — all far extending the original description of DiGeorge syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach involving paediatrics, general medicine, surgery, psychiatry, psychology, interventional therapies (physical, occupational, speech, language and behavioural) and genetic counselling. Although common, lack of recognition of the condition and/or lack of familiarity with genetic testing methods, together with the wide variability of clinical presentation, delays diagnosis. Early diagnosis, preferably prenatally or neonatally, could improve outcomes, thus stressing the importance of universal screening. Equally important, 22q11.2DS has become a model for understanding rare and frequent congenital anomalies, medical conditions, psychiatric and developmental disorders, and may provide a platform to better understand these disorders while affording opportunities for translational strategies across the lifespan for both patients with 22q11.2DS and those with these associated features in the general population. PMID:27189754

  6. A recombination outside the BB deletion refines the location of the X linked retinitis pigmentosa locus RP3.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, R.; Bingham, E.; Forsythe, P.; McHenry, C.; Aita, V.; Navia, B. A.; Dry, K.; Segal, M.; Devoto, M.; Bruns, G.; Wright, A. F.; Ott, J.; Sieving, P. A.; Swaroop, A.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic loci for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) have been mapped between Xp11.22 and Xp22.13 (RP2, RP3, RP6, and RP15). The RP3 gene, which is responsible for the predominant form of XLRP in most Caucasian populations, has been localized to Xp21.1 by linkage analysis and the map positions of chromosomal deletions associated with the disease. Previous linkage studies have suggested that RP3 is flanked by the markers DXS1110 (distal) and OTC (proximal). Patient BB was thought to have RP because of a lesion at the RP3 locus, in addition to chronic granulomatous disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), mild mental retardation, and the McLeod phenotype. This patient carried a deletion extending approximately 3 Mb from DMD in Xp21.3 to Xp21.1, with the proximal breakpoint located approximately 40 kb centromeric to DXS1110. The RP3 gene, therefore, is believed to reside between DXS1110 and the proximal breakpoint of the BB deletion. In order to refine the location of RP3 and to ascertain patients with RP3, we have been analyzing several XLRP families for linkage to Xp markers. Linkage analysis in an American family of 27 individuals demonstrates segregation of XLRP with markers in Xp21.1, consistent with the RP3 subtype. One affected mate shows a recombination event proximal to DXS1110. Additional markers within the DXS1110-OTC interval show that the crossover is between two novel polymorphic markers, DXS8349 and M6, both of which are present in BB DNA and lie centromeric to the proximal breakpoint. This recombination places the XLRP mutation in this family outside the BB deletion and redefines the location of RP3. PMID:8659520

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies a maternal copy-number deletion in PSG11 enriched among preeclampsia patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Specific genetic contributions for preeclampsia (PE) are currently unknown. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) aims to identify maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy-number variants (CNVs) involved in the etiology of PE. Methods A genome-wide scan was performed on 177 PE cases (diagnosed according to National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute guidelines) and 116 normotensive controls. White female study subjects from Iowa were genotyped on Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays. CNV calls made using a combination of four detection algorithms (Birdseye, Canary, PennCNV, and QuantiSNP) were merged using CNVision and screened with stringent prioritization criteria. Due to limited DNA quantities and the deleterious nature of copy-number deletions, it was decided a priori that only deletions would be selected for assay on the entire case-control dataset using quantitative real-time PCR. Results The top four SNP candidates had an allelic or genotypic p-value between 10-5 and 10-6, however, none surpassed the Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold. Three recurrent rare deletions meeting prioritization criteria detected in multiple cases were selected for targeted genotyping. A locus of particular interest was found showing an enrichment of case deletions in 19q13.31 (5/169 cases and 1/114 controls), which encompasses the PSG11 gene contiguous to a highly plastic genomic region. All algorithm calls for these regions were assay confirmed. Conclusions CNVs may confer risk for PE and represent interesting regions that warrant further investigation. Top SNP candidates identified from the GWAS, although not genome-wide significant, may be useful to inform future studies in PE genetics. PMID:22748001

  8. A recombination outside the BB deletion refines the location of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa locus RP3

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.; Bingham, E.; Forsythe, P.; McHenry, C.

    1996-07-01

    Genetic loci for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) have been mapped between Xp11.22 and Xp22.13 (RP2, RP3, RP6, and RP15). The RP3 gene, which is responsible for the predominant form of XLRP in most Caucasian populations, has been localized to Xp21.1 by linkage analysis and the map positions of chromosomal deletions associated with the disease. Previous linkage studies have suggested that RP3 is flanked by the markers DXS1110 (distal) and OTC (proximal). Patient BB was though to have RP because of a lesion at the RP3 locus, in addition to chronic granulomatous disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), mild mental retardation, and the McLeod phenotype. This patient carried a deletion extending {approximately}3 Mb from DMD in Xp21.3 to Xp21.1, with the proximal breakpoint located {approximately}40 kb centromeric to DXS1110. The RP3 gene, therefore, is believed to reside between DXS1110 and the proximal breakpoint of the BB deletion. In order to refine the location of RP3 and to ascertain patients with RP3, we have been analyzing several XLRP families for linkage to Xp markers. Linkage analysis in an American family of 27 individuals demonstrates segregation of XLRP with markers in Xp21.1, consistent with the RP3 subtype. One affected male shows a recombination event proximal to DXS1110. Additional markers within the DXS1110-OTC interval show that the crossover is between two novel polymorphic markers, DXS8349 and M6, both of which are present in BB DNA and lie centromeric to the proximal breakpoint. This recombination places the XLRP mutation in this family outside the BB deletion and redefines the location of RP3. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The Prevention of Repeat-Associated Deletions in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae by Mismatch Repair Depends on Size and Origin of Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Tran, H. T.; Gordenin, D. A.; Resnick, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of mismatch repair on 1- to 61-bp deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deletions are likely to involve unpaired loop intermediates resulting from DNA polymerase slippage. The mutator effects of mutations in the DNA polymerase δ (POL3) gene and the recombinational repair RAD52 gene were studied in combination with mismatch repair defects. The pol3-t mutation increased up to 1000-fold the rate of extended (7-61 bp) but not of 1-bp deletions. In a rad52 null mutant only the 1-bp deletions were increased (12-fold). The mismatch repair mutations pms1, msh2 and msh3 did not affect 31- and 61-bp deletions in the pol3-t but increased the rates of 7- and 1-bp deletions. We propose that loops less than or equal to seven bases generated during replication are subject to mismatch repair by the PMS1, MSH2, MSH3 system and that it cannot act on loops >=31 bases. In contrast to the pol3-t, the enhancement of 1-bp deletions in a rad52 mutant is not altered by a pms1 mutation. Thus, mismatch repair appears to be specific to errors of DNA synthesis generated during semiconservative replication. PMID:8844147

  10. Polymorphism, monomorphism, and sequences in conserved microsatellites in primate species.

    PubMed

    Blanquer-Maumont, A; Crouau-Roy, B

    1995-10-01

    Dimeric short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in the mammalian genome. Genetic variation at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis, for the identification of individuals, and may be useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. In this paper, we analyze the variability and the sequences of a segment including three microsatellites, first described in man, in several species of primates (chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, and macaque) using the heterologous primers (man primers). This region is located on the human chromosome 6p, near the tumor necrosis factor genes, in the major histocompatibility complex. The fact that these primers work in all species studied indicates that they are conserved throughout the different lineages of the two superfamilies, the Hominoidea and the Cercopithecidea, represented by the macaques. However, the intervening sequence displays intraspecific and interspecific variability. The sites of base substitutions and the insertion/deletion events are not evenly distributed within this region. The data suggest that it is necessary to have a minimal number of repeats to increase the rate of mutation sufficiently to allow the development of polymorphism. In some species, the microsatellites present single base variations which reduce the number of contiguous repeats, thus apparently slowing the rate of additional slippage events. Species with such variations or a low number of repeats are monomorphic. These microsatellite sequences are informative in the comparison of closely related species and reflect the phylogeny of the Old World monkeys, apes, and man. PMID:7563137

  11. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (p<0.0001) for the ACE DD genotype (OR=6.48, 95% confidence interval=1.48-28.34), which was more frequent in elite athletes. There were no significant differences in the AGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion. PMID:23145508

  12. Genetics Home Reference: 19p13.13 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources (1 link) National Human Genome Research Institute: Chromosome Abnormalities Educational Resources (5 links) MalaCards: chromosome 19p13.13 deletion syndrome March of Dimes: Chromosomal ...

  13. 23 CFR 658.11 - Additions, deletions, exceptions, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS.... Changed conditions or additional information may require the deletion of a designated route or a...

  14. 23 CFR 658.11 - Additions, deletions, exceptions, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS.... Changed conditions or additional information may require the deletion of a designated route or a...

  15. 78 FR 71581 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ...This action adds products and a service to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and deletes products and services previously furnished by such...

  16. 77 FR 12816 - Procurement List Proposed Addition and Deletions

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    ... Office, Sherwood Forest Staging Area, 2695 Sherwood Forest, Baton Rouge, LA. NPA: Louisiana Industries for the Disabled, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA. Contracting Activity: Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Baton, LA. Deletions Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification...

  17. 78 FR 16475 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ...The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and deletes a service previously provided by such an...

  18. 75 FR 31768 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List products and services to be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and to delete services previously furnished by such...

  19. Deletion patterns of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies in Greece.

    PubMed Central

    Florentin, L; Mavrou, A; Kekou, K; Metaxotou, C

    1995-01-01

    We present molecular data from 90 Greek boys with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy using cDNA analysis or multiplex PCR or both. Deletions were detected in 63.3% of patients and were mainly clustered in two areas of the gene, one in the 3' and one in the 5' end of the gene (exons 3-19 and 44-53). Almost 17% of deletion breakpoints lay in intron 44 while 29% of deletions have a breakpoint in intron 50. Thus the distribution of deletions in our DMD/BMD patients differs from that previously reported. Furthermore a 1:4.35 proximal:distal ratio was observed in familial cases and a 1:2.45 ratio in isolated ones. PMID:7897627

  20. Additions and deletions to the known cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An additional 137 species and two tribes are added to the known cerambycid fauna of Bolivia while 12 species are deleted. Comments and statistics regarding the growth of knowledge on the Bolivian Cerambycid fauna and species endemicity are included....

  1. 76 FR 41768 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ...This action adds services to the Procurement List that will be provided by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and deletes services from the Procurement List previously provided by such...

  2. 76 FR 16733 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    .... (Seattle Lighthouse), Seattle, WA. Contracting Activity: DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY AVIATION, RICHMOND, VA... Allis, WI. Contracting Activity: MILITARY RESALE-DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY, FORT LEE, VA. Coverage: C... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions...

  3. 75 FR 56995 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ...The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by the nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities and to delete a product previously furnished by such...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ...: Social Vocational Services, Inc.--Deleted, San Jose, CA Contracting Activity: DEPT OF THE ARMY, W40M NATL... Management Service (inventory control, obsolescence identification, engineering support and some...

  5. 78 FR 43180 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ...The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be provided by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and deletes products and services previously furnished by such...

  6. Characterization of a lymphoblastoid line deleted for lambda immunoglobulin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A., White, B.N., Holden, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    While characterizing the cat eye syndrome (CES) supernumerary chromosome for the presence of {lambda} immunoglobulin gene region sequences, a lymphoblastoid cell line from one CES patient was identified in which there was selection of cells deleted from some IGLC and IGLV genes. Two distinct deletions, one on each chromosome 22, were identified, presumably arising from independent somatic recombination events occurring during B-lymphocyte differentiation. The extent of the deleted regions was determined using probes from the various IGLV subgroups and they each covered at least 82 kilobases. The precise definition of the deletions was not possible because of conservation of some restriction sites in the IGLV region. The cell line was used to map putative IGLV genes within the recombinant phage {lambda}V{lambda}135 to the distal part of the IGLV gene region. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  7. 77 FR 25146 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by the nonprofit agency employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and deletes products previously furnished by such...

  8. 75 FR 7450 - Procurement List: Proposed Addition and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Services Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO. Contracting Activity: DEPT OF THE ARMY, XR W6BA ACA, FT CARSON, COLORADO. Deletion Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification I certify that the following action will...

  9. An Indel Polymorphism in the MtnA 3' Untranslated Region Is Associated with Gene Expression Variation and Local Adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Glaser-Schmitt, Amanda; Duchen, Pablo; Parsch, John

    2016-01-01

    Insertions and deletions (indels) are a major source of genetic variation within species and may result in functional changes to coding or regulatory sequences. In this study we report that an indel polymorphism in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of the metallothionein gene MtnA is associated with gene expression variation in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. A derived allele of MtnA with a 49-bp deletion in the 3' UTR segregates at high frequency in populations outside of sub-Saharan Africa. The frequency of the deletion increases with latitude across multiple continents and approaches 100% in northern Europe. Flies with the deletion have more than 4-fold higher MtnA expression than flies with the ancestral sequence. Using reporter gene constructs in transgenic flies, we show that the 3' UTR deletion significantly contributes to the observed expression difference. Population genetic analyses uncovered signatures of a selective sweep in the MtnA region within populations from northern Europe. We also find that the 3’ UTR deletion is associated with increased oxidative stress tolerance. These results suggest that the 3' UTR deletion has been a target of selection for its ability to confer increased levels of MtnA expression in northern European populations, likely due to a local adaptive advantage of increased oxidative stress tolerance. PMID:27120580

  10. Human leukocyte antigen-G allele polymorphisms have evolved following three different evolutionary lineages based on intron sequences.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Isabel; Herraiz, Miguel Angel; Peñaloza, Jorge; Barbolla, Maria Luz; Jurado, Maria Luisa; Macedo, Jacqueline; Vidart, José Antonio; Martinez-Laso, Jorge

    2010-11-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G alleles follow a different pattern of polymorphism generation from those of the HLA classical I alleles. These polymorphisms have been defined as a result of random permitted point mutations in exons. However, this polymorphism maintenance could have an evolutionary specific pathways based on noncoding regions as introns, 14-bp deletion/insertion (exon 8), or promoter regions. Therefore a systematic sequencing study of HLA-G alleles was done obtaining the complete genomic sequence of 16 different HLA-G alleles: nine alleles were intron and exon confirmatory sequences, four were exon confirmatory and new intron described sequences, and three were new alleles. A 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphism was also sequenced in these alleles. These sequences, together with those previously published, were compared, and phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses were performed. Results showed the presence of three major specific evolutionary patterns, tentatively named lineages, and the other four as minor lineages (only one allele). The relative age of the major lineages could also be established based on the number of lineage-specific positions and the number of alleles of each lineage. Two main mechanisms are clearly defined in the generation of the lineages (introns), gene conversion, and/or convergent evolution following specific patterns. PMID:20650296

  11. Genetic map of randomly amplified DNA polymorphisms closely linked to the mating type locus of tetrahymenta thermophila

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, T.J.; Brickner, J.; Orias, E.; Nakano, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    We have used the PCR-based randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method to efficiently identify and map DNA polymorphisms in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The polymorphisms segregate as Mendelian genetic markers. A targeted screen, using DNA from pooled meiotic segregants, yielded the polymorphisms most closely linked to the mat locus. A total of 10 polymorphisms linked to the mat-Pmr segment of the left arm of micronuclear chromosome 2 have been identified. This constitutes the largest linkage group described in T. thermophila. We also provide here the first crude estimate of the frequency of meiotic recombination in the mat region, 20 kb/cM. This frequency is much higher than that observed in most other eukaryotes. Special features of Tetrahymena genetics enhanced the power of the RAPD method: the ability to obtain in a single step meiotic segregants that are whole-genome homozygotes and the availability of nullisomic strains permitting quick deletion mapping of polymorphisms to micronuclear chromosomes or chromosomes segments. The RAPD method appears to provide a practical and relatively inexpensive approach to the construction of a high-resolution map of the Tetrahymena genome. 39 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene: Organization transcript variants, and polymorphism associated with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Griffon, N.; Pilon, C.; Martres, M.P.

