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Sample records for 9-point hedonic scale

  1. Comparison of the hedonic general Labeled Magnitude Scale with the hedonic 9-point scale.

    PubMed

    Kalva, Jaclyn J; Sims, Charles A; Puentes, Lorenzo A; Snyder, Derek J; Bartoshuk, Linda M

    2014-02-01

    The hedonic 9-point scale was designed to compare palatability among different food items; however, it has also been used occasionally to compare individuals and groups. Such comparisons can be invalid because scale labels (for example, "like extremely") can denote systematically different hedonic intensities across some groups. Addressing this problem, the hedonic general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) frames affective experience in terms of the strongest imaginable liking/disliking of any kind, which can yield valid group comparisons of food palatability provided extreme hedonic experiences are unrelated to food. For each scale, 200 panelists rated affect for remembered food products (including favorite and least favorite foods) and sampled foods; they also sampled taste stimuli (quinine, sucrose, NaCl, citric acid) and rated their intensity. Finally, subjects identified experiences representing the endpoints of the hedonic gLMS. Both scales were similar in their ability to detect within-subject hedonic differences across a range of food experiences, but group comparisons favored the hedonic gLMS. With the 9-point scale, extreme labels were strongly associated with extremes in food affect. In contrast, gLMS data showed that scale extremes referenced nonfood experiences. Perceived taste intensity significantly influenced differences in food liking/disliking (for example, those experiencing the most intense tastes, called supertasters, showed more extreme liking and disliking for their favorite and least favorite foods). Scales like the hedonic gLMS are suitable for across-group comparisons of food palatability.

  2. Comparison of the hedonic general Labeled Magnitude Scale with the hedonic 9-point scale.

    PubMed

    Kalva, Jaclyn J; Sims, Charles A; Puentes, Lorenzo A; Snyder, Derek J; Bartoshuk, Linda M

    2014-02-01

    The hedonic 9-point scale was designed to compare palatability among different food items; however, it has also been used occasionally to compare individuals and groups. Such comparisons can be invalid because scale labels (for example, "like extremely") can denote systematically different hedonic intensities across some groups. Addressing this problem, the hedonic general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) frames affective experience in terms of the strongest imaginable liking/disliking of any kind, which can yield valid group comparisons of food palatability provided extreme hedonic experiences are unrelated to food. For each scale, 200 panelists rated affect for remembered food products (including favorite and least favorite foods) and sampled foods; they also sampled taste stimuli (quinine, sucrose, NaCl, citric acid) and rated their intensity. Finally, subjects identified experiences representing the endpoints of the hedonic gLMS. Both scales were similar in their ability to detect within-subject hedonic differences across a range of food experiences, but group comparisons favored the hedonic gLMS. With the 9-point scale, extreme labels were strongly associated with extremes in food affect. In contrast, gLMS data showed that scale extremes referenced nonfood experiences. Perceived taste intensity significantly influenced differences in food liking/disliking (for example, those experiencing the most intense tastes, called supertasters, showed more extreme liking and disliking for their favorite and least favorite foods). Scales like the hedonic gLMS are suitable for across-group comparisons of food palatability. PMID:24422940

  3. The 9-point hedonic scale and hedonic ranking in food science: some reappraisals and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Wichchukit, Sukanya; O'Mahony, Michael

    2015-08-30

    The 9-point hedonic scale has been used routinely in food science, the same way for 60 years. Now, with advances in technology, data from the scale are being used for more and more complex programs for statistical analysis and modeling. Accordingly, it is worth reconsidering the presentation protocols and the analyses associated with the scale, as well as some alternatives. How the brain generates numbers and the types of numbers it generates has relevance for the choice of measurement protocols. There are alternatives to the generally used serial monadic protocol, which can be more suitable. Traditionally, the 'words' on the 9-point hedonic scale are reassigned as 'numbers', while other '9-point hedonic scales' are purely numerical; the two are not interchangeable. Parametric statistical analysis of scaling data is examined critically and alternatives discussed. The potential of a promising alternative to scaling itself, simple ranking with a hedonic R-Index signal detection analysis, is explored in comparison with the 9-point hedonic scale.

  4. The 9-point hedonic scale and hedonic ranking in food science: some reappraisals and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Wichchukit, Sukanya; O'Mahony, Michael

    2015-08-30

    The 9-point hedonic scale has been used routinely in food science, the same way for 60 years. Now, with advances in technology, data from the scale are being used for more and more complex programs for statistical analysis and modeling. Accordingly, it is worth reconsidering the presentation protocols and the analyses associated with the scale, as well as some alternatives. How the brain generates numbers and the types of numbers it generates has relevance for the choice of measurement protocols. There are alternatives to the generally used serial monadic protocol, which can be more suitable. Traditionally, the 'words' on the 9-point hedonic scale are reassigned as 'numbers', while other '9-point hedonic scales' are purely numerical; the two are not interchangeable. Parametric statistical analysis of scaling data is examined critically and alternatives discussed. The potential of a promising alternative to scaling itself, simple ranking with a hedonic R-Index signal detection analysis, is explored in comparison with the 9-point hedonic scale. PMID:25378223

  5. Derivation and evaluation of a labeled hedonic scale.

    PubMed

    Lim, Juyun; Wood, Alison; Green, Barry G

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a semantically labeled hedonic scale (LHS) that would yield ratio-level data on the magnitude of liking/disliking of sensation equivalent to that produced by magnitude estimation (ME). The LHS was constructed by having 49 subjects who were trained in ME rate the semantic magnitudes of 10 common hedonic descriptors within a broad context of imagined hedonic experiences that included tastes and flavors. The resulting bipolar scale is statistically symmetrical around neutral and has a unique semantic structure. The LHS was evaluated quantitatively by comparing it with ME and the 9-point hedonic scale. The LHS yielded nearly identical ratings to those obtained using ME, which implies that its semantic labels are valid and that it produces ratio-level data equivalent to ME. Analyses of variance conducted on the hedonic ratings from the LHS and the 9-point scale gave similar results, but the LHS showed much greater resistance to ceiling effects and yielded normally distributed data, whereas the 9-point scale did not. These results indicate that the LHS has significant semantic, quantitative, and statistical advantages over the 9-point hedonic scale.

  6. Superfund, Hedonics, and the Scales of Environmental Justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noonan, Douglas S.; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; Baden, Brett M.

    2009-11-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) is prominent in environmental policy, yet EJ research is plagued by debates over methodological procedures. A well-established economic approach, the hedonic price method, can offer guidance on one contentious aspect of EJ research: the choice of the spatial unit of analysis. Environmental managers charged with preventing or remedying inequities grapple with these framing problems. This article reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on unit choice in EJ, as well as research employing hedonic pricing to assess the spatial extent of hazardous waste site impacts. The insights from hedonics are demonstrated in a series of EJ analyses for a national inventory of Superfund sites. First, as evidence of injustice exhibits substantial sensitivity to the choice of spatial unit, hedonics suggests some units conform better to Superfund impacts than others. Second, hedonic estimates for a particular site can inform the design of appropriate tests of environmental inequity for that site. Implications for policymakers and practitioners of EJ analyses are discussed.

  7. Assessment of anhedonia in psychological trauma: development of the Hedonic Deficit and Interference Scale

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul A.; Dean, Jasmine A.; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptoms of anhedonia, or deficits in the ability to experience positive affect, are increasingly recognized as an outcome of traumatic stress. Herein we demonstrate a phenomenon of “negative affective interference”, specifically, negative affective responses to positive events, in association with childhood trauma history. Young adults (n=99) completed a Hedonic Deficit & Interference Scale (HDIS), a self-report measure developed for this study, as well as a modified version of the Fawcette-Clarke Pleasure Capacity Scale that assessed not only positive but also negative affective responses to positive events. The two assessment approaches demonstrated convergent validity and predicted concurrent individual differences in trait positive and negative affect, and extraversion and neuroticism. Histories of childhood emotional and sexual abuse were differentially associated with negative affective responses to positive events. Future research and clinical directions are discussed. PMID:22893833

  8. Profiling motives behind hedonic eating. Preliminary validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale.

    PubMed

    Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Lokken, K L; Morse, A; Boggiano, M M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a new scale designed to measure individual motives for eating tasty foods and determine if any specific motive(s) are associated with obesity. The "Palatable Eating Motives Scale" (PEMS) is a self-report measure adapted from the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R). N=150 racially-diverse college students (mean age: 24.4, BMI: 16-51kg/m(2)) were administered the PEMS along with the Binge-Eating Scale (BES) and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to test for convergent and incremental validity and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) for discriminant validity. The PEMS identified four motives for eating tasty food, the same ones found with the DMQ-R for alcohol intake: Social, Conformity, Enhancement, and Coping motives. The scales had good convergent validity with BES and YFAS scores but discriminated from the broader motivational constructs of inhibition and activation measured by the SPSRQ. Of the PEMS motives, Coping (eating tasty food to deal with problems and negative feelings) accounted for unique variance in BMI, and added to variance in BMI contributed by BES scores, showing incremental validity. YFAS scores did not contribute to BMI after controlling for binge-eating. Coping subscale scores were also significantly higher (p<0.001) among the severely obese (BMI>40). Motives behind palatable food intake are not homogenous and should be considered in personalized weight-loss strategies in future studies. In normal weight individuals, knowing one's dominant motive for eating tasty foods may help promote healthier food choices in times and places where they are most vulnerable to do otherwise.

  9. Increased hedonic differences despite increases in hedonic range.

    PubMed

    Zellner, Debra A; Jones, Ke'Nesha; Morino, Jennifer; Cogan, Elizabeth S; Jennings, Emily M; Parker, Scott

    2010-07-01

    Viewing hedonically negative paintings increased the hedonic ratings of subsequently viewed test paintings (positive hedonic contrast; Experiment 1) and also increased the degree of preference between the test paintings (Experiments 2 and 3). This result differs from the reduction in hedonic preference (hedonic condensation) that accompanies negative hedonic contrast. It also differs from the reduction in perceived differences that usually accompanies expansion of stimulus range and that is predicted by numerous theories.

  10. Two types of psychological hedonism.

    PubMed

    Garson, Justin

    2016-04-01

    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or "I-hedonism") holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or "R-hedonism") holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person's cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I'll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and that it coheres well with the neuroscientist Anthony Dickinson's theory about the evolutionary function of hedonic states, the "hedonic interface theory." Finally, I'll defend R-hedonism from potential objections. PMID:26614552

  11. Two types of psychological hedonism.

    PubMed

    Garson, Justin

    2016-04-01

    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or "I-hedonism") holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or "R-hedonism") holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person's cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I'll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and that it coheres well with the neuroscientist Anthony Dickinson's theory about the evolutionary function of hedonic states, the "hedonic interface theory." Finally, I'll defend R-hedonism from potential objections.

  12. NASA 9-Point LDI Code Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Locke, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation highlights the experimental work to date to obtain validation data using a 9-point lean direct injector (LDI) in support of the National Combustion Code. The LDI is designed to supply fuel lean, Jet-A and air directly into the combustor such that the liquid fuel atomizes and mixes rapidly to produce short flame zones and produce low levels of oxides of nitrogen and CO. We present NOx and CO emission results from gas sample data that support that aspect of the design concept. We describe this injector and show high speed movies of selected operating points. We present image-based species maps of OH, fuel, CH and NO obtained using planar laser induced fluorescence and chemiluminescence. We also present preliminary 2-component, axial and vertical, velocity vectors of the air flow obtained using particle image velocimetry and of the fuel drops in a combusting case. For the same combusting case, we show preliminary 3-component velocity vectors obtained using a phase Doppler anemometer. For the fueled, combusting cases especially, we found optical density is a technical concern that must be addressed, but that in general, these preliminary results are promising. All optical-based results confirm that this injector produces short flames, typically on the order of 5- to-7-mm long at typical cruise and high power engine cycle conditions.

  13. Hedonic ratings and perceived healthiness in experimental functional food choices.

    PubMed

    Urala, Nina; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2006-11-01

    The associations of liking and perceived healthiness ratings between repeated food choices were studied in two experiments. Participants' snack bar (n=41, Experiment I) and beverage (n=60, Experiment II) choices among six product alternatives were monitored for 4 and 3 weeks, respectively. In Experiment I, participants were allowed to familiarise themselves with snack bar alternatives ("familiar assortment") prior to making choices. In Experiment II, the participants started making their beverage choices without familiarising themselves ("unfamiliar assortment"). In both experiments, the participants were divided into three groups according to their choice behaviour for each alternative: non-interested (0 choices), experimenters (1 choice) and potential frequent users (2 or more choices). In Experiment I, the overall difference between non-interested and potential frequent users of a product was 1.3 points in expected liking and 2.6 points in actual liking on a 7-point scale (ANOVA, p<0.001). In Experiment II, the overall differences in blind hedonic ratings between non-interested participants and potential frequent users of a product were within a range of 0.9 points (p<0.001). The difference was wider for expected liking ratings, 1.3 points (p<0.001). Neither the perceived healthiness of the samples nor the background attitudes could be consistently associated with the choices (Pearson's correlation coefficient).

  14. Real-time sampling of reasons for hedonic food consumption: further validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, Mary M; Wenger, Lowell E; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M; Sylvester, Maria D; Morgan, Phillip R; Morse, Kathryn E; Burgess, Emilee E

    2015-01-01

    Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills. PMID:26082744

  15. Real-time sampling of reasons for hedonic food consumption: further validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale

    PubMed Central

    Boggiano, Mary M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M.; Sylvester, Maria D.; Morgan, Phillip R.; Morse, Kathryn E.; Burgess, Emilee E.

    2015-01-01

    Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills. PMID:26082744

  16. Real-time sampling of reasons for hedonic food consumption: further validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, Mary M; Wenger, Lowell E; Turan, Bulent; Tatum, Mindy M; Sylvester, Maria D; Morgan, Phillip R; Morse, Kathryn E; Burgess, Emilee E

    2015-01-01

    Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM) to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s) they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported) coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-levels mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills.

  17. Identification and Estimation of Hedonic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekeland, Ivar; Heckman, James J.; Nesheim, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the identification and estimation of hedonic models. We establish that in an additive version of the hedonic model, technology and preferences are generically nonparametrically identified from data on demand and supply in a single hedonic market. The empirical literature that claims that hedonic models estimated on data from a…

  18. Decision making: rational or hedonic?

    PubMed Central

    Cabanac, Michel; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments studied the hedonicity of decision making. Participants rated their pleasure/displeasure while reading item-sentences describing political and social problems followed by different decisions (Questionnaire 1). Questionnaire 2 was multiple-choice, grouping the items from Questionnaire 1. In Experiment 1, participants answered Questionnaire 2 rapidly or slowly. Both groups selected what they had rated as pleasant, but the 'leisurely' group maximized pleasure less. In Experiment 2, participants selected the most rational responses. The selected behaviors were pleasant but less than spontaneous behaviors. In Experiment 3, Questionnaire 2 was presented once with items grouped by theme, and once with items shuffled. Participants maximized the pleasure of their decisions, but the items selected on Questionnaires 2 were different when presented in different order. All groups maximized pleasure equally in their decisions. These results support that decisions are made predominantly in the hedonic dimension of consciousness. PMID:17848195

  19. Hedonics of odors and odor descriptors

    SciTech Connect

    Dravnieks, A.; Masurat, T.; Lamm, R.A.

    1984-07-01

    The hedonic tone (pleasantness-unpleasantness) of an air pollution odor depends on its character and influences how annoying the odor may be. In the context of air pollution, both unpleasant and pleasant odors may become objectionable, while this is less likely for hedonically neutral odors. A profile of an odor consists of a list of odor descriptors and ratings of the applicabilities of each of the descriptors to the odor being characterized. The working hypothesis was that each of the descriptors can be assigned its own hedonic connotation (tone) from very pleasant, through neutral, to the very unpleasant. The hedonic tones of the descriptors could then be combined with the descriptor applicability percentages over the entire profile, producing a profile-derived hedonic index. The data that were used were profiles of odors and the hedonic ratings of the same odors made directly upon smelling these odors, obtained independently of the study.

  20. Mispredicting the Hedonic Benefits of Segregated Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Gilbert, Daniel T.; Keysar, Boaz; Berkovits, Michael J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    The hedonic benefit of a gain (e.g., receiving $100) may be increased by segregating it into smaller units that are distributed over time (e.g., receiving $50 on each of 2 days). However, if these units are too small (e.g., receiving 1 cent on each of 10,000 days), they may fall beneath the person's hedonic limen and have no hedonic benefit at…

  1. Hedonic price theory; Concept and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.; Lowry, J.; Morey, M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses direct and indirect techniques being used to estimate economic consequences of proximity to existing or proposed public facilities. The hedonic price theory, an indirect technique is described. The use of the hedonic price theory and the issue of transferability to radioactive waste facilities are addressed.

  2. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation Increases Reward Responsiveness in Individuals with Higher Hedonic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Duprat, Romain; De Raedt, Rudi; Wu, Guo-Rong; Baeken, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been documented to influence striatal and orbitofrontal dopaminergic activity implicated in reward processing. However, the exact neuropsychological mechanisms of how DLPFC stimulation may affect the reward system and how trait hedonic capacity may interact with the effects remains to be elucidated. Objective: In this sham-controlled study in healthy individuals, we investigated the effects of a single session of neuronavigated intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on reward responsiveness, as well as the influence of trait hedonic capacity. Methods: We used a randomized crossover single session iTBS design with an interval of 1 week. We assessed reward responsiveness using a rewarded probabilistic learning task and measured individual trait hedonic capacity (the ability to experience pleasure) with the temporal experience of pleasure scale questionnaire. Results: As expected, the participants developed a response bias toward the most rewarded stimulus (rich stimulus). Reaction time and accuracy for the rich stimulus were respectively shorter and higher as compared to the less rewarded stimulus (lean stimulus). Active or sham stimulation did not seem to influence the outcome. However, when taking into account individual trait hedonic capacity, we found an early significant increase in the response bias only after active iTBS. The higher the individual's trait hedonic capacity, the more the response bias toward the rich stimulus increased after the active stimulation. Conclusion: When taking into account trait hedonic capacity, one active iTBS session over the left DLPFC improved reward responsiveness in healthy male participants with higher hedonic capacity. This suggests that individual differences in hedonic capacity may influence the effects of iTBS on the reward system. PMID:27378888

  3. Differential Hedonic Experience and Behavioral Activation in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Ivy F.; Grove, Tyler B.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2014-01-01

    The Kraepelinian distinction between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) emphasizes affective and volitional impairment in the former, but data directly comparing the two disorders for hedonic experience are scarce. This study examined whether hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be useful phenotypes distinguishing SZ and BP. Participants were 39 SZ and 24 BP patients without current mood episode matched for demographics and negative affect, along with 36 healthy controls (HC). They completed the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales, Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), and Behavioral Activation Scale (BAS). SZ and BP showed equally elevated levels of self-report negative affect and trait anhedonia compared to HC. However, SZ reported significantly lower pleasure experience (TEPS) and behavioral activation (BAS) than BP, who did not differ from HC. SZ and BP showed differential patterns of relationships between the hedonic experience and behavioral activation measures. Overall, the results suggest that reduced hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be effective phenotypes distinguishing SZ from BP even when affective symptoms are minimal. However, hedonic experience differences between SZ and BP are sensitive to measurement strategy, calling for further research on the nature of anhedonia and its relation to motivation in these disorders. PMID:24999173

  4. Differential hedonic experience and behavioral activation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Tso, Ivy F; Grove, Tyler B; Taylor, Stephan F

    2014-11-30

    The Kraepelinian distinction between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) emphasizes affective and volitional impairment in the former, but data directly comparing the two disorders for hedonic experience are scarce. This study examined whether hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be useful phenotypes distinguishing SZ and BP. Participants were 39 SZ and 24 BP patients without current mood episode matched for demographics and negative affect, along with 36 healthy controls (HC). They completed the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales, Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), and Behavioral Activation Scale (BAS). SZ and BP showed equally elevated levels of self-report negative affect and trait anhedonia compared to HC. However, SZ reported significantly lower pleasure experience (TEPS) and behavioral activation (BAS) than BP, who did not differ from HC. SZ and BP showed differential patterns of relationships between the hedonic experience and behavioral activation measures. Overall, the results suggest that reduced hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be effective phenotypes distinguishing SZ from BP even when affective symptoms are minimal. However, hedonic experience differences between SZ and BP are sensitive to measurement strategy, calling for further research on the nature of anhedonia and its relation to motivation in these disorders.

  5. GOAT induced ghrelin acylation regulates hedonic feeding.

    PubMed

    Davis, J F; Perello, M; Choi, D L; Magrisso, I J; Kirchner, H; Pfluger, P T; Tschoep, M; Zigman, J M; Benoit, S C

    2012-11-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates homeostatic and reward-related feeding behavior. Recent evidence indicates that acylation of ghrelin by the gut enzyme ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) is necessary to render ghrelin maximally active within its target tissues. Here we tested the hypothesis that GOAT activity modulates food motivation and food hedonics using behavioral pharmacology and mutant mice deficient for GOAT and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR). We evaluated operant responding following pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin and assessed the necessity of endogenous GOAT activity for operant responding in GOAT and GHSR-null mice. Hedonic-based feeding behavior also was examined in GOAT-KO and GHSR-null mice using a "Dessert Effect" protocol in which the intake of a palatable high fat diet "dessert" was assessed in calorically-sated mice. Pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin augmented operant responding; notably, this effect was dependent on intact GHSR signaling. GOAT-KO mice displayed attenuated operant responding and decreased hedonic feeding relative to controls. These behavioral results correlated with decreased expression of the orexin-1 receptor in reward-related brain regions in GOAT-KO mice. In summary, the ability of ghrelin to stimulate food motivation is dependent on intact GHSR signaling and modified by endogenous GOAT activity. Furthermore, GOAT activity is required for hedonic feeding behavior, an effect potentially mediated by forebrain orexin signaling. These data highlight the significance of the GOAT-ghrelin system for the mediation of food motivation and hedonic feeding.

  6. The psychophysical assessment of odor valence: does an anchor stimulus influence the hedonic evaluation of odors?

    PubMed

    Clepce, Marion; Neumann, Konrad; Martus, Peter; Nitsch, Marie; Wielopolski, Jan; Koch, Alexander; Kornhuber, Johannes; Reich, Karin; Thuerauf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli are experienced primarily in terms of their hedonic tone and the assessment of olfactory hedonic estimates is a prevalent task in scientific and industrial contexts. However, measuring conditions are poorly standardized. Our study aims to fill this gap, focusing on the influence of anchor stimuli on olfactory hedonic evaluations, frequency of anchor presentation, and temporal stability of results. In n = 31 subjects, hedonic estimates for the 16 odors of the Sniffin' Sticks identification task were assessed on a visual analog rating scale under 4 measuring conditions (nonanchor, pleasant anchor, neutral anchor, unpleasant anchor). To test for stability over time, n = 10 subjects were reassessed 2, 4, and 6 months after original testing. To analyze for possible effects of single versus repeated anchor presentation, n = 15 subjects were retested 2 months after the original session in a multiple anchor presentation format. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the 4 anchor conditions, thus highlighting the necessity of specifying assessment methods in scientific research. No significant differences between timepoints were observed, indicating a high temporal stability of olfactory hedonic evaluations, especially from timepoint T2 onward. No overall significant effects of single versus multiple anchor presentation were detected. Findings might help to further standardize testing procedures.

  7. Hedonic price theory: Concept and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C. ); Lowry, J. ); Morey, M. . Dept. of Economics)

    1990-01-01

    Direct and indirect techniques are being used to estimate economic consequences of proximity to existing or proposed public facilities. The hedonic price theory, an indirect technique, is the most logically suited, especially for capturing the shadow or implicit price of a characteristic such as proximity in the real estate market. While the theory is increasingly being used, there is also a growing tendency to draw inferences from the study of one or more hazards and situations and transfer the conclusions to a very different hazard and situation. The use of the hedonic price theory and the issue of transferability to radioactive waste facilities are addressed in this paper. 12 refs.

  8. Hedonic Wage Equations for Higher Education Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Philip E.; Marchand, James R.; Sexton, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses theoretical models of department and faculty choice. Models imply a hedonic wage equation for faculty with wages dependent on productivity, departmental amenities, and locational amenities. Empirical study finds that increased teaching loads and secretaries per faculty member tend to decrease salaries, while hotter than average summers,…

  9. Value from Hedonic Experience and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, E. Tory

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that value involves experiencing pleasure or pain is critical to understanding the psychology of value. But hedonic experience is not enough. I propose that it is also necessary to recognize that strength of engagement can contribute to experienced value through its contribution to the experience of motivational force--an experience of…

  10. A Hedonism Hub in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zacharopoulos, G.; Lancaster, T. M.; Bracht, T.; Ihssen, N.; Maio, G. R.; Linden, D. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Human values are abstract ideals that motivate behavior. The motivational nature of human values raises the possibility that they might be underpinned by brain structures that are particularly involved in motivated behavior and reward processing. We hypothesized that variation in subcortical hubs of the reward system and their main connecting pathway, the superolateral medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) is associated with individual value orientation. We conducted Pearson's correlation between the scores of 10 human values and the volumes of 14 subcortical structures and microstructural properties of the medial forebrain bundle in a sample of 87 participants, correcting for multiple comparisons (i.e.,190). We found a positive association between the value that people attach to hedonism and the volume of the left globus pallidus (GP).We then tested whether microstructural parameters (i.e., fractional anisotropy and myelin volume fraction) of the slMFB, which connects with the GP, are also associated to hedonism and found a significant, albeit in an uncorrected level, positive association between the myelin volume fraction within the left slMFB and hedonism scores. This is the first study to elucidate the relationship between the importance people attach to the human value of hedonism and structural variation in reward-related subcortical brain regions. PMID:27473322

  11. As pleasure unfolds. Hedonic responses to tempting food.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Ramanathan, Suresh; Aarts, Henk

    2010-12-01

    Why do chronic dieters often violate their dieting goals? One possibility is that they experience stronger hedonic responses to tempting food than normal eaters do. We scrutinized hedonic processing in dieters and normal eaters (a) by manipulating food preexposure and (b) by assessing both immediate and delayed hedonic responses to tempting food with an adapted affect-misattribution procedure. Without food preexposure, dieters showed less positive hedonic responses than normal eaters (Study 1). When preexposed to tempting-food stimuli, however, dieters exhibited more positive delayed hedonic responses than normal eaters (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, delayed hedonic responding was meaningfully related to self-reported power of food and state cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that dieters experience difficulties in down-regulating hedonic affect when in a "hot" state and that self-regulation research may benefit from a greater emphasis on temporal dynamics rather than static differences.

  12. Anhedonia in schizophrenia: Deficits in both motivation and hedonic capacity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Huang, Jia; Yang, Xin-Hua; Lui, Simon S Y; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-10-01

    Anhedonia is one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia that affect the ultimate outcome of this disorder. It is unclear whether the motivational or the hedonic component of anhedonia is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the deficits in motivation and hedonic capacity in patients with schizophrenia using an Effort-based pleasure experience task (E-pet). Twenty-two schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms, 18 schizophrenia patients without prominent negative symptoms and 29 healthy controls participated in the present study. All of them were administered the E-pet task, which required the participants to make decisions on whether to choose a hard or easy task based on probability and reward magnitude. When making the grip effort allocation decision, schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms were significantly less likely to choose a hard task than healthy controls. As the reward magnitude and the estimated reward value increased, unlike healthy controls, schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms did not increase their hard task choices. They were also significantly less likely to choose a hard task than healthy controls in medium and high probability conditions. When anticipating potential rewards, these patients reported significantly less anticipatory pleasure than healthy controls, even when reward probability and magnitude increased. The pleasure experience rating after obtaining the actual reward was positively correlated with two pleasure experience scales in schizophrenia patients. In conclusion, patients with schizophrenia, especially those with prominent negative symptoms, showed deficits in both reward motivation and anticipatory pleasure experience. PMID:26185892

  13. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    PubMed

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, p<0.05) and there was a significant interaction between PFS and RRS on frontal asymmetry, p<0.01. Results indicated that those high in hedonic hunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods.

  14. Hedonism and the choice of everyday activities.

    PubMed

    Taquet, Maxime; Quoidbach, Jordi; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Desseilles, Martin; Gross, James J

    2016-08-30

    Most theories of motivation have highlighted that human behavior is guided by the hedonic principle, according to which our choices of daily activities aim to minimize negative affect and maximize positive affect. However, it is not clear how to reconcile this idea with the fact that people routinely engage in unpleasant yet necessary activities. To address this issue, we monitored in real time the activities and moods of over 28,000 people across an average of 27 d using a multiplatform smartphone application. We found that people's choices of activities followed a hedonic flexibility principle. Specifically, people were more likely to engage in mood-increasing activities (e.g., play sports) when they felt bad, and to engage in useful but mood-decreasing activities (e.g., housework) when they felt good. These findings clarify how hedonic considerations shape human behavior. They may explain how humans overcome the allure of short-term gains in happiness to maximize long-term welfare.

  15. Hedonism and the choice of everyday activities.

    PubMed

    Taquet, Maxime; Quoidbach, Jordi; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Desseilles, Martin; Gross, James J

    2016-08-30

    Most theories of motivation have highlighted that human behavior is guided by the hedonic principle, according to which our choices of daily activities aim to minimize negative affect and maximize positive affect. However, it is not clear how to reconcile this idea with the fact that people routinely engage in unpleasant yet necessary activities. To address this issue, we monitored in real time the activities and moods of over 28,000 people across an average of 27 d using a multiplatform smartphone application. We found that people's choices of activities followed a hedonic flexibility principle. Specifically, people were more likely to engage in mood-increasing activities (e.g., play sports) when they felt bad, and to engage in useful but mood-decreasing activities (e.g., housework) when they felt good. These findings clarify how hedonic considerations shape human behavior. They may explain how humans overcome the allure of short-term gains in happiness to maximize long-term welfare. PMID:27528666

  16. Increased Perceived Stress is Associated with Blunted Hedonic Capacity: Potential Implications for Depression Research

    PubMed Central

    Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Bogdan, Ryan; Ratner, Kyle G.; Jahn, Allison L.

    2007-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that stress exerts depressogenic effects by impairing hedonic capacity; in humans, however, the precise mechanisms linking stress and depression are largely unknown. As an initial step towards better understanding the association between stress and anhedonia, the present study tested, in two independent samples, whether individuals reporting elevated stress exhibit decreased hedonic capacity. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) measured the degree to which participants appraised their daily life as unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overwhelming. Hedonic capacity was objectively assessed using a signal-detection task based on a differential reinforcement schedule. Decreased reward responsiveness (i.e., the participants' propensity to modulate behavior as a function of reward) was used as an operational measure of hedonic capacity. In both Study 1 (n = 88) and Study 2 (n = 80), participants with high PSS scores displayed blunted reward responsiveness and reported elevated anhedonic symptoms. Additionally, PSS scores predicted reduced reward responsiveness even after controlling for general distress and anxiety symptoms. These findings are consistent with preclinical data highlighting links between stress and anhedonia, and offer promising insights into potential mechanisms linking stress to depression. PMID:17854766

  17. Exploring the Intrinsic Motivation of Hedonic Information Systems Acceptance: Integrating Hedonic Theory and Flow with TAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihuan

    Research on Information Systems (IS) acceptance is substantially focused on extrinsic motivation in workplaces, little is known about the underlying intrinsic motivations of Hedonic IS (HIS) acceptance. This paper proposes a hybrid HIS acceptance model which takes the unique characteristics of HIS and multiple identities of a HIS user into consideration by interacting Hedonic theory, Flow theory with Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The model was empirically tested by a field survey. The result indicates that emotional responses, imaginal responses, and flow experience are three main contributions of HIS acceptance.

  18. Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being: the role of resilience beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a key factor in the well-being of individuals. The present study set out to analyze the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and resilience in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (EWB) in order to determine the incremental validity of resilience with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in 168 Italian high school students. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Meaningful Life Measure, the Authenticity Scale were administered to the participants in the study. The results showed that resilience added a significant percentage of incremental variance with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in relation to life satisfaction, positive affect, life meaning, and authenticity. These results underline the value of resilience in both hedonic and EWB, thus offering new perspectives for research and intervention.

