Science.gov

Sample records for 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel

  1. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  2. Synfuels from biomass grow slowly

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.; Wedlock, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current developments in the manufacture of synfuels are discussed with emphasis on the sources of biomass suitable for synfuels production, processes for converting biomass to synfuels, and the economics of the technology. The sources include wood, nonwood crops, root crops, aquatic biomass, and oils from plants such as soybean, safflower, and peanut. The biomass conversion processes discussed include pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction, and aerobic and anaerobic digestion.

  3. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Cuzens; Necitas Sumait

    2012-09-13

    BlueFire Ethanol, Inc., a U.S. based corporation with offices in Irvine, California developed a cellulosic biorefinery to convert approximately 700 dry metric tons per day in to 18.9 million gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol. The Project is proposed to be located in the city of Fulton, County of Itawamba, Mississippi.

  4. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  5. Synfuels: nukes of the 80's

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, A.

    1980-05-01

    Toxic pollutants released to the air and water, as well as the impacts of massive strip mining, will characterize the era of synfuel development as a time of environmental costs which could be life-threatening. Tough water regulations in the western states may result in a few states bearing all the related social and economic impacts. Government incentives for utilities to develop synfuels have already resulted in major development projects in Illinois, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Alabama. Synfuel research by the Electric Power Research Institute has been costly, rivaling nuclear power as a main focus of interest and burying the scattered opposition. How the utilities will overcome the lack of a reliable synfuels market should be of interest to critics as well as the environmental implication. (DCK)

  6. Great Plains Synfuels` hidden treasures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.; Duncan, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Great Plains Synfuels Project was commissioned 12 years ago. While demonstrating success regarding SNG production, DGC quietly started development of chemical products derived from the liquid by-product streams of Lurgi moving bed gasifiers. Naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil are the primary by-products, and these contain valuable compounds such as phenol, cresylic acid, catechols, naphthols, fluorene, and BTX. Process technologies have been developed for (1) separation of various impurities from cresylic acid distillate fractions or from whole cresylic acid; (2) extracting cresylic acid from tar oil; (3) conversion of tar pitch to a blend stock used in making anode binder pitch; and (4) separating high purity catechol and methyl catechols. As a result of this work, DGC built a phenol/cresylic acid facility. The cresylic acid side supplies over 10 percent of the world market. The achievement with the catechols is presently leading to bench scale routes for synthesis of chemical intermediates which ultimately may include compounds such as vanillin, pyrogallol, sesamol, homoveratrylamine, and many others, penetrating the fields of flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, photographic chemicals, dyes, etc. These efforts stimulate DGC`s growth and will provide an economic uplift. By-products already contribute more than 10% of revenues and are destined to rival natural gas in importance.

  7. Employment benefits of urban synfuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.; McCarthy, K.; Nagle, J.; South, D.

    1982-06-01

    The construction and operation of a synthetic fuel plant could significantly reduce local unemployment. Two synfuel technologies and two urban areas are studied in this report. HYGAS coal gasification and SRC-II coal liquefaction were used since they are near commercial development and have detailed work force estimates. Buffalo, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio, were chosen for their similar economic structures and their proximity to coal supplies. The employment benefits of a synfuel facility in an urban area are influenced by several assumptions. The level of occupational mobility between specific jobs affects the proportion of local to in-migrant workers. Also, estimates of total employment depend on the multiplier chosen to estimate secondary employment. In general, however, a gasification plant reduces unemployment more than a liquefaction plant, and either type of plant brings about a greater drop in the local unemployment rate in Buffalo than in Cleveland. As unemployment drops, public expenditures and unemployment compensation are proportionately reduced.

  8. Determination of total solutes in synfuel wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.R.; Bonomo, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    Efforts to investigate both lyophilization and the measurement of colligative properties as an indication of total solute content are described. The objective of the work described is to develop a method for measuring total dissolved material in retort wastewaters which is simple and rugged enough to be performed in a field laboratory in support of pollution control tests. The analysis should also be rapid enough to provide timely and pertinent data to the pollution control plant operator. To be of most value, the technique developed also should be applicable to other synfuel wastewaters, most of which contain similar major components as oil shale retort waters. 4 references, 1 table.

  9. Preparation of environmental analyses for synfuel and unconventional gas technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    Government agencies that offer financial incentives to stimulate the commercialization of synfuel and unconventional gas technologies usually require an analysis of environmental impacts resulting from proposed projects. This report reviews potentially significant environmental issues associated with a selection of these technologies and presents guidance for developing information and preparing analyses to address these issues. The technologies considered are western oil shale, tar sand, coal liquefaction and gasification, peat, unconventional gas (western tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers), and fuel ethanol. Potentially significant issues are discussed under the general categories of land use, air quality, water use, water quality, biota, solid waste disposal, socioeconomics, and health and safety. The guidance provided in this report can be applied to preparation and/or review of proposals, environmental reports, environmental assessments, environmental impact statements, and other types of environmental analyses. The amount of detail required for any issue discussed must, by necessity, be determined on a case-by-case basis.

  10. Synfuels struggles for identity. [Synthetic Fuels Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Monks, R.A.

    1982-06-01

    One of the unsolved pieces of the puzzle in the Synfuels Corporation is the pay level for senior officers. Directors are charged with establishing an organizational system, setting up offices, and appointing officers. Oversight provisions of ''staggering redundancy'' are set up to see that the SFC does its job in a limited time (until September 30, 1997). Salaries are high. In Washington, it is ''rude and unwelcome to have some johnny-come-lately corporation come along and claim salaries in excess of the norm.'' Yet SFC directors need to acquire competency and qualifications, and they do not have the psychic compensation or perquisites of cabinet posts. The kind of person needed for SFC must have a predictable compulsion to get the job done and get back to what they were doing before. Federal employees do not have the ''demonstrated restlessness.'' Only senior executives who have a demonstrated capacity to earn +$200,000 will have the motive to carry out Congress's intent in limiting the life of the SFC.

  11. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  12. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  13. Concentration of synfuel process condensates by reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, S.B.; Ray, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors will discuss the use of a novel, fouling-resistant, inside-skinned hollow-fiber membrane configuration as an energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative to conventional treatment of synfuel process condensate waters. Reverse osmosis has been used in the past only to polish condensate waters that were first treated by conventional means. In the work described in this paper, a reverse-osmosis system actually replaces traditional biotreatment of condensate waters or replaces the solvent-extraction process in the treatment train. The membranes used in this reverse-osmosis system are capable of rejecting at least 90% of the phenols as well as high percentages of other organics contained in actual process condensate waters. Furthermore, these membranes have operated for several months on synfuel condensate waters and showed no significant decrease in performance. Energy and cost estimates of a reverse-osmosis system based on such membranes will be discussed in detail, including a comparison of operating costs of this system with the operating costs of conventional treatment systems.

  14. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen. (MOW)

  15. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, F.

    1982-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based turbine applications is presented. The four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels (solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction), and the most important concepts for coal gasification (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained flow, and underground gasification) are described. Upgrading processes for coal derived liquid fuels are also described. Data presented for liquid fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent refined coal, COED, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Typical composition, and property data is also presented for low and medium-BTU gases derived from the various coal gasification processes.

  16. Proceedings of the opportunities in the synfuels industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    World interest in coal-based synthetic fuels technology is like a roller coaster ride. Interest soars when energy prices are high or world oil supplies are threatened. When energy is inexpensive and oil is plentiful, interest plummets. However, some people remain undaunted by the ups and downs of the synfuels industry. They cling tenaciously to the idea that coal-based synthetic fuels are the world`s energy future. They are the select group attending the SynOps `92 symposium in Bismarck, North Dakota. SynOps `92 participants represent an extraordinary combination of visionaries and practical thinkers. They believe the ``coal refinery`` concept will eventually provide the most efficient and productive use of our coal resources. They know that coal is a valuable resource which can be used to produce a huge variety of valuable nonfuel products. They also recognize that until technology can make alternative fuels economically feasible, the world will continue to rely heavily on fossil fuels--especially coal, the world`s most abundant energy resource. Individual papers have been entered.

  17. Synfuel program analysis. Volume I. Procedures-capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Muddiman, J. B.; Whelan, J. W.

    1980-07-01

    This is the first of the two volumes describing the analytic procedures and resulting capabilities developed by Resource Applications (RA) for examining the economic viability, public costs, and national benefits of alternative synfuel projects and integrated programs. This volume is intended for Department of Energy (DOE) and Synthetic Fuel Corporation (SFC) program management personnel and includes a general description of the costing, venture, and portfolio models with enough detail for the reader to be able to specifiy cases and interpret outputs. It also contains an explicit description (with examples) of the types of results which can be obtained when applied to: the analysis of individual projects; the analysis of input uncertainty, i.e., risk; and the analysis of portfolios of such projects, including varying technology mixes and buildup schedules. In all cases, the objective is to obtain, on the one hand, comparative measures of private investment requirements and expected returns (under differing public policies) as they affect the private decision to proceed, and, on the other, public costs and national benefits as they affect public decisions to participate (in what form, in what areas, and to what extent).

  18. Instrumental methods of analysis of sulfur compounds in synfuel process streams. Quarterly technical progress report for April-June 1984. [Sulfidic, polysulfidic, thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfate, thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.; Sexton, E.; Talbott, J.; Yakupkovic, J.

    1984-07-01

    Task 1: methods development for the speciation of the polysulfides. Work on this task has been completed in December 1983 and reported accordingly in DOE/PC/40783-T13. Task 2: methods development for the speciation of dithionite and polythionates. Electrochemical reduction of tetrathionate and pentathionate at the dropping mercury electrode (DME) proceeds through a mechanism involving specific adsorption of the reactant at the DME surface and yielding polarographic waves at -0.2 volt (versus the saturated calomel electrode) in aqueous solution. Ethanol interferes with the specific adsorption of tetrathionate and pentathionate in a range of potentials between 0.0 and -1.1 volt, because EtOH is preferentially adsorbed. This results in a shift of the polarographic half-wave potentials of tetrathionate and pentathionate, which facilitates their determination in polythionate mixtures. On the other hand, the polarographic reduction of trithionate is unaffected by ethanol, because it occurs at -1.5 volt where ethanol is not adsorbed at the surface of the DME. Task 3: total accounting of the sulfur balance in representative samples of synfuel process streams. Analyses of two aqueous gasifier effluents from Grand Forks, ND, were performed. An untreated specimen contained sulfidic and polysulfidic sulfur, thiosulfate and thiocyanate. On the other hand, sulfite, sulfate, and thiocyanate were the only sulfur moieties observed in the Grand Forks sample which had been stripped at PETC. 7 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. Synfuels from fusion: using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, R.W.

    1982-11-01

    This study is concerned with the following area: (1) the tandem mirror reactor and its physics; (2) energy balance; (3) the lithium oxide canister blanket system; (4) high-temperature blanket; (5) energy transport system-reactor to process; (6) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (7) interfacing the GA cycle; (8) matching power and temperature demands; (9) preliminary cost estimates; (10) synfuels beyond hydrogen; and (11) thermodynamics of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O system. (MOW)

  20. Gasification of biomass as a source of synfuels for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, J. R.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    The economic viability of forest biomass gasification in furnishing feedstocks for synfuels production in Brazil is argued, on grounds of high net energy yield (due to minimal use of mechanization in the cultivation of timber such as Eucalyptus) and the high efficiency of acid hydrolysis and fast pyrolysis methods already being used. A thermochemical process still under development promises still-higher efficiency and greater economy than coal gasification and coal-fired electrical generation. Assuming a feedback cost of $1.00 per million Btu, a minimum gasoline precursor cost would be $0.35 a gallon.

  1. Utility researchers plan future - with our money: EPRI's drive for centralized power, synfuels, and more nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, A.

    1981-06-01

    Research efforts by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) focus on synfuels, coal, and nuclear energy at the expense of renewable energy sources and regulations to protect safety and the environment. EPRI is accused of pursuing industry profits, downgrading regulations, and centralized power. Evidence for these accusations is drawn from the EPRI budget, memos, and EPRI studies on nuclear projects, renewables, fuel cells, and battery technology. Funds have been diverted to alternative research programs in two states, but EPRI commands about $2.60 per year from each utility customer for its $260 million (1980) budget, which funds the industry's major research effort. (DCK)

  2. Status of Texas eastern's synfuels projects. [Kentucky, New Mexico, Wyoming, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Homeyer, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rationale for synfuel project and site selection is outlined and a brief description of four projects is presented. The Tri-State Project is a coal gasification/liquefaction project located on the Ohio River in Henderson County, Kentucky. It will convert about 10 million tons per year of high sulfur coal into SNG, transportation fuels and chemicals. The New Mexico Project is located in northwest N.M. east of the Navajo Indian Reservation. The plant will convert about 10 million tons of coal per year into SNG and methanol using the Lurgi process. The Lake DeSmet Project in north central Wyoming will also employ Lurgi Technology to produce SNG and methanol. The Paraho Oil Shale Module Project would produce 10,000 b/d of synthetic crude from oil shale in eastern Utah.

  3. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 12. Fluor project status. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document and summarize activities associated with Fluor's efforts on the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The proposed facility was to be coal-to-transport fuels facility located in Henderson, Kentucky. Tri-State Synfuels Company was participating in the project as a partner of the US Department of Energy per terms of a Cooperative Agreement resulting from DOE's synfuel's program solicitation. Fluor's initial work plan called for preliminary engineering and procurement services to the point of commitment for construction for a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch plant. Work proceeded as planned until October 1981 when results of alternative coal-to-methanol studies revealed the economic disadvantage of the Synthol design for US markets. A number of alternative process studies followed to determine the best process configuration. In January 1982 Tri-State officially announced a change from Synthol to a Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) design basis. Further evaluation and cost estimates for the MTG facility eventually led to the conclusion that, given the depressed economic outlook for alternative fuels development, the project should be terminated. Official announcement of cancellation was made on April 13, 1982. At the time of project cancellation, Fluor had completed significant portions of the preliminary engineering effort. Included in this report are descriptions and summaries of Fluor's work during this project. In addition location of key project data and materials is identified and status reports for each operation are presented.

  4. Synfuels environmental research program for high-Btu coal gasification: health effects summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, C.A. Jr.; Wilzbach, K.E.; Stetter, J.R.; Haugen, D.A.; Kirchner, F.R.; Stamoudis, V.C.; Peak, M.J.; Matsushita, T.; Boparai, A.S.; Jones, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Process materials from two coal gasification pilot plants were evaluated for their toxicologic potential by investigators in the Synfuels Environmental Research Program at Argonne National Laboratory. The process samples were collected at the HYGAS fluidized-bed gasifier operated by the Institute of Gas Technology (Chicago, IL) and at a slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC; Grand Forks, ND). A tiered approach was used or the toxicologic evaluation. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the materials were first assessed with a battery of short-term cellular screening assays. Selected toxic materials were then studied in a number of acute and chronic whole-animal toxicity assays, including tests of carcinogenicity. In the screening assays, a number of materials from both gasifiers were found to be genotoxic and cytotoxic. All HYGAS materials except quench waters yielded nonvolatile organic (NVO) fractions containing mutagenic components as determined in the Ames Salmonella assay. Fewer materials were tested in whole-animal assays. HYGAS recycle oil was slightly toxic in an acute oral toxicity assay (LD/sub 50/ was 1.3 g/kg). HYGAS recycle oil and char slurry oil caused dermal response in rabbits. NVO fractions of a HYGAS LTR gas condensate, pretreater quench water, char slurry oil, cyclone slurry, and recycle oil were eye irritants. HYGAS recycle oil and UNDERC tar were dermal carcinogens in mice.

  5. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  6. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  7. Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the current process technologies for fuel ethanol production. In the US, almost all commercial fuel ethanol is produced from corn whereas cane sugar is used almost exclusively in Brazil. In Europe, two major types of feedstock considered for fuel ethanol production are be...

  8. Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production

    SciTech Connect

    M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana

    2008-11-15

    This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. The Technical and Economic Feasibility of Siting Synfuels Plants in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood; David Bell; William Schaffers; Thomas Foulke; Richard D Boardman

    2011-09-01

    A comprehensive study has been completed to determine the feasibility of constructing and operating gasification and reforming plants which convert Wyoming fossil resources (coal and natural gas) into the higher value products of power, transportation fuels, and chemical feedstocks, such as ammonia and methanol. Detailed plant designs, simulation models, economic models and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas models were developed, validated by national-level engineering firms, which were used to address the following issues that heretofore have prevented these types of projects from going forward in Wyoming, as much as elsewhere in the United States: 1. Quantification of plant capital and operating expenditures 2. Optimization of plant heat integration 3. Quantification of coal, natural gas, electricity, and water requirements 4. Access to raw materials and markets 5. Requirements for new infrastructure, such as electrical power lines and product pipelines 6. The possible cost-benefit tradeoffs of using natural gas reforming versus coal gasification 7. The extent of labor resources required for plant construction and for permanent operations 8. Options for managing associated CO2 emissions, including capture and uses in enhanced oil recovery and sequestration 9. Options for reducing water requirements such as recovery of the high moisture content in Wyoming coal and use of air coolers rather than cooling towers 10. Permitting requirements 11. Construction, and economic impacts on the local communities This paper will summarize the analysis completed for two major synfuels production pathways, methanol to gasoline and Fischer-Trosph diesel production, using either coal or natural gas as a feedstock.

  10. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  11. Effects of components of synfuels on soot formation. Quarterly technical progress report Number 3, April 1-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Haebig, J. E.; Goldberg, P. M.

    1981-08-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain information about the relationships between the rate and amount of soot formation in the combustion of coal-derived synfuels and the chemical composition and molecular constituents of those fuels. Simple bench-scale premixed and diffusion burners will be used at pressures between one and ten atmospheres to observe soot formation from fuel samples varying in their boiling range and contents of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds. During this reporting period, the Gulf-sponsored development of the experimental system was completed for its use in one atmosphere pressure experiments in this DOE contract. Preparatory acomplishments included assembly of the flow control panel for seven gas streams, initial use of the optical components for laser light scattering, and fabrication and installation of the burner and pressure vessel for it. In the DOE contract activities, Task 1 was completed, the combustion literature was surveyed and used to identify needed features of the experiments to be done, and data on the properties and composition of coal liquids were collected for planning of the slate of coal liquids components to be tested.

  12. Processing needs and methodology for wastewaters from the conversion of coal, oil shale, and biomass to synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The workshop identifies needs to be met by processing technology for wastewaters, and evaluates the suitability, approximate costs, and problems associated with current technology. Participation was confined to DOE Environmental Control Technology contractors to pull together and integrate past wastewater-related activities, to assess the status of synfuel wastewater treatability and process options, and to abet technology transfer. Particular attention was paid to probable or possible environmental restrictions which cannot be economically met by present technology. Primary emphasis was focussed upon process-condensate waters from coal-conversion and shale-retorting processes. Due to limited data base and time, the workshop did not deal with transients, upsets, trade-offs and system optimization, or with solids disposal. The report is divided into sections that, respectively, survey the water usage and effluent situation (II); identify the probable and possible water-treatment goals anticipated at the time when large-scale plants will be constructed (III); assess the capabilities, costs and shortcomings of present technology (IV); explore particularly severe environmental-control problems (V); give overall conclusions from the Workshop and recommendations for future research and study (VI); and, finally, present Status Reports of current work from participants in the Workshop (VII).

  13. Solid and hazardous energy wastes: synfuels. I. Review of research activities. [US DOE- and US EPA-sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.; DeCarlo, V.

    1981-05-01

    Current chemical and biological research sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on solid, liquid, and gaseous waste streams from coal-conversion and oil-shale technologies is summarized. Brief descriptions, including the objectives, current activities, and future plans (if any), of ongoing projects were obtained from the principal investigators, where possible, or from current publications, progress reports, or scope-of-work sheets from DOE and EPA laboratories. References to publications that have resulted from the various research projects are included where applicable. Additional references to work on hazardous and solid synfuel waste are included in the appendixes, drawn from computerized bibliographic searches of Chemical Abstracts and the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Appendix I contains information found in the NTIS search from 1974 to 1980, which includes the title, author(s), place of investigation, NTIS ordering number, date of publication, and the actual abstracts. Appendix II contains information found in the Chemical Abstracts search from 1973 to 1980, which includes the title; author(s); journal title, volume, and number; chemical abstracts numbers; descriptors and identifiers based on the given title and/or abstract; and date of publication.

  14. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  15. Naloxone and ethanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Askenasi, R; Fontaine, J

    1982-01-01

    Naloxone has been said to be an antidote of acute ethanol intoxication in man. Experimental and clinical studies are however not convincing and contradictory. We have used naloxone to antagonize the effect of ethanol in mice. Results are compared to those obtained with morphine intoxication. Even at high doses (5 mg/kg) naloxone is not a good antagonist of ethanol intoxication in mice.

  16. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  17. Synfuel production ship

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, M.J.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a ship for producing gasoline while sailing. The ship consists of: 1.) a top deck; 2.) absorption venturi towers arranged in a multiple row and column orientation and mounted along an extended area of the deck and inclined toward the bow to capture air in an ellipsoid tapered air stream tube as the ship moves forward; 3.) means for delivering NaOH solution to the towers; means for forming droplets of NaOH solution and directing the droplets to pass through air, in the towers, thus causing CO/sub 2/ in the air to be absorbed by the solution for which results in a carbonate solution of sodium bicarbonate/hypo carbonate; 4.) means for communicating with the droplet forming means for receiving the carbonate solution and combining Cl/sub 2/ for stripping CO/sub 2/ as a first by-product from the carbonate solution and NaCl/NaOCI as a second by-product; 5.) means connected to the stripping for transferring the CO/sub 2/ to a methanol converter; 6.) electrolysis means for disassociating H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ from water provided to it; 7.) means connected to the electrolysis mechanism for transferring the H/sub 2/ to the methanol converter; 8.) a hydrocarbon synthesizer connected to an outlet of the methanol converter for converting methanol to gasoline; 9.) a boiler connected to the stripping for separating O/sub 2/ from the NaCl/NaOCI solution resulting in a NaCl solution; 10.) a chlor-alkali cell convertor connected to the boiler for converting the NaCl solution to (a) Cl/sub 2/ which is recycled, and (b) NaOH solution which is re-introduced to the NaOH droplet forming means; 11.) a nuclear reactor for generating steam; 12.) output for delivering the electrical power.

  18. Controlling the synfuel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagenbaum, J.

    1980-11-01

    The three main problem areas for instrumentation used in coal gasification and liquefaction systems are measurement of the density and velocity of the process streams (known as mixed-phase mass-flow monitoring); on-line analysis of the molecular composition of process streams; and measurement of temperatures in combustion and reactor vessels. Intrusive flow meters are ill suited because of the corrosion problem. The present paper deals with the development of nonintrusive flowmeters of the electromagnetic, thermal, sonic, and ultrasonic type, the development of capacitive transducers for velocity and density measurements, the use of neutron-induced gamma-ray spectrometry in on-line analysis to obtain the effective density of each constituent, and the use of acoustic techniques (time domain reflectometry) in temperature measurements.

  19. Autophagy and ethanol neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Excessive ethanol exposure is detrimental to the brain. The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol such that prenatal ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Neuronal loss in the brain is the most devastating consequence and is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Since alcohol consumption during pregnancy has not declined, it is imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic strategies. One cellular mechanism that acts as a protective response for the central nervous system (CNS) is autophagy. Autophagy regulates lysosomal turnover of organelles and proteins within cells, and is involved in cell differentiation, survival, metabolism, and immunity. We have recently shown that ethanol activates autophagy in the developing brain. The autophagic preconditioning alleviates ethanol-induced neuron apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiates ethanol-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbates ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. The expression of genes encoding proteins required for autophagy in the CNS is developmentally regulated; their levels are much lower during an ethanol-sensitive period than during an ethanol-resistant period. Ethanol may stimulate autophagy through multiple mechanisms; these include induction of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulation of MTOR and AMPK signaling, alterations in BCL2 family proteins, and disruption of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. This review discusses the most recent evidence regarding the involvement of autophagy in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity as well as the potential therapeutic approach of targeting autophagic pathways. PMID:25484085

  20. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  1. Ethanol immunosuppression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.R.

    1986-03-01

    Ethanol in concentrations equivalent to levels achieved by the ingestion of moderate to large amounts of alcoholic beverages has been shown to inhibit mitogen and anti-CD3 stimulated human T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition was monophasic suggesting that ethanol affected a single limiting component of T cell proliferation. In experiments designed to test the effect of ethanol on various aspects of proliferation, it was demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the capacity of exogenously supplied interleukin 2 to stimulate proliferation of T cells that had previously acquired interleukin 2 receptors in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there was no suppression of interleukin 2 production or interleukin 2 receptor acquisition. Thus, ethanol was shown to mediate immunosuppression by a mechanism specific to one component of proliferation. Additive inhibition of T cell proliferation was seen with ethanol plus cyclosporin A which inhibits interleukin 2 production. The level of inhibition with 250 ng/ml cyclosporin A alone was equivalent to the level seen with 62 ng/ml cyclosporin A plus 20 mM (94 mg%) ethanol. Ethanol also suppressed an immune effector mechanism. NK cytotoxicity was depressed in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Thus, ethanol might be considered as a possible adjunct in immunosuppressive therapy.

  2. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

  3. Ethanol tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ingram, L O

    1990-01-01

    The adverse effects of ethanol on bacterial growth, viability, and metabolism are caused primarily by ethanol-induced leakage of the plasma membrane. This increase in membrane leakage is consistent with known biophysical properties of membranes and ethanolic solutions. The primary actions of ethanol result from colligative effects of the high molar concentrations rather than from specific interactions with receptors. The ethanol tolerance of growth in different microorganisms appears to result in large part from adaptive and evolutionary changes in cell membrane composition. Different cellular activities vary in their tolerance to ethanol. Therefore, it is essential that the aspect of cellular function under study be specifically defined and that comparisons of ethanol tolerance among systems share this common definition. Growth is typically one of the most sensitive cellular activities to inhibition by ethanol, followed by survival, or loss of reproductive ability. Glycolysis is the most resistant of these three activities. Since glycolysis is an exergonic process, a cell need not be able to grow or remain viable for glycolysis to occur.

  4. Biofuel Ethanol Transport Risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol production has increased rapidly over the last 10 years and many communities lack awareness of the increased and growing extent of biofuel transportation through their jurisdictions. These communities and their emergency responders may not have the information and resour...

  5. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  6. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Wood, Brent E.

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  7. Ethanol and membrane lipids.

    PubMed

    Sun, G Y; Sun, A Y

    1985-01-01

    Although ethanol is known to exert its primary mode of action on the central nervous system, the exact molecular interaction underlying the behavioral and physiological manifestations of alcohol intoxication has not been elucidated. Chronic ethanol administration results in changes in organ functions. These changes are reflective of the adaptive mechanisms in response to the acute effects of ethanol. Biophysical studies have shown that ethanol in vitro disorders the membrane and perturbs the fine structural arrangement of the membrane lipids. In the chronic state, these membranes develop resistance to the disordering effects. Tolerance development is also accompanied by biochemical changes. Although ethanol-induced changes in membrane lipids have been implicated in both biophysical and biochemical studies, measurements of membrane lipids, such as cholesterol content, fatty acid unsaturation, phospholipid distribution, and ganglioside profiles, have not produced conclusive evidence that any of these parameters are directly involved in the action of ethanol. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence indicating that although ethanol in vitro produces a membrane-fluidizing effect, the chronic response to this effect is not to change the membrane bulk lipid composition. Instead, changes in membrane lipids may pertain to small metabolically active pools located in certain subcellular fractions. Most likely, these lipids are involved in important membrane functions. For example, the increase in PS in brain plasma membranes may provide an explanation for the adaptive increase in synaptic membrane ion transport activity, especially (Na,K)-ATPase. There is also evidence that the lipid pool involved in the deacylation-reacylation mechanism (i.e., PI and PC with 20:4 groups) is altered after ethanol administration. An increase in metabolic turnover of these phospholipid pools may have important implications for the membrane functional changes. Obviously, there are other

  8. Ethanol from sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, J.A.; Day, D,F.

    1980-08-01

    Sweet sorghum has long been of interest to sugar farmers and sugar processors. The thought has been that one could plant the sweet sorghum on fallow land and harvest it and process it in September, before the start of the regular sugar cane griding season. Several disadvantages have prevented its use in sugar production, but these seem much less of a problem if ethanol is to be produced. The DOE has targeted sweet sorghum as a prime crop for ethanol production, and the planting of 14 million new acres in sweet sorghum is the underlying assumption in a DOE plant to produce 11 billion gallons of alcohol fuel by the year 2000.

  9. Ethanol Impacts on BTEX Plumes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of ethanol on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are beginning to become established through laboratory, modeling and field research. Usage of ethanol, which increased due to federal mandates, drives interest and potential impacts on BTEX. Through co...

  10. Zymomonas ethanol fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.L.; Goodman, A.E.; Heyes, R.E.

    1984-09-01

    Studies on various industrial raw materials indicate that a Zymomonas process has its greatest commercial potential in fermenting starch-based substrates. High yields, productivities and ethanol concentrations can be achieved. Genetic manipulation is now being used to extend the substrate range to lactose and other carbohydrates. 31 references.

  11. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  12. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  13. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  14. Fuel ethanol after 25 years.

    PubMed

    Wheals, A E; Basso, L C; Alves, D M; Amorim, H V

    1999-12-01

    After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for fuel-ethanol production was to become more independent of oil imports; now, the emphasis is on its use as an oxygenated gasoline additive. There will only be sufficient, low-cost ethanol if lignocellulose feedstock is also used. PMID:10557161

  15. Ethanol production by engineered thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Olson, Daniel G; Sparling, Richard; Lynd, Lee R

    2015-06-01

    We compare a number of different strategies that have been pursued to engineer thermophilic microorganisms for increased ethanol production. Ethanol production from pyruvate can proceed via one of four pathways, which are named by the key pyruvate dissimilating enzyme: pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), pyruvate formate lyase (PFL), and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). For each of these pathways except PFL, we see examples where ethanol production has been engineered with a yield of >90% of the theoretical maximum. In each of these cases, this engineering was achieved mainly by modulating expression of native genes. We have not found an example where a thermophilic ethanol production pathway has been transferred to a non-ethanol-producing organism to produce ethanol at high yield. A key reason for the lack of transferability of ethanol production pathways is the current lack of understanding of the enzymes involved. PMID:25745810

  16. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  17. Innovative inexpensive ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Mackek, S. )

    1991-03-01

    New Energy Company of Indiana which produces 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, avoids the headaches often associated with organic by-products by creating an efficient and profitable sideline business. This paper reports that stretching across 55 acres in South Bend, Ind., New Energy's plant is the largest in the U.S. built specifically for fuel alcohol. The $186-million complex is a dramatic advance in the art of producing ethanol and its co-products. As the demand grows in the coming years for fuel alcohol-proven as an octane booster and a clean-burning alternative fuel. New Energy looks forward to increase production and profits. At the company's six-year-old plant, fuel alcohol is made from 26 million bushels a year of No. 2 yellow dent corn. Left at the bottom of the first column, after the alcohol has been boiled off, is stillage that contains more than 90% of the corn's protein and fat content, and virtually all of its vitamins and minerals, along with the yeast used to make the ethanol. While technically a waste product of the fuel alcohol process, this material's quantity and organic content not only make it difficult and costly to dispose, but its nutritional quality makes it an excellent candidate to be further processed into animal feed.

  18. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2014-05-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependence. As reported in rats, studies using various operant conditioning procedures in mice have demonstrated significant escalation of ethanol self-administration behavior in mice rendered dependent via forced chronic ethanol exposure in comparison to nondependent mice. This paper also presents a summary of these findings, as well as suggestions for future studies.

  19. Membranes: role in synfuels plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-28

    A news item reports that reverse osmosis is to be used in a demonstration project for recycling waste water from a coal processing plant. Bend Research Inc. have a US Department of Energy contract to build a plant to treat about 2000 gal/day. They will use polysulphone, hollow-fibre reverse-osmosis membrane packed into 10 tubular modules, each having some 25 ft/SUP/2 of membrane surface area. The objective is the development of a suitable water-recycling system for synthetic fuels plants, which typically use very large quantities of water and are located in areas of water scarcity.

  20. Indole-3-ethanol Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Frank W.; Purves, William K.; Vickery, Larry E.

    1973-01-01

    We report the further characterization of indole-3-ethanol oxidase from cucumber seedlings. The effects of various inhibitors suggest that the enzyme may be a flavoprotein with a metal ion and sulfhydryl groups required for full activity. Indole-3-acetaldehyde, a product of the reaction, inhibits the enzyme. This inhibition is overcome by O2 but not by indole-3-ethanol, indicating that the kinetic mechanism of the enzyme is a ping-pong Bi-Bi. The enzyme undergoes cooperative interactions with indoleethanol, yielding Hill coefficients as high as 2.96. Gibberellins are without effect on the enzyme, but it is inhibited by several acidic indoles possessing growth-promoting activity and by two synthetic auxins, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Increasing concentrations of indoleacetic acid (IAA) brought about a slight reduction in the indoleethanol concentration producing halfmaximal velocity. Increasing levels of indoleethanol decreased the concentration of IAA required for half-maximal inhibition. At low concentrations of indoleethanol, low levels of IAA activated rather than inhibited. The effect of IAA was not overcome at higher levels of indoleethanol. These results may be interpreted as showing that IAA is a noncompetitive inhibitor which binds to that conformation of the enzyme which also binds indoleethanol. The significance of these interactions for the regulation of IAA biosynthesis is discussed. PMID:16658401

  1. Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1996-12-31

    This minireview discusses various factors which require consideration for the ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates. The production of an alternative transportation fuel requires pretreatment of the biomass and detoxification to enhance the fermentability. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to engineer new microorganisms for efficient ethanol production from all sugars present in the hydrolysates. 60 refs.

  2. Atmospheric chemistry: Ethanol and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madronich, Sasha

    2014-06-01

    Ethanol has been heralded as a cleaner fuel for cars than gasoline. An analysis of air quality data suggests that a switch from ethanol to gasoline use in São Paulo in response to changing prices led unexpectedly to lower local levels of ozone pollution.

  3. Environmental Releases in the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corn ethanol is the largest produced alternate biofuel in the United States. More than 13 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2010. The projected corn ethanol production is 15 billion gallons by 2015. With increased production of ethanol, the environmental releases from e...

  4. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  5. Hemicellulose utilization for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.L.; Batter, T.R.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

    1980-04-01

    As much as a third of the carbohydrate content of some forms of cellulosic biomass resides in the hemicellulose fraction. Pentosans are major constituents of this material, the most common sugar being D-xylose. As part of a larger program for the bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol, the fermentation of pentose sugars to ethanol is being studied. Two microorganisms have been examined. The mold Fusarium oxysporum (lini) ferments D-xylose to near theoretical yields of ethanol but grows too slowly to be currently economical. The bacterium Bacillus macerans gives somewhat lower yields of ethanol from D-xylose but grows much faster. With further stdy this organism may form the basis for an economical hemicellulose fermentation process.

  6. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    SciTech Connect

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Stress, Ethanol, and Neuroactive Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra; Follesa, Paolo; Sanna, Enrico; Serra, Mariangela

    2010-01-01

    Neurosteroids play a crucial role in stress, alcohol dependence and withdrawal, and other physiological and pharmacological actions by potentiating or inhibiting neurotransmitter action. This review article focuses on data showing that the interaction among stress, ethanol, and neuroactive steroids may result in plastic molecular and functional changes of GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. The molecular mechanisms by which stress-ethanol-neuroactive steroids interactions can produce plastic changes in GABAA receptors have been studied using different experimental models in vivo and in vitro in order to provide useful evidence and new insights into the mechanisms through which acute and chronic ethanol and stress exposure modulate the activity of GABAergic synapses. We show detailed data on a) the effect of acute and chronic stress on peripheral and brain neurosteroid levels and GABAA receptor gene expression and function; b) ethanol-stimulated brain steroidogenesis; c) plasticity of GABAA receptor after acute and chronic ethanol exposure. The implications of these new mechanistic insights to our understanding of the effects of ethanol during stress are also discussed. The understanding of these neurochemical and molecular mechanisms may shed new light on the physiopathology of diseases, such as anxiety, in which GABAergic transmission play a pivotal role. These data may also lead to the need for new anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant selective drugs devoid of side effects. PMID:17555824

  8. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree.

  9. New microbe can make ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Researchers have created a bacterium that converts all of the sugars from inedible vegetable waste and other woody material into ethanol by inserting the genes of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis into Escherichia coli. The resulting bacterium converts 90% -95% of the main forms of sugar in biomass into 4% - 6% concentrations of ethanol. The goal is to reach a 7% to 8% concentration. Current ethanol production from corn in a yeast-fermentation process yields a 10% - 12% ethanol concentration, but the conversion rate is less efficient than with the new bacterium. Zymomonas, found in cactus plants and used by the Aztecs to make alcohol, was selected for its known conversion efficiency. Providing the engineering challenges can be overcome, there could be several pilot plants running in 3-5 years. Even though it is not currently profitable to make ethanol from vegetable waste, if the fact that this new process reduces the total material by 90% were taken into account, perhaps a landfill reduction credit based on current tipping fees would make the actual costs both more realistic and more attractive.

  10. Interaction of ethanol with biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D B; Chin, J H

    1981-05-15

    Ethanol is among the drugs with anesthetic potency determined by lipid solubility, in accord with the Meyer-Overton hypothesis. Thus, it is likely that ethanol acts in a hydrophobic environment. Using electron paramagnetic resonance with 5-doxylstearic acid as spin label, we find that ethanol disorders mouse cell membranes, making the lipid matrix more fluid. We surmise that consequent disruption of the function of integral membrane proteins may be the cause of ethanol's central actions. When mice are treated for 8 days with ethanol, their membranes become tolerant to the disordering effect of ethanol. This tolerance is accompanied by an increased proportion of cholesterol in the membranes.

  11. Ethanol production method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  12. Fuel ethanol production in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Macedo, I.C.

    1993-12-31

    The Brazilian ethanol from sugar cane program is the largest commercial liquid fuel from biomass system in operation today, with a production of 12 million m{sup 3} ethanol/year. During its 15 years of existence many issues were considered, under varying economic and strategic conditions. An overview is presented of the program development, present situation and main trends. Main subjects are technology development and implementation, costs, environmental benefits and constraints, and social/institutional issues. Is shown that the debate over the program has led to a sound knowledge on key issues (energy and CO{sub 2} balance, technology level and cost reduction, agricultural mechanization and job creation, land utilization, urban-air pollution effects, ethanol distribution, blending and use in dedicated engines.) With this basic knowledge some trends for the near future are considered (gains in productivity/conversion efficiency and cost implications; change to unburnt cane harvesting and technology development for cane trash conversion).

  13. Ethanol Pharmacokinetics in Neonates and Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Elizabeth; Kraft, Walter K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ethanol has been used for years in neonatal and infant liquid medications, yet the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of ethanol in this vulnerable population have not been well characterized. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness of ethanol use as an excipient in neonatal and infant medications and to provide insight, based on the available evidence, into clearance rates of ethanol in babies. We also discuss ethanol pharmacokinetics in adults, theoretical pharmacokinetic changes in neonates and infants as it may apply to ethanol disposition, and case reports involving ethanol exposure in neonates and infants. Materials and methods This study was a narrative review in which relevant papers were selected using databases and scientific search engines such as PubMed with the key words ethanol, infant, and newborninfant. Results It remains unclear what ethanol exposure is safe for neonates and infants. The Food and Drug Administration and American Academy of Pediatrics have both taken action, by either setting limits of ethanol content in over-the-counter medications or by recommending restricted exposure to ethanol-containing pediatric formulations. Conclusions Until the short- and long-term health effects of chronic ethanol administration can be further characterized, ethanol-containing medications should be used with caution. PMID:25379066

  14. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  15. Feasibility of producing ethanol from food waste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Jun Cheol; Pak, Daewon

    2011-01-01

    Food waste generated in Korea is rich in carbohydrate as high as 65% of total solids. Using the food waste, the feasibility of ethanol production was investigated in a lab-scale fermentor. Pretreatment with hydrolyzing enzymes including carbohydrase, glucoamylase, cellulase and protease were tested for hydrolysis of food waste. The carbohydrase was able to hydrolyze and produce glucose with a glucose yield of 0.63 g glucose/g total solid. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation by using carbohydrase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in the batch mode. For separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), ethanol concentration reached at the level corresponding to an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g total solids. For simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the ethanol yield was 0.31 g ethanol/g total solids. During the continuous operation of SHF, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 1.18 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.3g ethanol/g total solids. For SSF process, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 0.8 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.2g ethanol/g total solids. PMID:21596551

  16. Ethanol Metabolism and Osmolarity Modify Behavioral Responses to Ethanol in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Alaimo, Joseph T.; Davis, Scott J.; Song, Sam S.; Burnette, Christopher R.; Grotewiel, Mike; Shelton, Keith L.; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.; Davies, Andrew G.; Bettinger, Jill C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is metabolized by a two-step process in which alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde, which is further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Although variation in ethanol metabolism in humans strongly influences the propensity to chronically abuse alcohol, few data exist on the behavioral effects of altered ethanol metabolism. Here, we used the nematode C. elegans to directly examine how changes in ethanol metabolism alter behavioral responses to alcohol during an acute exposure. Additionally, we investigated ethanol solution osmolarity as a potential explanation for contrasting published data on C. elegans ethanol sensitivity. Methods We developed a gas chromatography assay and validated a spectrophotometric method to measure internal ethanol in ethanol-exposed worms. Further, we tested the effects of mutations in ADH and ALDH genes on ethanol tissue accumulation and behavioral sensitivity to the drug. Finally, we tested the effects of ethanol solution osmolarity on behavioral responses and tissue ethanol accumulation. Results Only a small amount of exogenously applied ethanol accumulated in the tissues of C. elegans and consequently their tissue concentrations were similar to those that intoxicate humans. Independent inactivation of an ADH-encoding gene (sodh-1) or an ALDH-encoding gene (alh-6 or alh-13) increased the ethanol concentration in worms and caused hypersensitivity to the acute sedative effects of ethanol on locomotion. We also found that the sensitivity to the depressive effects of ethanol on locomotion is strongly influenced by the osmolarity of the exogenous ethanol solution. Conclusions Our results indicate that ethanol metabolism via ADH and ALDH has a statistically discernable but surprisingly minor influence on ethanol sedation and internal ethanol accumulation in worms. In contrast, the osmolarity of the medium in which ethanol is delivered to the animals has a more substantial effect on

  17. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, J.; Confer, K.

    2011-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

  18. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  19. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  20. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  1. Characterization of Endogenous Ethanol in the Mammal.

    PubMed

    McManus, I R; Contag, A O; Olson, R E

    1960-01-01

    Ethanol has been isolated from the tissues of several animal species in amounts ranging from 23 to 145 micromole/100 gm of tissue. Intestinal bacterial flora appear to be excluded as a source of this ethanol. Radioactivity from pyruvate-2-C(14) appeared in ethanol after incubation with liver slices; this finding indicates an endogenous synthesis.