    1996-02-16

    DNA fragments from a genomic library were used to establish the partial structure of the human dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene (DRD3). Its coding sequence contains 6 exons and stretches over 40,000 base pairs. The complete DRD3 transcript and three shorter variants, in which the second and/or third exon are deleted, were detected in similar proportions in brains from four controls and three psychiatric patients. The Msp I polymorphism was localized in the fifth intron of the gene, 40,000 base pairs downstream the Bal I polymorphism and a PCR-based method was developed for genotyping this polymorphism. The distributions of the Msp I and Bal I genotypes were not independent in 297 individuals ({chi}{sup 2} = 10.5, df = 4, P = 0.03), but only a weak association was found between allele 1 of the Bal I polymorphism and allele 2 of the Msp I polymorphism ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.99, df = 1, P = 0.04). The previously reported association between homozygosity at both alleles of the Bal I polymorphism and schizophrenia was presently maintained in an extended sample, comprising 119 DSM-III-R chronic schizophrenics and 85 controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 5.3, df = 1, P = 0.02) and found more important in males than in females. The presence of the Bal I allele 2 is associated with an early age at onset, particularly in males (df = 35, t value = 2.6, P = 0.014). In the same sample, allelic frequencies, genotype counts, and proportion of homozygotes for the Msp I polymorphism did not differ between schizophrenics and controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 0.06, df = 1, P = 0.80, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.22, df = 1, P = 0.90 and {chi}{sup 2} = 0.16, df = 1, P = 0.69, respectively). The large distance of the Msp I polymorphism from the Bal I polymorphism and its localization in the 3{prime} part of the gene may explain the discrepant results obtained with the two polymorphisms. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Chromosomal deletions and tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dong, J T

    2001-01-01

    Chromosomal deletion appears to be the earliest as well as the most frequent somatic genetic alteration during carcinogenesis. It inactivates a tumor suppressor gene in three ways, that is, revealing a gene mutation through loss of heterozygosity as proposed in the two-hit theory, inducing haploinsufficiency through quantitative hemizygous deletion and associated loss of expression, and truncating a genome by homozygous deletion. Whereas the two-hit theory has guided the isolation of many tumor suppressor genes, the haploinsufficiency hypothesis seems to be also useful in identifying target genes of chromosomal deletions, especially for the deletions detected by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). At present, a number of chromosomal regions have been identified for their frequent deletions in prostate cancer, including 2q13-q33, 5q14-q23, 6q16-q22, 7q22-q32, 8p21-p22, 9p21-p22, 10q23-q24, 12p12-13, 13q14-q21, 16q22-24, and 18q21-q24. Strong candidate genes have been identified for some of these regions, including NKX3.1 from 8p21, PTEN from 10q23, p27/Kip1 from 12p13, and KLF5 from 13q21. In addition to their location in a region with frequent deletion, there are functional and/or genetic evidence supporting the candidacy of these genes. Thus far PTEN is the most frequently mutated gene in prostate cancer, and KLF5 showed the most frequent hemizygous deletion and loss of expression. A tumor suppressor role has been demonstrated for NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27/Kip1 in knockout mice models. Such genes are important targets of investigation for the development of biomarkers and therapeutic regimens. PMID:12085961

  14. Multigenerational autosomal dominant inheritance of 5p chromosomal deletions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Willing, Marcia; Grange, Dorothy K; Shinawi, Marwan; Manwaring, Linda; Vineyard, Marisa; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Cottrell, Catherine E

    2016-03-01

    Deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-) is associated with phenotypic features including a cat-like cry in infancy, dysmorphic facial features, microcephaly, and intellectual disability, and when encompassing a minimal critical region, may be defined as Cri-du-Chat syndrome (CdCS). Most 5p deletions are de novo in origin, and familial cases are often associated with translocation and inversion. Herein, we report three multigenerational families carrying 5p terminal deletions of different size transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner causing variable clinical findings. Terminal 5p deletions and the mode of inheritance were clinically characterized and molecularly analyzed by a combination of microarray and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. Shared phenotypic features documented in this cohort included neuropsychiatric findings, poor growth, and dysmorphic facial features. This study supports newly recognized effects of aberrant SEMA5A and CTNND2 dosage on severity of autistic and cognitive phenotypes. Comparative analysis of the breakpoints narrows the critical region for the cat-like cry down to an interval less than 1 Mb encompassing a candidate gene ICE1, which regulates small nuclear RNA transcription. This study also indicates that familial terminal 5p deletion is a rare presentation displaying intra- and inter-familial phenotypic variability, the latter of which may be attributed to size and gene content of the deletion. The observed intra-familial phenotypic heterogeneity suggests that additional modifying elements including genetic and environmental factors may have an impact on the clinical manifestations observed in 5p deletion carriers, and in time, further high resolution studies of 5p deletion breakpoints will continue to aid in defining genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:26601658

  15. Mitochondrial DNA deletions in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Arzu; Tasdemir, Sener; Sahin, Ibrahim; Bozoglu, Ceyda; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Yoruk, Ozgur; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the 4977 and 7400 bp deletions of mitochondrial DNA in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media and to indicate the possible association of mitochondrial DNA deletions with chronic suppurative otitis media. Thirty-six patients with chronic suppurative otitis media were randomly selected to assess the mitochondrial DNA deletions. Tympanomastoidectomy was applied for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, and the curettage materials including middle ear tissues were collected. The 4977 and 7400 bp deletion regions and two control regions of mitochondrial DNA were assessed by using the four pair primers. DNA was extracted from middle ear tissues and peripheral blood samples of the patients, and then polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were performed. PCR products were separated in 2 % agarose gel. Seventeen of 36 patients had the heterozygote 4977 bp deletion in the middle ear tissue but not in peripheral blood. There wasn't any patient who had the 7400 bp deletion in mtDNA of their middle ear tissue or peripheral blood tissue. The patients with the 4977 bp deletion had a longer duration of chronic suppurative otitis media and a higher level of hearing loss than the others (p < 0.01). Long time chronic suppurative otitis media and the reactive oxygen species can cause the mitochondrial DNA deletions and this may be a predisposing factor to sensorineural hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media. An antioxidant drug as a scavenger agent may be used in long-term chronic suppurative otitis media. PMID:26620342

  16. Association between ACE polymorphism, cognitive phenotype and APOE E4 allele in a Tunisian population with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Achouri-Rassas, Afef; Ali, Nadia Ben; Cherif, Aroua; Fray, Saloua; Siala, Hajer; Zakraoui, Nouria Oudiaa; Hadj-Fredj, Sondes; Kechaou, Mariem; Anane, Nadia; Echebi, Slim; Messaoud, Taieb; Belal, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has shown altered activity in patients with neurological diseases. An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme has been reported to be associated with the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is generally considered to be a disorder primarily affecting memory. We conducted a case-control study in a sample composed of 85 sporadic AD patients and 90 age- and sex-matched controls to investigate the possible effect of the polymorphism and cognitive profile. Our data revealed an association between the ACE polymorphism and AD risk. There was a significant difference in the ACE allele or genotype frequencies between cases and controls. The D/D genotype showed an increased risk for AD and in the amnestic group and the effect was independent on ApoE genotypes. PMID:26456241

  17. Frequencies of glutathione s-transferase (GSTM1, GSTM3 AND GSTT1) polymorphisms in a Malaysian population

    PubMed Central

    Alshagga, Mustafa A.; Mohamed, Norazlina; Nazrun Suhid, Ahmad; Abdel Aziz Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Zulkifli Syed Zakaria, Syed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a xenobiotic metabolising enzyme (XME), which may modify susceptibility in certain ethnic groups, showing ethnic dependent polymorphism. The aim of this study was to determine GSTM1, GSTM3 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms in a Malaysian population in Kuala Lumpur. Material and methods Blood or buccal swab samples were collected from 137 Form II students from three schools in Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results Glutathione-S-transferase GSTM3 gene frequencies were 89% for AA, 10% for AB and 1% for BB. The gene frequencies for deleted GSTM1 and GSTT1 were 66% and 18% respectively. Conclusions This study suggested that the Malay population is at risk for environmental diseases and provides the basis for gene-environment association studies to be carried out. PMID:22291790

  18. Molecular characterization of a Han Chinese family with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J F; Zhang, X; Ling, L

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial genome have been found to be associated with essential hypertension. Here, we report the clinical and molecular characterization of a three-generation Han Chinese family with maternally inherited hypertension. Most strikingly, this pedigree exhibited a high penetrance of hypertension. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genome showed the presence of a homoplasmic T16189C mutation in the D-loop and the intergenic CO2/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp common deletion, as well as a set of polymorphisms belonging to the East Asia haplogroup B5b1. The well-known T16189C mutation, which is in the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial control region, is implicated to be associated with a wide range of clinical disorders. Moreover, the genetic polymorphism 9-bp common deletion is found to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in the Han Chinese population. Thus, the combination of T16189C mutation and the 9-bp deletion may have caused mitochondrial dysfunction and contributed to the development of essential hypertension in this Chinese family. PMID:27323027

  19. Coding polymorphism for phylogeny reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kornet, D J; Turner, H

    1999-06-01

    The methodology of coding polymorphic taxa has received limited attention to date. A search of the taxonomic literature revealed seven types of coding methods. Apart from ignoring polymorphic characters (sometimes called the fixed-only method), two main categories can be distinguished: methods that identify the start of a new character state with the origin of an evolutionary novelty, and methods that identify the new state with the fixation of a novelty. The methods of the first category introduce soft reversals, yielding signals that support cladograms incompatible with true phylogenies. We conclude that coding the plesiomorphy is the method to be preferred, unless the ancestral state is unknown, in which case coding as ambiguous is recommended. This holds for coding polymorphism in species as well as in supraspecific taxa. In this light we remark on methods proposed by previous authors. PMID:12066713

  20. Adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Kisdi, Éva; Geritz, Stefan A H

    2016-03-01

    We study the joint adaptive dynamics of n scalar-valued strategies in ecosystems where n is the maximum number of coexisting strategies permitted by the (generalized) competitive exclusion principle. The adaptive dynamics of such saturated systems exhibits special characteristics, which we first demonstrate in a simple example of a host-pathogen-predator model. The main part of the paper characterizes the adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms in general. In order to investigate convergence stability, we give a new sufficient condition for absolute stability of an arbitrary (not necessarily saturated) polymorphic singularity and show that saturated evolutionarily stable polymorphisms satisfy it. For the case [Formula: see text], we also introduce a method to construct different pairwise invasibility plots of the monomorphic population without changing the selection gradients of the saturated dimorphism. PMID:26676357

  1. Screening of polymorphisms for MTHFR and DHFR genes in spina bifida children and their mothers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, M. Z.; Endom, I.; Ibrahim, S.; Selvi, N. Amaramalar; Fakhrurazi, H.; Htwe, R. Ohnmar; Kanehaswari, Y.; Halim, A. R. Abdul; Wong, S. W.; Subashini, K.; Syahira, O. Nur; Aishah, S.

    2013-11-01

    Mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of neural tube defect is still not well understood. Current evidences show the involvement of folic acid metabolic gene's polymorphism as contributing factors that regulate this pathway. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the presence of C677T polymorphism for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-19 bp deletion) genes between mother-children pairs of case and control. With the approval of UKMMC ethic committee, genomic DNA was extracted from one hundred and forty consented bloods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were employed to verify each nucleotide change. Our result shows that mutant MTHFR and DHFR alleles are present in all Malaysian sub-ethnic groups, case and control. Even though mutant MTHFR are found to be slightly higher in the case groups, 75% of the affected child is a non carrier for this allele and 62.5% of the mothers with an affected child are genotypically normal. For DHFR, almost all (87.5-100%) investigated samples are a carrier or having a double DHFR deletion be it a case or control pairs. However, strong maternal inheritance shown by the deleted allele might be due to a cascade effect of lacks of folate consumption or maternal uniparental disomy. In conclusion, the use of MTHFR and DHFR as markers in determining the risk of having spina bifida baby is uninformative and plays a small indirect role as the genetic causes of spina bifida. Therefore, spina bifida remains etiologically unknown polygenic and quantitative developmental trait whereby the searches for positive genetic marker need to be continued.

  2. Megabase deletions of gene deserts result in viable mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Zhu, Yiwen; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Afzal,Veena; Rubin, Edward M.

    2004-05-01

    The functional importance of the approximately 98 percent of mammalian genomes not corresponding to protein coding sequences remain largely un-scrutinized 1. To test experimentally whether some extensive regions of non-coding DNA, referred to as gene deserts 2-4, contain critical functions essential for the viability of the organism, we deleted two large non-coding intervals, 1,511 kb and 845 kb in length, from the mouse genome. Viable mice homozygous for the deletions were generated and were indistinguishable from wild-type litter mates with regards to morphology, reproductive fitness, growth, longevity and a variety of parameters assaying general homeostasis. Further in-depth analysis of the expression of genes bracketing the deletions revealed similar expression characteristics in homozygous deletion and wild-type mice. Together, the two deleted segments harbour 1,243 non-coding sequences conserved between humans and rodents (>100bp, 70 percent identity). These studies demonstrate that some large-scale deletions of non-coding DNA can be well tolerated by an organism, bringing into question the role of many human-mouse conserved sequences 5,6, and further supports the existence of potentially ''disposable DNAi'' in the genomes of mammals.

  3. Developmental genetics of deleted mtDNA in mitochondrial oculomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Marzuki, S; Berkovic, S F; Saifuddin Noer, A; Kapsa, R M; Kalnins, R M; Byrne, E; Sasmono, T; Sudoyo, H

    1997-02-12

    Heteroplasmic populations of mtDNA, consisting of normal mtDNA and mtDNA with large deletions, are found in the skeletal muscle and other tissues of certain patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies, particularly in those with the CPEO (chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia) phenotype. To study the developmental genetics of this mitochondrial disorder, the distribution of the deleted mtDNA in a wide range of tissues of different embryonic origins (total 34 samples from 27 tissues obtained at autopsy) was investigated in a patient with the CPEO syndrome. Three species of partially deleted mtDNA were observed, with deletions of 2.3 kb, 5.0 kb and 6.4 kb. Their tissue distribution suggests that the mtDNA deletions have occurred very early during embryonic development, prior to the differentiation events that lead to the formation of the three primary embryonic germ layers, and that the partially deleted mtDNA species were segregated during development mainly to the skeletal muscle and to tissues of the central nervous system. PMID:9094043

  4. Fast detection of deletion breakpoints using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Abildinova, Gulshara; Abdrakhmanova, Zhanara; Tuchinsky, Helena; Nesher, Elimelech; Pinhasov, Albert; Raskin, Leon

    2016-06-16

    The routine detection of large and medium copy number variants (CNVs) is well established. Hemizygotic deletions or duplications in the large Duchenne muscular dystrophy DMD gene responsible for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are routinely identified using multiple ligation probe amplification and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. These methods only map deleted or duplicated exons, without providing the exact location of breakpoints. Commonly used methods for the detection of CNV breakpoints include long-range PCR and primer walking, their success being limited by the deletion size, GC content and presence of DNA repeats. Here, we present a strategy for detecting the breakpoints of medium and large CNVs regardless of their size. The hemizygous deletion of exons 45-50 in the DMD gene and the large autosomal heterozygous PARK2 deletion were used to demonstrate the workflow that relies on real-time quantitative PCR to narrow down the deletion region and Sanger sequencing for breakpoint confirmation. The strategy is fast, reliable and cost-efficient, making it amenable to widespread use in genetic laboratories. PMID:27333265

  5. Fast detection of deletion breakpoints using quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Abildinova, Gulshara; Abdrakhmanova, Zhanara; Tuchinsky, Helena; Nesher, Elimelech; Pinhasov, Albert; Raskin, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The routine detection of large and medium copy number variants (CNVs) is well established. Hemizygotic deletions or duplications in the large Duchenne muscular dystrophy DMD gene responsible for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are routinely identified using multiple ligation probe amplification and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. These methods only map deleted or duplicated exons, without providing the exact location of breakpoints. Commonly used methods for the detection of CNV breakpoints include long-range PCR and primer walking, their success being limited by the deletion size, GC content and presence of DNA repeats. Here, we present a strategy for detecting the breakpoints of medium and large CNVs regardless of their size. The hemizygous deletion of exons 45-50 in the DMD gene and the large autosomal heterozygous PARK2 deletion were used to demonstrate the workflow that relies on real-time quantitative PCR to narrow down the deletion region and Sanger sequencing for breakpoint confirmation. The strategy is fast, reliable and cost-efficient, making it amenable to widespread use in genetic laboratories. PMID:27560363

  6. Fast detection of deletion breakpoints using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Abildinova, Gulshara; Abdrakhmanova, Zhanara; Tuchinsky, Helena; Nesher, Elimelech; Pinhasov, Albert; Raskin, Leon

    2016-01-01

    The routine detection of large and medium copy number variants (CNVs) is well established. Hemizygotic deletions or duplications in the large Duchenne muscular dystrophy DMD gene responsible for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are routinely identified using multiple ligation probe amplification and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. These methods only map deleted or duplicated exons, without providing the exact location of breakpoints. Commonly used methods for the detection of CNV breakpoints include long-range PCR and primer walking, their success being limited by the deletion size, GC content and presence of DNA repeats. Here, we present a strategy for detecting the breakpoints of medium and large CNVs regardless of their size. The hemizygous deletion of exons 45-50 in the DMD gene and the large autosomal heterozygous PARK2 deletion were used to demonstrate the workflow that relies on real-time quantitative PCR to narrow down the deletion region and Sanger sequencing for breakpoint confirmation. The strategy is fast, reliable and cost-efficient, making it amenable to widespread use in genetic laboratories. PMID:27560363