  19. Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being: the role of resilience beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a key factor in the well-being of individuals. The present study set out to analyze the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and resilience in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (EWB) in order to determine the incremental validity of resilience with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in 168 Italian high school students. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Meaningful Life Measure, the Authenticity Scale were administered to the participants in the study. The results showed that resilience added a significant percentage of incremental variance with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in relation to life satisfaction, positive affect, life meaning, and authenticity. These results underline the value of resilience in both hedonic and EWB, thus offering new perspectives for research and intervention. PMID:26441743

  20. Effects of deprivation on hedonics and reinforcing value of food.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Truesdale, Robin; Wojcik, Angela; Paluch, Rocco A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2003-02-01

    Eating is influenced by both the hedonic preferences and reinforcing value of food. Incentive salience theory predicts these are separate influences. This study tested whether hedonics reliably change as a function of increasing the reinforcing value of food by deprivation in 17 non-obese, non-dietary restrained females. Baseline measures of hedonics for pleasant (chocolate milk), unpleasant (lemon juice) and neutral (water) tastes were determined under deprived conditions. Participants were then randomly assigned to fed or maintained in deprived conditions, and after food consumption, a second determination of hedonics was obtained, followed by assessing the reinforcing value of food. Hedonics was measured by subjective ratings and behavioral observations in a taste reactivity paradigm. Results showed food was more reinforcing for the deprived than the fed group, but no influences of group were observed for the subjective or objective hedonic measures. These results suggest that hedonics and the reinforcing value of food are separate processes in humans, and they may independently influence eating behavior.

  1. Temperature and Species Measurements of Combustion Produced by a 9-Point Lean Direct Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of temperature and relative species concentrations in the combustion flowfield of a 9-point swirl venturi lean direct injector fueled with JP-8. The temperature and relative species concentrations of the flame produced by the injector were measured using spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS). Results of measurements taken at four flame conditions are presented. The species concentrations reported are measured relative to nitrogen and include oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.

  2. Computing Stable Outcomes in Hedonic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gairing, Martin; Savani, Rahul

    We study the computational complexity of finding stable outcomes in symmetric additively-separable hedonic games. These coalition formation games are specified by an undirected edge-weighted graph: nodes are players, an outcome of the game is a partition of the nodes into coalitions, and the utility of a node is the sum of incident edge weights in the same coalition. We consider several natural stability requirements defined in the economics literature. For all of them the existence of a stable outcome is guaranteed by a potential function argument, so local improvements will converge to a stable outcome and all these problems are in PLS. The different stability requirements correspond to different local search neighbourhoods. For different neighbourhood structures, our findings comprise positive results in the form of polynomial-time algorithms for finding stable outcomes, and negative (PLS-completeness) results.

  3. Stochastic Local Search for Core Membership Checking in Hedonic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keinänen, Helena

    Hedonic games have emerged as an important tool in economics and show promise as a useful formalism to model multi-agent coalition formation in AI as well as group formation in social networks. We consider a coNP-complete problem of core membership checking in hedonic coalition formation games. No previous algorithms to tackle the problem have been presented. In this work, we overcome this by developing two stochastic local search algorithms for core membership checking in hedonic games. We demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithms by showing experimentally that they find solutions efficiently, particularly for large agent societies.

  4. Sentimental value and its influence on hedonic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Galak, Jeff

    2015-11-01

    Sentimental value is a highly prevalent, yet largely understudied phenomenon. We introduce the construct of sentimental value and investigate how and why sentimental value influences hedonic adaptation. Across 7 studies, we examine the antecedents of sentimental value and demonstrate its effect on hedonic adaptation using both naturally occurring and experimentally manipulated items with sentimental value. We further test the underlying process linking sentimental value and hedonic adaptation by showing that whereas feature-related utility decreases for all items with time, sentimental value typically does not, and that sentimental value moderates the influence of the decrement in feature-related utility on hedonic adaptation. Moreover, this moderating effect of sentimental value is driven by a shift in focus from features of the item to the associations that item possess. We conclude with a discussion of related phenomena and implications for individuals.

  5. Intact Hedonic Responses to Sweet Tastes in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Cara R; Aloi, Joseph; Burrus, Caley; Garbutt, James C; Kampov-Polevoy, Alexei B; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2014-03-01

    The Sweet Taste Test (STT) is a standardized measure designed to index the ability to detect differences in sweet tastes (sweet taste sensitivity) and hedonic responses to sweet tastes (sweet taste liking). Profiles of response on the STT suggest enhanced hedonic responses to sweet tastes in psychiatric disorders characterized by dysfunctional reward processing systems, including binge-eating disorders and substance use disorders, and a putative mechanism governing STT responses is the brain opioid system. The present study examined STT responses in 20 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 38 healthy control adults. There were no differences in sweet taste sensitivity or hedonic response to sweet tastes between the ASD and control groups. Within the ASD sample, ASD symptom severity was associated with sweet taste sensitivity, but not hedonic response to sweet taste. Results may ultimately shed light on brain opioid system functioning in ASD.

  6. Topographical representation of odor hedonics in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Kermen, Florence; Midroit, Maëllie; Kuczewski, Nicola; Forest, Jérémy; Thévenet, Marc; Sacquet, Joëlle; Benetollo, Claire; Richard, Marion; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Hedonic value is a dominant aspect of olfactory perception. Using optogenetic manipulation in freely behaving mice paired with immediate early gene mapping, we demonstrate that hedonic information is represented along the antero-posterior axis of the ventral olfactory bulb. Using this representation, we show that the degree of attractiveness of odors can be bidirectionally modulated by local manipulation of the olfactory bulb's neural networks in freely behaving mice. PMID:27273767

  7. Effects of Spent Cooling and Swirler Angle on a 9-point Swirl-Venturi Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, ZH., Joe; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Lee, Chi-Ming; Tacina, Robert R.; Lee, Phil

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents multipoint lean-direct-injection (LDI) emissions results for flame tube combustion tests at an inlet pressure of 1034 kPa and inlet temperatures between 835 and 865 K; these are the combustor inlet conditions that the High Speed Research (HSR) program used for supersonic cruise. It focuses on one class of LDI geometry, 9-point swirl-venturi LDI (SV-LDI). Two parameters are compared in this paper: the use of dome cooling air and the swirler blade angle. Dome cooling air is called 'spent cooling' and is at combustor inlet conditions. Three cooling variations are studied: cooling at the venturi throat, cooling at the dome face, and no cooling at all. Two swirler blade angles are studied: 45 deg and 60 deg. The HSR 9-point SV-LDI emissions are also compared to a similar 9-point SV-LDI design which was used in the later ultra-efficient engine technology (UEET) program. The HSR and UEET designs cannot be compared directly due to different UEET combustor conditions. Therefore, this paper uses previously published UEET correlation equations to make comparisons. Results show that using a 45 deg swirler produces lower NOx emissions than using a 60 deg swirler. This is consistent with the later UEET results. The effects of spent cooling depend on swirler angle, spent cooling location, and the test conditions. For the configuration with 45 deg swirlers, spent cooling delivers lower NOx emissions when it is injected at the throat. For the 60 deg swirler, spent cooling does not have much effect on NOx emissions. These results might be caused by the location and the intensity of the flame recirculation zone.

  8. Effects of Spent Cooling and Swirler Angle on a 9-Point Swirl-Venturi Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Zhuohui J.; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Lee, Chi-Ming; Tacina, Robert R.; Lee, Phil

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents multipoint Lean-Direct-Injection (LDI) emissions results for flame tube combustion tests at an inlet pressure of 1034 kPa and inlet temperatures between 835 and 865 K; these are the combustor inlet conditions that the High Speed Research (HSR) program used for supersonic cruise. It focuses on one class of LDI geometry, 9-point swirl-venturi LDI (SV-LDI). Two parameters are compared in this paper: the use of dome cooling air and the swirler blade angle. Dome cooling air is called "spent cooling" and is at combustor inlet conditions. Three cooling variations are studied: cooling at the venturi throat, cooling at the dome face, and no cooling at all. Two swirler blade angles are studied: 45deg and 60deg. The HSR 9-point SV-LDI emissions are also compared to a similar 9-point SV-LDI design which was used in the later ultra-efficient engine technology (UEET) program. The HSR and UEET designs cannot be compared directly due to different UEET combustor conditions. Therefore, this paper uses previously published UEET correlation equations to make comparisons. Results show that using a 45deg swirler produces lower NOx emissions than using a 60deg swirler. This is consistent with the later UEET results. The effects of spent cooling depend on swirler angle, spent cooling location, and the test conditions. For the configuration with 45deg swirlers, spent cooling delivers lower NOx emissions when it is injected at the throat. For the 60deg swirler, spent cooling does not have much effect on NOx emissions. These results might be caused by the location and the intensity of the flame recirculation zone.

  9. Hedonic Hotspots Regulate Cingulate-driven Adaptation to Cognitive Demands.

    PubMed

    van Steenbergen, Henk; Band, Guido P H; Hommel, Bernhard; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-07-01

    Positive hedonic states are known to attenuate the impact of demanding events on our body and brain, supporting adaptive behavior in response to changes in the environment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural mechanism of this hedonic regulation. The effect of hedonic state (as induced by funny vs. neutral cartoons) on flexible behavioral and neural adaptation to cognitive demands was assessed in a flanker task in female volunteers. Behavioral results showed that humor reduced the compensatory adjustments to cognitive demands, as observed in sequential adaptations. This modulation was also reflected in midcingulate cortex (MCC; also known as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, ACC) activation. Furthermore, hedonic context increased activation in ventral striatum (VS) and ventral pallidum (VP). These hedonic hotspots attenuated the medial prefrontal cortex response to the cognitive demands in the ACC (also known as the rostral ACC). Activity in the ACC proved predictive of subsequent behavioral adaptation. Moreover, psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that the MCC and the ACC were functionally connected with VS and VP, respectively. These observations reveal how MCC-VS and VP-ACC interactions are involved in the detection and hedonic modulation of behavioral adaptations to cognitive demands, which supports behavioral flexibility.

  10. Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Alison S; Hibbert, Emily J; Champion, Bernard L; Nanan, Ralph K H

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behavior. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognized to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate) and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone), are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilization of this effective and inexpensive class of drug.

  11. Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Alison S.; Hibbert, Emily J.; Champion, Bernard L.; Nanan, Ralph K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behavior. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognized to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate) and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone), are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilization of this effective and inexpensive class of drug. PMID:27199749

  12. Hedonic intensity of disappointment and elation.

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, E; Kriz, W C

    2001-07-01

    This research is an investigation of the hedonic intensities of elation and disappointment following the outcomes of risky gambles using two principles: disappointment aversion and the principle of limited emotion processing. Disappointment aversion implies a stronger impact of disappointment compared with elation; the principle of limited emotion processing predicts a smaller impact of elation if it occurs with a real gain, and a smaller impact of disappointment if it occurs with a real loss. Both principles support each other in the gain domain but operate against each other in the loss domain. It was predicted that disappointment would outweigh elation in the gain domain. For the loss domain, this question was left open to empirical scrutiny. Participants were provided with hypothetical gambles and were required to imagine having won, not won, lost, or not lost, money. Results supported the prediction for the gain domain; mixed results emerged for the loss domain. The model adds to the understanding of the cognitive and emotional processes following the outcomes of risky events.

  13. Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Alison S; Hibbert, Emily J; Champion, Bernard L; Nanan, Ralph K H

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behavior. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognized to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate) and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone), are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilization of this effective and inexpensive class of drug. PMID:27199749

  14. Hedonic judgments of chemical compounds are correlated with molecular size.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Different psychophysical works have reported that, when a wide range of odors is assessed, the hedonic dimension is the most salient. Hence, pleasantness is the most basic attribute of odor perception. Recent studies suggest that the molecular size of a given odorant is positively correlated with its hedonic character. This correlation was confirmed in the present study, but further basic molecular features affecting pleasantness were identified by means of multiple linear regression for the compounds contained in five chemical sets. For three of them, hedonic judgments are available in the literature. For a further two chemical sets, hedonic scores were estimated from odor character descriptions based on numerical profiles. Generally speaking, fairly similar equations were obtained for the prediction of hedonic judgments in the five chemical sets, with R(2) values ranging from 0.46 to 0.71. The results suggest that larger molecules containing oxygen are more likely to be perceived as pleasant, while the opposite applies to carboxylic acids and sulfur compounds.

  15. Hedonic Judgments of Chemical Compounds Are Correlated with Molecular Size

    PubMed Central

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Different psychophysical works have reported that, when a wide range of odors is assessed, the hedonic dimension is the most salient. Hence, pleasantness is the most basic attribute of odor perception. Recent studies suggest that the molecular size of a given odorant is positively correlated with its hedonic character. This correlation was confirmed in the present study, but further basic molecular features affecting pleasantness were identified by means of multiple linear regression for the compounds contained in five chemical sets. For three of them, hedonic judgments are available in the literature. For a further two chemical sets, hedonic scores were estimated from odor character descriptions based on numerical profiles. Generally speaking, fairly similar equations were obtained for the prediction of hedonic judgments in the five chemical sets, with R2 values ranging from 0.46 to 0.71. The results suggest that larger molecules containing oxygen are more likely to be perceived as pleasant, while the opposite applies to carboxylic acids and sulfur compounds. PMID:22163815

  16. Transitivity of odor preferences: constant and particularities in hedonic perception.

    PubMed

    Brand, Gérard; Haaz, Virginie; Jacquot, Laurence

    2012-09-01

    Transitivity of preferences has been investigated for a long time in decision-making. In the field of perception, the pleasantness of odors raises several questions related to individual versus cultural or universal preferences and the existence of a classification in a delimited hedonic space. The aim of this study was to test transitivity in olfactory hedonicity using a first panel of 10 mixed odors and a second panel of 10 odors from a delimited floral category. Data were collected by paired comparisons in a two-alternative forced choice. Results in both panels showed a strong transitivity for each participant leading to a linear range of 10 odors classified by preference. However, ranges varied from one participant to another and the mean preferences of the group did not allow one to infer individual's hedonic classification of odors. Moreover, the individual classification appeared stable over time and undisturbed by odorant distractors. These findings suggest that humans have considerable ability to classify odors hedonically as a model of individual preferences in a sensory space usually considered to be more involved in affective/emotional states than in cognitive performances.

  17. Transitivity of Odor Preferences: Constant and Particularities in Hedonic Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Gerard; Haaz, Virginie; Jacquot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences has been investigated for a long time in decision-making. In the field of perception, the pleasantness of odors raises several questions related to individual versus cultural or universal preferences and the existence of a classification in a delimited hedonic space. The aim of this study was to test transitivity in…

  18. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences. PMID:24708499

  19. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.

  20. Gastroenteric hormone responses to hedonic eating in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Perillo, Donato; Canestrelli, Benedetta; Maj, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Hedonic eating differentiates from homeostatic eating on two main aspects: the first one is that eating occurs when there is no need for calorie ingestion and the second one is that the food is consumed exclusively for its gustatory and rewarding properties. Gastroeneteric hormones such as ghrelin, colecystokinin-33 (CCK) and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) are known to play a pivotal role in the homeostatic control of food intake. To the contrary, their role in hedonic eating has been never investigated. Here we report peripheral responses of CCK, PYY3-36 and ghrelin to the consumption of food for pleasure in well-nourished satiated healthy subjects. Plasma levels of CCK, PYY3-36 and ghrelin were measured in 7 satiated healthy subjects before and after ad libitum consumption of both a highly pleasurable food (hedonic eating) and an isoenergetic non-pleasurable food (non-hedonic eating). The consumption of food for pleasure was associated to a significantly increased production of the hunger hormone ghrelin and a significantly decreased secretion of the satiety hormone CCK. No significant changes in plasma PYY3-36 levels occurred in the two eating conditions. These preliminary data demonstrate that in hedonic eating the peripheral hunger signal represented by ghrelin secretion is enhanced while the satiety signal of CCK production is decreased. This could be responsible for the persistence of peripheral cues allowing a continued eating as well as for the activation of endogenous reward mechanisms, which can drive food consumption in spite of no energy need, only for reward.

  1. Delayed discounting and hedonic hunger in the prediction of lab-based eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Ely, Alice V; Howard, Janna; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that characteristics identified in obese individuals, such as impulsive decision-making and hedonic hunger, may exist in nonobese populations. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of impulsive decision-making (measured via delay discounting, DD) and hedonic hunger (assessed with the Power of Food Scale, PFS) on food intake. Female participants (N=78) ate a self-determined amount of plain oatmeal, completed self-report measures and the delay discounting task, and participated in a sham taste test of palatable sweet and salty foods. Unexpectedly, PFS and DD scores interacted to predict consumption of the total amount of food consumed, and of oatmeal alone, but not of snack food alone. High-PFS participants consumed more when also high in DD, while low-PFS participants showed the opposite pattern of consumption. The findings identify variables that may increase propensity toward overconsumption and potential weight gain; future research is necessary to evaluate the utility of these constructs to predict increases in BMI over time. PMID:26183899

  2. Listening to music can influence hedonic and sensory perceptions of gelati.

    PubMed

    Kantono, Kevin; Hamid, Nazimah; Shepherd, Daniel; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Grazioli, Gianpaolo; Carr, B Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The dominant taste sensations of three different types of chocolate gelati (milk chocolate, dark chocolate, and bittersweet chocolate) were determined using forty five trained panellists exposed to a silent reference condition and three music samples differing in hedonic ratings. The temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method was used to measure temporal taste perceptions. The emotional states of panellists were measured after each gelati-music pairing using a scale specifically developed for this study. The TDS difference curves showed significant differences between gelati samples and music conditions (p < 0.05). Sweetness was perceived more dominant when neutral and liked music were played, while bitterness was more dominant for disliked music. A joint Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) further explained the variability in sensory and emotion data. The first and second dimensions explained 78% of the variance, with the first dimension separating liked and disliked music and the second dimension separating liked music and silence. Gelati samples consumed while listening to liked and neutral music had positive scores, and were separated from those consumed under the disliked music condition along the first dimension. Liked music and disliked music were further correlated with positive and negative emotions respectively. Findings indicate that listening to music influenced the hedonic and sensory impressions of the gelati. PMID:26923742

  3. Delayed discounting and hedonic hunger in the prediction of lab-based eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Ely, Alice V; Howard, Janna; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that characteristics identified in obese individuals, such as impulsive decision-making and hedonic hunger, may exist in nonobese populations. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of impulsive decision-making (measured via delay discounting, DD) and hedonic hunger (assessed with the Power of Food Scale, PFS) on food intake. Female participants (N=78) ate a self-determined amount of plain oatmeal, completed self-report measures and the delay discounting task, and participated in a sham taste test of palatable sweet and salty foods. Unexpectedly, PFS and DD scores interacted to predict consumption of the total amount of food consumed, and of oatmeal alone, but not of snack food alone. High-PFS participants consumed more when also high in DD, while low-PFS participants showed the opposite pattern of consumption. The findings identify variables that may increase propensity toward overconsumption and potential weight gain; future research is necessary to evaluate the utility of these constructs to predict increases in BMI over time.

  4. A psycho-genetic study of hedonic responsiveness in relation to "food addiction".

    PubMed

    Davis, Caroline; Loxton, Natalie J

    2014-10-16

    While food addiction has no formally-recognized definition, it is typically operationalized according to the diagnostic principles established by the Yale Food Addiction Scale-an inventory based on the symptom criteria for substance dependence in the DSM-IV. Currently, there is little biologically-based research investigating the risk factors for food addiction. What does exist has focused almost exclusively on dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. While brain opioid signaling has also been strongly implicated in the control of food intake, there is no research examining this neural circuitry in the association with food addiction. The purpose of the study was therefore to test a model predicting that a stronger activation potential of opioid circuitry-as indicated by the functional A118G marker of the mu-opioid receptor gene-would serve as an indirect risk factor for food addiction via a heightened hedonic responsiveness to palatable food. Results confirmed these relationships. In addition, our findings that the food-addiction group had significantly higher levels of hedonic responsiveness to food suggests that this bio-behavioral trait may foster a proneness to overeating, to episodes of binge eating, and ultimately to a compulsive and addictive pattern of food intake.

  5. Listening to music can influence hedonic and sensory perceptions of gelati.

    PubMed

    Kantono, Kevin; Hamid, Nazimah; Shepherd, Daniel; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Grazioli, Gianpaolo; Carr, B Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The dominant taste sensations of three different types of chocolate gelati (milk chocolate, dark chocolate, and bittersweet chocolate) were determined using forty five trained panellists exposed to a silent reference condition and three music samples differing in hedonic ratings. The temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method was used to measure temporal taste perceptions. The emotional states of panellists were measured after each gelati-music pairing using a scale specifically developed for this study. The TDS difference curves showed significant differences between gelati samples and music conditions (p < 0.05). Sweetness was perceived more dominant when neutral and liked music were played, while bitterness was more dominant for disliked music. A joint Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) further explained the variability in sensory and emotion data. The first and second dimensions explained 78% of the variance, with the first dimension separating liked and disliked music and the second dimension separating liked music and silence. Gelati samples consumed while listening to liked and neutral music had positive scores, and were separated from those consumed under the disliked music condition along the first dimension. Liked music and disliked music were further correlated with positive and negative emotions respectively. Findings indicate that listening to music influenced the hedonic and sensory impressions of the gelati.

  6. Area-to-point Kriging in spatial hedonic pricing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, E.-H.; Kyriakidis, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    This paper proposes a geostatistical hedonic price model in which the effects of location on house values are explicitly modeled. The proposed geostatistical approach, namely area-to-point Kriging with External Drift (A2PKED), can take into account spatial dependence and spatial heteroskedasticity, if they exist. Furthermore, this approach has significant implications in situations where exhaustive area-averaged housing price data are available in addition to a subset of individual housing price data. In the case study, we demonstrate that A2PKED substantially improves the quality of predictions using apartment sale transaction records that occurred in Seoul, South Korea, during 2003. The improvement is illustrated via a comparative analysis, where predicted values obtained from different models, including two traditional regression-based hedonic models and a point-support geostatistical model, are compared to those obtained from the A2PKED model.

  7. Separate Circuitries Encode the Hedonic and Nutritional Values of Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Luis A.; Han, Wenfei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Ferreira, Tatiana L.; Perez, Isaac O.; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J.; van den Pol, Anthony N.; de Araujo, Ivan E.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar exerts its potent reinforcing effects via both gustatory and post-ingestive pathways. It is however unknown if sweetness and nutritional signals engage segregated brain networks to motivate ingestion. We show in mice that separate basal ganglia circuitries mediate the hedonic and nutritional actions of sugar. We found that, during sugar intake, suppressing hedonic value inhibited dopamine release in ventral but not dorsal striatum, whereas suppressing nutritional value inhibited dopamine release in dorsal but not ventral striatum. Consistently, cell-specific ablation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum inhibited sugar’s ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum substituted for sugar in its ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Our data demonstrate that sugar recruits a distributed dopamine-excitable striatal circuitry that acts to prioritize energy seeking over taste quality. PMID:26807950

  8. Separate circuitries encode the hedonic and nutritional values of sugar.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Luis A; Han, Wenfei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Perez, Isaac O; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J; van den Pol, Anthony N; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-03-01

    Sugar exerts its potent reinforcing effects via both gustatory and post-ingestive pathways. It is, however, unknown whether sweetness and nutritional signals engage segregated brain networks to motivate ingestion. We found in mice that separate basal ganglia circuitries mediated the hedonic and nutritional actions of sugar. During sugar intake, suppressing hedonic value inhibited dopamine release in ventral, but not dorsal, striatum, whereas suppressing nutritional value inhibited dopamine release in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum. Consistently, cell-specific ablation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum inhibited sugar's ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum substituted for sugar in its ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Our data indicate that sugar recruits a distributed dopamine-excitable striatal circuitry that acts to prioritize energy-seeking over taste quality.

  9. Auditory hedonic phenotypes in dementia: A behavioural and neuroanatomical analysis.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Rossor, Martin N; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Patients with dementia may exhibit abnormally altered liking for environmental sounds and music but such altered auditory hedonic responses have not been studied systematically. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 73 patients representing major canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD)) using a semi-structured caregiver behavioural questionnaire and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of patients' brain MR images. Behavioural responses signalling abnormal aversion to environmental sounds, aversion to music or heightened pleasure in music ('musicophilia') occurred in around half of the cohort but showed clear syndromic and genetic segregation, occurring in most patients with bvFTD but infrequently in PNFA and more commonly in association with MAPT than C9orf72 mutations. Aversion to sounds was the exclusive auditory phenotype in AD whereas more complex phenotypes including musicophilia were common in bvFTD and SD. Auditory hedonic alterations correlated with grey matter loss in a common, distributed, right-lateralised network including antero-mesial temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that abnormalities of auditory hedonic processing are a significant issue in common dementias. Sounds may constitute a novel probe of brain mechanisms for emotional salience coding that are targeted by neurodegenerative disease.

  10. Thinking before sinning: reasoning processes in hedonic consumption

    PubMed Central

    de Witt Huberts, Jessie; Evers, Catharine; de Ridder, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Whereas hedonic consumption is often labeled as impulsive, findings from self-licensing research suggest that people sometimes rely on reasons to justify hedonic consumption. Although the concept of self-licensing assumes the involvement of reasoning processes, this has not been demonstrated explicitly. Two studies investigated whether people indeed rely on reasons to allow themselves a guilty pleasure. Participants were exposed to a food temptation after which passive and active reasoning was assessed by asking participants to indicate the justifications that applied to them for indulging in that temptation (Study 1) or having them construe reasons to consume the hedonic product (Study 2). Regression analyses indicated that higher levels of temptation predicted the number of reasons employed and construed to justify consumption. By providing evidence for the involvement of reasoning processes, these findings support the assumption of self-licensing theory that temptations not only exert their influence by making us more impulsive, but can also facilitate gratification by triggering deliberative reasoning processes. PMID:25408680

  11. Perception and hedonic value of basic tastes in domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ginane, Cécile; Baumont, René; Favreau-Peigné, Angélique

    2011-10-24

    Taste is one of the five senses that give ruminants and other animals an awareness of their environment, especially for food selection. The sense of taste, which recognizes sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami basic tastes, is often considered of paramount importance as it is the last sense in use before foods are swallowed. It thus plays a fundamental biological role in aiding animals to regulate intake of suitable food and reject unsuitable food. However, despite potentially relevant production and welfare issues, only a few studies have investigated how ruminants perceive and evaluate the basic tastes. Here we review current knowledge on tasting abilities and hedonic value of basic tastes in domestic ruminants via the analysis of both their anatomical and neurological structures and their behavioral preferences. Studies of the organization and functioning of the anatomical and neurological structures responsible for the perception of taste in ruminants have shown that sheep, cattle and goats all have lingual receptors for all five basic tastes. However, these studies have mainly focused on the sweet and bitter tastes. They have shown in particular that cows have fewer genes coding for the bitter receptors than other mammals, making them more tolerant to this taste. This pattern has been linked to the differences in the range of toxins and so potentially in the occurrence of bitterness encountered by different species in their environment, depending on the nature of their diet. Studies of ruminant feeding behavior have shown that the taste inducing the greatest consensus in preferences is the umami taste, with a high positive hedonic value. The bitter taste seems to have a rather negative hedonic value, the salty taste either a positive or a negative one depending on body needs, while the sweet taste seems to have a positive value in cattle and goats but not in sheep. Finally, the hedonic value of the sour taste is uncertain. Besides the hedonic value, the animal

  12. Analgesia accompanying food consumption requires ingestion of hedonic foods

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Animals eat rather than react to moderate pain. Here, we examined the behavioral, hedonic, and neural requirements for ingestion analgesia in ad libitum fed rats. Noxious heat-evoked withdrawals were similarly suppressed during self-initiated chocolate-eating and ingestion of intraorally infused water, sucrose, or saccharin, demonstrating that ingestion analgesia does not require feeding motivation, self-initiated food procurement, sucrose or calories. Rather, food hedonics is important since neither salt ingestion nor quinine rejection elicited analgesia. During quinine-induced nausea and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced illness, conditions when chocolate-eating was presumably less pleasurable, analgesia accompanying chocolate consumption was attenuated. Yet, analgesia during water ingestion was preserved in LPS-injected rats who showed enhanced palatability for water within this context. The dependence of ingestion analgesia on the positive hedonics of an ingestate was confirmed in rats with a conditioned taste aversion to sucrose: after paired exposure to sucrose and LPS, rats no longer showed analgesia during sucrose ingestion but continued to show analgesia during chocolate consumption. Eating pauses tended to occur less often and for shorter durations in the presence of ingestion analgesia than in its absence. Therefore, we propose that ingestion analgesia functions to defend eating from ending. Muscimol inactivation of the medullary raphe magnus (RM) blocked the analgesia normally observed during water ingestion, showing the involvement of brainstem endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in ingestion analgesia. Brainstem-mediated defense of the consumption of palatable foods may explain, at least in part, why overeating tasty foods is so irresistible even in the face of opposing cognitive and motivational forces. PMID:19828818

  13. Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control.

    PubMed

    Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2011-09-01

    Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular 'incentive salience theory' of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component ('liking') but also an incentive motivation component ('wanting' or 'reward-seeking'). Central to the neurobiology of the reward mechanism is the mesoaccumbal dopamine system that confers incentive motivation not only for natural rewards such as food but also by artificial rewards (eg. addictive drugs). Indeed, this mesoaccumbal dopamine system receives and integrates information about the incentive (rewarding) value of foods with information about metabolic status. Problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by hypothalamic versus reward circuits and/or it could reflect an allostatic shift in the hedonic set point for food reward. Certainly, for obesity to prevail, metabolic satiety signals such as leptin and insulin fail to regain control of appetitive brain networks, including those involved in food reward. On the other hand, metabolic control could reflect increased signalling by the stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We have shown that ghrelin activates the mesoaccumbal dopamine system and that central ghrelin signalling is required for reward from both chemical drugs (eg alcohol) and also from palatable food. Future therapies for problematic over-eating and obesity may include drugs that interfere with incentive motivation, such as ghrelin antagonists.

  14. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, S.; Pakes, A.; Kortum, S.

    1996-11-12

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate {open_quotes}hedonic cost functions{close_quotes} that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices. 19 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Neural responses to macronutrients: hedonic and homeostatic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Alastair J; Murray, Susan; Vaicekonyte, Regina; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-05-01

    The brain responds to macronutrients via intricate mechanisms. We review how the brain's neural systems implicated in homeostatic control of feeding and hedonic responses are influenced by the ingestion of specific types of food. We discuss how these neural systems are dysregulated in preclinical models of obesity. Findings from these studies can increase our understanding of overeating and, perhaps in some cases, the development of obesity. In addition, a greater understanding of the neural circuits affected by the consumption of specific macronutrients, and by obesity, might lead to new treatments and strategies for preventing unhealthy weight gain.

  16. Demand Estimation with Heterogeneous Consumers and Unobserved Product Characteristics: A Hedonic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajari, Patrick; Benkard, C. Lanier

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the identification and estimation of Gorman-Lancaster-style hedonic models of demand for differentiated products in the spirit of Sherwin Rosen. We generalize Rosen's first stage to account for product characteristics that are not observed and to allow the hedonic pricing function to have a general nonseparable form. We take an…

  17. SPATIAL LANDSCAPE INDICES IN A HEDONIC FRAMEWORK: AN ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS ANALYSIS USING GIS. (R824766)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    This paper develops a spatial hedonic model to explain residential values in a region within a 30-mile radius of Washington DC. Hedonic models of housing or land values are commonplace, but are rarely estimated for non-urban problems and never using the type o...