  2. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Beall, David S.; Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H.; Guimaraes, Walter V.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  3. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, David E.; Horton, Philip G.; Ben-Bassat, Arie

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  4. Ethanol production in recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D.

    2005-02-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  5. Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1984-01-01

    Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

  6. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30–45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance. PMID:22698870

  7. Ethanol-mediated operant learning in the infant rat leads to increased ethanol intake during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Luciano Federico; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the infant rat has high affinity for ethanol ingestion and marked sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing effects (Spear & Molina, 2005). A novel operant technique was developed to analyze reinforcing effects of ethanol delivery during the third postnatal week. The impact of this ethanol-reinforcement experience upon subsequent ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal weeks 5–6 was also examined. In Experiment 1, pups (postnatal days 14–17 were given an explicit contingency between nose-poking behavior and intraoral delivery of either water or 3.75% v/v ethanol (paired groups). Yoked controls (pups receiving either reinforcer independently of their behavior) were also included. Paired subjects reinforced with ethanol exhibited rapid and robust operant conditioning leading to blood ethanol concentrations in the 25–48 mg% range. In Experiment 2, a higher ethanol concentration (7.5% v/v) provided significant reinforcement. During adolescence, animals originally reinforced with 3.75% v/v ethanol exhibited greater ingestion of ethanol than control animals without prior ethanol reinforcement. These results indicate that, without extensive initiation to ethanol, infant rats rapidly learn to gain access to ethanol and that this experience has a significant impact upon later ethanol intake patterns. PMID:18571224

  8. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Ethanol Production from Ulva fasciata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masutani, Evan M.; Yoza, Brandon A.

    The theoretical potential yield of Ulva fasciata as a biomass feedstock for fermentative ethanol was found to be about 310 L per tonne, dry weight. U. fasciata has numerous characteristics that render it a suitable mariculture energy crop. Specifically, it forms large complex structures that grow quickly, with high (14%) dry to wet weight percentages, holocellulose content for the dry mass of 51%, carbohydrate content of 5%, and relatively low (5%) lignin content. Enzymatic saccharification with a commercial cellulase (Accelerase) from Genencor was investigated: After a 12 hr digestion, 25% of the potential glucose was recovered from the cellulose fraction. The hydrolysate was supplemented with a modified YM medium and used directly for batch fermentation. A 12 hr incubation resulted in complete utilization of the glucose and production of ethanol. In this preliminary investigation, the ethanol yield corresponded to approximately 126 L per tonne (dry weight) of macroalga, or 43% of the theoretical alcohol yield with respect to only the cellulose and carbohydrate contents. Theoretical yields are higher when the hemicellulose fraction is considered. While sugar recovery needs further optimization, the data suggest that additional work is warranted.

  10. Chronobiology of ethanol: animal models.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical and epidemiological observations have revealed that alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with widespread disruptions in sleep and other circadian biological rhythms. As with other psychiatric disorders, animal models have been very useful in efforts to better understand the cause and effect relationships underlying the largely correlative human data. This review summarizes the experimental findings indicating bidirectional interactions between alcohol (ethanol) consumption and the circadian timing system, emphasizing behavioral studies conducted in the author's laboratory. Together with convergent evidence from multiple laboratories, the work summarized here establishes that ethanol intake (or administration) alters fundamental properties of the underlying circadian pacemaker. In turn, circadian disruption induced by either environmental or genetic manipulations can alter voluntary ethanol intake. These reciprocal interactions may create a vicious cycle that contributes to the downward spiral of alcohol and drug addiction. In the future, such studies may lead to the development of chronobiologically based interventions to prevent relapse and effectively mitigate some of the societal burden associated with such disorders.

  11. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  12. Solid state production of ethanol from sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, L.L.; Linden, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Ethanol, produced from renewable resources, such as corn, sugar cane and sweet sorghum, is used as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline. For biofuels to become economical, means of lowering production costs must be found. Our research focuses on using a modified method of ensiling to produce ethanol from sorghum. Formic acid, +/- cellulase, and yeast were applied to fresh field-chopped sorghum and then packed tightly into five-gallon plastic silos. Counter-current extraction methods were used as a means of biofuel separation. Sorghum receiving 5 IU/grain dry weight cellulase produced 37.7 liters of ethanol per metric ton on a wet weight basis. Sorghum not receiving cellulose additives produced 23.4 liters of ethanol per metric ton. An ethanol plant of intermediate size (565,272 liters of anhydrous ethanol/year) can operate using sorghum grown on less than 1400 acres.

  13. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  14. Influence of nitrogen sources on ethanol fermentation in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Mao, Zhonggui; Zhang, Chengming; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hongjian; Tang, Lei

    2012-09-01

    An integrated ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to resolve wastewater pollution in cassava ethanol production. In the integrated system, wastewater originating from ethanol distillation was treated by two-stage anaerobic digestion and then used in medium for the next batch of ethanol fermentation. Ammonium and other components in the effluent promoted yeast growth and fermentation rate but did not increase the yield of ethanol. Fermentations with the effluent as the nitrogen source showed higher growth and ethanol production rates (0.215 h(-1) and 1.276 g/L/h, respectively) than urea that resulted in corresponding rates of 0.176 h(-1) and 0.985 g/L/h, respectively. Results indicated that anaerobic digestion effluent can be used as nitrogen source for the ethanol fermentation instead of urea in the ethanol-methane fermentation system.

  15. The global atmospheric budget ethanol revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstine, W. V.; Galbally, I. E.

    2011-09-01

    Ethanol is an important biogenic volatile organic compound, which is increasingly used as a fuel for motor vehicles; therefore, an improved understanding of its atmospheric cycle is important. In this paper we use three sets of observational data, measured emissions of ethanol from living plants, measured concentrations of ethanol in the atmosphere and measured hydroxyl concentrations in the atmosphere (by methyl chloroform titration), to make two independent estimates related to the rate of cycling of ethanol through the atmosphere. The observational bases are small and the uncertainties large; however, the measurements identified above are the only experimentally determined information available on atmospheric ethanol. In the first estimate, simple calculations give the emission rate of ethanol from living plants as 26 (range, 10-38) Tg y-1. This contributes significantly to the total global ethanol source of 42 (range, 25-56) Tg y-1. In the second estimate, the total losses of ethanol from the global atmosphere are 70 (range, 50-90) Tg y-1, with about three-quarters of the ethanol removed by reaction with hydroxyl radicals in the gaseous and aqueous phases of the atmosphere, and the remainder lost through wet and dry deposition to land. These values of both the source of ethanol from living plants and the removal of atmospheric ethanol via oxidation by hydroxyl radicals (derived entirely from observations) are significantly larger than those in recent literature. We suggest that a revision of the estimate of global ethanol emissions from plants to the atmosphere to a value comparable with this analysis is warranted.

  16. Biological production of ethanol fom coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data (acetate to ethanol) utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  17. A study of ethanol tolerance in yeast.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, T; Panchal, C J; Russell, I; Stewart, G G

    1990-01-01

    The ethanol tolerance of yeast and other microorganisms has remained a controversial area despite the many years of study. The complex inhibition mechanism of ethanol and the lack of a universally accepted definition and method to measure ethanol tolerance have been prime reasons for the controversy. A number of factors such as plasma membrane composition, media composition, mode of substrate feeding, osmotic pressure, temperature, intracellular ethanol accumulation, and byproduct formation have been shown to influence the ethanol tolerance of yeast. Media composition was found to have a profound effect upon the ability of a yeast strain to ferment concentrated substrates (high osmotic pressure) and to ferment at higher temperatures. Supplementation with peptone-yeast extract, magnesium, or potassium salts has a significant and positive effect upon overall fermentation rates. An intracellular accumulation of ethanol was observed during the early stages of fermentation. As fermentation proceeds, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations become similar. In addition, increases in osmotic pressure are associated with increased intracellular accumulation of ethanol. However, it was observed that nutrient limitation, not increased intracellular accumulation of ethanol, is responsible to some extent for the decreases in growth and fermentation activity of yeast cells at higher osmotic pressure and temperature.

  18. Intracellular accumulation of ethanol in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Loueiro, V.; Ferreira, H.G.

    1983-09-01

    Ethanol produced in the course of a batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae or added from the outside, affects adversely the specific rate of growth of the yeast population, its viability, its specific rate of fermentation, and the specific rates of the uptake of sugar and amino acids. The underlying mechanisms are many and include irreversible denaturation and hyperbolic noncompetitive inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, the exponential noncompetitive inhibition of glucose, maltose, and ammonium transport, the depression of the optimum and the maximum temperature for growth, the increase of the minimum temperature for growth, and the enhancement of thermal death and petite mutation. Nagodawithana and Steinkraus reported that added ethanol was less toxic for S. cerevisiae than ethanol produced by the yeast. The death rates were lower in the presence of added ethanol than those measured at similar external ethanol concentrations endogenously produced. They proposed that, due to an unbalance between the rates of production and the net outflux of ethanol, there would be an intracellular accumulation of ethanol which in turn would explain the apparently greater inhibitory potency of endogenously produced ethanol present in the medium. This hypothesis was supported by the findings of several authors who reported that the intracellular concentration of ethanol, in the course of batch fermentation, is much higher than its concentration in the extracellular medium. The present work is an attempt to clarify this matter. (Refs. 32).

  19. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  20. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  1. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  2. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  3. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  4. Detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, N.

    1997-04-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation has been developed and validated against a variety of experimental data sets. Laminar flame speed data obtained from a constant volume bomb, ignition delay data behind reflected shock waves, and ethanol oxidation product profiles from a turbulent flow reactor were used in this study. Very good agreement was found in modeling the data sets obtained from the three different experimental systems. The computational modeling results show that high temperature ethanol oxidation exhibits strong sensitivity to the fall-off kinetics of ethanol decomposition, branching ratio selection for c2h5oh+oh=products, and reactions involving the hydroperoxyl (HO2) radical.

  5. Basis of the Gabamimetic Profile of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Breese, G. R.; Criswell, H. E.; Carta, M.; Dodson, P. D.; Hanchar, H. J.; Khisti, R. T.; Mameli, M.; Ming, Z.; Morrow, A. L.; Olsen, R. W.; Otis, T. S.; Parsons, L. H.; Penland, S. N.; Roberto, M.; Siggins, G. R.; Valenzuela, C. F.; Wallner, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the 2005 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting. The initial presentation by Dr. Wallner provided evidence that selected GABAA receptors containing the δ subunit display sensitivity to low intoxicating ethanol concentrations and this sensitivity is further increased by a mutation in the cerebellar α6 subunit, found in alcohol-hypersensitive rats. Dr. Mameli reported that ethanol affects γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function by affecting neural circuits that influence GABA release. Dr. Parsons presented data from electrophysiological and microdialysis investigations that ethanol is capable of releasing GABA from presynaptic terminals. Dr. Morrow demonstrated that systemic ethanol increases neuroactive steroids in brain, the absence of which alters various functional responses to ethanol. Dr. Criswell presented evidence that the ability of ethanol to increase GABA was apparent in some, but not all, brain regions indicative of regional specificity. Further, Dr. Criswell demonstrated that neurosteroids alone and when synthesized locally by ethanol act postsynaptically to enhance the effect of GABA released by ethanol in a region specific manner. Collectively, this series of reports support the GABAmimetic profile of acutely administered ethanol being dependent on several specific mechanisms distinct from a direct effect on the major synaptic isoforms of GABAA receptors. PMID:16573592

  6. Current and future markets for fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, D.C.; Kulakowski, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    1982 was the best year yet for ethanol. Sales increased at an average rate of 10% a month. Increased capacity by producers, shift by wet millers from corn syrup to ethanol, and the startup of three more large facilities contributed to the increase. Ethanol compares favorably in price to regular gasoline. Market competition has driven the price down twenty cents. An increase in the tax exemption in 1983 will accelerate growth. Lead phase-down regulations will reduce lead use. This will shift demand to octane. The cost-effectiveness of ethanol gas as an octane enhancer should improve significantly, once the current octane glut ends.

  7. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    PubMed

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  8. Ethanol: a brief economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Del Rio Farms, Inc. has a large farm in the Imperial Valley area of California, a known geothermal resource area. The 10 MW geothermal flash steam power plant, operated by Union Oil Company, is located on their property. Presently the owners have under consideration a 10 million gallon per year ethanol plant. The initial feed to the plant would be corn, with sugar beets as a possible alternate feed. The ultimate plan is to use waste products and biomass feed stocks. Geothermal water would provide the necessary process heat for the plant. An economic evaluation was performed to assist in the planning. Each of the following conclusions are based on an ethanol plant that produces 10 million gallons of ethanol per year. Over a 20 year period, the plant using a corn feed stock would generate a rate of return of +12% on a total equity capital investment of $33,000,000. Over a 15 year period, the plant using a corn feed stock is probably not economically feasible since it would have a rate of return less than 12% or a total equity capital investment of $33,000,000. A corn feed stock plant operates at a loss for the first seven years if 95% of the $33,000,000 cost is debt financed. The plant is economically feasible only if offsetting energy income from other profitable operation permits taking advantage of investment tax credits and depletion allowances that are available. If this is true, the project is highly feasible, paying back twice the 5% equity capital in the first year.

  9. Repeated Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking Alters Ethanol Drinking Patterns and Depresses Striatal GABAergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Mark V; Carlson, Verginia C Cuzon; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2014-01-01

    Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the ‘drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a ‘front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15 min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum. PMID:23995582

  10. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  11. Cocaine attenuates vasoconstriction to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, A.A.; Morley, D.; Vosacek, R.; Zhang, X.Y.; Shah, R. )

    1991-03-11

    The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effects of cocaine and ethanol on vasomotor tone. Using a standard isolated vascular ring preparation, 24 rings from 7 New Zealand White Rabbits were studied. All rings were denuded as verified by methacholine challenge. The dose response to NE for each ring was used as a standard for vasoconstrictors Dose response curves to ETH and C were done in random order. Concentrations of both ETH and C employed were physiologically attainable in man and below thresholds for coma or death. The dose response curve to ETH was repeated after addition of 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M C to the arterial bath. After adding 1,500 ug/ml of ETH, the dose response curve to C was repeated. Ethanol, alone caused significant vasoconstriction of arterial rings. After the addition of C to the bath, the dose response to ETH was significantly shifted to the right, peak contraction achieved was 36.6 {plus minus} 3.2% of maximal NE contraction. Cocaine alone did not result in any change in resting tension of the rings. When ETH was added to the bath, C caused vasoconstriction, the peak value equivalent to 12.5 {plus minus} 2.2% of maximal contraction to NE.

  12. SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF ETHANOL: IMPACT OF AGE, STRESS AND PRIOR HISTORY OF ETHANOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  13. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  14. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  15. SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant issue affecting widespread acceptance of bioethanol as a sustainable fuel is the energy used to grow the feedstock, ferment the feedstock to ethanol, and separate dry ethanol from the fermentation broth. For the latter, the best current technology is two-step disti...

  16. Integrated Biosensor Systems for Ethanol Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadeff, Eliana M.; Salgado, Andrea M.; Cós, Oriol; Pereira, Nei; Valero, Francisco; Valdman, Belkis

    Different integrated systems with a bi-enzymatic biosensor, working with two different methods for ethanol detection—flow injection analysis (FIA) or sequential injection analysis (SIA)—were developed and applied for ethanol extracted from gasohol mixtures, as well as for samples of alcoholic beverages and fermentation medium. A detection range of 0.05-1.5 g ethanol/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9909, has been reached when using FIA system, working with only one microreactor packed with immobilized alcohol oxidase and injecting free horseradish peroxidase. When using both enzymes, immobilized separately in two microreactors, the detection ranges obtained varied from 0.001 to 0.066 g ethanol/l, without on-line dilution to 0.010-0.047 g ethanol/l when a 1:7,000 dilution ratio was employed, reaching correlation coefficients of 0.9897 and 0.9992, respectively. For the integrated biosensor SIA system with the stop-flow technique, the linear range was 0.005-0.04 g/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9922.

  17. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  18. Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a midterm forecast for biomass ethanol production under three different technology cases for the period 2000 to 2020, based on projections developed from the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System. An overview of cellulose conversion technology and various feedstock options and a brief history of ethanol usage in the United States are also presented.

  19. Ethanol as an economic competitor to gasoline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel ethanol is one of the technology success stories of the 21st century. In less then one third of a century it has gone from being a material produced rather inefficiently in small quantities to a major commercial product. This success can be attributed not only to the fact that ethanol is a rene...

  20. Fuel ethanol production from agricultural residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol is a renewable oxygenated fuel. In 2012, about 13.3 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was produced from corn in the USA which makes up 10% of gasoline supply. Various agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw and barley straw can serve as low-cost lignocellulosic fee...

  1. [Progress on engineered strains for ethanol production].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan-qiang; Xu, Ping

    2006-08-01

    With the 21 century's coming, the era of cheap oil is coming to the end. There has been an increasing worldwide interest in fuel ethanol. In the last two decades, lots of work has been done to develop strains for ethanol producing. Research progress on metabolic engineering of strains for fuel ethanol production is summarized, including genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize starch, pentose and cellulose, Zymomonas mobilis to ferment arabinose and xylose, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca to introduce heterogenous ethanol production pathway. The aim of engineering these strains is to obtain an ideal microorganism which can converse the available carbon sources to ethanol rapidly and efficiently with high tolerance to ethanol and to inhibitory components in the cheap materials such as lignocellulose hydrolysate. The importance of fuel ethanol will be a stimulus to develop engineered hardy strains to utilize cheap materials for high ethanol concentration production. Since both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis are generally regarded as safe (GRAS), genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae which can utilize raw starch directly and recombinant Zymomonas mobilis which can ferment glucose, arabinose and xylose in the lignocellulose hydrolysate have potential application to industry in the near future.

  2. Composition and Behavior of Fuel Ethanol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol usage in the United States has increased due in part to the elimination of methyl tert-butyl ether from the fuel supply and to the mandates of Congress. Two samples, one each from a wet mill and a dry mill ethanol plant, were obtained before denaturing. Each of these ...

  3. Ethanol and the environment: Clarifying the controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, B.J.; Wyman, C.E.

    1993-12-31

    Domestic transportation fuels are almost exclusively (about 97%) derived petroleum and account for about 64% of the total petroleum used in the United States. Few substitutes are currently available for petroleum-based transportation fuels, making the United States extremely vulnerable, both strategically and economically, to supply disruptions. In recent years, interest in ethanol as a fuel extender, octane enhancer, and oxygenate has increased dramatically because of concerns associated with conventional transportation fuels. Ethanol is produced commercially from sugar in Brazil and starch crops in United States. However, lignocellulosic biomass such as agricultural residues, forestry wastes, municipal solid waste, and dedicated energy crops can also be converted into ethanol. This resource provides a low-cost, abundant feedstock that would support large-scale ethanol production in this country. Ethanol can be used as a 10% blend, reacted with isobutylene to form ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), or used directly as a neat fuel. The fuel properties and processing requirements of each of these options must be properly accounted for in order to compare the merits of ethanol use with conventional fuels. The advantages and disadvantages of using ethanol as a blend, as ETBE, or as a neat fuel will be discussed and an overview of enzymatic hydrolysis technology for producing ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass will be present.

  4. [Ethanol pharmacokinetics in narcotic action and endogenous ethanol in female rats].

    PubMed

    Andronova, L M; Ushakova, M M; Kudriavtsev, R V; Barkov, N K

    1982-12-01

    Experiments were made on female rats to demonstrate a positive correlation between the time of ethanol anesthesia in estrus and diestrus and (1) subsequent preference of ethanol to water (r = 0.68) and (2) ethanol consumption dosage (r = 0.72). In the same rats (during estrus and diestrus), the endogenous level and blood concentrations of ethanol were measured 30 minutes after administering the anesthetic dose (4.5 g/kg) and during the animal's "egress" from anesthesia. The low level of endogenous ethanol and rapid decrease of the blood ethanol concentration upon administering the anesthetic dose during estrus were characteristic of those female rats which, under the conditions of free choice, preferred ethanol to water and consumed it in large doses.

  5. Ethanol mandate thrown out by appeals court

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1995-05-10

    In a victory for the oil industry, a federal appeals court has overturned EPA`s mandate for ethanol use in reformulated gasoline (REG), saying the agency lacks authority to require 30% of the oxygenate market be reserved for ethanol. EPA says the ruling does not prevent ethanols use in RFG - {open_quotes}It only says that EPA cannot dictate the recipe.{close_quotes} Charles DiBona, president of the American Petroleum Institute (API), says {open_quotes}API and its member companies are not opposed to the use of ethanol as an oxygenate. We oppose this illegal mandate.{close_quotes} Urvan Sternfels, president of the National Petroleum Refiners Association, says, {open_quotes}Mandating market shares for any product is unsound economic policy.{close_quotes} The two trade groups led the legal battle against the ethanol requirement.

  6. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Robert E.

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  7. Correcting direct effects of ethanol on translation and transcription machinery confers ethanol tolerance in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Haft, Rembrandt J. F.; Keating, David H.; Schwaegler, Tyler; Schwalbach, Michael S.; Vinokur, Jeffrey; Tremaine, Mary; Peters, Jason M.; Kotlajich, Matthew V.; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Ong, Irene M.; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Kiley, Patricia J.; Landick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of ethanol toxicity and tolerance in bacteria, although important for biotechnology and bioenergy applications, remain incompletely understood. Genetic studies have identified potential cellular targets for ethanol and have revealed multiple mechanisms of tolerance, but it remains difficult to separate the direct and indirect effects of ethanol. We used adaptive evolution to generate spontaneous ethanol-tolerant strains of Escherichia coli, and then characterized mechanisms of toxicity and resistance using genome-scale DNAseq, RNAseq, and ribosome profiling coupled with specific assays of ribosome and RNA polymerase function. Evolved alleles of metJ, rho, and rpsQ recapitulated most of the observed ethanol tolerance, implicating translation and transcription as key processes affected by ethanol. Ethanol induced miscoding errors during protein synthesis, from which the evolved rpsQ allele protected cells by increasing ribosome accuracy. Ribosome profiling and RNAseq analyses established that ethanol negatively affects transcriptional and translational processivity. Ethanol-stressed cells exhibited ribosomal stalling at internal AUG codons, which may be ameliorated by the adaptive inactivation of the MetJ repressor of methionine biosynthesis genes. Ethanol also caused aberrant intragenic transcription termination for mRNAs with low ribosome density, which was reduced in a strain with the adaptive rho mutation. Furthermore, ethanol inhibited transcript elongation by RNA polymerase in vitro. We propose that ethanol-induced inhibition and uncoupling of mRNA and protein synthesis through direct effects on ribosomes and RNA polymerase conformations are major contributors to ethanol toxicity in E. coli, and that adaptive mutations in metJ, rho, and rpsQ help protect these central dogma processes in the presence of ethanol. PMID:24927582

  8. Oxidation of ethanol in the rat brain and effects associated with chronic ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Du, Hongying; Jiang, Lihong; Ma, Xiaoxian; de Graaf, Robin A; Behar, Kevin L; Mason, Graeme F

    2013-08-27

    It has been reported that chronic and acute alcohol exposure decreases cerebral glucose metabolism and increases acetate oxidation. However, it remains unknown how much ethanol the living brain can oxidize directly and whether such a process would be affected by alcohol exposure. The questions have implications for reward, oxidative damage, and long-term adaptation to drinking. One group of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was treated with ethanol vapor and the other given room air. After 3 wk the rats received i.v. [2-(13)C]ethanol and [1, 2-(13)C2]acetate for 2 h, and then the brain was fixed, removed, and divided into neocortex and subcortical tissues for measurement of (13)C isotopic labeling of glutamate and glutamine by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ethanol oxidation was seen to occur both in the cortex and the subcortex. In ethanol-naïve rats, cortical oxidation of ethanol occurred at rates of 0.017 ± 0.002 µmol/min/g in astroglia and 0.014 ± 0.003 µmol/min/g in neurons, and chronic alcohol exposure increased the astroglial ethanol oxidation to 0.028 ± 0.002 µmol/min/g (P = 0.001) with an insignificant effect on neuronal ethanol oxidation. Compared with published rates of overall oxidative metabolism in astroglia and neurons, ethanol provided 12.3 ± 1.4% of cortical astroglial oxidation in ethanol-naïve rats and 20.2 ± 1.5% in ethanol-treated rats. For cortical astroglia and neurons combined, the ethanol oxidation for naïve and treated rats was 3.2 ± 0.3% and 3.8 ± 0.2% of total oxidation, respectively. (13)C labeling from subcortical oxidation of ethanol was similar to that seen in cortex but was not affected by chronic ethanol exposure.

  9. Intermittent High-Dose Ethanol Exposure Increases Ethanol Preference in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Joanna; Rhodes, Nathaniel; McCullough, Brian; Aramini, Richard; Zharikova, Alevtina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol use disorders have both high social and economic costs and are among the leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Understanding the factors that contribute to escalation of alcohol intake is important in developing effective treatments for this problem. This study further characterizes the effects of limited intermittent exposure to high levels of alcohol on the preference for alcohol consumption over other incentives. Method: Fourteen male, Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to consume ethanol in a gelatin vehicle. They were then given free access to both ethanol gelatin and plain gelatin during daily choice periods interspersed with nonchoice periods (only plain gelatin access). After baseline ethanol preference was established, half of the rats were given eight injections of 3 g/kg ethanol during nonchoice periods (spread out over about 2 months), and the other half received saline injections. Ethanol preference was measured during subsequent choice periods. Results: Intermittent ethanol injections increased ethanol preference from 21% (SEM = 2.3%) of their total gelatin consumption during the first choice period to 46.8% (SEM = 3.4%) during the third choice period. The saline-treated rats had no significant change in ethanol preference. In addition, the ethanol-treated rats exhibited higher ethanol intake than saline-treated rats when ethanol gelatin was the only choice available. Conclusions: The results indicate that intermittent exposure to sedative doses of ethanol leads to an increased ethanol preference in rats. This suggests that occasional high-dose alcohol exposure could be an important contributor to the development of enhanced ethanol intake, which may affect the incidence of chronic alcoholism. PMID:25486406

  10. Circadian activity rhythms and voluntary ethanol intake in male and female ethanol-preferring rats: effects of long-term ethanol access.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian

  11. Circadian activity rhythms and voluntary ethanol intake in male and female ethanol-preferring rats: effects of long-term ethanol access.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian

  12. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Bowman, Michael J; Braker, Jay D; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Lee, Charles C; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Wagschal, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes second generation bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation and separation. Ultimately, it is desirable to combine as many of the biochemical steps as possible in a single organism to achieve CBP (consolidated bioprocessing). A commercially ready CBP organism is currently unreported. Production of second generation bioethanol is hindered by economics, particularly in the cost of pretreatment (including waste management and solvent recovery), the cost of saccharification enzymes (particularly exocellulases and endocellulases displaying kcat ~1 s-1 on crystalline cellulose), and the inefficiency of co-fermentation of 5- and 6-carbon monosaccharides (owing in part to redox cofactor imbalances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). PMID:22329798

  13. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Bowman, Michael J; Braker, Jay D; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Lee, Charles C; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Wagschal, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes second generation bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation and separation. Ultimately, it is desirable to combine as many of the biochemical steps as possible in a single organism to achieve CBP (consolidated bioprocessing). A commercially ready CBP organism is currently unreported. Production of second generation bioethanol is hindered by economics, particularly in the cost of pretreatment (including waste management and solvent recovery), the cost of saccharification enzymes (particularly exocellulases and endocellulases displaying kcat ~1 s-1 on crystalline cellulose), and the inefficiency of co-fermentation of 5- and 6-carbon monosaccharides (owing in part to redox cofactor imbalances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

  14. Low brain histamine content affects ethanol-induced motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Lintunen, Minnamaija; Raatesalmi, Kristiina; Sallmen, Tina; Anichtchik, Oleg; Karlstedt, Kaj; Kaslin, Jan; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R; Panula, Pertti

    2002-02-01

    The effect of ethanol on motor performance in humans is well established but how neural mechanisms are affected by ethanol action remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the brain histaminergic system is important in it, we used a genetic model consisting of rat lines selectively outbred for differential ethanol sensitivity. Ethanol-sensitive rats had lower levels of brain histamine and lower densities of histamine-immunoreactive fibers than ethanol-insensitive rats, although both rat lines showed no changes in histamine synthesizing neurons. Lowering the high brain histamine content of the ethanol-insensitive rats with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine before ethanol administration increased their ethanol sensitivity in a behavioral motor function test. Higher H3 receptor ligand binding and histamine-induced G-protein activation was detected in several brain regions of ethanol-naive ethanol-sensitive rats. Brain histamine levels and possibly signaling via H3 receptors may thus correlate with genetic differences in ethanol-induced motor impairment.

  15. Ethanol-Regulated Genes That Contribute to Ethanol Sensitivity and Rapid Tolerance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Eric C.; Allouche, Lorien; Chapot, Paul A.; Vranizan, Karen; Moore, Monica S.; Heberlein, Ulrike; Wolf, Fred W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased ethanol intake, a major predictor for the development of alcohol use disorders, is facilitated by the development of tolerance to both the aversive and pleasurable effects of the drug. The molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol tolerance development are complex and are not yet well understood. Methods To identify genetic mechanisms that contribute to ethanol tolerance, we examined the time course of gene expression changes elicited by a single sedating dose of ethanol in Drosophila, and completed a behavioral survey of strains harboring mutations in ethanol-regulated genes. Results Enrichment for genes in metabolism, nucleic acid binding, olfaction, regulation of signal transduction, and stress suggests that these biological processes are coordinately affected by ethanol exposure. We also detected a coordinate up-regulation of genes in the Toll and Imd innate immunity signal transduction pathways. A multi-study comparison revealed a small set of genes showing similar regulation, including increased expression of 3 genes for serine biosynthesis. A survey of Drosophila strains harboring mutations in ethanol-regulated genes for ethanol sensitivity and tolerance phenotypes revealed roles for serine biosynthesis, olfaction, transcriptional regulation, immunity, and metabolism. Flies harboring deletions of the genes encoding the olfactory co-receptor Or83b or the sirtuin Sir2 showed marked changes in the development of ethanol tolerance. Conclusions Our findings implicate novel roles for these genes in regulating ethanol behavioral responses. PMID:19951294

  16. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Chandler, L J

    2014-11-01

    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol.

  17. The Effects of Chronic Ethanol Administration on Amygdala Neuronal Firing and Ethanol Withdrawal Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Faingold, Carl L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Physical dependence on ethanol results in an ethanol withdrawal (ETX) syndrome including susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS) in rodents after abrupt cessation of ethanol. Chronic ethanol administration and ETX induce functional changes of neurons in several brain regions, including the amygdala. Amygdala neurons are requisite elements of the neuronal network subserving AGS propagation during ETX induced by a subacute “binge” ethanol administration protocol. However, the effects of chronic ethanol administration on amygdala neuronal firing and ETX seizure behaviors are unknown. In the present study ethanol (5 g/kg) was administered intragastrically in Sprague-Dawley rats once daily for 28 days [chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) protocol]. One week later the rats began receiving ethanol intragastrically 3 times daily for 4 days (binge protocol). Microwire electrodes were implanted prior to CIE or on the day after CIE ended day 29 to record extracellular action potentials in lateral amygdala (LAMG) neurons. The first dose of ethanol administered in the binge protocol following CIE treatment did not alter LAMG neuronal firing, which contrasts with firing suppression seen previously in the binge protocol alone. These data indicate that CIE induces neuroadaptive changes in the ETX network which reduce LAMG response to ethanol. LAMG neuronal responses to acoustic stimuli prior to AGS were significantly decreased during ETX as compared to those before ethanol treatment. LAMG neurons fired tonically throughout the tonic convulsions during AGS. CIE plus binge treatment resulted in a significantly greater mean seizure duration and a significantly elevated incidence of death than was seen previously with the binge protocol alone, indicating an elevated seizure severity following chronic ethanol administration. PMID:18614185

  18. Cellulose to ethanol production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The original proposed project was followed until February of 1982 when it became apparent that until further work is completed on development of enzymes, the conversion of cellulose (namely paper mill waste) to ethanol for commercial sale is not feasible. Our approach to the project at this time was to still meet our goal of a economical 100,000 gallon/year ethanol plant. In the early part of 1981 we inquired about fodder beets for conversion to ethanol and through Pacific Seed Production Company and purchased seed for planting in 1981. We planted a quarter acre which was harvested in late fall of 1981. The fodder beets were kept in cold storage until we were ready for testing. Tests were run in February and March. Results indicated that it would be economically feasible to produce ethanol in a 100,000 gallon/year plant using fodder beets. This final report is in two sections. The first section covers the tests on conversion of cellulose to ethanol and the second section covers tests on conversion of fodder beets to ethanol. A 100,000 gallon/year ethanol plant will require 7850 tons of Monarose fodder beets and 157 acres at 50 ton per acre.

  19. Neurosteroid Influences on Sensitivity to Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Christa M.; Rossi, David J.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    This review will highlight a variety of mechanisms by which neurosteroids affect sensitivity to ethanol, including physiological states associated with activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axes, and the effects of chronic exposure to ethanol, in addition to behavioral implications. To date, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor mechanisms are a major focus of the modulation of ethanol effects by neuroactive steroids. While NMDA receptor mechanisms are gaining prominence in the literature, these complex data would be best discussed separately. Accordingly, GABAA receptor mechanisms are emphasized in this review with brief mention of some NMDA receptor mechanisms to point out contrasting neuroactive steroid pharmacology. Overall, the data suggest that neurosteroids are virtually ubiquitous modulators of inhibitory neurotransmission. Neurosteroids appear to affect sensitivity to ethanol in specific brain regions and, consequently, specific behavioral tests, possibly related to the efficacy and potency of ethanol to potentiate the release of GABA and increase neurosteroid concentrations. Although direct interaction of ethanol and neuroactive steroids at common receptor binding sites has been suggested in some studies, this proposition is still controversial. It is currently difficult to assign a specific mechanism by which neuroactive steroids could modulate the effects of ethanol in particular behavioral tasks. PMID:22654852

  20. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Jin . E-mail: jizhong@iupui.edu; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-12-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3{beta}, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3{beta} (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3{beta} inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits.

  1. Ethanol for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Schurmann, Paul; Peñalver, Jorge; Valderrábano, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ethanol infusion was an early mode of ablative treatment for cardiac arrhythmias. Its initial descriptions involved coronary intra-arterial delivery, targeting arrhythmogenic substrates in drug-refractory ventricular tachycardia or the atrioventricular node. Largely superseded by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and other contact-based technologies as a routine ablation strategy, intracoronary arterial ethanol infusion remains as an alternative option in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia when conventional ablation fails. Arrhythmic foci that are deep-seated in the myocardium may not be amenable to catheter ablation from either the endocardium or the epicardium by RFA, but they can be targeted by an ethanol infusion. Recent findings Recently, we have explored ethanol injection through cardiac venous systems, in order to avoid the risks of complications and limitations of coronary arterial instrumentation. Vein of Marshall ethanol infusion is being studied as an adjunctive procedure in ablation of atrial fibrillation, and coronary venous ethanol infusion for ventricular tachycardia. Conclusion Ethanol ablation remains useful as a bail-out technique for refractory cases to RFA, or as an adjunctive therapy that may improve the efficacy of catheter ablation procedures. PMID:26049378

  2. Ethanol cytotoxic effect on trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Clave, S; Joya, X; Salat-Batlle, J; Garcia-Algar, O; Vall, O

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure may cause both, altered fetal neurodevelopment and impaired placental function. These disturbances can lead to growth retardation, which is one of the most prevalent features in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). It is not known whether there is a specific pattern of cytotoxicity caused by ethanol that can be extrapolated to other cell types. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effects caused by sustained exposure of trophoblast cells to ethanol. The cytotoxic effect of sustained exposure to standard doses of ethanol on an in vitro human trophoblast cell line, JEG3, was examined. Viable cell count by exclusion method, total protein concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and activation of apoptotic markers (P-H2AX, caspase-3 and PARP-1) were determined. Sustained exposure to ethanol decreased viable cell count and total protein concentration. LDH activity did not increased in exposed cells but apoptotic markers were detected. In addition, there was a dose-dependent relationship between ethanol concentration and apoptotic pathways activation. Sustained ethanol exposure causes cellular cytotoxicity by apoptotic pathways induction as a result of DNA damage. This apoptotic induction may partially explain the altered function of placental cells and the damage previously detected in other tissues.

  3. Ethanol tolerance of immobilized brewers' yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Norton, S; Watson, K; D'Amore, T

    1995-04-01

    A method based on the survival of yeast cells subjected to an ethanol or heat shock was utilized to compare the stress resistance of free and carrageenan-immobilized yeast cells. Results demonstrated a significant increase of yeast survival against ethanol for immobilized cells as compared to free cells, while no marked difference in heat resistance was observed. When entrapped cells were released by mechanical disruption of the gel beads and submitted to the same ethanol stress, they exhibited a lower survival rate than entrapped cells, but a similar or slightly higher survival rate than free cells. The incidence of ethanol- or heat-induced respiratory-deficient mutants of entrapped cells was equivalent to that of control or non-stressed cells (1.3 +/- 0.5%) whereas ethanol- and heat-shocked free and released cells exhibited between 4.4% and 10.9% average incidence of respiration-deficient mutants. It was concluded that the carrageenan gel matrix provided a protection against ethanol, and that entrapped cells returned to normal physiological behaviour as soon as they were released. The cell growth rate was a significant factor in the resistance of yeast to high ethanol concentrations. The optimum conditions to obtain reliable and reproducible results involved the use of slow-growing cells after exhaustion of the sugar substrate.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Luo, Jia

    2015-10-14

    Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). UPR is initiated to protect cells from overwhelming ER protein loading. However, sustained ER stress may result in cell death. ER stress has been implied in various CNS injuries, including brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and aging-associated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, effects of ethanol on ER stress in the CNS receive less attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We also examine the potential mechanisms underlying ethanol-mediated ER stress and the interaction among ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy in the context of ethanol neurotoxicity.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). UPR is initiated to protect cells from overwhelming ER protein loading. However, sustained ER stress may result in cell death. ER stress has been implied in various CNS injuries, including brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and aging-associated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, effects of ethanol on ER stress in the CNS receive less attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We also examine the potential mechanisms underlying ethanol-mediated ER stress and the interaction among ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy in the context of ethanol neurotoxicity. PMID:26473940

  6. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Goldowitz, Dan; Lussier, Alexandre A.; Boyle, Julia K.; Wong, Kaelan; Lattimer, Scott L.; Dubose, Candis; Lu, Lu; Kobor, Michael S.; Hamre, Kristin M.

    2014-01-01

    While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses). Tissue was collected 7 h after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID

  7. [Fuel ethanol production from cassava feedstock].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ribo; Chen, Dong; Wang, Qingyan; Shen, Naikun; Wei, Yutuo; Du, Liqin

    2010-07-01

    The regions suitable for growing cassava include five provinces in Southern China, with Guangxi alone accounting for over 65% of the total cassava production in the country. In this article, the state-of-the-art development of fuel ethanol production from cassava in China is illustrated by the construction of the cassava fuel ethanol plant with its annual production capacity of 200 000 metric tons. And in the meantime, problems and challenges encountered in the development of China's cassava fuel ethanol are highlighted and the strategies to address them are proposed.

  8. Gangliosides, or sialic acid, antagonize ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, W.R.; Boyles, R.; Matthew, J.; Cherian, L.

    1988-01-01

    Because ethanol elicits a dose-dependent hydrolysis of brain sialogangliosides, the authors tested the possibility that injected gangliosides might antagonize intoxicating doses of ethanol. Clear anti-intoxication effects were seen at 24 hr post-injection of mixed mouse-brain gangliosides at 125-130 mg/kg, but not at lower or higher doses. Sleep time was reduced on the order of 50%, and roto-rod agility was significantly enhanced. Sialic acid (SA) similarly antagonized ethanol; however, the precursor of SA, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, as well as ceramide and asialoganglioside did not.

  9. Assessment of Ethanol Trends on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Gazda, Daniel; McCoy, Torin; Limero, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a working environment for six crewmembers through atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems. In the last year, elevated ethanol levels have presented a unique challenge for the ISS ECLSS. Ethanol is monitored on the ISS by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM). The source of this increase is currently unknown. This paper documents the credible sources for the increased ethanol concentration, the monitoring provided by the AQM, and the impact on the atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems.