  7. Molecular analysis of Baylisascaris columnaris revealed mitochondrial and nuclear polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Baylisascaris species are intestinal nematodes of skunks, raccoons, badgers, and bears belonging to the genus Ascarididae. Oral uptake of embryonated Baylisascaris sp. eggs by a wide variety of mammals and birds can lead to visceral, ocular and neurological larva migrans. B. procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, is known to cause severe illness in intermediate hosts and in humans, whereas the skunk roundworm B. columnaris is probably less pathogenic. Skunks and raccoons are kept as pets in Europe, sometimes together with cats and dogs, living in close contact with humans. B. procyonis and B. columnaris are difficult to differentiate based on morphological criteria and molecular and phylogenetic information concerning B. columnaris is missing. This is the first study on the genetic characterisation of B. columnaris, based on mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. Methods B. columnaris worms were isolated from pet skunks, and used for molecular analysis. PCR primers targeted at mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 and 2 (CO1 and CO2), ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and ribosomal 28S genes were used. DNA sequences from B. columnaris, B. procyonis and B. transfuga from bears were analysed by cluster analysis. Results Four different multi-locus genotypes were found in B. columnaris, based on 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two insertions / deletions in CO1, CO2, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S. Conclusions The genetic characteristics of B. columnaris show close resemblance to those of B. procyonis, but in contrast to B. procyonis, show several polymorphisms in both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. These polymorphisms could be used as a tool to differentiate B. columnaris from B. procyonis in molecular diagnostic assays, and to identify B. columnaris by PCR, in addition to or replacing morphometric analysis. This might lead to more insight into the zoonotic relevance of B. columnaris in humans. PMID:23627901

  8. PTCH mutations and deletions in patients with typical nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and in patients with a suspected genetic predisposition to basal cell carcinoma: a French study

    PubMed Central

    Soufir, N; Gerard, B; Portela, M; Brice, A; Liboutet, M; Saiag, P; Descamps, V; Kerob, D; Wolkenstein, P; Gorin, I; Lebbe, C; Dupin, N; Crickx, B; Basset-Seguin, N; Grandchamp, B

    2006-01-01

    The patched (PTCH) mutation rate in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) reported in various studies ranges from 40 to 80%. However, few studies have investigated the role of PTCH in clinical conditions suggesting an inherited predisposition to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), although it has been suggested that PTCH polymorphisms could predispose to multiple BCC (MBCC). In this study, we therefore performed an exhaustive analysis of PTCH (mutations detection and deletion analysis) in 17 patients with the full complement of criteria for NBCCS (14 sporadic and three familial cases), and in 48 patients suspected of having a genetic predisposition to BCC (MBCC and/or age at diagnosis ⩽40 years and/or familial BCC). Eleven new germline alterations of the PTCH gene were characterised in 12 out of 17 patients harbouring the full complement of criteria for the syndrome (70%). These were frameshift mutations in five patients, nonsense mutations in five patients, a small inframe deletion in one patient, and a large germline deletion in another patient. Only one missense mutation (G774R) was found, and this was in a patient affected with MBCC, but without any other NBCCS criterion. We therefore suggest that patients harbouring the full complement of NBCCS criteria should as a priority be screened for PTCH mutations by sequencing, followed by a deletion analysis if no mutation is detected. In other clinical situations that suggest genetic predisposition to BCC, germline mutations of PTCH are not common. PMID:16909134

  9. Minor Xp21 chromosome deletion in a male associated with expression of duchenne muscular dystrophy, chronic granulomatous disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and McLeod syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Francke, Uta; Ochs, Hans D.; de Martinville, Bérengère; Giacalone, Joseph; Lindgren, Valerie; Distèche, Christine; Pagon, Roberta A.; Hofker, Marten H.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; Pearson, Peter L.; Wedgwood, Ralph J.

    1985-01-01

    We are reporting a male patient who suffered from chronic granulomatous disease associated with cytochrome b−245 deficiency and McLeod red cell phenotype, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and retinitis pigmentosa. On cytogenetic analysis, he seemed to have a very subtle interstitial deletion of part of band Xp21. Since it was impossible to know whether this material was truly deleted or inserted elsewhere in the genome, somatic cell and molecular studies were carried out. In somatic cell hybrids, the deleted X chromosome was isolated on a Chinese hamster background. Southern blot analysis with 20 single-copy probes, that had been mapped to the X short arm, led to the discovery of one (probe 754) that is missing from this patient's X chromosome and also from his total DNA. This proves that he, indeed, has a deletion rather than a balanced insertion. The results provide cytological mapping information for the X-linked phenotypes present in this patient. Furthermore, probe 754 recognizes a restriction fragment length polymorphism of high frequency that makes it the most powerful probe currently available for linkage studies with X-linked muscular dystrophy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4039107

  10. Genetics Home Reference: catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

    MedlinePlus

    ... for This Page Cerrone M, Napolitano C, Priori SG. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: A paradigm to understand ... on PubMed Central Liu N, Ruan Y, Priori SG. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 ...

  11. Crystal Polymorphs of Barbital: News about a Classic Polymorphic System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Barbital is a hypnotic agent that has been intensely studied for many decades. The aim of this work was to establish a clear and comprehensible picture of its polymorphic system. Four of the six known solid forms of barbital (denoted I0, III, IV, and V) were characterized by various analytical techniques, and the thermodynamic relationships between the polymorph phases were established. The obtained data permitted the construction of the first semischematic energy/temperature diagram for the barbital system. The modifications I0, III, and V are enantiotropically related to one another. Polymorph IV is enantiotropically related to V and monotropically related to the other two forms. The transition points for the pairs I0/III, I0/V, and III/IV lie below 20 °C, and the transition point for IV/V is above 20 °C. At room temperature, the order of thermodynamic stability is I0 > III > V > IV. The metastable modification III is present in commercial samples and has a high kinetic stability. The solid-state NMR spectra provide information on aspects of crystallography (viz., the asymmetric units and the nature of hydrogen bonding). The known correlation between specific N–H···O=C hydrogen bonding motifs of barbiturates and certain IR characteristics was used to predict the H-bonded pattern of polymorph IV. PMID:24283960

  12. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and virulence polymorphism in Puccinia hordei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia hordei is the causal agent of barley leaf rust. To study the genetic diversity in P. hordei, 45 isolates with diverse virulence patterns and geographical origins were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Two pathotypes of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and one is...

  13. Rapid detection of mitochondrial sequence polymorphisms using multiplex solid-phase fluorescent minisequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, G.; Sullivan, K.M.; Nixon, P.

    1996-05-15

    This work describes a novel method, multiplex solidphase fluorescent minisequencing, for the simultaneous detection of several point mutations and/or small deletions and insertions. The method is applied to the analysis of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms for the purposes of individual identification. A database of 152 British Caucasians and 103 British Afro-Caribbeans has been constructed, and the probability of a chance match between two unrelated individuals is calculated as 0.054 for Caucasians and 0.026 for Afro-Caribbeans. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Renal hemodynamic changes induced by captopril and angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Mizuiri, S; Hemmi, H; Inoue, A; Takano, M; Kadomatsu, S; Tanimoto, H; Tanegashima, M; Hayashi, I; Fushimi, T; Hasegawa, A

    1997-01-01

    We studied the relationship between renal hemodynamic changes induced by a single acute administration of captopril (50 mg p.o.) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in 27 healthy human volunteers, 7 with DD genotype, 10 with ID, and 10 with II genotype. The increase in effective renal plasma flow (p < 0.02) and the fall in renal vascular resistance (p < 0.01) in response to captopril were significantly less in subjects with the DD genotype than in subjects with the other genotypes. These data suggest that intrarenal ACE inhibition by captopril differs according to ACE gene ID polymorphism in healthy humans. PMID:9069453

  15. Targeted deletion of the 9p21 noncoding coronary artery disease risk interval in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Visel, Axel; Zhu, Yiwen; May, Dalit; Afzal, Veena; Gong, Elaine; Attanasio, Catia; Blow, Matthew J.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2010-01-01

    Sequence polymorphisms in a 58kb interval on chromosome 9p21 confer a markedly increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death worldwide 1,2. The variants have a substantial impact on the epidemiology of CAD and other life?threatening vascular conditions since nearly a quarter of Caucasians are homozygous for risk alleles. However, the risk interval is devoid of protein?coding genes and the mechanism linking the region to CAD risk has remained enigmatic. Here we show that deletion of the orthologous 70kb noncoding interval on mouse chromosome 4 affects cardiac expression of neighboring genes, as well as proliferation properties of vascular cells. Chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice are viable, but show increased mortality both during development and as adults. Cardiac expression of two genes near the noncoding interval, Cdkn2a and Cdkn2b, is severely reduced in chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice, indicating that distant-acting gene regulatory functions are located in the noncoding CAD risk interval. Allelespecific expression of Cdkn2b transcripts in heterozygous mice revealed that the deletion affects expression through a cis-acting mechanism. Primary cultures of chr4delta70kb/delta70kb aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited excessive proliferation and diminished senescence, a cellular phenotype consistent with accelerated CAD pathogenesis. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence that the CAD risk interval plays a pivotal role in regulation of cardiac Cdkn2a/b expression and suggest that this region affects CAD progression by altering the dynamics of vascular cell proliferation.

  16. Homologous recombination causes the spontaneous deletion of AVR-Pia in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Sone, Teruo; Takeuchi, Saori; Miki, Shinsuke; Satoh, Yuki; Ohtsuka, Keisuke; Abe, Ayumi; Asano, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    AVR-Pia, an avirulence gene in the genome of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, triggers a hypersensitive reaction in rice cultivars harbouring the resistance gene Pia. The copy number of AVR-Pia was revealed to vary from one to three among M. oryzae isolates avirulent to Pia rice, and three copies of the gene were located on a single chromosome in strain Ina168, from which the gene was originally cloned. The spontaneous avr-Pia mutant originated from Ina168, named Ina168m95-1, which lacks the AVR-Pia gene, and was therefore used to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the deletion of all three copies of AVR-Pia. Screening and analysis of cosmid clones indicated that two copies of the DNA-type transposon Occan (Occan(9E12) and Occan(3A3) ) were located on the same chromosome, and three copies of AVR-Pia were located in between the two Occan elements. Ina168m95-1 contains a conserved Occan element, named Occan(m95-1) , between sequences homologous to the 5'-flanking region of Occan(3A3) and the 3'-flanking region of Occan(9E12) . In addition, sequence polymorphisms indicated a homologous recombination between Occan(3A3) and Occan(9E12) , which resulted in Occan(m95-1) . Based on these observations, we propose the hypothesis that homologous recombination in the two Occan elements leads to the deletion of AVR-Pia in Ina168m95-1. PMID:23198972

  17. Impact of UGT2B17 gene deletion on the steroid profile of an athlete.

    PubMed

    Martín-Escudero, Pilar; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Del Prado, Nayade; Galindo Canales, Mercedes; Fuentes Ferrer, Manuel; Vargas, Soledad; Soldevilla, Ana B; Serrano-Garde, Ester; Miguel-Tobal, Francisco; Maestro de Las Casas, Marisa; Fernandez-Pérez, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of the testosterone to epitestosterone ratio (T/E ratio) in urine is often used as a marker for testosterone administration in the doping control field. This study examines the frequencies of the different expression forms of the UGT2B17 gene, and assesses their effects on this marker in volunteer subjects. The sample for this descriptive study was composed of male and female athletes aged between 16 and 55 years old who practiced different sports disciplines. All participants underwent a sports-medical physical examination, and subsequently provided 10 urine samples consecutively over a period of 48 h. The dependent variable examined was T/E and the main independent variable was the UGT2B17 gene polymorphism. During 1 year, 1410 urine samples were obtained from 141 athletes. The frequencies of the three genotypes were as follows: wt homozygotes (ins/ins) 48.2% (n = 68), mutant homozygotes (del/del) 12.1% (n = 17), and heterozygotes (ins/del) 39.7% (n = 56). Genotype distributions varied significantly (P < 0.001) according to ethnicity, 80% of Asian subjects being homozygous for the gene deletion (del/del) compared to 6.9% of Caucasian subjects. A multivariate analysis adjusted for genotype, age, sex, and sports discipline revealed that athletes with the del/del polymorphism showed a significantly lower mean T/E than heterozygotes (ins/del). In contrast, homozygous athletes for the gene insertion (ins/ins) showed higher mean T/E ratios than heterozygotes (ins/del). UGT2B17 gene deletion has a strong influence on the T/E ratio in urine, which is the most efficient indicator of testosterone prohormone misuse. Others factors studied seem not to have such an impact. The genotyping of UGT2B17 is an important source of information for understanding steroid profiling in the doping control field; therefore it is suggested that it be included in the Athletes Biological Passport. PMID:26668303

  18. Correlations between long inverted repeat (LIR) features, deletion size and distance from breakpoint in human gross gene deletions

    PubMed Central

    Aygun, Nevim

    2015-01-01

    Long inverted repeats (LIRs) have been shown to induce genomic deletions in yeast. In this study, LIRs were investigated within ±10 kb spanning each breakpoint from 109 human gross deletions, using Inverted Repeat Finder (IRF) software. LIR number was significantly higher at the breakpoint regions, than in control segments (P < 0.001). In addition, it was found that strong correlation between 5′ and 3′ LIR numbers, suggesting contribution to DNA sequence evolution (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). 138 LIR features at ±3 kb breakpoints in 89 (81%) of 109 gross deletions were evaluated. Significant correlations were found between distance from breakpoint and loop length (r = −0.18, P < 0.05) and stem length (r = −0.18, P < 0.05), suggesting DNA strands are potentially broken in locations closer to bigger LIRs. In addition, bigger loops cause larger deletions (r = 0.19, P < 0.05). Moreover, loop length (r = 0.29, P < 0.02) and identity between stem copies (r = 0.30, P < 0.05) of 3′ LIRs were more important in larger deletions. Consequently, DNA breaks may form via LIR-induced cruciform structure during replication. DNA ends may be later repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), with following deletion. PMID:25657065

  19. Novel Polymorphism in the FMR1 Gene Resulting in a “Pseudodeletion” of FMR1 in a Commonly Used Fragile X Assay

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Thomas M.; Rafii, Arash; Martin, Rick A.; Zehnbauer, Barbara A.