  18. Affective forecasting about hedonic loss and adaptation: Implications for damage awards.

    PubMed

    Greene, Edie; Sturm, Kristin A; Evelo, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    In tort lawsuits, plaintiffs may seek damages for loss of enjoyment of life, so-called hedonic loss, which occurred as a result of an accident or injury. In 2 studies, we examined how people judge others' adaptation and hedonic loss after an injury. Laypeople's forecasts of hedonic loss are relevant to concerns about whether jurors appropriately compensate plaintiffs. Longitudinal data of subjective well-being (e.g., Binder & Coad, 2013) show that hedonic loss is domain-specific: Many physical impairments (e.g., strokes) inflict less hedonic loss than many persistent yet invisible ailments (e.g., mental illness and conditions that cause chronic pain). We used vignette methodology to determine whether laypeople (n = 68 community members and 65 students in Study 1; 87 community members and 93 students in Study 2) and rehabilitation professionals (n = 47 in Study 2) were aware of this fact. In Study 1, participants' ratings of hedonic loss subsequent to a physical injury and a comparably severe psychological impairment did not differ. In Study 2, ratings of short- and long-term hedonic loss stemming from paraplegia and chronic back pain showed that neither laypeople nor professionals understood that hedonic loss is domain-specific. These findings imply that observers may forecast a future for people who suffered serious physical injuries as grimmer than it is likely to be, and a future for people who experience chronic pain and psychological disorders as rosier than is likely. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. When Joy Matters: The Importance of Hedonic Stimulation in Collocated Collaboration with Large-Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Jasminko; Schmidt, Susanne

    Hedonic aspects are increasingly considered as an important factor in user acceptance of information systems, especially for activities with high self-fulfilling value for the users. In this paper we report on the results of an experiment investigating the hedonic qualities of an interactive large-display workspace for collocated collaboration in sales-oriented travel advisory. The results show a higher hedonic stimulation quality of a touch-based large-display travel advisory workspace than that of a traditional workspace with catalogues. Together with the feedback of both customers and travel agents this suggests the adequacy of using touch-based large-displays with visual workspaces for supporting the hedonic stimulation of user experience in collocated collaboration settings. The relation of high perception of hedonic quality to positive emotional attitudes towards the use of a large-display workspace indicates that even in utilitarian activities (e.g. reaching sales goals for travel agents) hedonic aspects can play an important role. This calls for reconsidering the traditional divide of hedonic vs. utilitarian systems in current literature, to a more balanced view towards systems which provide both utilitarian and hedonic sources of value to the user.

  20. Beauty beyond Compare: Effects of Context Extremity and Categorization on Hedonic Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Elizabeth; Parker, Scott; Zellner, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated the effects of extreme context stimuli and categorization on hedonic contrast by having subjects judge the attractiveness of faces. Experiment 1 demonstrated hedonic contrast in both directions by using 2 sets of stimuli presented in different orders. Preceding moderately unattractive faces with moderately attractive…

  1. Valuation of Education and Crime Neighborhood Characteristics Through Hedonic Housing Prices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Robin A.; Goodman, Allen C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses hedonic technique and application to housing markets, specifying pertinent structural and neighborhood characteristics and focusing on data of house sales in Baltimore (Maryland) area. After treatment of each neighborhood characteristic (including crime and schools), hedonic price regressions are estimated and interpreted and policy…

  2. Hedonic and Nucleus Accumbens Neural Responses to a Natural Reward Are Regulated by Aversive Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roitman, Mitchell F.; Wheeler, Robert A.; Tiesinga, Paul H. E.; Roitman, Jamie D.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli. Learning can alter the hedonic valence of a given stimulus, and it remains unclear how the NAc encodes this shift. The present study examined whether the population response of NAc neurons to a taste stimulus is plastic using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA)…

  3. SPATIAL LANDSCAPE INDICES IN A HEDONIC FRAMEWORK: AN ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS ANALYSIS USING GIS. (R825309)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    This paper develops a spatial hedonic model to explain residential values in a region within a 30-mile radius of Washington DC. Hedonic models of housing or land values are commonplace, but are rarely estimated for non-urban problems and never using the type o...

  4. Beyond the Hedonic Treadmill: Revising the Adaptation Theory of Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Ed; Lucas, Richard E.; Napa, Christine

    2006-01-01

    According to the hedonic treadmill model, good and bad events temporarily affect happiness, but people quickly adapt back to hedonic neutrality. The theory, which has gained widespread acceptance in recent years, implies that individual and societal efforts to increase happiness are doomed to failure. The recent empirical work outlined here…

  5. Spending one's time: the hedonic principle in ad libitum viewing of pictures.

    PubMed

    Kron, Assaf; Pilkiw, Maryna; Goldstein, Ariel; Lee, Daniel H; Gardhouse, Katherine; Anderson, Adam K

    2014-12-01

    The hedonic principle maintains that humans strive to maximize pleasant feelings and avoid unpleasant feelings. Surprisingly, and contrary to hedonic logic, previous experiments have demonstrated a relationship between picture viewing time and arousal (activation) but not with valence (pleasure vs. displeasure), suggesting that arousal rather than the hedonic principle accounts for how individuals choose to spend their time. In 2 experiments we investigated the arousal and hedonic principles underlying viewing time behavior while controlling for familiarity with stimuli, picture complexity, and demand characteristics. Under ad libitum conditions of picture viewing, we found strong relationships between viewing time, valence, and facial corrugator electomyographic (EMG) activity with familiar but not novel pictures. Viewing time of novel stimuli was largely associated with arousal and visual complexity. We conclude that only after initial information about the stimulus is gathered, where we choose to spend our time is guided by the hedonic principle.

  6. Training for happiness: the impacts of different positive exercises on hedonism and eudaemonia.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Miguel Pereira; da Palma, Patricia Jardim; Garcia, Bruno Cardoso; Gomes, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical conceptions on happiness have generally considered two broad perspectives: hedonic enjoyment and eudaemonia. However, most research on how to improve people's happiness has focused primarily on the enhancement of hedonic happiness. In this longitudinal experimental study we test the differential impact of two positive exercises-Best Possible Selves and the Lottery Question-on hedonic and eudaemonic happiness. The hypothesis that the practice of the Best Possible Selves exercise would increase hedonic happiness was confirmed. This effect was immediate and maintained a week after the exercise. Furthermore, this exercise also increased eudaemonic happiness. However, its effect decreased after a week. Contrary to what was expected the Lottery Question exercise decreased both eudaemonic happiness and hedonic happiness over time. We discuss implications of this study for the literature on positive psychological and behavioral interventions to increase happiness.

  7. Internet usage purposes and gender differences in the effects of perceived utilitarian and hedonic value.

    PubMed

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse

    2010-04-01

    Previous research on both hedonic and utilitarian value has focused considerable effort on outcomes. Few studies compare the impact of Internet usage purposes and gender differences on perceived value effect. The current study explores whether differences in the relative influence of hedonic and utilitarian value affect consumer information search and shopping intentions on the Internet. This study also compares perceived value impact on behavioral intention among respondents in regard to gender. This research uses structural equation modeling of survey data (N = 341). Results show that perceived hedonic and utilitarian value have significantly different effect on information search and shopping intention through the Internet. Hedonic values have positively higher association with customer intention to buy than with intent to search information. Findings also show that hedonic values influence male user intentions to search information but do not influence females. This work presents a theoretical discussion and implications based on the results for the benefit of online practitioners. PMID:20528275

  8. Training for happiness: the impacts of different positive exercises on hedonism and eudaemonia.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Miguel Pereira; da Palma, Patricia Jardim; Garcia, Bruno Cardoso; Gomes, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical conceptions on happiness have generally considered two broad perspectives: hedonic enjoyment and eudaemonia. However, most research on how to improve people's happiness has focused primarily on the enhancement of hedonic happiness. In this longitudinal experimental study we test the differential impact of two positive exercises-Best Possible Selves and the Lottery Question-on hedonic and eudaemonic happiness. The hypothesis that the practice of the Best Possible Selves exercise would increase hedonic happiness was confirmed. This effect was immediate and maintained a week after the exercise. Furthermore, this exercise also increased eudaemonic happiness. However, its effect decreased after a week. Contrary to what was expected the Lottery Question exercise decreased both eudaemonic happiness and hedonic happiness over time. We discuss implications of this study for the literature on positive psychological and behavioral interventions to increase happiness. PMID:27376012

  9. Selective looking at natural scenes: Hedonic content and gender☆

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Costa, Vincent D.; Lang, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Choice viewing behavior when looking at affective scenes was assessed to examine differences due to hedonic content and gender by monitoring eye movements in a selective looking paradigm. On each trial, participants viewed a pair of pictures that included a neutral picture together with an affective scene depicting either contamination, mutilation, threat, food, nude males, or nude females. The duration of time that gaze was directed to each picture in the pair was determined from eye fixations. Results indicated that viewing choices varied with both hedonic content and gender. Initially, gaze duration for both men and women was heightened when viewing all affective contents, but was subsequently followed by significant avoidance of scenes depicting contamination or nude males. Gender differences were most pronounced when viewing pictures of nude females, with men continuing to devote longer gaze time to pictures of nude females throughout viewing, whereas women avoided scenes of nude people, whether male or female, later in the viewing interval. For women, reported disgust of sexual activity was also inversely related to gaze duration for nude scenes. Taken together, selective looking as indexed by eye movements reveals differential perceptual intake as a function of specific content, gender, and individual differences. PMID:26156939

  10. Fructose: metabolic, hedonic, and societal parallels with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Robert H

    2010-09-01

    Rates of fructose consumption continue to rise nationwide and have been linked to rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Because obesity has been equated with addiction, and because of their evolutionary commonalities, we chose to examine the metabolic, hedonic, and societal similarities between fructose and its fermentation byproduct ethanol. Elucidation of fructose metabolism in liver and fructose action in brain demonstrate three parallelisms with ethanol. First, hepatic fructose metabolism is similar to ethanol, as they both serve as substrates for de novo lipogenesis, and in the process both promote hepatic insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Second, fructosylation of proteins with resultant superoxide formation can result in hepatic inflammation similar to acetaldehyde, an intermediary metabolite of ethanol. Lastly, by stimulating the "hedonic pathway" of the brain both directly and indirectly, fructose creates habituation, and possibly dependence; also paralleling ethanol. Thus, fructose induces alterations in both hepatic metabolism and central nervous system energy signaling, leading to a "vicious cycle" of excessive consumption and disease consistent with metabolic syndrome. On a societal level, the treatment of fructose as a commodity exhibits market similarities to ethanol. Analogous to ethanol, societal efforts to reduce fructose consumption will likely be necessary to combat the obesity epidemic.

  11. Business or pleasure? Utilitarian versus hedonic considerations in emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Gross, James J

    2007-08-01

    It is widely accepted that emotions have utilitarian as well as hedonic consequences. Nevertheless, it is typically assumed that individuals regulate emotions to obtain hedonic, rather than utilitarian, benefits. In this study, the authors tested whether individuals represent the utility of pleasant and unpleasant emotions and whether they would be motivated to experience unpleasant emotions if they believed they could be useful. First, findings revealed that participants explicitly viewed approach emotions (e.g., excitement) as useful for obtaining rewards, but viewed avoidance emotions (e.g., worry) as useful for avoiding threats. Second, this pattern was replicated in implicit representations of emotional utility, which were dissociated from explicit ones. Third, implicit, but not explicit, representations of emotional utility predicted motives for emotion regulation. When anticipating a threatening task, participants who viewed emotions such as worry and fear as useful for avoiding threats preferred to engage in activities that were likely to increase worry and fear (vs. excitement) before the task. These findings demonstrate that utilitarian considerations play an important, if underappreciated, role in emotion regulation.

  12. Selective looking at natural scenes: Hedonic content and gender.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Margaret M; Costa, Vincent D; Lang, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Choice viewing behavior when looking at affective scenes was assessed to examine differences due to hedonic content and gender by monitoring eye movements in a selective looking paradigm. On each trial, participants viewed a pair of pictures that included a neutral picture together with an affective scene depicting either contamination, mutilation, threat, food, nude males, or nude females. The duration of time that gaze was directed to each picture in the pair was determined from eye fixations. Results indicated that viewing choices varied with both hedonic content and gender. Initially, gaze duration for both men and women was heightened when viewing all affective contents, but was subsequently followed by significant avoidance of scenes depicting contamination or nude males. Gender differences were most pronounced when viewing pictures of nude females, with men continuing to devote longer gaze time to pictures of nude females throughout viewing, whereas women avoided scenes of nude people, whether male or female, later in the viewing interval. For women, reported disgust of sexual activity was also inversely related to gaze duration for nude scenes. Taken together, selective looking as indexed by eye movements reveals differential perceptual intake as a function of specific content, gender, and individual differences. PMID:26156939

  13. How choice reveals, and shapes, expected hedonic outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sharot, Tali; De Martino, Benedetto; Dolan, Raymond J

    2009-01-01

    Humans tend to modify their attitudes to align with past action. For example, after choosing between similarly valued alternatives, people rate the selected option as better than they originally did, and the rejected option as worse. However, it is unknown whether these modifications in evaluation reflect an underlying change in the physiological representation of a stimulus’ expected hedonic value and our emotional response to it. Here, we addressed this question by combining participants’ estimations of the pleasure they will derive from future events, with brain imaging data recorded while they imagined those events, both before, and after, choosing between them. Participants rated the selected alternatives as better after the decision stage relative to before, while discarded alternatives were valued less. Our fMRI findings reveal that post-choice changes in preference are tracked in caudate nucleus activity. Specifically, the difference in BOLD signal associated with the selected and rejected stimuli was enhanced after a decision was taken, reflecting the choice that had just been made. This finding suggests that the physiological representation of a stimulus’ expected hedonic value is altered by a commitment to it. Furthermore, prior to any revaluation induced by the decision process, our data show that BOLD signal in this same region reflects the choices we are likely to make at a later time. PMID:19321772

  14. [The Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) in Japan: the pursuit of well-being].

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryosuke; Igarashi, Tasuku; Tsukamoto, Saori

    2014-04-01

    Hedonia (seeking pleasure and relaxation) and eudaimonia (seeking to improve oneself in congruence with one's values) uniquely contribute to well-being. The authors developed and tested the construct validity of a Japanese version of the Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) scale that had been originally developed in North America. Drawing on the theoretical and empirical evidence from research on emotion, we proposed that people would pursue well-being in three different directions: pleasure, relaxation, and eudaimonia. In Study 1, we used the original HEMA scale to examine the Japanese attainment of well-being. The results supported the hypothesized three-factor model. Study 2 revealed that the Japanese version of the HEMA scale measured pleasure, relaxation, and eudaimonia. Each of these subscales showed statistically sufficient internal consistency. There was no gender difference in any of these measures. Scores on the scale systematically corresponded with external criterion variables, such as life satisfaction, affect, Ryff's psychological well-being, social support, and lifestyle. Implications for psychological research and public policies that cover the topic of the pursuit of well-being are discussed.

  15. A hedonic story has a transmission advantage over a eudaimonic story.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin; Eggleston, Casey; Miao, Felicity F

    2014-12-01

    We examined (a) whether a hedonic story (story full of hedonic activities) is better remembered and transmitted compared with a eudaimonic story (story full of eudaimonic activities), and (b) whether the hedonic story's memory and transmission advantage varies depending on contextual cues, as indexed by the day of the week. Study 1 showed that college students are surrounded with more party announcements on Wednesdays through Fridays than on Mondays and Tuesdays. Study 2 showed that the hedonic story and the eudaimonic story we created were equally interesting, rich in plot, surprising, and arousing, yet the hedonic story was rated as more disturbing, real, and newsworthy. In Studies 3 and 4, we used a serial reproduction method and found that the hedonic story was better recalled and transmitted to others than was the eudaimonic story, and that this effect was particularly strong when participants completed the study later in the week. Our findings suggest that a hedonic story is more communicable than a eudaimonic story, particularly when supported by environmental cues.

  16. Systematic comparison of hedonic ranking and rating methods demonstrates few practical differences.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Marcin; Cliff, Margaret A

    2013-08-01

    Hedonic ranking is one of the commonly used methods to evaluate consumer preferences. Some authors suggest that it is the best methodology for discriminating among products, while others recommend hedonic rating. These mixed findings suggest the statistical outcome(s) are dependent on the experimental conditions or a user's expectation of "what is" and "what is not" desirable for evaluating consumer preferences. Therefore, sensory and industry professionals may be uncertain or confused regarding the appropriate application of hedonic tests. This paper would like to put this controversy to rest, by evaluating 3 data sets (3 yogurts, 79 consumers; 6 yogurts, 109 consumers; 4 apple cultivars, 70 consumers) collected using the same consumers and by calculating nontied ranks from hedonic scores. Consumer responses were evaluated by comparing bivariate associations between the methods (nontied ranks, tied ranks, hedonic rating scores) using trellis displays, determining the number of consumers with discrepancies in their responses between the methods, and comparing mean values using conventional statistical analyses. Spearman's rank correlations (0.33-0.84) revealed significant differences between the methods for all products, whether or not means separation tests differentiated the products. The work illustrated the inherent biases associated with hedonic ranking and recommended alternate hedonic methodologies.

  17. The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive function on binge eating.

    PubMed

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Zhang, Fengqing; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors.

  18. External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

  19. Valuing instream flows using the hedonic price method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netusil, Noelwah R.; Summers, Matthew T.

    2009-11-01

    The Oregon Water Trust (OWT) uses a market-based approach to protect and enhance instream flows in Oregon. We use the hedonic price method to estimate the effect of numerous variables on the annualized price OWT pays for water rights: the amount of water protected by the transaction, transaction type (state approved or contractual agreement), presence of anadromous and/or resident fish, and if a fish is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find evidence of a premium for state-approved transactions and for transactions that protect water in streams with listed species. Adjusting the amount of water protected by each transaction to include only rights that will be delivered with a high degree of certainty produces coefficient estimates that are similar, but more accurate, than using unadjusted water rights amounts.

  20. Measuring the benefits of air quality improvements: a hedonic salary approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, M.

    1982-03-01

    This paper estimates the compensating variation associated with nonmarginal changes in air quality using a hedonic salary model and 1970 data collected for a national sample of university professors. Recent advances in the theory of hedonic prices are utilized in constructing the theoretical model and formulating a procedure for generating empirical estimates. Lower bound estimates of the compensating variation associated with a one standard deviation increase in total suspended particulates (27.6 mgs/cu. meter/24 hours) were $419 for full professors, $234 for associate professors, and $209 for assistant professors in 1970. These results were not sensitive to the specification of the hedonic salary equations.

  1. Hedonic Studies: Valuing Environmental Amenities in Northern New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Carrie M.

    This dissertation explores three environmental policy issues affecting Northern New York. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the specific topics discussed in this dissertation. In Chapter 2, the impact of commercial wind power facilities on property values in Clinton, Franklin and Lewis counties are addressed using 11,331 transactions over nine years. A fixed effects framework controls for omitted variables and endogeneity biases. This research shows that nearby wind facilities reduce property values in two of the three counties studied, indicating that existing compensation schemes may not be sufficient to prevent a loss. Chapter 3 uses 14,929 transactions to explore how property owners value lake water quality using fixed effects hedonic analysis. This issue is concerning for the region since surface water quality is threatened by acid and mercury deposition. Results show that multiple measures of water quality have significant effects on property values including lake acidity, clarity, and impairment classification. Furthermore, the presence of loons and fish on the nearest lake positively impacts property values by 9% and 6%, respectively. This research helps quantify pollution impacts and could be used to justify additional Clean Air Act regulations that would benefit the Park. The last chapter explores the effects of the Adirondack Park Agency's land use plan that was developed in 1973 to protect sensitive environmental areas. Results of hedonic modeling and propensity score matching, applied to 88,610 transactions, show that lands in the Park classified for moderate intensity use sell at a premium while lands in more restrictive classes are discounted. There is also evidence that land use restrictions provide additional protection from human impacts, and that decreasing human impacts, proximity to forests and lakes all increase property values.

  2. Hedonic Changes in Food Choices Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thea Toft; Jakobsen, Tine Anette; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Sjödin, Anders; Le Roux, Carel W; Schmidt, Julie Berg

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that a shift in food choices leading to a diet with a lower energy density plays an important role in successful weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. A decreased hedonic drive to consume highly palatable foods may explain these changes in eating behavior. Here, we review the literature examining postoperative changes in mechanisms contributing to hedonic drive (food preferences, reinforcing value of food, dopamine signaling, and activity reward-related brain regions). The majority of studies reviewed support that RYGB decrease the hedonic drive to consume highly palatable foods. Still, in order to fully understand the complexity of these changes, we need studies combining sociological and psychological approaches with objective measures of actual food choices examining different measures of hedonic drive.

  3. Hedonic Changes in Food Choices Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thea Toft; Jakobsen, Tine Anette; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Sjödin, Anders; Le Roux, Carel W; Schmidt, Julie Berg

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that a shift in food choices leading to a diet with a lower energy density plays an important role in successful weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. A decreased hedonic drive to consume highly palatable foods may explain these changes in eating behavior. Here, we review the literature examining postoperative changes in mechanisms contributing to hedonic drive (food preferences, reinforcing value of food, dopamine signaling, and activity reward-related brain regions). The majority of studies reviewed support that RYGB decrease the hedonic drive to consume highly palatable foods. Still, in order to fully understand the complexity of these changes, we need studies combining sociological and psychological approaches with objective measures of actual food choices examining different measures of hedonic drive. PMID:27173820

  4. An orexin hotspot in ventral pallidum amplifies hedonic 'liking' for sweetness.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chao-Yi; Berridge, Kent C

    2013-08-01

    Orexin (hypocretin) is implicated in stimulating appetite as well as arousal, and in both food reward and drug reward. The ventral pallidum (VP) receives orexin projections from lateral hypothalamus neurons (LH), and orexin terminals are especially dense in the posterior half of VP, which is also the location of an opioid hedonic hotspot. The VP hotspot is a roughly cubic-millimeter site where mu opioid stimulation can amplify the hedonic impact of sweetness, expressed as an increase in 'liking' reactions to sucrose taste. The anatomical overlap in posterior VP between opioid hotspot and orexin inputs raises the possibility that the hedonic hotspot might allow orexin to amplify 'liking' too. We examined whether microinjections of orexin-A into the VP hotspot enhance the hedonic impact of sucrose, as assessed via affective taste reactivity measures of 'liking' reactions, and additionally compared effects at nearby sites in adjacent LH and extended amygdala. Taste reactivity results indicated that orexin stimulation specifically in the VP hotspot nearly doubled the magnitude of positive 'liking' reactions elicited by the taste of sucrose. Mapping results for localization of function, aided by Fos plume measures of the local spread of orexin impact, suggested that hedonic enhancement was generated by essentially the same cubic-millimeter of posterior VP previously identified as the opioid hotspot. By contrast, microinjection sites in the anterior half of VP, or in LH or extended amygdala, generally failed to produce any hedonic enhancement. We conclude that an orexin hedonic hotspot exists in posterior VP, with similar boundaries to the opioid hotspot. An orexin hedonic hotspot may permit regulatory hypothalamic circuitry to make foods more 'liked' during hunger by acting through VP. Dysfunction in a VP orexin hotspot in addiction or mood disorders might also contribute to some types of affective psychopathology.

  5. Comparing utilitarian and hedonic usefulness to user intention in multipurpose information systems.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ja-Chul; Fan, Liu; Suh, Yung Ho; Lee, Sang-Chul

    2010-06-01

    This research studies the differences between productivity-oriented (or utilitarian) and entertainment-oriented (or hedonic) usefulness for a multipurpose information system in user acceptance models, as information systems can be high or low in both hedonic and utilitarian attributes. Accordingly, perceived usefulness (PU) is divided into perceived utilitarian usefulness (PUU) and perceived hedonic usefulness (PHU) to provide a better understanding of users' intention for accepting IT. To test the proposed model more effectively, this research targets instant messaging (IM), which is an extremely popular and increasingly important communication system, both utilitarian and hedonic in nature. This research compares the difference across two groups: students for hedonic purpose and employees for utilitarian purpose. We conclude that the proposed model, which distinguishes between utilitarian and hedonic usefulness, is more effective than previous models in which the usefulness was not distinguished. Both PUU and PHU have an effect on intention to use. Employees consider PUU more important in their intention to use IM, while students are more influenced by PHU.

  6. Ventral pallidum firing codes hedonic reward: when a bad taste turns good.

    PubMed

    Tindell, Amy J; Smith, Kyle S; Peciña, Susana; Berridge, Kent C; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2006-11-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is a key structure in brain mesocorticolimbic reward circuits that mediate "liking" reactions to sensory pleasures. Do firing patterns in VP actually code sensory pleasure? Strong evidence for hedonic coding requires showing that neural signals track positive increases in sensory pleasure or even reversals from bad to good. A useful test is the salt alliesthesia of physiological sodium depletion that makes even aversively intense NaCl taste become palatable and "liked." We compared VP neural firing activity in rats during aversive "disliking" reactions elicited by a noxiously intense NaCl taste (triple-seawater 1.5 M concentration) in normal homeostatic state versus in a physiological salt appetite state that made the same NaCl taste palatable and elicit positive "liking" reactions. We also compared firing elicited by palatable sucrose taste, which always elicited "liking" reactions in both states. A dramatic doubling in the amplitude of VP neural firing peaks to NaCl was caused by salt appetite that matched the affective switch from aversive ("disliking") to positive hedonic ("liking") reactions. By contrast, VP neural activity to "liked" sucrose taste was always high and never altered. In summary, VP firing activity selectively tracks the hedonic values of tastes, even across hedonic reversals caused by physiological changes. Our data provide the strongest evidence yet for neural hedonic coding of natural sensory pleasures and suggest, by extension, how abnormalities in VP firing patterns might contribute to clinical hedonic dysfunctions. PMID:16885520

  7. Hedonic Hunger Prospectively Predicts Onset and Maintenance of Loss of Control Eating among College Women

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Michael R.; Arigo, Danielle; Butryn, Meghan L.; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Sarwer, David; Stice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objective The subjective feeling of loss of control (LOC) over eating is common among eating disordered individuals and has predicted weight gain in past research. Restrained eating and negative affect are risk factors for binge eating (which involves LOC), but intense feelings of pleasure derived from palatable foods might also predict the emergence or intensification of LOC eating. The Power of Food Scale (PFS; Lowe et al., 2009) assesses preoccupation with the pleasure derived from palatable food. Method The current sample (n = 294) comprised female college freshmen at risk for weight gain. LOC was assessed using an abbreviated version of the Eating Disorders Examination interview. LOC was assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-ups. Results Among those exhibiting LOC eating at baseline, (and controlling for baseline depression, restrained eating and body image dissatisfaction), those scoring higher on the PFS at baseline showed a smaller reduction in LOC frequency over time relative to those scoring lower. Using the same covariates, the PFS predicted the first emergence of LOC over two years among those showing no LOC at baseline. Conclusions These results suggest that powerful hedonic attraction to palatable foods may represent a risk factor for the maintenance of LOC in those initially experiencing it and the emergence of LOC eating in those who are not. An enhanced ability to identify individuals at increased risk of developing or maintaining LOC eating could be useful in prevention programs. PMID:26690638

  8. A GIS-based hedonic price model for agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetriou, Demetris

    2015-06-01

    Land consolidation is a very effective land management planning approach that aims towards rural/agricultural sustainable development. Land reallocation which involves land tenure restructuring is the most important, complex and time consuming component of land consolidation. Land reallocation relies on land valuation since its fundamental principle provides that after consolidation, each landowner shall be granted a property of an aggregate value that is approximately the same as the value of the property owned prior to consolidation. Therefore, land value is the crucial factor for the land reallocation process and hence for the success and acceptance of the final land consolidation plan. Land valuation is a process of assigning values to all parcels (and its contents) and it is usually carried out by an ad-hoc committee. However, the process faces some problems such as it is time consuming hence costly, outcomes may present inconsistency since it is carried out manually and empirically without employing systematic analytical tools and in particular spatial analysis tools and techniques such as statistical/mathematical. A solution to these problems can be the employment of mass appraisal land valuation methods using automated valuation models (AVM) based on international standards. In this context, this paper presents a spatial based linear hedonic price model which has been developed and tested in a case study land consolidation area in Cyprus. Results showed that the AVM is capable to produce acceptable in terms of accuracy and reliability land values and to reduce time hence cost required by around 80%.

  9. Examination of an implicit water rights market using hedonic estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Crouter, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Much of the current literature on water rights is concerned with the efficiency of water allocations where there are legal and institutional constraints on water rights trades. In regions where water laws and institutions permit water rights to be traded freely so that a perfectly competitive market is developed, the allocation of water among users will be efficient. This research develops an analytical approach to assessing the allocational efficiency of a regional water market. Specifically, this approach focuses on the extent to which a regional water market is separate from a land market, and competitive. The questions of separability and competitiveness are examined empirically by estimating the hedonic price function for farm real estate. Such a function relates a parcel's selling price to its attributes: quantities of land and water, value of improvements, and location. The maximum likelihood estimation procedure employs a Box-Cox transformation on the price, land, and water variables. Separability of the price function in land and water, and linearity in water, indicate that water is sold in separate and competitive markets. A likelihood-ratio test on the parameters of transformation provides the required test of separability and linearity

  10. Valuing water resources in Switzerland using a hedonic price model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Diana; Siber, Rosi; Brouwer, Roy; Logar, Ivana; Sanadgol, Dorsa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, linear and spatial hedonic price models are applied to the housing market in Switzerland, covering all 26 cantons in the country over the period 2005-2010. Besides structural house, neighborhood and socioeconomic characteristics, we include a wide variety of new environmental characteristics related to water to examine their role in explaining variation in sales prices. These include water abundance, different types of water bodies, the recreational function of water, and water disamenity. Significant spatial autocorrelation is found in the estimated models, as well as nonlinear effects for distances to the nearest lake and large river. Significant effects are furthermore found for water abundance and the distance to large rivers, but not to small rivers. Although in both linear and spatial models water related variables explain less than 1% of the price variation, the distance to the nearest bathing site has a larger marginal contribution than many neighborhood-related distance variables. The housing market shows to differentiate between different water related resources in terms of relative contribution to house prices, which could help the housing development industry make more geographically targeted planning activities.

  11. Hedonic travel cost and random utility models of recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, L.; Mendelsohn, R.; Davis, E.W.

    1998-07-09

    Micro-economic theory began as an attempt to describe, predict and value the demand and supply of consumption goods. Quality was largely ignored at first, but economists have started to address quality within the theory of demand and specifically the question of site quality, which is an important component of land management. This paper demonstrates that hedonic and random utility models emanate from the same utility theoretical foundation, although they make different estimation assumptions. Using a theoretically consistent comparison, both approaches are applied to examine the quality of wilderness areas in the Southeastern US. Data were collected on 4778 visits to 46 trails in 20 different forest areas near the Smoky Mountains. Visitor data came from permits and an independent survey. The authors limited the data set to visitors from within 300 miles of the North Carolina and Tennessee border in order to focus the analysis on single purpose trips. When consistently applied, both models lead to results with similar signs but different magnitudes. Because the two models are equally valid, recreation studies should continue to use both models to value site quality. Further, practitioners should be careful not to make simplifying a priori assumptions which limit the effectiveness of both techniques.

  12. Opioid modulation of taste hedonics within the ventral striatum.

    PubMed

    Kelley, A E; Bakshi, V P; Haber, S N; Steininger, T L; Will, M J; Zhang, M

    2002-07-01

    There is a long-standing interest in the role of endogenous opioid peptides in feeding behavior and, in particular, in the modulation of food reward and palatability. Since drugs such as heroin, morphine, alcohol, and cannabinoids, interact with this system, there may be important common neural substrates between food and drug reward with regard to the brain's opioid systems. In this paper, we review the proposed functional role of opioid neurotransmission and mu opiate receptors within the nucleus accumbens and surrounding ventral striatum. Opioid compounds, particularly those selective for the mu receptor, induce a potent increase in food intake, sucrose, salt, saccharin, and ethanol intake. We have explored this phenomenon with regard to macronutrient selection, regional specificity, role of output structures, Fos mapping, analysis of motivational state, and enkephalin gene expression. We hypothesize that opioid-mediated mechanisms within ventral striatal medium spiny neurons mediate the affective or hedonic response to food ('liking' or food 'pleasure'). A further refinement of this hypothesis is that activation of ventral striatal opioids specifically encodes positive affect induced by tasty and/or calorically dense foods (such as sugar and fat), and promotes behaviors associated with this enhanced palatability. It is proposed that this brain mechanism was beneficial in evolutionary development for ensuring the consumption of relatively scarce, high-energy food sources. However, in modern times, with unlimited supplies of high-calorie food, it has contributed to the present epidemic of obesity. PMID:12117573

  13. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer.

    PubMed

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  14. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  15. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control.