  10. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  11. Wastepaper as a feedstock for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.W.; Riley, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The possibility of using wastepaper as a cheap feedstock for production of ethanol is discussed. As the single largest material category in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, wastepaper is the main target of efforts to reduce the volume of MSW. And in the process for producing ethanol from lignocellulosics, the feedstock represents the highest cost. If wastepaper could be obtained cheaply in large enough quantities and if conversion process cost and efficiency prove to be similar to those for wood, the cost of ethanol could be significantly reduced. At the same time, the volume of wastepaper that must be disposed of in landfills could be lessened. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Minimal exposure to ethanol increases ethanol preference in Maudsley reactive male rats.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nelson; Campbell, Santiba D; Mitchell, Pamela S

    2003-04-01

    Male Maudsley reactive (MR/Har) rats often exhibit marked ethanol or alcohol preference (AP) after forced (one-bottle) exposure to 10% [volume/volume (vol./vol.)] ethanol, but exhibit variable AP without this exposure. In this study, we examined manipulations of one-bottle exposure to ethanol (10% ethanol as the sole source of fluid) in three experiments. In Experiment 1, we recorded voluntary consumption of 10% ethanol during 5 weeks of two-bottle choice in male and female MR/Har rats after 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 days of one-bottle ethanol exposure. The results showed that, in male rats, one day of one-bottle exposure was as effective as multiple days in increasing AP relative to findings for ethanol-naive (control) rats. Female rats were not affected by one-bottle exposure. They drank equal amounts of ethanol across all groups and in greater amounts than observed for male rats (relative to body weight). The results of Experiment 2 supported the suggestion that 18 h of exposure to ethanol was similar to 24 h of exposure for increasing subsequent ethanol consumption, and that 12 h of exposure increased AP relative to findings for ethanol-naive rats, but on a delayed basis and at a lower level than that observed for 24 h of exposure. In Experiment 3, we tested whether these increases in ethanol consumption, observed in male MR/Har rats after one-bottle exposure to ethanol, might be related to habituating to an unpalatable substance. Thus, rats had one-bottle tests with either a 10% ethanol solution (as in earlier studies) or a 0.01 mmol quinine solution, after which groups of rats were tested for voluntary consumption (two-bottle test) of one of these solutions and water. Results showed that although rats in the quinine-exposed group drank more fluid than that consumed by rats in the ethanol-exposed group during the one-bottle period, rats preferred ethanol to water and avoided quinine relative to water during the 5 weeks of two-bottle choice. The results seem to indicate

  13. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE INCREASES ETHANOL INTAKE AND REDUCES C-FOS EXPRESSION IN INFRALIMBIC CORTEX OF ADOLESCENT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Maria Carolina; March, Samanta M.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure significantly increases later predisposition for alcohol intake, but the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon remain hypothetical. This study analyzed (Exp. 1) ethanol intake in adolescent inbred WKAH/Hok Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle, on gestational days 17–20. Subsequent Experiments (2, 3 and 4) tested several variables likely to underlie the effect of gestational ethanol on adolescent ethanol preference, including ethanol-induced locomotor activation (LMA), ethanol-induced emission of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) after exposure to a rough exteroceptive stimulus, and induction of the immediate early gene C-fos in brain areas associated with processing of reward stimuli and with the retrieval and extinction of associative learning. Prenatal ethanol induced a two-fold increase in ethanol intake. Adolescents exhibited significant ethanol-induced LMA, emitted more aversive than appetitive USVs, and postnatal ethanol administration significantly exacerbated the emission of USVs. These effects, however, were not affected by prenatal ethanol. Adolescents prenatally exposed to ethanol as fetuses exhibited reduced neural activity in infralimbic cortex (but not in prelimbic cortex or nucleus accumbens core or shell), an area that has been implicated in the extinction of drug-mediated associative memories. Ethanol metabolism was not affected by prenatal ethanol. Late gestational exposure to ethanol significantly heightened drinking in the adolescent offspring of an inbred rat strain. Ethanol-induced LMA and USVs were not associated with differential ethanol intake due to prenatal ethanol exposure. Prenatal ethanol, however, altered basal neural activity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Future studies should analyze the functionality of medial prefrontal cortex after prenatal ethanol and its potential association with predisposition for heightened ethanol intake. PMID:23266368

  14. Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, David; Patzek, Tad; Cecil, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The prime focus of ethanol production from corn is to replace the imported oil used in American vehicles, without expending more fossil energy in ethanol production than is produced as ethanol energy. In a thorough and up-to-date evaluation of all the fossil energy costs of ethanol production from corn, every step in the production and conversion process must be included. In this study, 14 energy inputs in average U.S. corn production are included. Then, in the fermentation/distillation operation, 9 more identified fossil fuel inputs are included. Some energy and economic credits are given for the by-products, including dried distillers grains (DDG). Based on all the fossil energy inputs, a total of 1.43 kcal fossil energy is expended to produced 1 kcal ethanol. When the energy value of the DDG, based on the feed value of the DDG as compared to that of soybean meal, is considered, the energy cost of ethanol production is reduced slightly, to 1.28 kcal fossil energy input per 1 kcal ethanol produced. Several proethanol investigators have overlooked various energy inputs in U.S. corn production, including farm machinery, processing machinery, and the use of hybrid corn. In other studies, unrealistic, low energy costs were attributed to such inputs as nitrogen fertilizer, insecticides, and herbicides. Controversy continues concerning the energy and economic credits that should be assigned to the by-products. The U.S. Department of Energy reports that 17.0 billion L ethanol was produced in 2005. This represents only less than 1% of total oil use in the U.S. These yields are based on using about 18% of total U.S. corn production and 18% of cornland. Because the production of ethanol requires large inputs of both oil and natural gas in production, the U.S. is importing both oil and natural gas to produce ethanol. Furthermore, the U.S. Government is spending about dollar 3 billion annually to subsidize ethanol production, a subsidy of dollar 0.79/L ethanol produced. With

  15. KINETICS OF ETHANOL BIODEGRADATION UNDER METHANOGENIC CONDITIONS IN GASOLINE SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that biodegradation of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by mi...

  16. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON THE NATURAL ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF BENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that the presence of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by micr...

  17. Developing Biofuel in the Teaching Laboratory: Ethanol from Various Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jessica L.; Vieira, Matthew; Aryal, Binod; Vera, Nicolas; Solis, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    In this series of experiments, we mimic a small-scale ethanol plant. Students discover that the practical aspects of ethanol production are determined by the quantity of biomass produced per unit land, rather than the volume of ethanol produced per unit of biomass. These experiments explore the production of ethanol from different sources: fruits,…

  18. Health effects of synfuels technology: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sanathanan, L.P.; Reilly, C.A.; Marshall, S.A.; Wilzbach, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    This document contains annotated synopses of available information pertinent to health impacts of synthetic fuel technologies under development, and identifies needs for further information. The report focuses on carcinogenesis, which appears to be a special problem with coal conversion technologies. This review is intended to serve as a reference for the NEPA Affairs Division of DOE in its evaluation of the overall synthetic fuel program and specific projects in the program. Updated versions of this document are expected to be prepared annually or semiannually as new information becomes available.

  19. Economics of synfuel and gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several gasification systems are discussed. Cost estimates of various synthetic fuels are presented. The lowest cost synthetic fuel is significantly above the current natural gas price of about $2.75/MMBtu and about equivalent to present oil prices at the plant gate. Gas prices for the Welman-Galusha gasifier would have to be increased significantly if the plant ran on two shifts only or if the gasifiers were not fully loaded. For industrial application the lowest cost fuel is probably the direct use of low sulfur coal with some post combustion pollution control. This is followed by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. Coal/oil mixtures and solvent refined coal liquids (SRC I or SRC II) are the next options. High Btu gas from a large coal gasification plant will be more competitive for industrial use. Large industrial uses in the range of 1000 tons of coal a day may find reduced costs with an entrained coal conversion unit such as a Texaco or the Saarberg-Otto Gasifiers. However, before 1985 when the gas price decontrol has been felt, it is unlikely that low Btu gas, medium Btu gas and methanol will be an economical choice for industrial users.

  20. Tritium management in fusion synfuel designs

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-25

    Two blanket types are being studied: a lithium-sodium pool boiler and a lithium-oxide- or lithium-sodium pool boiler and a lithium-oxide- or aluminate-microsphere moving bed. For each, a wide variety of current technology was considered in handling the tritium. Here, we show the pool boiler with the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle first developed and now being piloted by the General Atomic Company. The tritium (T/sub 2/) will be generated in the lithium-sodium mixture where the concentration is approx. 10 ppM and held constant by a scavenging system consisting mainly of permeators. An intermediate sodium loop carries the blanket heat to the thermochemical cycle, and the T/sub 2/ in this loop is held to 1 ppM by a similar scavenging system. With this design, we have maintained blanket inventory at 1 kg of tritium, kept thermochemical cycle losses to 5 Ci/d and environmental loss to 10 Ci/d, and held total plant risk inventory at 7 kg tritium.

  1. Summary of synfuel characterization and combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    Combustion component research studies aimed at evolving environmentally acceptable approaches for burning coal derived fuels for ground power applications were performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center under a program titled the ""Critical Research and Support Technology Program'' (CRT). The work was funded by the Department of Energy and was performed in four tasks. This report summarizes these tasks which have all been previously reported. In addition some previously unreported data from Task 4 is also presented. The first, Task 1 consisted of a literature survey aimed at determining the properties of synthetic fuels. This was followed by a computer modeling effort, Task 2, to predict the exhaust emissions resulting from burning coal liquids by various combustion techniques such as lean and rich-lean combustion. The computer predictions were then compared to the results of a flame tube rig, Task 3, in which the fuel properties were varied to simulate coal liquids. Two actual SRC 2 coal liquids were tested in this flame tube task.

  2. Ethanol labeling: detection of early fluid absorption in endometrial resection.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S; Cruise, M; Reilly, C; Reid, P C; Sharp, F

    1992-02-01

    A study is presented of ethanol labeling of irrigation fluid in endometrial resection. The introduction of ethanol labeling and intraoperative breath ethanol analysis provided an inexpensive and potentially useful means of detecting early fluid absorption during uterine surgery. The breath ethanol analyzer used was a hand-held meter; the irrigant solution was 5% dextrose with 1% ethanol. Simultaneous breath and venous samples were taken from women undergoing endometrial resection. An increase in breath ethanol was positively correlated with fluid absorption, blood ethanol, and serum glucose. This technique may prove valuable in preventing fluid overload during endometrial resection.

  3. Interaction of ethanol with opiate receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhananov, R.Y.; Bujov, Y.V.; Maiskii, A.I.

    1986-04-01

    The authors study the action of ethanol on membrane-bound opiate receptors. Ethanol at 37/sup 0/C was shown to produce dose-dependent inhibition of binding of /sup 3/H-naloxone with opiate receptors. ID/sub 50/ under these conditions was 462 mM. Temperature-dependent inhibition of ligand-receptor binding suggests that ethanol does not compete for the stereospecific binding site of /sup 3/H-naloxone. Analysis of the inhibitory action of ethanol on /sup 3/H-naloxone binding in animals at different stages of experimental alcoholism revealed no differences between the control and experimental animals after 3.5 and 10 months of voluntary alcoholization.

  4. Production of ethanol from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, F.W.

    1982-04-20

    An integrated process is provided for producing ethanol from sugar cane. Harvested cane is chopped and shredded to provide a mass of fiber and juice which is digested in a first digester with a hemicellulase enzyme. Fibrous residue is separated by centrifuge and passed to a second digester for digestion with a mixed culture of a cellulase enzyme and an ethanol-producing culture. Fibrous residue from is pressed to provide a recycle juice extract and then burned to provide at least part of the heat energy requirement of the process. Juice extracts from digesters separated by centrifuges are combined, sterilized, flashed and passed to a fermentor for fermentation with an ethanol-producing microorganism. Ethanol is recovered from the process by separation utilizing a membrane.

  5. Adapting ethanol fuels to diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    During the 2nd International Alcohol Symposium 1977, Daimler-Benz reported on the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of using ethanol in originally diesel-operated commercial vehicles, and especially about the first results in the field of adapting the ethanol fuel to the requirements of conventional diesel engines. Investigations to this effect were continued by Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart, and Mercedes-Benz of Brasil in coordination with competent Brazilian government departments. The development effort is primarily adapted to Brazilian conditions, since ethanol fuel is intended as a long-term project in this country. This report is presented under headings - auto-ignition; durability tests; remedial measures; the injection systems; ethanol quality.

  6. Energy balance of wheat conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Stumborg, M.A.; Zentner, R.P.; Coxworth, E.

    1996-12-31

    The Western Canadian ethanol industry uses wheat as the preferred feed stock. The net energy balance of an ethanol system based on this starchy feed stock is of interest if Canada utilizes ethanol fuels from wheat as one of its measures to meet international commitments for greenhouse gas reduction and energy conservation under the Green Plan. The wheat to ethanol production systems for the Brown and Thin Black soil zones of the Canadian Prairies were analyzed from soil to processing completion to determine the net energy balance. The data clearly demonstrates the positive net energy balance, with the energy balance ranging from 1.32 to 1.63:1 for the Brown soil zone, and from 1.19 to 1.47:1 for the Thin Black soil zone. The final energy balance depends upon the agronomic practices and wheat variety assumed for the production system.

  7. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  8. Xylose fermentation to ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Schvester, P.; Robinson, C.W.; Moo-Young, M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of batch studies on the bioconversion of D-xylose by the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus are reported. A significant level of aeration was found to be necessary to stimulate biomass growth and to enhance the rate of ethanol production. Ethanol production appears to be restricted by substrate inhibition at initial D-xylose concentrations in excess of about 40 g/l. At this value, a maximum ethanol yield from substrate of only 27.4 mass % was achieved, which was only 53.7% of the theoretical maximum. Significant amounts (up to 14% mass yield) of by-product xylitol also were produced. The advantages and disadvantages of this direct bioconversion process for industrial application are discussed and compared to other ethanol production processes. 15 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Previously studies have shown the importance of both medium composition and concentration and medium pH on ethanol production of Clostridium ljungdahlii in fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas. Four additional batch experiments involving medium composition and concentration were carried out in modified basal medium without yeast extract at pH 4.0. These experiments indicate that basal medium with only small amounts of B-vitamins can yield significant cell growth while yielding ethanol as the major product. Product ratios as high as 11.0 g ethanol per g acetate were obtained with half strength B-vitamins. Further experiments indicates that Ca-pantothenate may be necessary for the growth of C. ljungdahlii and that growth and ethanol production can occur simultaneously.

  10. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  11. Microbial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentations.

    PubMed

    Beckner, M; Ivey, M L; Phister, T G

    2011-10-01

    Microbial contamination is a pervasive problem in any ethanol fermentation system. These infections can at minimum affect the efficiency of the fermentation and at their worse lead to stuck fermentations causing plants to shut down for cleaning before beginning anew. These delays can result in costly loss of time as well as lead to an increased cost of the final product. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common bacterial contaminants found in ethanol production facilities and have been linked to decreased ethanol production during fermentation. Lactobacillus sp. generally predominant as these bacteria are well adapted for survival under high ethanol, low pH and low oxygen conditions found during fermentation. It has been generally accepted that lactobacilli cause inhibition of Saccharomyces sp. and limit ethanol production through two basic methods; either production of lactic and acetic acids or through competition for nutrients. However, a number of researchers have demonstrated that these mechanisms may not completely account for the amount of loss observed and have suggested other means by which bacteria can inhibit yeast growth and ethanol production. While LAB are the primary contaminates of concern in industrial ethanol fermentations, wild yeast may also affect the productivity of these fermentations. Though many yeast species have the ability to thrive in a fermentation environment, Dekkera bruxellensis has been repeatedly targeted and cited as one of the main contaminant yeasts in ethanol production. Though widely studied for its detrimental effects on wine, the specific species-species interactions between D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae are still poorly understood.

  12. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. CSTRs and CSTRs with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  13. Fermentation of an aqueous sugar solution to produce ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.D.; Muller, W.C.

    1980-12-30

    An apparatus for the continuous production of ethanol from fermentable sugar solutions is described. A series of stirred fermentation vessels is used, each successive vessel containing more ethanol and less sugar. At least 2 strains of yeast are used, one producing ethanol at a high rate in a high sugar concentration, and the other strain producing ethanol at high rate in a relatively high ethanol concentration and a relatively low sugar concentration. A diagram of the apparatus is given.

  14. Commercial ethanol production and marketing on a large scale

    SciTech Connect

    Stuenkel, A.E.

    1983-06-01

    Ethanol use has advanced because of its ability to increase gasoline octane ratings. The recent oil glut, and price decline, will affect the ethanol industry. Yet the country needs the ethanol industry to complement current efforts to eliminate projected grain surpluses. State incentives must be standardized, to provide marketing consistency. At present, ethanol is the only octane enhancer not commanding its true value. Ethanol is more effective than MTBE, Toluene, or TBA, and must take its place beside these enhancers on the market.

  15. Disulfirm-ethanol reaction: a complex mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, J.J.; Faiman, M.D.

    1986-03-01

    Hypothermia has previously been shown to be a component of the disulfiram-ethanol reaction (DER). In rats, hypothermia correlated with the hypotension and tachycardia observed when ethanol was administered 8 hours after disfulfiram treatment. These studies have now been extended, and in addition, the role of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and diethyldithiocarbamate-methyl ester (DDTC-MF) in the DER have been examined. In rats challenged with ethanol (1g/kg, i.p.) 4 and 24 hours after disulfiram (75 mg/kg, i.p.) no hypothermia was observed, but was found when ethanol was given 8, 12 and 16 hours after disulfiram. Hypotension and tachycardia were found at all time periods studied. Low Km ALDH also was inhibited at the 4, 8, 16 and 24 hour time periods. Although pretreatment with DDTC and DDTC-ME failed to produce hypothermia, hypotension and tachycardia were observed in rats challenged with ethanol. As with disulfiram administration, hypothermia did not correlate with ALDH inhibition in the DDTC and DDTC-ME studies. These studies support the known myriad of effects produced during the DER, and provide additional evidence that difference mechanisms contribute to the complexity of the disulfiram-ethanol reaction.

  16. [Insights into engineering of cellulosic ethanol].

    PubMed

    Yue, Guojun; Wu, Guoqing; Lin, Xin

    2014-06-01

    For energy security, air pollution concerns, coupled with the desire to sustain the agricultural sector and revitalize the rural economy, many countries have applied ethanol as oxygenate or fuel to supplement or replace gasoline in transportation sector. Because of abundant feedstock resources and effective reduction of green-house-gas emissions, the cellulosic ethanol has attracted great attention. With a couple of pioneers beginning to produce this biofuel from biomass in commercial quantities around the world, it is necessary to solve engineering problems and complete the economic assessment in 2015-2016, gradually enter the commercialization stage. To avoid "competing for food with humans and competing for land with food", the 1st generation fuel ethanol will gradually transit to the 2nd generation cellulosic ethanol. Based on the overview of cellulosic ethanol industrialization from domestic and abroad in recent years, the main engineering application problems encountered in pretreatment, enzymes and enzymatic hydrolysis, pentose/hexose co-fermentation strains and processes, equipment were discussed from chemical engineering and biotechnology perspective. The development direction of cellulosic ethanol technology in China was addressed.

  17. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    PubMed

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  18. [Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and analytical methods of ethanol].

    PubMed

    Goullé, J-P; Guerbet, M

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is a licit substance whose significant consumption is responsible for a major public health problem. Every year, a large number of deaths are related to its consumption. It is also involved in various accidents, on the road, at work, as well as during acts of violence. Ethanol absorption and its fate are detailed. It is mainly absorbed in the small intestine. It accompanies the movements of the water, so it diffuses in all the tissues uniformly with the exception of bones and fat. The major route of ethanol detoxification is located into the liver. Detoxification is a saturable two-step oxidation. During the first stage ethanol is oxidized into acetaldehyde, under the action of alcohol dehydrogenase. During the second stage acetaldehyde is oxidized into acetate. Genetic factors or some drugs are able to disturb the absorption and the metabolism of ethanol. The analytical methods for the quantification of alcohol in man include analysis in exhaled air and in blood. The screening and quantification of ethanol for road safety are performed in exhaled air. In hospitals, blood ethanol determination is routinely performed by enzymatic method, but the rule for forensic samples is gas chromatography.

  19. Density Measurement of Ethanol Blended Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, John

    Density measurements for petro-ethanol blended fuels of various mixture ratios were conducted at temperatures from 5°C to 40°C using an oscillatory densitometer at the National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA). The petrol and ethanol fuels used for the preparation of samples of ethanol blends were supplied directly from a local petroleum refinery. Results were within the lower end of 0.06% repeatability and 0.3% reproducibility of the ASTM D4052-2011 method. The volume correction factors (VCF) for petrol and ethanol obtained from the measurement results agreed to within 0.1% and 0.01% of the values calculated as per American Petroleum Institute Standard 2540 Chapter 11.1 and 11.3.3 respectively. Based on a simple volume-mixture model, an equation was derived to calculate the VCF for petrol-ethanol blends. The measured and calculated values of VCF were in agreement within 0.1%. This paper presents the measurement method, results and the development of an equation for calculation of VCF for petro-ethanol blends. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  20. The kinetics of transdermal ethanol exchange.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph C; Hlastala, Michael P

    2006-02-01

    The kinetics of ethanol transport from the blood to the skin surface are incompletely understood. We present a mathematical model to predict the transient exchange of ethanol across the skin while it is being absorbed from the gut and eliminated from the body. The model simulates the behavior of a commercial device that is used to estimate the blood alcohol concentration (BAC). During the elimination phase, the stratum corneum of the skin has a higher ethanol concentration than the blood. We studied the effect of varying the maximum BAC and the absorption rate from the gut on the relationship between BAC and equivalent concentration in the gas phase above the skin. The results showed that the ethanol concentration in the gas compartment always took longer to reach its maximum, had a lower maximum, and had a slower apparent elimination rate than the BAC. These effects increased as the maximum BAC increased. Our model's predictions are consistent with experimental data from the literature. We performed a sensitivity analysis (using Latin hypercube sampling) to identify and rank the importance of parameters. The analysis showed that outputs were sensitive to solubility and diffusivity within the stratum corneum, to stratum corneum thickness, and to the volume of gas in the sampling chamber above the skin. We conclude that ethanol transport through the skin is primarily governed by the washin and washout of ethanol through the stratum corneum. The dynamics can be highly variable from subject to subject because of variability in the physical properties of the stratum corneum. PMID:16239611

  1. [Interaction of ethanol with opiate receptors].

    PubMed

    Iukhananov, R Iu; Maĭskiĭ, A I; Burov, Iu V

    1985-11-01

    Addition of ethanol to rat brain homogenate containing opiate receptors inhibits at a concentration of 50 mM the stereospecific binding of 3H-naloxone at 37 degrees C but not at 0 degree C, with the ID50 being 462 mM under these conditions. The temperature-dependent inhibition of the ligand binding suggests that ethanol does not compete with naloxone for specific binding sites of opiate receptors and changes the structure of lipids in biological membranes. Scatchard's analysis has demonstrated that apart from a decrease in the number of highly affinity binding sites of 3H-naloxone, the total amount of the binding sites remains unchanged both in the presence and absence of ethanol and constitutes 453 and 549 fmol/mg protein. It is assumed that ethanol might interconvert highly and low-affinity binding sites. Analysis of the effect of ethanol on 3H-naloxone binding with opiate receptors contained by synaptic membranes obtained from animals with varying predisposition to voluntary alcoholization has shown that ethanol inhibits to a greater degree ligand binding with membranes obtained from rats predisposed to alcoholization. The possibility of the involvement of receptors in the biochemical mechanisms by which the initial alcoholic motivation is effected is under discussion.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ethanol, whiskey, and ethanol with n-propyl, n-butyl, and iso-amyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Auty, R M; Branch, R A

    1977-08-01

    Plasma ethanol concentration, reaction time, and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded in 6 normal men after ingestion of ethanol along (Group 1), whiskey (Group 2), or a mixture of ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, and iso-amyl alcohol (Group 3). The peak plasma ethanol concentration and the total area under the plasma concentration:time curve of ethanol did not depend upon the type of drink given, but the half-life of the terminal exponential phase of ethanol elimination was longer in Group 3. In each study period reaction time increased, there was a relative increase in delta activity (2 to 3 Hz) and a fall in mean dominant frequency in EEG activity. The extent of increase in reaction time depended on the rate of increase in plasma ethanol concentration and correlated with the concentration of ethanol while the plasma concentration of ethanol was falling. Differences in the effects of ethanol between study periods were minimal.

  3. Improved ethanol tolerance and ethanol production from glycerol in a streptomycin-resistant Klebsiella variicola mutant obtained by ribosome engineering.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Seta, Kohei; Nishikawa, Chiaki; Hara, Eri; Shigeno, Toshiya; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    To improve the ethanol tolerance of the Klebsiella variicola strain TB-83, we obtained the streptomycin-resistant, ethanol-tolerant mutant strain TB-83D by a ribosome engineering approach. Strain TB-83D was able to grow in the presence of 7% (v/v) ethanol and it showed higher ethanol production than strain TB-83. Examination of various culture conditions revealed that yeast extract was essential for ethanol production and bacterial growth. In addition, ethanol production was elevated to 32g/L by the addition of yeast extract; however, ethanol production was inhibited by formate accumulation. With regard to cost reduction, the use of corn steep liquor (CSL) markedly decreased the formate concentration, and 34g/L ethanol was produced by combining yeast extract with CSL. Our study is the first to improve ethanol tolerance and productivity by a ribosome engineering approach, and we found that strain TB-83D is effective for ethanol production from glycerol.

  4. Autophagy is a protective response to ethanol neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Ke, Zunji; Xu, Mei; Liao, Mingjun; Wang, Xin; Qi, Yuanlin; Zhang, Tao; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Bower, Kimberly A.; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and neurodegeneration is the most devastating consequence of developmental exposure to ethanol. The mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced neurodegeneration are complex. Ethanol exposure produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) which cause oxidative stress in the brain. We hypothesized that ethanol would activate autophagy to alleviate oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Our results indicated that ethanol increased the level of the autophagic marker Map1lc3-II (LC3-II) and upregulated LC3 puncta in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. It also enhanced the levels of LC3-II and BECN1 in the developing brain; meanwhile, ethanol reduced SQSTM1 (p62) levels. Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of autophagosome and lysosome fusion, increased p62 levels in the presence of ethanol. Bafilomycin A1 and rapamycin potentiated ethanol-increased LC3 lipidation, whereas wortmannin and a BECN1-specific shRNA inhibited ethanol-promoted LC3 lipidation. Ethanol increased mitophagy, which was also modulated by BECN1 shRNA and rapamycin. The evidence suggested that ethanol promoted autophagic flux. Activation of autophagy by rapamycin reduced ethanol-induced ROS generation and ameliorated ethanol-induced neuronal death in vitro and in the developing brain, whereas inhibition of autophagy by wortmannin and BECN1-specific shRNA potentiated ethanol-induced ROS production and exacerbated ethanol neurotoxicity. Furthermore, ethanol inhibited the MTOR pathway and downregulation of MTOR offered neuroprotection. Taken together, the results suggest that autophagy activation is a neuroprotective response to alleviate ethanol toxicity. Ethanol modulation of autophagic activity may be mediated by the MTOR pathway. PMID:22874567

  5. Operant ethanol-reinforced behavior in P, NP, HAD, and LAD rats bred for high versus low ethanol preference.

    PubMed

    Ritz, M C; Garcia, J M; Protz, D; George, F R

    1994-12-01

    These studies examined the reinforcing effects of ethanol in rats selectively bred for high versus low ethanol drinking in a two-bottle choice preference task, namely the Preferring (P), Non-Preferring (NP), High Alcohol Drinking (HAD), and Low Alcohol Drinking (LAD) rats. The results substantiate findings suggesting that genetic factors are significant in determining whether ethanol will come to serve as a reinforcer. P rats exhibited high levels of responding for ethanol compared with the water vehicle, NP and HAD rats exhibited more moderate levels of responding for ethanol, and the behavior of LAD rats suggested that ethanol served only inconsistently as a reinforcer for these rats. Overall, the results suggest the existence of distinct, biologically influenced components of ethanol drinking behavior. Preference appears to measure an inherent facilitative factor allowing animals to initiate ethanol drinking. The operant chamber paradigm appears to measure factors related to whether and to what extent ethanol will serve as a positive reinforcer following conditioned exposure to the drug. Although preferring animals generally find ethanol reinforcing there seems to be little quantitative relationship between degree of preference and whether ethanol will serve as a reinforcer. Lack of preference does not seem to be predictive of lack of reinforcement. Thus, it appears that preference for ethanol and reinforcement from ethanol are somewhat overlapping, but distinct factors that contribute to ethanol drinking. These results suggest the existence of multiple components of behavior mediated by multiple mechanisms that contribute to ethanol drinking. PMID:7695037

  6. Congenital brain serotonin deficiency leads to reduced ethanol sensitivity and increased ethanol consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Benjamin D; Salahi, A Ayten; Caron, Marc G

    2014-02-01

    Serotonergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to play an important role in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. However, whether congenital serotonin (5-HT) deficiency leads to increased alcohol consumption or affects ethanol-related behaviors has not been established. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line that expresses a hypofunctional variant of the 5-HT synthesis enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, to examine the impact of 5-HT deficiency on responses to alcohol. We demonstrate that these 5-HT-deficient transgenic animals (Tph2KI mice) recover their righting reflex more rapidly than wild-type controls following a high dose of ethanol and exhibit blunted locomotor retardation in response to repeated ethanol administration. In addition, compared to WT controls, 5-HT-deficient animals consume significantly more ethanol and exhibit increased preference for ethanol in two-bottle choice tests. Our data also suggest that 5-HT plays a critical role in mediating the effects of ethanol on Akt/GSK3β signaling in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results corroborate previous theories regarding the importance of brain 5-HT levels in mediating responsiveness to alcohol and demonstrate, for the first time, that congenital 5-HT deficiency leads to increased ethanol consumption and decreased sensitivity to the sedative-like effects of ethanol, perhaps in part through modulating Akt/GSK3β signaling.

  7. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol-methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1-2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol-methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  8. Liquid scintillation counting of /sup 14/C for differentiation of synthetic ethanol from ethanol of fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.E.; Noakes, J.E.; Alfonso, F.C.; Figert, D.M.

    1981-09-01

    Samples containing ethanol are fractionated on a column so that the resultant ethanol content is > 93%. Determination of /sup 14/C by liquid scintillation counting on the ethanol fraction differentiates ethanol produced by fermentation from synthetic ethanol produced from fossil fuel sources. Twenty-seven samples were fractionated and analyzed for the /sup 14/C isotope. Six samples were synthetic ethanol derived from ethylene gas (direct and indirect process), and yielded a mean value for /sup 14/C isotope of 0.167 dpm/g carbon with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.066 dpm/g carbon (disintegrations per minute per gram of carbon). The remaining samples were ethanol derived from the fermentation of natural materials, such as corn, pear, sugar cane, grape, cherry, and blackberry, and yielded a mean value for /sup 14/C isotope of 16.11 dpm/g carbon with an SD of 1.27. The /sup 14/C values for specific mixtures of a synthetic and a natural ethanol compare favorably with the analytical values obtained by this procedure.

  9. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  10. A Novel Transcription Mechanism Activated by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinghua; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Hongfeng; Zhou, LiChun; Guo, ZhongMao

    2013-01-01

    Solute carrier family 7, member 11 (Slc7a11) is a plasma membrane cystine/glutamate exchanger that provides intracellular cystine to produce glutathione, a major cellular antioxidant. Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses up-regulate Slc7a11 expression by activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and transcription factor 4. This study examined the effect of ethanol on Slc7a11 expression and the underlying mechanism involved. Treatment of mouse hepatic stellate cells with ethanol significantly increased Slc7a11 mRNA and protein levels. Deletion of a 20-bp DNA sequence between −2044 to −2024 upstream of the transcription start site significantly increased basal activity and completely abolished the ethanol-induced activity of the Slc7a11 promoter. This deletion did not affect Slc7a11 promoter activity induced by oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress. DNA sequence analysis revealed a binding motif for octamer-binding transcription factor 1 (OCT-1) in the deleted fragment. Mutation of this OCT-1 binding motif resulted in a similar effect as the deletion experiment, i.e. it increased the basal promoter activity and abolished the response to ethanol. Ethanol exposure significantly inhibited OCT-1 binding to the Slc7a11 promoter region, although it did not alter OCT-1 mRNA and protein levels. OCT-1 reportedly functions as either a transcriptional enhancer or repressor, depending on the target genes. Results from this study suggest that OCT-1 functions as a repressor on the Slc7a11 promoter and that ethanol inhibits OCT-1 binding to the Slc7a11 promoter, thereby increasing Slc7a11 expression. Taken together, inhibition of the DNA binding activity of transcriptional repressor OCT-1 is a mechanism by which ethanol up-regulates Slc711 expression. PMID:23592778

  11. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  12. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  13. Postmortem ethanol in the setting of ethanol-containing automotive fuel.

    PubMed

    Garber, Mitchell A; Canfield, Dennis V; Lewis, Russell J; Simmons, Samuel D; Radisch, Deborah L

    2013-03-01

    The pilot of a light aircraft that crashed after a loss of power was found to have ethanol in the vitreous and the blood, but almost none in the urine. The globes of the eyes were intact, and the body was refrigerated after recovery until the autopsy was performed the following morning. The pilot was described as a "nondrinker," and additional specialized toxicology testing results were inconsistent with ethanol ingestion. The pilot's body was extensively exposed to fuel during the prolonged extraction. Investigation determined that the aircraft had been fueled with gasoline that contained 10% ethanol. Although exposure to automotive fuel has not been previously described as a source of ethanol in postmortem specimens, it may represent a source for the ethanol detected during postmortem toxicology testing in this case, and this finding may be relevant to other cases with similar exposure.

  14. Adolescent rats are resistant to the development of ethanol-induced chronic tolerance and ethanol-induced conditioned aversion.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Godoy, Juan Carlos; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of chronic tolerance to ethanol in adult and adolescent rats has yielded mixed results. Tolerance to some effects of ethanol has been reported in adolescents, yet other studies found adults to exhibit greater tolerance than adolescents or comparable expression of the phenomena at both ages. Another unanswered question is how chronic ethanol exposure affects subsequent ethanol-mediated motivational learning at these ages. The present study examined the development of chronic tolerance to ethanol's hypothermic and motor stimulating effects, and subsequent acquisition of ethanol-mediated odor conditioning, in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats given every-other-day intragastric administrations of ethanol. Adolescent and adult rats exhibited lack of tolerance to the hypothermic effects of ethanol during an induction phase; whereas adults, but not adolescents, exhibited a trend towards a reduction in hypothermia at a challenge phase (Experiment 1). Adolescents, unlike adults, exhibited ethanol-induced motor activation after the first ethanol administration. Adults, but not adolescents, exhibited conditioned odor aversion by ethanol. Subsequent experiments conducted only in adolescents (Experiment 2, Experiment 3 and Experiment 4) manipulated the context, length and predictability of ethanol administration. These manipulations did not promote the expression of ethanol-induced tolerance. This study indicated that, when moderate ethanol doses are given every-other day for a relatively short period, adolescents are less likely than adults to develop chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia. This resistance to tolerance development could limit long-term maintenance of ethanol intake. Adolescents, however, exhibited greater sensitivity than adults to the acute motor stimulating effects of ethanol and a blunted response to the aversive effects of ethanol. This pattern of response may put adolescents at risk for early initiation of ethanol intake.

  15. Evaluation of acute effects of melatonin on ethanol drinking in ethanol naïve rats

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Zahoor Ahmad; Chowta, Mukta N.; Bolumbu, Ganaraja; Rakesh, K. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the acute effect of melatonin on ethanol drinking in ethanol naïve rats and to determine the specificity of the effect of melatonin on ethanol intake as compared to an intake of plain tap water or sugar water. Materials and Methods: A total of three experiments (2 weeks duration each) using different drinking solutions (ethanol, plain tap water, sugar water) was conducted in individually housed male wistar rats of 5 weeks age. Each animal had access to bottles containing drinking solutions for 2 h a day. In each experiment, on day 1, day 2, day 4, day 5, day 8, day 9, day 11, day 12 rats received drinking solutions. Each individual rat received single doses of saline, melatonin (50 mg and 100 mg/kg), and naltrexone on day 2, 5, 9, and 12, 1-h before receiving drinking solution. The order of drug administration is permuted such a way that each animal received the drugs in a different order in different experiments. Results: Melatonin has significantly decreased ethanol consumption by the rats and effect is dose-dependent. Naltrexone also has caused a significant reduction in the ethanol consumption. The maximum reduction in ethanol consumption was seen with melatonin 100 mg/kg dose compared to melatonin 50 mg/kg and naltrexone. There was no statistically significant effect of melatonin on plain water and sugar solution intake. Conclusions: Melatonin decreases ethanol consumption in ethanol naïve rats. The effect of melatonin is similar to naltrexone affecting selectively ethanol consumption, but not plain water and sugar water consumption. PMID:26288469

  16. Sham intake of ethanol in "P" rats.

    PubMed

    Rowland, N E; Morian, K R

    1994-01-01

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats were surgically fitted with gastric fistulas, and intakes of 10% ethanol solution were measured in 1-h sessions either with the fistula closed (normal drinking) or open (sham drinking). In water-replete P rats in which ethanol access was limited to 1 h/day, no increase in intake was noted in the sham compared with normal drinking tests in the day. A small increase was seen when the sham drinking test was conducted at night. In water-deprived P rats, sham intake of ethanol was elevated over intakes in closed fistula trials. However, in comparison with water intake on separate test days, sham intake of ethanol by P rats was lower and satiated after 15-30 min. The absence of robust sham alcohol drinking in P rats is similar to what we have previously reported in normal Sprague-Dawley rats, suggesting that preabsorptive factors alone do not account for the strain differences in ethanol preference.

  17. Microscale ethanol vapor ejector and injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, William G.; Wang, Ivan; Brikner, Natalya A.; Jaworski, Justin W.; Protz, Jonathan M.

    2010-04-01

    Two non-rotating pumping components, a jet ejector and injector, were designed and tested. Two jet ejectors were designed and tested to induce a suction draft using a supersonic micronozzle. Three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles were microfabricated to produce throat diameters of 187 μm and 733 μm with design expansion ratios near 2.5:1. The motive nozzles achieved design mass flow efficiencies above 95% compared to isentropic calculations. Ethanol vapor was used to motivate and entrain ambient air. Experimental data indicate that the ejector can produce a sufficient suction draft to satisfy both microengine mass flow and power off-take requirements to enable its substitution for high speed microscale pumping turbomachinery. An ethanol vapor driven injector component was designed and tested to pressurize feed liquid ethanol. The injector was supplied with 2.70 atmosphere ethanol vapor and pumped liquid ethanol up to a total pressure of 3.02 atmospheres. Dynamic pressure at the exit of the injector was computed by measuring the displacement of a cantilevered beam placed over the outlet stream. The injector employed a three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle with a throat diameter of 733 μm and a three-dimensional converging axisymmetric nozzle. The experimental data indicate that the injector can pump feed liquid into a pressurized boiler, enabling small scale liquid pumping without any moving parts. Microscale injectors could enable microscale engines and rockets to satisfy pumping and feedheating requirements without high speed microscale turbomachinery.

  18. Survey of US fuel ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Saunders, J A; Rosentrater, K A

    2009-07-01

    The ethanol industry is growing in response to increased consumer demands for fuel as well as the renewable fuel standard. Corn ethanol processing creates the following products: 1/3 ethanol, 1/3 distillers grains, and 1/3 carbon dioxide. As the production of ethanol increases so does the generation of its coproducts, and viable uses continually need to be developed. A survey was mailed to operational US ethanol plants to determine current practices. It inquired about processes, equipment used, end products, and desired future directions for coproducts. Results indicated that approximately one-third of plant managers surveyed expressed a willingness to alter current drying time and temperature if it could result in a higher quality coproduct. Other managers indicated hesitation, based on lack of economic incentives, potential cost and return, and capital required. Respondents also reported the desire to use their coproducts in some of the following products: fuels, extrusion, pellets, plastics, and human food applications. These results provide a snapshot of the industry, and indicate that operational changes to the current production of DDGS must be based upon the potential for positive economic returns.

  19. Ethanol Effects On Physiological Retinoic Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand whether interference with atRA biosynthesis and/or action may explain (in part) pathology associated with excess ethanol consumption. Ethanol affects many aspects of retinoid metabolism and mechanisms of action site-specifically, but no robust data support inhibition of vitamin A metabolism, resulting in decreased atRA in vivo during normal vitamin A nutriture. Actually, ethanol either has no effect on or increases atRA at select sites. Despite this realization, insight into whether interactions between ethanol and retinoids represent cause vs. effect requires additional research. PMID:21766417

  20. Bacterial conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.

    1996-10-01

    Technologies for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose are currently available. The challenge today is to assemble these technologies into a commercial demonstration plant. Bacteria such as Escherichia coli strain KO11 have been specifically engineered to produce ethanol at greater than 90% of theoretical yield (40 g ethanol/L in 48 h) from all sugar constituents in hemicellulose (pentoses and hexoses). Methods have been developed to produce fermentable hemicellulose syrups containing high concentrations of sugars. The effectiveness of strain KO11 has been demonstrated with hemicellulose syrups at the 150-liter scale and with laboratory sugars at the 10,000-liter scale. Additional organisms such as Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 have been engineered for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose (SSF). Cellulase enzymes is one of the major costs associated with all SSF processes. The new organisms eliminate the need for added cellobiase and in some cases produce part of the endoglucanase. Strain P2 has been tested with bagasse, purified cellulose and mixed waste office paper. A simple method of enzyme recycling was tested using strain P2 with office paper as a substrate. Ethanol yields were prejected to be over 539 liters per metric ton. With onsite production, the estimated cost of cellulose for this process is 8.5 cents (U.S.) per liter.

  1. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  2. Temperature regulation during withdrawal from ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Crawshaw, L.I.; Hayteas, D.L.; O'Connor, C.S.; Crabbe, J.C. Veterans Administration Hospital, Portland, OR )

    1991-03-11

    Male HS mice were exposed to ethanol vapor for 72 hrs. The ethanol concentration in the air during this period was increase from 4-9 mg{center dot}1{sup {minus}1}. At time zero, the mice were injected with a pyrazole and ethanol. At 24 and 48 hrs, the pyrazole alone was administered. Control groups received either pyrazole or saline, but no ethanol vapor. The vapor dosing resulted in blood ethanol concentrations which increased from 0.64 {plus minus} 0.09 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 24 hr. to 1.89 {plus minus} 0.40 mg{center dot}ml{sup {minus}1} after 72 hrs. The mice carried intraperitoneally implanted mini-mitter temperature transmitters, which sensed core temperature. The selected temperature was quantified by monitoring the position of the mice within the tubes. During the 24 hr. of withdrawal, the core temperature of the experimental and control groups were very similar. During the first 10 hr., the selected temperature was lower for the withdrawal group than for the saline or pyrazole controls. By the end of the 24 hr., the selected temperature was similar for all three groups.

  3. Autophagy and ethanol-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Terrence M Donohue

    2009-01-01

    The majority of ethanol metabolism occurs in the liver. Consequently, this organ sustains the greatest damage from ethanol abuse. Ethanol consumption disturbs the delicate balance of protein homeostasis in the liver, causing intracellular protein accumulation due to a disruption of hepatic protein catabolism. Evidence indicates that ethanol or its metabolism impairs trafficking events in the liver, including the process of macroautophagy, which is the engulfment and degradation of cytoplasmic constituents by the lysosomal system. Autophagy is an essential, ongoing cellular process that is highly regulated by nutrients, endocrine factors and signaling pathways. A great number of the genes and gene products that govern the autophagic response have been characterized and the major metabolic and signaling pathways that activate or suppress autophagy have been identified. This review describes the process of autophagy, its regulation and the possible mechanisms by which ethanol disrupts the process of autophagic degradation. The implications of autophagic suppression are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver injury. PMID:19291817

  4. Preface : the 2000 ethanol vehicle challenge.

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, N. M.; Larsen, R. P.

    2000-12-11

    The technical papers presented in this special publication represent the efforts of students from 16 colleges and universities across North America. Over 600 students have participated in the Ethanol Vehicle Challenge since its inception in 1998. The 2000 Ethanol Vehicle Challenge was the final year of this successful 3-year advanced vehicle competition series. The papers presented are enhanced and expanded versions of those prepared in advance of the competition by the participating student engineers. They describe the design elements, construction details, and performance of the dedicated ethanol vehicles brought to the Challenge by the participating universities. The goal of this competition was to demonstrate the potential of E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% hydrocarbon primer) to significantly lower emissions and improve the performance, fuel efficiency and cold starting of vehicles fueled by ethanol. The competition series began with a Request for Proposals in January 1997. A letter announcing and soliciting interest in the competition (Notice of Interest) was sent to all accredited engineering programs and two-year technical schools in the US and Canada. The Notice described the competition and the requirements for the conversion of a 1997 Chevrolet Malibu to dedicated E85 operation. On the basis of the submitted proposals, 14 schools were selected to participate in the first competition in 1998. Those schools were invited to participate again in 1999. Two additional schools collaborated with the existing teams for the 2000 competition; these two teams participated in the competition, but they were not eligible for the competition awards.