    2000-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most commonly inherited cause of mental retardation. Genetic diagnosis of this disease relies on the detection of triplet repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome. Although the majority of disease in fragile X patients is due to mutations involving triplet repeat expansion, deletion of various portions of FMR1 has also been described in association with the fragile X syndrome. Here we describe a rare polymorphism in the noncoding region of FMR1 that mimics detection of a deletion in a commonly used assay for fragile X syndrome, which can result in misdiagnosis of the disease. PMID:11229516

  20. Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies a Deletion in Protein Phosphatase 2A That Affects Its Stability and Localization in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huawen; Miller, Michelle L.; Granas, David M.; Dutcher, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool in the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions (indels) among mutant strains, which simplifies forward genetics approaches. However, identification of the causative mutation among a large number of non-causative SNPs in a mutant strain remains a big challenge. In the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we generated a SNP/indel library that contains over 2 million polymorphisms from four wild-type strains, one highly polymorphic strain that is frequently used in meiotic mapping, ten mutant strains that have flagellar assembly or motility defects, and one mutant strain, imp3, which has a mating defect. A comparison of polymorphisms in the imp3 strain and the other 15 strains allowed us to identify a deletion of the last three amino acids, Y313F314L315, in a protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2A3) in the imp3 strain. Introduction of a wild-type HA-tagged PP2A3 rescues the mutant phenotype, but mutant HA-PP2A3 at Y313 or L315 fail to rescue. Our immunoprecipitation results indicate that the Y313, L315, or YFLΔ mutations do not affect the binding of PP2A3 to the scaffold subunit, PP2A-2r. In contrast, the Y313, L315, or YFLΔ mutations affect both the stability and the localization of PP2A3. The PP2A3 protein is less abundant in these mutants and fails to accumulate in the basal body area as observed in transformants with either wild-type HA-PP2A3 or a HA-PP2A3 with a V310T change. The accumulation of HA-PP2A3 in the basal body region disappears in mated dikaryons, which suggests that the localization of PP2A3 may be essential to the mating process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the terminal YFL tail of PP2A3 is important in the regulation on Chlamydomonas mating. PMID:24086163

  1. Allele-Specific Deletions in Mouse Tumors Identify Fbxw7 as Germline Modifier of Tumor Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Losada, Jesus; Wu, Di; DelRosario, Reyno; Balmain, Allan; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in finding associations between specific genetic variants and cancer susceptibility in human populations. These studies have identified a range of highly statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to development of a range of human tumors. However, the effect of each SNP in isolation is very small, and all of the SNPs combined only account for a relatively minor proportion of the total genetic risk (5–10%). There is therefore a major requirement for alternative routes to the discovery of genetic risk factors for cancer. We have previously shown using mouse models that chromosomal regions harboring susceptibility genes identified by linkage analysis frequently exhibit allele-specific genetic alterations in tumors. We demonstrate here that the Fbxw7 gene, a commonly mutated gene in a wide range of mouse and human cancers, shows allele-specific deletions in mouse lymphomas and skin tumors. Lymphomas from three different F1 hybrids show 100% allele-specificity in the patterns of allelic loss. Parental alleles from 129/Sv or Spretus/Gla mice are lost in tumors from F1 hybrids with C57BL/6 animals, due to the presence of a specific non-synonymous coding sequence polymorphism at the N-terminal portion of the gene. A specific genetic test of association between this SNP and lymphoma susceptibility in interspecific backcross mice showed a significant linkage (p = 0.001), but only in animals with a functional p53 gene. These data therefore identify Fbxw7 as a p53-dependent tumor susceptibility gene. Increased p53-dependent tumor susceptibility and allele-specific losses were also seen in a mouse skin model of skin tumor development. We propose that analysis of preferential allelic imbalances in tumors may provide an efficient means of uncovering genetic variants that affect mouse and human tumor susceptibility. PMID:22348067

  2. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione S-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n=515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06±1.24 microg/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49±0.63 microg/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5'), or both (SEPP1 3'UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). PMID:21967774

  3. Helicobacter pylori cagL amino acid polymorphisms and its association with gastroduodenal diseases.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Tripathi, Aparna; Jaiswal, Virendra; Khatoon, Jahanarah; Ghsohal, Uday Chand; Krishnani, Narendra; Husain, Nuzhat

    2013-07-01

    CagL is a pilus protein of Helicobacter pylori that interacts with host cellular α5β1 integrins through its arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif, guiding proper positioning of the T4SS and translocation of CagA. Deletion or sequence variations of cagL significantly diminished the ability of H. pylori to induce secretion of IL-8 by the host cell. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the association of cagL and its amino acid sequence polymorphisms with gastric cancer (GC), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) as there are no such studies from India. In total, 200 adult patients (NUD 120, PUD 30, GC 50) who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology, and PCR. The collected isolates were screened for cagL genotype by PCR and assessed for amino acid sequence polymorphisms using sequence translation. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in study population was 52.5%. Most of the isolates were cagL genopositive (86.6%), and all had RGD motif in their amino acid sequences. D58 and K59 polymorphisms in cagL-genopositive strains were significantly higher in GC patients (P < 0.05). Combined D58K59 polymorphism was associated with higher risk of GC (3.8-fold) when compared to NUD. In conclusion, H. pylori cagL amino acid polymorphisms such as D58K59 are correlated with a higher risk of GC in the Indian population. Further studies are required to know the exact role of particular cagL amino acid polymorphisms in the pathogenicity of H. pylori infection. PMID:22941498

  4. Polymorphism in pleistocene land snails.

    PubMed

    Owen, D F

    1966-04-01

    Under suitable conditions the colors and patterns of the shells of land snails may be preserved for thousands of years. In a late Pleistocene population of Limicolaria martensiana all the major color forms that occur in modern living snails may be distinguished, and the basic polymorphism is at least 8,000 to 10,000 year old. PMID:17830234

  5. Influence of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Lu-Shun; Li, Hong-Yu; Liao, Miao

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes are associated with risk in a wide range of cancers. The objective of this study was to examine whether two DNA polymorphisms at the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) and the variable number of tandem repeats in NOS intron 4 (4a/4b) were linked to the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a Chinese population. The polymorphisms at ACE I/D and eNOS 4a/4b were genotyped in 293 HCC patients and 384 healthy control subjects using polymerase chain reaction. The frequencies of the D allele (p=0.003, OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.58–0.90) in the ACE gene of HCC patients were significantly different from the healthy controls, and a significantly decreased HCC risk was associated with the DD genotype in both the recessive (p<0.001, OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.11–0.34) and codominant models (p<0.001, OR=0.26, 95% CI=0.14–0.48). This study provided evidence that the ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with HCC, indicating that the ACE I/D polymorphism contributes to HCC progression in the Chinese population. PMID:23570557

  6. Gene-disease association with human IFNL locus polymorphisms extends beyond hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Chinnaswamy, S

    2016-07-01

    Interferon (IFN) lambda (IFN-λ or type III IFN) gene polymorphisms were discovered in the year 2009 to have a strong association with spontaneous and treatment-induced clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human hosts. This landmark discovery also brought renewed interest in type III IFN biology. After more than half a decade since this discovery, we now have reports that show that genetic association of IFNL gene polymorphisms in humans is not limited only to HCV infections but extends beyond, to include varied diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, allergy and several other viral diseases including that caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. Notably, all these conditions have strong involvement of host innate immune responses. After the discovery of a deletion polymorphism that leads to the expression of a functional IFN-λ4 as the prime 'functional' variant, the relevance of other polymorphisms regulating the expression of IFN-λ3 is in doubt. Herein, I seek to critically address these issues and review the current literature to provide a framework to help further understanding of IFN-λ biology. PMID:27278127

  7. Mutations and a polymorphism in the factor VIII gene discovered by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, S.; Gitschier, J. )

    1990-03-01

    Hemophilia A results from mutations in the gene coding for coagulation factor VIII. The authors gradient gel electrophoresis to screen for mutations in the region of the factor VIII gene coding for the first acidic domain. Amplification primers were designed employing the MELTMAP computer program to optimize the ability to detect mutations. Screening of amplified DNA from 228 unselected hemophilia A patients revealed two mutations and one polymorphism. Rescreening the same population by making heteroduplexes between amplified patient and control samples prior to electrophoresis revealed one additional mutation. The mutations include two missense and one 4-base-pair deletion, and each mutation was found in patients with severe hemophilia. The polymorphism, located adjacent to the adenine branch site in intron 7, is useful for genetic prediction in some cases where the Bcl I and Xba I polymorphisms are uninformative. These results suggest that DNA amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis should be an excellent strategy for identifying mutations and polymorphisms in defined regions of the factor VIII gene and other large genes.

  8. Stationary phase deletions in Escherichia coli. II. Mutations which stimulate stationary phase deletions in plasmid pMC874.

    PubMed

    Balbinder, E

    2001-08-01

    Deletions in the plasmid pMC874 take place in resting cells incubating on McConkey's or minimal lactose agar and are time rather than generation dependent. These deletions join the km(r) promoter to a promoterless lac operon giving rise to Lac(+) papillae on McConkey's lactose agar, and can occur in the absence of sequence homologies such as direct or inverted repeats. Using this as a selective screen we isolated 31 mutants designated dli (for deletion increase), which enhanced to different extents the frequency of this unusual class of deletions. Six of these were characterized by phenotypic tests and their ability to stimulate other deletion events such as the excision of Tn10 from various chromosomal sites and the loss of cloned fragments between two EcoR1 sites in the gene for chloramphenicol resistance (cat) of plasmid pBR325. Two of them showed contrasting phenotypes and were studied further: one (dli1) stimulated Lac(+) deletions in pMC874 in resting cells but not Tn10 excision from chromosomal locations in log phase cells, and the other one (dli2) did exactly the reverse, i.e. it enhanced Tn10 excision but not Lac(+) deletion incidence. Mapping and complementation tests showed that dli1 is a null mutation in recC and was renamed recC2251. This is strong evidence that resting phase deletions in pMC874 are stimulated by the absence of a functional RecBCD enzyme. The dli2 mutation was identified by mapping and phenotypic tests as a mutation in uvrD, the gene for helicase II, and it was tentatively designated uvrD(-)dli2. These results show that (1) pMC874 is an excellent system to select mutants for genetic functions involved in the generation of resting phase deletions, and (2) there are at least two major deletion pathways in E. coli, one active in resting and the other in actively dividing cells. PMID:11470479

  9. Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes in Moldavian patients with ulcerative colitis: Genotype-phenotype correlation

    PubMed Central

    Varzari, Alexander; Deyneko, Igor V.; Tudor, Elena; Turcan, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are important enzymes for protection against oxidative stress. In addition, MTHFR has an essential role in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Their polymorphisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of selected polymorphisms in these genes in the development of UC in the Moldavian population. Methods In a case-control study including 128 UC patients and 136 healthy individuals, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes (polymorphic deletions) were determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GSTP1 rs1695 (Ile105Val), MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T), and MTHFR rs1801131 (A1298C) polymorphisms were studied with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Genotype–phenotype correlations were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results None of the genotypes, either alone or in combination, showed a strong association with UC. The case-only sub-phenotypic association analysis showed an association of the MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with the extent of UC under co-dominant (p corrected = 0.040) and recessive (p corrected = 0.020; OR = 0.15; CI = 0.04–0.63) genetic models. Also, an association between the MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism and the severity of UC was reported for the over-dominant model (p corrected = 0.023; coefficient = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.10–0.54). Conclusion The GST and MTHFR genotypes do not seem to be a relevant risk factor for UC in our sample. There was, however, evidence that variants in MTHFR may influence the clinical features in UC patients. Additional larger studies investigating the relationship between GST and MTHFR polymorphisms and UC are required. PMID:26862484

  10. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black

  11. Isochromosome 15q of maternal origin in two Prader-Willi syndrome patients previously diagnosed erroneously as cytogenetic deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Shinji; Niikawa, Norio; Mutirangura, A.; Kuwano, A.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1994-03-01

    Since a previous report on two Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) patients with t(15q;15q) was erroneous, the authors report new data and a corrected interpretation. Reexamination of the parental origin of their t(15q;15q) using polymorphic DNA markers that are mapped to various regions of 15q documented no molecular deletions at the 15q11-q13 region in either patient. Both patients were homozygous at all loci examined and their haplotypes on 15q coincided with one of those in their respective mothers. These results indicate that the presumed t(15q;15q) in each patient was actually an isochromosome 15q producing maternal uniparental disomy, consistent with genomic imprinting at the PWS locus. 30 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Characterization of large deletions in the DHCR7 gene.

    PubMed

    Lanthaler, B; Hinderhofer, K; Maas, B; Haas, D; Sawyer, H; Burton-Jones, S; Carter, K; Suri, M; Witsch-Baumgartner, M

    2015-08-01

    Pathogenic variants in the DHCR7 gene cause Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a defect of cholesterol biosynthesis resulting in an autosomal recessive congenital metabolic malformation disorder. In approximately 4% of patients, the second mutation remains unidentified. In this study, 12 SLOS patients diagnosed clinically and/or by elevated 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) have been investigated by customized multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis, because only one DHCR7 sequence variant has been detected. Two unrelated patients of this cohort carry different large deletions in the DHCR7 gene. One patient showed a deletion of exons 3-6. The second patient has a deletion of exons 1 and 2 (non-coding) and lacks the major part of the promoter. These two patients show typical clinical and biochemical phenotypes of SLOS. Second disease-causing mutations are p.(Arg352Trp) and p.(Thr93Met), respectively. Deletion breakpoints were characterized successfully in both cases. Such large deletions are rare in the DHCR7 gene but will resolve some of the patients in whom a second mutation has not been detected. PMID:25040602

  13. Functional Profiling Using the Saccharomyces Genome Deletion Project Collections.

    PubMed

    Nislow, Corey; Wong, Lai Hong; Lee, Amy Huei-Yi; Giaever, Guri

    2016-01-01

    The ability to measure and quantify the fitness of an entire organism requires considerably more complex approaches than simply using traditional "omic" methods that examine, for example, the abundance of RNA transcripts, proteins, or metabolites. The yeast deletion collections represent the only systematic, comprehensive set of null alleles for any organism in which such fitness measurements can be assayed. Generated by the Saccharomyces Genome Deletion Project, these collections allow the systematic and parallel analysis of gene functions using any measurable phenotype. The unique 20-bp molecular barcodes engineered into the genome of each deletion strain facilitate the massively parallel analysis of individual fitness. Here, we present functional genomic protocols for use with the yeast deletion collections. We describe how to maintain, propagate, and store the deletion collections and how to perform growth fitness assays on single and parallel screening platforms. Phenotypic fitness analyses of the yeast mutants, described in brief here, provide important insights into biological functions, mechanisms of drug action, and response to environmental stresses. It is important to bear in mind that the specific assays described in this protocol represent some of the many ways in which these collections can be assayed, and in this description particular attention is paid to maximizing throughput using growth as the phenotypic measure. PMID:27587776

  14. The Yeast Deletion Collection: A Decade of Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2014-01-01

    The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ∼6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MATa and MATα mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general. PMID:24939991

  15. The yeast deletion collection: a decade of functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2014-06-01

    The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ∼6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MAT A: and MATα mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general. PMID:24939991

  16. Functional Consequences of Mitochondrial DNA Deletions in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Majora, Marc; Wittkampf, Tanja; Schuermann, Bianca; Schneider, Maren; Franke, Susanne; Grether-Beck, Susanne; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Bernerd, Françoise; Schroeder, Peter; Krutmann, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Deletions within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are thought to contribute to extrinsic skin aging. To study the translation of mtDNA deletions into functional and structural changes in the skin, we seeded human skin fibroblasts into collagen gels to generate dermal equivalents. These cells were either derived from Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) patients, who constitutively carry large amounts of the UV-inducible mitochondrial common deletion, or normal human volunteers. We found that KSS fibroblasts, in comparison with normal human fibroblasts, contracted the gels faster and more strongly, an effect that was dependent on reactive oxygen species. Gene expression and Western blot analysis revealed significant upregulation of lysyl oxidase (LOX) in KSS fibroblasts. Treatment with the specific LOX inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile decreased the contraction difference between KSS and normal human fibroblast equivalents. Also, addition of the antioxidant N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone reduced the contraction difference by inhibiting collagen gel contraction in KSS fibroblasts, and both β-aminopropionitrile and N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone diminished LOX activity. These data suggest a causal relationship between mtDNA deletions, reactive oxygen species production, and increased LOX activity that leads to increased contraction of collagen gels. Accordingly, increased LOX expression was also observed in vivo in photoaged human and mouse skin. Therefore, mtDNA deletions in human fibroblasts may lead to functional and structural alterations of the skin. PMID:19661442

  17. Functional Genomics Using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Deletion Collections.

    PubMed

    Nislow, Corey; Wong, Lai Hong; Lee, Amy Huei-Yi; Giaever, Guri

    2016-01-01

    Constructed by a consortium of 16 laboratories, the Saccharomyces genome-wide deletion collections have, for the past decade, provided a powerful, rapid, and inexpensive approach for functional profiling of the yeast genome. Loss-of-function deletion mutants were systematically created using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gene deletion strategy to generate a start-to-stop codon replacement of each open reading frame by homologous recombination. Each strain carries two molecular barcodes that serve as unique strain identifiers, enabling their growth to be analyzed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays or through the use of next-generation sequencing technologies. Functional profiling of the deletion collections, using either strain-by-strain or parallel assays, provides an unbiased approach to systematically survey the yeast genome. The Saccharomyces yeast deletion collections have proved immensely powerful in contributing to the understanding of gene function, including functional relationships between genes and genetic pathways in response to diverse genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:27587784

  18. Neutral behavior of shared polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew G.

    1997-01-01

    Several cases have been described in the literature where genetic polymorphism appears to be shared between a pair of species. Here we examine the distribution of times to random loss of shared polymorphism in the context of the neutral Wright–Fisher model. Order statistics are used to obtain the distribution of times to loss of a shared polymorphism based on Kimura’s solution to the diffusion approximation of the Wright–Fisher model. In a single species, the expected absorption time for a neutral allele having an initial allele frequency of ½ is 2.77 N generations. If two species initially share a polymorphism, that shared polymorphism is lost as soon as either of two species undergoes fixation. The loss of a shared polymorphism thus occurs sooner than loss of polymorphism in a single species and has an expected time of 1.7 N generations. Molecular sequences of genes with shared polymorphism may be characterized by the count of the number of sites that segregate in both species for the same nucleotides (or amino acids). The distribution of the expected numbers of these shared polymorphic sites also is obtained. Shared polymorphism appears to be more likely at genetic loci that have an unusually large number of segregating alleles, and the neutral coalescent proves to be very useful in determining the probability of shared allelic lineages expected by chance. These results are related to examples of shared polymorphism in the literature. PMID:9223256