  16. Do hunger and exposure to food affect scores on a measure of hedonic hunger? An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ashley A; Raggio, Greer A; Butryn, Meghan L; Lowe, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of these manipulations on self-reported external eating and disinhibition. Participants (N=67) ate a standardized meal followed by a 4-h fast. Participants were randomized to one of four groups (Fasted/Food Absence, Fasted/Food Exposure, Fed/Food Absence, or Fed/Food Exposure). In Phase I of the experiment (Hunger Manipulation), participants randomized to the "Fed" group drank a protein shake, while those in the "Fasted" group did not receive a shake. In Phase II (Palatable Food Exposure), participants in the "Food Exposure" group were visually exposed to palatable food items, while "Food Absence" participants were not. All participants completed the PFS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire External Eating subscale, and the Disinhibition subscale from the Eating Inventory during Phase II. Results showed no significant main or interactive effects of Hunger condition or Food Exposure condition on PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scores (all p's<.33). All effect sizes were small (partial etas squared ⩽.015). Manipulation checks confirmed that the intended hunger and exposure interventions were successful. Results suggest that relatively short fasting periods (e.g., 4h) analogous to typical breaks between meals are not associated with changes in scores on the PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scales. Hedonic hunger, at least as measured by the PFS, may represent a relatively stable construct that is not substantially affected by daily variations in hunger. In addition, individual differences in exposure to food in the immediate environment are unlikely to confound research using these measures.

  17. Metabolic vs. hedonic obesity: a conceptual distinction and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Mechanick, J. I.; Korner, J.; Peterli, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Body weight is determined via both metabolic and hedonic mechanisms. Metabolic regulation of body weight centres around the ‘body weight set point’, which is programmed by energy balance circuitry in the hypothalamus and other specific brain regions. The metabolic body weight set point has a genetic basis, but exposure to an obesogenic environment may elicit allostatic responses and upward drift of the set point, leading to a higher maintained body weight. However, an elevated steady‐state body weight may also be achieved without an alteration of the metabolic set point, via sustained hedonic over‐eating, which is governed by the reward system of the brain and can override homeostatic metabolic signals. While hedonic signals are potent influences in determining food intake, metabolic regulation involves the active control of both food intake and energy expenditure. When overweight is due to elevation of the metabolic set point (‘metabolic obesity’), energy expenditure theoretically falls onto the standard energy–mass regression line. In contrast, when a steady‐state weight is above the metabolic set point due to hedonic over‐eating (‘hedonic obesity’), a persistent compensatory increase in energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass may be demonstrable. Recognition of the two types of obesity may lead to more effective treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:25588316

  18. Startling sweet temptations: hedonic chocolate deprivation modulates experience, eating behavior, and eyeblink startle.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed.

  19. Metabolic vs. hedonic obesity: a conceptual distinction and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y-H; Vasselli, J R; Zhang, Y; Mechanick, J I; Korner, J; Peterli, R

    2015-03-01

    Body weight is determined via both metabolic and hedonic mechanisms. Metabolic regulation of body weight centres around the 'body weight set point', which is programmed by energy balance circuitry in the hypothalamus and other specific brain regions. The metabolic body weight set point has a genetic basis, but exposure to an obesogenic environment may elicit allostatic responses and upward drift of the set point, leading to a higher maintained body weight. However, an elevated steady-state body weight may also be achieved without an alteration of the metabolic set point, via sustained hedonic over-eating, which is governed by the reward system of the brain and can override homeostatic metabolic signals. While hedonic signals are potent influences in determining food intake, metabolic regulation involves the active control of both food intake and energy expenditure. When overweight is due to elevation of the metabolic set point ('metabolic obesity'), energy expenditure theoretically falls onto the standard energy-mass regression line. In contrast, when a steady-state weight is above the metabolic set point due to hedonic over-eating ('hedonic obesity'), a persistent compensatory increase in energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass may be demonstrable. Recognition of the two types of obesity may lead to more effective treatment and prevention of obesity.

  20. Hedonic Capacity in the Broader Autism Phenotype: Should Social Anhedonia Be Considered a Characteristic Feature?

    PubMed

    Novacek, Derek M; Gooding, Diane C; Pflum, Madeline J

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social motivational processes may partially explain the differences in social interaction seen among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The social motivation hypothesis would predict an association between reduced hedonic capacity and ASD. However, to date, findings have been mixed regarding hedonic deficits among individuals with ASD; adults report lower levels of both social and physical pleasure whereas adolescents only report experiencing lower social pleasure. Moreover, very few studies examining the association between anhedonia and autistic traits have used measures of hedonic response or taken temporal aspects of pleasure into account. The present study examined associations between autistic traits and the experience of pleasure using a non-clinical sample of young adults to further clarify the nature of hedonic deficits in the broader autism phenotype (BAP). Results revealed that autistic traits were negatively associated with both the experience of social pleasure as well as general pleasure, although the association was stronger for social pleasure. Regression analyses revealed that reduced social pleasure was a better predictor of autistic traits than general pleasure. Together these findings suggest that reduced social hedonic capacity is associated with autistic traits in the general population and should be included in conceptualizations of the BAP.

  1. Beauty beyond compare: effects of context extremity and categorization on hedonic contrast.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Elizabeth; Parker, Scott; Zellner, Debra A

    2013-02-01

    Three studies investigated the effects of extreme context stimuli and categorization on hedonic contrast by having subjects judge the attractiveness of faces. Experiment 1 demonstrated hedonic contrast in both directions by using 2 sets of stimuli presented in different orders. Preceding moderately unattractive faces with moderately attractive faces made the unattractive faces more unattractive. When the order of presentation was reversed, the moderately attractive faces became more attractive. Experiment 2 found that this hedonic contrast was eliminated when the moderately attractive faces were replaced with extremely attractive faces. Experiment 3 showed that even with those 2 sets of extremely different stimuli, hedonic contrast occurred if subjects were instructed to think of both sets of stimuli as belonging to the same category. These findings, using hedonic judgments, parallel Sarris's (1967, 1968) finding with weights that when 2 sets of stimuli are too different in the dimension being judged, no contrast occurs. They also lend support to his explanation for this result. When the 2 sets of stimuli are too different they are not seen as belonging to the same category. They are therefore not compared, and contrast does not occur. The authors propose that these principles might apply to contrast in all settings.

  2. How Do We Remember Happy Life Events? A Comparison Between Eudaimonic and Hedonic Autobiographical Memories.

    PubMed

    Sotgiu, Igor

    2016-08-17

    Although positive events occur frequently in people's lives, autobiographical memory for happy events has received only marginal attention within the psychology literature. This study followed a between-subjects design to examine the similarities and differences between eudaimonic and hedonic happy memories. Two groups of undergraduates provided narratives of personally experienced eudaimonic and hedonic events, respectively. They also completed questionnaires assessing the memory characteristics of recalled events and the centrality of such events for the individual's identity and life story. In addition, the participants' levels of well-being were assessed. The content analysis of narratives revealed that eudaimonic memories mostly referred to transitional life events; by contrast, the most reported hedonic memories referred to close relationship experiences. Eudaimonic and hedonic recollections were further compared on quantitative measures of memory characteristics, statistically controlling for retention interval and event centrality. Results showed that eudaimonic memories involved more intense feelings of pride and were socially shared more frequently than hedonic memories. However, the two memory types were similar with respect to a number of features (e.g., sensory details). It is argued that participants remembering eudaimonic events were more influenced by cultural life scripts. Implications of the findings for the measurement of psychological well-being are also discussed.

  3. Hedonic value of intentional action provides reinforcement for voluntary generation but not voluntary inhibition of action.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Jim; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Intentional inhibition refers to stopping oneself from performing an action at the last moment, a vital component of self-control. It has been suggested that intentional inhibition is associated with negative hedonic value, perhaps due to the frustration of cancelling an intended action. Here we investigate hedonic implications of the free choice to act or inhibit. Participants gave aesthetic ratings of arbitrary visual stimuli that immediately followed voluntary decisions to act or to inhibit action. We found that participants for whom decisions to act produced a strong positive hedonic value for the immediately following visual stimulus made more choices to act than those with weaker hedonic value for action. This finding is consistent with reinforcement learning of action decisions. However, participants who experienced inhibition as generating more positive hedonic value did not choose to inhibit more than other participants. Thus, voluntary inhibition of action did not act as reinforcement for future inhibitory behaviour. Our finding that inhibition of action lacks motivational capacity may explain why self-control is both difficult and limited.

  4. Do hedonic motives moderate regulatory focus motives? Evidence from the framing of persuasive messages.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Prashant; Brendl, C Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Research on regulatory focus has established a regulatory matching effect: The persuasiveness of a message is enhanced when regulatory orientations of message and perceiver match (i.e., both are promotion or both are prevention). We report evidence that varying the hedonic outcome reverses this effect. We manipulated hedonic outcome by explicitly stating pleasurable versus painful outcomes as part of the message frame as well as by priming perceivers to focus on either pleasurable or painful outcomes. When both message and perceiver were focused on pleasurable outcomes, we replicated the regulatory matching effect. However, the matching effect reversed when the hedonic outcome of the message was opposed to that of the perceiver (i.e., one was pleasurable and the other painful). Under these conditions, messages that mismatched the perceivers' regulatory orientation were more persuasive (i.e., promotion message for a prevention oriented perceiver or vice versa). We also examined the persuasion effects when both message and perceiver were focused on painful outcomes and found that the regulatory matching effect re-emerged. The reversal of the regulatory matching effect by hedonic outcome strongly suggests that hedonic motives (approach of pleasure vs. avoidance of pain) and regulatory focus motives are distinct constructs. This is important because contrary to theoretical statements these constructs have often been confounded.

  5. How Do We Remember Happy Life Events? A Comparison Between Eudaimonic and Hedonic Autobiographical Memories.

    PubMed

    Sotgiu, Igor

    2016-08-17

    Although positive events occur frequently in people's lives, autobiographical memory for happy events has received only marginal attention within the psychology literature. This study followed a between-subjects design to examine the similarities and differences between eudaimonic and hedonic happy memories. Two groups of undergraduates provided narratives of personally experienced eudaimonic and hedonic events, respectively. They also completed questionnaires assessing the memory characteristics of recalled events and the centrality of such events for the individual's identity and life story. In addition, the participants' levels of well-being were assessed. The content analysis of narratives revealed that eudaimonic memories mostly referred to transitional life events; by contrast, the most reported hedonic memories referred to close relationship experiences. Eudaimonic and hedonic recollections were further compared on quantitative measures of memory characteristics, statistically controlling for retention interval and event centrality. Results showed that eudaimonic memories involved more intense feelings of pride and were socially shared more frequently than hedonic memories. However, the two memory types were similar with respect to a number of features (e.g., sensory details). It is argued that participants remembering eudaimonic events were more influenced by cultural life scripts. Implications of the findings for the measurement of psychological well-being are also discussed. PMID:27043474

  6. Hedonic Capacity in the Broader Autism Phenotype: Should Social Anhedonia Be Considered a Characteristic Feature?

    PubMed Central

    Novacek, Derek M.; Gooding, Diane C.; Pflum, Madeline J.

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social motivational processes may partially explain the differences in social interaction seen among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The social motivation hypothesis would predict an association between reduced hedonic capacity and ASD. However, to date, findings have been mixed regarding hedonic deficits among individuals with ASD; adults report lower levels of both social and physical pleasure whereas adolescents only report experiencing lower social pleasure. Moreover, very few studies examining the association between anhedonia and autistic traits have used measures of hedonic response or taken temporal aspects of pleasure into account. The present study examined associations between autistic traits and the experience of pleasure using a non-clinical sample of young adults to further clarify the nature of hedonic deficits in the broader autism phenotype (BAP). Results revealed that autistic traits were negatively associated with both the experience of social pleasure as well as general pleasure, although the association was stronger for social pleasure. Regression analyses revealed that reduced social pleasure was a better predictor of autistic traits than general pleasure. Together these findings suggest that reduced social hedonic capacity is associated with autistic traits in the general population and should be included in conceptualizations of the BAP. PMID:27199879

  7. Determinants of taste preference and acceptability: quality versus hedonics.

    PubMed

    Loney, Gregory C; Blonde, Ginger D; Eckel, Lisa A; Spector, Alan C

    2012-07-18

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects, but the processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Using an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine regardless of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different-compared to sucralose-avoiding rats, the sucralose-preferring rats found the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggests otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner approximately similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  8. Opioid hedonic hotspot in nucleus accumbens shell: mu, delta, and kappa maps for enhancement of sweetness "liking" and "wanting".

    PubMed

    Castro, Daniel C; Berridge, Kent C

    2014-03-19

    A specialized cubic-millimeter hotspot in the rostrodorsal quadrant of medial shell in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats may mediate opioid enhancement of gustatory hedonic impact or "liking". Here, we selectively stimulated the three major subtypes of opioid receptors via agonist microinjections [mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE), or kappa (U50488H)] and constructed anatomical maps for functional localizations of consequent changes in hedonic "liking" (assessed by affective orofacial reactions to sucrose taste) versus "wanting" (assessed by changes in food intake). Results indicated that the NAc rostrodorsal quadrant contains a shared opioid hedonic hotspot that similarly mediates enhancements of sucrose "liking" for mu, delta, and kappa stimulations. Within the rostrodorsal hotspot boundaries each type of stimulation generated at least a doubling or higher enhancement of hedonic reactions, with comparable intensities for all three types of opioid stimulation. By contrast, a negative hedonic coldspot was mapped in the caudal half of medial shell, where all three types of opioid stimulation suppressed "liking" reactions to approximately one-half normal levels. Different anatomical patterns were produced for stimulation of food "wanting", reflected in food intake. Altogether, these results indicate that the rostrodorsal hotspot in medial shell is unique for generating opioid-induced hedonic enhancement, and add delta and kappa signals to mu as hedonic generators within the hotspot. Also, the identification of a separable NAc caudal coldspot for hedonic suppression, and separate NAc opioid mechanisms for controlling food "liking" versus "wanting" further highlights NAc anatomical heterogeneity and localizations of function within subregions of medial shell.

  9. New hedonic technique for estimating attribute demand: an application to the demand for automobile fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, S.E.; Halvorsen, R.

    1984-08-01

    A new hedonic procedure is applied to estimate the effects of gasoline price on the demand for automobile attributes and fuel efficiency. Direct application of a comparative statics analysis circumvents the problems of identification and severe multicollinearity affecting previous hedonic studies. The results indicate that the effect of induced changes in automobile attributes in response to increases in the price of gasoline is to substantially increase fuel efficiency. The estimated elasticities of fuel efficiency with respect to the price of gasoline imply that the long-run own-price elasticity of demand for gasoline is greater than unity. 31 references.

  10. The Eudaimonic and Hedonic Components of Happiness: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fave, Antonella Delle; Brdar, Ingrid; Freire, Teresa; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Wissing, Marie P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new project developed by a cross-country team of researchers, with the aim of studying the hedonic and eudaimonic components of happiness through a mixed method approach combining both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Data were collected from 666 participants in Australia, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain,…

  11. Emphasising personal investment effects weight loss and hedonic thoughts about food after obesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Husted, Margaret; Ogden, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Obesity surgery is the most effective treatment method for the severely obese but does not work for everyone. Indications are that weight-loss success may be related to individuals' sense of investment in surgery, with failure linked to higher automatic hedonic motivations to consume food and greater susceptibility to food in the environment. A pilot study using an independent experimental design recruited bariatric surgery patients (n = 91) via a UK obesity-surgery charity website who were randomly allocated to either the intervention or the control condition. The intervention involved raising the salience of the personal investment made in having weight-loss surgery in an attempt to reduce automatic hedonic thoughts about food and aid weight loss. Data was collected initially with subsequent weight loss measured at 3 months of follow-up. Following the intervention, participants reported significantly reduced hedonic thoughts, increased liking for low-fat foods, reduced liking of high-fat food, and higher self-efficacy for achieving sustained weight loss than controls. By 3 months, this was translated into significant differences in mean weight losses of 6.77 kg for the intervention group and 0.91 kg for control participants. To conclude, a quick simple cost-effective intervention encouraging participants to focus on investment helped weight loss and changed hedonic thoughts about food in bariatric patients.

  12. On the Importance of Distinguishing Hedonia and Eudaimonia when Contemplating the Hedonic Treadmill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Alan S.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by E. Diener, R. E. Lucas, and C. N. Scollon (see record 2006-05893-003) which provided a revision of the adaptation theory of well-being. The current author suggests that consideration of the emerging distinction between hedonic and eudaimonic well-being was missing from the original article and is worthy of scholarly…

  13. Tuition and U.S. Private College Characteristics: The Hedonic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harford, Jon D.; Marcus, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Examines determinants of tuition at American private colleges using 1982-83 data. Hedonic regression analysis involving over 20 quality measures shows that private college tuition responds in economically sensible ways to changes in public tuition and in quantity and quality of the faculties, facilities, and student bodies at private colleges.…

  14. Obtaining the optimal fuel conserving investment mix: a linear programming hedonic technique approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine how energy efficiency affects the resale value of homes; (2) use this information concerning the implicit price of energy efficiency to estimate the resale value of fuel saving investments; and (3) incorporate these resale values into the investment decision process and determine the efficient investment mix for a household planning to own a given home for three alternative time periods. Two models were used to accomplish these objectives. A hedonic price model was used to determine the impact of energy efficiency on housing prices. The hedonic technique is a method used to attach implicit prices to characteristics that are not themselves bought and sold in markets, but are components of market goods. The hedonic model in this study provided an estimate of the implicit price paid for an increase in energy efficiency in homes on the Des-Moines housing market. In order to determine how the length of time the home is to be owned affects the optimal investment mix, a linear programming model was used to determine the cost minimizing investment mix for a baseline house under the assumption that it would be owned for 6, 20, and 50 years, alternatively. The results of the hedonic technique revealed that a premium is paid for energy efficient homes in Des Moines. The results of the linear programming model reveal that the optimal fuel saving investment mix for a home is sensitive to the time the home is to be owned.

  15. Consumption and Subjective Wellbeing: Exploring Basic Needs, Social Comparison, Social Integration and Hedonism in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillen-Royo, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Within material poverty contexts, consumption and subjective wellbeing are positively and strongly related. This is usually explained in terms of the increased possibilities to satisfy basic needs that additional spending provides. Other important aspects of consumption, such as its relative, symbolic and hedonic dimensions are not generally…

  16. Ignorance of Hedonic Adaptation to Hemodialysis: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riis, Jason; Loewenstein, George; Baron, Jonathan; Jepson, Christopher; Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    Healthy people generally underestimate the self-reported well-being of people with disabilities and serious illnesses. The cause of this discrepancy is in dispute, and the present study provides evidence for 2 causes. First, healthy people fail to anticipate hedonic adaptation to poor health. Using an ecological momentary assessment measure of…

  17. Hedonic, Instrumental, and Normative Motives: Differentiating Patterns for Popular, Accepted, and Rejected Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    This study examined to what extent motives for behavior differentiated between popular, accepted, and rejected adolescents. Based on goal-framing theory, three types of motives were distinguished: hedonic (aimed at short-term gratification), instrumental (aimed at improvement of one's situation), and normative (aimed at acting in accordance with…

  18. EPS Prize Lecture. Licking and liking: the assessment of hedonic responses in rodents.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Dominic M

    2012-01-01

    Affective processes are a key determinant of behaviour: At its simplest, liked stimuli are approached while disliked stimuli are avoided. Although assessing hedonic responses in nonverbal animals can be difficult, one relatively tractable approach relies on detailed analyses of rodents' consummatory behaviour. Rodents typically produce rhythmic sets of licks that can be grouped into clusters on the basis of the intervals between licks. The mean number of licks in a cluster (cluster size) is directly related to the concentration of palatable and unpalatable solutions. These relationships suggest that lick cluster size might be a useful index of an animal's hedonic reaction to the solution being consumed. I begin by reviewing studies of conditioned flavour preference and aversion that support the idea that lick cluster size can provide useful information about rats' hedonic reactions. I then describe how this methodology has been used to address previously intractable issues in the investigation of contrast effects as well as revealing an analogue of effort justification effects that, in humans, are commonly explained in terms of cognitive dissonance reduction. Finally, I consider how lick analysis might provide information about hedonic responses in animal models of human psychiatric disorders. In all these cases, how an animal did something was particularly informative about why it was doing it.

  19. EPS Prize Lecture. Licking and liking: the assessment of hedonic responses in rodents.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Dominic M

    2012-01-01

    Affective processes are a key determinant of behaviour: At its simplest, liked stimuli are approached while disliked stimuli are avoided. Although assessing hedonic responses in nonverbal animals can be difficult, one relatively tractable approach relies on detailed analyses of rodents' consummatory behaviour. Rodents typically produce rhythmic sets of licks that can be grouped into clusters on the basis of the intervals between licks. The mean number of licks in a cluster (cluster size) is directly related to the concentration of palatable and unpalatable solutions. These relationships suggest that lick cluster size might be a useful index of an animal's hedonic reaction to the solution being consumed. I begin by reviewing studies of conditioned flavour preference and aversion that support the idea that lick cluster size can provide useful information about rats' hedonic reactions. I then describe how this methodology has been used to address previously intractable issues in the investigation of contrast effects as well as revealing an analogue of effort justification effects that, in humans, are commonly explained in terms of cognitive dissonance reduction. Finally, I consider how lick analysis might provide information about hedonic responses in animal models of human psychiatric disorders. In all these cases, how an animal did something was particularly informative about why it was doing it. PMID:22404646

  20. Evaluative and hedonic wellbeing among those with and without children at home

    PubMed Central

    Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    We document and interpret differences in life evaluation and in hedonic experience between those who live with children and those who do not; most previous literature has concluded that those with children have worse lives. For a sample of 1.8 million Americans of all ages, and without controls for other circumstances, we find little difference in subjective wellbeing between people with and without children. Among those most likely to be parents, life evaluation and all hedonic experiences except stress are markedly better among those living with a child. However, within this group, people who live with children are more likely to be married, richer, better educated, more religious, and healthier, all of which have well-documented positive associations with evaluative and hedonic wellbeing. With statistical controls for these background factors, the presence of a child has a small negative association with life evaluation, although it is associated with more of both positive and negative hedonics. These patterns are replicated in the English-speaking countries of the world, but not in other regions. We argue that the causal effect of children on parental wellbeing, which is the target for most of the literature, is not well defined. Instead, we interpret our rich-country results within a theory of children and wellbeing in which adults sort into parenthood according to their preferences. In poor, high-fertility countries, we find evidence that at least some people have children even when it diminishes their personal wellbeing. PMID:24474755

  1. The relationship between child and parent food hedonics and parent and child food group intake in children with overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Osterholt, Kathrin M; Hart, Chantelle N; Jelalian, Elissa; Wing, Rena R; Goldfield, Gary S

    2011-03-01

    Many factors influence children's dietary intake, including children's and parents' food hedonics (liking), and parent intake. This secondary data analysis studied the relationship between child and parent liking, and parent intake and child intake of fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, snack foods, and sweetened beverages in 4- to 9-year-old overweight/obese (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children presenting for obesity treatment (September 2005 to September 2007) in Providence, RI. One hundred thirty-five parent-child pairs, with complete baseline dietary (3-day food record) and food group hedonic data were included. Hedonic ratings were mean ratings using a 5-point Likert scale (lower scores represented greater liking of a food group). Children were aged 7.2±1.6 years, 63.0% girls, 12.6% African American, and 17.8% Hispanic, with a mean body mass index z score of 2.3±0.6. Total servings consumed by children over 3 days were: fruits 2.7±3.2, vegetables 3.4±2.5, low-fat dairy 2.4±2.1, snack foods 5.9±4.2, and sweetened beverages 2.7±3.1. After demographic and anthropometric variables were controlled, parent intake was positively related (P<0.05) to child intake of all food groups except sweetened beverages. Child liking was only significantly (P<0.05) related to child intake of vegetables. In young children with obesity/overweight, parent intake was consistently related to child intake. Changing parent intake may be important in helping to change the dietary intake of young children with overweight/obesity.

  2. Anticipatory and consummatory effects of (hedonic) chocolate intake are associated with increased circulating levels of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and endocannabinoids in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Rigamonti, Antonello E.; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Aveta, Teresa; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Bini, Silvia; Cella, Silvano G.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Hedonic hunger refers to consumption of food just for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, consumption of food for pleasure was reported to be associated with increased circulating levels of both the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) in normal-weight subjects. To date, the effects of hedonic hunger, and in particular of chocolate craving, on these mediators in obese subjects are still unknown. Methods To explore the role of some gastrointestinal orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides and endocannabinoids (and some related congeners) in chocolate consumption, we measured changes in circulating levels of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), anandamide (AEA), 2-AG, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in 10 satiated severely obese subjects after consumption of chocolate and, on a separate day, of a non-palatable isocaloric food with the same bromatologic composition. Evaluation of hunger and satiety was also performed by visual analogic scale. Results The anticipatory phase and the consumption of food for pleasure were associated with increased circulating levels of ghrelin, AEA, 2-AG, and OEA. In contrast, the levels of GLP-1, PYY, and PEA did not differ before and after the exposure/ingestion of either chocolate or non-palatable foods. Hunger and satiety were higher and lower, respectively, in the hedonic session than in the non-palatable one. Conclusions When motivation to eat is generated by exposure to, and consumption of, chocolate a peripheral activation of specific endogenous rewarding chemical signals, including ghrelin, AEA, and 2-AG, is observed in obese subjects. Although preliminary, these findings predict the effectiveness of ghrelin and endocannabinoid antagonists in the treatment of obesity. PMID:26546790

  3. Using participant hedonic ratings of food images to construct data driven food groupings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan L; Boles, Richard E; Burger, Kyle S

    2014-08-01

    Little is known regarding how individuals' hedonic ratings of a variety of foods interrelate and how hedonic ratings correspond to habitual dietary intake. Participant ratings of food appeal of 104 food images were collected while participants were in a fed state (n = 129). Self-reported frequency of intake of the food items, perceived hunger, body mass index (BMI), and dietary restraint were also assessed. Principal components analysis (PCA) was employed to analyze hedonic ratings of the foods, to identify component structures and to reduce the number of variables. The resulting component structures comprised 63 images loading on seven components including Energy-Dense Main Courses, Light Main Courses and Seafood as well as components more analogous to traditional food groups (e.g., Fruits, Grains, Desserts, Meats). However, vegetables were not represented in a unique, independent component. All components were positively correlated with reported intake of the food items (r's = .26-.52, p <.05), except for the Light Main Course component (r = .10). BMI showed a small positive relation with aggregated food appeal ratings (r = .19; p <.05), which was largely driven by the relations between BMI and appeal ratings for Energy-Dense Main Courses (r = .24; p <.01) and Desserts (r = .27; p <.01). Dietary restraint showed a small significant negative relation to Energy-Dense Main Courses (r = -.21; p <.05), and Meats (r = -.18; p <.05). The present investigation provides novel evidence regarding how individuals' hedonic ratings of foods aggregate into food components and how these component ratings relate to dietary intake. The notable absence of a vegetable component suggests that individuals' liking for vegetables is highly variable and, from an empirical standpoint, not related to how they respond hedonically to other food categories.

  4. Involvement of the opioid system in the orexigenic and hedonic effects of melanin-concentrating hormone.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Carlos Andres; Guesdon, Benjamin; Baraboi, Elena-Dana; Roffarello, Boris Monge; Hétu, Marylène; Richard, Denis

    2011-10-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) exerts an orexigenic effect that resembles that of opioids, suggesting that the MCH and opioid systems could interact in controlling the food intake behavior. Three series of experiments were conducted in male Wistar rats: 1) to test the ability of the κ-, μ-, and δ-opioid receptor antagonists binaltorphimine (nor-BNI-κ), β-funaltrexamine (β-FNA-μ), and naltrindole (NTI-δ), respectively, to block the stimulating effects of MCH on food intake; 2) to verify the ability of MCH to induce a positive hedonic response to a sweet stimulus when injected into the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) or right lateral ventricle (LV) of the brain; and 3) to assess the ability of nor-BNI, β-FNA, and NTI to block the effects of MCH on the hedonic response to a sweet stimulus. Nor-BNI, NTI (0, 10 and 40 nmol), and β-FNA (0, 10 and 50 nmol) were administered into the LV prior to injecting MCH (2.0 nmol). To assess the hedonic response, rats were implanted with an intraoral cannula allowing for the infusion of a sweet solution into the oral cavity. Food intake was assessed in sated rats during the first 3 h following the MCH or vehicle (i.e., artificial cerebrospinal fluid) injection. The hedonic response to a sweet stimulus was assessed by examining facial mimics, following the intraoral administration of a sucrose solution. Blockade of each of the three opioid receptors by selective antagonists prevented MCH-induced feeding. Furthermore, MCH-injections into the NAcSh and right LV resulted in enhanced hedonic responses. Finally, antagonism of the three opioid receptors blunted the LV-injected, MCH-induced, facial-liking expressions in response to an intraoral sweet stimulus. Overall, the present study provides evidence to link the MCH and opioid systems in the food intake behavior.

  5. Neurobiology of hedonic tone: the relationship between treatment-resistant depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sternat, Tia; Katzman, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Anhedonia, defined as the state of reduced ability to experience feelings of pleasure, is one of the hallmarks of depression. Hedonic tone is the trait underlying one’s characteristic ability to feel pleasure. Low hedonic tone represents a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, thus increasing the likelihood of experiencing anhedonia. Low hedonic tone has been associated with several psychopathologies, including major depressive disorder (MDD), substance use, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main neural pathway that modulates emotional affect comprises the limbic–cortical–striatal–pallidal–thalamic circuits. The activity of various components of the limbic–cortical–striatal–pallidal–thalamic pathway is correlated with hedonic tone in healthy individuals and is altered in MDD. Dysfunction of these circuits has also been implicated in the relative ineffectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors used to treat anxiety and depression in patients with low hedonic tone. Mood disorders such as MDD, ADHD, and substance abuse share low hedonic tone as well as altered activation of brain regions involved in reward processing and monoamine signaling as their features. Given the common features of these disorders, it is not surprising that they have high levels of comorbidities. The purpose of this article is to review the neurobiology of hedonic tone as it pertains to depression, ADHD, and the potential for substance abuse. We propose that, since low hedonic tone is a shared feature of MDD, ADHD, and substance abuse, evaluation of hedonic tone may become a diagnostic feature used to predict subtypes of MDD, such as treatment-resistant depression, as well as comorbidities of these disorders.

  6. Neurobiology of hedonic tone: the relationship between treatment-resistant depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Sternat, Tia; Katzman, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Anhedonia, defined as the state of reduced ability to experience feelings of pleasure, is one of the hallmarks of depression. Hedonic tone is the trait underlying one's characteristic ability to feel pleasure. Low hedonic tone represents a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, thus increasing the likelihood of experiencing anhedonia. Low hedonic tone has been associated with several psychopathologies, including major depressive disorder (MDD), substance use, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main neural pathway that modulates emotional affect comprises the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuits. The activity of various components of the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic pathway is correlated with hedonic tone in healthy individuals and is altered in MDD. Dysfunction of these circuits has also been implicated in the relative ineffectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors used to treat anxiety and depression in patients with low hedonic tone. Mood disorders such as MDD, ADHD, and substance abuse share low hedonic tone as well as altered activation of brain regions involved in reward processing and monoamine signaling as their features. Given the common features of these disorders, it is not surprising that they have high levels of comorbidities. The purpose of this article is to review the neurobiology of hedonic tone as it pertains to depression, ADHD, and the potential for substance abuse. We propose that, since low hedonic tone is a shared feature of MDD, ADHD, and substance abuse, evaluation of hedonic tone may become a diagnostic feature used to predict subtypes of MDD, such as treatment-resistant depression, as well as comorbidities of these disorders.