  5. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  6. Ethanol production on dairy farms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Labrenz, K.L.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to set up a model ethanol still on a dairy farm for demonstration purposes and to determine the technical feasibility of producing fuel grade ethanol by recovering waste heat from milk as it is cooled. For purposes of this demonstration, solar heated hot water replaced hot milk as the heat source. A vacuum still having the capacity of producing 6 to 8 gallons of ethanol per hour has been constructed for this demonstration project. To make the still as practical as possible, a continuous flow still was built, requiring several more pumps than originally proposed. This did add to the cost of the still, but also provided a better means for producing the ethanol. The result of this demonstration project has not been quite as good as projected. The proposed production for the still was placed at 6 gallons per hour. Actual production capabilities are only in the 1 to 2 gallon per hour range. Thus, while is is possible to produce ethanol with this method, the practical feasibility, economically speaking would not support widespread use of this method, unless other technical problems could be solved.

  7. [Effect of female sex steroids on levels of endogenous ethanol].

    PubMed

    Garber, M R; Kovalenko, A E

    1988-01-01

    The authors presented the results of a study of the effect of female sex steroids on the level of endogenous ethanol. The time course of endogenous ethanol during the menstrual cycle was investigated. The concentration of endogenous ethanol was compared in the groups of women receiving and not receiving hormonal contraceptives. An increase in sex steroids during the menstrual cycle was accompanied by a decrease in the level of endogenous ethanol. The use of hormonal contraceptives caused an increase in the background concentration of endogenous ethanol. A possible effect of endogenous and exogenous female sex steroids on different levels of regulation of ethanol metabolism was assumed.

  8. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morais-Silva, G; Fernandes-Santos, J; Moreira-Silva, D; Marin, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a "three-bottle choice" paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors. PMID:26628398

  9. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters ethanol-induced Fos immunoreactivity and dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Fabio, M C; Vivas, L M; Pautassi, R M

    2015-08-20

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) promotes alcohol intake during adolescence, as shown in clinical and pre-clinical animal models. The mechanisms underlying this effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on postnatal ethanol intake remain, however, mostly unknown. Few studies assessed the effects of moderate doses of prenatal ethanol on spontaneous and ethanol-induced brain activity on adolescence. This study measured, in adolescent (female) Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (0.0 or 2.0g/kg/day, gestational days 17-20) or non-manipulated (NM group) throughout pregnancy, baseline and ethanol-induced cathecolaminergic activity (i.e., colocalization of c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase) in ventral tegmental area (VTA), and baseline and ethanol-induced Fos immunoreactivity (ir) in nucleus accumbens shell and core (AcbSh and AcbC, respectively) and prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) prefrontal cortex. The rats were challenged with ethanol (dose: 0.0, 1.25, 2.5 or 3.25g/kg, i.p.) at postnatal day 37. Rats exposed to vehicle prenatally (VE group) exhibited reduced baseline dopaminergic tone in VTA; an effect that was inhibited by prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE group). Dopaminergic activity in VTA after the postnatal ethanol challenge was greater in PEE than in VE or NM animals. Ethanol-induced Fos-ir at AcbSh was found after 1.25g/kg and 2.5g/kg ethanol, in VE and PEE rats, respectively. PEE did not alter ethanol-induced Fos-ir at IL but reduced ethanol-induced Fos-ir at PrL. These results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure heightens dopaminergic activity in the VTA and alters the response of the mesocorticolimbic pathway to postnatal ethanol exposure. These effects may underlie the enhanced vulnerability to develop alcohol-use disorders of adolescents with a history of in utero ethanol exposure.

  10. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Morais-Silva, G.; Fernandes-Santos, J.; Moreira-Silva, D.; Marin, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30–35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a “three-bottle choice” paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors. PMID:26628398

  11. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morais-Silva, G; Fernandes-Santos, J; Moreira-Silva, D; Marin, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a "three-bottle choice" paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  12. Permeability of cork for water and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Luisa; Brazinha, Carla; Pereira, Helena; Crespo, Joao G; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2013-10-01

    Transport properties of natural (noncompressed) cork were evaluated for water and ethanol in both vapor and liquid phases. The permeability for these permeants has been measured, as well as the sorption and diffusion coefficients. This paper focuses on the differences between the transport of gases' relevant vapors and their liquids (water and ethanol) through cork. A transport mechanism of vapors and liquids is proposed. Experimental evidence shows that both vapors and liquids permeate not only through the small channels across the cells (plasmodesmata), as in the permeation of gases, but also through the walls of cork cells by sorption and diffusion as in dense membranes. The present study also shows that cork permeability for gases was irreversibly and drastically decreased after cork samples were exposed to ethanol or water in liquid phase.

  13. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.

    1996-12-31

    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Prospects for Irradiation in Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Anuja; Yadav, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Second generation bioethanol production technology relies on lignocellulosic biomass composed of hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin components. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sources of fermentable sugars. But the structural characteristics of lignocelluloses pose hindrance to the conversion of these sugar polysaccharides into ethanol. The process of ethanol production, therefore, involves an expensive and energy intensive step of pretreatment, which reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and makes feedstock more susceptible to saccharification. Various physical, chemical, biological, or combined methods are employed to pretreat lignocelluloses. Irradiation is one of the common and promising physical methods of pretreatment, which involves ultrasonic waves, microwaves, γ-rays, and electron beam. Irradiation is also known to enhance the effect of saccharification. This review explains the role of different radiations in the production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:26839707

  15. Sugar-dependent rats show enhanced intake of unsweetened ethanol.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Carrillo, Carmen A; Needham, Lance; Leibowitz, Sarah F; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2004-01-01

    Rats show signs of dependence on sugar when it is available intermittently, including bingeing, withdrawal, and cross-sensitization with amphetamine. In the current study, we sought to determine whether sugar-dependent rats would show increased intake of unsweetened ethanol and, conversely, whether intermittent access to ethanol would augment sugar consumption. In Experiment 1, with intermittent versus ad libitum access to ethanol, Sprague-Dawley rats were given escalating concentrations of ethanol (1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, and 9%) over the course of 20 days. Rats in the intermittent ethanol access group, with 12-h daily access, consumed more 4%, 7%, and 9% ethanol during the first hour of access, and more 9% ethanol daily, than did rats in the ad libitum ethanol access group. In Experiment 2, with ethanol as a gateway to sugar intake, the rats from Experiment 1 were switched to 10% sucrose with 12-h daily access for 1 week. Rats in the intermittent ethanol access group consumed significantly more sugar than was consumed by rats in a control group with no prior ethanol experience. In Experiment 3, with sugar as a gateway to ethanol to determine whether sugar dependence leads to increased ethanol intake, four groups were maintained for 21 days according to the following designations: intermittent access to sugar and chow, ad libitum access to sugar and chow, intermittent access to chow, or ad libitum access to chow. Four days later, all groups were switched to intermittent ethanol access, as described in Experiment 1. The group with intermittent access to sugar and chow consumed the most 9% ethanol, supporting the suggestion that sugar dependence alters a rat's proclivity to drink ethanol. These results may relate to the co-morbidity between binge-eating disorders and alcohol intake and the tendency of people abstaining from alcohol to consume excessive amounts of sugar. In conclusion, bingeing on either ethanol or sugar fosters intake of the other.

  16. Mechanisms of naturally evolved ethanol resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fry, James D

    2014-11-15

    The decaying fruit in which Drosophila melanogaster feed and breed can contain ethanol in concentrations as high as 6-7%. In this cosmopolitan species, populations from temperate regions are consistently more resistant to ethanol poisoning than populations from the tropics, but little is known about the physiological basis of this difference. I show that when exposed to low levels of ethanol vapor, flies from a tropical African population accumulated 2-3 times more internal ethanol than flies from a European population, giving evidence that faster ethanol catabolism by European flies contributes to the resistance difference. Using lines differing only in the origin of their third chromosome, however, I show that faster ethanol elimination cannot fully explain the resistance difference, because relative to African third chromosomes, European third chromosomes confer substantially higher ethanol resistance, while having little effect on internal ethanol concentrations. European third chromosomes also confer higher resistance to acetic acid, a metabolic product of ethanol, than African third chromosomes, suggesting that the higher ethanol resistance conferred by the former might be due to increased resistance to deleterious effects of ethanol-derived acetic acid. In support of this hypothesis, when ethanol catabolism was blocked with an Alcohol dehydrogenase mutant, there was no difference in ethanol resistance between flies with European and African third chromosomes. PMID:25392459

  17. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Lamb, R J

    2015-04-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5-alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than from increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  18. Solvation of benzophenone anion radical in ethanol and ethanol/2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yoshida, H.

    1988-01-28

    The electron spin-echo modulations and the absoprtion spectra of benzophenone anion radicals generated by ..gamma..-irradiation in the glassy matrices of ethanol and ethanol2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixtures have been measured for elucidating the mechanism of spectral shift observed during the solvation of the anion radicals in alcohols. The anion radical generated at 4.2 K in the ethanol matrix maintains the same solvation structure as that of neutral benzophenone. At 77 K ethanol molecules solvate the anion radical by orienting the O-H dipoles toward the anion radical. The anion radical is hydrogen-bonded by two ethanol molecules through the p/sub z/ orbital on the benzophenone oxygen which composes the ..pi.. orbitals of anion radical. Three kinds of anion radicals are observed in the mixed matrix at 77 K. Two of them are essentially the same as those observed in the ethanol matrix at 4.2 and 77 K. The third has the absorption maximum at 700 nm and is attributed to the anion radical hydrogen-bonded by one ethanol molecule through the p/sub z/ orbital. It is concluded that the spectral shift observed in alcohols is caused by the stabilization of a SOMO ..pi..* orbital induced by the hydrogen bonding with the (RO)H--O--H(OR) angle perpendicular to the molecular plane of the anion radical

  19. Modeling bacterial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Leathers, Timothy D; Worthington, Ronald E; Rich, Joseph O

    2009-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol plants, and therefore, new antibacterial intervention methods and tools to test their application are needed. Using shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on saccharified corn mash and strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a dry-grind ethanol facility, a simple model to simulate bacterial contamination and infection was developed. Challenging the model with 10(8) CFU/mL Lactobacillus fermentum decreased ethanol yield by 27% and increased residual glucose from 6.2 to 45.5 g/L. The magnitude of the effect was proportional to the initial bacterial load, with 10(5) CFU/mL L. fermentum still producing an 8% decrease in ethanol and a 3.2-fold increase in residual glucose. Infection was also dependent on the bacterial species used to challenge the fermentation, as neither L. delbrueckii ATCC 4797 nor L. amylovorus 0315-7B produced a significant decrease in ethanol when inoculated at a density of 10(8) CFU/mL. In the shake-flask model, treatment with 2 microg/mL virginiamycin mitigated the infection when challenged with a susceptible strain of L. fermentum (MIC for virginiamycin < or =2 ppm), but treatment was ineffective at treating infection by a resistant strain of L. fermentum (MIC = 16 ppm). The model may find application in developing new antibacterial agents and management practices for use in controlling contamination in the fuel ethanol industry.

  20. Moderate Ethanol Ingestion and Cardiovascular Protection

    PubMed Central

    Krenz, Maike; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    While ethanol intake at high levels (3-4 or more drinks), either in acute (occasional binge drinking) or chronic (daily) settings, increases the risk for myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, an inverse relationship between regular consumption of alcoholic beverages at light to moderate levels (1-2 drinks per day) and cardiovascular risk has been consistently noted in a large number of epidemiologic studies. Although initially attributed to polyphenolic antioxidants in red wine, subsequent work has established that the ethanol component contributes to the beneficial effects associated with moderate intake of alcoholic beverages regardless of type (red versus white wine, beer, spirits). Concerns have been raised with regard to interpretation of epidemiologic evidence for this association including heterogeneity of the reference groups examined in many studies, different lifestyles of moderate drinkers versus abstainers, and favorable risk profiles in moderate drinkers. However, better controlled epidemiologic studies and especially work conducted in animal models and cell culture systems have substantiated this association and clearly established a cause and effect relationship between alcohol consumption and reductions in tissue injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), respectively. The aims of this review are to summarize the epidemiologic evidence supporting the effectiveness of ethanol ingestion in reducing the likelihood of adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, even in patients with co-existing risk factors, to discuss the ideal quantities, drinking patterns, and types of alcoholic beverages that confer protective effects in the cardiovascular system, and to review the findings of recent experimental studies directed at uncovering the mechanisms that underlie the cardiovascular protective effects of antecedent ethanol ingestion. Mechanistic interrogation of the signaling pathways invoked by antecedent ethanol

  1. Acute Ethanol Causes Hepatic Mitochondrial Depolarization in Mice: Role of Ethanol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhi; Ramshesh, Venkat K.; Rehman, Hasibur; Liu, Qinlong; Theruvath, Tom P.; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Lemasters, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims An increase of ethanol metabolism and hepatic mitochondrial respiration occurs in vivo after a single binge of alcohol. Here, our aim was to determine how ethanol intake affects hepatic mitochondrial polarization status in vivo in relation to ethanol metabolism and steatosis. Methods Hepatic mitochondrial polarization, permeability transition (MPT), and reduce pyridine nucleotides, and steatosis in mice were monitored by intravital confocal/multiphoton microscopy of the fluorescence of rhodamine 123 (Rh123), calcein, NAD(P)H, and BODIPY493/503, respectively, after gavage with ethanol (1–6 g/kg). Results Mitochondria depolarized in an all-or-nothing fashion in individual hepatocytes as early as 1 h after alcohol. Depolarization was dose- and time-dependent, peaked after 6 to 12 h and maximally affected 94% of hepatocytes. This mitochondrial depolarization was not due to onset of the MPT. After 24 h, mitochondria of most hepatocytes recovered normal polarization and were indistinguishable from untreated after 7 days. Cell death monitored by propidium iodide staining, histology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was low throughout. After alcohol, mitochondrial NAD(P)H autofluorescence increased and decreased, respectively, in hepatocytes with polarized and depolarized mitochondria. Ethanol also caused steatosis mainly in hepatocytes with depolarized mitochondria. Depolarization was linked to ethanol metabolism, since deficiency of alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome-P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), the major ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, decreased mitochondrial depolarization by ∼70% and ∼20%, respectively. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased depolarization, whereas inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase enhanced depolarization. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase also markedly decreased steatosis. Conclusions Acute ethanol causes reversible hepatic mitochondrial depolarization in vivo that may contribute to

  2. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  3. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, Harold M.; Chen, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  4. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, Harold M.; Chen, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  5. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1981-09-24

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium, ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  6. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  7. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Two batch and one continuous reactor study involving Clostridium ljungdahlii were carried out. First, the effects of H{sub 2} partial pressure on growth, CO and H{sub 2} uptake and product formation by C. ljungdahlii were investigated in batch culture. Over the concentration range studied, it was observed that CO was preferentially utilized in favor of H{sub 2}. It was also seen that increasing H{sub 2} partial pressures increased the ratio of ethanol to acetate. Finally, a two-stage CSTR system was successfully operated with C. ljungdahlii in which growth occurred in the first stage and ethanol production occurred in the second stage.

  8. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  9. Life-Stage PBPK Models for Multiple Routes of Ethanol Exposure in the Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly blended with gasoline (10% ethanol) in the US, and higher ethanol concentrations are being considered. While the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of orally-ingested ethanol are widely reported, comparable work is limited for inhalation exposure (IE), particularly...

  10. Fuel ethanol production: process design trends and integration opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Carlos A; Sánchez, Oscar J

    2007-09-01

    Current fuel ethanol research and development deals with process engineering trends for improving biotechnological production of ethanol. In this work, the key role that process design plays during the development of cost-effective technologies is recognized through the analysis of major trends in process synthesis, modeling, simulation and optimization related to ethanol production. Main directions in techno-economical evaluation of fuel ethanol processes are described as well as some prospecting configurations. The most promising alternatives for compensating ethanol production costs by the generation of valuable co-products are analyzed. Opportunities for integration of fuel ethanol production processes and their implications are underlined. Main ways of process intensification through reaction-reaction, reaction-separation and separation-separation processes are analyzed in the case of bioethanol production. Some examples of energy integration during ethanol production are also highlighted. Finally, some concluding considerations on current and future research tendencies in fuel ethanol production regarding process design and integration are presented.

  11. The Potential Environmental Impact of Waste from Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing production of ethanol has been established as an important contributor to future energy independence. A trend in decreasing profitability and resource conflicts has given grain based ethanol production a limited and difficult future. Growing emphasis is being place...

  12. [Interactions of 5 benzamides with ethanol on various psychopharmacology tests].

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Colombel, M C; Larousse, C

    1985-03-01

    Benzamides interactions with ethanol was studied through five psychopharmacological tests. Ethanol given at 2 or 3 g/kg does not induce potentiation of benzamides effects on: motility, relaxation, dopaminergic effects induced by apomorphine (1 and 16 mg/kg).

  13. State-level workshops on ethanol for transportaton

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Angela

    2004-01-01

    The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources.

  14. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  15. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F; Parkinson, Fiona E

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73(+/+)) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73(-/-)) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73(+/+) mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73(+/+) mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg(2+) conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73(-/-) mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  16. Determination of Ethanol in Gasoline by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Alfred, Jr.; Goldcamp, Michael J.; Barrett, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the primary oxygenate in gasoline in the United States. Gasoline containing various percentages of ethanol is readily available in the market place. A laboratory experiment has been developed in which the percentage of ethanol in hexanes can easily be determined using the O-H and alkane C-H absorptions in an infrared spectrum. Standard…

  17. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

  18. Characteristics of ethanol drinking patterns under schedule-induced polydipsia.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D E; Leander, J D; Ellis, F W; Lucot, J B; Frye, G D

    1976-08-26

    Rats were induced to consume concentrations of ethanol between 5% and 10% (w/v) using the schedule-induced polydipsia technique. Although the substitution of ethanol solutions for water disrupted the usual post-pellet pattern of drinking, large amounts of ethanol were consumed and sound-induced convulsions were observed during ethanol withdrawal. In subsequent experiments, other rats chose 5% and sometimes 10% ethanol solutions over water where both water and ethanol were freely available during the first session of exposure to ethanol. Convulsions and wild running behavior could be observed in some of these rats after only 8 days of drinking, even though ethanol was freely available at all times. Use of the schedule-induced polydipsia technique served to bring the rats into early contact with the ethanol, but rats that received the same number of food pellets in a dish rather than by the schedule drank almost as much ethanol as did the rats receiving ethanol by the schedule. Rats with free access to food pellets drank very little ethanol.

  19. Endogenous ethanol affects biopolyester molecular weight in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hiroe, Ayaka; Hyakutake, Manami; Thomson, Nicholas M; Sivaniah, Easan; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2013-11-15

    In biopolyester synthesis, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (PhaC) catalyzes the polymerization of PHA in bacterial cells, followed by a chain transfer (CT) reaction in which the PHA polymer chain is transferred from PhaC to a CT agent. Accordingly, the frequency of CT reaction determines PHA molecular weight. Previous studies have shown that exogenous alcohols are effective CT agents. This study aimed to clarify the effect of endogenous ethanol as a CT agent for poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)] synthesis in recombinant Escherichia coli, by comparing with that of exogenous ethanol. Ethanol supplementation to the culture medium reduced P(3HB) molecular weights by up to 56% due to ethanol-induced CT reaction. NMR analysis of P(3HB) polymers purified from the culture supplemented with (13)C-labeled ethanol showed the formation of a covalent bond between ethanol and P(3HB) chain at the carboxyl end. Cultivation without ethanol supplementation resulted in the reduction of P(3HB) molecular weight with increasing host-produced ethanol depending on culture aeration. On the other hand, production in recombinant BW25113(ΔadhE), an alcohol dehydrogenase deletion strain, resulted in a 77% increase in molecular weight. Analysis of five E. coli strains revealed that the estimated number of CT reactions was correlated with ethanol production. These results demonstrate that host-produced ethanol acts as an equally effective CT agent as exogenous ethanol, and the control of ethanol production is important to regulate the PHA molecular weight.

  20. Distribution of ethanol between saliva and blood in man.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W

    1979-01-01

    1. Forty-eight male subjects drank ethanol (0.72 g/kg) as neat whisky on a fasting stomach within 20 min and the ethanol concentrations in saliva and capillary blood were determined at 30--60 min intervals for the next 7 h. 2. The concentration of ethanol in saliva was generally slightly higher than in capillary blood, as expected from their relative water contents. The mean saliva/blood ethanol ratio between 60 and 360 min from the start of drinking was 1.082 (s.e.m. = 0.0059), (n = 336). Moreover, the saliva/blood ethanol ratio was remarkably constant throughout the absorption, distribution and elimination phases of ethanol metabolism. 3. The saliva (y) and blood ethanol (x) concentrations (mmol/l) were highly correlated (r = 0.976, standard error = 0.011, P less than 0.001). The regression equation was y = 0.109 + 1.071x. The saliva and blood ethanol concentrations reached zero nearly simultaneously, there being no appreciable time lag in the saliva. 4. The results indicate that saliva is a practical medium for ethanol determinations and that blood ethanol can be reliably estimated from analysis of a saliva specimen. Saliva ethanol analysis could well serve as supporting evidence in clinical and medico-legal diagnosis of ethanol intoxication.

  1. Liquid-phase dehydration of aqueous ethanol-gasoline mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fanta, G.F.; Burr, R.C.; Orton, W.L.; Doane, W.M.

    1980-11-07

    Two-phase mixtures of gasoline, water, and ethanol were dehydrated with both starch and saponified starch-g-polyacrylonitrile (HSPAN). Whereas starch absorbed ethanol as well as water, HSPAN selectively absorbed the water component, allowing ethanol to dissolve in the gasoline phase.

  2. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73+/+) and ecto-5′-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73−/−) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73+/+ mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73+/+ mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg2+ conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73−/− mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  3. Enhancing ethanol production from cellulosic sugars using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were performed on the effect of CaCO3 and CaCl2 supplementation to fermentation medium for ethanol production from xylose, glucose, or their mixtures using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis. Both of these chemicals were found to improve maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity....

  4. Modeling tools to Account for Ethanol Impacts on BTEX Plumes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread usage of ethanol in gasoline leads to impacts at leak sites which differ from those of non-ethanol gasolines. The presentation reviews current research results on the distribution of gasoline and ethanol, biodegradation, phase separation and cosolvancy. Model results f...

  5. Delayed ethanol elimination and enhanced susceptibility to ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis after liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Hakucho, Ayako; Liu, Jinyao; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis after liver resection and the mechanisms behind it. METHODS: First, the preliminary examination was performed on 6 sham-operated (Sham) and 30 partial hepatectomy (PH) male Wistar rats (8-wk-old) to evaluate the recovery of the liver weight and liver function after liver resection. PH rats were sacrificed at the indicated time points (4, 8, and 12 h; 1, 3, and 7 d) after PH. Second, the time point for the beginning of the chronic ethanol exposure (1 wk after sham- or PH-operation) was determined based on the results of the preliminary examination. Finally, pair-feeding was performed with a controlled diet or with a 5-g/dL ethanol liquid diet for 28 d in another 35 age-matched male Wistar rats with a one-week recovery after undergoing a sham- (n = 15) or PH-operation (n = 20) to evaluate the ethanol-induced liver injury after liver resection. Hepatic steatosis, liver function, fatty acid synthase (Fas) gene expression level, the expression of lipid metabolism-associated enzyme regulator genes [sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar)-α], the mediators that alter lipid metabolism [plasminogen activator (Pai)-1 gene expression level and tumor necrosis factor (Tnf)-α production], and hepatic class-1 alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1)-associated ethanol elimination were investigated in the 4 groups based on histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, Western blotting, reverse transcriptase chain reaction, and blood ethanol concentration analyses. The relevant gene expression levels, liver weight, and liver function were assessed before and 1 wk after surgery to determine the subject’s recovery from the liver resection using the rats that had been subjected to the preliminary examination. RESULTS: In the PH rats, ethanol induced marked hepatic steatosis with impaired liver functioning, as evidenced by the accumulation of fatty droplets within the

  6. High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium for R-22 + ethanol and R-22 + ethanol + water

    SciTech Connect

    Elbaccouch, M.M.; Raymond, M.B.; Elliott, J.R.

    2000-04-01

    High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the systems CO{sub 2} + methanol at 313.05 K, CO{sub 2} + ethanol at 323.55, 325.15, and 333.35 K, R-22 (chlorodifluoromethane) + ethanol at 343.25, 361.45, and 382.45 K, and R-22 + ethanol + water at 351.55, 362.65, and 371.85 K are obtained using a circulation-type VLE apparatus. The apparatus is tested with measurements of the CO{sub 2} + methanol and CO{sub 2} + ethanol systems. The experimental data are correlated using the Peng-Robinson and Elliott-Suresh-Donohue equations of state.

  7. Characterization of Corn Grains for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affect enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples sh...

  8. Modeling Bacterial Contamination of Fuel Ethanol Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol plants, and therefore, new antibacterial intervention methods and tools to test their application are needed. Using shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevi...

  9. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1996-01-09

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  10. Ethanol and blood pressure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, D.C.; Edgar, S.; McCarron, D.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Epidemiologists have identified alcohol as a risk factor in hypertension. Attempts to increase blood pressure in rats with chronic alcohol ingestion have met with mixed results. Some investigators have reported increases in blood pressure while others have reported decreases. Most investigators have given alcohol in the drinking water which produced differences in food intake across groups. To control for food intake, Wister rats were simultaneously pair fed a liquid diet with either ethanol as 35% of calories or a control diet using ARF/Israel pair-feeding devices. At 5 weeks of age, animals on ethanol diets had lower systolic blood pressure than control animals (145 (n-19) vs. 121 (n-19) mmHg). There was no difference in weight between ethanol and control animals. The same pattern of results was apparent at 7 weeks (143 (n-13) vs. 119 (n-13) mmHg) and 9 weeks (147 (n-7) vs. 124 (n-7)). The data indicate that ethanol produces hypotension in rats when food intake is controlled.

  11. Metabolic engineering of bacteria for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Gomez, P.F.; Lai, X.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Wood, B.E.; Yomano, L.P.; York, S.W.

    1998-04-20

    Technologies are available which will allow the conversion of lignocellulose into fuel ethanol using genetically engineered bacteria. Assembling these into a cost-effective process remains a challenge. The authors` work has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of enteric bacteria using a portable ethanol production pathway. Genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase have been integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B to produce strain KO11 for the fermentation of hemicellulose-derived syrups. This organism can efficiently ferment all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 has been genetically engineered in a similar manner to produce strain P2 for ethanol production from cellulose. This organism has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes. The optimal pH for cellulose fermentation with this organism is near that of fungal cellulases. The general approach for the genetic engineering of new biocatalysts has been most successful with enteric bacteria thus far. However, this approach may also prove useful with gram-positive bacteria which have other important traits for lignocellulose conversion. Many opportunities remain for further improvements in the biomass to ethanol processes.

  12. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C.

    1999-10-01

    The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

  13. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Ethanol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Thomas D.; Edenberg, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of beverage alcohol (ethanol) on the body are determined largely by the rate at which it and its main breakdown product, acetaldehyde, are metabolized after consumption. The main metabolic pathway for ethanol involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Seven different ADHs and three different ALDHs that metabolize ethanol have been identified. The genes encoding these enzymes exist in different variants (i.e., alleles), many of which differ by a single DNA building block (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Some of these SNPs result in enzymes with altered kinetic properties. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C variants that are commonly found in East Asian populations lead to more rapid ethanol breakdown and acetaldehyde accumulation in the body. Because acetaldehyde has harmful effects on the body, people carrying these alleles are less likely to drink and have a lower risk of alcohol dependence. Likewise, an ALDH2 variant with reduced activity results in acetaldehyde buildup and also has a protective effect against alcoholism. In addition to affecting drinking behaviors and risk for alcoholism, ADH and ALDH alleles impact the risk for esophageal cancer. PMID:23134050

  14. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  15. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  16. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  17. Ethanol neurotoxicity and dentate gyrus development.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takanori; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Sumitani, Kazunori; Kusaka, Takashi; Warita, Katsuhiko; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Wilce, Peter A; Bedi, Kuldip S; Itoh, Susumu; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2008-09-01

    Maternal alcohol ingestion during pregnancy adversely affects the developing fetus, often leading to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). One of the most severe consequences of FAS is brain damage that is manifested as cognitive, learning, and behavioral deficits. The hippocampus plays a crucial role in such abilities; it is also known as one of the brain regions most vulnerable to ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. Our recent studies using morphometric techniques have further shown that ethanol neurotoxicity appears to affect the development of the dentate gyrus in a region-specific manner; it was found that early postnatal ethanol exposure causes a transitory deficit in the hilus volume of the dentate gyrus. It is strongly speculated that such structural modifications, even transitory ones, appear to result in developmental abnormalities in the brain circuitry and lead to the learning disabilities observed in FAS children. Based on reports on possible factors deciding ethanol neurotoxicity to the brain, we review developmental neurotoxicity to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation.

  18. 40 CFR 80.1502 - What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related to gasoline-ethanol blends? 80.1502 Section 80.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1502 What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends? Any gasoline refiner, gasoline importer, ethanol blender, ethanol producer, or ethanol...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1502 - What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related to gasoline-ethanol blends? 80.1502 Section 80.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1502 What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends? Any gasoline refiner, gasoline importer, ethanol blender, ethanol producer, or ethanol...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1502 - What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... related to gasoline-ethanol blends? 80.1502 Section 80.1502 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends § 80.1502 What are the survey requirements related to gasoline-ethanol blends? Any gasoline refiner, gasoline importer, ethanol blender, ethanol producer, or ethanol...

  1. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  2. Size Distribution and Velocity of Ethanol Drops in a Rocket Combustor Burning Ethanol and Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1961-01-01

    Single jets of ethanol were studied photomicrographically inside a rocket chamber as they broke up into sprays of drops which underwent simultaneous acceleration and vaporization with chemical reaction occurring in the surrounding combustion gas stream. In each rocket test-firing, liquid oxygen was used as the oxidant. Both drop velocity and drop size distribution data were obtained from photomicrographs of the ethanol drops taken with an ultra-high speed tracking camera developed at NASA, Lewis Research Center.

  3. Extraction of ethanol from aqueous solution. 2. A solvent more volatile than ethanol: Dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, F.; Gomis, V.; Botella, R.F.

    1988-04-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water-ethanol-dichloromethane have been determined experimentally at 25/sup 0/C and correlated simultaneously with vapor-liquid equilibrium data by using the UNIQUAC model. A suitable extraction process for separating ethanol and water using dichloromethane as the solvent has been chosen, and the design calculations have been carried out to determine the energetic requirements. The properties that another solvent should offer to decrease these energetic requirements have been studied.

  4. Saccharification and ethanol fermentation of apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Weathers, P.J.; McConville, F.X.; Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    Apple pomace (the pulp residue from pressing apple juice) is an abundant waste product and presents an expensive disposal problem. A typical (50,000 gal. juice/day) apple juice company in central Massachusetts produces 100 tons of pomace per day. Some of it is used as pig feed, but it is poor quality feed because of its low protein content. Most of the pomace is hauled away (at a cost of $4/ton) and landfilled (at a cost of $10/ton). If 5% (w/w) conversion of pomace to ethanol could be achieved, the need for this company to purchase No. 6 fuel oil (1000 gal/day) for cooking during processing would be eliminated. Our approach was to saccharify the pomace enzymatically, and then to carry out a yeast fermentation on the hydrolysate. We chose to use enzymatic hydrolysis instead of dilute acid hydrolysis in order to minimize pH control problems both in the fermentation phase and in the residue. The only chemical studies have concerned small subfractions of apple material: for example, cell walls have been analyzed but they constitute only 1 to 2% of the fresh weight of the apple (about 15 to 30% of the pomace fraction). Therefore, our major problems were: (1) to optimize hydrolysis by enzyme mixtures, using weight loss and ultimate ethanol production as optimization criteria; (2) to optimize ethanol production from the hydrolysate by judicious choice of yeast strains and fermentation conditions; and (3) achieve these optimizations consistent with minimum processing cost and energy input. We have obtained up to 5.1% (w/w) of ethanol without saccharification. We show here that hydrolysis with high levels of enzyme can enhance ethanol yield by up to 27%, to a maximum level of 6% (w/w); however, enzyme treament may be cost-effective only a low levels, for improvement of residue compaction. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Production of fuel ethanol from bamboo by concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis followed by continuous ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Iwanaga, Tomohiro; Sho, Tomohiro; Kida, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    An efficient process for the production of fuel ethanol from bamboo that consisted of hydrolysis with concentrated sulfuric acid, removal of color compounds, separation of acid and sugar, hydrolysis of oligosaccharides and subsequent continuous ethanol fermentation was developed. The highest sugar recovery efficiency was 81.6% when concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was carried out under the optimum conditions. Continuous separation of acid from the saccharified liquid after removal of color compounds with activated carbon was conducted using an improved simulated moving bed (ISMB) system, and 98.4% of sugar and 90.5% of acid were recovered. After oligosaccharide hydrolysis and pH adjustment, the unsterilized saccharified liquid was subjected to continuous ethanol fermentation using Saccharomycescerevisiae strain KF-7. The ethanol concentration, the fermentation yield based on glucose and the ethanol productivity were approximately 27.2 g/l, 92.0% and 8.2 g/l/h, respectively. These results suggest that the process is effective for production of fuel ethanol from bamboo.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    PubMed

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  7. Ethanol Cellular Defense Induce Unfolded Protein Response in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although, many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two S. cerevisiae strains, CECT10094, and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico) respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR) and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus, our data suggest that there

  8. What Do We Know About Ethanol and Alkylates as Pollutants?

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D W; Marchetti, A A; Buscheck, T; Layton, D W

    2001-05-11

    Gov. Davis issued Executive Order D-5-99 in March 1999 calling for removal of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline no later than December 31, 2002. The Executive Order required the California Air Board, State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) to prepare an analysis of potential impacts and health risks that may be associated with the use of ethanol as a fuel oxygenate. The SWRCB contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to lead a team of researchers, including scientists from Clarkson University, University of Iowa, and University of California, Davis, in evaluating the potential ground and surface water impacts that may occur if ethanol is used to replace MTBE. These findings are reported in the document entitled Health and Environmental Assessment of the Use of Ethanol as a Fuel Oxygenate. This document has been peer reviewed and presented to the California Environmental Policy Council and may be viewed at: http://www-erd.llnl.gov/ethanol/. Ethanol used for fuels is made primarily from grains, but any feed stock containing sugar, starch, or cellulose can be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol contains 34.7% oxygen by weight. It is less dense than water, but infinitely soluble in water. Ethanol vapors are denser than air. One and a half gallons of ethanol have the same energy as one gallon of gasoline. Pure fuel ethanol, and gasoline with ethanol, conducts electricity, while gasoline without ethanol is an insulator. Corrosion and compatibility of materials is an issue with the storage of pure ethanol and gasoline with high percentages of ethanol, but these issues are less important if gasoline with less than 10% ethanol is used.

  9. Ethanol Cellular Defense Induce Unfolded Protein Response in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Tapia, Elisabet; Nana, Rebeca K; Querol, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although, many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two S. cerevisiae strains, CECT10094, and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico) respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR) and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus, our data suggest that there

  10. Transcriptome profiling of Zymomonas mobilis under ethanol stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High tolerance to ethanol is a desirable characteristics for ethanologenic strains used in industrial ethanol fermentation. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanologenic strains tolerance of ethanol stress may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic production. Many extensive studies have been performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. However, the physiological basis and genetic mechanisms involved in ethanol tolerance for Zymomonas mobilis are poorly understood on genomic level. To identify the genes required for tolerance to ethanol, microarray technology was used to investigate the transcriptome profiling of the ethanologenic Z. mobilis in response to ethanol stress. Results We successfully identified 127 genes which were differentially expressed in response to ethanol. Ethanol up- or down-regulated genes related to cell wall/membrane biogenesis, metabolism, and transcription. These genes were classified as being involved in a wide range of cellular processes including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall/membrane biogenesis, respiratory chain, terpenoid biosynthesis, DNA replication, DNA recombination, DNA repair, transport, transcriptional regulation, some universal stress response, etc. Conclusion In this study, genome-wide transcriptional responses to ethanol were investigated for the first time in Z. mobilis using microarray analysis.Our results revealed that ethanol had effects on multiple aspects of cellular metabolism at the transcriptional level and that membrane might play important roles in response to ethanol. Although the molecular mechanism involved in tolerance and adaptation of ethanologenic strains to ethanol is still unclear, this research has provided insights into molecular response to ethanol in Z. mobilis. These data will also be helpful to construct more ethanol resistant strains for cellulosic ethanol production in the future

  11. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: source behaviour.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~1m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

  12. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

  13. NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

  14. Ethanol volatility in fermentation systems. Salt and metabolite effects

    SciTech Connect

    Malorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of dissolved species on the relative volatility of ethanol in fermentation systems is evaluated. New data are presented showing that the enhancement in volatility due to dissolved salts varies with ethanol concentration and is largest for the dilute ethanol concentrations typical in fermentation broths. Dissolved sugars and metabolites also affect relative volatility. The most commonly applied model of volatility enhancement does not incorporate the effect of ethanol concentration, and published enhancement factors measured at high salt and ethanol concentration are not applicable to the conditions of a fermentation broth. 41 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  15. Stabilization of Homeostasis in Rats during Cold Exposure with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kolosova, O N; Kershengolts, B M

    2016-01-01

    The role of ethanol metabolism system in adaptation of laboratory animals to cold temperatures was shown. Cold stress (1-2°C) modeled in male Wistar rats over 7 weeks significantly modulated endogenous ethanol metabolism and led to reorganization of many physiological systems, which resulted in activation of metabolic processes. Under these conditions, endogenous ethanol was utilized as the most easily and fast metabolized energy substrate, due to which its blood concentration decreased and was replenished at the expense of exogenous ethanol. Normalization of blood ethanol concentration led to better adaptation to cold.

  16. Ethanol production from xylose by enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.C.; Hsiao, H.Y.; Ueng, P.P.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Repetitive enzymic isomerization of xylose followed by yeast fermentation of xylulose, and simultaneous enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation were proven to be methods capable of converting xylose to ethanol. The fermentation product, ethanol, xylitol, or glycerol, has little inhibitory or deactivation effect on the activity of isomerase. In a comparison of the ability of yeasts to ferment xylulose to ethanol, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was found to be superior to industrial bakers' yeast. Under optimal conditions (pH 6, temperature 30/sup 0/C), a final ethanol concentration of 6.3 wt.% was obtained from simulated hemicellulose hydrolysate using a simultaneous fermentation process. The ethanol yield was over 80% of the theoretical value.

  17. How do yeast cells become tolerant to high ethanol concentrations?

    PubMed

    Snoek, Tim; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Voordeckers, Karin

    2016-08-01

    The brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a much higher ethanol tolerance compared to most other organisms, and it is therefore commonly used for the industrial production of bioethanol and alcoholic beverages. However, the genetic determinants underlying this yeast's exceptional ethanol tolerance have proven difficult to elucidate. In this perspective, we discuss how different types of experiments have contributed to our understanding of the toxic effects of ethanol and the mechanisms and complex genetics underlying ethanol tolerance. In a second part, we summarize the different routes and challenges involved in obtaining superior industrial yeasts with improved ethanol tolerance. PMID:26758993

  18. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  19. Operant self-administration of ethanol in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Nizhnikov, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The review focuses on operant self-administration of ethanol in immature, infant rats. Several methods for the analysis of ethanol intake in infants are available, yet only oral self-administration models the typical pattern of ethanol consumption found in humans. The study of ethanol intake in infants is important for our understanding of how early alcohol experiences facilitate subsequent engagement with alcohol. It seems that sensitivity to ethanol-induced operant reinforcement is found very early in life, a few hours after birth, and throughout the first three weeks of life. Most of the studies reviewed complied with most, albeit not all, of the criteria for operant behavior (e.g., greater responding than yoked controls and persistence of this difference after withholding the reinforcer). Operant self-administration of ethanol in infant rats seems to be, at least partially, mediated by endogenous opioid transmission and can be enhanced by prior exposure to ethanol. Furthermore, acquisition of ethanol-mediated operant learning seems to facilitate drug self-administration during adolescence. Relative to older subjects, infants exhibit lower sensitivity to ethanol's sedative, hypnotic and motor impairing effects. On the other hand, they exhibit increased sensitivity to the motor stimulant and rewarding effects of ethanol. We suggest that this pattern of response to ethanol may favor the rapid acquisition of operant self-administration in infant rats.

  20. Ultrastructural changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to ethanol stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Manli; Han, Pei; Zhang, Ruimin; Li, Hao

    2013-09-01

    In the fermentative process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol, the performance of cells is often compromised by the accumulation of ethanol. However, the mechanism of how S. cerevisiae responds against ethanol stress remains elusive. In the current study, S. cerevisiae cells were cultured in YPD (yeast extract - peptone - dextrose) medium containing various concentrations of ethanol (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% (v/v)). Compared with the control group without ethanol, the mean cell volume of S. cerevisiae decreased significantly in the presence of 7.5% and 10% ethanol after incubation for 16 h (P < 0.05), and in the presence of 15% ethanol at all 3 sampling time points (1, 8, and 16 h) (P < 0.05). The exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to ethanol also led to an increase in malonyldialdehyde content (P < 0.05) and a decrease in sulfhydryl group content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the observations through transmission electron microscopy enabled us to relate ultrastructural changes elicited by ethanol with the cellular stress physiology. Under ethanol stress, the integrity of the cell membrane was compromised. The swelling or distortion of mitochondria together with the occurrence of a single and large vacuole was correlated with the addition of ethanol. These results suggested that the cell membrane is one of the targets of ethanol, and the degeneration of mitochondria promoted the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

  1. Metabolomic approach for improving ethanol stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Erika; Nakayama, Yasumune; Mukai, Yukio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for brewing and ethanol production. The ethanol sensitivity of yeast cells is still a serious problem during ethanol fermentation, and a variety of genetic approaches (e.g., random mutant screening under selective pressure of ethanol) have been developed to improve ethanol tolerance. In this study, we developed a strategy for improving ethanol tolerance of yeast cells based on metabolomics as a high-resolution quantitative phenotypic analysis. We performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify and quantify 36 compounds on 14 mutant strains including knockout strains for transcription factor and metabolic enzyme genes. A strong relation between metabolome of these mutants and their ethanol tolerance was observed. Data mining of the metabolomic analysis showed that several compounds (such as trehalose, valine, inositol and proline) contributed highly to ethanol tolerance. Our approach successfully detected well-known ethanol stress related metabolites such as trehalose and proline thus, to further prove our strategy, we focused on valine and inositol as the most promising target metabolites in our study. Our results show that simultaneous deletion of LEU4 and LEU9 (leading to accumulation of valine) or INM1 and INM2 (leading to reduction of inositol) significantly enhanced ethanol tolerance. This study shows the potential of the metabolomic approach to identify target genes for strain improvement of S. cerevisiae with higher ethanol tolerance.