  19. Deletion 2q37 syndrome: Cognitive-behavioral trajectories and autistic features related to breakpoint and deletion size.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Gene S; Falk, Rena E; Carey, John C; Imitola, Jaime; Sederberg, Maria; Caravalho, Karen S; South, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Subtelomeric deletions have been reported in ∼2.5% of individuals with developmental disabilities. Subtelomeric deletion 2q37 has been detected in many individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previously, genotype-phenotype correspondences were examined for their relationship to breakpoints 37.1, 37.2, or 37.3. Our purpose was to ascertain whether there were phenotypic differences at these breakpoints, elucidate the cognitive-behavioral phenotype in del2q37, and examine the genotype-phenotype association in the deletion with respect to cognitive-behavioral profiles and ASD. We administered a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral battery to nine children diagnosed with del 2q37, ages 3.9-17.75 years. ID for five tested with the Stanford-Binet (4th Edition) (SBFE) ranged from severe to mild [IQ Range: 36-59]. Adaptive behavior scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) were much below adequate levels (DQ Range: floor value ["19"] to 55). Autism scores from the Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS) ranged from 22 [non-autistic] to 56 [extremely autistic]; 5/8 [63%] children received scores on the autism spectrum. Participants with the largest deletions, 10.1 and 9.5 Mb, attained the highest IQ and DQ scores while those with the smallest deletions, 7.9 and 6.6 Mb, made the lowest IQ and DQ scores. No association between deletion breakpoint and phenotype were found. Assessment of the various deleted regions suggested histone deacetylase 4 gene (HDAC4) was a likely candidate gene for ASD in our sample. However, two earlier reports found no association between HDAC4 haploinsufficiency and ASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27282419

  20. Lack of Association between the Serotonin Transporter (5-HTT) and Serotonin Receptor (5-HT2A) Gene Polymorphisms with Smoking Behavior among Malaysian Malays

    PubMed Central

    Rozak, Nur Iwani A; Ahmad, Imran; Gan, Siew Hua; Abu Bakar, Ruzilawati

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and a polymorphism (rs6313) in the serotonin 2A receptor gene (5-HT2A) have previously been linked to smoking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the possible association of the 5-HTTLPR and 5-HT2A gene polymorphisms with smoking behavior within a population of Malaysian male smokers (n=248) and non-smokers (n=248). The 5-HTTLPR genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were classified as short (S) alleles or long (L) alleles. The 5HT2A genotypes were determined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). No significant differences in the distribution frequencies of the alleles were found between the smokers and the non-smokers for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (x2 = 0.72, P>0.05) or the 5HT2A polymorphism (x2 = 0.73, P>0.05). This is the first study conducted on Malaysian Malay males regarding the association of 5-HTTLPR and 5HT2A polymorphisms and smoking behavior. However, the genes were not found to be associated with smoking behavior in our population. PMID:25853073

  1. Lack of Association between the Serotonin Transporter (5-HTT) and Serotonin Receptor (5-HT2A) Gene Polymorphisms with Smoking Behavior among Malaysian Malays.

    PubMed

    Rozak, Nur Iwani A; Ahmad, Imran; Gan, Siew Hua; Abu Bakar, Ruzilawati

    2014-09-01

    An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and a polymorphism (rs6313) in the serotonin 2A receptor gene (5-HT2A) have previously been linked to smoking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the possible association of the 5-HTTLPR and 5-HT2A gene polymorphisms with smoking behavior within a population of Malaysian male smokers (n=248) and non-smokers (n=248). The 5-HTTLPR genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were classified as short (S) alleles or long (L) alleles. The 5HT2A genotypes were determined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). No significant differences in the distribution frequencies of the alleles were found between the smokers and the non-smokers for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (x(2) = 0.72, P>0.05) or the 5HT2A polymorphism (x(2) = 0.73, P>0.05). This is the first study conducted on Malaysian Malay males regarding the association of 5-HTTLPR and 5HT2A polymorphisms and smoking behavior. However, the genes were not found to be associated with smoking behavior in our population. PMID:25853073

  2. SOCS3 deletion promotes optic nerve regeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrice D.; Sun, Fang; Park, Kevin Kyungsuk; Cai, Bin; Wang, Chen; Kuwako, Kenichiro; Martinez-Carrasco, Irene; Connolly, Lauren; He, Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Axon regeneration failure accounts for permanent functional deficits following CNS injury in adult mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In analyzing axon regeneration in different mutant mouse lines, we discovered that deletion of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), promotes robust regeneration of injured optic nerve axons. This regeneration-promoting effect is efficiently blocked in SOCS3-gp130 double knockout mice, suggesting that SOCS3 deletion promotes axon regeneration via a gp130-dependent pathway. Consistently, a transient up-regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was observed within the retina following optic nerve injury. Intravitreal application of CNTF further enhances axon regeneration from SOCS3-deleted RGCs. Together, our results suggest that compromised responsiveness to injury-induced growth factors in mature neurons contributes significantly to regeneration failure. Thus, developing strategies to modulate negative signaling regulators may be an efficient strategy of promoting axon regeneration after CNS injury. PMID:20005819

  3. Molecular dissection of the 5q deletion in myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    The 5q- syndrome is a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with a defined clinical phenotype associated with heterozygous deletions of Chromosome 5q. While no genes have been identified that undergo recurrent homozygous inactivation, functional studies have revealed individual genes that contribute to the clinical phenotype of MDS through haploinsufficient gene expression. Heterozygous loss of the RPS14 gene on 5q leads to activation of p53 in the erythroid lineage and the macrocytic anemia characteristic of the 5q- syndrome. The megakaryocytic and platelet phenotype of the 5q- syndrome has been attributed to heterozygous deletion of miR145 and miR146a. Murine models have implicated heterozygous loss of APC, EGR1, DIAPH1, and NPM1 in the pathophysiology of del(5q) MDS. These findings indicate that the phenotype of MDS patients with deletions of Chromosome 5q is due to haploinsufficiency of multiple genes. PMID:21943668

  4. Spontaneous Hepatocellular Carcinoma after the Combined Deletion of Akt Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Yu, Wan-Ni; Chen, Xinyu; Peng, Xiao-Ding; Jeon, Sang-Min; Birnbaum, Morris J; Guzman, Grace; Hay, Nissim

    2016-04-11

    Akt is frequently hyperactivated in human cancers and is targeted for cancer therapy. However, the physiological consequences of systemic Akt isoform inhibition were not fully explored. We showed that while combined Akt1 and Akt3 deletion in adult mice is tolerated, combined Akt1 and Akt2 deletion induced rapid mortality. Akt2(-/-) mice survived hepatic Akt1 deletion but all developed spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is associated with FoxO-dependent liver injury and inflammation. The gene expression signature of HCC-bearing livers is similar to aggressive human HCC. Consistently, neither Akt1(-/-) nor Akt2(-/-) mice are resistant to diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, and Akt2(-/-) mice display a high incidence of lung metastasis. Thus, in contrast to other cancers, hepatic Akt inhibition induces liver injury that could promote HCC. PMID:26996309

  5. Semilobar holoprosencephaly with 21q22 deletion: an autopsy report

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Ray, Ruma; Shukla, Rashmi; Kabra, Madhulika; Agarwal, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common forebrain developmental anomaly with a prevalence of 1:16 000 live-births. Possible aetiological agents include environmental factors and genetic defects such as trisomies (13, 18) and deletions (18p, 7q, 2p and 21q). This complex malformation is due to incomplete division of the cerebral hemisphere. The phenotypes of HPE include alobar, semilobar, lobar and midline interhemispheric fusion variants. Craniofacial anomalies occur in 80% of cases. Severely affected babies die in the neonatal period. Here we report an autopsied case of semilobar HPE with pituitary and adrenal agenesis with 21q22 deletion. Additional findings are noted that would help expand the spectrum of 21q22 deletion. PMID:24626384

  6. Large-scale selection of lines with deletions in chromosome 1 B in wheat and applications for fine deletion mapping.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, H; Yamada, T; Hasegawa, K; Usami, N; Kojima, T; Endo, T R; Ogihara, Y; Sasakuma, T

    2001-08-01

    Terminal deletions of chromosome 1B in common wheat were selected on a large scale. The gametocidal gene of Aegilops cylindrica was used as the inducer of chromosome breakage. First, genes for endosperm storage proteins located on both arms of chromosome 1B were used as the selection markers. However, it was found that the chromosome breakage occurred during female gametogenesis, causing genotypic inconsistency between the embryo and endosperm. Thus, we isolated plants with terminal deletions in chromosome 1B by C-banding. Of 1327 plants examined, 128 showed aberrations in chromosome 1B: 47 in the short arm, 76 in the long arm, and 5 in both arms. The present deletions tended to have the breakpoint at more proximal regions than those produced previously by T.R. Endo and B.S. Gill. Using 33 deletion lines produced in this study and 34 lines previously produced, we mapped 39 RFLP loci and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on a specific region of chromosome 1B. The NOR was found to consist of two subregions with different repetitive units, which were termed NOR-Bld and NOR-Blp. Based on this fine deletion map and genotypic inconsistency between embryo and endosperm, the features of the gametocidal gene are discussed. PMID:11550882

  7. Characterization of 14 novel deletions underlying Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: an update of the CREBBP deletion repertoire.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Daniela; Negri, Gloria; Colapietro, Patrizia; Picinelli, Chiara; Milani, Donatella; Spena, Silvia; Magnani, Cinzia; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Sorasio, Lorena; Curtisova, Vaclava; Cavaliere, Maria Luigia; Prontera, Paolo; Stangoni, Gabriela; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Biamino, Elisa; Fischetto, Rita; Piccione, Maria; Gasparini, Paolo; Salviati, Leonardo; Selicorni, Angelo; Finelli, Palma; Larizza, Lidia; Gervasini, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare, clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by cognitive impairment and several multiple congenital anomalies. The syndrome is caused by almost private point mutations in the CREBBP (~55% of cases) and EP300 (~8%) genes. The CREBBP mutational spectrum is variegated and characterized by point mutations (30-50 %) and deletions (~10%). The latter are diverse in size and genomic position and remove either the whole CREBBP gene and its flanking regions or only an intragenic portion. Here, we report 14 novel CREBBP deletions ranging from single exons to the whole gene and flanking regions which were identified by applying complementary cytomolecular techniques: fluorescence in situ hybridization, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array comparative genome hybridization, to a large cohort of RSTS patients. Deletions involving CREBBP account for 23% of our detected CREBBP mutations, making an important contribution to the mutational spectrum. Genotype-phenotype correlations revealed that patients with CREBBP deletions extending beyond this gene did not always have a more severe phenotype than patients harboring CREBBP point mutations, suggesting that neighboring genes play only a limited role in the etiopathogenesis of CREBBP-centerd contiguous gene syndrome. Accordingly, the extent of the deletion is not predictive of the severity of the clinical phenotype. PMID:25805166

  8. Dissecting the phenotypes of Dravet syndrome by gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Moran; Han, Sung; Tai, Chao; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Hunker, Avery; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

    2015-08-01

    Neurological and psychiatric syndromes often have multiple disease traits, yet it is unknown how such multi-faceted deficits arise from single mutations. Haploinsufficiency of the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1 causes Dravet syndrome, an intractable childhood-onset epilepsy with hyperactivity, cognitive deficit, autistic-like behaviours, and premature death. Deletion of Nav1.1 channels selectively impairs excitability of GABAergic interneurons. We studied mice having selective deletion of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons. In brain slices, these deletions cause increased threshold for action potential generation, impaired action potential firing in trains, and reduced amplification of postsynaptic potentials in those interneurons. Selective deletion of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons increases susceptibility to thermally-induced seizures, which are strikingly prolonged when Nav1.1 is deleted in both interneuron types. Mice with global haploinsufficiency of Nav1.1 display autistic-like behaviours, hyperactivity and cognitive impairment. Haploinsufficiency of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin-expressing interneurons causes autistic-like behaviours, but not hyperactivity, whereas haploinsufficiency in somatostatin-expressing interneurons causes hyperactivity without autistic-like behaviours. Heterozygous deletion in both interneuron types is required to impair long-term spatial memory in context-dependent fear conditioning, without affecting short-term spatial learning or memory. Thus, the multi-faceted phenotypes of Dravet syndrome can be genetically dissected, revealing synergy in causing epilepsy, premature death and deficits in long-term spatial memory, but interneuron-specific effects on hyperactivity and autistic-like behaviours. These results show that multiple disease traits can arise from similar functional deficits in specific interneuron types. PMID:26017580

  9. Dissecting the phenotypes of Dravet syndrome by gene deletion

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Moran; Han, Sung; Tai, Chao; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Hunker, Avery; Scheuer, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Neurological and psychiatric syndromes often have multiple disease traits, yet it is unknown how such multi-faceted deficits arise from single mutations. Haploinsufficiency of the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1 causes Dravet syndrome, an intractable childhood-onset epilepsy with hyperactivity, cognitive deficit, autistic-like behaviours, and premature death. Deletion of Nav1.1 channels selectively impairs excitability of GABAergic interneurons. We studied mice having selective deletion of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons. In brain slices, these deletions cause increased threshold for action potential generation, impaired action potential firing in trains, and reduced amplification of postsynaptic potentials in those interneurons. Selective deletion of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons increases susceptibility to thermally-induced seizures, which are strikingly prolonged when Nav1.1 is deleted in both interneuron types. Mice with global haploinsufficiency of Nav1.1 display autistic-like behaviours, hyperactivity and cognitive impairment. Haploinsufficiency of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin-expressing interneurons causes autistic-like behaviours, but not hyperactivity, whereas haploinsufficiency in somatostatin-expressing interneurons causes hyperactivity without autistic-like behaviours. Heterozygous deletion in both interneuron types is required to impair long-term spatial memory in context-dependent fear conditioning, without affecting short-term spatial learning or memory. Thus, the multi-faceted phenotypes of Dravet syndrome can be genetically dissected, revealing synergy in causing epilepsy, premature death and deficits in long-term spatial memory, but interneuron-specific effects on hyperactivity and autistic-like behaviours. These results show that multiple disease traits can arise from similar functional deficits in specific interneuron types. PMID:26017580

  10. eQTL mapping identifies insertion- and deletion-specific eQTLs in multiple tissues.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinyan; Chen, Jun; Esparza, Jorge; Ding, Jun; Elder, James T; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Lee, Young-Ae; Mark Lathrop, G; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cookson, William O C; Liang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping have been focused on single-nucleotide polymorphisms and have helped interpret findings from diseases mapping studies. The functional effect of structure variants, especially short insertions and deletions (indel) has not been well investigated. Here we impute 1,380,133 indels based on the latest 1,000 Genomes Project panel into three eQTL data sets from multiple tissues. Imputation of indels increased 9.9% power and identifies indel-specific eQTLs for 325 genes. We find introns and vicinities of UTRs are more enriched of indel eQTLs and 3.6 (single-tissue)-9.2%(multi-tissue) of previous identified eSNPs were taggers of eindels. Functional analyses identifies epigenetics marks, gene ontology categories and disease GWAS loci affected by SNPs and indels eQTLs showing tissue-consistent or tissue-specific effects. This study provides new insights into the underlying genetic architecture of gene expression across tissues and new resource to interpret function of diseases and traits associated structure variants. PMID:25951796

  11. eQTL mapping identify insertion and deletion specific eQTLs in multiple tissues

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinyan; Chen, Jun; Esparza, Jorge; Ding, Jun; Elder, James; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Lee, Young-Ae; Lathrop, G. Mark; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cookson, William O C; Liang, Liming

    2016-01-01

    GenomeC wide gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping have been focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms and have helped interpret findings from diseases mapping studies. The functional effect of structure variants, especially short insertions and deletions (indel) has not been well investigated. Here we imputed 1,380,133 indels based on the latest 1000 Genomes Project panel into 3 eQTL datasets from multiple tissues. Imputation of indels increased 9.9% power and identified indel specific eQTLs for 325 genes. We found introns and vicinities of UTRs were more enriched of indel eQTLs and 3.6 (singleC tissue)C 9.2%(multiC tissue) of previous identified eSNPs were taggers of eindels. Functional analyses identified epigenetics marks, gene ontology categories and disease GWAS loci affected by SNPs and indels eQTLs showing tissueC consistent or tissueC specific effects. This study provides new insights into the underlying genetic architecture of gene expression across tissues and new resource to interpret function of diseases and traits associated structure variants. PMID:25951796

  12. Deletion mapping of a locus on human chromosome 22 involved in the oncogenesis of meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Dumanski, J.P.; Carlbom, E.; Collins, V.P.; Nordenskjoeld, M.