  7. Neurobiology of hedonic tone: the relationship between treatment-resistant depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sternat, Tia; Katzman, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Anhedonia, defined as the state of reduced ability to experience feelings of pleasure, is one of the hallmarks of depression. Hedonic tone is the trait underlying one’s characteristic ability to feel pleasure. Low hedonic tone represents a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, thus increasing the likelihood of experiencing anhedonia. Low hedonic tone has been associated with several psychopathologies, including major depressive disorder (MDD), substance use, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main neural pathway that modulates emotional affect comprises the limbic–cortical–striatal–pallidal–thalamic circuits. The activity of various components of the limbic–cortical–striatal–pallidal–thalamic pathway is correlated with hedonic tone in healthy individuals and is altered in MDD. Dysfunction of these circuits has also been implicated in the relative ineffectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors used to treat anxiety and depression in patients with low hedonic tone. Mood disorders such as MDD, ADHD, and substance abuse share low hedonic tone as well as altered activation of brain regions involved in reward processing and monoamine signaling as their features. Given the common features of these disorders, it is not surprising that they have high levels of comorbidities. The purpose of this article is to review the neurobiology of hedonic tone as it pertains to depression, ADHD, and the potential for substance abuse. We propose that, since low hedonic tone is a shared feature of MDD, ADHD, and substance abuse, evaluation of hedonic tone may become a diagnostic feature used to predict subtypes of MDD, such as treatment-resistant depression, as well as comorbidities of these disorders. PMID:27601909

  8. Neurobiology of hedonic tone: the relationship between treatment-resistant depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Sternat, Tia; Katzman, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Anhedonia, defined as the state of reduced ability to experience feelings of pleasure, is one of the hallmarks of depression. Hedonic tone is the trait underlying one's characteristic ability to feel pleasure. Low hedonic tone represents a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, thus increasing the likelihood of experiencing anhedonia. Low hedonic tone has been associated with several psychopathologies, including major depressive disorder (MDD), substance use, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main neural pathway that modulates emotional affect comprises the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuits. The activity of various components of the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic pathway is correlated with hedonic tone in healthy individuals and is altered in MDD. Dysfunction of these circuits has also been implicated in the relative ineffectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors used to treat anxiety and depression in patients with low hedonic tone. Mood disorders such as MDD, ADHD, and substance abuse share low hedonic tone as well as altered activation of brain regions involved in reward processing and monoamine signaling as their features. Given the common features of these disorders, it is not surprising that they have high levels of comorbidities. The purpose of this article is to review the neurobiology of hedonic tone as it pertains to depression, ADHD, and the potential for substance abuse. We propose that, since low hedonic tone is a shared feature of MDD, ADHD, and substance abuse, evaluation of hedonic tone may become a diagnostic feature used to predict subtypes of MDD, such as treatment-resistant depression, as well as comorbidities of these disorders. PMID:27601909

  9. The nature of well-being: the roles of hedonic and eudaimonic processes and trait emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Navjot; Schutte, Nicola S; Malouff, John M

    2013-01-01

    The present study reconceptualized the role of hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (engagement) functions as well-being processes and distinguished them from well-being outcomes. Well-being outcomes encompass life satisfaction, positive affect, psychological well-being, social well-being, subjective physical health, and absence of depression, anxiety, and stress. It was hypothesized that trait emotional intelligence (EI) would mediate the relationship between well-being processes and well-being outcomes. Participants (N = 370, mean age = 27.35 years, SD = 10.01) completed measures of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being processes, trait EI, and well-being outcome indices. Path analysis using structural equation modeling showed that trait EI fully mediated the relationship between hedonic and eudaimonic processes and well-being outcomes. Results demonstrated that engagement in meaningful activities as captured by hedonic and eudaimonic well-being processes may promote well-being outcomes.

  10. Long-lasting deficits in hedonic and nucleus accumbens reactivity to sweet rewards by sugar overconsumption during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Naneix, Fabien; Darlot, Florence; Coutureau, Etienne; Cador, Martine

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a critical period characterized by major neurobiological changes. Chronic stimulation of the reward system might constitute an important factor in vulnerability to pathological development. In spite of the dramatic increase in the consumption of sweet palatable foods during adolescence in our modern societies, the long-term consequences of such exposure on brain reward processing remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated in rats the long-lasting effects of sugar overconsumption during their adolescence on their adult reactivity to the hedonic properties of sweet rewards. Adolescent rats with continuous access to 5% sucrose solution (from postnatal day 30-46) showed escalating intake. At adulthood (post-natal day 70), using two-bottle free choice tests, sucrose-exposed rats showed lower intake than non-exposed rats suggesting decreased sensitivity to the rewarding properties of sucrose. In Experiment 1, we tested their hedonic-related orofacial reactions to intraoral infusion of tasty solutions. We showed that sucrose-exposed rats presented less hedonic reactions in response to sweet tastes leaving the reactivity to water or quinine unaltered. Hence, in Experiment 2, we observed that this hedonic deficit is associated with lower c-Fos expression levels in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region known to play a central role in hedonic processing. These findings demonstrate that a history of high sucrose intake during the critical period of adolescence induces long-lasting deficits in hedonic treatment that may contribute to reward-related disorders.

  11. Intrauterine growth restriction and the fetal programming of the hedonic response to sweet taste in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Caroline; Agranonik, Marilyn; Portella, André Krumel; Filion, Françoise; Johnston, Celeste C; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r = 0.864, P = 0.001), without correlation when the solution given is water (r = 0.314, P = 0.455). In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  12. Is seeking bad mood cognitively demanding? Contra-hedonic orientation and working-memory capacity in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Schmiedek, Florian; Wagner, Gert G; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-06-01

    Hedonism, or wanting to feel good, is central to human motivation. At times, however, people also seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect, and this can be instrumental for the later attainment of their goals. Here, we investigate the assumption that such contra-hedonic orientation is cognitively more demanding than prohedonic orientation, above and beyond the effects of momentary affective experience. We provided 378 participants with mobile phones that they carried with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants at least 54 times to report their current affect-regulation orientation and to work on two trials of a cognitively demanding working memory task. As expected, contra-hedonic orientation was substantially less prevalent than prohedonic orientation. It was reported in 15% of the measurement occasions. Participants who reported on average more contra-hedonic orientation showed lower average working memory performance throughout the study interval. Further, controlling for the effects of accompanying affective experiences, momentary occurrences of contra-hedonic orientation were associated with temporary declines in working memory performance within individuals, and this could neither be explained by lacking task compliance nor by other characteristics of the individual or the situation. Prohedonic orientation showed a considerably smaller association with working memory performance. These findings are consistent with the view that contra-hedonic orientation is accompanied by momentarily more diminished cognitive resources than is prohedonic orientation.

  13. Dietary Interventions for Heart Failure in Older Adults: Re-emergence of the Hedonic Shift

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Jeffrey D.; Hummel, Scott L.; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary non-adherence to sodium restriction is an important contribution to heart failure (HF) symptom burden, particularly in older adults. While knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards sodium restriction are important, sodium intake is closely linked to the ability to taste salt. The ‘hedonic shift’ occurs when sodium restriction induces changes in an individual’s salt taste that lower subsequent salt affinity. Older adults often have compromised salt taste and higher dietary salt affinity due to age-related changes. Older HF patients may have additional loss of salt taste and elevated salt appetite due to comorbid conditions, medication use, and micronutrient or electrolyte abnormalities, creating a significant barrier to dietary adherence. Induction of the hedonic shift has the potential to improve long-term dietary sodium restriction and significantly impact HF outcomes in older adults. PMID:25216615

  14. Dietary interventions for heart failure in older adults: re-emergence of the hedonic shift.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Jeffrey D; Hummel, Scott L; Maurer, Mathew S

    2014-01-01

    Dietary non-adherence to sodium restriction is an important contribution to heart failure (HF) symptom burden, particularly in older adults. While knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward sodium restriction are important, sodium intake is closely linked to the ability to taste salt. The 'hedonic shift' occurs when sodium restriction induces changes in an individual's salt taste that lower subsequent salt affinity. Older adults often have compromised salt taste and higher dietary salt affinity due to age-related changes. Older HF patients may have additional loss of salt taste and elevated salt appetite due to comorbid conditions, medication use, and micronutrient or electrolyte abnormalities, creating a significant barrier to dietary adherence. Induction of the hedonic shift has the potential to improve long-term dietary sodium restriction and significantly impact HF outcomes in older adults.

  15. Taste intensity and hedonic responses to simple beverages in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio; Cadoni, Gabriella; Bellantone, Rocco; Carriero, Concetta; Carriero, Elena; Ottaviani, Fabrizio; Borzomati, Domenico; Tortorelli, Antonio; Doglietto, Giovan Battista

    2007-11-01

    Changes in the taste of food have been implicated as a potential cause of reduced dietary intake among cancer patients. However, data on intensity and hedonic responses to the four basic tastes in cancer are scanty and contradictory. The present study aimed at evaluating taste intensity and hedonic responses to simple beverages in 47 anorectic patients affected by gastrointestinal cancer and in 55 healthy subjects. Five suprathreshold concentrations of each of the four test substances (sucrose in black current drinks, citric acid in lemonade, NaCl in unsalted tomato juice, and urea in tonic water) were used. Patients were invited to express a judgment of intensity and pleasantness ranging from 0 to 10. Mean intensity scores directly correlated with concentrations of sour, salty, bitter, and sweet stimuli, in both normals and those with cancer. Intensity judgments were higher in cancer patients with respect to sweet (for median and high concentrations, P<0.05), salty (for all concentrations, P<0.05), and bitter tastes (for median concentration, P<0.01). Hedonic function increased with the increase of the stimuli only for the sweet taste. A negative linear correlation was found between sour, bitter, and salty concentrations and hedonic score. Both in cancer patients and in healthy subjects, hedonic judgments increased with the increase of the stimulus for the sweet taste (r=0.978 and r=0.985, P=0.004 and P=0.002, respectively), and decreased for the salty (r=-0.827 and r=-0.884, P=0.084 and P=0.047, respectively) and bitter tastes (r=-0.990 and r=-0.962, P=0.009 and P=0.001, respectively). For the sour taste, the hedonic scores remained stable with the increase of the stimulus in noncancer controls (r=-0.785, P=0.115) and decreased in cancer patients (r=-0.996, P=0.0001). The hedonic scores for the sweet taste and the bitter taste were similar in cancer patients and healthy subjects, and these scores were significantly higher in cancer patients than in healthy

  16. The physiology of opiate hedonic effects and the role of opioids in motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Carr, K D

    1984-01-01

    The topics discussed in this article are the neural mechanisms of opiate hedonic effects and the role of endogenous opioids in regulating motivational-affective responses of the organism. First, research on the mechanisms of opiate hedonic effects is briefly reviewed; evidence is discussed which suggests the existence of separate neural substrates for the mediation of opiate analgesia, amelioration of aversive emotion, and reward. In the remainder of the article, recent work of our laboratory is summarized which concerns the role of endogenous opioids in regulating feeding and reward elicited by electrical stimulation in the lateral hypothalamus; evidence is presented which indicates that opioid activity associated with the state of food motivation potentiates reward processes. In addition, evidence is discussed which suggests that this opioid activity may concurrently diminish the organism's emotional responsiveness to competing aversive stimuli. The relevance of this area of research to human opiate abuse is discussed. PMID:6388274

  17. Hedonic and Behavioral Deficits Associated with Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease: Potential Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lizabeth L.; Zahodne, Laura B.; Okun, Michael S.; Bowers, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience apathy independent of depression. In this study we examined hedonic and behavioral deficits related to apathy in 50 PD patients and 42 healthy older adults who completed standardized measures. Regression analyses revealed that apathy was associated with anticipatory, but not consummatory, anhedonia and reduced goal-directed behavior, independent of PD diagnosis, age, education and depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that apathy is characterized by deficits in anticipatory pleasure and behavioral drive rather than consummatory pleasure or reward responsiveness. Therefore, PD patients with apathy would likely benefit from psychotherapeutic treatment that encourages structured, goal-directed plans for pleasurable events and stimulation which provide adaptive hedonic effects. In addition, given the proposed shared mechanism of dopamine depletion within the ventral striatum in apathy and anticipatory anhedonia, future trials of dopamine-eliciting activities (e.g. exercise and other non-pharmacologic methods) appear warranted to improve these symptoms in PD. PMID:23712560

  18. Estimating the benefits of maintaining adequate lake levels to homeowners using the hedonic property method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John; Feldman, Marvin

    2003-09-01

    The hedonic property method was used to estimate residents' economic benefits from maintaining high and stable lake levels at Lake Almanor, California. Nearly a thousand property transactions over a 14-year period from 1987 to 2001 were analyzed. The linear hedonic property regression explained more than 60% of the variation in-house prices. Property prices were negatively and significantly related to the number of linear feet of exposed lake shoreline. Each additional one foot of exposed shoreline reduces the property price by 108-119. A view of the lake added nearly 31,000 to house prices, while lakefront properties sold for 209,000 more than non-lake front properties.

  19. The CB1 receptor as an important mediator of hedonic reward processing.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Chris M; Zimmer, Andreas; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has emerged recently as a key mediator for reward processing. It is well known that cannabinoids affect appetitive learning processes and can induce reinforcing and rewarding effects. However, the involvement of the ECB system in hedonic aspects of reward-related behavior is not completely understood. With the present study, we investigated the modulatory role of the ECB system on hedonic perception, measured by the pleasure attenuated startle (PAS) paradigm for a palatable food reward. Here, a conditioned odor is thought to induce a pleasant affective state that attenuates an aversive reflex-the acoustic startle response. Modulatory effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR1411716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2 on PAS were examined in rats. PAS was also measured in CB1 receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition as well as the absence of CB1 receptors was found to reduce PAS, whereas WIN 55 212-2 administration increased PAS. Finally, presentation of a conditioned reward cue was found to induce striatal FosB/ΔFosB expression in WT mice, but not in KO mice, indicating a reduced stimulation of reward-related brain regions in conditioned KO mice by odor presentation. We here show that in addition to our previous studies in rats, PAS may also serve as a valuable and suitable measure to assess hedonic processing in mice. Our data further indicate that the ECB system, and in particular CB1 receptor signaling, appears to be highly important for the mediation of hedonic aspects of reward processing.

  20. The CB1 receptor as an important mediator of hedonic reward processing.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Chris M; Zimmer, Andreas; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has emerged recently as a key mediator for reward processing. It is well known that cannabinoids affect appetitive learning processes and can induce reinforcing and rewarding effects. However, the involvement of the ECB system in hedonic aspects of reward-related behavior is not completely understood. With the present study, we investigated the modulatory role of the ECB system on hedonic perception, measured by the pleasure attenuated startle (PAS) paradigm for a palatable food reward. Here, a conditioned odor is thought to induce a pleasant affective state that attenuates an aversive reflex-the acoustic startle response. Modulatory effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR1411716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2 on PAS were examined in rats. PAS was also measured in CB1 receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition as well as the absence of CB1 receptors was found to reduce PAS, whereas WIN 55 212-2 administration increased PAS. Finally, presentation of a conditioned reward cue was found to induce striatal FosB/ΔFosB expression in WT mice, but not in KO mice, indicating a reduced stimulation of reward-related brain regions in conditioned KO mice by odor presentation. We here show that in addition to our previous studies in rats, PAS may also serve as a valuable and suitable measure to assess hedonic processing in mice. Our data further indicate that the ECB system, and in particular CB1 receptor signaling, appears to be highly important for the mediation of hedonic aspects of reward processing. PMID:24718372

  1. Mesolimbic transcriptional response to hedonic substitution of voluntary exercise and voluntary ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Darlington, Todd M; McCarthy, Riley D; Cox, Ryan J; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2014-02-01

    The mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway has been implicated in many rewarding behaviors, including the consumption of ethanol and voluntary exercise. It has become apparent that different rewarding stimuli activate this pathway, and therefore it is possible for these behaviors to influence each other, i.e. hedonic substitution. Using adult female C57BL/6J mice, we demonstrate that voluntary access to a running wheel substantially reduces the consumption and preference of ethanol. Furthermore, we examined gene expression of several genes involved in regulating the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, which we hypothesized to be the main pathway involved in hedonic substitution. In the striatum, we observed a reduction in mRNA expression of Drd1a due to exercise. Hippocampal Bdnf mRNA increased in response to exercise and decreased in response to ethanol. Furthermore, there was an interaction effect of exercise and ethanol on the expression of Slc18a2 in the midbrain. These data suggest an important role for this pathway, and especially for Bdnf and Slc18a2 in regulating hedonic substitution. PMID:24239693

  2. Mesolimbic transcriptional response to hedonic substitution of voluntary exercise and voluntary ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Darlington, Todd M; McCarthy, Riley D; Cox, Ryan J; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2014-02-01

    The mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway has been implicated in many rewarding behaviors, including the consumption of ethanol and voluntary exercise. It has become apparent that different rewarding stimuli activate this pathway, and therefore it is possible for these behaviors to influence each other, i.e. hedonic substitution. Using adult female C57BL/6J mice, we demonstrate that voluntary access to a running wheel substantially reduces the consumption and preference of ethanol. Furthermore, we examined gene expression of several genes involved in regulating the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, which we hypothesized to be the main pathway involved in hedonic substitution. In the striatum, we observed a reduction in mRNA expression of Drd1a due to exercise. Hippocampal Bdnf mRNA increased in response to exercise and decreased in response to ethanol. Furthermore, there was an interaction effect of exercise and ethanol on the expression of Slc18a2 in the midbrain. These data suggest an important role for this pathway, and especially for Bdnf and Slc18a2 in regulating hedonic substitution.

  3. Subjective well-being, social buffering and hedonic editing in the quotidian.

    PubMed

    Sul, Sunhae; Kim, Jennifer; Choi, Incheol

    2016-09-01

    A previous study on the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and hedonic editing-the process of mentally integrating or segregating different events during decision-making-showed that happy individuals preferred the social-buffering strategy more than less happy individuals. The present study examined the relationship between SWB, social-buffering and hedonic outcomes in daily life. In Study 1, we used web-based diaries to measure the frequency with which individuals utilised social and non-social buffers as well as daily levels of happiness. Consistent with the previous finding, happy individuals utilised social buffers more frequently than less happy individuals. Interestingly, the utilisation of social buffers had a positive effect on daily happiness among all participants, regardless of individuals' levels of SWB. In Study 2, we found that although the use of social buffers yielded similar effects across groups on online evaluations of events, happy individuals showed a positive bias in global evaluations of past events. This finding suggests that how one construes and remembers the outcomes of social buffering may shape the different hedonic editing preferences among happy and less happy individuals.

  4. An interregional hedonic analysis of noxious facility impacts on local wages and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Nieves, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Claims of property value loss are commonly raised by homeowners when noxious facilities are sited or when new information about the hazards of existing facilities is made public. While the capitalization of externalities into land values is consistent with economic theory, empirical measurement of impacts has not generated consistent results. This is true both for hedonic measurements as well as other types of econometric analyses. While it is well established that job and site risks have similar impacts on regional labor markets, there are no studies relating the presence of a broad range of noxious facilities to local wage premiums. In contrast, this study employs an interregional framework in a hedonic analysis of both wage and property markets and considers eight different facility classifications. This paper discusses the development of the hedonic model employed in this study. It develops more fully the theoretical advantages of the intercity model and alternative methods of deriving implicit prices for environmental amenities and disamenities. The unique data base and the structure of the estimated model are described. It also includes a discussion of the research findings. Major conclusions and suggestions for further research are presented.

  5. An interregional hedonic analysis of noxious facility impacts on local wages and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Nieves, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    Claims of property value loss are commonly raised by homeowners when noxious facilities are sited or when new information about the hazards of existing facilities is made public. While the capitalization of externalities into land values is consistent with economic theory, empirical measurement of impacts has not generated consistent results. This is true both for hedonic measurements as well as other types of econometric analyses. While it is well established that job and site risks have similar impacts on regional labor markets, there are no studies relating the presence of a broad range of noxious facilities to local wage premiums. In contrast, this study employs an interregional framework in a hedonic analysis of both wage and property markets and considers eight different facility classifications. This paper discusses the development of the hedonic model employed in this study. It develops more fully the theoretical advantages of the intercity model and alternative methods of deriving implicit prices for environmental amenities and disamenities. The unique data base and the structure of the estimated model are described. It also includes a discussion of the research findings. Major conclusions and suggestions for further research are presented.

  6. Estimating the economic value of cultural ecosystem services in an urbanizing area using hedonic pricing.

    PubMed

    Sander, Heather A; Haight, Robert G

    2012-12-30

    A need exists to increase both knowledge and recognition of the values associated with ecosystem services and amenities. This article explores the use of hedonic pricing as a tool for eliciting these values. We take a case study approach, valuing several services provided by ecosystems, namely aesthetic quality (views), access to outdoor recreation, and the benefits provided by tree cover in Dakota County, Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that these services are valued by local residents and that hedonic pricing can be used to elicit at least a portion of this value. We find that many aspects of the aesthetic environment significantly impact home sale prices. Total view area as well as the areas of some land-cover types (water and lawn) in views positively influenced home sale prices while views of impervious surfaces generally negatively influenced home sale price. Access to outdoor recreation areas significantly and positively influenced home sale prices as did tree cover in the neighborhood surrounding a home. These results illustrate the ability of hedonic pricing to identify partial values for ecosystem services and amenities in a manner that is highly relevant to local and regional planning. These values could be used to increase policy-maker and public awareness of ecosystem services and could improve their consideration in planning and policy decisions.

  7. "Healthy," "diet," or "hedonic". How nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?

    PubMed

    Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior. PMID:22963737

  8. Is susceptibility to weight gain characterized by homeostatic or hedonic risk factors for overconsumption?

    PubMed

    Blundell, John E; Finlayson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    In any particular group of people-living in the same culture-some gain weight whilst others do not. Overconsumption of food is one factor contributing to this susceptibility to weight gain. Because all individuals are exposed to a similar range of environmental appetite-stimulating factors, the variability in overconsumption must be due to variability in intrinsic psychobiological processes. Such variability is an inevitable feature of living organisms. This essay explores whether susceptibility to weight gain is caused by variation in homeostatic processes-such as weak satiety responses to fat, or by hedonic processes-such as hyperresponsivity to the sensory properties of food. The question also arises whether the homeostatic or hedonic processes function separately and independently, or whether they interact. The answer to these questions can throw light upon the organization of behaviours associated with weight control, and can help to develop strategies to prevent weight gain. The theme of this essay was inspired by Gerry Smith's conceptual and experimental work on both homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms implicated in the control of food intake. PMID:15234585

  9. Auditory hedonic phenotypes in dementia: A behavioural and neuroanatomical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Phillip D.; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Slattery, Catherine F.; Paterson, Ross W.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with dementia may exhibit abnormally altered liking for environmental sounds and music but such altered auditory hedonic responses have not been studied systematically. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 73 patients representing major canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD)) using a semi-structured caregiver behavioural questionnaire and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of patients' brain MR images. Behavioural responses signalling abnormal aversion to environmental sounds, aversion to music or heightened pleasure in music (‘musicophilia’) occurred in around half of the cohort but showed clear syndromic and genetic segregation, occurring in most patients with bvFTD but infrequently in PNFA and more commonly in association with MAPT than C9orf72 mutations. Aversion to sounds was the exclusive auditory phenotype in AD whereas more complex phenotypes including musicophilia were common in bvFTD and SD. Auditory hedonic alterations correlated with grey matter loss in a common, distributed, right-lateralised network including antero-mesial temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that abnormalities of auditory hedonic processing are a significant issue in common dementias. Sounds may constitute a novel probe of brain mechanisms for emotional salience coding that are targeted by neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25929717

  10. Neural sensitivity to eudaimonic and hedonic rewards differentially predict adolescent depressive symptoms over time

    PubMed Central

    Telzer, Eva H.; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Galván, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of happiness and reward is an impetus for everyday human behavior and the basis of well-being. Although optimal well-being may be achieved through eudaimonic activities (e.g., meaning and purpose), individuals tend to orient toward hedonic activities (e.g., pleasure seeking), potentially placing them at risk for ill-being. We implemented a longitudinal study and followed adolescents over 1 y to examine whether neural sensitivity to eudaimonic (e.g., prosocial decisions) and hedonic (e.g., selfish rewards and risky decisions) rewards differentially predicts longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms. Ventral striatum activation during eudaimonic decisions predicted longitudinal declines in depressive symptoms, whereas ventral striatum activation to hedonic decisions related to longitudinal increases in depressive symptoms. These findings underscore how the motivational context underlying neural sensitivity to rewards can differentially predict changes in well-being over time. Importantly, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that striatal activation within an individual can be both a source of risk and protection. PMID:24753574

  11. Using hedonic property models to value public water bodies: An analysis of specification issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Nicholas Z.

    2009-01-01

    The hedonic literature has established that public water bodies provide external benefits that are reflected in the value of nearby residential real estate. The literature has employed several approaches to quantify these nonmarket services. With a residential hedonic model, this paper tests whether model specification affects resource valuation using an actively managed reservoir in Indiana and a passively managed lake in Connecticut. The results indicate that valuation is quite sensitive to model specification and that omitting either the waterview or waterfront variables from the hedonic function likely results in a misspecified model. The findings from this study are important for researchers and public agencies charged with managing water resources to bear in mind as the external benefits from existing or proposed man-made lakes and reservoirs are estimated. Therefore, while it requires considerably more effort to determine which properties are in waterfront locations and which properties have a view, the potential mispecification of "distance-only" models likely justifies these extra research costs. Further, the findings in this analysis call into question results from distance-only models in the literature.

  12. Hot or Not: Response Inhibition Reduces the Hedonic Value and Motivational Incentive of Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Ferrey, Anne E.; Frischen, Alexandra; Fenske, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The motivational incentive of reward-related stimuli can become so salient that it drives behavior at the cost of other needs. Here we show that response inhibition applied during a Go/No-go task not only impacts hedonic evaluations but also reduces the behavioral incentive of motivationally relevant stimuli. We first examined the impact of response inhibition on the hedonic value of sex stimuli associated with strong behavioral-approach responses (Experiment 1). Sexually appealing and non-appealing images were both rated as less attractive when previously encountered as No-go (inhibited) than as Go (non-inhibited) items. We then discovered that inhibition reduces the motivational incentive of sexual appealing stimuli (Experiment 2). Prior Go/No-go status affected the number of key-presses by heterosexual males to view erotic-female (sexually appealing) but not erotic-male or scrambled-control (non-appealing) images. These findings may provide a foundation for developing inhibition-based interventions to reduce the hedonic value and motivational incentive of stimuli associated with disorders of self-control. PMID:23272002

  13. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  14. Importance of Managing for Personal Benefits, Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations, and Place Attachment at an Urban Natural Setting.

    PubMed

    Budruk, Megha; Lee, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Research on antecedents of place attachment suggests that the special bonds people form with nature are influenced by a number of variables. This study examines associations between the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits, motivations, and place attachment among outdoor recreationists at an urban natural setting. Motivation was conceptualized as two-dimensional (Hedonic and Utilitarian) borrowed from the retail and consumer marketing field and previously unused in a natural resource recreation context. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations represent the experiential and functional dimensions of motivation, respectively. Relationships between the noted variables were examined through structural equation modeling. Data from an onsite survey of 219 users indicated that it was important the resource be managed to provide greater freedom from urban living as well as improved mental well-being. Furthermore, respondents exhibited moderate levels of hedonic and utilitarian motivations as well as attachment to the resource. The structural equation analysis resulted in a good fitting model with several significant relationships emerging. Among these, the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits positively influenced hedonic and utilitarian motivations. In addition, hedonic motivations positively influenced place attachment development, whereas utilitarian motivations did not. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27370096

  15. Importance of Managing for Personal Benefits, Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations, and Place Attachment at an Urban Natural Setting.

    PubMed

    Budruk, Megha; Lee, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Research on antecedents of place attachment suggests that the special bonds people form with nature are influenced by a number of variables. This study examines associations between the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits, motivations, and place attachment among outdoor recreationists at an urban natural setting. Motivation was conceptualized as two-dimensional (Hedonic and Utilitarian) borrowed from the retail and consumer marketing field and previously unused in a natural resource recreation context. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations represent the experiential and functional dimensions of motivation, respectively. Relationships between the noted variables were examined through structural equation modeling. Data from an onsite survey of 219 users indicated that it was important the resource be managed to provide greater freedom from urban living as well as improved mental well-being. Furthermore, respondents exhibited moderate levels of hedonic and utilitarian motivations as well as attachment to the resource. The structural equation analysis resulted in a good fitting model with several significant relationships emerging. Among these, the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits positively influenced hedonic and utilitarian motivations. In addition, hedonic motivations positively influenced place attachment development, whereas utilitarian motivations did not. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Rats exhibit asymmetrical retention functions for hedonic and nonhedonic samples in many-to-one symbolic delayed matching to sample.

    PubMed

    Santi, Angelo; Simmons, Sabrina; Mischler, Shannon; Hoover, Claire

    2013-06-01

    Rats were initially trained in a symbolic delayed matching-to-sample task either to discriminate hedonic samples that consisted of food or no food or to discriminate tone samples that differed in frequency and location. The retention functions for both the hedonic and tone samples were asymmetric, with forgetting of the food sample or the high-frequency tone occurring more rapidly than forgetting of the no-food sample or the low-frequency tone. Next, many-to-one (MTO) training was given in which tone samples were added for the rats initially trained with hedonic samples, and hedonic samples were added for the rats initially trained with tone samples. For both groups, a food sample and a tone sample (tone-F) were associated with responding to one lever (e.g., stationary), and a no-food sample and a different tone sample (tone-NF) were associated with responding to the alternative lever (e.g., moving). During retention testing, we found equivalent forgetting for the food and no-food samples, but forgetting of the tone-F sample occurred more rapidly than forgetting of the tone-NF sample. This is the first MTO study to suggest that rats, like pigeons, may use hedonic samples as the basis for the common coding of nonhedonic samples in MTO delayed matching.

  17. Importance of Managing for Personal Benefits, Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations, and Place Attachment at an Urban Natural Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budruk, Megha; Lee, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Research on antecedents of place attachment suggests that the special bonds people form with nature are influenced by a number of variables. This study examines associations between the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits, motivations, and place attachment among outdoor recreationists at an urban natural setting. Motivation was conceptualized as two-dimensional (Hedonic and Utilitarian) borrowed from the retail and consumer marketing field and previously unused in a natural resource recreation context. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations represent the experiential and functional dimensions of motivation, respectively. Relationships between the noted variables were examined through structural equation modeling. Data from an onsite survey of 219 users indicated that it was important the resource be managed to provide greater freedom from urban living as well as improved mental well-being. Furthermore, respondents exhibited moderate levels of hedonic and utilitarian motivations as well as attachment to the resource. The structural equation analysis resulted in a good fitting model with several significant relationships emerging. Among these, the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits positively influenced hedonic and utilitarian motivations. In addition, hedonic motivations positively influenced place attachment development, whereas utilitarian motivations did not. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. A queer anxiety: assimilation politics and cinematic hedonics in Relax . . . It's Just Sex.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This essay explores the commodification of queer identities in independent cinema, offering particular attention to P. J. Castellaneta's 1998 film, Relax . . . It's Just Sex. Like many contemporary queer independent productions, Relax is ensnared in a representational cinematic hedonics, aspiring to sustain a traditional gay and lesbian politics and simultaneously produce pleasure for multiple audiences. While Relax attempts to position itself as a queer film that resists normative conceptions of sexuality, the feature inadvertently appropriates more essentialized understandings of identity closely aligned to liberation rhetoric. PMID:17287188

  19. Differential effects of L-dopa and subthalamic stimulation on depressive symptoms and hedonic tone in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Witt, Karsten; Daniels, Christine; Herzog, Jan; Lorenz, Delia; Volkmann, Jens; Reiff, Julia; Mehdorn, Maximilian; Deuschl, Günther; Krack, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease frequently have mild to moderate depression and exhibit low hedonic tone. The authors investigate the impact of a single L-dopa challenge and the acute effects of electric stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on symptoms of depression and hedonic tone. Depressive symptoms improved with L-dopa and STN stimulation to the same extent. However, hedonic tone improved only with L-dopa. Most of the emotional changes did not correlate with changes in motor performance, indicating they were not just reactive but specific to the treatment. These results demonstrate a single dissociation of depressive symptoms and anhedonia in response to an acute L-dopa and STN-stimulation challenge.