  2. Ethanol promotes T cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kapasi, Aditi A; Patel, Geeta; Goenka, Anuj; Nahar, Nilay; Modi, Neeraj; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Reddy, Krishna; Franki, Nicholas; Patel, Jaimita; Singhal, Pravin C

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that acute ethanol intoxication is often associated with lymphopenia. Previously, ethanol was reported to invoke thymocyte apoptosis. We studied the effect of ethanol on T cell apoptosis. In addition, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of ethanol-induced T cell apoptosis. Human T cells harvested from healthy subjects after an alcohol drinking binge showed enhanced T cell apoptosis (before, 0·4 ± 0·2% versus after, 19·6 ± 2·5% apoptotic lymphocytes/field; P < 0·001). In in vitro studies, ethanol in a concentration of 50 mm and higher enhanced the apoptosis of Jurkat cells. DNA isolated from ethanol-treated Jurkat cells displayed integer multiples of 180 base pairs. Ethanol decreased Jurkat cell expression of Bcl-2, whereas ethanol increased Jurkat cell expression of Bax. Jurkat cells treated with ethanol also showed translocation of cytochrome C into cytosol. Moreover, a caspase-9 inhibitor partially inhibited ethanol-induced Jurkat cell apoptosis. In in vivo studies, after binge drinking, T cell expression of Bcl-2 also decreased. In addition, binge drinking induced the cleavage of caspase-3, suggesting activation of caspase-3 in T cells. These results suggest that ethanol promotes T cell apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway. PMID:12603597

  3. Selective changes in GABAergic transmission in substantia nigra and superior colliculus caused by ethanol and ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Peris, J; Coleman-Hardee, M; Burry, J; Pecins-Thompson, M

    1992-04-01

    One of ethanol's actions after acute exposure is anticonvulsant activity whereas withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure increases convulsant activity. An increase in neuronal transmission in the GABAergic pathways from striatum to the substantia nigra (SN) and a decrease in GABAergic transmission from SN to superior colliculus (SC) both appear to play a major role in inhibiting seizure propagation. If this is the case, then the changes in seizure sensitivity caused by ethanol may be expected to affect GABAergic transmission in opposite ways in SN and SC. We measured the effects of in vitro ethanol on pre- and postsynaptic indices of GABA transmission using SN and SC tissue from both ethanol-naive rats and rats given ethanol in their drinking water for 24 days and then withdrawn for 24 hr, a treatment that decreases seizure latency. While ethanol inhibited 3H-GABA release from slices of SC at low concentrations (20-100 nM), much higher concentrations were required to inhibit release from SN (100-500 mM). In fact, release from SN was increased by low concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol in vitro (20-1000 mM) also inhibited specific binding of 35S-TBPS to the GABAA receptor but this effect was similar in both potency and efficacy in SC and SN. Next, the in vitro effects of ethanol were measured in rats that had consumed an average of 9.8 g ethanol/kg body weight/day and were then withdrawn for 24 hr. Ethanol inhibition of 3H-GABA release from SC was significantly less in ethanol-treated rats compared to controls whereas the inhibitory effect of ethanol was increased in SN from ethanol-treated rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control).

  5. Behavioral teratology of alcoholic beverages compared to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Abel, E L; Dintcheff, B A; Bush, R

    1981-01-01

    Pregnant rats were intubated with beer, wine, whiskey, or ethanol (3 g/kg/day), twice daily, while control animals received an isocaloric solution. All animals were pair-fed to ethanol-treated animals. At birth, offspring were fostered to surrogate nondrug-treated dams. Congeners present in beverage alcohol did not exacerbate the effects of ethanol exposure. Ethanol-treated animals were less responsive than controls to a challenge dose of ethanol. Beer- and whiskey-treated animals were also less responsive than controls to ethanol challenge, but did not differ from ethanol-treated animals. Group differeces in Rotarod behavior, ambulation, rearing, or defecation in the activity box, activity wheel running, spontaneous alternation, and brain DNA, RNA, and protein content were not significant. Although beer-treated males performed better on the Rotarod than controls, beer-treated males did not differ significantly from controls on any other task.

  6. Effect of ethanol on serum electrolytes and osmolality

    SciTech Connect

    Mahboob, T.; Haleem, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Rats and rabbits were injected ethanol 2 g/kg intraperitoneally. One hour after injection blood was analyzed for serum electrolytes and osmolality. Administration of ethanol caused decrease in serum sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus and glucose in rabbits. Further studies of intraperitoneal administration of ethanol in rats showed decrease in concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus and glucose. Administration of ethanol caused an increase in serum osmolality in both rabbits and rats. It is concluded that ethanol ingestion is probably the commonest cause of the hyperosmolar state. Although the osmotic and sedative effects of ethanol are pharmacologically unrelated, the presence of ethanol should be considered in comatose patients whom the measured plasma osmolality appreciably exceeds that predicted on the basis of plasma glucose, urea and electrolytes concentration.

  7. Intracerebellar behavioral interactions between nicotine, cotinine and ethanol in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, M.S.; Li, C. )

    1992-02-26

    Using ethanol-induced motor incoordination as the test response as evaluated by rotorod, possible behavioral interactions between ethanol and (-)-nicotine in the cerebellum, one of the key motor area, were investigated. (-)-Nicotine, 5, 1.25, 0.625 ng/100nL intracerebellarly significantly attenuated motor incoordination due to ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, (-)-cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 ng/100nL, significantly but less marked compared to (-)-nicotine attenuated ethanol-induced motor incoordination. The highest, 5 ng/100nL, dose of (-)-nicotine or (-)-cotinine followed by saline instead of ethanol did not alter normal motor coordination. The attenuation of ethanol-induced motor incoordination by (-)-nicotine and (-)- cotinine was blocked by intracerebellar hexamethonium 1 ug/100nL, a purported nicotinic cholinergic antagonist. The data obtained strongly suggest participation of cerebellar nicotinic cholinergic receptor in the ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

  8. The phytotoxic effect of exogenous ethanol on Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    PubMed

    Kern, Kátia Aparecida; Pergo, Erica Marusa; Kagami, Fernanda Lima; Arraes, Luis Saraiva; Sert, Maria Aparecida; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exogenously applied ethanol on Euphorbia heterophylla L., a troublesome weed in field and plantation crops. Ethanol at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.5% caused a dose-dependent inhibition of germination and growth of E. heterophylla. Measurements of respiratory activity and alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.1) activity during seed imbibition and initial seedling growth revealed that ethanol induces a prolongation of hypoxic conditions in the growing tissues. In isolated mitochondria, ethanol inhibited the respiration coupled to ADP phosphorylation, an action that probably contributed to modifications observed in the respiratory activity of embryos. A comparison of the effects of methanol, ethanol, propanol and acetaldehyde on germination and growth of E. heterophylla indicates that alcohol dehydrogenase activity is required for the observed effects, with the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde playing a role in the ethanol-induced injuries.

  9. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny.

    PubMed

    March, Samanta M; Abate, P; Molina, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption.

  10. [Carbon balance analysis of corn fuel ethanol life cycle].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-shan; Yuan, Xi-gang

    2006-04-01

    The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions (net carbon emissions) of corn-based fuel ethanol, which is known as an alternative for fossil fuel is an important criteria for evaluating its sustainability. The methodology of carbon balance analysis for fuel ethanol from corn was developed based on principles of life cycle analysis. For the production state of fuel ethanol from summer corn in China, carbon budgets in overall life cycle of the ethanol were evaluated and its main influence factors were identified. It presents that corn-based fuel ethanol has no obvious reduction of carbon emissions than gasoline, and potential improvement in carbon emission of the life cycle of corn ethanol could be achieved by reducing the nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation electricity used in the corn farming and energy consumption in the ethanol conversion process.

  11. Ethanol reassimilation and ethanol tolerance in Pitchia stipitis CBS 6054 as studied by [sup 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Skoog, K.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B. ); Degn, H.; Jacobsen, H.S.; Jacobsen, J.P. )

    1992-08-01

    Ethanol reassimilation in Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 was studied by using continuous cultures, and the oxidation of [1-[sup 13]C] ethanol was monitored by in vivo and in vitro [sup 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Acetate was formed when ethanol was reassimilated. The ATP/ADP ratio and the carbon dioxide production decreased, whereas the malate dehydrogenase activity increased, in ethanol-reassimilating cells. The results are discussed in terms of the low ethanol tolerance in P. stipitis compared with that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  12. Flavor preference conditioning by oral self-administration of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C L; Niehus, J S

    1997-12-01

    Oral self-administration and operant tasks have been used successfully to confirm ethanol's positive reinforcing effects in rats. However, in flavor conditioning tasks, ethanol is typically found to have aversive effects. The present studies explored this apparent paradox by examining the change in value of a flavor paired with orally self-administered ethanol in two different limited-access procedures. Rats were food-deprived and trained to drink (experiment 1) or to barpress for (experiment 2) 10% (v/v) ethanol during daily 30-min sessions using prandial initiation techniques. All rats were then exposed to a differential flavor conditioning procedure in which banana or almond extract was added to the drinking solution. One flavor (counterbalanced) was always mixed with ethanol (CS+), whereas the other flavor was mixed with water (CS-). By the end of conditioning, rats in both experiments drank more flavored ethanol than flavored water, confirming ethanol's efficacy as a reinforcer. Moreover, barpress rates for CS+ exceeded those for CS- in the operant task. Ethanol doses self-administered in final sessions averaged about 1 g/kg. The effect of the flavor-ethanol contingency was assessed in preference tests that offered a choice between the two flavor solutions without ethanol. In both experiments, subjects developed a preference for the flavor that had been paired with ethanol. Thus, the outcome of flavor conditioning was consistent with that of the oral self-administration tasks in providing evidence of ethanol's rewarding effects. These experiments confirm and extend previous studies showing that flavor aversion is not the inevitable result of flavor-ethanol association in rats. It seems likely that ethanol's nutrient and pharmacological effects both contributed to the development of conditioned flavor preference.

  13. Internal energy selection in vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of ethanol and ethanol dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodi, Andras

    2013-10-01

    Internal energy selected ethanol monomer and ethanol dimer ions were prepared by threshold photoionization of a supersonic molecular beam seeded with ethanol. The dissociative photoionization processes of the monomer, the lowest-energy CH3-loss channel of the dimer, and the fragmentation of larger clusters were found to be disjunct from the ionization onset to about 12 eV, which made it possible to determine the 0 K appearance energy of C-C bond breaking in the H-donor unit of the ethanol dimer cation as 9.719 ± 0.004 eV. This reaction energy is used together with ab initio calculations in a thermochemical cycle to determine the binding energy change from the neutral ethanol dimer to a protonated ethanol-formaldehyde adduct. The cycle also shows general agreement between experiment, theory, and previously published enthalpies of formation. The role of the initial ionization site, or rather the initial photoion state, is also discussed based on the dimer breakdown diagram and excited state calculations. There is no evidence for isolated state behavior, and the ethanol dimer dissociative photoionization processes appear to be governed by statistical theory and the ground electronic state of the ion. In the monomer breakdown diagram, the smoothly changing branching ratio between H and CH3 loss is at odds with rate theory predictions, and shows that none of the currently employed few-parameter rate models, appropriate for experimental rate curve fitting, yields a correct description for this process in the experimental energy range.

  14. An enzyme-amplified microtiter plate assay for ethanol: Its application to the detection of peanut ethanol and alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.Y.; Vercellotti, J.R.; Sanders, T.H.

    1995-12-01

    A calorimetric microliter plate assay for ethanol amplified by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was developed. In the assay ethanol from a sample took part in a chain-reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and amplified by ALDH in the presence of NAD{sup +}, diaphorase, and p-ibdonitrotetrazolium-violet (INT-violet)(a precursor of red product). The resultant reaction gave a red color, the intensity of which was proportional to the amount of ethanol present. Using the technique, the content of activity from peanuts of differing maturity and curing stages were determined respectively. Data showed that immature peanuts had a higher level of ethanol and a lower ADH activity than mature peanuts, and that the level of ethanol and ADH activity decreased with the curing time. This indicates that peanut maturity and curing have an effect on ethanol. Also, this implies that other peanut volatiles could be affected in the same way as ethanol, a major volatile in peanuts.

  15. Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K.

    1991-12-31

    In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

  16. Battle rages over imports of fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1985-04-22

    The International Trade Commission agreed that there is a reasonable indication that large imports of duty-free fuel ethanol from Brazil threaten material injury to the US fuel ethanol industry. In addition to anti-dumping and countervailing duty suits against Brazil, both the Caribbean Basin Initiative and tariff loopholes figure prominently in the current struggle to cut off large-volume imports. The result has been to bring trade policy and diplomacy into the picture. Supporters of the imports contend that domestic producers will not be able to meet anticipated demand if the market takes off as expected, but the domestic industry has been growing along with the market. The author reviews the arguments and legal claims made on both sides of the debate, which include government farm policies. 6 figures.

  17. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  18. Economic impacts of ethanol fuels from crops

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Richardson, J.

    1981-08-01

    This paper presents selected results of simulations of agricultural production of ethanol feedstocks from grains and sugar crops. Production levels of up to 5 billion gallons per year were simulated using various combinations of corn, high energy sorghum, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets. Major results include (1) at up to 2 billion gallons per year of ethanol, impacts on the agricultural sector are mild; (2) beyond 2 billion gallons per year, diversification away from corn appears to be necessary to avoid major feed price inflation; (3) farm income unambiguously rises in response to higher crop prices; and (4) exports of food grains are affected differently by alternative feedstocks, and high-energy sorghum shows a good potential for competing with food grains.

  19. Innovative production technology ethanol from sweet sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the technological aspects of production of ethanol from nontraditional for Russian Federation crops - sweet sorghum. Presents the technological scheme of alcohol production and fuel pellets from sweet sorghum. Special attention is paid to assessing the efficiency of alcohol production from sweet sorghum. The described advantage of sugar content in stem juice of sweet sorghum compared with other raw materials. Allegedly, the use of the technology for producing alcohol from sweet sorghum allows to save resources.

  20. Biofuel Food Disasters and Cellulosic Ethanol Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimentel, David

    2009-01-01

    As shortages of fossil energy, especially oil and natural gas, become evident, the United States has moved to convert corn grain into ethanol with the goal to make the nation oil independent. Using more than 20% of all U.S. corn on 15 million acres in 2007 was providing the nation with less than 1% of U.S. oil consumption. Because the corn ethanol…

  1. [Concentration of endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation].

    PubMed

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Kampov-Polevoĭ, A B; Kovalenko, A E; Rodionov, A P

    1983-11-01

    Trials with patients suffering from stage II chronic alcoholism and normal test subjects as well as experiments made on male C57BL mice (with genetically determined alcoholic motivation) and CBA mice (with genetically determined alcoholic aversion) and random-bred male rats with different levels of initial alcoholic motivation have shown the presence of reverse proportional dependence between blood plasma endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation.

  2. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  3. Ethanol effects on rat brain phosphoinositide metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in acidic phospholipids in brain plasma and synaptic plasma membranes upon chronic ethanol administration was observed. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in an increase in {sup 32}P{sub i} incorporation into the acidic phospholipids in synaptosomes. Postdecapitative ischemic treatment resulted rapid degradation of poly-PI in rat brain. However, there was a rapid appearance of IP{sub 2} in ethanol group which indicated a more rapid turnover of IP{sub 3} in the ethanol-treated rats. Carbachol stimulated accumulation of labeled inositol phosphates in brain slices and synaptosomes. Carbachol-stimulated release of IP and IP{sub 2} was calcium dependent and was inhibited by EGTA and atropine. Adenosine triphosphates and 1 mM further enhanced carbachol-induced formation of IP and IP{sub 2}, but showed an increase and a decrease in IP{sub 3} at 1 mM and 0.01 mM, respectively. Guanosine triphosphate at 0.1 mM did not change in labeled IP, but there was a significant increase in labeled IP{sub 2} and decrease in IP{sub 3}. Mn and CMP greatly enhanced incorporation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol into PI, but not into poly-PI labeling in brain synaptosomes. Incubation of brain synaptosomes resulted in a Ca{sup 2+}, time-dependent release of labeled IP. However, the pool of PI labeled through this pathway is not susceptible to carbachol stimulation. When saponin permeabilized synaptosomal preparations were incubated with ({sup 3}H)-inositol-PI or ({sup 14}C)-arachidonoyl-PI, ATP enhanced the formation of labeled IP and DG.

  4. Soyoil-ethanol microemulsions as diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Campion, R.M.; Pryde, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid fuels, formed by microemulsifying aqueous ethanol in soybean oil, were evaluated by burning them in a diesel engine. No. 2 diesel fuel was also burned to provide baseline data. The hybrid fuels performed nearly as well as No. 2 diesel despite having lower cetane numbers and less energy content. At present, the hybrid fuels are more expensive than No. 2 diesel fuel and their effect on engine durability is unknown.

  5. The discriminative stimulus properties of ethanol and acute ethanol withdrawal states in rats.

    PubMed

    Gauvin, D V; Harland, R D; Criado, J R; Michaelis, R C; Holloway, F A

    1989-10-01

    Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a standard two-choice Drug 1-Drug 2 discrimination task utilizing 3.0 mg/kg chlordiazepoxide (CDP, an anxiolytic drug) and 20 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, an anxiogenic drug) as discriminative stimuli under a VR 5-15 schedule of food reinforcement. Saline tests conducted at specific time points after acute high doses of ethanol (3.0 and 4.0 g/kg) indicated a delayed rebound effect, evidenced by a shift to PTZ-appropriate responding. Insofar as such a shift in lever selection indexes a delayed anxiety-like state, this acute 'withdrawal' reaction can be said to induce an affective state similar to that seen with chronic ethanol withdrawal states. Ethanol generalization tests: (1) resulted in a dose- and time-dependent biphasic generalization to CDP, (2) failed to block the PTZ stimulus and (3) failed to block the time- and dose-dependent elicitation of an ethanol-rebound effect. These data suggest that ethanol's anxiolytic effects are tenuous. PMID:2791886

  6. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J D

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  7. Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemuth, T.E.; Stenzel, R.A.; Yim, Y.J.; Yu, J.

    1980-01-31

    The conceptual design of the 20 million gallon per year anhydrous ethanol facility a t Raft River has been completed. The corresponding geothermal gathering, extraction and reinjection systems to supply the process heating requirement were also completed. The ethanol facility operating on sugar beets, potatoes and wheat will share common fermentation and product recovery equipment. The geothermal fluid requirement will be approximately 6,000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by 9 supply wells spaced at no closer than 1/4 mile in order to prevent mutual interferences. The geothermal fluid will be flashed in three stages to supply process steam at 250 F, 225 F and 205 F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will all be reinjected through 9 reinjection wells. The capital cost estimated for this ethanol plant employing all three feedstocks is $64 million. If only a single feedstock were used (for the same 20 mm gal/yr plant) the capital costs are estimated at $51.6 million, $43.1 million and $40. 5 million for sugar beets, potatoes and wheat respectively. The estimated capital cost for the geothermal system is $18 million.

  8. Technological options for biological fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Vertès, Alain A; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    The current paradigm to produce biotechnological ethanol is to use the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment sugars derived from starch or sugar crops such as maize, sugar cane or sugar beet. Despite its current success, the global impact of this manufacturing model is restricted on the one hand by limits on the availability of these primary raw materials, and on the other hand by the maturity of baker's yeast fermentation technologies. Revisiting the technical, economic, and value chain aspects of the biotechnological ethanol industry points to the need for radical innovation to complement the current manufacturing model. Implementation of lignocellulosic materials is clearly a key enabler to the billion-ton biofuel vision. However, realization of the full market potential of biofuels will be facilitated by the availability of an array of innovative technological options, as the flexibility generated by these alternative processes will not only enable the exploitation of heretofore untapped local market opportunities, but also it will confer to large biorefinery structures numerous opportunities for increased process integration as well as optimum reactivity to logistic and manufacturing challenges. In turn, all these factors will interplay in synergy to contribute in shifting the economic balance in favor of the global implementation of biotechnological ethanol.

  9. Ethanol synthesis by genetic engineering in cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, M.D.; Coleman, J.R.

    1999-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are autotrophic prokaryotes which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis and accumulate glycogen as the major form of stored carbon. In this research, the authors introduced new genes into a cyanobacterium in order to create a novel pathway for fixed carbon utilization which results in the synthesis of ethanol. The coding sequences of pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adh) from the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis were cloned into the shuttle vector pCB4 and then used to transform the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Under control of the promoter from the rbcLS operon encoding the cyanobacterial ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the pdc and adh genes were expressed at high levels, as demonstrated by Western blotting and enzyme activity analyses. The transformed cyanobacterium synthesized ethanol, which diffused from the cells into the culture medium. As cyanobacteria have simple growth requirements and use light, CO{sub 2}, and inorganic elements efficiently, production of ethanol by cyanobacteria is a potential system for bioconversion of solar energy and CO{sub 2} into a valuable resource.

  10. Ontogenetic differences in ethanol's motivational properties during infancy.

    PubMed

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Rahmani, Pouyan; Spear, Norman E

    2012-05-01

    Pairing a conditioned stimulus (CS) with ethanol generally produces aversion for that CS in adult rodents. However, infant rats (PD1-PD3) exposed to ethanol demonstrate appetitive reinforcement to ethanol (Nizhnikov, Varlinskaya, Petrov, & Spear, 2006; Petrov, Varlinskaya, & Spear, 2003). This sensitivity to the appetitive properties of ethanol during infancy may be transient, as during the second postnatal week rat pups tend to exhibit conditioned aversions to flavors paired with ethanol. The present study examined changes in the motivation properties of ethanol through ontogeny and the neurobiology underlying these changes. Rat pups were exposed to a taste conditioning procedure on PD4 or PD12. Rat pups were intraorally infused with 2.5% of their body weight of saccharin solution (0.1%) and immediately after injected intraperitoneolly (i.p.) with one of six doses of ethanol (0.0-2.0 g/kg). A day later pups were given saccharine infusions and percent body weight gain was used as an index of ethanol's reinforcing effects. PD4 pups expressed appetitive reinforcement to ethanol, as indicated by greater saccharin intake, as compared to control counterparts and to the older PD12 pups. Subsequent experiments revealed that PD4 pups were less sensitive to the aversive properties of the drug than PD12 pups. The older pups found high doses of ethanol aversive while PD4 rat pups did not condition aversions to this dose of ethanol after a single trial. A similar pattern of results was observed between the low doses of ethanol and the highest doses of a kappa opioid agonist. The PD12 animals did not condition to the kappa opioid agonist, while the younger rats expressed an appetitive response. These results illustrate an ontogenetic change in the motivational properties of ethanol, with sensitivity to its appetitive properties declining and responsiveness to the aversive properties increasing with age during early infancy.

  11. Protease increases fermentation rate and ethanol yield in dry-grind ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The effects of acid protease and urea addition during the fermentation step were evaluated. The fermentations were also tested with and without the addition of urea to determine if protease altered the nitrogen requirements of the yeast. Results show that the addition of the protease had a statistically significant effect on the fermentation rate and yield. Fermentation rates and yields were improved with the addition of the protease over the corresponding controls without protease. Protease addition either with or with added urea resulted in a higher final ethanol yield than without the protease addition. Urea addition levels >1200 ppm of supplemental nitrogen inhibited ethanol production. The economic effects of the protease addition were evaluated by using process engineering and economic models developed at the Eastern Regional Research Center. The decrease in overall processing costs from protease addition was as high as $0.01/L (4 ¢/gal) of denatured ethanol produced.

  12. Ethanol as a Prodrug: Brain Metabolism of Ethanol Mediates its Reinforcing effects

    PubMed Central

    Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Bustamante, Diego; Gonzalez-Lira, Víctor; Morales, Paola; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Israel, Yedy

    2011-01-01

    Backround While the molecular entity responsible for the rewarding effects of virtually all drugs of abuse is known; that for ethanol remains uncertain. Some lines of evidence suggest that the rewarding effects of alcohol are mediated not by ethanol per se but by acetaldehyde generated by catalase in the brain. However, the lack of specific inhibitors of catalase has not allowed strong conclusions to be drawn about its role on the rewarding properties of ethanol. The present studies determined the effect on voluntary alcohol consumption of two gene vectors; one designed to inhibit catalase synthesis and one designed to synthesize alcohol dehydrogenase, to respectively inhibit or increase brain acetaldehyde synthesis. Methods The lentiviral vectors, which incorporate the genes they carry into the cell genome, were: (i) one encoding a shRNA anticatalase synthesis and (ii) one encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (rADH1). These were stereotaxically microinjected into the brain ventral tegmental area (VTA) of Wistar-derived rats bred for generations for their high alcohol preference (UChB), which were allowed access to an ethanol solution and water. Results Microinjection into the VTA of the lentiviral vector encoding the anticatalase shRNA virtually abolished (-94% p<0.001) the voluntary consumption of alcohol by the rats. Conversely, injection into the VTA of the lentiviral vector coding for alcohol dehydrogenase greatly stimulated (2-3 fold p<0.001) their voluntary ethanol consumption. Conclusions The study strongly suggests that to generate reward and reinforcement, ethanol must be metabolized into acetaldehyde in the brain. Data suggest novel targets for interventions aimed at reducing chronic alcohol intake. PMID:21332529

  13. Postmortem degradation of administered ethanol-d6 and production of endogenous ethanol: experimental studies using rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T; Tanaka, N; Maeda, H; Kondo, T; Nishigami, J; Nagano, T

    1995-12-18

    Deuterium-labeled ethanol-d6 was employed to study the metabolism and postmortem change of ethanol in putrefied organ tissues. First, 4 ml/kg body weight of 25% (w/v) solution of ethanol-d6 was administered orally to each of 15 rats. The heart blood and organs were collected 15-90 min after the administration and the ethanol-d6 was analyzed by head space gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The ethanol-d6 concentration in the organ tissues reached its maximum at 15 min after the administration and then gradually declined, showing the same pattern as human ethanol metabolism. Ethanol-d6 (3 ml of the same solution/kg body weight) was injected into the vein of a rabbit's ear (total of 12 rabbits). The rabbit was killed with carbon monoxide 30 min after the administration and the carcass was allowed to stand for 1-4 days at 30 degrees C in a moist chamber. The concentration of ethanol-d6 decreased moderately. Postmortem ethanol and 1-propanol concentrations, in contrast, showed marked increases 2.5 days and more after sacrifice in line with the degree of putrefaction of each organ tissue including skeletal muscle. This suggests the postmortem activation of micro-organism activity. These results indicate that ethanol concentrations in cadaver tissues must be carefully assessed with due consideration of postmortem degradation and production.

  14. Efficient production of ethanol from waste paper and the biochemical methane potential of stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Waste paper can serve as a feedstock for ethanol production due to being rich in cellulose and not requiring energy-intensive thermophysical pretreatment. In this study, an efficient process was developed to convert waste paper to ethanol. To accelerate enzymatic saccharification, pH of waste paper slurry was adjusted to 4.5-5.0 with H2SO4. Presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) with enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g waste paper achieved an ethanol yield of 91.8% and productivity of 0.53g/(Lh) with an ethanol concentration of 32g/L. Fed-batch PSSF was used to decrease enzyme loading to 13 FPU/g waste paper by feeding two separate batches of waste paper slurry. Feeding with 20% w/w waste paper slurry increased ethanol concentration to 41.8g/L while ethanol yield decreased to 83.8%. To improve the ethanol yield, presaccharification was done prior to feeding and resulted in a higher ethanol concentration of 45.3g/L, a yield of 90.8%, and productivity of 0.54g/(Lh). Ethanol fermentation recovered 33.2% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol. The biochemical methane potential of the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation was 270.5mL/g VTS and 73.0% of the energy in the stillage was recovered as methane. Integrating ethanol fermentation with methane fermentation, recovered a total of 80.4% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol and methane.

  15. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  16. Interaction of ethanol with amylobarbitone, phenobarbitone and methaqualone.

    PubMed

    Tilstone, W J; Reavey, P C

    1978-02-01

    The presence and mechanism of synergism of action between ethanol and amylobarbitone, phenobarbitone or methaqualone was determined by application of simple pharmacokinetic models to log dose-response curves and plasma concentration-time curves for the hypnotics alone or when ethanol was given concurrently. For all three hypnotics, ethanol was found to increase the duration of hypnosis, but the mechanism of action was different for each. A sub-hypnotic dose of ethanol increased the volume of distribution of amylobarbitone and the consequent reduction in fractional elimination prolonged the half-life of the hypnotic. The distribution and elimination of methaqualone were not affected by ethanol, but there was a sensitisation of the target organ, shown by a reduced minimum effective dose. The minimum effective dose of phenobarbitone was also reduced by ethanol, but in addition, the rate of elimination of phenobarbitone was increased after the period of hypnosis.

  17. Neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal ethanol administration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, S.; Briggs, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in rats on the behavior and on the levels of multiple neurotransmitters in the brain have been investigated. Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: ethanol-exposed, pair-fed control and nutritional control. Ethanol was administered through Leiber-DeCarli liquid diet containing 6% ethanol (v/v) throughout the gestation period in ethanol-exposed rats. Male offspring were tested for alternations in neurobehavioral and neurochemical parameters. Animals exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited lower birth weights, delayed motor development, delayed learning and no catch-up growth, as well as significant alterations in levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and GABA in discrete brain areas.

  18. Hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Nose, Akira; Hojo, Masashi

    2006-10-01

    An alcoholic beverage is a type of water-ethanol solution with flavor and taste. The properties of the hydrogen bonding of water-ethanol in alcoholic beverages have not been clarified sufficiently. We investigated factors that could affect the hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol on the basis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) chemical shifts of the OH of water-ethanol and Raman OH stretching spectra. Not only acids (H+ and HA: undissociated acids) but also bases (OH- and A-: conjugate-base anions from weak acids) strengthened the hydrogen-bonding structure of water-ethanol. It was also demonstrated that the hydrogen bonding is strengthened by chemical components in alcoholic beverages (whiskey, Japanese sake, shochu). It can be suggested that hydrogen-bonding donors as well as acceptors in alcohol beverages, which exist as the initial components or are gained later on, should cause the tight association between water and ethanol molecules. PMID:17116572

  19. Factors affecting contamination of blood samples for ethanol determinations.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Eastly, T

    1977-01-01

    Contamination of blood samples collected for alcohol analysis from swabbing with an ethanolic antiseptic is minimal (less than 0.6 mg/100 ml or 0.0006 percent ethanol) when routine clinical technique is followed. When technicians were told to be deliberately sloppy, considerable contamination (89 mg/100 ml or 0.09 percent ethanol) occurred. The incidence and extent of contamination from banked blood intended for transfusions are minimal. Two percent of the 1,450 samples analyzed contained alcohol. The average blood alcohol concentration was 26 mg/100 ml or 0.03 percent ethanol. One microliter of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, or one-tenth of a drop of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, increases the BAC 56.5 mg/100 ml (0.06 percent ethanol) and 67.5 mg/100 ml (0.07 percent ethanol), respectively.

  20. Episodic excretion of ethanol during chronic intragastric ethanol infusion in the male rat: continuous vs. cyclic ethanol and nutrient infusions.

    PubMed

    Badger, T M; Crouch, J; Irby, D; Hakkak, R; Shahare, M

    1993-02-01

    Continuous intragastric infusion of ethanol has been reported to result in episodic daily blood alcohol concentrations in male rats (Tsukamoto et al., 1985). We have used a total enteral nutrition (TEN) model to study the effects of chronic alcohol exposure on blood and urine alcohol concentrations in adult male Sprague Dawley rats (300 g). Two TEN models were studied: 1) the continuous model in which a complete diet was infused i.g. for 24 h/day; or 2) the cyclic model in which TEN was infused intragastrically for 12 h/day (i.e., only during the dark phase of the lighting cycle). In the continuous model, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined at 0900 h each morning and were found to vary from day to day in an episodic fashion, with values ranging from less than 10 mg/dl to greater than 500 mg/dl. The urine alcohol concentrations (UACs) were also episodic and closely tracked those of serum, such that the 24-h UACs were excellent predictors of the BACs taken at 0900 h. Both BACs and UACs increased from values below 10 mg/dl to greater than 500 mg/dl, and then decreased back to below 10 mg/dl with a mean peak-to-peak interval of 6 +/- 0.9 days. In the cyclic model, daily UACs were also episodic (i.e., had a daily variation) and very closely resembled those of the continuous model. We have proposed that ethanol metabolism during experimental intragastric ethanol infusion in the rat occurs via a system characterized by time-dependent pharmacokinetics.

  1. Developmental age strengthens barriers to ethanol accumulation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lovely, C Ben; Nobles, Regina D; Eberhart, Johann K

    2014-09-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) describes a wide range of phenotypic defects affecting facial and neurological development associated with ethanol teratogenicity. It affects approximately 1 in 100 children born in the United States each year. Genetic predisposition along with timing and dosage of ethanol exposure are critical in understanding the prevalence and variability of FASD. The zebrafish attributes of external fertilization, genetic tractability, and high fecundity make it a powerful tool for FASD studies. However, a lack of consensus of ethanol treatment paradigms has limited the interpretation of these various studies. Here we address this concern by examining ethanol tissue concentrations across timing and genetic background. We utilize headspace gas chromatography to determine ethanol concentration in the AB, fli1:EGFP, and Tu backgrounds. In addition, we treated these embryos with ethanol over two different developmental time windows, 6-24 h post fertilization (hpf) and 24-48 hpf. Our analysis demonstrates that embryos rapidly equilibrate to a sub-media level of ethanol. Embryos then maintain this level of ethanol for the duration of exposure. The ethanol tissue concentration level is independent of genetic background, but is timing-dependent. Embryos exposed from 6 to 24 hpf were 2.7-4.2-fold lower than media levels, while embryos were 5.7-6.2-fold lower at 48 hpf. This suggests that embryos strengthen one or more barriers to ethanol as they develop. In addition, both the embryo and, to a lesser extent, the chorion, surrounding the embryo are barriers to ethanol. Overall, this work will help tighten ethanol treatment regimens and strengthen zebrafish as a model of FASD.

  2. Gender differences in ethanol-induced behavioral sensitivity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dlugos, Cynthia A; Brown, Shereene J; Rabin, Richard A

    2011-02-01

    Gender-related differential sensitivity to ethanol has long been recognized. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the zebrafish, an animal model used currently to study genetics and development related to a variety of human diseases, is also sensitive to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ethanol. Sensitivity to ethanol in the zebrafish can be easily gauged with a simple nonintrusive behavioral test that measures ethanol-related alterations in schooling by determining the distance between each fish and its nearest neighbor. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of gender on the strain-specific ethanol sensitivity that we had observed previously. One hundred and sixty zebrafish of the wild-type (WT) and the long fin striped (LFS) strains were equally divided by gender for use in this study. For acute ethanol treatment, the fish were separated by gender and strain and exposed to 0.0, 0.125, 0.25 0.50, or 1.0% (vol/vol) ethanol. In the chronic study, eight fish of each strain and gender were exposed to 0.5% (vol/vol) ethanol for a period of 10 weeks and the swimming behavior tested before treatment and after each week of treatment. Results showed that female WT zebrafish displayed enhanced sensitivity to the effects of chronic ethanol exposure of increased nearest neighbor distances, whereas male and female LFS fish were not significantly affected by chronic ethanol exposure. Results of the acute ethanol study showed a dose-dependent effect in both strains and a gender effect that needs to be further investigated before enhanced female sensitivity to acute ethanol can be verified. PMID:20880661

  3. [Exchange reactions in brain tissue under chronic ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Vinogradova, L N

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with characterization of systems utilizing ethanol and reactions conjugated with its exchange in the brain tissue under chronic alcohol intoxication. The following is established: the absence of the alcoholdehydrogenase pathway of ethanol oxidation in rabbits, unbalanced splitting of carbohydrates under two-months ethanol load, disturbance of oxidative processes in the tricarboxylic acids cycle, a decrease in the pool of oxidized nicotin amide coenzymes. PMID:7036487

  4. Common genes regulate food and ethanol intake in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Morgan L; Lamina, Omoteniola; Hogan, Kerry E; Kliethermes, Christopher L

    2016-06-01

    The abuse liability of alcohol (ethanol) is believed to result in part from its actions on neurobiological substrates that underlie the motivation toward food and other natural reinforcers, and a growing body of evidence indicates that these substrates are broadly conserved among animal phyla. Understanding the extent to which the substrates regulating ethanol and food intake overlap is an important step toward developing therapeutics that selectively reduce ethanol intake. In the current experiments, we measured food and ethanol intake in Recombinant Inbred (RI) lines of Drosophila melanogaster using several assays, and then calculated genetic correlations to estimate the degree to which common genes might underlie behavior in these assays. We found that food intake and ethanol intake as measured in the capillary assay are genetically correlated traits in D. melanogaster, as well as in a panel of 11 Drosophila species that we tested subsequently. RI line differences in food intake in a dyed food assay were genetically unrelated to ethanol intake in the capillary assay or to ethanol preference measured using an olfactory trap apparatus. Using publicly available gene expression data, we found that expression profiles across the RI lines of a number of genes (including the D2-like dopamine receptor, DOPA decarboxylase, and fruitless) correlated with the RI line differences in food and ethanol intake we measured, while the expression profiles of other genes, including NPF, and the NPF and 5-HT2 receptors, correlated only with ethanol intake or preference. Our results suggest that food and ethanol intake are regulated by some common genes in Drosophila, but that other genes regulate ethanol intake independently of food intake. These results have implications toward the development of therapeutics that preferentially reduce ethanol intake. PMID:27286934

  5. Agmatine blocks ethanol-induced locomotor hyperactivity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Onder; Kayir, Hakan; Ozturk, Yusuf; Uzbay, Tayfun

    2011-05-20

    Ethanol-induced locomotor activity is associated to rewarding effects of ethanol and ethanol dependence. Agmatine is a novel endogenous ligand at α2-adrenoceptors, imidazoline and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, as well as a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. There is no evidence presented for the relationship between the acute locomotor stimulating effect of ethanol and agmatine. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of agmatine on acute ethanol-induced locomotor hyperactivity in mice. Adult male Swiss-Webster mice (26-36g) were used as subjects. Locomotor activity of the mice was recorded for 30min immediately following intraperitoneal administration of ethanol (0.5, 1 and 2g/kg) or saline (n=8 for each group). Agmatine (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally to another four individual groups (n=8 for each group) of the mice 20min before the ethanol injection. In these groups, locomotor activity was also recorded immediately following ethanol (0.5g/kg) injection for 30min. Ethanol (0.5g/kg) produced some significant increases in locomotor activity of the mice. Agmatine (5-20mg/kg) significantly blocked the ethanol (0.5g/kg)-induced locomotor hyperactivity. These doses of agmatine did not affect the locomotor activity in naive mice when they were administered alone. Our results suggest that agmatine has an important role in ethanol-induced locomotor hyperactivity in mice. There may be a relationship between the addictive psychostimulant effects of the ethanol and central agmatinergic system.

  6. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reaching its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.

  7. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reachingmore » its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.« less

  8. Solid-state fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kargi, F.; Curme, J.A.; Sheehan, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation of chopped sweet sorghum particles to ethanol was studied in static flasks using an ethanol tolerant yeast strain. The influence of various process parameters, such as temperature, yeast cell concentration, and moisture content, on the rate and extent of ethanol fermentation was investigated. Optimal values of these parameters were found to be 35 degrees C, 7 x 10/sup 8/ cells/g raw sorghum, and 70% moisture level, respectively. 25 references.

  9. Lipid-enhanced ethanol production from xylose by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Dekker, R.F.H.

    1986-04-01

    A number of different yeasts are now recognized as being capable of fermenting the pentose sugar, D-xylose, into ethanol. The most prominent among these are Pachysolen tannophilus and several Candida species. D-Xylose is found principally in lignocellulosic materials where it occurs as the main constitutent of the hemicellulosic xylans (1,4-..beta..-D-heteroxylans). With the exception of Candida XF-217, the conversion yields of xylose into ethanol for most yeasts were generally low (less than 70% of theoretical when grown on at least 50 g/l xylose). The low ethanol yields are attributable to a number of factors: 1) fermentation was not performed under conditions that maximize ethanol formation; 2) ethanol was not the major fermentation end-product, (e.g., acetic acid xylitol, and arabinitol are also known products, 3) ethanol toxicity; 4) ethanol is assimilated when the substrate becomes limiting; 4.8 and 5) osmotic sensitivity to high substrate levels, i.e. substrate inhibition. Attempts to increase ethanol yields of yeasts by adding exogenous lipids (e.g., oleic and linoleic acids, or ergosterol or its ester, lipid mixtures, or protein-lipid mixtures) to nutrient medium have succeeded in improving ethanol yields and also in reducing fermentation times. These lipids, when added to the nutrient medium, were incorporated into the yeast's cellular membrane. The protective action of these lipids was to alleviate the inhibitory effect of ethanol which then allowed the cells to tolerate higher ethanol levels. This communication reports on improved ethanol yields arising from the fermentation of xylose by a Pachysolen tannophilus strain when grown semi-aerobically in the presence of exogenous-added lipids. 17 references.

  10. Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from ethanol - induced growth inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Caprioglio, H.M.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Parks, L.W.

    1985-09-01

    Ethanol caused altered mobility of the lipophilic probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in plasma membrane preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because lipids had been shown to protect yeast cells against ethanol toxicity, sterols, fatty acids, proteins, and combinations of these were tested; however, protection from growth inhibition was not seen. Ethanol-induced, prolonged lag periods and diminished growth rates in S. cerevisiae were reduced by an autoconditioning of the medium by the inoculum.

  11. Anomalous volume change of gramicidin A in ethanol solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derechin, M.; Hayashi, D. M.; Jordan, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results of studies aimed at clarifying the failure of gramicidin A (GA) to sediment in early experiments are analyzed. In the present work, no sedimentation was observed in pure pentanol or ethanol, while normal sedimentation was observed in ethanol-water mixtures. It is concluded that GA exists in two conformations that differ in volume. Since the apparent specific volume in absolute ethanol sinks to its lowest values on increasing concentration, the GA molecule probably unfolds completely in conditions favorable for dimerization.

  12. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol-petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (<3%). Therefore, unless much higher blends become widespread, the contribution of ethanol from integrated biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks.

  13. Standardized treatment of severe methanol poisoning with ethanol and hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekins, B.R.; Rollins, D.E.; Duffy, D.P.; Gregory, M.C.

    1985-03-01

    Seven patients with methanol poisoning were treated with ethanol, hemodialysis and supportive measures. The interval between ingestion and initiation of ethanol therapy varied from 3 to 67 hours and from ingestion to dialysis from 9 to 93 hours. All patients survived, but one had permanent visual impairment. A 10% ethanol solution administered intravenously is a safe and effective antidote for severe methanol poisoning. Ethanol therapy is recommended when plasma methanol concentrations are higher than 20 mg per dl, when ingested doses are greater than 30 ml and when there is evidence of acidosis or visual abnormalities in cases of suspected methanol poisoning. 13 references, 1 figure, 2 table.