    1987-12-01

    The genotypes were analyzed at 11 polymorphic DNA loci (restriction fragment length alleles) on chromosome 22 in tumor and normal tissues from 35 unrelated patients with meningiomas. Sixteen tumors retained the constitutional genotype along chromosome 22, while 14 tumors (40%) showed loss of one constitutional allele at all informative loci, consistent with monosomy 22 in the tumor DNA. The remaining 5 tumors (14%) showed loss of heterozygosity in the tumor DNA at one or more chromosome 22 loci and retained heterozygosity at other loci, consistent with variable terminal deletions of one chromosome 22 in the tumor DNA. The results suggest that a meningioma locus is located distal to the myoglobin locus, within 22q12.3-qter. Multiple loci on their chromosomes also were studied, and 12 of the 19 tumors with losses of chromosome 22 alleles showed additional losses of heterozygosity at loci on one to three other chromosomes. All tumors that retained the constitutional genotype on chromosome 22 also retained heterozygosity at all informative loci on other chromosomes analyzed, suggesting that the rearrangement of chromosome 22 is a primary event in the tumorigenesis of meningioma.

  13. Paracentric inversion of chromosome 2 associated with cryptic duplication of 2q14 and deletion of 2q37 in a patient with autism

    PubMed Central

    Devillard, Françoise; Guinchat, Vincent; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Gruchy, Nicolas; Guillem, Pascale; Nguyen Morel, Marie-Ange; Leporrier, Nathalie; Leboyer, Marion; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Lespinasse, James; Betancur, Catalina

    2010-01-01

    We describe a patient with autism and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 2q14.2q37.3, with a concurrent duplication of the proximal breakpoint at 2q14.1q14.2 and a deletion of the distal breakpoint at 2q37.3. The abnormality was derived from his mother with a balanced paracentric inversion. The inversion in the child appeared to be cytogenetically balanced but subtelomere FISH revealed a cryptic deletion at the 2q37.3 breakpoint. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array confirmed the presence of a 3.5 Mb deletion that extended to the telomere, and showed a 4.2 Mb duplication at 2q14.1q14.2. FISH studies using a 2q14.2 probe showed that the duplicated segment was located at the telomeric end of chromosome 2q. This recombinant probably resulted from breakage of a dicentric chromosome. The child had autism, mental retardation, speech and language delay, hyperactivity, growth retardation with growth hormone deficiency, insulin-dependent diabetes, and mild facial dysmorphism. Most of these features have been previously described in individuals with simple terminal deletion of 2q37. Pure duplications of the proximal chromosome 2q are rare and no specific syndrome has been defined yet, so the contribution of the 2q14.1q14.2 duplication to the phenotype of the patient is unknown. These findings underscore the need to explore apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements inherited from a phenotypically normal parent in subjects with autism and/or developmental delay. In addition, they provide further evidence indicating that chromosome 2q terminal deletions are among the most frequently reported cytogenetic abnormalities in individuals with autism. PMID:20684015

  14. Construction of Deletion-knockout Mutant Fowlpox Virus (FWPV)

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Stephen M.; Skinner, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The construction of deletion-knockout poxviruses is a useful approach to determining the function of specific virus genes. This protocol is an adaptation of the transient dominant knockout selection protocol published by Falkner and Moss (1990) for use with vaccinia virus. The protocol makes use of the dominant selectable marker Escherichia coli guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene (Mulligan and Berg, 1981), under the control of an early/late poxvirus promoter. The deletion viruses that are produced no longer contain a selectable marker, which may be preferable for the production of vaccines.

  15. Contribution of GSTM1, GSTT1, and MTHFR polymorphisms to end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology in Mexicans

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Amavizca, B. E.; Orozco-Castellanos, R.; Ortíz-Orozco, R.; Padilla-Gutiérrez, J.; Valle, Y.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, N.; García-García, G.; Gallegos-Arreola, M.; Figuera, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is increased in chronic kidney disease, owing to an imbalance between the oxidative and antioxidant pathways as well as a state of persistent hyperhomocysteinemia. The enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are implicated in the regulation of these pathways. This study investigates the association between polymorphisms in the Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), and MTHFR genes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of unknown etiology in patients in Mexico. A Case-control study included 110 ESRD patients and 125 healthy individuals. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was studied using a PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In ESRD patients, GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies were 61% and 7% respectively. GSTM1 genotype frequencies differed significantly between groups, showing that homozygous deletion of the GSTM1 gene was associated with susceptibility to ESRD of unknown etiology (P = 0.007, odds ratios = 2.05, 95% confidence interval 1.21-3.45). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism genotype and allele distributions were similar in both groups (P > 0.05), and the CT genotype was the most common genotype in both groups (45.5% and 46.6%). Our findings suggest that the GSTM1 null polymorphism appears to be associated with the ESRD of unknown etiology in patients in Mexico. PMID:24339523

  16. Significant correlation of angiotensin converting enzyme and glycoprotein IIIa genes polymorphisms with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss in north of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fazelnia, Shokoufeh; Farazmandfar,, Touraj; Hashemi-Soteh, Seyed Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous abortion is considered as the most complex problem during pregnancy. Thrombophilia is resumed as a cause of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) gene is involved in thrombosis and abortion. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and is involved in thrombosis. The most common polymorphism in this gene is the insertion/deletion (I/D). Objective: In this study, we analyzed the association between ACE I/D and GPIIIa c.98C >T polymorphisms in women with unexplained RPL from the north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Sample population consisted of 100 women with unexplained RPL and 100 controls. The ACE I/D and GPIIIa c.98C>T polymorphisms were genotyped by TETRA-ARMS PCR. The association between genotypes frequency and RPL were analyzed using χ2 and exact fisher tests. Associated risk with double genotype combinations was also investigated by binary logistic regression. Results: There was significant association between ACE DD genotype and RPL (OR=2.04; 95% CI=0.94-4.44; p=0.036). ACE D Allele was also significantly associated with the RPL (OR=1.59; 95% CI=1.05-2.41; p=0.013). No significant association was observed between GPIIIa c.98C>T polymorphism and RPL. Conclusion: ACE I/D polymorphism may probably be a prognostic factor in female family members of women with the history of recurrent abortion. PMID:27326417

  17. Development of Novel High-Resolution Melting-Based Assays for Genotyping Two Alu Insertion Polymorphisms (FXIIIB and PV92).

    PubMed

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; Rodríguez-Dueñas, Marisol; Forero, Diego A

    2016-03-01

    Insertion/Deletion polymorphisms (InDels) are a common type of genetic variation, with a growing role in population genetics and applied genomics. There is the need for the development of novel cost-effective assays for genotyping InDels of high importance. The main objective of this study was to develop high-resolution melting-based assays for genotyping two commonly studied Alu insertion polymorphisms: FXIIIB and PV92 (rs70942849 and rs3138523). Three primers (two forward and one reverse) were designed for each marker, and high-resolution melting (HRM) analyses in a qPCR platform were performed, using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. For each one of the two Alu insertion polymorphisms, HRM analyses identified distinguishable peaks for the three genotypes, allowing a robust genotyping. Results were validated using 96 DNA samples previously genotyped and the assays worked with different DNA concentrations. In this study, we developed novel cost-effective assays, using qPCR, for genotyping two Alu insertion polymorphisms (widely used as ancestry markers). Our results highlight the feasibility of using HRM analyses for genotyping InDel polymorphisms of medical and biotechnological importance. PMID:26843017

  18. IPD: the Immuno Polymorphism Database.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James; Marsh, Steven G E

    2007-01-01

    The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/) is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR, contains the allelic sequences of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs); IPD-MHC, a database of sequences of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of different species; IPD-HPA, alloantigens expressed only on platelets; and IPD-ESTAB, which provides access to the European Searchable Tumour Cell Line Database, a cell bank of immunologically characterized melanoma cell lines. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and curate individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. The IPD project stores all the data in a set of related databases. Those sections with similar data, such as IPD-KIR and IPD-MHC, share the same database structure. PMID:18449992

  19. Large Deletions and Point Mutations Involving DOCK8 in the Autosomal Recessive Form of the Hyper-IgE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Karin R.; McGhee, Sean; Winkler, Sabine; Sassi, Atfa; Woellner, Cristina; Lopez-Herrera, Gabriela; Chen, Andrew; Kim, Hong Sook; Lloret, Maria Garcia; Schulze, Ilka; Ehl, Stephan; Thiel, Jens; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Veelken, Hendrik; Niehues, Tim; Siepermann, Kathrin; Weinspach, Sebastian; Reisli, Ismail; Keles, Sevgi; Genel, Ferah; Kütükçüler, Necil; Camcioğlu, Yildiz; Somer, Ayper; Aydiner, Elif Karakoc; Barlan, Isil; Gennery, Andrew; Metin, Ayse; Degerliyurt, Aydan; Pietrogrande, Maria C.; Yeganeh, Mehdi; Baz, Zeina; Al-Tamemi, Salem; Klein, Christoph; Puck, Jennifer M.; Holland, Steven M.; McCabe, Edward R. B.; Grimbacher, Bodo; Chatila, Talal

    2010-01-01

    Background The genetic etiologies of the hyper-IgE syndromes are diverse. Approximately 60-70% of patients with hyper-IgE syndrome have dominant mutations in STAT3, and a single patient was reported to have a homozygous TYK2 mutation. In the remaining hyper-IgE syndrome patients, the genetic etiology has not yet been identified. Methods We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analysis for nine subjects with autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome to locate copy number variations and homozygous haplotypes. Homozygosity mapping was performed with twelve subjects from seven additional families. The candidate gene was analyzed by genomic and cDNA sequencing to identify causative alleles in a total of 27 patients with autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome. Findings Subtelomeric microdeletions were identified in six subjects at the terminus of chromosome 9p. In all patients the deleted interval involved DOCK8, encoding a protein implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Sequencing of subjects without large deletions revealed 16 patients from nine unrelated families with distinct homozygous mutations in DOCK8 causing premature termination, frameshift, splice site disruption, single exon- and micro-deletions. DOCK8 deficiency was associated with impaired activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Interpretation Autosomal recessive mutations in DOCK8 are responsible for many, though not all, cases of autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome. DOCK8 disruption is associated with a phenotype of severe cellular immunodeficiency characterized by susceptibility to viral infections, atopic eczema, defective T cell activation and TH17 cell differentiation; and impaired eosinophil homeostasis and dysregulation of IgE. PMID:20004785

  20. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    I want to discuss both the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium and the Human Genome Project. I am afraid most of my presentation will be thin on law and possibly too high on rhetoric. Having been engaged in a personal and direct way with these issues as a trained scientist, I find it quite difficult to be always as objective as I ought to be.

  1. Deletion and deletion/insertion mutations in the juxtamembrane domain of the FLT3 gene in adult acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Kristin K.; Smonskey, Matthew T.; DeFedericis, HanChun; Deeb, George; Sait, Sheila N.J.; Wetzler, Meir; Wang, Eunice S.; Starostik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to FLT3 ITD mutations, in-frame deletions in the FLT3 gene have rarely been described in adult acute leukemia. We report two cases of AML with uncommon in-frame mutations in the juxtamembrane domain of the FLT3 gene: a 3-bp (c.1770_1774delCTACGinsGT; p.F590_V592delinsLF) deletion/insertion and a 12-bp (c.1780_1791delTTCAGAGAATAT; p.F594_Y597del) deletion. We verified by sequencing that the reading frame of the FLT3 gene was preserved and by cDNA analysis that the mRNA of the mutant allele was expressed in both cases. Given the recent development of FLT3 inhibitors, our findings may be of therapeutic value for AML patients harboring similar FLT3 mutations. PMID:25379410

  2. A HindIII polymorphism detected by cDMD 4-5a at the DMD locus in a family with Becker muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Gibb, M.F.; Greenberg, C.R.; Carson, N.L.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions within the dystrophin gene can be detected by hybridizing a series of cDNA probes to HindIII-digested DNA, with the absence of one or more fragments indicating the presence of a deletion. However, incorrect interpretations can be made if the absence of a fragment is due to a polymorphism rather than a deletion. Otto and Rothbery reported that the 5.2 kb fragment detected by cM 4-5a could be resolved, with extended electrophoresis, into two fragments estimated to be 5.2 and 5.15 kb in size. They concluded that the extra fragment of this doublet appears to be polymorphic, inherited in a Mendelian dominant fashion. The mother, who is an obligate carrier of BMD, does not have the upper fragment as is the case for her normal and affected sons. The father, who clinically has no evidence of neuromuscular disease, does have the upper fragment as do all their daughters. Given a dominant pattern of inheritance, the daughters should be heterozygous. Analysis of one grandson, who was predicted to have inherited the grandpaternal dystrophin gene, showed that he did have the upper fragment, consistent with our conclusions. To date, we have been unable to analyze a grandson that has inherited the grandmaternal allele; however, presuably he would not have the upper fragment of this doublet. We conclude that there likely is a dominant HindIII polymorphism detected with the cDMD 4-5a probe at the DMD locus. Population studies will be required to determine the frequency of this polymorphism; however, it should be noted that absence of the upper fragment of this doublet in a male with BMD/DMD does not necessarily correspond to the presence of a deletion.

  3. Mutation and deletion analysis of GFRα-1, encoding the co-receptor for the GDNF/RET complex, in human brain tumours

    PubMed Central

    Gimm, O; Gössling, A; Marsh, D J; Dahia, P L M; Mulligan, L M; Deimling, A von; Eng, C

    1999-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays a key role in the control of vertebrate neuron survival and differentiation in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. GDNF preferentially binds to GFRα-1 which then interacts with the receptor tyrosine kinase RET. We investigated a panel of 36 independent cases of mainly advanced sporadic brain tumours for the presence of mutations in GDNF and GFRα-1. No mutations were found in the coding region of GDNF. We identified six previously described GFRα-1 polymorphisms, two of which lead to an amino acid change. In 15 of 36 brain tumours, all polymorphic variants appeared to be homozygous. Of these 15 tumours, one also had a rare, apparently homozygous, sequence variant at codon 361. Because of the rarity of the combination of homozygous sequence variants, analysis for hemizygous deletion was pursued in the 15 samples and loss of heterozygosity was found in 11 tumours. Our data suggest that intragenic point mutations of GDNF or GFRα-1 are not a common aetiologic event in brain tumours. However, either deletion of GFRα-1 and/or nearby genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of these tumours. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408842

  4. Hypertension-associated C825T polymorphism impairs the function of Gβ3 to target GRK2 ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Zhengyu; Han, Xiao-Ran; Smith, Matthew D; Lei, Qun-Ying; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Population-based and case–control studies in different ethnicities have linked a polymorphism, C825T, in exon 10 of GNB3 gene to hypertension and several additional diseases. The 825T allele is associated with alternative splicing and results in a shortened Gβ3 protein, referred to as Gβ3s, which loses 41 amino acids encompassing one WD40 repeat domain. The mechanism of how Gβ3 C825T polymorphism is associated with hypertension has remained unclear, but an impairment of its canonical function in G-protein-coupled receptor signaling has been ruled out. Here, we report that Gβ3, like other Gβ proteins, binds to DDB1 and assembles a DDB1-CUL4A-ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4AGβ3) to target GRK2 ubiquitination. The loss of the 41 amino-acid residues disrupts the Gβ3-DDB1 binding and impairs the function of Gβ3s to ubiquitinate GRK2. GRK2 ubiquitination levels were decreased and protein levels were accumulated in the blood samples of Gβ3 825T allele carriers. Deletion of Cul4a in mice resulted in systolic pressure increased and weakened heart function in male mice that can be partially rescued by the deletion of one Grk2 allele. These results reveal a mechanism explaining the link between Gβ3 C825T polymorphism and hypertension. PMID:27462452

  5. Multigene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1996-06-01

    K-ras codon 12 point mutations mRb and p53 gene deletions were examined in tissues from 120 normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were Formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago. The results showed that 12 of 60 (20%) lung adenocarcinomas had mRb deletions. All lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found bearing deleted mRb had p53 deletions (15 of 15; 100%). A significantly higher mutation frequency for K-ras codon 12 point mutations was also found in the lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 24 once-weekly neutron irradiation (10 of 10; 100%) compared with those exposed to 24 or 60 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses (5 of 10; 50%). The data suggested that p53 and K-ras gene alterations were two contributory factors responsible for the increased incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in B6CF{sub 1} male mice exposed to protracted neutron radiation.

  6. Expanding Our Understanding of mtDNA Deletions.

    PubMed

    Picard, Martin; Vincent, Amy E; Turnbull, Doug M

    2016-07-12

    Clonal expansion of mtDNA deletions compromises mitochondrial function in human disease and aging, but how deleterious mtDNA genomes propagate has remained unclear. In this issue (Gitschlag et al., 2016) and in a recent Nature publication, C. elegans studies implicate the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) and offer mechanistic insights into this process. PMID:27411002

  7. 76 FR 50184 - Procurement List, Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/20/2011 (76 FR 29210-29211) and 6/17/2011 (76 FR 35415-35417), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published...: Department of Veterans Affairs, VISN 11, Indianapolis, IN Deletions On 4/8/2011 (76 FR 19750-19751),...