  20. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    PubMed

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  1. Effects of an acute alpha-lactalbumin manipulation on mood and food hedonics in high- and low-trait anxiety individuals.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John; Markus, C Rob; King, Neil A

    2010-08-01

    Serotonergic hypofunction is associated with a depressive mood state, an increased drive to eat and preference for sweet (SW) foods. High-trait anxiety individuals are characterised by a functional shortage of serotonin during stress, which in turn increases their susceptibility to experience a negative mood and an increased drive for SW foods. The present study examined whether an acute dietary manipulation, intended to increase circulating serotonin levels, alleviated the detrimental effects of a stress-inducing task on subjective appetite and mood sensations, and preference for SW foods in high-trait anxiety individuals. Thirteen high- (eleven females and two males; anxiety scores 45.5 (sd 5.9); BMI 22.9 (sd 3.0)kg/m(2)) and twelve low- (ten females and two males; anxiety scores 30.4 (sd 4.8); BMI 23.4 (sd 2.5) kg/m(2)) trait anxiety individuals participated in a placebo-controlled, two-way crossover design. Participants were provided with 40 g alpha-lactalbumin (LAC; l-tryptophan (Trp):large neutral amino acids (LNAA) ratio of 7.6) and 40 g casein (placebo) (Trp:LNAA ratio of 4.0) in the form of a snack and lunch on two test days. On both the test days, participants completed a stress-inducing task 2 h after the lunch. Mood and appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales. Changes in food hedonics for different taste and nutrient combinations were assessed using a computer task. The results demonstrated that the LAC manipulation did not exert any immediate effects on mood or appetite. However, LAC did have an effect on food hedonics in individuals with high-trait anxiety after acute stress. These individuals expressed a lower liking (P = 0.012) and SW food preference (P = 0.014) after the stressful task when supplemented with LAC. PMID:20307355

  2. Pavlovian conditioning to hedonic food cues in overweight and lean individuals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Monica D; Risbrough, Victoria B; Liang, June; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2015-04-01

    Obese individuals develop heightened reactivity to environmental cues associated with hedonic foods through Pavlovian conditioning. This study examined differences between overweight (n = 16) and lean (n = 17) 18-26 year-olds in their acquisition of a swallowing response to visual cues paired with chocolate milk, tasteless water and no taste stimulus. We hypothesized that, compared to lean participants, overweight participants would demonstrate a heightened conditioned swallowing response to the visual cue paired with chocolate milk as well as a resistance to extinction of this response. Results showed that overweight participants swallowed more in response to the visual cue previously paired with chocolate than the cue previously paired with tasteless water (t(15) = -3.057, p = .008) while lean participants showed no cue discrimination (t(16) = -1.027, p = .320). The results evaluating the extinction hypothesis could not be evaluated, as the lean participants did not acquire a conditioned response. In evaluating the conditioned swallow response of overweight participants only, results indicated that there was not a significant decrease in swallowing to cues paired with chocolate milk or water, but overall, overweight participants swallowed more to cues paired with chocolate than cues paired with water. These are the first results to show differential acquisition of Pavlovian conditioned responding in overweight individuals compared to lean individuals, as well as differential conditioning to cues paired with hedonic food stimuli compared to cues paired with neutral stimuli.

  3. Parsing the hedonic and motivational influences of nociceptin on feeding using licking microstructure analysis in mice.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Ian A; Maidment, Nigel T; Murphy, Niall P

    2016-09-01

    Opioid peptides are implicated in processes related to reward and aversion; however, how specific opioid peptides are involved remains unclear. We investigated the role of nociceptin (NOC) in voluntary licking for palatable and aversive tastants by studying the effect of intracerebroventricularly administered NOC on licking microstructure in wild-type and NOC receptor knockout (NOP KO) mice. Compared with the wild-type mice, NOP KO mice emitted fewer bouts of licking when training to lick for a 20% sucrose solution. Correspondingly, intracerebroventricular administration of NOC increased the number of licking bouts for sucrose and sucralose in wild-type, but not in NOP KO mice. The ability of NOC to initiate new bouts of licking for sweet solutions suggests that NOC may drive motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Conversely, adulterating a sucrose solution with the aversive tastant quinine reduced licking bout lengths in wild-type and NOP KOs, suggesting that NOC signaling is not involved in driving voluntary consumption of semiaversive tastants. Interestingly, when consuming sucrose following 20 h of food deprivation, NOP KO mice emitted longer bouts of licking than wild types, suggesting that under hungry conditions, NOC may also contribute toward hedonic aspects of feeding. Together, these results suggest differential roles for NOC in the motivational and hedonic aspects of feeding. PMID:27100061

  4. Hedonic approaches based on spatial econometrics and spatial statistics: application to evaluation of project benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Morito; Seya, Hajime

    2009-12-01

    This study discusses the theoretical foundation of the application of spatial hedonic approaches—the hedonic approach employing spatial econometrics or/and spatial statistics—to benefits evaluation. The study highlights the limitations of the spatial econometrics approach since it uses a spatial weight matrix that is not employed by the spatial statistics approach. Further, the study presents empirical analyses by applying the Spatial Autoregressive Error Model (SAEM), which is based on the spatial econometrics approach, and the Spatial Process Model (SPM), which is based on the spatial statistics approach. SPMs are conducted based on both isotropy and anisotropy and applied to different mesh sizes. The empirical analysis reveals that the estimated benefits are quite different, especially between isotropic and anisotropic SPM and between isotropic SPM and SAEM; the estimated benefits are similar for SAEM and anisotropic SPM. The study demonstrates that the mesh size does not affect the estimated amount of benefits. Finally, the study provides a confidence interval for the estimated benefits and raises an issue with regard to benefit evaluation.

  5. Early Prostate Cancer: Hedonic Prices Model of Provider-Patient Interactions and Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, Ashesh B. Hellman, Samuel

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the relative influence of treatment features and treatment availabilities on final treatment decisions in early prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We describe and apply a model, based on hedonic prices, to understand provider-patient interactions in prostate cancer. This model included four treatments (observation, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and prostatectomy) and five treatment features (one efficacy and four treatment complication features). We performed a literature search to estimate (1) the intersections of the 'bid' functions and 'offer' functions with the price function along different treatment feature axes, and (2) the treatments actually rendered in different patient subgroups based on age. We performed regressions to determine the relative weight of each feature in the overall interaction and the relative availability of each treatment modality to explain differences between observed vs. predicted use of different modalities in different patient subpopulations. Results: Treatment efficacy and potency preservation are the major factors influencing decisions for young patients, whereas preservation of urinary and rectal function is much more important for very elderly patients. Referral patterns seem to be responsible for most of the deviations of observed use of different treatments from those predicted by idealized provider-patient interactions. Specifically, prostatectomy is used far more commonly in young patients and radiotherapy and observation used far more commonly in elderly patients than predicted by a uniform referral pattern. Conclusions: The hedonic prices approach facilitated identifying the relative importance of treatment features and quantification of the impact of the prevailing referral pattern on prostate cancer treatment decisions.

  6. The bright side of migration: hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bobowik, Magdalena; Basabe, Nekane; Páez, Darío

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the multi-dimensional structure of well-being in immigrant population, as well as to explore the complexity of well-being disparities between immigrants and host nationals. We analyzed hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in a sample of 1250 immigrants from Bolivia, Colombia, Morocco, Romania and Sub-Saharan Africa, together with that of 500 matched host nationals from Spain. Participants were selected by means of probability sampling with stratification by age and sex. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the re-specified tripartite model of well-being, including hedonic, psychological, and social components of the individual's functioning, was the best fitting model, as compared to alternative models. Importantly, after adjustment for perceived friendship and support, marital status, income, sex and age, immigrants presented higher levels of well-being than host nationals. Compared to host nationals, immigrants reported especially higher eudaimonic well-being: social contribution and actualization, personal growth, self-acceptance, and purpose in life, and lower levels of well-being only in terms of positive relations with others and negative affect. These results are discussed in the context of positive psychology.

  7. Exploring utilitarian and hedonic antecedents for adopting information from a recommendation agent and unplanned purchase behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.

  8. Effects of cannabinoids (marijuana) on taste intensity and hedonic ratings and salivary flow of adults.

    PubMed

    Mattes, R D; Shaw, L M; Engelman, K

    1994-04-01

    Cannabinoids purportedly improve taste responsiveness and enhance the sensory appeal of foods. These properties and a commonly cited oral drying effect were evaluated in a series of studies with 'light' marijuana users. The first was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, acute oral dosing trial, involving an age and gender stratified sample of 57 adults. An influence of route of drug delivery was explored in another 11 individuals who were administered a single dose orally, sublingually and via cigarette. To explore effects following chronic administration, six additional individuals were dosed twice per day for 3 days orally and by rectal suppository. Taste intensity and hedonic responses for sweet, sour, salty and bitter food stimuli were monitored at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 hours post-dosing in the acute studies, and daily in the chronic study. Stimulated saliva samples were collected at these same times. Salivary flow rate was significantly negatively correlated with plasma drug levels, and reported 'high' 2 and 4 h post-dosing. No effects of the drug were observed on taste responses. Self-reported shifts in taste responsiveness and hedonics may be related to alterations of memory and cognition, rather than gustatory function. PMID:8055263

  9. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  10. Teacher Labor Markets and the Perils of Using Hedonics to Estimate Compensating Differentials in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Destler, Katharine; Player, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Some scholars and policymakers who are concerned about the inequitable distribution of quality teachers suggest offering financial incentives for working in hard-to-staff schools. Previous studies have estimated compensating differentials using hedonic modeling, an approach potentially undermined by district-wide salary schedules and the lack of…

  11. Hedonic appreciation and verbal description of pleasant and unpleasant odors in untrained, trainee cooks, flavorists, and perfumers.

    PubMed

    Sezille, Caroline; Fournel, Arnaud; Rouby, Catherine; Rinck, Fanny; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction is characterized by a salient hedonic dimension. Previous studies have shown that these affective responses to odors are modulated by physicochemical, physiological, and cognitive factors. The present study examined expertise influenced processing of pleasant and unpleasant odors on both perceptual and verbal levels. For this, performance on two olfactory tasks was compared between novices, trainee cooks, and experts (perfumers and flavorists): Members of all groups rated the intensity and pleasantness of pleasant and unpleasant odors (perceptual tasks). They were also asked to describe each of the 20 odorants as precisely as possible (verbal description task). On a perceptual level, results revealed that there were no group-related differences in hedonic ratings for unpleasant and pleasant odors. On a verbal level, descriptions of smells were richer (e.g., chemical, olfactory qualities, and olfactory sources terms) and did not refer to pleasantness in experts compared to untrained subjects who used terms referring to odor sources (e.g., candy) accompanied by terms referring to odor hedonics. In conclusion, the present study suggests that as novices, experts are able to perceptually discriminate odors on the basis of their pleasantness. However, on a semantic level, they conceptualize odors differently, being inclined to avoid any reference to odor hedonics.

  12. Hedonic appreciation and verbal description of pleasant and unpleasant odors in untrained, trainee cooks, flavorists, and perfumers

    PubMed Central

    Sezille, Caroline; Fournel, Arnaud; Rouby, Catherine; Rinck, Fanny; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction is characterized by a salient hedonic dimension. Previous studies have shown that these affective responses to odors are modulated by physicochemical, physiological, and cognitive factors. The present study examined expertise influenced processing of pleasant and unpleasant odors on both perceptual and verbal levels. For this, performance on two olfactory tasks was compared between novices, trainee cooks, and experts (perfumers and flavorists): Members of all groups rated the intensity and pleasantness of pleasant and unpleasant odors (perceptual tasks). They were also asked to describe each of the 20 odorants as precisely as possible (verbal description task). On a perceptual level, results revealed that there were no group-related differences in hedonic ratings for unpleasant and pleasant odors. On a verbal level, descriptions of smells were richer (e.g., chemical, olfactory qualities, and olfactory sources terms) and did not refer to pleasantness in experts compared to untrained subjects who used terms referring to odor sources (e.g., candy) accompanied by terms referring to odor hedonics. In conclusion, the present study suggests that as novices, experts are able to perceptually discriminate odors on the basis of their pleasantness. However, on a semantic level, they conceptualize odors differently, being inclined to avoid any reference to odor hedonics. PMID:24478743

  13. Hedonic versus Eudaimonic Conceptions of Well-Being: Evidence of Differential Associations with Self-Reported Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahan, Ethan A.; Estes, David

    2011-01-01

    Conceptions of well-being are cognitive representations of the nature and experience of well-being. These conceptions can be described generally by the degree to which hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions are emphasized as important aspects of the experience of well-being. In two studies, the prediction that eudaimonic dimensions of individual…

  14. The neural transfer effect of working memory training to enhance hedonic processing in individuals with social anhedonia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Li, Zhi; Li, Ke; Zeng, Ya-wei; Shi, Hai-song; Xie, Wen-lan; Yang, Zhuo-ya; Lui, Simon S. Y.; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Leung, Ada W. S.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia. Fifteen individuals with social anhedonia were recruited and received 20 sessions of training on a dual n-back task, five sessions a week. Functional imaging paradigms of the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) and the Affective Incentive Delay (AID) tasks were administered both before and after the training to evaluate the neural transfer effects on hedonic processing ability. Enhanced brain activations related to anticipation were observed at the anterior cingulate cortex, the left dorsal striatum and the left precuneus with the AID task, and at the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the supramarginal gyrus with the MID task. The present findings support that WM training may improve monetary-based and affective-based hedonic processing in individuals with social anhedonia. PMID:27752140

  15. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  16. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  17. Explicit and implicit tasks for assessing hedonic-versus nutrition-based attitudes towards food in French children.

    PubMed

    Monnery-Patris, Sandrine; Marty, Lucile; Bayer, Frédéric; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chambaron, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes are important precursors of behaviours. This study aims to compare the food attitudes (i.e., hedonic- and nutrition-based) of children using both an implicit pairing task and an explicit forced-choice categorization task suitable for the cognitive abilities of 5- to 11-year-olds. A dominance of hedonically driven attitudes was expected for all ages in the pairing task, designed to elicit affective and spontaneous answers, whereas a progressive emergence of nutrition-based attitudes was expected in the categorization task, designed to involve deliberate analyses of the costs/benefits of foods. An additional exploratory goal was to evaluate differences in the attitudes of normal and overweight children in both tasks. Children from 3 school levels (n = 194; mean age = 8.03 years) were individually tested on computers in their schools. They performed a pairing task in which the tendencies to associate foods with nutritional vs. culinary contexts were assessed. Next, they were asked to categorize each food into one of the following four categories: "yummy", "yucky" (i.e., hedonic categories), "makes you strong", or"makes you fat" (i.e., nutritional categories). The hedonic/culinary pairs were very frequently selected (81% on average), and this frequency significantly increased through school levels. In contrast, in the categorization task, a significant increase in nutrition-driven categorizations with school level was observed. Additional analyses revealed no differences in the food attitudes between the normal and overweight children in the pairing task, and a tendency towards lower hedonic categorizations among the overweight children. Culinary associations can reflect cultural learning in the French context where food pleasure is dominant. In contrast, the progressive emergence of cognitively driven attitudes with age may reflect the cognitive development of children who are more reasonable and influenced by social norms.

  18. Differing effects of high-fat or high-carbohydrate meals on food hedonics in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Mark; Gibbons, Catherine; Caudwell, Phillipa; Blundell, John E; Finlayson, Graham

    2016-05-28

    Although the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on satiety are well documented, little is known about the impact of these macronutrients on food hedonics. We examined the effects of ad libitum and isoenergetic meals varying in fat and carbohydrate on satiety, energy intake and food hedonics. In all, sixty-five overweight and obese individuals (BMI=30·9 (sd 3·8) kg/m2) completed two separate test meal days in a randomised order in which they consumed high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HFLC) or low-fat/high-carbohydrate (LFHC) foods. Satiety was measured using subjective appetite ratings to calculate the satiety quotient. Satiation was assessed by intake at ad libitum meals. Hedonic measures of explicit liking (subjective ratings) and implicit wanting (speed of forced choice) for an array of HFLC and LFHC foods were also tested before and after isoenergetic HFLC and LFHC meals. The satiety quotient was greater after ad libitum and isoenergetic meals during the LFHC condition compared with the HFLC condition (P=0·006 and P=0·001, respectively), whereas ad libitum energy intake was lower in the LFHC condition (P<0·001). Importantly, the LFHC meal also reduced explicit liking (P<0·001) and implicit wanting (P=0·011) for HFLC foods compared with the isoenergetic HFLC meal, which failed to suppress the hedonic appeal of subsequent HFLC foods. Therefore, when coupled with increased satiety and lower energy intake, the greater suppression of hedonic appeal for high-fat food seen with LFHC foods provides a further mechanism for why these foods promote better short-term appetite control than HFLC foods.

  19. Explicit and implicit tasks for assessing hedonic-versus nutrition-based attitudes towards food in French children.

    PubMed

    Monnery-Patris, Sandrine; Marty, Lucile; Bayer, Frédéric; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chambaron, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes are important precursors of behaviours. This study aims to compare the food attitudes (i.e., hedonic- and nutrition-based) of children using both an implicit pairing task and an explicit forced-choice categorization task suitable for the cognitive abilities of 5- to 11-year-olds. A dominance of hedonically driven attitudes was expected for all ages in the pairing task, designed to elicit affective and spontaneous answers, whereas a progressive emergence of nutrition-based attitudes was expected in the categorization task, designed to involve deliberate analyses of the costs/benefits of foods. An additional exploratory goal was to evaluate differences in the attitudes of normal and overweight children in both tasks. Children from 3 school levels (n = 194; mean age = 8.03 years) were individually tested on computers in their schools. They performed a pairing task in which the tendencies to associate foods with nutritional vs. culinary contexts were assessed. Next, they were asked to categorize each food into one of the following four categories: "yummy", "yucky" (i.e., hedonic categories), "makes you strong", or"makes you fat" (i.e., nutritional categories). The hedonic/culinary pairs were very frequently selected (81% on average), and this frequency significantly increased through school levels. In contrast, in the categorization task, a significant increase in nutrition-driven categorizations with school level was observed. Additional analyses revealed no differences in the food attitudes between the normal and overweight children in the pairing task, and a tendency towards lower hedonic categorizations among the overweight children. Culinary associations can reflect cultural learning in the French context where food pleasure is dominant. In contrast, the progressive emergence of cognitively driven attitudes with age may reflect the cognitive development of children who are more reasonable and influenced by social norms. PMID:26522508

  20. Yoga meets positive psychology: examining the integration of hedonic (gratitude) and eudaimonic (meaning) wellbeing in relation to the extent of yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Ivtzan, Itai; Papantoniou, Angeliki

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to explore the existence of a relationship between the extent of yoga practice and two dimensions of psychological wellbeing: meaning in life and gratitude. Both of the variables are positive psychology constructs; there is theoretical affinity and empirical evidence that they are related to overall psychological wellbeing. One hundred and twenty four participants aged 18 years and above, with yoga experience ranging from none to over six years, responded to a number of scales. The extent of yoga practice was measured by the number of years during which individuals practiced yoga at least two times a week. Participants responded to the following scales: MLQ (Meaning in Life Questionnaire) and GQ-6 (Gratitude Questionnaire). This study hypothesised that the number of years practicing yoga would be positively correlated to the score obtained on the aforementioned scales. Positive correlations were identified between the extent of yoga practice and meaning in life and gratitude. Important implications regarding the contribution of yoga to both hedonic and Eudaimonic happiness are discussed.

  1. Heterogeneity in hedonic modelling of house prices: looking at buyers' household profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestens, Yan; Thériault, Marius; Des Rosiers, François

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces household-level data into hedonic models in order to measure the heterogeneity of implicit prices regarding household type, age, educational attainment, income, and the previous tenure status of the buyers. Two methods are used for this purpose: a first series of models uses expansion terms, whereas a second series applies Geographically Weighted Regressions. Both methods yield conclusive results, showing that the marginal value given to certain property specifics and location attributes do vary regarding the characteristics of the buyer’s household. Particularly, major findings concern the significant effect of income on the location rent as well as the premium paid by highly-educated households in order to fulfil social homogeneity.

  2. An interregional hedonic analysis of noxious facility impacts on local wages and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    Economists have long recognized that local environmental amenities influence wage rates and property values jointly. Moreover, local differentials in these prices can be used to implicitly value local amenities. Unfortunately, much of the empirical work on noxious facilities has focused on a narrow range of facility types, often within a single city. Generally, distance from the facility is used to proxy exposure to the disamenity, although it is possible that the mere existence of a noxious facility in a region has an impact on local residents. We employ an intercity hedonic model to measure the joint property value and wage effects of a broad range of noxious facilities. Using Public Use Microdata from the 1980 United States Census, we show that property values and/or wages are significantly influenced by the existence of noxious facilities. Calculated implicit prices reveal that local residents are most averse to the presence of petrochemical refineries and nuclear power plants. 57 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Does screen size matter for smartphones? Utilitarian and hedonic effects of screen size on smartphone adoption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the psychological effects of screen size on smartphone adoption by proposing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates an empirical comparison between large and small screens with perceived control, affective quality, and the original TAM constructs. A structural equation modeling analysis was conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N=130) in which users performed a web-based task on a smartphone with either a large (5.3 inches) or a small (3.7 inches) screen. Results show that a large screen, compared to a small screen, is likely to lead to higher smartphone adoption by simultaneously promoting both the utilitarian and hedonic qualities of smartphones, which in turn positively influence perceived ease of use of-and attitude toward-the device respectively. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24694112

  4. Does Screen Size Matter for Smartphones? Utilitarian and Hedonic Effects of Screen Size on Smartphone Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Joon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study explores the psychological effects of screen size on smartphone adoption by proposing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates an empirical comparison between large and small screens with perceived control, affective quality, and the original TAM constructs. A structural equation modeling analysis was conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N=130) in which users performed a web-based task on a smartphone with either a large (5.3 inches) or a small (3.7 inches) screen. Results show that a large screen, compared to a small screen, is likely to lead to higher smartphone adoption by simultaneously promoting both the utilitarian and hedonic qualities of smartphones, which in turn positively influence perceived ease of use of—and attitude toward—the device respectively. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24694112

  5. The nutritional and hedonic value of food modulate sexual receptivity in Drosophila melanogaster females

    PubMed Central

    Gorter, Jenke A.; Jagadeesh, Samyukta; Gahr, Christoph; Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Levine, Joel D.; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these foods should inform female reproductive behaviours. Yet mechanisms coupling food and sex are poorly understood. Here we show that yeast increases female sexual receptivity through interaction between its protein content and its odorous fermentation product acetic acid, sensed by the Ionotropic odorant receptor neuron Ir75a. A similar interaction between nutritional and hedonic value applies to sugars where taste and caloric value only increase sexual receptivity when combined. Integration of nutritional and sensory values would ensure that there are sufficient internal nutrients for egg production as well as sufficient environmental nutrients for offspring survival. These findings provide mechanisms through which females may maximize reproductive output in changing environments. PMID:26777264

  6. Self-interest without selfishness: the hedonic benefit of imposed self-interest.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jonathan Z; Small, Deborah A

    2012-10-01

    Despite commonsense appeal, the link between self-interest and happiness remains elusive. One reason why individuals may not feel satisfied with self-interest is that they feel uneasy about sacrificing the needs of others for their own gain. We propose that externally imposing self-interest allows individuals to enjoy self-benefiting outcomes that are untainted by self-reproach for failing to help others. Study 1 demonstrated that an imposed self-interested option (a reward) leads to greater happiness than does choosing between a self-interested option and a prosocial option (a charity donation). Study 2 demonstrated that this effect is not driven by choice in general; rather, it is the specific trade-off between benefiting the self and benefiting others that inhibits happiness gained from self-interest. We theorize that the agency inherent in choice reduces the hedonic value of self-interest. Results of Study 3 find support for this mechanism.

  7. Dynamic Interplay Among Homeostatic, Hedonic, and Cognitive Feedback Circuits Regulating Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Ross A.; Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a prolonged imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, both of which are regulated by multiple feedback processes within and across individuals. These processes constitute 3 hierarchical control systems—homeostatic, hedonic, and cognitive—with extensive interaction among them. Understanding complex eating behavior requires consideration of all 3 systems and their interactions. Existing models of these processes are widely scattered, with relatively few attempts to integrate across mechanisms. We briefly review available empirical evidence and dynamic models, discussing challenges and potential for better integration. We conclude that developing richer models of dynamic interplay among systems should be a priority in the future study of obesity and that systems science modeling offers the potential to aid in this goal. PMID:24832422

  8. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms). In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  9. Children's hedonic responses to the odors of alcoholic beverages: a window to emotions.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Forestell, Catherine A

    2008-06-01

    The present study of 145 children and their mothers aimed to determine whether children's responses to the odors of alcoholic beverages were related to their mothers' reasons for drinking. Mothers completed a series of questionnaires to describe the emotional context in which they drink and whether they use alcohol to "escape" by changing their state of mind and reducing feelings of dysphoria. Children participated in two age-appropriate tasks that focused on the most salient psychological attribute of an odor, its perceived hedonic valence. To this aim, we determined children's liking, reaction times, and identification of individual odors including beer and whiskey in Task 1, and their preference for beer relative to odors that differed in hedonic valence in Task 2. The type of task and behavioral measure revealed different aspects of children's responses, to alcohol odors. In Task 1, verbally identifying an odor was a more difficult task than deciding whether they liked the odor. Although there were few group differences in liking for individual odors, children of Escape drinkers took significantly longer to determine whether they liked the odors. In Task 2, children of Escape drinkers preferred beer less often, particularly when it was compared with less pleasant odors. They preferred coffee to beer odors and, if their mothers did not smoke cigarettes, preferred the odors of cigarette smoke and pyridine to beer. These children experienced the odor of alcohol more frequently and in the context of mood disturbed mothers who felt guilty and worried about their drinking. Whether children who associate the odor of alcohol with such emotional contexts display a trajectory toward or against using alcohol to escape remains unknown. PMID:18539246

  10. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600-950 ms). In the 620-640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  11. Processing of Hedonic and Chemosensory Features of Taste in Medial Prefrontal and Insular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jezzini, Ahmad; Mazzucato, Luca; La Camera, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Most of the research on cortical processing of taste has focused on either the primary gustatory cortex (GC) or the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, these are not the only areas involved in taste processing. Gustatory information can also reach another frontal region, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), via direct projections from GC. mPFC has been studied extensively in relation to its role in controlling goal-directed action and reward-guided behaviors, yet very little is known about its involvement in taste coding. The experiments presented here address this important point and test whether neurons in mPFC can significantly process the physiochemical and hedonic dimensions of taste. Spiking responses to intraorally delivered tastants were recorded from rats implanted with bundles of electrodes in mPFC and GC. Analysis of single-neuron and ensemble activity revealed similarities and differences between the two areas. Neurons in mPFC can encode the chemosensory identity of gustatory stimuli. However, responses in mPFC are sparser, more narrowly tuned, and have a later onset than in GC. Although taste quality is more robustly represented in GC, taste palatability is coded equally well in the two areas. Additional analysis of responses in neurons processing the hedonic value of taste revealed differences between the two areas in temporal dynamics and sensitivities to palatability. These results add mPFC to the network of areas involved in processing gustatory stimuli and demonstrate significant differences in taste-coding between GC and mPFC. PMID:24285901

  12. Opioid Hedonic Hotspot in Nucleus Accumbens Shell: Mu, Delta, and Kappa Maps for Enhancement of Sweetness “Liking” and “Wanting”

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2014-01-01

    A specialized cubic-millimeter hotspot in the rostrodorsal quadrant of medial shell in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats may mediate opioid enhancement of gustatory hedonic impact or “liking”. Here, we selectively stimulated the three major subtypes of opioid receptors via agonist microinjections [mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE), or kappa (U50488H)] and constructed anatomical maps for functional localizations of consequent changes in hedonic “liking” (assessed by affective orofacial reactions to sucrose taste) versus “wanting” (assessed by changes in food intake). Results indicated that the NAc rostrodorsal quadrant contains a shared opioid hedonic hotspot that similarly mediates enhancements of sucrose “liking” for mu, delta, and kappa stimulations. Within the rostrodorsal hotspot boundaries each type of stimulation generated at least a doubling or higher enhancement of hedonic reactions, with comparable intensities for all three types of opioid stimulation. By contrast, a negative hedonic coldspot was mapped in the caudal half of medial shell, where all three types of opioid stimulation suppressed “liking” reactions to approximately one-half normal levels. Different anatomical patterns were produced for stimulation of food “wanting”, reflected in food intake. Altogether, these results indicate that the rostrodorsal hotspot in medial shell is unique for generating opioid-induced hedonic enhancement, and add delta and kappa signals to mu as hedonic generators within the hotspot. Also, the identification of a separable NAc caudal coldspot for hedonic suppression, and separate NAc opioid mechanisms for controlling food “liking” versus “wanting” further highlights NAc anatomical heterogeneity and localizations of function within subregions of medial shell. PMID:24647944

  13. β-adrenergic impact underlies the effect of mood and hedonic instrumentality on effort-related cardiovascular response.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Nicolas; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2011-05-01

    After habituation, participants were first induced into negative vs. positive moods and performed then an attention task with either low vs. high hedonic instrumentality of success. In the high-instrumentality condition participants expected to see a funny movie after success and an unpleasant movie after failure; in the low-instrumentality condition participants expected an unpleasant movie after success and a pleasant movie after failure. Effort-related cardiovascular response (ICG, blood pressure) was assessed during mood inductions and task performance. As predicted by the mood-behavior-model (Gendolla, 2000), responses of cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and systolic blood pressure were stronger in the high-instrumentality/negative-mood condition than in the other three cells. Here the high hedonic instrumentality of success justified the high effort that was perceived as necessary in a negative mood. Moreover, the PEP effects indicate that cardiovascular response was driven by beta-adrenergic impact on the heart rather than by vascular adjustments.

  14. RUMS: a PC-based Fortran program for estimating consumer surplus charges using multinomial logic and hedonic demand models

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1986-08-01

    This report describes a computer program for calculating the value, in dollars per consumer, of the difference in consumer satisfaction between two different sets of alternatives from which consumers must choose. Multinomial Logit and Hedonic Demand formulations of discrete choice, random utility models are used to measure the difference in consumer surplus between the two sets of alternatives, which may differ both in number and characteristics. The user must supply attribute weights for the characteristics of interest, as well as quantitative measures of the characteristics themselves. The program also has limited capability to predict changes in market shares resulting from changes in vehicle attributes. Consumer surplus change in the Hedonic Demand Model is estimated by means of Monte Carlo integration. The program is written in FORTRAN 77 for an IBM PC, with an 8087 math coprocessor chip. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  15. A public hedonic analysis of environmental attributes in an open space preservation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordman, Erik E.

    The Town of Brookhaven, on Long Island, NY, has implemented an open space preservation program to protect natural areas, and the ecosystem services they provide, from suburban growth. I used a public hedonic model of Brookhaven's open space purchases to estimate implicit prices for various environmental attributes, locational variables and spatial metrics. I also measured the correlation between cost per acre and non-monetary environmental benefit scores and tested whether including cost data, as opposed to non-monetary environmental benefit score alone, would change the prioritization ranks of acquired properties. The mean acquisition cost per acre was 82,501. I identified the key on-site environmental and locational variables using stepwise regression for four functional forms. The log-log specification performed best ( R2adj= 0.727). I performed a second stepwise regression (log-log form) which included spatial metrics, calculated from a high-resolution land cover classification, in addition to the environmental and locational variables. This markedly improved the model's performance ( R2adj=0.866). Statistically significant variables included the property size, location in the Pine Barrens Compatible Growth Area, location in a FEMA flood zone, adjacency to public land, and several other environmental dummy variables. The single significant spatial metric, the fractal dimension of the tree cover class, had the largest elasticity of any variable. Of the dummy variables, location within the Compatible Growth Area had the largest implicit price (298,792 per acre). The priority rank for the two methods, non-monetary environmental benefit score alone and the ratio of non-monetary environmental benefit score to acquisition cost were significantly positively correlated. This suggests that, despite the lack of cost data in their ranking method, Brookhaven does not suffer from efficiency losses. The economics literature encourages using both environmental benefits and

  16. Hedonic sensitivity to low-dose ketamine is modulated by gonadal hormones in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Saland, Samantha K; Schoepfer, Kristin J; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2016-02-18

    We recently reported a greater sensitivity of female rats to rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine compared to male rats, and that ovarian-derived estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are essential for this response. However, to what extent testosterone may also contribute, and whether duration of response to ketamine is modulated in a sex- and hormone-dependent manner remains unclear. To explore this, we systematically investigated the influence of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone on initiation and maintenance of hedonic response to low-dose ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. Ketamine induced a sustained increase in sucrose preference of female, but not male, rats in an E2P4-dependent manner. Whereas testosterone failed to alter male treatment response, concurrent administration of P4 alone in intact males enhanced hedonic response low-dose ketamine. Treatment responsiveness in female rats only was associated with greater hippocampal BDNF levels, but not activation of key downstream signaling effectors. We provide novel evidence supporting activational roles for ovarian-, but not testicular-, derived hormones in mediating hedonic sensitivity to low-dose ketamine in female and male rats, respectively. Organizational differences may, in part, account for the persistence of sex differences following gonadectomy and selective involvement of BDNF in treatment response.