  14. An ethanol vapor chamber system for small animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Jiang, Lihong; Du, Hongying; Mason, Graeme F

    2012-06-30

    Ethanol vapor chambers have been utilized widely in alcohol research since their introduction in 1971, and implementations of these systems are now available commercially. Here, we present a modification of the chamber that can be built at lower cost and greater simplicity of operation. The six-chamber system for rats has multiple air pumps. Ethanol vapor levels are adjusted with the air flow rate, ethanol drip rate, and dilution with room air, without a heater or fans. Ethanol vapor concentrations are measured with a breathalyzer, using room air to dilute the vapor chamber output into the range of the breathalyzer. Multiple pumps provide backup to ensure animal survival in the case of failure of the primary air pump. Tests in animals demonstrated comfortable and stable elevation of blood ethanol, with tight control of the ethanol vapor concentrations and the ability to select from a broad range of levels. The ethanol vapor measurement was rapid and efficient. The parts cost was a few thousand U.S. dollars. This vapor chamber system features low cost, ease of use, and convenient and inexpensive measurement of ethanol vapor concentrations. The lack of a heater and electrical components that could come into contact with ethanol in our case facilitated institutional approval. PMID:22575431

  15. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  16. Inhibition of alcoholic fermentation by substrate and ethanol. [Candida pseudotropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Maulin, H.B.; Galzy, P.

    1980-11-01

    The effect of ethanol and sugars on rates of fermentation was studied. A strain of Candida pseudotropicalis was used. The specific rate of fermentation was determined by using the Warburg manometer. The effect of ethanol was formulated as an exponential function of ethanol concentration, but the empirical constant was different when glucose or lactose was used as a substrate. The effects of both ethanol and substrate were formulated. It was demonstrated that when lactose and glucose were present in the medium with a small amount of alcohol, a synergistic effect on the rate of fermentation appeared. This phenomenon considerably limits the rate of fermentation.

  17. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol-petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (<3%). Therefore, unless much higher blends become widespread, the contribution of ethanol from integrated biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks. PMID:24478110

  18. An Ethanol Vapor Chamber System for Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Jiang, Lihong; Du, Hongying; Mason, Graeme F.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol vapor chambers have been utilized widely in alcohol research since their introduction in 1971, and implementations of these systems are now available commercially. Here, we present a modification of the chamber that can be built at lower cost and greater simplicity of operation. The six-chamber system for rats has multiple air pumps. Ethanol vapor levels are adjusted with the air flow rate, ethanol drip rate, and dilution with room air, without a heater or fans. Ethanol vapor concentrations are measured with a breathalyzer, using room air to dilute the vapor chamber output into the range of the breathalyzer. Multiple pumps provide backup to ensure animal survival in the case of failure of the primary air pump. Tests in animals demonstrated comfortable and stable elevation of blood ethanol, with tight control of the ethanol vapor concentrations and the ability to select from a broad range of levels. The ethanol vapor measurement was rapid and efficient. The parts cost was a few thousand U.S. dollars. This vapor chamber system features low cost, ease of use, and convenient and inexpensive measurement of ethanol vapor concentrations. The lack of a heater and electrical components that could come into contact with ethanol in our case facilitated institutional approval. PMID:22575431

  19. Ethanol potentiation of methyl mercury toxicity: a preliminary report. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C.J.; Bhatnagar, M.K.; Yamashiro, S.

    1981-03-01

    The ability of ethanol to affect hindlimb ataxia and body weight changes induced by methyl mercury was studied in rats. Animals treated with either water or ethanol increased in body weight during the experiment and showed no impairment of hindlimb movement. Rats treated with methyl mercury also increased in body weight but developed moderate hindlimb ataxia. Animals treated with ethanol and methyl mercury initially gained but subsequently lost weight and exhibited severe hindlimb ataxia. The results provide evidence that ethanol can potentiate methyl mercury toxicity in rats and, by implication, in humans.

  20. MOLECULAR TARGETS AND MECHANISMS FOR ETHANOL ACTION IN GLYCINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Daya I.; Trudell, James R.; Crawford, Daniel K.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are recognized as the primary mediators of neuronal inhibition in the spinal cord, brain stem and higher brain regions known to be sensitive to ethanol. Building evidence supports the notion that ethanol acting on GlyRs causes at least a subset of its behavioral effects and may be involved in modulating ethanol intake. For over two decades, GlyRs have been studied at the molecular level as targets for ethanol action. Despite the advances in understanding the effects of ethanol in vivo and in vitro, the precise molecular sites and mechanisms of action for ethanol in ligand-gated ion channels in general, and in GlyRs specifically, are just now starting to become understood. The present review focuses on advances in our knowledge produced by using molecular biology, pressure antagonism, electrophysiology and molecular modeling strategies over the last two decades to probe, identify and model the initial molecular sites and mechanisms of ethanol action in GlyRs. The molecular targets on the GlyR are covered on a global perspective, which includes the intracellular, transmembrane and extracellular domains. The latter has received increasing attention in recent years. Recent molecular models of the sites of ethanol action in GlyRs and their implications to our understanding of possible mechanism of ethanol action and novel targets for drug development in GlyRs are discussed. PMID:20399807

  1. Subterahertz characterization of ethanol hydration layers by microfluidic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurette, S.; Treizebre, A.; Affouard, F.; Bocquet, B.

    2010-09-01

    Characterizations of ethanol hydration layers are examined through subterahertz spectroscopy of water/ethanol mixtures by using a microfluidic system. A three-component model is used to explain measurements discrepancies with the Lambert-Beer law and to determine ethanol hydration shell absorption. Moreover, the hydration shell distribution is compared with molecular dynamics simulations with a good agreement. Ethanol hydration number is then computed and it can quickly characterize only the first water hydration layer or the whole hydration shell, depending on the chosen extraction model.

  2. Effects of ethanol on benzene degradation under denitrifying conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaoguo; Li, Yunfeng; Hui, Lin; Tan, Ying; Jin, Song

    2009-02-01

    As a popular fuel oxygenate, ethanol frequently co-occurs with petroleum hydrocarbons, including benzene, in groundwater that is contaminated by gasoline. Anaerobic pathways have been identified in benzene biodegradation. Limited reports focus on denitrifying degradation of benzene; however, the role of ethanol in this pathway is unknown. This study investigated the effects of ethanol on benzene degradation under denitrifying condition by using groundwater and sediment samples collected from locations with known history of benzene contamination. Results indicate that benzene can be biodegraded under denitrifying conditions. When concentrations of nitrate were in the range of 480-920 mg/L, there is a critical value in ethanol concentration:Ethanol at concentration less than the critical value enhanced the denitrifying degradation of benzene over a period of time; in contrast, ethanol at concentration higher than the critical value, which was degraded before benzene, demonstrated an inhibitory effect. And the critical value varied with nitrate concentration. It appears that the role of ethanol may be closely associated with its own and nitrate concentrations. Two mathematical equations were established based on the data and may be used to determine if ethanol presents an enhancing or inhibitory effect on denitrification of benzene. The roles of ethanol in COD/NO(3) (-)-N and the subsequent denitrification of benzene were also studied. An optimal COD/NO(3) (-)-N ratio of 1.32 was obtained for this testing system, in which the highest rate of benzene degradation can be achieved under denitrifying conditions.

  3. Ethanol increases plasma vasopressin shortly after intraperitoneal injection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Colbern, D.L.; ten Haaf, J.; Tabakoff, B.; van Wimersma Greidanus, T.B.

    1985-09-16

    In rats, ethanol has generally been thought to inhibit vasopressin (VP) release into the peripheral circulation; however, the primary evidence for this conclusion has been indirect. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure VP in the plasma of rats decapitated 5 or 60 min after intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (2.0 g/kg). Confirming the popular notion that ethanol inhibits VP release, VP levels were decreased 60 min after treatment. But radioimmunoassay techniques also revealed that VP release is markedly stimulated shortly after an injection of ethanol. 14 references, 1 figure.

  4. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

  5. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Espinosa-Cantú, Adriana; De Maeyer, Dries; Arslan, Ahmed; Van Pee, Michiel; van der Zande, Elisa; Meert, Wim; Yang, Yudi; Zhu, Bo; Marchal, Kathleen; DeLuna, Alexander; Van Noort, Vera; Jelier, Rob; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts. PMID:26545090

  6. Acute effects of ethanol on left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed Central

    Kupari, M; Koskinen, P; Hynynen, M; Salmenperä, M; Ventilä, M

    1990-01-01

    Transmitral flow velocities were measured by Doppler echocardiography in nine healthy men who ingested 1 g/kg of ethanol within one hour. The measurements were made before the first drink and every hour thereafter for three hours. The peak mean (SE) blood ethanol concentration was 21.4 (1.0) mmol/l. Each man was also studied after drinking fruit juice. Ethanol increased the heart rate but did not change the peak transmitral velocities, the normalised peak filling rate, the deceleration of early flow, or the duration of relaxation as measured from the second heart sound to the peak early diastolic velocity. The ratio of the peak atrial to the peak early diastolic velocity rose from 0.41 (0.03) to 0.44 (0.03) after ethanol but remained unchanged after juice. The difference between juice and ethanol was independent of changes in heart rate. The fluid balance was more negative in the ethanol experiment (-727 (114) ml v -107 (70) ml), suggesting a reduction in preload, and the ethanol-induced net loss of fluid correlated with the concomitant change in the velocity ratio. A moderate dose of ethanol causes a small acute increase of the ratio of the peak atrial to the peak early diastolic velocity of mitral flow in healthy subjects. Although this change indicates altered diastolic function of the left ventricle, most of it may result from the diuretic effect of ethanol. Any major impairment of ventricular relaxation seems unlikely. PMID:2393610

  7. Metabolic engineering to improve ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuo; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2010-09-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii can produce ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass at high temperatures, but its biotechnological exploitation will require metabolic engineering to increase its ethanol yield. With a cofactor-dependent ethanol production pathway in T. mathranii, it may become crucial to regenerate cofactor to increase the ethanol yield. Feeding the cells with a more reduced carbon source, such as mannitol, was shown to increase ethanol yield beyond that obtained with glucose and xylose. The ldh gene coding for lactate dehydrogenase was previously deleted from T. mathranii to eliminate an NADH oxidation pathway. To further facilitate NADH regeneration used for ethanol formation, a heterologous gene gldA encoding an NAD(+)-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase was expressed in T. mathranii. One of the resulting recombinant strains, T. mathranii BG1G1 (Deltaldh, P(xyl)GldA), showed increased ethanol yield in the presence of glycerol using xylose as a substrate. With an inactivated lactate pathway and expressed glycerol dehydrogenase activity, the metabolism of the cells was shifted toward the production of ethanol over acetate, hence restoring the redox balance. It was also shown that strain BG1G1 acquired the capability to utilize glycerol as an extra carbon source in the presence of xylose, and utilization of the more reduced substrate glycerol resulted in a higher ethanol yield.

  8. Lipid-ethanol interaction studied by NMR on bicelles.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Bernd W; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2005-04-21

    The interaction of ethanol with phospholipids was studied in bicelles at a physiologically relevant ethanol concentration of 20 mM and a lipid content of 14 wt % by high-resolution NMR. Transient association of ethanol with magnetically aligned bicelles imparts a small degree of anisotropy to the solute. This anisotropy allows detection of residual (1)H-(1)H and (1)H-(13)C dipolar couplings, which are superimposed on scalar couplings. Residual (2)H NMR quadrupole splittings of isotope-labeled ethanol were measured as well. The analysis of residual tensorial interactions yielded information on the orientation and motions of ethanol in the membrane-bound state. The fraction of phosphatidylcholine-bound ethanol was determined independently by gas chromatography and NMR. About 4% of ethanol is bound to phosphatidylcholine at a bicelle concentration of 14 wt % at 40 degrees C. Free and bound ethanol are in rapid exchange. The lifetime of ethanol association with phosphatidylcholine membranes is of the order of a few nanoseconds.

  9. Importance of stability study of continuous systems for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Paz Astudillo, Isabel Cristina; Cardona Alzate, Carlos Ariel

    2011-01-10

    Fuel ethanol industry presents different problems during bioreactors operation. One of them is the unexpected variation in the output ethanol concentration from the bioreactor or a drastic fall in the productivity. In this paper, a compilation of concepts and relevant results of several experimental and theoretical studies about dynamic behavior of fermentation systems for bioethanol production with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis is done with the purpose of understanding the stability phenomena that could affect the productivity of industries producing fuel ethanol. It is shown that the design of high scale biochemical processes for fuel ethanol production must be done based on stability studies. PMID:21034786

  10. Male sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption from an evolutionary perspective: A comment on "Sexual Deprivation Increases Ethanol Intake in Drosophila".

    PubMed

    Guevara-Fiore, Palestina; Endler, John A

    2014-01-01

    Shohat-Ophir et al. (1) demonstrate a connection between sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption in male Drosophila flies, and how the neuropeptide F system regulates ethanol preference. Their results are rightly discussed only in a physiological context, but this has facilitated erroneous anthropomorphic interpretations by the media. Here we discuss the link between male sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption from an evolutionary perspective, providing a broader context to interpret their results.

  11. Ethanol enhances collective dynamics of lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, Martin D.; Schmalzl, Karin; Conti Nibali, Valeria; Tarek, Mounir; Rheinstaedter, Maikel C.

    2011-05-15

    From inelastic neutron-scattering experiments and all atom molecular dynamics simulations we present evidence for a low-energy dynamical mode in the fluid phase of a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer immersed in a 5% water/ethanol solution. In addition to the well-known phonon that shows a liquidlike dispersion with energies up to 4.5 meV, we observe an additional mode at smaller energies of 0.8 meV, which shows little or no dispersion. Both modes show transverse properties and might be related to molecular motion perpendicular to the bilayer.

  12. Hemicelluloses for fuel ethanol: A review.

    PubMed

    Gírio, F M; Fonseca, C; Carvalheiro, F; Duarte, L C; Marques, S; Bogel-Łukasik, R

    2010-07-01

    Hemicelluloses currently represent the largest polysaccharide fraction wasted in most cellulosic ethanol pilot and demonstration plants around the world. The reasons are based on the hemicelluloses heterogeneous polymeric nature and their low fermentability by the most common industrial microbial strains. This paper will review, in a "from field to fuel" approach the various hemicelluloses structures present in lignocellulose, the range of pre-treatment and hydrolysis options including the enzymatic ones, and the role of different microbial strains on process integration aiming to reach a meaningful consolidated bioprocessing. The recent trends, technical barriers and perspectives of future development are highlighted.

  13. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A batch kinetic study involving Clostridium lungdahlii in a mineral medium was carried out in order to provide baseline data for the effects of nutrients on product ratio and kinetics. The use of this minimal medium containing vitamins, minerals, select amino acids and salts showed both a lower maximum specific growth rate and a lower maximum specific uptake rate than found when using a complex medium supplemented with 0.01% yeast extract. At the same time, the product ratio was improved slightly in favor of ethanol over acetate. Future experiments will measure the effects of ammonia and phosphate limitation on product ratio and process kinetics.

  14. Refeeding after acute food restriction: differential reduction in preference for ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors in selectively bred rats.

    PubMed

    Dess, Nancy K; Chapman, Clinton D; Cousins, Laura A; Monroe, Derek C; Nguyen, Phuong

    2013-01-17

    Rats' voluntary ethanol intake varies with dispositional factors and energy status. The joint influences of these were of interest here. We previously reported that rats selectively bred for high voluntary saccharin intake (HiS) consume more ethanol and express more robust conditioning of preference for flavors paired with voluntarily consumed ethanol than do low-saccharin consuming counterparts (LoS). Three new experiments examined the effect of refeeding after an episode of food restriction on ethanol intake and on preference for ethanol-paired flavors in HiS and LoS rats. A 48-h episode of food restriction with wheel running reduced intake of and preference for 4% ethanol (Exp. 1a) and preference for an ethanol-paired flavor (Exp. 1b) during refeeding. Food restriction alone was sufficient to reduce the flavor preference (Exp. 2). Adding fat to the refeeding diet or extending the food restriction period exacerbated the effect (Exp. 3), yielding a frank aversion to ethanol-paired flavors in LoS rats. These studies indicate that rebound from negative energy balance shifts responses to ethanol-associated cues from preference toward aversion. Analyses of bodyweight changes and caloric intake during refeeding support this conclusion and further suggest that lower metabolic efficiency may be a marker for enhanced preference mutability.

  15. SILIBININ INHIBITS ETHANOL METABOLISM AND ETHANOL-DEPENDENT CELL PROLIFERATION IN AN IN VITRO MODEL OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Sugg, James A.; Schrum, Laura W.; McKillop, Iain H.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a known risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The use of plant-derived antioxidants is gaining increasing clinical prominence as a potential therapy to ameliorate the effects of ethanol on hepatic disease development and progression. This study demonstrates silibinin, a biologically active flavanoid derived from milk thistle, inhibits cytochrome p4502E1 induction, ethanol metabolism and reactive oxygen species generation in HCC cells in vitro. These silibinin-mediated effects also inhibit ethanol-dependent increases in HCC cell proliferation in culture. PMID:19900758

  16. Observation of Trans-Ethanol and Gauche-Ethanol Complexes with Benzene Using Matrix Isolation Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amicangelo, Jay; Silbaugh, Matthew J.

    2016-06-01

    Ethanol can exist in two conformers, one in which the OH group is trans to the methyl group (trans-ethanol) and the other in which the OH group is gauche to the methyl group (gauche-ethanol). Matrix isolation infrared spectra of ethanol deposited in 20 K argon matrices display distinct infrared peaks that can be assigned to the trans-ethanol and gauche-ethanol conformers, particularly with the O-H stretching vibrations. Given this, matrix isolation experiments were performed in which ethanol (C_2H_5OH) and benzene (C_6H_6) were co-deposited in argon matrices at 20 K in order to determine if conformer specific ethanol complexes with benzene could be observed in the infrared spectra. New infrared peaks that can be attributed to the trans-ethanol and gauche-ethanol complexes with benzene have been observed near the O-H stretching vibrations of ethanol. The initial identification of the new infrared peaks as being due to the ethanol-benzene complexes was established by performing a concentration study (1:200 to 1:1600 S/M ratios), by comparing the co-deposition spectra with the spectra of the individual monomers, by matrix annealing experiments (35 K), and by performing experiments using isotopically labeled ethanol (C_2D_5OD) and benzene (C_6D_6). Quantum chemical calculations were also performed for the C_2H_5OH-C_6H_6 complexes using density functional theory (B3LYP) and ab initio (MP2) methods. Stable minima were found for the both the trans-ethanol and gauche-ethanol complexes with benzene at both levels of theory and were predicted to have similar interaction energies. Both complexes can be characterized as H-π complexes, in which the ethanol is above the benzene ring with the hydroxyl hydrogen interacting with the π cloud of the ring. The theoretical O-H stretching frequencies for the complexes were predicted to be shifted from the monomer frequencies and from each other and these results were used to make the conformer specific infrared peak assignments

  17. The effect of sulfide and ammonia on cassava fermentation for ethanol production in an ethanol-methane coupled system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Jiang, Li; Mao, Zhonggui; Zhang, Chengming; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hongjian

    2011-01-01

    An ethanol-methane coupled system was proposed to resolve wastewater pollution in cassava ethanol production. The wastewater originated from ethanol distillation is treated with two-stage anaerobic digestion and then recycled for medium preparation for the next batch ethanol fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and saving fresh water. The constituents of the two-stage anaerobic digestion effluent were complex which influenced the ethanol fermentation performance. This paper aimed to study the effect of two constituents in the effluent, i.e. sulfide and ammonia, on cassava-based ethanol fermentation performance. It was found that sulfide reduced the consumption rate of total sugar by significantly inhibiting the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the total consumption amount of total sugar at the end of fermentation was not influenced. S. cerevisiae produced more glycerol and less ethanol at the end of fermentation containing higher concentration of sodium sulfide. Ethanol fermentation performance could be hardly influenced by the sulfide in the two-stage effluent because of the very low concentration. More glycerol was produced while final ethanol concentration was reduced when the level of ammonia in the two-stage effluent was higher.

  18. Effects of Ethanol on the Cerebellum: Advances and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol abuse causes cerebellar dysfunction and cerebellar ataxia is a common feature in alcoholics. Alcohol exposure during development also impacts the cerebellum. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) show many symptoms associated specifically with cerebellar deficits. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are unclear. This special issue discusses the most recent advances in the study of mechanisms underlying alcoholinduced cerebellar deficits. The alteration in GABAA receptor-dependent neurotransmission is a potential mechanism for ethanol-induced cerebellar dysfunction. Recent advances indicate ethanol-induced increases in GABA release are not only in Purkinje cells (PCs), but also in molecular layer interneurons and granule cells. Ethanol is shown to disrupt the molecular events at the mossy fiber - granule cell - Golgi cell (MGG) synaptic site and granule cell parallel fibers - PCs (GPP) synaptic site, which may be responsible for ethanol-induced cerebellar ataxia. Aging and ethanol may affect the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of PC dendrites and cause dendritic regression. Ethanol withdrawal causes mitochondrial damage and aberrant gene modifications in the cerebellum. The interaction between these events may result in neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Ethanol activates doublestranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) and PKR activation is involved ethanolinduced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum. Ethanol alters the development of cerebellar circuitry following the loss of PCs, which could result in modifications of the structure and function of other brain regions that receive cerebellar inputs. Lastly, choline, an essential nutrient is evaluated for its potential protection against ethanol-induced cerebellar damages. Choline is shown to ameliorate ethanol-induced cerebellar dysfunction when given before ethanol exposure.

  19. Ethanol-induced hyperlacticacidemia: inhibition of lactate utilization

    PubMed Central

    Kreisberg, Robert A.; Owen, W. Crawford; Siegal, Alan M.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of oral ethanol administration on blood glucose and lactate concentrations, lactate inflow and outflow rates, and lactate incorporation into glucose were investigated in eight human volunteers. Lactate incorporation into glucose, lactate turnover, and lactate inflow and outflow rates were determined during an 8 hr constant infusion of 100 μCi of lactate-U-14C. Ethanol was administered by mouth at hourly intervals, 60 ml of bonded whiskey initially and 30 ml/hr thereafter. Blood lactate concentrations increased precipitously after the administration of ethanol, reached a plateau within 120-180 min, and remained constant thereafter despite the continued administration of ethanol. Before ethanol, the lactate turnover rate was 0.76 mmoles/kg per hr ±0.05 (SEM) and lactate inflow and outflow rates were closely balanced. During the administration of ethanol, the lactate inflow rate was unchanged, but the lactate outflow rate was significantly inhibited, decreasing to 50% of the inflow rate. Despite the continued administration of ethanol, equilibrium between lactate inflow and outflow was restored within 120-180 min and coincided temporally with establishment of a constant blood lactate concentration. Lactate oxidation was unaltered by ethanol, but lactate incorporation into glucose was significantly inhibited. Lactate incorporation into glucose was reduced within 30 min of the administration of ethanol, and nadir values were reached within 120-180 min. Lactate incorporation into glucose remained constant thereafter at rates that were only 30% of those observed in the absence of ethanol. The results of these studies indicate that ethanol-induced hyperlacticacidemia is due to decreased lactate disposal rather than increased lactate production. PMID:5101293

  20. GABAA receptor regulation of voluntary ethanol drinking requires PKCepsilon.

    PubMed

    Besheer, Joyce; Lepoutre, Veronique; Mole, Beth; Hodge, Clyde W

    2006-11-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) regulates a variety of neural functions, including ion channel activity, neurotransmitter release, receptor desensitization and differentiation. We have shown previously that mice lacking the epsilon-isoform of PKC (PKCepsilon) self-administer 75% less ethanol and exhibit supersensitivity to acute ethanol and allosteric positive modulators of GABA(A) receptors when compared with wild-type controls. The purpose of the present study was to examine involvement of PKCepsilon in GABA(A) receptor regulation of voluntary ethanol drinking. To address this question, PKCepsilon null-mutant and wild-type control mice were allowed to drink ethanol (10% v/v) vs. water on a two-bottle continuous access protocol. The effects of diazepam (nonselective GABA(A) BZ positive modulator), zolpidem (GABA(A) alpha1 agonist), L-655,708 (BZ-sensitive GABA(A) alpha5 inverse agonist), and flumazenil (BZ antagonist) were then tested on ethanol drinking. Ethanol intake (grams/kg/day) by wild-type mice decreased significantly after diazepam or zolpidem but increased after L-655,708 administration. Flumazenil antagonized diazepam-induced reductions in ethanol drinking in wild-type mice. However, ethanol intake by PKCepsilon null mice was not altered by any of the GABAergic compounds even though effects were seen on water drinking in these mice. Increased acute sensitivity to ethanol and diazepam, which was previously reported, was confirmed in PKCepsilon null mice. Thus, results of the present study show that PKCepsilon null mice do not respond to doses of GABA(A) BZ receptor ligands that regulate ethanol drinking by wild-type control mice. This suggests that PKCepsilon may be required for GABA(A) receptor regulation of chronic ethanol drinking.

  1. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    PubMed

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed.

  2. Ethanol production from modern biorefinery: Robotic platform for production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to convert pretreated lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol anaerobically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biorefineries to produce ethanol are becoming abundant but the future of ethanol requires that cellulosic ethanol paradigms are researched. A discussion of the existing ethanol production and biorefinery capacity will be made. The USDA, ARS, NCAUR, BBC group has developed a robotic platform to scr...

  3. Contamination issues in a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low ethanol yields and poor yeast viability were investigated at a continuous ethanol production corn wet milling facility. Using starch slurries and recycle streams from a commercial ethanol facility, laboratory hydrolysates were prepared by reproducing starch liquefaction and saccharification ste...

  4. Thermodynamic Properties of Matrine in Ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.; Zhao, W. W.; Pu, X. H.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, the enthalpies of dissolution of matrine in ethanol (EtOH) were measured using a RD496-2000 Calvet microcalorimeter at 309.65 K under atmospheric pressure. The differential enthalpy (Δdif H m) and molar enthalpy (Δsol H m) of dissolution of matrine in ethanol were determined. And the relationship between heat and the amount of solute was also established. Based on the thermodynamic and kinetic knowledge, the corresponding kinetic equation that described the dissolution process was determined to be {dα/dt=2.36× 10^{-4}(1-α )^{1.09}} . Moreover, the half-life, t 1/2 = 48.89 min, Δsol H m = -12.40 kJ · mol-1, Δsol S m = -354.7 J · mol-1 · K-1, and Δ sol G m = 97.43 kJ · mol-1 of the dissolution process were also obtained. The results show that this work not only provides a simple method for the determination of the half-life for a drug but also offers a theoretical reference for the clinical application of matrine.

  5. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research is continuing in attempting to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio (acetate to ethanol) from the C. ljungdahlii fermentation. Both batch and continuous reactors are being used for this purpose. The purpose of this report is four-fold. First, the data presented in PETC Report No. 2-4-91 (June--September, 1991) are analyzed and interpreted using normalized specific growth and production rates. This technique eliminates experimental variation due to differences in inoculum history. Secondly, the effects of the sulfur gases H{sub 2}S and COS on the performance of C. ljungdahlii are presented and discussed. Although these are preliminary results, they illustrate the tolerance of the bacterium to low levels of sulfur gases. Thirdly, the results of continuous stirred tank reactor studies are presented, where cell and product concentrations are shown as a function of agitation rate and gas flow rate. Finally, additional data are presented showing the performance of C. ljungdahlii in a CSTR with cell recycle.

  6. Copper deficiency potentiates ethanol induced liver damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zidenberg-Cherr, S.; Han, B.; Graham, T.W.; Keen, C.L. )

    1992-02-26

    Copper sufficient (+Cu) and deficient ({minus}Cu) rats were fed liquid diets with EtOH or dextrose at 36% of kcals for 2 mo. Consumption of either the {minus}Cu diet or EtOH resulted in lower liver CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were lowest in EtOH/{minus}Cu rats; being 20% and 50% of control values, respectively. Ethanol resulted in higher MnSOD activity in +Cu and {minus}Cu rats. Low Cu intake as well as EtOH resulted in lower mitochondrial (Mit) TBARS relative to controls. TBARS were lowest in Mit from EtOH/{minus}Cu rats. Microsomal (Micro) TBARS were lower in {minus}Cu and EtOH-fed rats than in controls. The peroxidizability index (PI) was calculated as an index of substrate availability for lipid peroxidation. Ethanol feeding resulted in lower PI's in Mit and Micro than measured in non-EtOH rats. There was a positive correlation between Micro PI's and TBARS. These results show that despite reductions in components of antioxidant defense, compensatory mechanism arise resulting in reduction in peroxidation targets and/or an increase in alternate free radical quenching factors. Histological examination demonstrated increased portal and intralobular connective tissue and cell necrosis in EtOH/{minus}Cu rats, suggesting that Cu may be a critical modulator of EtOH induced tissue damage.

  7. Endothelium attenuates ethanol induced vasoconstriction of arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, D.; Bove, A.A.; Walter, J. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously demonstrated that clinically relevant doses of ethanol (ETH) caused significant vasoconstriction of rabbit thoracic aorta. This study examined the role of endothelium in ethanol vasoconstriction. Thoracic aorta was harvested from 3 New Zealand White rabbits after anesthetization with sodium pentobarbital. Twelve aortic 3 mm rings were mounted in organ baths attached to force transducers and recording apparatus. Six of the twelve rings were denuded. Denudation was confirmed by challenge with acetylcholine (10-4 M). Resting tension was set at 10 grams and the rings equilibrated in 37 C Krebs-Heinsleit solution for 2 hours. Then, the response to norepinephrine (NE) was established (10-8 to 10-5 M). After reattaining resting tension, the response to ETH (500-2,500 ug/ml) was recorded. ETH produced significant vasoconstriction in both non-denuded (48{plus minus}7% of NE max) and denuded (58{plus minus}2% of NE max) arteries. Vasoconstriction was significantly higher in the denuded condition. The authors conclude that the predominant ETH action on arteries is based in vascular smooth muscle although endothelium acts to attenuate the ETH induced vasoconstrictor response.

  8. Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

  9. Preventing the recovery of extinguished ethanol tolerance.

    PubMed

    González, Valeria V; Navarro, Víctor; Miguez, Gonzalo; Betancourt, Ronald; Laborda, Mario A

    2016-03-01

    There is substantial evidence that drug-paired cues become associated with drug effects. From a Pavlovian perspective, these cues act as conditioned stimuli and elicit conditioned compensatory responses that contribute to drug tolerance. Here we report two experiments with rats in which we studied the extinction of the associative tolerance to the ataxic effect of ethanol. Experiment 1 evaluated whether changes in the temporal and physical contexts after extinction training provoke recovery of the extinguished tolerance. The results showed successful extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal of the extinguished tolerance, but no summation of renewal and spontaneous recovery. Experiment 2 evaluated whether using massive extinction trials and delivering extinction in multiple contexts attenuates the renewal effect. The results showed that both manipulations reduced renewal of the extinguished tolerance to the ataxic effect of ethanol; however, these manipulations used in combination did not appear to be more effective in reducing recovery than each by itself. The present results may help guide further research that evaluates behavioral ploys to prevent the recovery of extinguished responses. PMID:26772781

  10. Production of Methane During Anaerobic Degradation of Ethanol in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies show that the natural biodegradation of benzene may be inhibited by the presence of ethanol. Preferential biodegradation of ethanol can consume electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate, or oxygen that are needed for BTEX biodegradation. An additi...

  11. Multi-enzyme catalyzed rapid ethanol lowering in vitro.

    PubMed

    Whitmire, D R; Chambers, R P; Dillon, A R

    1991-10-01

    Ethanol was oxidized to acetate by an enzyme system using yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase (YALDH), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) recycling NAD in two model duodenal fluids and in canine duodenal aspirate in vitro. Sufficient enzyme activities were maintained to convert as much as 34% of the original ethanol to acetate with negligible acetaldehyde accumulation.

  12. Tolerance of yeast to ethanol decreased after space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, B.; Sun, Y.; Yi, Z.; He, J.; Jiang, X.; Fan, Y.; Zhuang, F.

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industry microorganism and the tolerance to ethanol is one of the main characteristics to decide its yield potential USA researchers reported that E coli cells growing in simulated microgravity environment were much more resistant to the growth-inhibitory and production-inhibitory effects of ethanol than cells growing in shaken flasks In this research we will investigate the tolerance of yeast to ethanol in real microgravity environment Method S cerevisiae cells were cultured for 18 d in YPD medium containing various concentrations of ethanol 0 6 8 and 10 V V during the China s 22 th recoverable satellite mission Optical density living cells counts metabolism and morphology in each culture were measured S cerevisiae cells were exposed to 20 V V ethanol to investigate the tolerance to ethanol Result The biomass of cells culture at 0 times g is 40 lower than that of the ground control in medium of YPD With the increase of concentration of ethanol in medium the rate of living cells decreased steeply especially in 0 times g culture The living cell of 0 times g is 65 5 lower than the control cells The viability of 0 times g cells and ground control cells exposed to 20 ethanol for 6h is 1 7 and 10 5 respectively No remarkable differences were found in the cell morphology and glucose consumption Conclusion These results suggest that under

  13. Bacteriophage application restores ethanol fermentation characteristics disrupted by Lactobacillus fermentum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Contamination of corn mash by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) reduces ethanol yields and the overall efficiency of the ethanol fermentation process, and the industry relies heavily on antibiotics for contamination control. There is a need to develop alternative methods for the control of cont...

  14. Fate of virginiamycin through the fuel ethanol production process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are frequently used to prevent and treat bacterial contamination of commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, but there is concern that antibiotic residues may persist in the distillers grains coproducts. A study to evaluate the fate of virginiamycin during the ethanol production process wa...

  15. Nitrogen fertilization affects corn cellulosic biomass and ethanol yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research results on the effects of N management on corn (Zea mays L.) grain production in high-yielding cropping systems are widely available, but information on its effects on cellulosic ethanol potential from corn stover and cobs is limited. Stover and cob biomass and respective ethanol yields all...

  16. Site Characterization of Ethanol-Blended Fuel Releases

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increasing use of biofuels (ethanol in particular) in the fuel supply nationwide, and an increase in the number of stations that sell gasoline that contains more than 10% ethanol. The U.S. EPA needs to understand the fate of these materials if they are released ...

  17. Community Support of Ethanol Plants: Does Local Ownership Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Carmen; Prokos, Anastasia; Liu, Hexuan

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from six communities in Kansas and Iowa, we explore the factors that are related to community members' current levels of overall support for local ethanol plants. What are residents' opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of local ownership of ethanol plants? How does that awareness lead to overall support of plants? Our…

  18. Protective Effects of Arginine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Ethanol Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yanfei; Du, Zhaoli; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses in the process of industrial fermentation. As the currently main organism for bio-ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffers from ethanol stress. Some amino acids have been reported to be related to yeast tolerance to stresses. Here the relationship between arginine and yeast response to ethanol stress was investigated. Marked inhibitions of ethanol on cell growth, expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and intracellular accumulation of arginine were observed. Furthermore, extracellular addition of arginine can abate the ethanol damage largely. To further confirm the protective effects of arginine on yeast cells, yeast strains with different levels of arginine content were constructed by overexpression of ARG4 involved in arginine biosynthesis or CAR1 encoding arginase. Intracellular arginine was increased by 18.9% or 13.1% respectively by overexpression of ARG4 or disruption of CAR1, which enhanced yeast tolerance to ethanol stress. Moreover, a 41.1% decrease of intracellular arginine was observed in CAR1 overexpressing strain, which made yeast cells keenly sensitive to ethanol. Further investigations indicated that arginine protected yeast cells from ethanol damage by maintaining the integrity of cell wall and cytoplasma membrane, stabilizing the morphology and function of organellae due to low ROS generation. PMID:27507154

  19. Cigarette smoke enhances ethanol-induced pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, W; Werner, J; Ryschich, E; Mayer, H; Schmidt, J; Gebhard, M M; Herfarth, C; Klar, E

    2000-10-01

    Alcohol induces pancreatic ischemia, but the mechanisms promoting pancreatic inflammation are unclear. We investigated whether cigarette smoke inhalation is a cofactor in the development of ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Cigarette smoke was administered to anesthetized rats alone or in combination with intravenous ethanol infusion. Control animals received either saline or ethanol alone. Pancreatic capillary blood flow and leukocyte-endothelium interaction in postcapillary venules were evaluated by intravital microscopy. Leukocyte sequestration was assessed by measurement of myeloperoxidase activity in pancreatic tissue, and pancreatic injury evaluated by histology. Ethanol decreased pancreatic blood flow progressively over 90 minutes (p < 0.001 vs. baseline), but neither leukocyte-endothelium interaction nor leukocyte sequestration was altered. Cigarette smoke alone reduced pancreatic blood flow temporarily (p < 0.01 vs. baseline) and increased leukocyte-endothelium interaction (roller p < 0.001, sticker p < 0.01 vs. baseline). Cigarette smoke potentiated the impairment of pancreatic capillary perfusion caused by ethanol, and both the number of rolling leukocytes and myeloperoxidase activity levels were increased compared to ethanol or nicotine administration alone (p < or = 0.05 and p < or = 0.01, respectively). This study demonstrates that ethanol induces pancreatic ischemia and that cigarette smoke leads to both temporary pancreatic ischemia and minimal leukocyte sequestration. Cigarette smoke potentiates the amount of pancreatic injury generated by ethanol alone. Smoking therefore seems to be a contributing factor in the development of alcohol-induced pancreatitis in the rat model.

  20. Chem I Supplement: Effects of Ethanol on Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorey, RoseAnn L.

    1979-01-01

    Malnutrition due to alcoholism is discussed. It includes energy from the metabolism of ethanol as it contributes to obesity, the replacement of nutritious foods by sources of ethanol, inhibition of vitamins being activated, the increase in excretion of valuable minerals, and toxicity to cells of organ systems. (Author/SA)

  1. Effects of exercise and ethanol on liver mitochondrial function

    SciTech Connect

    Ardies, C.M.; Morris, G.S.; Erickson, C.K.; Farrar, R.P.

    1987-03-16

    Rates of ADP stimulated respiration for various substrates were determined in mitochondria isolated from the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats following 8 weeks of treatment with daily swimming, ethanol consumption, or both. All rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) type liquid diet with the ethanol treated rats receiving 35% of the calories as ethanol. Chronic exposure to ethanol depressed both state 3 respiration with glutamate as a substrate and cytochrome oxidase activity. Respiratory control ratios and P:O ratios, however, were unaffected by the ethanol exposure. Exercise alone had no effect on hepatic mitochondrial function. There were also no significant alterations in oxidative function of hepatic mitochondria from rats which were endurance-trained by swimming while receiving the ethanol diet. This lack of alteration in mitochondrial function was in spite of the fact that these rats consumed an identical amount of ethanol as those which incurred mitochondrial dysfunction. These results indicate that regular exercise has the potential to attenuate the ethanol induced decline in hepatic mitochondria. 32 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. Antimicrobial peptides against contaminating bacteria in fuel ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly found as contaminants of fuel ethanol production, resulting in reduced ethanol yields: (1). Recent reports suggest that LAB can develop resistance to antibiotics such as virginiamycin and penicillin that are commonly used to control bacterial contamination; (2...

  3. Antimicrobial peptides against contaminating bacteria in fuel ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly found as contaminants of fuel ethanol production, resulting in reduced ethanol yields (1). Recent reports suggest that LAB can develop resistance to antibiotics such as virginiamycin and penicillin that are commonly used to control bacterial contamination (2)...

  4. Hypoxic Preconditioning Alleviates Ethanol Neurotoxicity: the Involvement of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiping; Bower, Kimberly A.; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and neurodegeneration is the most devastating consequence of developmental exposure to ethanol. A sublethal preconditioning has been proposed as a neuroprotective strategy against several central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative diseases. We have recently demonstrated that autophagy is a protective response to alleviate ethanol toxicity. A modest hypoxic preconditioning (1% oxygen) did not cause neurotoxicity but induced autophagy (Tzeng et al., 2010). We therefore hypothesize that the modest hypoxic preconditioning may offer a protection against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We showed here that the modest hypoxic preconditioning (1% oxygen) for 8 hours significantly alleviated ethanol-induced death of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Under the normoxia condition, cell viability in ethanol-exposed cultures (316 mg/dl for 48 hrs) was 49 ± 6% of untreated controls; however, with hypoxic preconditioning, cell viability in the ethanol-exposed group increased to 78 ± 7% of the controls (p < 0.05; n = 3). Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of autophagosome and lysosome fusion, blocked hypoxic preconditioning-mediated protection. Similarly, inhibition of autophagic initiation by wortmannin also eliminated hypoxic preconditioning-mediated protection. In contrast, activation of autophagy by rapamycin further enhanced neuroprotection caused by hypoxic preconditioning. Taken together, the results confirm that autophagy is a protective response against ethanol neurotoxicity and the modest hypoxic preconditioning can offer neuroprotection by activating autophagic pathways. PMID:23568540

  5. Ethanol tolerance in Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli phytase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expanded use of corn and other grain for biofuels have created an increased supply of dried grains with soluble (DDGS) and other byproducts of ethanol fermentation. Elevated levels of phytic acid in this DDGS indicate that ethanol is denaturing the native phytase produced by the yeast, Saccharo...

  6. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL ETHANOL INHALATION ON SENSORY FUNCTION IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol-blended gasoline entered the market in response to demand for domestic renewable energy sources, which may result in exposure to ethanol vapors in combination with other volatile gasoline constituents. To begin an assessment ofthe risks of exposure to this mixture, we eva...

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions related to ethanol produced from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.

    1994-04-01

    This report confers the details of a panel meeting discussion on greenhouse gases. The topic of this discussion was ethanol. Members discussed all aspects of growing corn and producing ethanol. Then the question was raised as to whether or not this is a suitable substitute to fossil fuel usage in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Roles for the endocannabinoid system in ethanol-motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Henderson-Redmond, Angela N; Guindon, Josée; Morgan, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use disorder represents a significant human health problem that leads to substantial loss of human life and financial cost to society. Currently available treatment options do not adequately address this human health problem, and thus, additional therapies are desperately needed. The endocannabinoid system has been shown, using animal models, to modulate ethanol-motivated behavior, and it has also been demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure can have potentially long-lasting effects on the endocannabinoid system. For example, chronic exposure to ethanol, in either cell culture or preclinical rodent models, causes an increase in endocannabinoid levels that results in down-regulation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and uncoupling of this receptor from downstream G protein signaling pathways. Using positron emission tomography (PET), similar down-regulation of CB1 has been noted in multiple regions of the brain in human alcoholic patients. In rodents, treatment with the CB1 inverse agonist SR141716A (Rimonabant), or genetic deletion of CB1 leads to a reduction in voluntary ethanol drinking, ethanol-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, operant self-administration of ethanol, sensitization to the locomotor effects of ethanol, and reinstatement/relapse of ethanol-motivated behavior. Although the clinical utility of Rimonabant or other antagonists/inverse agonists for CB1 is limited due to negative neuropsychiatric side effects, negative allosteric modulators of CB1 and inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolism represent therapeutic targets worthy of additional examination.