  8. 76 FR 51954 - Procurement List Additions And Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... CMTEFedReg@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/17/2011 (76 FR 35415-35417), 6/24/2011 (76 FR 37069-37070), and 7/1/2011 (76 FR 38641-38642), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, DC. Deletions On 5/27/2011 (76 FR 30923-30924) and...

  9. 76 FR 23998 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to and... Received On or Before: 5/30/2011. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or...

  10. 77 FR 26520 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Rouge, LA. Deletions On 3/2/2012 (77 FR 12816-12817), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 3/2/2012 (77 FR 12816-12817) and 3/9/2012 (77 FR..., 2695 Sherwood Forest, Baton Rouge, LA. NPA: Louisiana Industries for the Disabled, Inc., Baton...

  11. 78 FR 29119 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 3/15/2013 (78 FR 16475-16476) and 3/22/2013 (78 FR 17641-17642), the...: Washington Headquarters Services (WHS), Acquisition Directorate, Washington, DC. Deletion On 4/5/2013 (78 FR...--Self Stick Rectangular Flag, ``Sign Here'', 1.0'' x 1.75'', Yellow, 100 Flags per pack....

  12. 42 CFR 401.118 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 401.118 Section 401.118 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure §...

  13. 76 FR 27999 - Procurement List; Addition and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Addition On 3/11/2011 (76 FR 13362-13363), the Committee for Purchase From People Who.... ] Deletion On 3/11/2011 (76 FR 13362-13363), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely... legislative history unmistakably show that Congress understood the importance of job creation for people...

  14. 75 FR 76961 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ...The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities and to delete services previously provided by such agencies. Comments Must Be Received on or Before:...

  15. 23 CFR 658.11 - Additions, deletions, exceptions, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and serve the area in which such segment is located. (iv) Evidence of consultation with the local... § 658.11 Additions, deletions, exceptions, and restrictions. To ensure that the National Network remains... National Network as well as requests for the imposition of certain restrictions. FHWA approval...

  16. 75 FR 56996 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...: CMTEFedReg@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/16/2010 (75 FR 41451) and 7/23/2010 (75 FR 43153-43155), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled... Currency, Washington, DC. Deletions On 6/25/2010 (75 FR 36363-36371); 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499); and...

  17. 75 FR 44940 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769), the Committee for... Administration, Hdqtrs-- Office of Acquisition & Grants, Baltimore, MD. Deletions On 5/21/2010 (75 FR 28589-28590); 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769); and 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271), the Committee for Purchase...

  18. 75 FR 5967 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 12/4/2009 (74 FR 63732) and 12/11/2009 (74 FR...., Santa Ana, CA Deletions On 11/23/2009 (74 FR 61114-61115) and 11/27/2009 (74 FR 62287), the Committee...: Declassification/Demilitarization of Hardware, Robins Air Force Base, GA. NPA: Epilepsy Association of...

  19. 75 FR 47551 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions And Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...The Committee is proposing to add products and a service to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities and to delete a service previously provided by such agency. Comments Must be Received On or Before:...

  20. 75 FR 1355 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 11/6/2009 (74 FR 57453-57454), the Committee for Purchase From People... ] Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. Deletions On 10/23/2009 (74 FR 54783-54784) and 11/6/2009 (74 FR 57453- 57454...: GSA/FSS OFC SUP CTR--Paper Products, New York, NY. Candle, Illuminating NSN: 6260-00-161-4296....

  1. 76 FR 30923 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and deletes a product previously furnished by such agency. Comments Must Be Received on or Before:...

  2. 76 FR 13362 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities and to delete a service previously furnished by such agency. Comments Must Be Received On or Before:...

  3. Genetic Counseling for the 22q11.2 Deletion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine H.

    2008-01-01

    Because of advances in palliative medical care, children with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are surviving into adulthood. An increase in reproductive fitness will likely follow necessitating enhanced access to genetic counseling for these patients and their families. Primary care physicians/obstetric practitioners are in a unique position to…

  4. 24 CFR 990.155 - Addition and deletion of units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; Computation of Eligible Unit Months § 990.155 Addition and deletion of units. (a) Changes in public housing unit inventory. To generate a change to its formula amount within each one-year funding period, PHAs...: (1) New units that were added to the ACC, and occupied by a public housing-eligible family during...

  5. 75 FR 7451 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 12/18/2009 (74 FR 67176-67177), the Committee for Purchase From People... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List....

  6. Efficient sequential repetitive gene deletions in Neurospora crassa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite its long-standing history as a model organism, Neurospora crassa has limited tools for repetitive gene deletions utilizing recyclable self-excising marker systems. Here we describe, for the first time, the functionality of a bacterial recombination system employing ß-recombinase acting on si...

  7. 75 FR 28589 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List products and services to be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and to delete a service previously provided by such agency. Comments Must Be Received on or Before:...

  8. Oncolytic Replication of E1b-Deleted Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Wechman, Stephen L.; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2015-01-01

    Various viruses have been studied and developed for oncolytic virotherapies. In virotherapy, a relatively small amount of viruses used in an intratumoral injection preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, leading to the release of amplified viral particles that spread the infection to the surrounding tumor cells and reduce the tumor mass. Adenoviruses (Ads) are most commonly used for oncolytic virotherapy due to their infection efficacy, high titer production, safety, easy genetic modification, and well-studied replication characteristics. Ads with deletion of E1b55K preferentially replicate in and destroy cancer cells and have been used in multiple clinical trials. H101, one of the E1b55K-deleted Ads, has been used for the treatment of late-stage cancers as the first approved virotherapy agent. However, the mechanism of selective replication of E1b-deleted Ads in cancer cells is still not well characterized. This review will focus on three potential molecular mechanisms of oncolytic replication of E1b55K-deleted Ads. These mechanisms are based upon the functions of the viral E1B55K protein that are associated with p53 inhibition, late viral mRNA export, and cell cycle disruption. PMID:26561828

  9. 75 FR 66741 - Procurement List, Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/19/2009 (74 FR 29187-29189) and 9/10/2010 (75 FR 55309-55310), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published... Norfolk, Norfolk, VA. Deletions On 8/27/2010 (75 FR 52723-52724) and 9/3/2010 (75 FR 54115), the...

  10. Oncolytic Replication of E1b-Deleted Adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Wechman, Stephen L; McMasters, Kelly M; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2015-11-01

    Various viruses have been studied and developed for oncolytic virotherapies. In virotherapy, a relatively small amount of viruses used in an intratumoral injection preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, leading to the release of amplified viral particles that spread the infection to the surrounding tumor cells and reduce the tumor mass. Adenoviruses (Ads) are most commonly used for oncolytic virotherapy due to their infection efficacy, high titer production, safety, easy genetic modification, and well-studied replication characteristics. Ads with deletion of E1b55K preferentially replicate in and destroy cancer cells and have been used in multiple clinical trials. H101, one of the E1b55K-deleted Ads, has been used for the treatment of late-stage cancers as the first approved virotherapy agent. However, the mechanism of selective replication of E1b-deleted Ads in cancer cells is still not well characterized. This review will focus on three potential molecular mechanisms of oncolytic replication of E1b55K-deleted Ads. These mechanisms are based upon the functions of the viral E1B55K protein that are associated with p53 inhibition, late viralmRNAexport, and cell cycle disruption. PMID:26561828

  11. 76 FR 13361 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Additions On 1/14/2011 (76 FR 2673-2674), the Committee for Purchase From People..., NC. Deletions On 1/14/2011 (76 FR 2673-2674), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... (PL). The contractor commented that the addition of these services to the PL would result in...

  12. Automatic Element Addition and Deletion in Lens Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Wang, Yongtian; Hao, Qun; Sasian, Jose

    2003-03-01

    A mechanism is established for the automatic addition and deletion of optical elements during the course of lens optimization. Two lens-form parameters, quantifying the symmetry of the optical system and the optical-power distribution among the individual lens elements, are used as criteria in this automatic procedure. Design examples are provided that demonstrate the practicability of the scheme.

  13. Deletion and Interallelic Complementation Analysis of Steel Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bedell, M. A.; Cleveland, L. S.; O'Sullivan, T. N.; Copeland, N. G.; Jenkins, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    Mutations at the Steel (St) locus produce pleiotropic effects on viability as well as hematopoiesis, pigmentation and fertility. Several homozygous viable Sl alleles have previously been shown to contain either structural alterations in mast cell growth factor (Mgf) or regulatory mutations that affect expression of the Mgf gene. More severe Sl alleles cause lethality to homozygous embryos and all lethal Sl alleles examined to data contain deletions that remove the entire Mgf coding region. As the timing of the lethality varies from early to late in gestation, it is possible that some deletions may affect other closely linked genes in addition to Mgf. We have analyzed the extent of deleted sequences in seven homozygous lethal Sl alleles. The results of this analysis suggest that late gestation lethality represents the Sl null phenotype and that peri-implantation lethality results from the deletion of at least one essential gene that maps proximal to Sl. We have also examined gene dosage effects of Sl by comparing the phenotypes of mice homozygous and hemizygous for each of four viable Sl alleles. Lastly, we show that certain combinations of the viable Sl alleles exhibit interallelic complementation. Possible mechanisms by which such complementation could occur are discussed. PMID:8849899

  14. 78 FR 15000 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...The Committee is proposing to add a product and service to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and deletes a product and service previously furnished by such...

  15. 76 FR 3880 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 9/10/2010 (75 FR 55309-55310); 11/15/2010 (75 FR 69639-69640); and 11/19/2010 (75 FR 70909-70910), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... Interior, National Park Service, Midwest Region, Omaha, NE. Deletions On 10/22/2010 (FR 65305) and...

  16. Minimum prevalence of chromosome 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.I.; Cross, I.E.; Burn, J.

    1994-09-01

    Submicroscopic deletions from within chromosome 22q11 are associated with DiGeorge (DGS), velocardiofacial (VCFS) and conotruncal anomaly syndromes and isolated congenital heart defects. In 1993 our pediatric cardiologists clinically referred all children in whom a chromosome 22q11 deletion was suspected for fluorescent in situ hybridization studies using probes from the DGS critical region. 10 affected individuals have been identified to date from the children born in 1993 in the Northern Region served exclusively by our center. A further case, the subsequent pregnancy in one of these families was affected and terminated on the basis of a major heart malformation. In the years 1988-92, for which we have complete ascertainment, there were 1009 heart defects among 191,700 births (mean 202 per annum). Thus we estimate that chromosome 22q11 deletions were the cause of at least 5% of congenital heart disease. As not all children with chromosome 22q11 deletions have a heart defect, this gives an estimated minimum prevalence of 1/4000 live births.

  17. 78 FR 53733 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/8/2013 (78 FR 40727-40728) and 7/12/2013 (78 FR 41915-41916), the... Regional Fleet Mgt Office, Fort Worth, TX ] Deletions On 7/19/2013 (78 FR 43180), the Committee for..., Nylon Mesh, Large NPA: New York City Industries for the Blind, Inc., Brooklyn, NY Contracting...

  18. 76 FR 60810 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and... Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have...

  19. 75 FR 41451 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to and... List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other...

  20. 75 FR 1354 - Procurement List: Proposed Addition and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List: Proposed Addition and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to and... product to be furnished by a nonprofit agency employing persons who are blind or have other...

  1. 78 FR 13868 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and... the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind...

  2. 76 FR 6452 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 9/24/2010 (75 FR 58367); 10/22/2010 (75 FR 65305); and 12/10/ 2010 (75 FR 76961-76962), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely.... Deletions On 12/10/2010 (75 FR 76961-76962), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind...

  3. 75 FR 21244 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...The Committee is proposing to add to the Procurement List products and services to be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and to delete products previously furnished by such agencies. Comments Must Be Received On or Before:...

  4. 77 FR 17035 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to and... Before: 4/23/2012. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely...

  5. 78 FR 32631 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and... or Before: 7/1/2013. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely...

  6. 78 FR 17641 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to and... Before: April 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely...

  7. 77 FR 46411 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and... List that will be provided by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other...

  8. 77 FR 62219 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and... List that will be provided by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other...

  9. 75 FR 25210 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...The Committee is Proposing to add to the Procurement List products and a service to be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and to delete services previously provided by such agencies. Comments Must be Received on or Before:...

  10. 78 FR 54870 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ...: Additions On 6/28/2013 (78 FR 38952-38953) and 7/19/2013 (78 FR 43180), the Committee for Purchase From... CONTRG OFC, Fort Gordon, GA Service Type/Location: Janitorial Service, US Immigration and Customs...: Dept of the Navy, NSWC Crane, Crane, IN Deletions On 7/26/2013 (78 FR45183) and 8/2/2013 (78 FR...

  11. 75 FR 29994 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and... BEFORE: 6/28/2010. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely...

  12. 77 FR 65365 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to and... Before: 11/26/2012. ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely...

  13. 78 FR 21916 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to and... Disabled, 1401 S. Clarke Street, Suite 10800, Arlington, Virginia 22202-4149 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION OR...

  14. 75 FR 70909 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and... Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia,...

  15. 76 FR 19750 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to and... Blind or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  16. 77 FR 27737 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and... Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia 22202-3259....

  17. 77 FR 31335 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to and... Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia...

  18. 78 FR 35874 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions; Clarification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Committee's Notice in the Federal Register of Friday, May 10, 2013 (77 FR 27369... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions and Deletions; Clarification AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  19. 78 FR 4133 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and... Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia,...

  20. 42 CFR 401.118 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 401.118 Section 401.118 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., statement of policy, or other record which relates to a private party or parties, the name or names or...

  1. 42 CFR 401.118 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 401.118 Section 401.118 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., statement of policy, or other record which relates to a private party or parties, the name or names or...

  2. 34 CFR 5.16 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 5.16 Section 5.16... details. Whenever any final opinion, order, or other materials required to be made available pursuant to... other identifying details will constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, the...

  3. 44 CFR 5.27 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... details. 5.27 Section 5.27 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... identifying details. To the extent required to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, FEMA may delete identifying details when making available or publishing an opinion, statement of...

  4. Remarks on Causative Verbs and Object Deletion in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onozuka, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Rappaport Hovav and Levin [Rappaport Hovav, M., Levin, B., 1998. "Building verb meanings." In: Butt, M., Geuder, W. (Eds.), "The Projection of Arguments: Lexical and Compositional Factors." CSLI Publications, Stanford, pp. 97-134] contend that result verbs disallow object deletion because of their lexical semantic properties. Their point is that…

  5. 75 FR 38468 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/30/2010 (75 FR 22744-22745) and 5/7/2010 (75 FR..., Office of Procurement, Washington, DC. Deletions On 5/7/2010 (75 FR 25210-25211), the Committee for... Requirement as aggregated by the General Services Administration. NSN: 8415-01-579-9276--ACU Sun...

  6. 78 FR 20622 - Procurement List, Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ...The Committee is proposing to add products to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, and delete services previously provided by such agencies. Comments Must Be Received On or Before:...