  17. Mood and threat to attitudinal freedom: delineating the role of mood congruency and hedonic contingency in counterattitudinal message processing.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian; Aydinli, Arzu

    2013-08-01

    The present research examined when happy individuals' processing of a counterattitudinal message is guided by mood-congruent expectancies versus hedonic considerations. Recipients in positive, neutral, or negative mood read a strong or weak counterattitudinal message which either contained a threat to attitudinal freedom or did not contain such a threat. As expected, a freedom-threatening counterattitudinal message was more mood threatening than a counterattitudinal message not threatening freedom. Furthermore, as predicted by the mood-congruent expectancies approach, people in positive mood processed a nonthreatening counterattitudinal message more thoroughly than people in negative mood. Message processing in neutral mood lay in between. In contrast, as predicted by the hedonic-contingency view, a threatening counterattitudinal message was processed less thoroughly in positive mood than in neutral mood. In negative mood, processing of a threatening counterattitudinal message was as low as in positive mood. These findings suggest that message processing is determined by mood congruency unless hedonic considerations override expectancy-based processing inclinations.

  18. Impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes including its enrichment with n-3 and CLA fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yasmina; Kallas, Zein; Costa-Font, Montserrat; Gil, José María; Realini, Carolina E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes was evaluated (origin, animal diet, fat content, color, price) including its enrichment with omega-3 (n-3) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids. One group of consumers (n=325) received information about n-3 and CLA, while the other group (n=322) received no information. Consumers conducted a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), using the recently developed Generalized Multinomial Logit model; followed by a blind hedonic evaluation of beef samples, which were identified after tasting, and finally repeated the DCE. Results showed that hedonic evaluation had a significant impact on consumers' preferences, which were similar after tasting for all consumers, with less emphasis on the fat content, color, and origin attributes and greater emphasis on animal diet. Preference for n-3 enriched beef increased, while preference for CLA enriched beef was still not significant after tasting. The information provided had a significant effect on consumers' beef preferences, but no significant impact on beef liking scores.

  19. Hedonic sensitivity to low-dose ketamine is modulated by gonadal hormones in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Saland, Samantha K.; Schoepfer, Kristin J.; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported a greater sensitivity of female rats to rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine compared to male rats, and that ovarian-derived estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are essential for this response. However, to what extent testosterone may also contribute, and whether duration of response to ketamine is modulated in a sex- and hormone-dependent manner remains unclear. To explore this, we systematically investigated the influence of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone on initiation and maintenance of hedonic response to low-dose ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. Ketamine induced a sustained increase in sucrose preference of female, but not male, rats in an E2P4-dependent manner. Whereas testosterone failed to alter male treatment response, concurrent administration of P4 alone in intact males enhanced hedonic response low-dose ketamine. Treatment responsiveness in female rats only was associated with greater hippocampal BDNF levels, but not activation of key downstream signaling effectors. We provide novel evidence supporting activational roles for ovarian-, but not testicular-, derived hormones in mediating hedonic sensitivity to low-dose ketamine in female and male rats, respectively. Organizational differences may, in part, account for the persistence of sex differences following gonadectomy and selective involvement of BDNF in treatment response. PMID:26888470

  20. Obese patients after gastric bypass surgery have lower brain-hedonic responses to food than after gastric banding

    PubMed Central

    Scholtz, Samantha; Miras, Alexander D; Chhina, Navpreet; Prechtl, Christina G; Sleeth, Michelle L; Daud, Norlida M; Ismail, Nurhafzan A; Durighel, Giuliana; Ahmed, Ahmed R; Olbers, Torsten; Vincent, Royce P; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Waldman, Adam D; Frost, Gary S; Bell, Jimmy D; le Roux, Carel W; Goldstone, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater efficacy for weight loss in obese patients than gastric banding (BAND) surgery. We hypothesise that this may result from different effects on food hedonics via physiological changes secondary to distinct gut anatomy manipulations. Design We used functional MRI, eating behaviour and hormonal phenotyping to compare body mass index (BMI)-matched unoperated controls and patients after RYGB and BAND surgery for obesity. Results Obese patients after RYGB had lower brain-hedonic responses to food than patients after BAND surgery. RYGB patients had lower activation than BAND patients in brain reward systems, particularly to high-calorie foods, including the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. This was associated with lower palatability and appeal of high-calorie foods and healthier eating behaviour, including less fat intake, in RYGB compared with BAND patients and/or BMI-matched unoperated controls. These differences were not explicable by differences in hunger or psychological traits between the surgical groups, but anorexigenic plasma gut hormones (GLP-1 and PYY), plasma bile acids and symptoms of dumping syndrome were increased in RYGB patients. Conclusions The identification of these differences in food hedonic responses as a result of altered gut anatomy/physiology provides a novel explanation for the more favourable long-term weight loss seen after RYGB than after BAND surgery, highlighting the importance of the gut–brain axis in the control of reward-based eating behaviour. PMID:23964100

  1. Impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes including its enrichment with n-3 and CLA fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yasmina; Kallas, Zein; Costa-Font, Montserrat; Gil, José María; Realini, Carolina E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes was evaluated (origin, animal diet, fat content, color, price) including its enrichment with omega-3 (n-3) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids. One group of consumers (n=325) received information about n-3 and CLA, while the other group (n=322) received no information. Consumers conducted a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), using the recently developed Generalized Multinomial Logit model; followed by a blind hedonic evaluation of beef samples, which were identified after tasting, and finally repeated the DCE. Results showed that hedonic evaluation had a significant impact on consumers' preferences, which were similar after tasting for all consumers, with less emphasis on the fat content, color, and origin attributes and greater emphasis on animal diet. Preference for n-3 enriched beef increased, while preference for CLA enriched beef was still not significant after tasting. The information provided had a significant effect on consumers' beef preferences, but no significant impact on beef liking scores. PMID:26331961

  2. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices. PMID:26858681

  3. Valuation of irrigation water in South-western Iran using a hedonic pricing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Shahsavari, Zahra

    2011-12-01

    Population growth, improved socioeconomic conditions, increased demand for various types of water use, and a reduction in water supply has created more competition for scarce water supplies leveling many countries. Efficient allocation of water supplies between different economic sectors is therefore very important. Water valuation is a useful tool to determine water price. Water pricing can play a major part in improving water allocation by encouraging users to conserve scarce water resources, and promoting improvements in productivity. We used a hedonic pricing method to reveal the implicit value of irrigation water by analyzing agricultural land values in farms under the Doroodzan dam in South-western Iran. The method was applied to farms in which irrigation water came from wells and canals. The availability of irrigation water was one of the most important factors influencing land prices. The value of irrigation water in the farms investigated was estimated to be 0.046 per cubic meter. The estimated price for water was clearly higher than the price farmers currently pay for water in the area of study. Efficient water pricing could help the sustainability of the water resources. Farmers must therefore be informed of the real value of irrigation water used on their land.

  4. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices.

  5. Hedonic valuation of the spatial competition for urban circumstance utilities: case Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaolin; Huang, Lina

    2008-10-01

    It has generally accepted Alonso's [1] theory about the allocation of different land uses of commerce, resident and industry in urban area. A bunch of researches have provided their aspects of the theme of the relationships between urban circumstances and urban land uses in either the influence of one or several designate circumstance factors on different land uses, or the comprehensive analysis of the influence of all kinds of circumstance on one selected land usage (e.g. residential use). There is still not a wholly analysis about the influence of all kinds of spatial characteristics, available for the location selection of different land uses. That's why this research selects to engage in a study on the difference among "consumer preferences" to the location amenities in the city. Here we regard the behavior as "spatial competition of the locations". Hedonic regression model (HRM) analysis is employed as the basic framework of the research. Tabular comparison of HRM parameters performed with principal components analysis (PCA) and Geographic Information Science (GIS) provides all necessary numerical investigation and spatial analysis until to the finally results. The research can be helpful for putting forward to a further integrated investigation on the relationship between urban circumstance and real land use values.

  6. Water source as a housing characteristic: Hedonic property valuation and willingness to pay for water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, J. H.; Griffin, C. C.

    1993-07-01

    Using data from a large representative sample of rural households in one region of the Philippines, we estimate the determinants of the rental value of dwellings using the bid-rent approach to the hedonic price model. Our particular interest is in the relative valuation these households place on owning a private source of water and distance to a public or communal source. We find that low-, middle-, and high-income households value an in-house piped water source highly relative to other characteristics of their homes. Middle- and high-income households value a deep well or piped water in the yard, although at a substantially lower level than piped water in the house. It is somewhat surprising to find that, except in the case of high-income families, households appear to gain little or no utility from having a communal source of water, such as a river, lake, or public tap, closer to their homes. As a consequence, public water policies that emphasize improving the quality and proximity of communal sources would be inappropriate for the region represented by this sample.

  7. Hedonic analysis of the price of UHT-treated milk in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Liu, Xuan; Viscecchia, Rosaria

    2016-02-01

    The Italian market for UHT milk has been growing thanks to both consumers' interest in products with an extended shelf life and to the lower prices of these products compared with refrigerated, pasteurized milk. However, because the lower prices of UHT milk can hinder producers' margins, manufacturers have introduced new versions of UHT milk products such as lactose-free options, vitamin-enriched products, and milk for infants, with the goal of differentiating their products, escaping the price competition, and gaining higher margins. In this paper, we estimated the contribution of different attributes to UHT milk prices in Italy by using a database of Italian UHT milk sales and a hedonic price model. In our analysis, we considered 2 UHT milk market segments: products for infants and those for the general population. We found premiums varied with the milk's attributes as well as between the segments analyzed: n-3 fatty acids, organic, and added calcium were the most valuable product features in the general population segment, whereas in the infant segment fiber, glass packaging, and the targeting of newborns delivered the highest premiums. Finally, we present recommendations for UHT milk manufacturers.

  8. [Hedonism and revolution. The reception of psychoanalysis in the Berlin student movement in the 1960s].

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The article takes hedonism and revolution as a vantage point to discuss the Kommune 2, an experiment in collective living, the anti-authoritarian kindergardens for the under-fives, and, last but not least, a speech in 1968 that spurred the women's movement in Western Germany. The author's interest is on the materials documenting how the Berlin student movement saw psychoanalysis: One point was that the pleasure principle should replace the reality principle for the sake of humankind, another that the authoritarian character structure has its roots in the denial of sexuality. Kindergarden children supposedly need "de-individualized identification" to develop ego-strength, when boys and girls differ in their superego organization. An important accomplishment was a group analysis conducted without an analyst, an experiment that worked amazingly well in the Kommune 2. In all, these various experiments in emancipation, with psychoanalysis a guide to interpersonal understanding, may be deemed spectacular when their aftereffects on everyday life in Germany have been tremendous. PMID:25872314

  9. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices. PMID:26858681

  10. Hedonic analysis of the price of UHT-treated milk in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Liu, Xuan; Viscecchia, Rosaria

    2016-02-01

    The Italian market for UHT milk has been growing thanks to both consumers' interest in products with an extended shelf life and to the lower prices of these products compared with refrigerated, pasteurized milk. However, because the lower prices of UHT milk can hinder producers' margins, manufacturers have introduced new versions of UHT milk products such as lactose-free options, vitamin-enriched products, and milk for infants, with the goal of differentiating their products, escaping the price competition, and gaining higher margins. In this paper, we estimated the contribution of different attributes to UHT milk prices in Italy by using a database of Italian UHT milk sales and a hedonic price model. In our analysis, we considered 2 UHT milk market segments: products for infants and those for the general population. We found premiums varied with the milk's attributes as well as between the segments analyzed: n-3 fatty acids, organic, and added calcium were the most valuable product features in the general population segment, whereas in the infant segment fiber, glass packaging, and the targeting of newborns delivered the highest premiums. Finally, we present recommendations for UHT milk manufacturers. PMID:26627864

  11. [Hedonism and revolution. The reception of psychoanalysis in the Berlin student movement in the 1960s].

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The article takes hedonism and revolution as a vantage point to discuss the Kommune 2, an experiment in collective living, the anti-authoritarian kindergardens for the under-fives, and, last but not least, a speech in 1968 that spurred the women's movement in Western Germany. The author's interest is on the materials documenting how the Berlin student movement saw psychoanalysis: One point was that the pleasure principle should replace the reality principle for the sake of humankind, another that the authoritarian character structure has its roots in the denial of sexuality. Kindergarden children supposedly need "de-individualized identification" to develop ego-strength, when boys and girls differ in their superego organization. An important accomplishment was a group analysis conducted without an analyst, an experiment that worked amazingly well in the Kommune 2. In all, these various experiments in emancipation, with psychoanalysis a guide to interpersonal understanding, may be deemed spectacular when their aftereffects on everyday life in Germany have been tremendous.

  12. The value of urban open space: meta-analyses of contingent valuation and hedonic pricing results.

    PubMed

    Brander, Luke M; Koetse, Mark J

    2011-10-01

    Urban open space provides a number of valuable services to urban populations, including recreational opportunities, aesthetic enjoyment, environmental functions, and may also be associated with existence values. In separate meta-analyses of the contingent valuation (CV) and hedonic pricing (HP) literature we examine which physical, socio-economic, and study characteristics determine the value of open space. The dependent variable in the CV meta-regression is defined as the value of open space per hectare per year in 2003 US$, and in the HP model as the percentage change in house price for a 10 m decrease in distance to open space. Using a multi-level modelling approach we find in both the CV and HP analyses that there is a positive and significant relationship between the value of urban open space and population density, indicating that scarcity and crowdedness matter, and that the value of open space does not vary significantly with income. Further, urban parks are more highly valued than other types of urban open space (forests, agricultural and undeveloped land) and methodological differences in study design have a large influence on estimated values from both CV and HP. We also find important regional differences in preferences for urban open space, which suggests that the potential for transferring estimated values between regions is likely to be limited.

  13. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity). PMID:26551789

  14. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity).

  15. The paradoxical hedonic valence of acute ethanol withdrawal (hangover) states in rats: place and taste conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gauvin, D V; Briscoe, R J; Baird, T J; Vallett, M; Holloway, F A

    1997-01-01

    The hedonic valence of EtOH's delayed effects, usually referred to as "hangover," was assessed 18 h after a 4 g/kg injection using both place and taste learning tasks. In the place conditioning task two CS-,CS+ intervals were used (48 h and 144 h); within each treatment interval, experimentally induced "hangover" was paired with the initially nonpreferred conditioning compartment for half of the experimental group (N = 10 rats) and with the initially preferred conditioning compartment for the half (N = 10 rats). Saline injections were paired with placement in the alternate conditioning compartment. A third group (N = 10 rats) was conditioned with milliliter equivalent volumes of saline on both sides. A conditioned place preference was conditioned with the hangover state-induced interoceptive stimuli. Attempts were made to taste condition 24 rats with the interoceptive stimulus attributes of hangover. Experimentally induced hangover was associated with an adipsogenic state, defined as a significant decline in voluntary intake of both saccharin and water, which prevented taste conditioning.

  16. Intrauterine growth restriction modifies the hedonic response to sweet taste in newborn pups - Role of the accumbal μ-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Laureano, D P; Dalle Molle, R; Alves, M B; Luft, C; Desai, M; Ross, M G; Silveira, P P

    2016-05-13

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with increased preference for palatable foods. The hedonic response to sweet taste, modulated by the nucleus accumbens μ-opioid-receptors, may be involved. We investigated hedonic responses and receptor levels in IUGR and Control animals. From pregnancy day 10, Sprague-Dawley dams received either an ad libitum (Control), or a 50% food restricted (FR) diet. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, and nursed by Adlib fed dams. The hedonic response was evaluated at 1 day after birth and at 90 days of life, by giving sucrose solution or water and analyzing the hedonic facial responses (within 60s). Control pups exposed either to water or sucrose resolved their hedonic responses after 16 and 18s, respectively, while FR hedonic responses to sucrose persisted over 20s. FR pups had deceased phospho-μ-opioid-receptor (p=0.009) and reduced phosphor:total mu opioid receptor ratio compared to controls pups (p=0.003). In adults, there was an interaction between group and solution at the end of the evaluation (p=0.044): Control decreased the response after sucrose solution, FR did not change over time. There were no differences in phosphorylation of μ-opioid-receptor in adults. These results demonstrate IUGR newborn rats exhibit alterations in hedonic response accompanied by a decrease in μ-opioid-receptor phosphorylation, though these alterations do not persist at 3 months of age. Opioid system alterations in early life may contribute to the development of preference for highly palatable foods and contribute to rapid weight gain and obesity in IUGR offspring.

  17. Intrauterine growth restriction modifies the hedonic response to sweet taste in newborn pups - Role of the accumbal μ-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Laureano, D P; Dalle Molle, R; Alves, M B; Luft, C; Desai, M; Ross, M G; Silveira, P P

    2016-05-13

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with increased preference for palatable foods. The hedonic response to sweet taste, modulated by the nucleus accumbens μ-opioid-receptors, may be involved. We investigated hedonic responses and receptor levels in IUGR and Control animals. From pregnancy day 10, Sprague-Dawley dams received either an ad libitum (Control), or a 50% food restricted (FR) diet. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, and nursed by Adlib fed dams. The hedonic response was evaluated at 1 day after birth and at 90 days of life, by giving sucrose solution or water and analyzing the hedonic facial responses (within 60s). Control pups exposed either to water or sucrose resolved their hedonic responses after 16 and 18s, respectively, while FR hedonic responses to sucrose persisted over 20s. FR pups had deceased phospho-μ-opioid-receptor (p=0.009) and reduced phosphor:total mu opioid receptor ratio compared to controls pups (p=0.003). In adults, there was an interaction between group and solution at the end of the evaluation (p=0.044): Control decreased the response after sucrose solution, FR did not change over time. There were no differences in phosphorylation of μ-opioid-receptor in adults. These results demonstrate IUGR newborn rats exhibit alterations in hedonic response accompanied by a decrease in μ-opioid-receptor phosphorylation, though these alterations do not persist at 3 months of age. Opioid system alterations in early life may contribute to the development of preference for highly palatable foods and contribute to rapid weight gain and obesity in IUGR offspring. PMID:26926962

  18. The market value of cultural heritage in urban areas: an application of spatial hedonic pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazrak, Faroek; Nijkamp, Peter; Rietveld, Piet; Rouwendal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The current literature often values intangible goods like cultural heritage by applying stated preference methods. In recent years, however, the increasing availability of large databases on real estate transactions and listed prices has opened up new research possibilities and has reduced various existing barriers to applications of conventional (spatial) hedonic analysis to the real estate market. The present paper provides one of the first applications using a spatial autoregressive model to investigate the impact of cultural heritage—in particular, listed buildings and historic-cultural sites (or historic landmarks)—on the value of real estate in cities. In addition, this paper suggests a novel way of specifying the spatial weight matrix—only prices of sold houses influence current price—in identifying the spatial dependency effects between sold properties. The empirical application in the present study concerns the Dutch urban area of Zaanstad, a historic area for which over a long period of more than 20 years detailed information on individual dwellings, and their market prices are available in a GIS context. In this paper, the effect of cultural heritage is analysed in three complementary ways. First, we measure the effect of a listed building on its market price in the relevant area concerned. Secondly, we investigate the value that listed heritage has on nearby property. And finally, we estimate the effect of historic-cultural sites on real estate prices. We find that, to purchase a listed building, buyers are willing to pay an additional 26.9 %, while surrounding houses are worth an extra 0.28 % for each additional listed building within a 50-m radius. Houses sold within a conservation area appear to gain a premium of 26.4 % which confirms the existence of a `historic ensemble' effect.

  19. The effects of hedonically acceptable red pepper doses on thermogenesis and appetite

    PubMed Central

    Ludy, Mary-Jon; Mattes, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggest consumption of red pepper (RP) promotes negative energy balance. However, the RP dose provided in these studies (up to 10 g/meal) usually exceeded the amount preferred by the general population in the United States (mean = ~ 1 g/meal). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hedonically acceptable RP doses served at a single meal in healthy, lean individuals on thermogenesis and appetite. Twenty-five men and women (aged 23.0 ± 0.5 y, BMI 22.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, 13 spicy food users and 12 non-users) participated in a randomized crossover trial during which they consumed a standardized quantity (1 g); their preferred quantity (regular spicy foods users 1.8 ± 0.3 g/meal, non-users 0.3 ± 0.1 g/meal); or no RP. Energy expenditure, core body and skin temperature, and appetite were measured. Postprandial energy expenditure and core body temperature were greater, and skin temperature was lower, after test loads with 1 g RP than no RP. Respiratory quotient was lower after the preferred RP dose was ingested orally, compared to in capsule form. These findings suggest that RP’s effects on energy balance stem from a combination of metabolic and sensory inputs, and that oral exposure is necessary to achieve RP’s maximum benefits. Energy intake was lower after test loads with 1 g RP than no RP in non-users, but not in users. Preoccupation with food, and the desire to consume fatty, salty, and sweet foods were decreased more (or tended to be decreased more) in non-users than users after a 1 g RP test load, but did not vary after a test load with no RP. This suggests that individuals may become desensitized to the effects of RP with long-term spicy food intake. PMID:21093467

  20. [Consensus, hedonism: the characteristics of new family and their consequences for the development of children].

    PubMed

    Lazartigues, A; Morales, H; Planche, P

    2005-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the marital family model described by Durkheim at the end of the nineteenth century has undergone numerous changes, e.g. questioning about the principle of authority, women emancipation, occurrence of the "new fathers", the growing influence of the media on the daily life of families, the less frequent and most precious child (due to the reduced number of children per family),... Through clinical, psychoanalytical and developmental models we, here, analyze these changes together with their impact on child. Historical and sociological approaches also allowed us to examine some of the effects induced by consensus and hedonism, the new familial parameters, on the child's life and development. The modern family being classically founded upon duty (central value) and the principle of authority to settle relationships between individuals, its main features are opposed to those of the contemporary family. The latter, which started to emerge over the sixties, is characterized by both the prevalence of parent-child relationships symmetrization and the emergence of the search for immediate pleasure. The change from parental authority to consensus as a principle ruling the relationships within families leads to many consequences later noticed through changes in the construction of the child's psyche along his development and in the relationships dynamics. Authority imposes on child to submit to the parents-mediatized requirements of the society and implies a change in impulses through the setting of Superego agencies and Ego Ideal, which (both ?) represent taboos and social ideals in the psyche. When consensus is at the center of the family, and according to concrete meetings with the other offered by the thousand and one situations met in the daily life, the aims and satisfaction modalities of the child's impulses will evolve into a relation often based on either strength or seduction. As a result, the settlement of classical instances will be

  1. [Consensus, hedonism: the characteristics of new family and their consequences for the development of children].

    PubMed

    Lazartigues, A; Morales, H; Planche, P

    2005-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the marital family model described by Durkheim at the end of the nineteenth century has undergone numerous changes, e.g. questioning about the principle of authority, women emancipation, occurrence of the "new fathers", the growing influence of the media on the daily life of families, the less frequent and most precious child (due to the reduced number of children per family),... Through clinical, psychoanalytical and developmental models we, here, analyze these changes together with their impact on child. Historical and sociological approaches also allowed us to examine some of the effects induced by consensus and hedonism, the new familial parameters, on the child's life and development. The modern family being classically founded upon duty (central value) and the principle of authority to settle relationships between individuals, its main features are opposed to those of the contemporary family. The latter, which started to emerge over the sixties, is characterized by both the prevalence of parent-child relationships symmetrization and the emergence of the search for immediate pleasure. The change from parental authority to consensus as a principle ruling the relationships within families leads to many consequences later noticed through changes in the construction of the child's psyche along his development and in the relationships dynamics. Authority imposes on child to submit to the parents-mediatized requirements of the society and implies a change in impulses through the setting of Superego agencies and Ego Ideal, which (both ?) represent taboos and social ideals in the psyche. When consensus is at the center of the family, and according to concrete meetings with the other offered by the thousand and one situations met in the daily life, the aims and satisfaction modalities of the child's impulses will evolve into a relation often based on either strength or seduction. As a result, the settlement of classical instances will be

  2. Naltrexone suppresses the late but not early licking response to a palatable sweet solution: opioid hedonic hypothesis reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Frisina, Pasquale G; Sclafani, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    Opioid antagonists suppress the intake of sweet solutions, but typically have little effect on the initial rate of drinking. The lack of an early drug response was investigated in the present study because it questions the general idea that opioid antagonists reduce the hedonic response to sweets. The first experiment, which measured the rat's licking response to a sucrose+saccharin (S+s) solution, revealed that naltrexone suppressed S+s intake but not initial lick rates. Experiment 2A indicated that the drug's delayed behavioral effect was not due to the 10-min injection-test interval used. Increasing the interval to 20 min did not reduce the latency of drug action. Experiment 2B tested the idea that rats require several minutes to detect that naltrexone has reduced the hedonic value of the S+s solution. The S+s solution was presented either for 30 min without interruption or for 3 min followed, after a 6-min delay, by another 27-min access. In both test conditions, naltrexone did not suppress S+s licking until 7-9 min of drinking had occurred. However, the drug blocked an "appetizer effect"; a post-delay increase in licking rate produced by the split-session test procedure. Microstructure analysis indicated that in all cases, naltrexone reduced S+s licking by reducing the number of lick clusters rather than lick cluster size. In contrast to these drug effects, Experiment 2C showed that reducing the concentration of the S+s solution decreased initial lick rates. Together, these findings suggest that opioid antagonists do not affect all aspects of flavor hedonics, but may primarily alter the intake-maintaining action of palatable flavors.

  3. Examining Users' E-Satisfaction in the Usage of Social Networking Sites; Contribution from Utilitarian and Hedonic Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Shan, Tay Kai; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ishak, Nawawi; Ridzuan Wahi, Mohd

    2014-06-01

    E-satisfaction (eSAT) is an important success factor of online service providers such as social networking sites (SNSs). The utilitarian and hedonic information systems are crucial in determining users' eSAT of SNSs, especially among young users. The utilitarian aspect of an information system is productivity-oriented which aims to enhance the users' task performance, and it is important in measuring eSAT of SNSs. In this study, the original constructs of Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) and Perceived Usefulness (PU) of TAM of utilitarian information system was first developed in this research framework. The use of SNSs, such as Facebook, is pleasure-oriented, in which self-fulfilling values to the users are important in determining users' satisfaction towards the SNSs. Therefore, Perceived Enjoyment (PE) of hedonic information system is added to the framework. Thus, the research framework of this study includes both utilitarian (PEOU and PU) and hedonic (PE) aspects of information systems to determine Malaysian young users' eSAT in the usage of Facebook, a social networking site. In this framework, the effects of PEOU, PU and PE on eSAT in the usage of Facebook are examined among Facebook's users in the age of 18 - 24 years old. The effects of PEOU on PU and PE are also examined. Online questionnaire survey was employed and a total of 384 sets of questionnaires were gathered from users of Facebook. The results indicated that PEOU has positive effects on PU and PE in the context of Facebook. In addition, PEOU, PU and PE are also found to have positive effects on eSAT. PE of hedonic information system exerted higher effect on eSAT, compared to PEOU and PU of utilitarian information system, highlighting the importance of pleasure orientation in the usage of Facebook of SNSs. Managerial and theoretical implications of the study are discussed in term of measuring and enhancing users' eSAT in the usage of SNSs, particularly Facebook.

  4. Interactions of Carbon Dioxide and Food Odours in Drosophila: Olfactory Hedonics and Sensory Neuron Properties

    PubMed Central

    Faucher, Cécile P.; Hilker, Monika; de Bruyne, Marien

    2013-01-01

    context-dependent hedonics most likely originate from central rather than peripheral processing. PMID:23457557

  5. Ghrelin response to hedonic eating in underweight and short-term weight restored patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Maria Monteleone, Alessio; Monteleone, Palmiero; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Nigro, Massimiliano; El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Cimino, Monica; Maj, Mario

    2016-01-30

    Recently, anorexia nervosa (AN) has been conceptualized as a reward-related disorder, and alterations in brain reward processes have been documented in both acute and recovered AN patients. However, the role of endogenous biochemical mediators, such as ghrelin, in the modulation of reward processes has been poorly investigated in this eating disorder. Hedonic eating, that is the consumption of food exclusively for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis, is a useful paradigm to investigate the physiology of food-related reward. Therefore, we assessed the response of peripheral ghrelin to hedonic eating in 7 underweight and 7 recently weight-restored AN patients and compared it to that of previously studied healthy controls. We found that in satiated underweight patients with AN plasma ghrelin levels progressively decreased after the exposure and the consumption of both the favorite and unfavorite food whereas in satiated weight-restored AN patients and satiated healthy controls plasma ghrelin concentrations significantly increased after the exposure to the favorite food and after eating it, but decreased after the unfavorite food. These results suggest a derangement in the ghrelin modulation of food-related pleasurable and rewarding feelings, which might sustain the reduced motivation toward food intake of acute AN patients. PMID:26674388

  6. Ghrelin response to hedonic eating in underweight and short-term weight restored patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Maria Monteleone, Alessio; Monteleone, Palmiero; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Nigro, Massimiliano; El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Cimino, Monica; Maj, Mario

    2016-01-30

    Recently, anorexia nervosa (AN) has been conceptualized as a reward-related disorder, and alterations in brain reward processes have been documented in both acute and recovered AN patients. However, the role of endogenous biochemical mediators, such as ghrelin, in the modulation of reward processes has been poorly investigated in this eating disorder. Hedonic eating, that is the consumption of food exclusively for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis, is a useful paradigm to investigate the physiology of food-related reward. Therefore, we assessed the response of peripheral ghrelin to hedonic eating in 7 underweight and 7 recently weight-restored AN patients and compared it to that of previously studied healthy controls. We found that in satiated underweight patients with AN plasma ghrelin levels progressively decreased after the exposure and the consumption of both the favorite and unfavorite food whereas in satiated weight-restored AN patients and satiated healthy controls plasma ghrelin concentrations significantly increased after the exposure to the favorite food and after eating it, but decreased after the unfavorite food. These results suggest a derangement in the ghrelin modulation of food-related pleasurable and rewarding feelings, which might sustain the reduced motivation toward food intake of acute AN patients.

  7. A new biomarker of hedonic eating? A preliminary investigation of cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade.

    PubMed

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H; Hecht, Frederick M; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

    2014-03-01

    Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI=31.1±4.8) prior to the start of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindfulness intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those with little or no nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs.

  8. Differential Effects of Reward Drive and Rash Impulsivity on the Consumption of a Range of Hedonic Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Belinda C; Browne, Matthew; Rockloff, Matthew; Loxton, Natalie

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Impulsivity has consistently been associated with over-consumption and addiction. Recent research has reconceptualized impulsivity as a two-dimensional construct ( Dawe, Gullo, & Loxton, 2004 ). This study explores the relationship of the two components of impulsivity, reward drive (RD) and rash impulsivity (RI), on a broad group of 23 hedonic consumption behaviors (e.g., gambling, substance use, eating, and media use). We tentatively grouped the behaviors into three descriptive classes: entertainment, foodstuffs, and illicit activities and substances. Results RD and RI positively predicted elevated levels of consumption in a community sample (N=5,391; 51% female), for the vast majority of the behaviors considered. However, the effect sizes for RD and RI varied significantly depending on the behavior; a pattern that appeared to be at least partially attributable to the class of consumption. Results support the view that RD is related more strongly to the consumption of products that provide social engagement or a sense of increased status; whereas RI better reflects an approach toward illicit or restricted products that are intensely rewarding with clear negative consequences. Discussion and conclusion Results support the utility of the two-factor model of impulsivity in explaining individual differences in patterns of hedonic consumption in the general population. We discuss findings in terms of strengthening current conceptualizations of RI and RD as having distinct implications with respect to health-related behaviors.