  9. ETHANOL: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND RESEARCH (ROCKY GAP, MD*)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on mathematical modeling, ethanol present in gasoline when gasoline is spilled to ground water is expected to cause the plume of benzene and other BTEX compounds to be longer than they would be otherwise. Microbial metabolism of ethanol consumes sulfate, nitrate, and oxyge...

  10. ETHANOL: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND RESEARCH (ROCKY GAP, MD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on mathematical modeling, ethanol present in gasoline when gasoline is spilled to ground water is expected to cause the plume of benzene and other BTEX compounds to be longer than they would be other wise. Microbial metabolism of ethanol consumes sulfate, nitrate, and oxyg...

  11. Troubleshooting fermentation in corn wet milling ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To convert starch to ethanol, continuous fermentation processes are employed by corn wet milling plants all over world. Contaminations by bacterial microorganisms like Lactobacillus and wild yeasts like Brettanomyces are common and result in lower ethanol yields (Abbott and Ingledew 2005, Skinner an...

  12. Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

  13. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  14. Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment of Switchgrass for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to supplement corn-based ethanol production. However, the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic material is a major obstacle to the efficient conversion. To improve the enzymatic digestibility of switchgrass for the fermentable sugar...

  15. Effects of Inhaled Ethanol on Developmental Outcomes in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of biofuels is increasing in the US automotive fleet. The primary alternative to petroleum fuels is ethanol, and the health risk associated with more than 10% ethanol in gasoline is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, we are assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to i...

  16. Protective Effects of Arginine on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Against Ethanol Stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yanfei; Du, Zhaoli; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses in the process of industrial fermentation. As the currently main organism for bio-ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae suffers from ethanol stress. Some amino acids have been reported to be related to yeast tolerance to stresses. Here the relationship between arginine and yeast response to ethanol stress was investigated. Marked inhibitions of ethanol on cell growth, expression of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis and intracellular accumulation of arginine were observed. Furthermore, extracellular addition of arginine can abate the ethanol damage largely. To further confirm the protective effects of arginine on yeast cells, yeast strains with different levels of arginine content were constructed by overexpression of ARG4 involved in arginine biosynthesis or CAR1 encoding arginase. Intracellular arginine was increased by 18.9% or 13.1% respectively by overexpression of ARG4 or disruption of CAR1, which enhanced yeast tolerance to ethanol stress. Moreover, a 41.1% decrease of intracellular arginine was observed in CAR1 overexpressing strain, which made yeast cells keenly sensitive to ethanol. Further investigations indicated that arginine protected yeast cells from ethanol damage by maintaining the integrity of cell wall and cytoplasma membrane, stabilizing the morphology and function of organellae due to low ROS generation. PMID:27507154

  17. Influence of ethanol on human T-lymphocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Kaelin, R.M.; Semerjian, A.; Center, D.M.; Bernardo, J.

    1984-11-01

    Because ethanol consumption is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, an examination was made of the effects of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde on human T-lymphocyte migration, an important functional component of cellular inflammatory responses. With a modified Boyden chamber system, ethanol at 0.25% and 0.50% (vol/vol) inhibited spontaneous motility of human T-lymphocytes, in a noncytotoxic manner, to 65% +/- 7% (mean +/- SEM) and 62% +/- 7% of control values of migration, respectively. When T-lymphocyte migration was stimulated by colchicine (10/sup -5/ mol/L), incubation with ethanol (0.25% and 0.50%, vol/vol) decreased migration to 80% +/- 4% and 66% +/- 8% of control values, respectively. Similar degrees of inhibition of migration were obtained with acetaldehyde at concentrations five to 10 times less than ethanol. Ethanol was similarly capable of inhibiting T cell migration induced by dibutyryl cyclic guanosine monophosphate, but it had no effect on stimulated migration induced by a human chemokinetic lymphokine. The study demonstrates that ethanol, at concentrations achievable in vivo, is capable of depressing T-lymphocyte migration. This effect might contribute to the immunosuppression associated with ethanol consumption. 36 references, 4 figures.

  18. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries

    PubMed Central

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol–petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (<3%). Therefore, unless much higher blends become widespread, the contribution of ethanol from integrated biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks. PMID:24478110

  19. Preference for ethanol in zebrafish following a single exposure

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Priya; Berberoglu, Michael; Guo, Su

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is one of the most widely abused drugs in the world. Its addictive property is believed to primarily stem from its ability to influence the brain reinforcement pathway evolved for mediating natural rewards. Although dopamine is a known component of the reinforcement pathway, clear molecular and cellular compositions of this pathway and its sensitivity to ethanol remain not well understood. Zebrafish has been increasingly used to model and understand human disease states, due to its genetic tractability and ease of maintenance. In this study, we determine whether adult zebrafish develop ethanol preference after a single exposure using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Moreover, we establish a procedure that can be carried out in an automated and relatively high-throughput fashion. We find that zebrafish of the AB strain display significantly increased preference for the compartment where they received ethanol during a single 20 -minute exposure. The largest increase in preference is in response to a 1.5% ethanol administered in the tank water. The results demonstrate robust ethanol preference in zebrafish. Such a relatively high-throughput assay with automated tracking and response to a single ethanol exposure provides a potential means for a large-scale screening aimed at understanding the brain reinforcement pathway and its sensitivity to ethanol in this genetically tractable vertebrate. PMID:20974186

  20. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-yao; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Jian-long; Lu, Wen-hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. PMID:26177723

  1. On the stability of ethanol nanoclusters in a nitrogen cryomatrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshev, A.; Aldiyarov, A.; Katpaeva, K.; Korshikov, E.; Kurnosov, V.; Sokolov, D.

    2013-11-01

    Investigating the processes of recondensation of ethanol molecules from a nitrogen cryomatrix onto a substrate we have previously found that the state of ethanol molecules in the matrix is not stable. A slight increase of temperature of the solid nitrogen long before its sublimation changes the vibrational spectrum of the bicomponent film ethanol-nitrogen. The results of study of this phenomenon are presented here. The measurements were carried out in the temperature range 12-40 K at the initial vacuum in the chamber of at least 10-8 Torr. The concentration of ethanol in nitrogen was from 0.5% to 3%. The methodology of obtaining the information on the state of ethanol molecules in a nitrogen matrix is based on an analysis of amplitudes of the absorption bands corresponding to vibrations of an ethanol molecule in an unbound state. In particular, the amplitude of the absorption of the strain δ(OH)-vibrations at a frequency ν = 1259 cm-1 which is a sign of the presence in this object of monomers or dimers of ethanol in the anti-conformal state was measured. On the basis of reflection spectra it is concluded that the nitrogen matrix contains poly-aggregates of ethanol formed during the condensation of a mixture of nitrogen and ethanol. A part of the ethanol molecules forming poly-aggregates is not connected by hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules, creating in the near-surface zone of clusters an assembly of quasi-free ethanol molecules with the absorption bands corresponding to these states. An increase of temperature of the matrix leads to a decrease of the amplitude of absorption at the frequency ν = 1259 cm-1, which can be explained by the anti-gauche conversion with a corresponding decrease in the concentration of anti-component. This is confirmed by a simultaneous reduction of the amplitude of absorption of ethanol at the frequency ν = 1028 cm-1, which corresponds to vibrations of anti-conformers of ethanol. Thus, the observed decrease in the amplitude of

  2. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles

  3. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. Ethanol exposure represses osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Yang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Lu, Wen-Hui; Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-Long; Song, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-07-01

    It is known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can increase the risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the effect of ethanol exposure on bone morphogenesis in fetus is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment of gastrulating chick embryos could inhibit long bone (humerus, radius and ulna) development. Histological examination revealed that ethanol exposure reduced the width of the proliferation and hypertrophic zones. In addition, cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activities were repressed. We also investigated the effect on chondrogenesis and chondrogenesis was inhibited. Ethanol exposure also induced excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and altered the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The inhibiting effect on flat bone (sclerotic ossicle) and the generation of cranial neural crest cells (progenitors of craniofacial bones) was also presented. In conclusion, ethanol exposure during the embryonic period retards bone development through excess ROS production and altered bone-associated gene expression. PMID:27112526

  5. On-line optical determination of water in ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Manfred A.

    1991-09-01

    An optical sensor for measurement of water in ethanol is presented that is based on a fluorescent solvent polarity probe immobilized on an ion-exchange membrane. The probe responds to changes in solvent polarity of alcohol/water mixtures by both a shift in the fluorescence emission maximum and a change in the fluorescence quantum yield. In this sensor, the analytical information is the relative fluorescence intensity measured at 620 nm (500-nm excitation). The sensor can be applied over the range from pure ethanol to pure water, however, maximum sensitivity is achieved in the range of 80 to 100% ethanol. The response time (t90) is in the order of 15 s. Given the unique applications of fiber optic sensors (e.g., in remote and fire-proof sensing), the new sensor may be applied for quality control of ethanol in distilleries and anhydrous ethanol production.

  6. Engineering Escherichia coli for improved ethanol production from gluconate.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Amanda; Schlacta, Theresa; Warmack, Rebeccah; Kasuga, Takao; Fan, Zhiliang

    2013-10-10

    We report on engineering Escherichia coli to produce ethanol at high yield from gluconic acid (gluconate). Knocking out genes encoding for the competing pathways (l-lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase A) in E. coli KO11 eliminated lactate production, lowered the carbon flow toward acetate production, and improved the ethanol yield from 87.5% to 97.5% of the theoretical maximum, while the growth rate of the mutant strain was about 70% of the wild type. The corresponding genetic modifications led to a small improvement of ethanol yield from 101.5% to 106.0% on glucose. Deletion of the pyruvate dehydrogenase gene (pdh) alone improved the ethanol yield from 87.5% to 90.4% when gluconate was a substrate. The growth rate of the mutant strain was identical to that of the wild type. The corresponding genetic modification led to no improvements on ethanol yield on glucose.

  7. [Network analysis of ethanol precipitation process for Schisandrae chinensis fructus].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jie-Qiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Kang, Li-Yuan; Li, Zheng

    2014-09-01

    A set of central composite design experiments were designed by using four factors which were ethanol amount, ethanol concentration, refrigeration temperature and refrigeration time. The relation between these factors with the target variables of the retention rate of schizandrol A, the soluble solids content, the removal rate of fructose and the removal rate of glucose were analyzed with Bayesian networks, and ethanol amount and ethanol concentration were found as the critical process parameters. Then a network model was built with 2 inputs and 4 outputs using back propagation artificial neural networks which was optimized by genetic algorithms. The R2 and MSE from the training set were 0.983 8 and 0.001 1. The R2 and MSE from the test set were 0.975 9 and 0.001 8. The results showed that network analysis method could be used for modeling of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol precipitation process and identify critical operating parameters. PMID:25522613

  8. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here, we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated -omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose. PMID:26618154

  9. Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

  10. Microwave Spectrum of the Ethanol-Methanol Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, Ian A.; Carroll, Brandon; Mead, Griffin; Blake, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    The hydrogen bond donor/acceptor competition in mixed alcohol clusters remains a fundamental question in physical chemistry. Previous theoretical work on the prototype ethanol-methanol dimer has been inconclusive in predicting the energetically preferred structure. Here, we report the microwave spectrum of the ethanol-methanol dimer between 8-18 GHz, using a chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. With the aid of ab initio calculations, 36 transitions have been fit and assigned to a t-ethanol-acceptor, methanol-donor structure in an argon-backed expansion. In a helium-backed expansion, a second excited conformer has been observed, and tentatively assigned to a g-ethanol-acceptor, methanol-donor structure. No ethanol-donor, methanol-acceptor structures have been found, suggesting such structures are energetically disfavored.

  11. Endogenous ethanol--its metabolic, behavioral and biomedical significance.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky YuM

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is constantly formed endogenously from acetaldehyde, and level of the former can be measured in both human beings and animals. Acetaldehyde can be generated in situ from the metabolism of pyruvate, threonine, deoxyribose-5-phosphate, phosphoethanolamine, alanine and presumably from other substrates. The levels of blood and tissue endogenous ethanol change as a function of various physiologic and experimental conditions such as starvation, aging, stress, cooling, adrenalectomy, etc. and are regulated by many exogenous compounds such as antimetabolites, derivatives of amino acids, lithium salts, disulfiram, cyanamide, etc. Under free choice alcohol selection situations, the levels of endogenous ethanol in rat blood and alcohol preference by the animals are negatively correlated. Similar negative correlations have been found between the levels of blood endogenous ethanol and the frequency of delirium in alcoholic patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal. Endogenous ethanol and acetaldehyde can therefore be regarded as compounds which fulfil substrate, regulatory and modulator functions.

  12. Involvement of kappa type opioids on ethanol drinking

    SciTech Connect

    Sandi, C.; Borrell, J.; Guaza, C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the administration of the kappa agonist dynorphin/sub 1/..sqrt../sub 17/ andor the kappa antagonist MR-2266-BS on ethanol preference was investigated using a paradigm by which rats develop alcohol preference. Administration of dynorphin shortly before or after the conditioning session (forced ethanol exposure) failed to affect later ethanol preference. However, dynorphin treatment prior to the first choice session reduced ethanol preference during the three consecutive testing days. This effect was reversed by the simultaneous administration of the kappa antagonist MR-2266-BS. The results of the present study provide further support for evidence of the involvement of dynorphinergic systems on drinking behavior and suggest that kappa-type opioid mechanisms may be involved in the consumption and development of preference to ethanol in rats. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  13. Reduction of invasive bacteria in ethanol fermentations using bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Worley-Morse, Thomas O; Deshusses, Marc A; Gunsch, Claudia K

    2015-08-01

    Invasive Lactobacillus bacteria inhibit ethanol fermentations and reduce final product yields. Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of Lactobacillus spp., alternative disinfection strategies are needed for ethanol fermentations. The feasibility of using the bacteriophage (phage) 8014-B2 to control Lactobacillus plantarum in ethanol fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. In 48 h media-based shake flask fermentations, phages achieved greater than 3-log inactivation of L. plantarum, protected final ethanol yields, and maintained yeast viability. The phage-based bacterial disinfection rates depended on both the initial phage and bacterial concentrations. Furthermore, a simple set of kinetic equations was used to model the yeast, bacteria, phage, reducing sugars, and ethanol concentrations over the course of 48 h, and the various kinetic parameters were determined. Taken together, these results demonstrate the applicability of phages to reduce L. plantarum contamination and to protect final product yields in media-based fermentations.

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of agricultural residues to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Mes-Hartree, M.; Hogan, C.M.; Saddler, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    A combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process was used to convert steam-treated wheat and barley straw to ethanol. Maximum conversion efficiencies were obtained when the substrates were steamed for 90 s. These substrates could yield over 0.4 g ethanol/g cellulose following a combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process procedure using culture filtrates derived from Trichoderma harzianum E58. When culture filtrates from Trichoderma reesei C30 and T. reesei QM9414 were used, the ethanol yields obtained were 0.32 and 0.12 g ethanol/g cellulose utilized, respectively. The lower ethanol yields obtained with these strains were attributed to the lower amounts of ..beta..-glucosidase detected in the T. reesei culture filtrates.

  15. Methane production and isotopic fingerprinting in ethanol fuel contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana G; Fletcher, Barbara; Aravena, Ramon; Barker, James F

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of organic compounds in groundwater can be a significant source of methane in contaminated sites. Methane might accumulate in indoor spaces posing a hazard. The increasing use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is a concern with respect to methane production since it is easily biodegraded and has a high oxygen demand, favoring the development of anaerobic conditions. This study evaluated the use of stable carbon isotopes to distinguish the methane origin between gasoline and ethanol biodegradation, and assessed the occurrence of methane in ethanol fuel contaminated sites. Two microcosm tests were performed under anaerobic conditions: one test using ethanol and the other using toluene as the sole carbon source. The isotopic tool was then applied to seven field sites known to be impacted by ethanol fuels. In the microcosm tests, it was verified that methane from ethanol (δ¹³C = -11.1‰) is more enriched in ¹³C, with δ¹³C values ranging from -20‰ to -30‰, while the methane from toluene (δ¹³C = -28.5‰) had a carbon isotopic signature of -55‰. The field samples had δ¹³C values varying over a wide range (-10‰ to -80‰), and the δ¹³C values allowed the methane source to be clearly identified in five of the seven ethanol/gasoline sites. In the other two sites, methane appears to have been produced from both sources. Both gasoline and ethanol were sources of methane in potentially hazardous concentrations and methane could be produced from organic acids originating from ethanol along the groundwater flow system even after all the ethanol has been completed biodegraded.

  16. Hepatic ethanol elimination kinetics in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    DAM, GITTE; SØRENSEN, MICHAEL; MUNK, OLE LAJORD; KEIDING, SUSANNE

    2011-01-01

    Objective To address the question of whether increased ethanol elimination in alcoholics can be ascribed to increased metabolism via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; Km around 0.2 mM) or the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS; Km 10 mM) by kinetic analysis of hepatic ethanol elimination in recently drinking patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and healthy subjects. A further objective was to investigate whether systemic clearance of ethanol at low arterial ethanol concentrations can be used as a measure of hepatic blood flow. Material and methods Six patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were enrolled after 2 days of abstinence, along with 6 healthy subjects. Ethanol was administered as 6 successive infusions in increasing doses. Arterial and hepatic venous blood concentrations of ethanol were measured; hepatic blood flow was measured simultaneously. Kinetic parameters were calculated according to the sinusoidal perfusion model of enzymatic elimination by the intact liver. Results Mean hepatic Km for ethanol was 0.16 mM (range 0.09–0.36) in healthy subjects and 0.36 mM (range 0.16–0.69) in patients with cirrhosis (p>0.3), both compatible with the Km for ADH. The two groups of subjects had similar Vmax values (p>0.3). Extrahepatic elimination of ethanol accounted for more than 50% of total elimination in both groups, which precludes the use of systemic clearance as a measure of hepatic blood flow. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that ADH remains the main pathway for hepatic elimination of ethanol in recently drinking patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. We interpret this as evidence against a significant contribution of MEOS in vivo. PMID:19404864

  17. Acute ethanol effects on focal cerebral ischemia in fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y J; Yang, G Y; Ben-Joseph, O; Ross, B D; Chenevert, T L; Domino, E F

    1998-05-01

    The effects of acute ethanol intoxication were investigated in a rat model of unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. Groups of 5 to 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 hr of left middle cerebral artery occlusion. All groups were deprived of food overnight and were pretreated intraperitoneally with 5% dextrose solution (10 ml/kg), 20% ethyl alcohol in 5% dextrose solution (2 g/kg), or 30% ethyl alcohol in a 5% dextrose solution (3 g/kg) 1 hr before middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional cerebral blood flow during ipsilateral occlusion was approximately 9.1 to 10% of baseline in all groups. The mean % brain water content in control, 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups, and 3 g/kg ethanol-treated groups were: in the ischemic core--81.6, 81.2, and 82.4; intermediate zone--80.5, 80.6, and 81.7; and outer zone--79.7, 79.7, and 80.8, respectively. Brain Na+ and K+ content in the three groups was related to water content, but much greater with ethanol pretreatment. The water content of the intermediate zones in the 3 g/kg ethanol-treated animals was significantly greater than in the control (p < 0.01 and 0.001) and the 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups. One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant dose-effect relationship in which the lower dose of ethanol tended to reduce ischemic core water content, and the larger dose increased ischemic core water, compared with the control. None of the overnight fasted groups had any significant hyperglycemia. The group given 3 g/kg i.p. ethanol 1 hr before had exacerbated edema formation with a mean whole blood level of ethanol of approximately 230 mg/dl. The neurotoxic effects of high concentrations of ethanol were unrelated to any change in plasma glucose concentrations.

  18. Role of phosphodiesterase-4 on ethanol elicited locomotion and narcosis.

    PubMed

    Baliño, Pablo; Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2016-02-01

    The cAMP signaling pathway has emerged as an important modulator of the pharmacological effects of ethanol. In this respect, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase has been shown to play an important role in the modulation of several ethanol-induced behavioral actions. Cellular levels of cAMP are maintained by the activity of adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. In the present work we have focused on ascertaining the role of PDE4 in mediating the neurobehavioral effects of ethanol. For this purpose, we have used the selective PDE4 inhibitor Ro 20-1724. This compound has been proven to enhance cellular cAMP response by PDE4 blockade and can be administered systemically. Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Ro 20-1724 (0-5 mg/kg; i.p.) at different time intervals before ethanol (0-4 g/kg; i.p.) administration. Immediately after the ethanol injection, locomotor activity, loss of righting reflex, PKA footprint and enzymatic activity were assessed. Pretreatment with Ro 20-1724 increased ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Doses that increased locomotor stimulation did not modify basal locomotion or the suppression of motor activity produced by high doses of this alcohol. Ro 20-1724 did not alter the locomotor activation produced by amphetamine or cocaine. The time of loss of righting reflex evoked by ethanol was increased after pretreatment with Ro 20-1724. This effect was selective for the narcotic effects of ethanol since Ro 20-1724 did not affect pentobarbital-induced narcotic effects. Moreover, Ro 20-1724 administration increased the PKA footprint and enzymatic activity response elicited by ethanol. These data provide further evidence of the key role of the cAMP signaling pathway in the central effects of ethanol.

  19. [Ethanol metabolism and pathobiochemistry of organ damage--1992. II. Relation between ethanol metabolism and free radicals, and the metabolism of saccharides and amino acids. Ethanol as a carcinogen. Drug interactions with ethanol].

    PubMed

    Zima, T

    1993-01-01

    Ethanol metabolism induces formation of free radicals which are responsible for lipid peroxidation of biological membranes with subsequent aldehyde formation (malondialdehyde,4-hydroxy-nonenal). These aldehydes are competitive or mixed inhibitors of aldehyde dehydrogenase, and they cause an increase in hepatocellular toxicity of aldehydes. The activity of antioxidative systems in human body after chronic as well as acute ethanol intake is being reduced. Interference of ethanol metabolism and gluconeogenesis is caused by inhibition of intake substrates or by decrease NADH/NAD+, ratio in hepatocyte. The blood level of glucose decreases, lactate level increases as well as the ration of lactate, pyruvate and NADH/NAD+ which inhibit cytosole pyruvate carboxykinase. An acute ethanol administration reduces the concentration of most amino acids in plasma by ethanol oxidation impacts on increase of NADH/NAD+ ratio or by mechanism mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors. Chronic alcoholics develop tolerance to decreased plasmatic levels of amino acids. Accumulation of proteins in liver may be explained by larger amount of proteins binding to fatty acids, and also by diminished degradation of proteins with decreasing autophagosome and autolysosome formations. Alcohol is one of carcinogenic factors. Ethanol, acetaldehyde and originating free radicals impaired the DNA repairing enzyme. Binding itself to DNA, acetaldehyde changes DNA properties. Ethanol may also function as a co-carcinogen due to its ability to increase disolution and absorption of carcinogens. Chronic alcoholism induces cytochrome P450 which takes part in the activation and metabolism of carcinogens. Mutual interaction of drugs metabolism and ethanol is connected mainly with cytochrome P450-MEOS. Acute ethanol intake inhibits MEOS, as MEOS gives preference to ethanol as a substrate, however, chronic alcoholism induces MEOS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Effect of Ethanol and Ethanol Biodegradation Products on Prospects for Natural Anaerobic Biodegradation of Benzene at Gasoline Spill Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increasing use of biofuels (ethanol in particular) in the fuel supply nationwide, and an increase in the number of stations that sell gasoline that contains more than 10% ethanol. The U.S. EPA needs to understand the fate of these materials if they are released ...

  1. Evaluation of the ethanol antagonist' Ro15-4513 on cardiovascular and metabolic responses induced by ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.R.; Gauvin, D.V.; Holloway, F.A.; Wilson, M.F.; Brackett, D.J. Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK )

    1992-02-26

    The putative ethanol antagonist Ro15-4513 has been reported to attenuate many behavioral responses induced by ethanol, including motor coordination, narcosis, ethanol self administration and intake, and anticonvulsant actions. This study was designed to study the effect of Ro15-4513 on cardiovascular and metabolic responses elicited by intragastric ethanol in conscious rats. Four groups of rats were catheterized under enflurane anesthesia and allowed to regain consciousness. Each group was given either 3.2, 10.0, or 32.0 mg/kg Ro15-4513 or equivalent Tween (i.p.) following ethanol. Ro15-4513 had no effect at any concentration on the decreases in mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, central venous pressure, respiration rate, and cardiac stroke volume and the increases in systemic vascular resistance, heart rate, and glucose evoked by the ethanol challenge. Blood alcohol concentrations measured throughout the study were not affected by any concentration of Ro15-4513. These data suggest that even though Ro15-4513 has significant effects on behavioral responses induced by ethanol it has no effect on the cardiovascular and metabolic responses elicited during ethanol intoxication.

  2. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Ranjita; Prabhu, Sandeep; Lynd, Lee R; Guss, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  3. Wafer Preparation and Iodine-Ethanol-Ethanol Passivation Procedure for Reproducible Minority-Carrier Lifetime Measurement: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Appel, J.; Mehta, V.; Li, C.; Johnston, S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes reasons that lifetime measurments may be irreproducible using iodine-in-ethanol (I-E) passivation. Possible factors include the strength of the iodine in ethanol solution, wafer cleaning procedures, influence of wafer container during lifetime measurement, and stability of I-E.

  4. Quantification of ethanol in ethanol-petrol and biodiesel in biodiesel-diesel blends using fluorescence spectroscopy and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol blended petrol and biodiesel blended diesel are being introduced in many countries to meet the increasing demand of hydrocarbon fuels. However, technological limitations of current vehicle engine do not allow ethanol and biodiesel percentages in the blended fuel to be increased beyond a certain level. As a result quantification of ethanol in blended petrol and biodiesel in blended diesel becomes an important issue. In this work, calibration models for the quantification of ethanol in the ethanol-petrol and biodiesel in the biodiesel-diesel blends of a particular batch were made using the combination of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) with N-way Partial least square (N-PLS) and unfolded-PLS. The PCR, PLS, N-PLS and unfolded-PLS calibration models were evaluated through measures like root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and square of the correlation coefficient (R(2)). The prediction abilities of the models were tested using a testing set of ethanol-petrol and biodiesel-diesel blends of known ethanol and biodiesel concentrations, error in the predictions made by the models were found to be less than 2%. The obtained calibration models are highly robust and capable of estimating low as well as high concentrations of ethanol and biodiesel.

  5. Sorbitol required for cell growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During ethanol fermentation, the ethanologenic bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis may encounter several environmental stresses such as heat, ethanol and osmotic stresses due to high sugar concentration. Although supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol into culture medium enhances cell growth of Z. mobilis under osmotic stress, the protective function of this compound on cell growth and ethanol production by this organism under other stresses such as heat and ethanol has not been described yet. The formation of sorbitol in Z. mobilis was carried out by the action of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) enzyme which is regulated by the gfo gene. Therefore, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted by the fusion-PCR-based construction technique in the present study, and the protective function of sorbitol on cell growth, protein synthesis and ethanol production by Z. mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses was investigated. Results Based on the fusion-PCR-based construction technique, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted. Disruption of the Z. mobilis gfo gene resulted in the reduction of cell growth and ethanol production not only under osmotic stress but also under heat and ethanol stresses. Under these stress conditions, the transcription level of pdc, adhA, and adhB genes involved in the pyruvate-to-ethanol (PE) pathway as well as the synthesis of proteins particularly in Z. mobilis disruptant strain were decreased compared to those of the parent. These findings suggest that sorbitol plays a crucial role not only on cell growth and ethanol production but also on the protection of cellular proteins from stress responses. Conclusion We showed for the first time that supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol not only promoted cell growth but also increased the ethanol fermentation capability of Z. mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses. Although the molecular mechanism involved in tolerance to stress conditions

  6. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  7. Enhancing profitability of dry mill ethanol plants: process modeling and economics of conversion of degermed defibered corn to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; McCalla, Darold; Stowers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    An Aspen Plus modeling platform was developed to evaluate the performance of the conversion process of degermed defibered corn (DDC) to ethanol in 15- and 40-million gallons per year (MGPY) dry mill ethanol plants. Upstream corn milling equipment in conventional dry mill ethanol plants was replaced with germ and fiber separation equipment. DDC with higher starch content was fed to the existing saccharification and fermentation units, resulting in higher ethanol productivity than with regular corn. The results of the DDC models were compared with those of conventional dry mill ethanol process models. A simple financial analysis that included capital and operating costs, revenues, earnings, and return on investment was created to evaluate each model comparatively. Case studies were performed on 15- and 40-MGPY base case models with two DDC process designs and DDC with a mechanical oil extraction process.

  8. Feasibility Study for Co-Locating and Integrating Ethanol Production Plants from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.; Ibsen, K.; McAloon, A.; Yee, W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation. Although none of the scenarios identified could produce ethanol at lower cost than a straight grain ethanol plant, several were lower cost than a straight cellulosic ethanol plant.

  9. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    DOEpatents

    Kass, Michael Delos; Graves, Ronald Lee; Storey, John Morse Elliot; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Charles Scott; Thomas, John Foster

    2007-08-21

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  10. Endogenous ethanol production in trauma victims associated with medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Moriya, F; Hashimoto, Y

    1996-08-01

    Four cases of trauma, where endogenous ethanol production was suspected to have been occurred in association with medical treatment, are reported. To discriminate endogenous ethanol produced de novo by bacteria from exogenous ethanol by drinking, various tissues and body fluids, such as brain and cerebrospinal fluid, together with blood obtained from various locations, were subjected to analysis for both ethanol and n-propanol. The first individual was a 40-year-old man who had been stabbed in the abdomen with a knife and had died of bleeding about 12 h after peritoneotomy, and autopsied 12 h later. In the heart blood, 0.44 mg/g ethanol and 0.005 mg/g n-propanol were detected. Ethanol levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, vitreous humor and brain, reflecting exogenous ethanol levels, were 0.08-0.16 mg/g, and no n-propanol was detected in any of the specimens. The second individual was a 45-year-old man who had been punched hard in the head and face and had died of traumatic shock about 12 h after hospitalization, and autopsied 12 h later. The heart blood concentrations of ethanol and n-propanol were 0.15 and 0.008 mg/g respectively, and a subdural hematoma contained only 0.05 mg/g ethanol and non n-propanol. The third individual was a 34-year-old man who suffered incised wounds of the left arm and head with a sickle and had died of hemorrhagic shock. In the heart blood, 0.30 mg/g ethanol and 0.026 mg/g n-propanol were detected; there was 0.04 mg/g ethanol and no n-propanol in the brain. The fourth individual was a 76-year-old woman who had been hit by a motorcycle and had died of liver rupture about 1 h after admission to a hospital. The heart blood contained 0.22 mg/g ethanol and 0.002 mg/g n-propanol. Only a trace of ethanol and no n-propanol were detected in the pericardial sac fluid and cerebrospinal fluid.

  11. MTBE, ethanol rules come under fire

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1995-03-01

    EPA is facing stiff challenges to the mandates for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol in its reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. Wisconsin officials are receiving hundreds of complaints about the alleged health effects and other problems with MTBE added to gasoline, and Gov. Tommy Thompson is demanding that EPA suspend the RFG program until April 1. Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R., WI) is threatening to introduce a bill to repeal the program in Wisconsin if EPA does not comply. However, EPA administrator Carol Browner says the agency will {open_quotes}defer any decision{close_quotes} on the request. EPA has sent technical experts to Milwaukee to respond to and monitor citizens` complaints.

  12. Ethanol sensor based on nanocrystallite cadmium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Gadkari, Ashok B.; Shinde, Tukaram J.; Vasambekar, Pramod N.

    2015-06-24

    The cadmium ferrite was synthesized by oxalate co-precipitation method. The crystal structure and surface morphology were examined by X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques, respectively. The nanocrystallite CdFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sensor was tested for LPG, Cl{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH. The sensitivity was measured at various operating temperatures in the range of 100-400°C. The sensor shows highest sensitivity and selectivity to C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH at 350°C. The response and recovery time was measured at operating temperature of 350°C. The sensor exhibits a lower response and recovery time for LPG and Cl{sub 2} as compared to ethanol.

  13. The effect of ethanol on oral cocaine pharmacokinetics reveals an unrecognized class of ethanol-mediated drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert B; Laizure, S Casey

    2010-02-01

    Ethanol decreases the clearance of cocaine by inhibiting the hydrolysis of cocaine to benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester by carboxylesterases, and there is a large body of literature describing this interaction as it relates to the abuse of cocaine. In this study, we describe the effect of intravenous ethanol on the pharmacokinetics of cocaine after intravenous and oral administration in the dog. The intent is to determine the effect ethanol has on metabolic hydrolysis using cocaine metabolism as a surrogate marker of carboxylesterase activity. Five dogs were administered intravenous cocaine alone, intravenous cocaine after ethanol, oral cocaine alone, and oral cocaine after ethanol on separate study days. Cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and cocaethylene concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cocaine had poor systemic bioavailability with an area under the plasma concentration-time curve that was approximately 4-fold higher after intravenous than after oral administration. The coadministration of ethanol and cocaine resulted in a 23% decrease in the clearance of intravenous cocaine and a 300% increase in the bioavailability of oral cocaine. Cocaine behaves as a high extraction drug, which undergoes first-pass metabolism in the intestines and liver that is profoundly inhibited by ethanol. We infer from these results that ethanol could inhibit the hydrolysis of other drug compounds subject to hydrolysis by carboxylesterases. Indeed, there are numerous commonly prescribed drugs with significant carboxylesterase-mediated metabolism such as enalapril, lovastatin, irinotecan, clopidogrel, prasugrel, methylphenidate, meperidine, and oseltamivir that may interact with ethanol. The clinical significance of the interaction of ethanol with specific drugs subject to carboxylesterase hydrolysis is not well recognized and has not been adequately studied. PMID:19920055

  14. Effects of ethanol on vehicle energy efficiency and implications on ethanol life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Inderwildi, Oliver R; King, David A; Boies, Adam M

    2013-06-01

    Bioethanol is the world's largest-produced alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuels due to its compatibility within existing spark-ignition engines and its relatively mature production technology. Despite its success, questions remain over the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of fuel ethanol use with many studies showing significant impacts of differences in land use, feedstock, and refinery operation. While most efforts to quantify life-cycle GHG impacts have focused on the production stage, a few recent studies have acknowledged the effect of ethanol on engine performance and incorporated these effects into the fuel life cycle. These studies have broadly asserted that vehicle efficiency increases with ethanol use to justify reducing the GHG impact of ethanol. These results seem to conflict with the general notion that ethanol decreases the fuel efficiency (or increases the fuel consumption) of vehicles due to the lower volumetric energy content of ethanol when compared to gasoline. Here we argue that due to the increased emphasis on alternative fuels with drastically differing energy densities, vehicle efficiency should be evaluated based on energy rather than volume. When done so, we show that efficiency of existing vehicles can be affected by ethanol content, but these impacts can serve to have both positive and negative effects and are highly uncertain (ranging from -15% to +24%). As a result, uncertainties in the net GHG effect of ethanol, particularly when used in a low-level blend with gasoline, are considerably larger than previously estimated (standard deviations increase by >10% and >200% when used in high and low blends, respectively). Technical options exist to improve vehicle efficiency through smarter use of ethanol though changes to the vehicle fleets and fuel infrastructure would be required. Future biofuel policies should promote synergies between the vehicle and fuel industries in order to maximize the society-wise benefits or

  15. Effects of ethanol on vehicle energy efficiency and implications on ethanol life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Inderwildi, Oliver R; King, David A; Boies, Adam M

    2013-06-01

    Bioethanol is the world's largest-produced alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuels due to its compatibility within existing spark-ignition engines and its relatively mature production technology. Despite its success, questions remain over the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of fuel ethanol use with many studies showing significant impacts of differences in land use, feedstock, and refinery operation. While most efforts to quantify life-cycle GHG impacts have focused on the production stage, a few recent studies have acknowledged the effect of ethanol on engine performance and incorporated these effects into the fuel life cycle. These studies have broadly asserted that vehicle efficiency increases with ethanol use to justify reducing the GHG impact of ethanol. These results seem to conflict with the general notion that ethanol decreases the fuel efficiency (or increases the fuel consumption) of vehicles due to the lower volumetric energy content of ethanol when compared to gasoline. Here we argue that due to the increased emphasis on alternative fuels with drastically differing energy densities, vehicle efficiency should be evaluated based on energy rather than volume. When done so, we show that efficiency of existing vehicles can be affected by ethanol content, but these impacts can serve to have both positive and negative effects and are highly uncertain (ranging from -15% to +24%). As a result, uncertainties in the net GHG effect of ethanol, particularly when used in a low-level blend with gasoline, are considerably larger than previously estimated (standard deviations increase by >10% and >200% when used in high and low blends, respectively). Technical options exist to improve vehicle efficiency through smarter use of ethanol though changes to the vehicle fleets and fuel infrastructure would be required. Future biofuel policies should promote synergies between the vehicle and fuel industries in order to maximize the society-wise benefits or

  16. Oxytocin prevents ethanol actions at δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors and attenuates ethanol-induced motor impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Michael T; Peters, Sebastian T; Absalom, Nathan; Chebib, Mary; Neumann, Inga D; McGregor, Iain S

    2015-03-10

    Even moderate doses of alcohol cause considerable impairment of motor coordination, an effect that substantially involves potentiation of GABAergic activity at δ subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors (δ-GABA(A)Rs). Here, we demonstrate that oxytocin selectively attenuates ethanol-induced motor impairment and ethanol-induced increases in GABAergic activity at δ-GABA(A)Rs and that this effect does not involve the oxytocin receptor. Specifically, oxytocin (1 µg i.c.v.) given before ethanol (1.5 g/kg i.p.) attenuated the sedation and ataxia induced by ethanol in the open-field locomotor test, wire-hanging test, and righting-reflex test in male rats. Using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes, oxytocin was found to completely block ethanol-enhanced activity at α4β1δ and α4β3δ recombinant GABA(A)Rs. Conversely, ethanol had no effect when applied to α4β1 or α4β3 cells, demonstrating the critical presence of the δ subunit in this effect. Oxytocin had no effect on the motor impairment or in vitro effects induced by the δ-selective GABA(A)R agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, which binds at a different site on δ-GABA(A)Rs than ethanol. Vasopressin, which is a nonapeptide with substantial structural similarity to oxytocin, did not alter ethanol effects at δ-GABA(A)Rs. This pattern of results confirms the specificity of the interaction between oxytocin and ethanol at δ-GABA(A)Rs. Finally, our in vitro constructs did not express any oxytocin receptors, meaning that the observed interactions occur directly at δ-GABA(A)Rs. The profound and direct interaction observed between oxytocin and ethanol at the behavioral and cellular level may have relevance for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol intoxication and dependence.

  17. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Schmer, M R; Vogel, K P; Mitchell, R B; Perrin, R K

    2008-01-15

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Two major concerns have been the net energy efficiency and economic feasibility of switchgrass and similar crops. All previous energy analyses have been based on data from research plots (<5 m2) and estimated inputs. We managed switchgrass as a biomass energy crop in field trials of 3-9 ha (1 ha = 10,000 m2) on marginal cropland on 10 farms across a wide precipitation and temperature gradient in the midcontinental U.S. to determine net energy and economic costs based on known farm inputs and harvested yields. In this report, we summarize the agricultural energy input costs, biomass yield, estimated ethanol output, greenhouse gas emissions, and net energy results. Annual biomass yields of established fields averaged 5.2-11.1 Mg x ha(-1) with a resulting average estimated net energy yield (NEY) of 60 GJ x ha(-1) x y(-1). Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable than nonrenewable energy consumed. Switchgrass monocultures managed for high yield produced 93% more biomass yield and an equivalent estimated NEY than previous estimates from human-made prairies that received low agricultural inputs. Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. This is a baseline study that represents the genetic material and agronomic technology available for switchgrass production in 2000 and 2001, when the fields were planted. Improved genetics and agronomics may further enhance energy sustainability and biofuel yield of switchgrass.

  18. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Schmer, M R; Vogel, K P; Mitchell, R B; Perrin, R K

    2008-01-15

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Two major concerns have been the net energy efficiency and economic feasibility of switchgrass and similar crops. All previous energy analyses have been based on data from research plots (<5 m2) and estimated inputs. We managed switchgrass as a biomass energy crop in field trials of 3-9 ha (1 ha = 10,000 m2) on marginal cropland on 10 farms across a wide precipitation and temperature gradient in the midcontinental U.S. to determine net energy and economic costs based on known farm inputs and harvested yields. In this report, we summarize the agricultural energy input costs, biomass yield, estimated ethanol output, greenhouse gas emissions, and net energy results. Annual biomass yields of established fields averaged 5.2-11.1 Mg x ha(-1) with a resulting average estimated net energy yield (NEY) of 60 GJ x ha(-1) x y(-1). Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable than nonrenewable energy consumed. Switchgrass monocultures managed for high yield produced 93% more biomass yield and an equivalent estimated NEY than previous estimates from human-made prairies that received low agricultural inputs. Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. This is a baseline study that represents the genetic material and agronomic technology available for switchgrass production in 2000 and 2001, when the fields were planted. Improved genetics and agronomics may further enhance energy sustainability and biofuel yield of switchgrass. PMID:18180449

  19. Acute Ethanol Does Not Always Affect Delay Discounting in Rats Selected to Prefer or Avoid Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Clare J.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether animals predisposed to prefer alcohol possess an altered acute response to alcohol on a delay discounting task relative to animals predisposed to avoid alcohol. Methods: We used rats selected to prefer or avoid alcohol to assess whether genotype moderates changes in delay discounting induced by acute ethanol exposure. Selectively bred rat lines of Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP; n = 8) and non-preferring (sNP; n = 8) rats, and alko alcohol (AA, n = 8) and alko non-alcohol (ANA, n = 8) rats were trained in an adjusting amount task to assess delay discounting. Results: There were no significant effects of line on baseline discounting; however, both lines of alcohol-preferring rats exhibit slowed reaction times. Acute ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.5 g/kg) treatment also had no effect on delay discounting in any of the selectively bred rat lines. Conclusion: Our data indicate that in these lines of animals, alcohol preference or avoidance has no impact on delay discounting following acute ethanol exposure. It is possible that other genetic models or lines may be differentially affected by alcohol and exhibit qualitatively and quantitatively different responses in delay discounting tasks. PMID:22645038

  20. In vivo ethanol elimination in man, monkey and rat: A lack of relationship between the ethanol metabolism and the hepatic activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Zorzano, A. ); Herrera, E. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo ethanol elimination in human subjects, monkeys and rats was investigated after an oral ethanol dosage. After 0.4 g. ethanol/kg of body weight, ethanol elimination was much slower in human subjects than in monkeys. In order to detect a rise in monkey plasma ethanol concentrations as early as observed in human subjects, ethanol had to be administered at a dose of 3 g/kg body weight. Ethanol metabolism in rats was also much faster than in human subjects. However, human liver showed higher alcohol dehydrogenase activity and higher low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase activity than rat liver. Thus, our data suggest a lack of relationship between hepatic ethanol-metabolizing activities and the in vivo ethanol elimination rate.