  7. Association Between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Tics after Treatment with Methylphenidate in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seo Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene) and methylphenidate (MPH) treatment response, as well as the association between the adverse events of MPH treatment and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A total of 114 children with ADHD (mean age 9.08 ± 1.94 years) were recruited from the child psychiatric clinic in a hospital in South Korea. We have extracted the genomic DNA of the subjects from their blood lymphocytes and analyzed 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene. All children were treated with MPH for 8 weeks, with clinicians monitoring both the improvement of ADHD symptoms and the side effects. We compared the response to MPH treatment and adverse events among those with the genotype of 5-HRRLPR polymorphism. Results: There was no significant association between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and the response to MPH treatment in children with ADHD. Subjects with the S/L+L/L genotype tended to have tics and nail biting (respectively, p < 0.001, p = 0.017). Conclusions: The results of this study do not support the association between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and treatment response with MPH in ADHD. However, our findings suggest the association between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and the occurrence of tics and nail-biting as an adverse event of methylphenidate. This may aid in our understanding of the genetic contribution and genetic susceptibility of a particular allele in those ADHD patients with tics or nail biting. PMID:26402385

  8. Effects of RAGE Gene Polymorphisms on the Risk and Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Su, Shih-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Chou, Ying-Erh; Fan, Wen-Lang; Yeh, Chao-Bin; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2015-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy of the liver, whose heterogeneous incidence reflects genetic variations among individuals in the main risk factors. The receptor for advanced glycosylation endproducts (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor and known to be implicated in various pathogenic conditions, such as diabetes, inflammatory disorder, Alzheimer disease, and cancer. In this study, the impact of RAGE gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenesis was explored. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs184003 (1704G > T), rs1800624 (-374T > A), rs1800625 (-429T > C), and rs2070600 (Gly82Ser), as well as 1 gene polymorphism of RAGE gene, a 63 bp deletion allele (-407 to -345) were analyzed between 300 cancer-free subjects and 265 HCC cases. We detected a significant association of rs1800625 with the increased risk of HCC (odds ratio [OR], 2.565; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.492-4.409 and adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.568; 95% CI, 1.418-4.653). However, patients who possess at least 1 polymorphic allele of rs1800625 are less prone to develop late-stage (stage III/IV, OR, 0.502; 95% CI, 0.243-1.037; P = 0.059 and AOR, 0.461; 95% CI, 0.219-0.970; P = 0.041) and large-size tumors (OR, 0.398; 95% CI, 0.183-0.864; P = 0.017 and AOR, 0.351; 95% CI, 0.157-0.781; P = 0.010). Furthermore, individuals bearing specific haplotypes of 4 RAGE SNPs tested are more inclined to have HCC. In conclusion, our data suggest a correlation of RAGE gene polymorphism rs1800625 with the early stage of liver tumorigenesis and implicate its protective role in the progression of HCC. PMID:26313784

  9. Evidence for polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 2D50 gene in horses.

    PubMed

    Corado, C R; McKemie, D S; Young, A; Knych, H K

    2016-06-01

    Metabolism is an essential factor in the clearance of many drugs and as such plays a major role in the establishment of dosage regimens and withdrawal times. CYP2D6, the human orthologue to equine CYP2D50, is a drug-metabolizing enzyme that is highly polymorphic in humans leading to widely differing levels of metabolic activity. As CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic, in this study it was hypothesized that the gene coding for the equine orthologue, CYP2D50, may also be prone to polymorphism. Blood samples were collected from 150 horses, the CYP2D50 gene was cloned and sequenced; and full-length sequences were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), deletions, or insertions. Pharmacokinetic data were collected from a subset of horses following the administration of a single oral dose of tramadol and probit analysis used to calculate metabolic ratios. Prior to drug administration, the ability of recombinant CYP2D50 to metabolize tramadol to O-desmethyltramadol was confirmed. Sequencing of CYP2D50 identified 126 exonic SNPs, with 31 of those appearing in multiple horses. Oral administration of tramadol to a subset of these horses revealed variable metabolic ratios (tramadol: O-desmethyltramadol) in individual horses and separation into three metabolic groups. While a limited number of horses of primarily a single breed were studied, the variability in tramadol metabolism to O-desmethyltramadol between horses and preliminary evidence of what appears to be poor, extensive, and ultra-rapid metabolizers supports further study of the potential for genetic polymorphisms in the CYP2D50 gene in horses. PMID:26441153

  10. Somatic amplifications and deletions in genome of papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Passon, Nadia; Bregant, Elisa; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Dima, Maria; Rosignolo, Francesca; Durante, Cosimo; Celano, Marilena; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Somatic gene copy number variation contributes to tumor progression. Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array, the presence of genomic imbalances was evaluated in a series of 27 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). To detect only somatic imbalances, for each sample, the reference DNA was from normal thyroid tissue of the same patient. The presence of the BRAF V600E mutation was also evaluated. Both amplifications and deletions showed an uneven distribution along the entire PTC cohort; amplifications were more frequent than deletions (mean values of 17.5 and 7.2, respectively). Number of aberration events was not even among samples, the majority of them occurring only in a small fraction of PTCs. Most frequent amplifications were detected at regions 2q35, 4q26, and 4q34.1, containing FN1, PDE5A, and GALNTL6 genes, respectively. Most frequent deletions occurred at regions 6q25.2, containing OPMR1 and IPCEF1 genes and 7q14.2, containing AOAH and ELMO1 genes. Amplification of FN1 and PDE5A genomic regions was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Frequency of amplifications and deletions was in relationship with clinical features and BRAF mutation status of tumor. In fact, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk classification, amplifications are more frequent in higher risk samples, while deletions tend to prevail in the lower risk tumors. Analysis of single aberrations according to the ATA risk grouping shows that amplifications containing PDE5A, GALNTL6, DHRS3, and DOCK9 genes are significantly more frequent in the intermediate/high risk group than in the low risk group. Thus, our data would indicate that analysis of somatic genome aberrations by CGH array can be useful to identify additional prognostic variables. PMID:25863487

  11. Deletion affecting band 7q36 not associated with holoprosencephaly

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahim, S.A.D.; Krivchenia, E.; Mohamed, A.N.

    1994-09-01

    Although the appearance of 7q36 aberrations have been postulated to be responsible for holoprosencephaly (HPE), the presence of a de novo 7q36 deletion in fetus without HPE has not been reported. We report the first case of a fetus with 7q36 deletion but lacking HPE. Ultrasound examination of a 25-year-old G3P1 Caucasian female showed small head circumference with microcephaly at 28 weeks. Decreased amniotic fluid volume, bilateral renal dilatation and abnormal facial features were also noted. Chromosome analysis after cordocentesis showed an abnormal female karyotype with a deletion involving the chromosome band 7q36, 46,XX,del(7)(q36). Chromosome studies on the biological parents were normal. In view of the chromosome finding and after extensive counseling, the couple elected to terminate the pregnancy. The chromosome findings were confirmed by fetal blood chromosome analysis at termination. Post-mortem examination confirmed dysmorphic features including a depressed nasal bridge and large flat ears with no lobules, but no cleft lip or palate was noted. Internal abnormalities included a bicuspid pulmonary valve and abnormally located lungs. The brain weighed 190g (249 {plus_minus} 64g expected) and had symmetric cerebral hemispheres without evidence of HPE or other gross or microscopic malformation, except focal cerebellar cortical dysplasia. In summary, our patient showed a deletion of the same chromosomal band implicated in HPE but lacked HPE. This finding indicates that 7q36 deletion may be seen in the absence of HPE and suggests that other genetic mechanisms may be responsible for HPE in this setting.

  12. A case of autism with an interstitial deletion on 4q leading to hemizygosity for genes encoding for glutamine and glycine neurotransmitter receptor sub-units (AMPA 2, GLRA3, GLRB) and neuropeptide receptors NPY1R, NPY5R

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Subhadra; Woodroffe, Abigail; Flodman, Pamela L; Mays, Lee Z; Hanouni, Mona; Modahl, Charlotte B; Steinberg-Epstein, Robin; Bocian, Maureen E; Spence, M Anne; Smith, Moyra

    2004-01-01

    Background Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by a triad of deficits: qualitative impairments in social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Although autism is etiologically heterogeneous, family and twin studies have established a definite genetic basis. The inheritance of idiopathic autism is presumed to be complex, with many genes involved; environmental factors are also possibly contributory. The analysis of chromosome abnormalities associated with autism contributes greatly to the identification of autism candidate genes. Case presentation We describe a child with autistic disorder and an interstitial deletion on chromosome 4q. This child first presented at 12 months of age with developmental delay and minor dysmorphic features. At 4 years of age a diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorder was made. At 11 years of age he met diagnostic criteria for autism. Cytogenetic studies revealed a chromosome 4q deletion. The karyotype was 46, XY del 4 (q31.3-q33). Here we report the clinical phenotype of the child and the molecular characterization of the deletion using molecular cytogenetic techniques and analysis of polymorphic markers. These studies revealed a 19 megabase deletion spanning 4q32 to 4q34. Analysis of existing polymorphic markers and new markers developed in this study revealed that the deletion arose on a paternally derived chromosome. To date 33 genes of known or inferred function are deleted as a consequence of the deletion. Among these are the AMPA 2 gene that encodes the glutamate receptor GluR2 sub-unit, GLRA3 and GLRB genes that encode glycine receptor subunits and neuropeptide Y receptor genes NPY1R and NPY5R. Conclusions The deletion in this autistic subject serves to highlight specific autism candidate genes. He is hemizygous for AMPA 2, GLRA3, GLRB, NPY1R and NPY5R. GluR2 is the major determinant of AMPA receptor structure. Glutamate receptors maintain structural

  13. Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C.; Sun, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333

  14. SSCP analysis and sequencing of the human prion protein gene (PRNP) detects two different 24 bp deletions in an atypical Alzheimer`s disease family

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.T.; Go, R.C.P.; Harrell, L.E.; Acton, R.T.

    1995-02-27

    Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is a progressive, degenerative neurological disorder of the central nervous system. AD is the fourth leading cause of death in elderly persons 65 years or older in Western industrialized societies. The etiology of AD is unknown, but clinical, pathological, epidemiological, and molecular investigations suggest it is etiologically heterogeneous. Mutations in the amyloid protein are rare and segregate with the disease in a few early-onset familial AD (FAD) families. Similarities between AD and the unconventional viral (UCV) diseases, and between the amyloid and prion proteins, implicate the human prion protein gene (PRNP) as another candidate gene. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to screen for mutations at this locus in 82 AD patients from 54 families (30 FAD), vs. 39 age-matched controls. A 24-bp deletion around codon 68 that codes for one of five Gly-Pro rich octarepeats was identified in two affected sibs and one offspring of one late-onset FAD family. Two other affected sibs, three unaffected sibs, and three offspring from this family, in addition to one sporadic AD patient and three age-matched controls, were heterozygous for another octarepeat deletion located around codon 82. Two of the four affected sibs had features of PD, including one who was autopsy-verified AD and PD. Although these deletions were found infrequently in other AD patients and controls, they appear to be a rare polymorphism that is segregating in this FAD family. It does not appear that mutations at the PRNP locus are frequently associated with AD in this population. 54 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Novel genetic polymorphisms that further delineate the phylogeny of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Huard, Richard C; Fabre, Michel; de Haas, Petra; Lazzarini, Luiz Claudio Oliveira; van Soolingen, Dick; Cousins, Debby; Ho, John L

    2006-06-01

    In a previous report, we described a PCR protocol for the differentiation of the various species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) on the basis of genomic deletions (R. C. Huard, L. C. de Oliveira Lazzarini, W. R. Butler, D. van Soolingen, and J. L. Ho, J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:1637-1650, 2003). That report also provided a broad cross-comparison of several previously identified, phylogenetically relevant, long-sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (LSPs and SNPs, respectively). In the present companion report, we expand upon the previous work (i) by continuing the evaluation of known MTC phylogenetic markers in a larger collection of tubercle bacilli (n = 125), (ii) by evaluating additional recently reported MTC species-specific and interspecific polymorphisms, and (iii) by describing the identification and distribution of a number of novel LSPs and SNPs. Notably, new genomic deletions were found in various Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, new species-specific SNPs were identified for "Mycobacterium canettii," Mycobacterium microti, and Mycobacterium pinnipedii, and, for the first time, intraspecific single-nucleotide DNA differences were discovered for the dassie bacillus, the oryx bacillus, and the two Mycobacterium africanum subtype I variants. Surprisingly, coincident polymorphisms linked one M. africanum subtype I genotype with the dassie bacillus and M. microti with M. pinnipedii, thereby suggesting closer evolutionary ties within each pair of species than had been previously thought. Overall, the presented data add to the genetic definitions of several MTC organisms as well as fine-tune current models for the evolutionary history of the MTC. PMID:16740934

  16. Lysis Delay and Burst Shrinkage of Coliphage T7 by Deletion of Terminator Tφ Reversed by Deletion of Early Genes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong Minh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophage T7 terminator Tφ is a class I intrinsic terminator coding for an RNA hairpin structure immediately followed by oligo(U), which has been extensively studied in terms of its transcription termination mechanism, but little is known about its physiological or regulatory functions. In this study, using a T7 mutant phage, where a 31-bp segment of Tφ was deleted from the genome, we discovered that deletion of Tφ from T7 reduces the phage burst size but delays lysis timing, both of which are disadvantageous for the phage. The burst downsizing could directly result from Tφ deletion-caused upregulation of gene 17.5, coding for holin, among other Tφ downstream genes, because infection of gp17.5-overproducing Escherichia coli by wild-type T7 phage showed similar burst downsizing. However, the lysis delay was not associated with cellular levels of holin or lysozyme or with rates of phage adsorption. Instead, when allowed to evolve spontaneously in five independent adaptation experiments, the Tφ-lacking mutant phage, after 27 or 29 passages, recovered both burst size and lysis time reproducibly by deleting early genes 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 of class I, among other mutations. Deletion of genes 0.5 to 0.7 from the Tφ-lacking mutant phage decreased expression of several Tφ downstream genes to levels similar to that of the wild-type phage. Accordingly, phage T7 lysis timing is associated with cellular levels of Tφ downstream gene products. This suggests the involvement of unknown factor(s) besides the known lysis proteins, lysozyme and holin, and that Tφ plays a role of optimizing burst size and lysis time during T7 infection. IMPORTANCE E. coli PMID:24335287

  17. Parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidioides spp. is the ethiological agent of coccidioidomycosis, an infection that can be fatal. Its diagnosis is complicated, due to that it shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with other pulmonary mycoses. Coccidioides spp. is a dimorphic fungus and, in its saprobic phase, grows as a mycelium, forming a large amount of arthroconidia. In susceptible persons, arthroconidia induce dimorphic changes into spherules/endospores, a typical parasitic form of Coccidioides spp. In addition, the diversity of mycelial parasitic forms has been observed in clinical specimens; they are scarcely known and produce errors in diagnosis. Methods We presented a retrospective study of images from specimens of smears with 15% potassium hydroxide, cytology, and tissue biopsies of a histopathologic collection from patients with coccidioidomycosis seen at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. Results The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. observed in the clinical specimens was as follows: i) spherules/endospores in different maturation stages; ii) pleomorphic cells (septate hyphae, hyphae composed of ovoid and spherical cells, and arthroconidia), and iii) fungal ball formation (mycelia with septate hyphae and arthroconidia). Conclusions The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. includes the following: spherules/endospores, arthroconidia, and different forms of mycelia. This knowledge is important for the accurate diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. In earlier studies, we proposed the integration of this diversity of forms in the Coccidioides spp. parasitic cycle. The microhabitat surrounding the fungus into the host would favor the parasitic polymorphism of this fungus, and this environment may assist in the evolution toward parasitism of Coccidioides spp. PMID:24750998

  18. Polymorphic transporters and platinum pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sprowl, Jason A.; Ness, Rachel A.; Sparreboom, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several solute carriers and ATP-binding cassette transporters have been implicated in the influx or efflux of platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin. Given that many of these proteins are highly polymorphic, the genetic status of these proteins could be an important contributor to the extensive interindividual pharmacokinetic variability associated with the clinical use of these agents. In this review article, we provide an updated overview of the various transporters that have shown promise in animal models or patient populations in facilitating the movement of platinum-based agents across cell membranes, and how their function is associated with drug disposition or pharmacodynamic effects. PMID:22986709

  19. Short, direct repeats at the breakpoints of deletions of the retinoblastoma gene

    SciTech Connect

    Canning, S.; Dryja, T.P. )

    1989-07-01

    The authors found deletions involving the retinoblastoma gene in 12 of 49 tumors from patients with retinoblastoma or osteosarcoma. After mapping the deletion breakpoints, they found that no two breakpoints coincided. Thus, the data do not support the conclusions of others regarding the existence of a hotspot for deletion breakpoints in this gene. In 4 of the tumors, they sequenced 200 base pairs surrounding each deletion breakpoint. Three deletions had termini within pairs of short, direct repeats ranging in size from 4 to 7 base pairs. These results indicate that the slipped mispairing mechanism may predominate in the generation of deletions at this locus. The review of deletion breakpoints at other genetic loci reveals that the nature of the sequences present at deletion breakpoints (short, direct repeats versus middle repetitive elements) varies according to the genetic locus under study.

  20. Restoration of half the normal dystrophin sequence in a double-deletion Duchenne muscular dystrophy family

    SciTech Connect

    Hoop, R.C.; Schwartz, L.S.; Hoffman, E.P.; Russo, L.S.; Riconda, D.L.

    1994-02-01

    Two male cousins with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were found to have different maternal dystrophin gene haplotypes and different deletion mutations. One propositus showed two noncontiguous deletions-one in the 5{prime}, proximal deletional hotspot region, and the other in the 3{prime}, more distal deletional hotspot region. The second propositus showed only the 5{prime} deletion. Using multiple fluorescent exon dosage and fluorescent multiplex CA repeat linkage analyses, the authors show that the mother of each propositus carries both deletions on the same grandmaternal X chromosome. This paradox is explained by a single recombinational event between the 2 deleted regions of one of the carrier`s dystrophin genes, giving rise to a son with a partially {open_quotes}repaired{close_quotes} gene retaining only the 5{prime} deletion. 20 refs., 4 figs.