  1. Grain ethanol as a petroleum substitute: a perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, T.G.

    1980-04-01

    Present tax exemptions for gasohol are more than sufficient to move ethanol into the gasoline market in a number of states. The principal near-term response to this profit opportunity, production of ethanol from feed grains, matches a limited biomass resource to an enormous market. This report estimates upper-bound prices for feed grains resulting from gasohol tax exemptions and concludes that grain price increases could be substantial. As shown else-where by Alston and Asbury, industrial uses constitute a more economical market for grain ethanol, one in which the product is now competitive with ethanol derived from petroleum and natural gas liquids. Without tax exemptions for gasohol, grain ethanol would now be displacing petroleum in the industrial market at a net economic gain, rather than in the fuel market at a net economic loss. The present analysis indicates that this industrial market for ethanol could grow significantly, principally by use of grain ethanol as an intermediate in production of chemicals now derived from petroleum and natural gas.

  2. [Cellulose degradation and ethanol production of different Clostridium strain].

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhi-guo; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2010-08-01

    Cellulose degradation and ethanol production of two types of cellulosic materials with different concentration were evaluated in batch system of mono-cultures of cellulolytic ethanol producing strains (Clostridium thermocellum strain LQRI and Clostridium thermocellum strain VPI), and co-cultures of LQRI or VPI in combination with one of the non-cellulolytic ethanol producing strains (Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus strains X514 or Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E). Results demonstrated that higher cellulose degradation abilities about 1.2 times were detected in LQRI mono-culture than in VPI mono-culture, while no significant difference of ethanol yields was found between the two mono-cultures. Abilities of cellulose degradation and ethanol production decreased significantly with the increasing of substrate cellulose concentration (1%, 2%, 5%). In the co-culture system, cellulose degradation abilities of LQRI were also significantly higher than VPI, the former is 1.28-1.58 times of the latter. Cellulose degradation rate of LQRI + Thermoanaerobacter and VPI + Thermoanaerobacter decreased gradually with the increasing of substrate cellulose concentration, while the absolute value of cellulose degradation was also affected by the partner Thermoanaerobacter strain. Additionally, the ethanol yields in the co-cultures of LQRI + Thermoanaerobacter were significantly higher than that in the co-cultures of VPI + Thermoanaerobacter with same Thermoanaerobaeter partner, the former is 1.27-1.77 times of the latter. However, ethanol yields in the co-cultures have not significantly declined with the increasing of substrate cellulose concentration.

  3. Fructose: metabolic, hedonic, and societal parallels with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Robert H

    2010-09-01

    Rates of fructose consumption continue to rise nationwide and have been linked to rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Because obesity has been equated with addiction, and because of their evolutionary commonalities, we chose to examine the metabolic, hedonic, and societal similarities between fructose and its fermentation byproduct ethanol. Elucidation of fructose metabolism in liver and fructose action in brain demonstrate three parallelisms with ethanol. First, hepatic fructose metabolism is similar to ethanol, as they both serve as substrates for de novo lipogenesis, and in the process both promote hepatic insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Second, fructosylation of proteins with resultant superoxide formation can result in hepatic inflammation similar to acetaldehyde, an intermediary metabolite of ethanol. Lastly, by stimulating the "hedonic pathway" of the brain both directly and indirectly, fructose creates habituation, and possibly dependence; also paralleling ethanol. Thus, fructose induces alterations in both hepatic metabolism and central nervous system energy signaling, leading to a "vicious cycle" of excessive consumption and disease consistent with metabolic syndrome. On a societal level, the treatment of fructose as a commodity exhibits market similarities to ethanol. Analogous to ethanol, societal efforts to reduce fructose consumption will likely be necessary to combat the obesity epidemic.

  4. Ensilage and bioconversion of grape pomace into fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Lee, Christopher; Yu, Chaowei; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Simmons, Christopher W; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2012-11-01

    Two types of grape pomace were ensiled with eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Both fresh grape pomace (FrGP) and fermented grape pomace (FeGP) were preserved through alcoholic fermentation but not malolactic conversion. Water leaching prior to storage was used to reduce water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol from FrGP and FeGP, respectively, to increase malolactic conversion. Leached FeGP had spoilage after 28 days of ensilage, whereas FrGP was preserved. Dilute acid pretreatment was examined for increasing the conversion of pomace to ethanol via Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation. Dilute acid pretreatment doubled the ethanol yield from FeGP, but it did not improve the ethanol yield from FrGP. The ethanol yields from raw pomace were nearly double the yields from the ensiled pomace. For this reason, the recovery of ethanol produced during winemaking from FeGP and ethanol produced during storage of FrGP is critical for the economical conversion of grape pomace to biofuel.

  5. Advances in ethanol production using immobilized cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Margaritis, A.; Merchant, F.J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The application of immobilized cell systems for the production of ethanol has resulted in substantial improvements in the efficiency of the process when compared to the traditional free cell system. In this review, the various methods of cell immobilization employed in ethanol production systems have been described in detail. Their salient features, performance characteristics, advantages and limitations have been critically assessed. More recently, these immobilized cell systems have also been employed for the production of ethanol from non-conventional feedstocks such as Jerusalem artichoke extracts, cheese whey, cellulose, cellobiose and xylose. Ethanol production by immobilized yeast and bacterial cells has been attempted in various bioreactor types. Although most of these studies have been carried out using laboratory scale prototype bioreactors, it appears that only fluidized bed, horizontally packed bed bioreactors and tower fermenters may find application on scale-up. Several studies have indicated that upon immobilization, yeast cells performing ethanol fermentation exhibit more favourable physiological and metabolic properties. This, in addition to substantial improvements in ethanol productivities by immobilized cell systems, is indicative of the fact that future developments in the production of ethanol and alcoholic beverages will be directed towards the use of immobilized cell systems. 291 references.

  6. Chronic ethanol feeding modulates the synthesis of digestive enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Ponnappa, B.C.; Hoek, J.B.; Rubin, E.

    1987-05-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on pancreatic protein synthesis were investigated. Protein synthesis was assessed by studying the rate of incorporation of /sup 3/H-leucine into TCA-precipitable proteins in isolated pancreatic acini from rats. Chronic ethanol ingestion increased the rate of pancreatic protein synthesis by 2-4 fold. The onset of the increase in protein synthesis was detectable two days after ethanol feeding, reached a maximum after 7 days and remained unchanged after 4 months on the ethanol-containing diet. The rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes was studied by SDS-PAGE on extracts obtained from purified zymogen granules. Ethanol feeding induced an increase in the rate of synthesis of most of the digestive enzymes; chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and an unidentified protein were increased to a greater extent than other digestive enzymes. By contrast, the synthesis of amylase was selectively decreased after ethanol feeding. These results suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion has specific effects on the rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes in the exocrine pancreas.

  7. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  8. Certification of an agricultural spray aircraft on ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1994-12-31

    A Piper Pawnee, one of the most common agricultural spray aircraft, is currently undergoing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification to allow the use of denatured ethanol as its fuel. This certification is part of a broader effort to introduce ethanol as a replacement for aviation gasoline. Various reasons brought about the choice of an agricultural spray aircraft to be certified on ethanol. One is the minimization of initial fuel distribution problems. Agricultural aviation often requires only single fuel storage since most of the flying is local. Additionally, corn-produced ethanol is the natural fuel of choice for farming operations. The increased power developed on ethanol compared to aviation gasoline (avgas) is very important when operating heavily loaded spray aircraft at very low altitudes. The power-plant, a Lycoming IO-540, is already certified. The aircraft is currently flying on ethanol in order to satisfy the airframe requirements. The effort is being supported by a consortium of organizations of corn-producing states. Upon completion of certification, the aircraft will be demonstrated around the mid-western states. Certification will allow the use of the aircraft in the commercial arena. Many mid-western agricultural spray operations and ag-pilots have already expressed interest in converting their aircraft to ethanol fuel.

  9. Effects of ethanol on rat heart and skeletal muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Pagala, M.; Ravindran, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D. State Univ. of New York, Brooklyn )

    1991-03-11

    Chronic alcoholism causes myopathy of both cardiac and skeletal muscles. In order to evaluate acute effects, the authors infused ethanol intravenously in anesthetized rats, and, 10 min later, monitored the electrocardiogram, and the compound action potential and isometric tension of the anterior tibialis evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation. Ethanol at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 g/kg decreased the heart rate by 12%, 22% and 69%, increased the P-R interval by 5%, 25%, and 116%, and reduced the QRS amplitude by 1% , 2% and 10%, respectively. Within 5 min after infusing 0.5 g/kg ethanol, breathing was stopped. Ethanol increased the amplitude of the compound action potential and tension of the anterior tibialis by 25% at 0.1 and 0.2 g/kg, while it decreased the compound action potential by 5% and tension by 35% at 0.5 g/kg. At this dose, ethanol caused 70% decrement in amplitude of the compound action potentials and 50% fade of tetanic tensions evoked by a train of nerve stimulations at 100 Hz for 0.5 sec. When ethanol was injected intraperitoneally, about 10 times greater doses were required to produce effects equivalent to intravenous administration. These results indicate that ethanol reduces cardiac output dose-dependently, and potentiates skeletal muscle function at subintoxication doses and reduces it at higher doses.

  10. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:25588032

  11. Uptake and Dissolution of Gaseous Ethanol in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, Rebecca R.; Staton, Sarah J. R.; Iraci, Laura T.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of gas-phase ethanol (ethyl alcohol, CH3CH2OH, EtOH) in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was measured in a Knudsen cell reactor over ranges of temperature (209-237 K) and acid composition (39-76 wt % H2SO4). Ethanol is very soluble under these conditions: effective Henry's law coefficients, H*, range from 4 x 10(exp 4) M/atm in the 227 K, 39 wt % acid to greater than 10(exp 7) M/atm in the 76 wt % acid. In 76 wt % sulfuric acid, ethanol solubility exceeds that which can be precisely determined using the Knudsen cell technique but falls in the range of 10(exp 7)-10(exp 10) M/atm. The equilibrium concentration of ethanol in upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UT/LS) sulfate particles is calculated from these measurements and compared to other small oxygenated organic compounds. Even if ethanol is a minor component in the gas phase, it may be a major constituent of the organic fraction in the particle phase. No evidence for the formation of ethyl hydrogen sulfate was found under our experimental conditions. While the protonation of ethanol does augment solubility at higher acidity, the primary reason H* increases with acidity is an increase in the solubility of molecular (i.e., neutral) ethanol.

  12. Ethanol inhibits neuritogenesis induced by astrocyte muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Guizzetti, Marina; Moore, Nadia H; Giordano, Gennaro; VanDeMark, Kathryn L; Costa, Lucio G

    2010-09-01

    In utero alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that ethanol alters neuronal development. We have recently shown that stimulation of M(3) muscarinic receptors in astrocytes increases the synthesis and release of fibronectin, laminin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, causing neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons. As M(3) muscarinic receptor signaling in astroglial cells is strongly inhibited by ethanol, we hypothesized that ethanol may also inhibit neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons induced by carbachol-stimulated astrocytes. In the present study, we report that the effect of carbachol-stimulated astrocytes on hippocampal neuron neurite outgrowth was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner (25-100 mM) by ethanol. This effect was because of the inhibition of the release of fibronectin, laminin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Similar effects on neuritogenesis and on the release of astrocyte extracellular proteins were observed after the incubation of astrocytes with carbachol in the presence of 1-butanol, another short-chain alcohol, which like ethanol is a competitive substrate for phospholipase D, but not by tert-butanol, its analog that is not a substrate for this enzyme. This study identifies a potential novel mechanism involved in the developmental effects of ethanol mediated by the interaction of ethanol with cell signaling in astrocytes, leading to an impairment in neuron-astrocyte communication.

  13. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol.

  14. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    March, Samanta M.; Abate, P.; Molina, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption. PMID:23801947

  15. Physiological characterization of thermotolerant yeast for cellulosic ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniela A; de Souza, Carlos J A; Costa, Patrícia S; Rodrigues, Marina Q R B; dos Santos, Ancély F; Lopes, Mariana R; Genier, Hugo L A; Silveira, Wendel B; Fietto, Luciano G

    2014-04-01

    The conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars is considered a promising alternative for increasing ethanol production. Higher fermentation yield has been achieved through the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In this study, a comparison was performed between the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus for their potential use in SSF process. Three strains of S. cerevisiae were evaluated: two are widely used in the Brazilian ethanol industry (CAT-1 and PE-2), and one has been isolated based on its capacity to grow and ferment at 42 °C (LBM-1). In addition, we used thermotolerant strains of K. marxianus. Two strains were obtained from biological collections, ATCC 8554 and CCT 4086, and one strain was isolated based on its fermentative capacity (UFV-3). SSF experiments revealed that S. cerevisiae industrial strains (CAT-1 and PE-2) have the potential to produce cellulosic ethanol once ethanol had presented yields similar to yields from thermotolerant strains. The industrial strains are more tolerant to ethanol and had already been adapted to industrial conditions. Moreover, the study shows that although the K. marxianus strains have fermentative capacities similar to strains of S. cerevisiae, they have low tolerance to ethanol. This characteristic is an important target for enhancing the performance of this yeast in ethanol production.

  16. Ethanol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Cluette, J.E.; Mulligan, J.J.; Noring, R.; Doyle, K.; Hojnacki, J.

    1984-05-01

    Male squirrel monkeys fed ethanol at variable doses were used to assess whether alcohol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in vivo. Monkeys were divided into three groups: 1) controls fed isocaloric liquid diet; 2) low ethanol monkeys fed liquid diet with vodka substituted isocalorically for carbohydrate at 12% of calories; and 3) High Ethanol animals fed diet plus vodka at 24% of calories. High Ethanol primates had significantly higher levels of HDL nonesterified cholesterol than Control and Low Ethanol animals while serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase was similar for the three treatments. There were no significant differences between the groups in HDL cholesteryl ester mass or specific activity following intravenous injection of labeled mevalonolactone. By contrast, High Ethanol monkeys had significantly greater HDL nonesterified cholesterol specific activity with approximately 60% of the radioactivity distributed in the HDL/sub 3/ subfraction. This report provides the first experimental evidence that ethanol at 24% of calories induces elevations in HDL cholesterol in primates through enhanced de novo synthesis without adverse effects on liver function.

  17. ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENT RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced reinforcement. Experiment 1 compared ethanol-induced LMA in adolescent and adult rats. Subsequent experiments analyzed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion in adolescent rats evaluated for ethanol-induced LMA. Adolescent rats exhibit a robust LMA after high-dose ethanol. Ethanol-induced LMA was fairly similar across adolescents and adults. As expected, adolescents were sensitive to ethanol’s aversive reinforcement, but they also exhibited conditioned place preference. These measures of ethanol reinforcement, however, were not related to ethanol-induced LMA. Spontaneous LMA in an open field was, however, negatively associated with ethanol-induced CTA. PMID:22592597

  18. Potent inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced DNA strand breakage by ethanol: possible implications for ethanol-mediated cardiovascular protection.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhuoxiao; Li, Yunbo

    2004-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have conclusively demonstrated that moderate consumption of ethanol is causally associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular events. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the ethanol-mediated cardiovascular protection remain to be elucidated. Because peroxynitrite has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of various forms of cardiovascular disorders via its cytotoxic effects, this study was undertaken to investigate if ethanol could inhibit peroxynitrite-induced DNA strand breaks, a critical event leading to peroxynitrite-elicited cytotoxicity. Toward this goal, phiX-174 RF I plasmid DNA was used as an in vitro model to determine the protective effects of ethanol on peroxynitrite-induced DNA strand breaks. Incubation of phiX-174 plasmid DNA with the peroxynitrite generator, 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) led to the formation of both single- and double-stranded DNA breaks in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The presence of ethanol at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1% (w/v) resulted in a significant inhibition of SIN-1-induced DNA strand breaks. Ethanol also showed inhibitory effects on SIN-1-induced DNA strand breakage in the presence of bicarbonate. The inhibition of SIN-1-induced DNA strand breaks by ethanol exhibited a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, a marked inhibition of SIN-1-elicited DNA strand breaks was observed with 0.01% ethanol. Ethanol at 0.01-1% was unable to affect SIN-1-mediated oxygen consumption, indicating that ethanol did not affect the auto-oxidation of SIN-1 to form peroxynitrite. Furthermore, incubation of the plasmid DNA with authentic peroxynitrite resulted in a significant formation of DNA strand breaks, which could be dramatically inhibited by the presence of 0.02-0.1% ethanol. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that ethanol at physiologically relevant concentrations can potently inhibit peroxynitrite-induced DNA strand breakage. In view of

  19. Incentives and barriers to siting biomass ethanol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, C.T.; Fehrs, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Currently, there are 38 facilities in the United States with the capacity to produce approximately 1.5 billion gallons of ethanol annually. Most are located in the Midwest and use corn as feedstock. Others use other starch-rich residues or waste materials, such as cheese whey, potato processing waste, and waste beer as feedstock. Ethanol can also be produced from cellulose-rich materials, such as wood waste, paper sludge, municipal solid waste, and short rotation woody crops. However, the processes to convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol are less technologically mature, which is the primary reason why no commercial facilities produce ethanol from cellulosic materials. A number of technical, economic, and environmental factors indicate there are substantial opportunities for producing ethanol from cellulosic materials. In the 11-state Northeast region alone (from Maine to Maryland), the amount of biomass materials discarded in 1993 and potentially available from energy crops in the future could produce more than 2.7 billion gallons per year of ethanol. If priority were placed in encouraging the use of high ethanol fuels (such as E85) in public vehicle fleets alone, as much as 175 million gallons per year of fuel could be used. Theoretical analyses of air, ash, and wastewater emissions from hypothetical biomass ethanol plants indicate such plants should be able to meet existing environmental standards. Sensitivity analyses of various siting issues indicate that the availability of production incentives, the cost of capital, and feedstock cost have the greatest impact on the economic viability of a biomass ethanol plant.

  20. Comparison of blood ethanol stabilities in different storage periods

    PubMed Central

    Isiklar, Ozben Ozden; Kocak, Havva; Meral, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Measurements of blood ethanol concentrations must be accurate and reliable. The most important factors affecting blood ethanol stability are temperature and storage time. In this study, we aimed to compare ethanol stability in plasma samples at -20 °C for the different storage periods. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected from intoxicated drivers (N = 80) and initial plasma ethanol concentrations were measured immediately. Plasma samples were then stored at -20 °C and re-assessed after 2, 3, 4, or 5 months of storage. Differences between the initial and stored ethanol concentrations in each group (N = 20) were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. The deviation from the initial concentration was calculated and compared with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA’88) Proficiency Testing Limits. Relationships between the initial concentrations and deviations from initial concentrations were analyzed by Spearman’s correlation analysis. For all statistical tests, differences with P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Statistically significant differences were observed between the initial and poststorage ethanol concentrations in the overall sample group (P < 0.001). However, for the individual storage duration groups, analytically significant decreases were observed only for samples stored for 5 months, deviations from the initial concentrations exceeded the allowable total error (TEa). Ethanol decreases in the other groups did not exceed the TEa. Conclusion According to our results, plasma ethanol samples can be kept at -20 °C for up to 3-4 months until re-analysis. However, each laboratory should also establish its own work-flow rules and criterion for reliable ethanol measurement in forensic cases. PMID:25672467

  1. Traits of selected Clostridium strains for syngas fermentation to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael E; Richter, Hanno; Saha, Surya; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-03-01

    Syngas fermentation is an anaerobic bioprocess that could become industrially relevant as a biorefinery platform for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. An important prerequisite for commercialization is adequate performance of the biocatalyst (i.e., sufficiently high production rate, titer, selectivity, yield, and stability of the fermentation). Here, we compared the performance of three potential candidate Clostridium strains in syngas-to-ethanol conversion: Clostridium ljungdahlii PETC, C. ljungdahlii ERI-2, and Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1. Experiments were conducted in a two-stage, continuously fed syngas-fermentation system that had been optimized for stable ethanol production. The two C. ljungdahlii strains performed similar to each other but different from C. autoethanogenum. When the pH value was lowered from 5.5 to 4.5 to induce solventogenesis, the cell-specific carbon monoxide and hydrogen consumption (similar rate for all strains at pH 5.5), severely decreased in JA1-1, but hardly in PETC and ERI-2. Ethanol production in strains PETC and ERI-2 remained relatively stable while the rate of acetate production decreased, resulting in a high ethanol/acetate ratio, but lower overall productivities. With JA1-1, lowering the pH severely lowered rates of both ethanol and acetate production; and as a consequence, no pronounced shift to solventogenesis was observed. The highest overall ethanol production rate of 0.301 g · L(-1)  · h(-1) was achieved with PETC at pH 4.5 with a corresponding 19 g/L (1.9% w/v) ethanol concentration and a 5.5:1 ethanol/acetate molar ratio. A comparison of the genes relevant for ethanol metabolism revealed differences between C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum that, however, did not conclusively explain the different phenotypes.

  2. Does ethanol inhibit LH secretion in the rat?

    PubMed

    Ellingboe, J; Shaw, D G; Skupny, A S; Sikorski, M A

    1987-01-01

    A prevailing view among those studying neuroendocrine effects of ethanol is that acute doses suppress luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion, and consequently inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) release in the rat. This phenomenon has not been observed in primates, and has been thought to be a species difference. The experimental procedures, however, have involved ethanol administration by oral or intragastric (ig) routes in humans and monkeys, but intraperitoneal (ip) or carotid artery injection in rats. It has also been suggested that inhibition of LH secretion by ethanol in rats is mediated by endogenous opioid peptides (EOP), because the effect can be reversed by the opiate antagonist naloxone. An alternative explanation is that ip ethanol injection might stress rats sufficiently to activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (H-P-A) and EOP systems that are well known to inhibit hormonal activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis. Presented here are preliminary results from experiments with male rats. When ethanol is administered ig, under relatively stress-free conditions, it does not inhibit LH secretion in gonadally intact or castrated males. In contrast, ip injection of the same ethanol dose (2.0 g/kg body wt) causes pronounced inhibition of LH secretion and concomitant increases in plasma prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone--indicative of a stress response. Furthermore, when ip ethanol administration is preceded by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) antagonist (alpha-helical ovine CRF residues 9 to 41), the effects of ethanol on LH and corticosterone are blocked. These results indicate that it may be stress, rather than ethanol per se, that inhibits LHRH and LH secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Peripheral oxytocin administration reduces ethanol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    MacFadyen, Kaley; Loveless, Rebecca; DeLucca, Brandon; Wardley, Krystal; Deogan, Sumeet; Thomas, Cameron; Peris, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin interacts with mesolimbic dopamine neurons to mediate reward associated with filial behaviors, but also other rewarding behaviors such as eating or taking drugs of abuse. Based on its efficacy to decrease intake of other abused substances, oxytocin administration is implicated as a possible treatment for excessive alcohol consumption. We tested this hypothesis by measuring ethanol intake in male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with oxytocin or saline using two different ethanol self-administration paradigms. First, a dose-response curve was constructed for oxytocin inhibition of fluid intake using a modified drinking-in-the-dark model with three bottles containing .05% saccharine, 10% ethanol in saccharine, and 15% ethanol in saccharine. Doses of oxytocin tested were 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5mg/kg (I.P.). Next, rats received 0.3mg/kg oxytocin preceding operant sessions in which they were trained to lever-press for either plain gelatin or ethanol gelatin in order to compare oxytocin inhibition of ethanol intake versus caloric intake. For the three-bottle choice study, rats consumed significantly less ethanol when treated with the three higher doses of oxytocin on the injection day. In the operant study, 0.3mg/kg oxytocin significantly decreased ethanol gel consumption to a greater extent than plain gel consumption, both in terms of the amount of gel eaten and calories consumed. These data affirm oxytocin's efficacy for decreasing ethanol intake in rats, and confirm clinical studies suggesting oxytocin as a potential treatment for alcoholism.

  4. Peripheral oxytocin administration reduces ethanol consumption in rats

    PubMed Central

    MacFadyen, Kaley; Loveless, Rebecca; DeLucca, Brandon; Wardley, Krystal; Deogan, Sumeet; Thomas, Cameron; Peris, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin interacts with mesolimbic dopamine neurons to mediate reward associated with filial behaviors, but also other rewarding behaviors such as eating or taking drugs of abuse. Based on its efficacy to decrease intake of other abused substances, oxytocin administration is implicated as a possible treatment for excessive alcohol consumption. We tested this hypothesis by measuring ethanol intake in male Sprague–Dawley rats injected with oxytocin or saline using two different ethanol self-administration paradigms. First, a dose–response curve was constructed for oxytocin inhibition of fluid intake using a modified drinking-in-the-dark model with three bottles containing .05% saccharine, 10% ethanol in saccharine, and 15% ethanol in saccharine. Doses of oxytocin tested were 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/kg (I.P.). Next, rats received 0.3 mg/kg oxytocin preceding operant sessions in which they were trained to lever-press for either plain gelatin or ethanol gelatin in order to compare oxytocin inhibition of ethanol intake versus caloric intake. For the three-bottle choice study, rats consumed significantly less ethanol when treated with the three higher doses of oxytocin on the injection day. In the operant study, 0.3 mg/kg oxytocin significantly decreased ethanol gel consumption to a greater extent than plain gel consumption, both in terms of the amount of gel eaten and calories consumed. These data affirm oxytocin's efficacy for decreasing ethanol intake in rats, and confirm clinical studies suggesting oxytocin as a potential treatment for alcoholism. PMID:26519603

  5. Increased vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescent maternal separated mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, María S; Navarrete, Francisco; Aracil, Auxiliadora; Bartoll, Adrián; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Lanciego, José L; Rubio, Gabriel; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early life stress on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescence. To this aim, mice were separated from their mothers for 12 hours/day on postnatal days 8 and 12. Emotional behavior (light-dark box, elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests) and pre-attentional deficit (pre-pulse inhibition) were evaluated in adolescent maternal separated (MS) mice. Alterations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), mu-opioid receptor (MOr), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy (NF200)-immunoreactive fibers were studied in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) or hippocampus (HIP). The effects of maternal separation (alone or in combination with additional stressful stimuli) on ethanol consumption during adolescence were evaluated using the oral ethanol self-administration paradigm. MS mice presented mood-related alterations and pre-attentional deficit. Increased CRF, MOr and TH, and reduced BDNF, NR3C1, NeuN, MAP2 and NF200-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the PVN, NAc and HIP of adolescent MS mice. In the oral ethanol self-administration test, adolescent MS mice presented higher ethanol consumption and motivation. Exposure to additional new stressful stimuli during adolescence significantly increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption induced by maternal separation. These results clearly demonstrated that exposure to early life stress increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption, potentiated the effects of stressful stimuli exposure during adolescence on ethanol consumption and modified the expression of key targets involved in the response to stress, ethanol reinforcing properties and cognitive processes. PMID:25988842

  6. Ethanol adsorption on the Si (111) surface: First principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilenko, Alexander V.; Bonner, Carl E.; Gavrilenko, Vladimir I.

    2012-03-01

    Equilibrium atomic configurations and electron energy structure of ethanol adsorbed on the Si (111) surface are studied by the first principles density functional theory. Geometry optimization is performed by the total energy minimization method. Equilibrium atomic geometries of ethanol, both undissociated and dissociated, on the Si (111) surface are found and analysed. Reaction pathways and predicted transition states are discussed in comparison with available experimental data in terms of the feasibility of the reactions occurring. Analysis of atom and orbital resolved projected density of states indicates substantial modifications of the Si surface valence and conduction electron bands due to the adsorption of ethanol affecting the electronic properties of the surface.

  7. Comparison of ethanol production by different Zymomonas strains

    SciTech Connect

    Skotnicki, M.L.; Lee, K.J.; Tribe, D.E.; Rogers, P.L.

    1981-04-01

    A comparison of the rates of growth and ethanol production by 11 different strains of Zymomonas revealed a wide range of characteristics, with some strains being more tolerant of high sugar or ethanol concentrations and high incubation temperatures than others. Some strains were unable to utilize sucrose; others produced large amounts of levan, and one strain grew well but produced no levan. One strain, CP4, was considerably better in all respects than most of the other strains and was chosen as a starting strain for genetic improvement of ethanol production.

  8. Intermolecular forces in acetonitrile + ethanol binary liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, A.; Shanmugam, R.; Arivazhagan, G.; Mahendraprabu, A.; Karthick, N. K.

    2015-10-01

    FTIR spectral measurements have been carried out on the binary mixtures of acetonitrile with ethanol at 1:0 (acetonitrile:ethanol), 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 0:1 at room temperature. DFT and isosurface calculations have been performed. The acetonitrile + ethanol binary mixtures consist of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 complexes formed through both the red and blue shifting H-bonds. Inter as well as intra molecular forces are found to exist in 1:3 and 1:4 complexes.

  9. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  10. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  11. Ethanol induces rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.B.

    1987-03-09

    Mice with unilateal striatal lesions created by 6-hydroxydopamine (6HDA) injection were screened for rotational (circling) behavior in response to injection of amphetamine and apomorphine. Those that rotated ipsilaterally in response to amphetamine and contralaterally in response to apomorphine were subsequently challenged with 1 to 3 g/kg (i.p.) ethanol. Surprisingly, ethanol induced dose related contralateral (apomorphine-like) rotation which, despite gross intoxication, was quite marked in most animals. No significant correlation was found between the number of turns made following ethanol and made after apomorphine or amphetamine. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  12. Comparison of Ethanol Production by Different Zymomonas Strains

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, M. L.; Lee, K. J.; Tribe, D. E.; Rogers, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of the rates of growth and ethanol production by 11 different strains of Zymomonas revealed a wide range of characteristics, with some strains being more tolerant of high sugar or ethanol concentrations and high incubation temperatures than others. Some strains were unable to utilize sucrose; others produced large amounts of levan, and one strain grew well but produced no levan. One strain, CP4, was considerably better in all respects than most of the other strains and was chosen as a starting strain for genetic improvement of ethanol production. PMID:16345753

  13. Ethanol withdrawal in mice precipitated and exacerbated by hyperbaric exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Alkana, R.L.; Finn, D.A.; Galleisky, G.G.; Syapin, P.J.; Malcolm, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Mice were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 9 days. On removal of the diet, exposure to 12 atmospheres absolute of a mixture of helium and oxygen precipitated earlier withdrawal, increased withdrawal scores for the first 6 hours, and increased the peak withdrawal intensity compared to dependent animals exposed to control conditions. The enhanced withdrawal did not appear to reflect alterations in ethanol elimination, oxygen or helium partial pressures, body temperature, or general excitability. These results extend to chronically treated animals the evidence that hyperbaric exposure antagonizes the membrane actions of ethanol.

  14. Fetal Learning About Ethanol and Later Ethanol Responsiveness: Evidence Against “Safe” Amounts of Prenatal Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Paula; Pueta, Mariana; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    Near-term fetuses of different mammalian species, including humans, exhibit functional sensory and learning capabilities. The neurobiological literature indicates that the unborn organism processes sensory stimuli present in the amniotic fluid, retains this information for considerable amounts of time, and is also capable of associating such stimuli with biologically relevant events. This research has stimulated studies aimed at the analysis of fetal and neonatal learning about ethanol, a topic that constitutes the core of the present review. Ethanol has characteristic sensory (olfactory, taste, and trigeminal) attributes and can exert pharmacologic reinforcing effects. The studies under examination support the hypothesis that low to moderate levels of maternal ethanol intoxication during late pregnancy set the opportunity for fetal learning about ethanol. These levels of prenatal ethanol exposure do not generate evident morphologic or neurobehavioral alterations in the offspring, but they exert a significant impact upon later ethanol-seeking and intake behaviors. Supported by preclinical and clinical findings, this review contributes to strengthening the case for the ability of prenatal ethanol exposure to have effects on the postnatal organism. PMID:18222969

  15. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A.; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Lennartsson, Patrik R.

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m3 of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year. PMID:26682213

  16. Emissions of aldehydes and ketones from a two-stroke engine using ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger; Nilsson, Calle; Andersson, Barbro

    2002-04-15

    Besides aliphatic gasoline, ethanol-blended gasoline intended for use in small utility engines was recently introduced on the Swedish market. For small utility engines, little data is available showing the effects of these fuels on exhaust emissions, especially concerning aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls). The objective of the present investigation was to study carbonyl emissions and regulated emissions from a two-stroke chain saw engine using ethanol, gasoline, and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel (0%, 15%, 50%, 85%, and 100% ethanol). The effects of the ethanol-blending level and mechanical changes of the relative air/fuel ratio, lambda, on exhaust emissions was investigated, both for aliphatic and regular gasoline. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aromatic aldehydes were the most abundant carbonyls in the exhaust. Acetaldehyde dominated for all ethanol-blended fuels (1.2-12 g/kWh, depending on the fuel and lambda), and formaldehyde dominated for gasoline (0.74-2.3 g/kWh, depending on the type of gasoline and lambda). The main effects of ethanol blending were increased acetaldehyde emissions (30-44 times for pure ethanol), reduced emissions of all other carbonyls exceptformaldehyde and acrolein (which showed a more complex relation to the ethanol content), reduced carbon monoxide (CO) and ntirogen oxide (NO) emissions, and increased hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen dixodie (NO2) emissions. The main effects of increasing lambda were increased emissions of carbonyls and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and reduced CO and HC emissions. When the two types of gasoline are considered, benzaldehyde and tolualdehyde could be directly related to the gasoline content of aromatics or olefins, but also acrolein, propanal, crotonaldehyde, and methyl ethyl ketone mainly originated from aromatics or olefins, while the main source for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methacrolein, and butanal was saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  17. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m(3) of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m(3) ethanol/year.

  18. 26 CFR 48.4041-19 - Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....4041-19 Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel. (a) In general. Under section 4041(b)(2... or use of qualified methanol or ethanol fuel. (b) Qualified methanol or ethanol fuel defined. For purposes of section 4041(b)(2) and this section, qualified methanol or ethanol fuel is liquid motor...

  19. Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

    Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

  20. Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activating Effects of Caffeine and Ethanol Combinations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Megan L.T.; May, Christina E.; Griffin, William C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing trend among ethanol drinkers, especially young adults, is to combine caffeinated energy drinks with ethanol during a drinking episode. The primary active ingredient of these mixers is caffeine, which may significantly interact with ethanol. We tested the two hypotheses that caffeine would enhance ethanol-conditioned place preference and also enhance ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity. The interactive pharmacology of ethanol and caffeine was examined in C57BL/6J (B6) mice in a conditioned place preference procedure with 1.75 g/kg ethanol and 3 mg/kg caffeine. Additionally, we used B6 mice to evaluate ethanol/caffeine combinations on locomotor activity using 3 doses of ethanol (1.75, 2.5 and 3.25 g/kg) and 2 two doses of caffeine (3 and 15 mg/kg). Both ethanol and caffeine administered alone increased preference for the drug paired side, though the effect of caffeine was more modest than that of ethanol. The drug combination produced significant place preference itself, but this was not greater than that for ethanol alone. Additionally, the combination of caffeine and ethanol significantly increased locomotion compared to giving either drug alone. The effect was strongest with a stimulatory dose of ethanol (1.75 g/kg) and waned with increasing doses of ethanol. Thus, combinations of caffeine and ethanol had significant conditioned reinforcing and locomotor activating effects in mice. PMID:23872371

  1. Maize proximate composition and physical properties correlations to dry-grind ethanol concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry grind ethanol plants incur economic losses due to seasonal variations in ethanol yields. One possible cause associated with ethanol yield variability is incoming grain quality. There is little published information on factors causing variation in dry grind ethanol concentrations. The objective o...

  2. The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike

    2010-11-01

    Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired. PMID:20739429

  3. 26 CFR 48.4041-19 - Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol....4041-19 Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel. (a) In general. Under section 4041(b)(2... or use of qualified methanol or ethanol fuel. (b) Qualified methanol or ethanol fuel defined....

  4. 40 CFR 80.1611 - Standards and requirements for certified ethanol denaturant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certified ethanol denaturant. 80.1611 Section 80.1611 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION....1611 Standards and requirements for certified ethanol denaturant. Producers and importers of ethanol denaturant that is suitable for the manufacture of denatured fuel ethanol (DFE) meeting federal...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-19 - Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol....4041-19 Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel. (a) In general. Under section 4041(b)(2... or use of qualified methanol or ethanol fuel. (b) Qualified methanol or ethanol fuel defined....

  6. 26 CFR 48.4041-19 - Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol....4041-19 Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel. (a) In general. Under section 4041(b)(2... or use of qualified methanol or ethanol fuel. (b) Qualified methanol or ethanol fuel defined....

  7. 40 CFR 1065.725 - High-level ethanol-gasoline blends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ethanol used for blending must be either denatured ethanol meeting the specifications in 40 CFR 80.1610... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level ethanol-gasoline blends... Calibration Standards § 1065.725 High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. For testing vehicles capable of...

  8. The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike

    2010-11-01

    Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired.

  9. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanchuk, John

    2010-11-30

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the U.S. ethanol industry and to outline the major forces that will affect the development of the industry over the next decade.

  10. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  11. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddy, James L.; Arora, Dinesh K.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, John Randall; Basu, Rahul; Wikstrom, Carl V.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    2007-10-23

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  12. Detoxification and fermentation of pyrolytic sugar for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Livingston, Darrell; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Li, Qi; Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei

    2012-11-01

    The sugars present in bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis can potentially be fermented by microbial organisms to produce cellulosic ethanol. This study shows the potential for microbial digestion of the aqueous fraction of bio-oil in an enrichment medium to consume glucose and produce ethanol. In addition to glucose, inhibitors such as furans and phenols are present in the bio-oil. A pure glucose enrichment medium of 20 g/l was used as a standard to compare with glucose and aqueous fraction mixtures for digestion. Thirty percent by volume of aqueous fraction in media was the maximum additive amount that could be consumed and converted to ethanol. Inhibitors were removed by extraction, activated carbon, air stripping, and microbial methods. After economic analysis, the cost of ethanol using an inexpensive fermentation medium in a large scale plant is approximately $14 per gallon.

  13. Trends in biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from different feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Oscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2008-09-01

    Present work deals with the biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from different raw materials. The different technologies for producing fuel ethanol from sucrose-containing feedstocks (mainly sugar cane), starchy materials and lignocellulosic biomass are described along with the major research trends for improving them. The complexity of the biomass processing is recognized through the analysis of the different stages involved in the conversion of lignocellulosic complex into fermentable sugars. The features of fermentation processes for the three groups of studied feedstocks are discussed. Comparative indexes for the three major types of feedstocks for fuel ethanol production are presented. Finally, some concluding considerations on current research and future tendencies in the production of fuel ethanol regarding the pretreatment and biological conversion of the feedstocks are presented.

  14. Ethanol production from cellulose by two lignocellulolytic soil fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Durrant, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    The present work examines the production of ethanol via direct fermentation of pure celluloses and lignocellulosic wastes by two soil fungi isolated under anaerobic conditions. The strains were cultured on a defined medium containing filter paper slurry as the carbon source under anaerobic, microaerophilic, and aerobic conditions. After complete degradation of the cellulose, lignocellulases and fermentation products were determined. Highest activities for Trichocladium canadense (strain Q10) and the basidiomycete strain (strain H2), were obtained when cultures were incubated under microaerophilic conditions and air, respectively. Laccase activity was present in the culture supernatants of both strains, but peroxidase was only produced by strain H2. Ethanol was the major nongaseous fermentation product. Highest conversion of available cellulose to ethanol was obtained with strain Q10 (90-96%), under microaerophilic conditions. Ethanol production decreased when microcrystalline cellulose and lignocellulosic substrates were used. 29 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Psychophysical assessments of sourness in citric acid-ethanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Guirao, Miguelina; Greco Driano, Ezequiel J; Evin, Diego; Calviño, Amalia

    2013-12-01

    The effect of ethanol in modulating the intensity and duration of the perceived sourness induced by citric acid was studied. Magnitude Estimation-Converging Limits method was applied to rate the sourness of seven solutions (3-70 mM) of citric acid in aqueous solution presented alone and mixed with 8% V/V or 15% V/V ethanol. Dynamic sourness ratings of 5, 15, and 45 mM citric acid alone and mixed with the same two ethanol levels were assessed by the Time Intensity Method (TI). Results were consistent with both methods. Sourness changed with citric acid concentration and ethanol levels. From TI measurements, a similar interactive pattern was obtained for parameters as duration, area under the curve, peak and average intensity.

  16. Ethanol-induced hypothermia and hyperglycemia in genetically obese mice

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.W.; Wittmers, L.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Blood glucose and rectal temperatures were monitored in two strains of genetically obese mice (C57 BL/6J ob/ob) prior to and following intragastric ethanol administration in an attempt to relate the hypothermic response to ethanol to extracellular glucose concentration. In contrast to expectation, ethanol administration was typically associated with a hyperglycemia and a hypothermic response. In the ob/ob genotype, the hypothermic response was associated with pronounced hyperglycemia which was more emphatic in older animals. The data support the conclusion that ethanol-induced hypothermia is independent of blood glucose levels. In light of the known sensitivity of ob/ob mice to insulin, it is suggested further that the observed hypothermic response was not a function of the animals' ability to transport glucose into peripheral cells. The observed hyperglycemia of the obese animals was most likely stress-related

  17. Ethanol from whey: continuous fermentation with cell recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, J.H.; Bernard, A.; Bailey, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The production of ethanol from cheese whey lactose has been demonstrated using a single-stage continuous culture fermentation with 100% cell recycle. In a two-step process, an aerobic fed batch operation was used initially to allow biomass buildup in the absence of inhibitory ethanol concentrations. In the anaerobic ethanol-producing second step, a strain of Kluyveromyces fragilis selected on the basis of batch fermentation data had a maximum productivity of 7.1 g ethanol/L/h at a dilution rate of 0.15 h/sup -1/, while achieving the goal of zero residual sugar concentration. The fermentation productivity diminished when the feed sugar concentration exceeded 120 g/L despite the inclusion of a lipid mixture previous shown to enhance batch fermentation productivities.

  18. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1991-03-21

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35[degrees]C to about 40[degrees]C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol.

  19. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1991-03-21

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35{degrees}C to about 40{degrees}C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol.

  20. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S.

    2008-04-01

    This report identifies, outlines, and documents a set of plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017. These scenarios can provide guidance for setting government policy and targeting government investment to the areas with greatest potential impact.