  9. Change in the hedonic value of an aversive stimulus in the presence of a pre-exposed odor.

    PubMed

    Kamenetzky, Giselle V; Suárez, Andrea B; Pautassi, Ricardo M; Mustaca, Alba E; Nizhnikov, Michael E

    2015-09-01

    Rats exhibit a sensitive period from the time of birth until postnatal day 10 during which they develop preferences for odors even if those odors are paired with a moderately aversive stimulus. It is still unknown whether pre-exposure to an odor produces alterations on intake responses of basic tastants, and on other patterns that indicate a change in the hedonic value of reward, such as nipple grasping behavior. The current study assessed the effect of pre-exposure to an odor immediately after birth on intake responses of appetitive and aversive tastants. The objectives were to assess if 3-hour-old rats adjust their behaviors to obtain different values of appetitive and aversive rewards in the presence of a familiar odor. Specifically we wanted to determine whether the intake of saccharin or quinine, administered through the artificial nipple, increases in the presence of the familiar odor. Results showed that 3-hour-old rats differentially respond to two different concentrations of saccharin and two concentrations of quinine. In the presence of the pre-exposed odor newborn rats increased intake and grasp responses to the artificial nipple containing quinine. This effect disappeared with a higher concentration of quinine. These results suggest that the pre-exposed odor generated a change in the hedonic value of the aversive reward. PMID:25543090

  10. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects. PMID:24348447

  11. CGP 44532, a GABAB receptor agonist, is hedonically neutral and reduces cocaine-induced enhancement of reward.

    PubMed

    Dobrovitsky, V; Pimentel, P; Duarte, A; Froestl, W; Stellar, J R; Trzcińska, M

    2002-04-01

    Drugs that alter the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission seem to reduce cocaine reinforcement, and as such may be useful in pharmacologically treating cocaine addiction. In the present experiment, the anti-cocaine effects of CGP 44532, a phosphinic acid analogue of GABA, and a highly selective GABA(B) receptor agonist were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats using brain stimulation reward (BSR) paradigm. In this method, the relationship between the rate of bar pressing and the frequency of stimulation pulses was analyzed in two measures: the maximum rate of responding (MAX) and the frequency necessary to sustain half maximal rate of responding known as the locus of rise (LOR). CGP 44532 was found to be hedonically neutral without producing any measurable effects on performance (MAX). It also dose-dependently reduced cocaine-induced BSR enhancement, in the order of 15-31%, as shown by progressive shifts in LOR towards baseline. Thus, in theory, administration of CGP 44532 might reduce cocaine's hedonic effects, while also maintaining patient compliance. Whether this agent would also be effective at curbing craving, a long-term consequence of drug abuse, remains to be determined.

  12. Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.

    PubMed

    Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

    2013-06-01

    Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands.

  13. Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.

    PubMed

    Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

    2013-06-01

    Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands. PMID:23428938

  14. Differential Effects of Reward Drive and Rash Impulsivity on the Consumption of a Range of Hedonic Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Belinda C; Browne, Matthew; Rockloff, Matthew; Loxton, Natalie

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Impulsivity has consistently been associated with over-consumption and addiction. Recent research has reconceptualized impulsivity as a two-dimensional construct ( Dawe, Gullo, & Loxton, 2004 ). This study explores the relationship of the two components of impulsivity, reward drive (RD) and rash impulsivity (RI), on a broad group of 23 hedonic consumption behaviors (e.g., gambling, substance use, eating, and media use). We tentatively grouped the behaviors into three descriptive classes: entertainment, foodstuffs, and illicit activities and substances. Results RD and RI positively predicted elevated levels of consumption in a community sample (N=5,391; 51% female), for the vast majority of the behaviors considered. However, the effect sizes for RD and RI varied significantly depending on the behavior; a pattern that appeared to be at least partially attributable to the class of consumption. Results support the view that RD is related more strongly to the consumption of products that provide social engagement or a sense of increased status; whereas RI better reflects an approach toward illicit or restricted products that are intensely rewarding with clear negative consequences. Discussion and conclusion Results support the utility of the two-factor model of impulsivity in explaining individual differences in patterns of hedonic consumption in the general population. We discuss findings in terms of strengthening current conceptualizations of RI and RD as having distinct implications with respect to health-related behaviors. PMID:27363460

  15. β-adrenergic impact underlies the effect of mood and hedonic instrumentality on effort-related cardiovascular response.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Nicolas; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2011-05-01

    After habituation, participants were first induced into negative vs. positive moods and performed then an attention task with either low vs. high hedonic instrumentality of success. In the high-instrumentality condition participants expected to see a funny movie after success and an unpleasant movie after failure; in the low-instrumentality condition participants expected an unpleasant movie after success and a pleasant movie after failure. Effort-related cardiovascular response (ICG, blood pressure) was assessed during mood inductions and task performance. As predicted by the mood-behavior-model (Gendolla, 2000), responses of cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and systolic blood pressure were stronger in the high-instrumentality/negative-mood condition than in the other three cells. Here the high hedonic instrumentality of success justified the high effort that was perceived as necessary in a negative mood. Moreover, the PEP effects indicate that cardiovascular response was driven by beta-adrenergic impact on the heart rather than by vascular adjustments. PMID:21382436

  16. Pleasure From Another's Pain: The Influence of a Target's Hedonic States on Attributions of Immorality and Evil.

    PubMed

    Gromet, Dena M; Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Goodman, Rebecca A

    2016-08-01

    Can people's feelings about harm (i.e., their hedonic reactions) lead them to be morally condemned, even if they do not cause the harm themselves? We show that individuals who experience pleasure at serious harm that has befallen another person are judged both immoral and evil. This effect occurs for harm-causing actors, and for observers who play no role in causing the harm; actors can also be judged as immoral and evil when they experience mere indifference (Study 1). Observers are more likely to be similarly judged when they experience direct rather than indirect pleasure from harm caused to another (Study 2). The effects of pleasure are dissociable from those of malevolent desires (Study 3). Targets' experience of pleasure at the harm caused to another person leads to the social exclusion of observers (Studies 1-3) and the harsh punishment of actors, including the death penalty (Studies 1, 4a, and 4b).

  17. Effects of a diagnosis or family history of alcoholism on the taste intensity and hedonic value of sucrose.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Kristen A; Bona, Jessica M; Kranzler, Henry R

    2009-01-01

    Given inconsistent findings in published studies, we examined whether a personal lifetime history of alcohol dependence (AD) or a parental history of alcoholism affected preference for sweet solutions. Ninety-three alcohol-dependent subjects rated the intensity and hedonic value of five different sucrose solutions, which was compared with similar data from 122 subjects screened to exclude alcohol dependence. The effect of a family history of alcoholism (FH) was examined in the AD group. Neither the diagnosis of AD nor a family history of alcoholism was associated with ratings of sweetness intensity or sweet preference. These findings do not support the hypothesis that sucrose preference is positively associated with either a personal lifetime history of AD or a family history of alcoholism.

  18. The potential hedonic role of olfaction in sexual selection and its dominance in visual cross-modal interactions.

    PubMed

    Capparuccini, Ottavia; Berrie, Christopher P; Mazzatenta, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Perfumes are commonly used to cover body odour, or to provide a positive, attracting, and interesting impact, or a smell that belongs to a social group. A role in sexual communication of such non-pheromonal olfactory cues has been suggested in the literature. However, there remain the questions whether these stimuli are involved in human chemosexual communication and, if so, at what level, and whether they interact with other sensorial modalities, in particular vision. To answer these, we investigated the influence of male and female perfumes as nonconscious stimulation during visual assessments of a range of facial qualities across and within the sexes. The female subjects were in their ovulatory phase, to avoid changes in perception across the menstrual cycle. Our data indicate that non-pheromonal olfactory cues are potentially involved in mate choice and may elicit strong hedonic responses that can dominate visual signs, with a cross-modal interaction.

  19. Sniffing out the contributions of the olfactory tubercle to the sense of smell: hedonics, sensory integration, and more?

    PubMed

    Wesson, Daniel W; Wilson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    Since its designation in 1896 as a putative olfactory structure, the olfactory tubercle has received little attention in terms of elucidating its role in the processing and perception of odors. Instead, research on the olfactory tubercle has mostly focused on its relationship with the reward system. Here we provide a comprehensive review of research on the olfactory tubercle-with an emphasis on the likely role of this region in olfactory processing and its contributions to perception. Further, we propose several testable hypotheses regarding the likely involvement of the olfactory tubercle in both basic (odor detection, discrimination, parallel processing of olfactory information) and higher-order (social odor processing, hedonics, multi-modal integration) functions. Together, the information within this review highlights an understudied yet potentially critical component in central odor processing.

  20. Pleasure From Another's Pain: The Influence of a Target's Hedonic States on Attributions of Immorality and Evil.

    PubMed

    Gromet, Dena M; Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Goodman, Rebecca A

    2016-08-01

    Can people's feelings about harm (i.e., their hedonic reactions) lead them to be morally condemned, even if they do not cause the harm themselves? We show that individuals who experience pleasure at serious harm that has befallen another person are judged both immoral and evil. This effect occurs for harm-causing actors, and for observers who play no role in causing the harm; actors can also be judged as immoral and evil when they experience mere indifference (Study 1). Observers are more likely to be similarly judged when they experience direct rather than indirect pleasure from harm caused to another (Study 2). The effects of pleasure are dissociable from those of malevolent desires (Study 3). Targets' experience of pleasure at the harm caused to another person leads to the social exclusion of observers (Studies 1-3) and the harsh punishment of actors, including the death penalty (Studies 1, 4a, and 4b). PMID:27277282

  1. Calorie seeking, but not hedonic response, contributes to hyperphagia in a mouse model for Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jennifer R; Humby, Trevor; Dwyer, Dominic M; Garfield, Alastair S; Furby, Hannah; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Wells, Timothy; Isles, Anthony R

    2015-08-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deletion or inactivation of paternally expressed imprinted genes on human chromosome 15q11-q13, the most recognised feature of which is hyperphagia. This is thought to arise as a consequence of abnormalities in both the physiological drive for food and the rewarding properties of food. Although a number of mouse models for PWS exist, the underlying variables dictating maladaptive feeding remain unknown. Here, feeding behaviour in a mouse model in which the imprinting centre (IC) of the syntenic PWS interval has been deleted (PWS(ICdel) mice) is characterised. It is demonstrated that PWS(ICdel) mice show hyperghrelinaemia and increased consumption of food both following overnight fasting and when made more palatable with sucrose. However, hyperphagia in PWS(ICdel) mice was not accompanied by any changes in reactivity to the hedonic properties of palatable food (sucrose or saccharin), as measured by lick-cluster size. Nevertheless, overall consumption by PWS(ICdel) mice for non-caloric saccharin in the licking test was significantly reduced. Combined with converging findings from a continuous reinforcement schedule, these data indicate that PWS(ICdel) mice show a marked heightened sensitivity to the calorific value of food. Overall, these data indicate that any impact of the rewarding properties of food on the hyperphagia seen in PWS(ICdel) mice is driven primarily by calorie content and is unlikely to involve hedonic processes. This has important implications for understanding the neural systems underlying the feeding phenotype of PWS and the contribution of imprinted genes to abnormal feeding behaviour more generally. PMID:26040449

  2. fMRI study of neural sensitization to hedonic stimuli in long-term, daily cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Filbey, Francesca M; Dunlop, Joseph; Ketcherside, Ariel; Baine, Jessica; Rhinehardt, Tyler; Kuhn, Brittany; DeWitt, Sam; Alvi, Talha

    2016-10-01

    Although there is emergent evidence illustrating neural sensitivity to cannabis cues in cannabis users, the specificity of this effect to cannabis cues as opposed to a generalized hyper-sensitivity to hedonic stimuli has not yet been directly tested. Using fMRI, we presented 53 daily, long-term cannabis users and 68 non-using controls visual and tactile cues for cannabis, a natural reward, and, a sensory-perceptual control object to evaluate brain response to hedonic stimuli in cannabis users. The results showed an interaction between group and reward type such that the users had greater response during cannabis cues relative to natural reward cues (i.e., fruit) in the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, anterior cingulate gyrus, and ventral tegmental area compared to non-users (cluster-threshold z = 2.3, P < 0.05). In the users, there were positive brain-behavior correlations between neural response to cannabis cues in fronto-striatal-temporal regions and subjective craving, marijuana-related problems, withdrawal symptoms, and levels of THC metabolites (cluster-threshold z = 2.3, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate hyper-responsivity, and, specificity of brain response to cannabis cues in long-term cannabis users that are above that of response to natural reward cues. These observations are concordant with incentive sensitization models suggesting sensitization of mesocorticolimbic regions and disruption of natural reward processes following drug use. Although the cross-sectional nature of this study does not provide information on causality, the positive correlations between neural response and indicators of cannabis use (i.e., THC levels) suggest that alterations in the reward system are, in part, related to cannabis use. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3431-3443, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. fMRI study of neural sensitization to hedonic stimuli in long-term, daily cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Filbey, Francesca M; Dunlop, Joseph; Ketcherside, Ariel; Baine, Jessica; Rhinehardt, Tyler; Kuhn, Brittany; DeWitt, Sam; Alvi, Talha

    2016-10-01

    Although there is emergent evidence illustrating neural sensitivity to cannabis cues in cannabis users, the specificity of this effect to cannabis cues as opposed to a generalized hyper-sensitivity to hedonic stimuli has not yet been directly tested. Using fMRI, we presented 53 daily, long-term cannabis users and 68 non-using controls visual and tactile cues for cannabis, a natural reward, and, a sensory-perceptual control object to evaluate brain response to hedonic stimuli in cannabis users. The results showed an interaction between group and reward type such that the users had greater response during cannabis cues relative to natural reward cues (i.e., fruit) in the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, anterior cingulate gyrus, and ventral tegmental area compared to non-users (cluster-threshold z = 2.3, P < 0.05). In the users, there were positive brain-behavior correlations between neural response to cannabis cues in fronto-striatal-temporal regions and subjective craving, marijuana-related problems, withdrawal symptoms, and levels of THC metabolites (cluster-threshold z = 2.3, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate hyper-responsivity, and, specificity of brain response to cannabis cues in long-term cannabis users that are above that of response to natural reward cues. These observations are concordant with incentive sensitization models suggesting sensitization of mesocorticolimbic regions and disruption of natural reward processes following drug use. Although the cross-sectional nature of this study does not provide information on causality, the positive correlations between neural response and indicators of cannabis use (i.e., THC levels) suggest that alterations in the reward system are, in part, related to cannabis use. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3431-3443, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27168331

  4. Acute responses to opioidergic blockade as a biomarker of hedonic eating among obese women enrolled in a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Lustig, Robert H; Brown, Rashida R; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Moran, Patricia J; Dallman, Mary; Laraia, Barbara; Adler, Nancy; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-08-01

    There are currently no commonly used or easily accessible 'biomarkers' of hedonic eating. Physiologic responses to acute opioidergic blockade, indexed by cortisol changes and nausea, may represent indirect functional measures of opioid-mediated hedonic eating drive and predict weight loss following a mindfulness-based intervention for stress eating. In the current study, we tested whether cortisol and nausea responses induced by oral ingestion of an opioidergic antagonist (naltrexone) correlated with weight and self-report measures of hedonic eating and predicted changes in these measures following a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention. Obese women (N = 88; age = 46.7 ± 13.2 years; BMI = 35.8 ± 3.8) elected to complete an optional sub-study prior to a 5.5-month weight loss intervention with or without mindfulness training. On two separate days, participants ingested naltrexone and placebo pills, collected saliva samples, and reported nausea levels. Supporting previous findings, naltrexone-induced cortisol increases were associated with greater hedonic eating (greater food addiction symptoms and reward-driven eating) and less mindful eating. Among participants with larger cortisol increases (+1 SD above mean), mindfulness participants (relative to control participants) reported greater reductions in food addiction symptoms, b = -0.95, SE(b) = 0.40, 95% CI [-1.74, -0.15], p = .021. Naltrexone-induced nausea was marginally associated with reward-based eating. Among participants who endorsed naltrexone-induced nausea (n = 38), mindfulness participants (relative to control participants) reported greater reductions in food addiction symptoms, b = -1.00, 95% CI [-1.85, -0.77], p = .024, and trended toward reduced reward-based eating, binge eating, and weight, post-intervention. Single assessments of naltrexone-induced cortisol increases and nausea responses may be useful time- and cost-effective biological markers to

  5. Acute responses to opioidergic blockade as a biomarker of hedonic eating among obese women enrolled in a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Lustig, Robert H; Brown, Rashida R; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Moran, Patricia J; Dallman, Mary; Laraia, Barbara; Adler, Nancy; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-08-01

    There are currently no commonly used or easily accessible 'biomarkers' of hedonic eating. Physiologic responses to acute opioidergic blockade, indexed by cortisol changes and nausea, may represent indirect functional measures of opioid-mediated hedonic eating drive and predict weight loss following a mindfulness-based intervention for stress eating. In the current study, we tested whether cortisol and nausea responses induced by oral ingestion of an opioidergic antagonist (naltrexone) correlated with weight and self-report measures of hedonic eating and predicted changes in these measures following a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention. Obese women (N = 88; age = 46.7 ± 13.2 years; BMI = 35.8 ± 3.8) elected to complete an optional sub-study prior to a 5.5-month weight loss intervention with or without mindfulness training. On two separate days, participants ingested naltrexone and placebo pills, collected saliva samples, and reported nausea levels. Supporting previous findings, naltrexone-induced cortisol increases were associated with greater hedonic eating (greater food addiction symptoms and reward-driven eating) and less mindful eating. Among participants with larger cortisol increases (+1 SD above mean), mindfulness participants (relative to control participants) reported greater reductions in food addiction symptoms, b = -0.95, SE(b) = 0.40, 95% CI [-1.74, -0.15], p = .021. Naltrexone-induced nausea was marginally associated with reward-based eating. Among participants who endorsed naltrexone-induced nausea (n = 38), mindfulness participants (relative to control participants) reported greater reductions in food addiction symptoms, b = -1.00, 95% CI [-1.85, -0.77], p = .024, and trended toward reduced reward-based eating, binge eating, and weight, post-intervention. Single assessments of naltrexone-induced cortisol increases and nausea responses may be useful time- and cost-effective biological markers to

  6. Acute responses to opioidergic blockade as a biomarker of hedonic eating among obese women enrolled in a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Ashley E.; Lustig, Robert H.; Brown, Rashida R.; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Moran, Patricia J.; Dallman, Mary; Laraia, Barbara; Adler, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no commonly used or easily accessible ‘biomarkers’ of hedonic eating. Physiologic responses to acute opioidergic blockade, indexed by cortisol changes and nausea, may represent indirect functional measures of opioid-mediated hedonic eating drive and predict weight loss following a mindfulness-based intervention for stress eating. In the current study, we tested whether cortisol and nausea responses induced by oral ingestion of an opioidergic antagonist (naltrexone) correlated with weight and self-report measures of hedonic eating and predicted changes in these measures following a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention. Obese women (N=88; age=46.7±13.2 years; BMI=35.8±3.8) elected to complete an optional sub-study prior to a 5.5-month weight loss intervention with or without mindfulness training. On two separate days, participants ingested naltrexone and placebo pills, collected saliva samples, and reported nausea levels. Supporting previous findings, naltrexone-induced cortisol increases were associated with greater hedonic eating (greater food addiction symptoms and reward-driven eating) and less mindful eating. Among participants with larger cortisol increases (+1 SD above mean), mindfulness participants (relative to control participants) reported greater reductions in food addiction symptoms, b=−0.95, SE(b=0.40, 95% CI [−1.74, −0.15], p=.021. Naltrexone-induced nausea was marginally associated with reward-based eating. Among participants who endorsed naltrexone-induced nausea (n=38), mindfulness participants (relative to control participants) reported greater reductions in food addiction symptoms, b=−1.00, 95% CI [−1.85, −0.77], p=.024, and trended toward reduced reward-based eating, binge eating, and weight, post-intervention. Single assessments of naltrexone-induced cortisol increases and nausea responses may be useful time- and cost-effective biological markers to identify obese individuals with greater opioid

  7. Impact of limited cognitive capacity and feelings of guilt and excuse on the endowment effects for hedonic and utilitarian types of foods.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Gerrit; Cramer, Leonie

    2013-09-01

    Consumer food choices may partly be explained by the endowment effect. Here, we focus on the influence of limited cognitive capacity on loss aversion related to food choices. We also investigate the effects of anticipated feelings on food choices. Experiments with 1614 pupils of secondary schools show that both cognitive constraint and anticipated feelings increases the overall endowment effect and that the impact of limited cognition is stronger for hedonic than for utilitarian food products. PMID:23628347

  8. Measuring the impacts of natural amenities and the US-Mexico Border, on housing values in the Santa Cruz Watershed, using spatially-weighted hedonic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amaya, Gladys; Norman, Laura M.; Frisvold, George

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will provide a synopsis of the quality of life and hedonics literature review used to develop this research agenda. Variables relevant for local environmental management, having significant effects on property values, will be discussed. The final results obtained from this study can be used determine the benefits of preserving or developing land binationally and will be uploaded to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), an online Ecosystem Services tool, being created to promote sustainable development in the Borderlands.

  9. Restructuring reward processing with Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement: novel therapeutic mechanisms to remediate hedonic dysregulation in addiction, stress, and pain.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    Though valuation processes are fundamental to survival of the human species, hedonic dysregulation is at the root of an array of maladies, including addiction, stress, and chronic pain, as evidenced by the allostatic shift in the relative salience of natural reward to drug reward observed among persons with severe substance use disorders. To address this crucial problem, novel interventions are needed to restore hedonic regulatory processes gone awry in persons exhibiting addictive behaviors. This article describes a theoretical rationale and empirical evidence for the effects of one such new intervention, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), on top-down and bottom-up mechanisms implicated in cognitive control and hedonic regulation. MORE is innovative and distinct from extant mindfulness-based interventions in that it unites traditional mindfulness meditation with reappraisal and savoring strategies designed to reverse the downward shift in salience of natural reward relative to drug reward, representing a crucial tipping point to disrupt the progression of addiction-a mechanistic target that no other behavioral intervention has been designed to address. Though additional studies are needed, clinical and biobehavioral data from several completed and ongoing trials suggest that MORE may exert salutary effects on addictive behaviors and the neurobiological processes that underpin them.

  10. Hedonic price models with omitted variables and measurement errors: a constrained autoregression-structural equation modeling approach with application to urban Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparman, Yusep; Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan H. L.

    2013-04-01

    Omitted variables and measurement errors in explanatory variables frequently occur in hedonic price models. Ignoring these problems leads to biased estimators. In this paper, we develop a constrained autoregression-structural equation model (ASEM) to handle both types of problems. Standard panel data models to handle omitted variables bias are based on the assumption that the omitted variables are time-invariant. ASEM allows handling of both time-varying and time-invariant omitted variables by constrained autoregression. In the case of measurement error, standard approaches require additional external information which is usually difficult to obtain. ASEM exploits the fact that panel data are repeatedly measured which allows decomposing the variance of a variable into the true variance and the variance due to measurement error. We apply ASEM to estimate a hedonic housing model for urban Indonesia. To get insight into the consequences of measurement error and omitted variables, we compare the ASEM estimates with the outcomes of (1) a standard SEM, which does not account for omitted variables, (2) a constrained autoregression model, which does not account for measurement error, and (3) a fixed effects hedonic model, which ignores measurement error and time-varying omitted variables. The differences between the ASEM estimates and the outcomes of the three alternative approaches are substantial.

  11. Hedonic price models with omitted variables and measurement errors: a constrained autoregression-structural equation modeling approach with application to urban Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparman, Yusep; Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Omitted variables and measurement errors in explanatory variables frequently occur in hedonic price models. Ignoring these problems leads to biased estimators. In this paper, we develop a constrained autoregression-structural equation model (ASEM) to handle both types of problems. Standard panel data models to handle omitted variables bias are based on the assumption that the omitted variables are time-invariant. ASEM allows handling of both time-varying and time-invariant omitted variables by constrained autoregression. In the case of measurement error, standard approaches require additional external information which is usually difficult to obtain. ASEM exploits the fact that panel data are repeatedly measured which allows decomposing the variance of a variable into the true variance and the variance due to measurement error. We apply ASEM to estimate a hedonic housing model for urban Indonesia. To get insight into the consequences of measurement error and omitted variables, we compare the ASEM estimates with the outcomes of (1) a standard SEM, which does not account for omitted variables, (2) a constrained autoregression model, which does not account for measurement error, and (3) a fixed effects hedonic model, which ignores measurement error and time-varying omitted variables. The differences between the ASEM estimates and the outcomes of the three alternative approaches are substantial.

  12. Restructuring reward processing with Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement: novel therapeutic mechanisms to remediate hedonic dysregulation in addiction, stress, and pain.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    Though valuation processes are fundamental to survival of the human species, hedonic dysregulation is at the root of an array of maladies, including addiction, stress, and chronic pain, as evidenced by the allostatic shift in the relative salience of natural reward to drug reward observed among persons with severe substance use disorders. To address this crucial problem, novel interventions are needed to restore hedonic regulatory processes gone awry in persons exhibiting addictive behaviors. This article describes a theoretical rationale and empirical evidence for the effects of one such new intervention, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), on top-down and bottom-up mechanisms implicated in cognitive control and hedonic regulation. MORE is innovative and distinct from extant mindfulness-based interventions in that it unites traditional mindfulness meditation with reappraisal and savoring strategies designed to reverse the downward shift in salience of natural reward relative to drug reward, representing a crucial tipping point to disrupt the progression of addiction-a mechanistic target that no other behavioral intervention has been designed to address. Though additional studies are needed, clinical and biobehavioral data from several completed and ongoing trials suggest that MORE may exert salutary effects on addictive behaviors and the neurobiological processes that underpin them. PMID:27037786

  13. Rater Experience, Rating Scale Length, and Judgments of L2 Pronunciation: Revisiting Research Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Talia; Thomson, Ron I.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the effects of rating scale length and rater experience on listeners' judgments of second-language (L2) speech. Twenty experienced and 20 novice raters, who were randomly assigned to 5-point or 9-point rating scale conditions, judged speech samples of 38 newcomers to Canada on numerical rating scales for…

  14. Role of the Dorsal Medial Habenula in the Regulation of Voluntary Activity, Motor Function, Hedonic State, and Primary Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yun-Wei A.; Wang, Si D.; Wang, Shirong; Morton, Glenn; Zariwala, Hatim A.; de la Iglesia, Horacio O.

    2014-01-01

    The habenular complex in the epithalamus consists of distinct regions with diverse neuronal populations. Past studies have suggested a role for the habenula in voluntary exercise motivation and reinforcement of intracranial self-stimulation but have not assigned these effects to specific habenula subnuclei. Here, we have developed a genetic model in which neurons of the dorsal medial habenula (dMHb) are developmentally eliminated, via tissue-specific deletion of the transcription factor Pou4f1 (Brn3a). Mice with dMHb lesions perform poorly in motivation-based locomotor behaviors, such as voluntary wheel running and the accelerating rotarod, but show only minor abnormalities in gait and balance and exhibit normal levels of basal locomotion. These mice also show deficits in sucrose preference, but not in the forced swim test, two measures of depression-related phenotypes in rodents. We have also used Cre recombinase-mediated expression of channelrhodopsin-2 and halorhodopsin to activate dMHb neurons or silence their output in freely moving mice, respectively. Optical activation of the dMHb in vivo supports intracranial self-stimulation, showing that dMHb activity is intrinsically reinforcing, whereas optical silencing of dMHb outputs is aversive. Together, our findings demonstrate that the dMHb is involved in exercise motivation and the regulation of hedonic state, and is part of an intrinsic reinforcement circuit. PMID:25143617

  15. Role of the dorsal medial habenula in the regulation of voluntary activity, motor function, hedonic state, and primary reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yun-Wei A; Wang, Si D; Wang, Shirong; Morton, Glenn; Zariwala, Hatim A; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Turner, Eric E

    2014-08-20

    The habenular complex in the epithalamus consists of distinct regions with diverse neuronal populations. Past studies have suggested a role for the habenula in voluntary exercise motivation and reinforcement of intracranial self-stimulation but have not assigned these effects to specific habenula subnuclei. Here, we have developed a genetic model in which neurons of the dorsal medial habenula (dMHb) are developmentally eliminated, via tissue-specific deletion of the transcription factor Pou4f1 (Brn3a). Mice with dMHb lesions perform poorly in motivation-based locomotor behaviors, such as voluntary wheel running and the accelerating rotarod, but show only minor abnormalities in gait and balance and exhibit normal levels of basal locomotion. These mice also show deficits in sucrose preference, but not in the forced swim test, two measures of depression-related phenotypes in rodents. We have also used Cre recombinase-mediated expression of channelrhodopsin-2 and halorhodopsin to activate dMHb neurons or silence their output in freely moving mice, respectively. Optical activation of the dMHb in vivo supports intracranial self-stimulation, showing that dMHb activity is intrinsically reinforcing, whereas optical silencing of dMHb outputs is aversive. Together, our findings demonstrate that the dMHb is involved in exercise motivation and the regulation of hedonic state, and is part of an intrinsic reinforcement circuit.

  16. The Impact of Wind Power Projects on Residential Property Values in the United States: A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2009-12-02

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering wind power development nearby, there is an urgent need to empirically investigate common community concerns about wind project development. The concern that property values will be adversely affected by wind energy facilities is commonly put forth by stakeholders. Although this concern is not unreasonable, given property value impacts that have been found near high voltage transmission lines and other electric generation facilities, the impacts of wind energy facilities on residential property values had not previously been investigated thoroughly. The present research collected data on almost 7,500 sales of singlefamily homes situated within 10 miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from eight different hedonic pricing models, as well as both repeat sales and sales volume models. The various analyses are strongly consistent in that none of the models uncovers conclusive evidence of the existence of any widespread property value impacts that might be present in communities surrounding wind energy facilities. Specifically, neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have any consistent, measurable, and statistically significant effect on home sales prices. Although the analysis cannot dismiss the possibility that individual homes or small numbers of homes have been or could be negatively impacted, it finds that if these impacts do exist, they are either too small and/or too infrequent to result in any widespread, statistically observable impact.

  17. Transitionality in addiction: A "temporal continuum" hypotheses involving the aberrant motivation, the hedonic dysregulation, and the aberrant learning.

    PubMed

    Patrono, Enrico; Gasbarri, Antonella; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a chronic compulsion and relapsing disorder. It involves several brain areas and circuits, which encode vary functions such as reward, motivation, and memory. Drug addiction is defined as a "pathological pattern of use of a substance", characterized by the loss of control on drug-taking-related behaviors, the pursuance of those behaviors even in the presence of negative consequences, and a strong motivated activity to assume substances. Three different theories guide experimental research on drug addiction. Each of these theories consider singles features, such as an aberrant motivation, a hedonic dysregulation, and an aberrant habit learning as the main actor to explain the entire process of the addictive behaviors. The major goal of this study is to present a new hypotheses of transitionality from a controlled use to abuse of addictive substances trough the overview of the three different theories, considering all the single features of each single theory together on the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances. Recently, it has been suggested that common neural systems may be activated by natural and pharmacological stimuli, raising the hypotheses that binge-eating disorders could be considered as addictive behaviors. The second goal of this study is to present evidences in order to highlight a possible psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction". Finally, interesting questions are brought up starting from last findings about a theoretical/psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction" and their possibly same transitionality along the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances in order to investigate new therapeutic strategies based on new therapeutic strategies based on the individual moments characterizing the transition from the voluntary intake of substances to the maladaptive addictive behavior.

  18. The effects of refineries on proximate housing: A hedonic study of St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, 1979-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Flower, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    Recent legal litigation and market activity implies that petroleum refineries negatively impact the values of proximate residential properties. This study empirically investigates whether a negative impact is detectable and whether the magnitude of the impact has been affected by environmental events. Offensive sensory factors, health risks, higher maintenance, and the risk of explosions are attributes of a refinery which may be perceived negatively. Several conditions are necessary for such attributes to be fully capitalized into property values: there must be a significant difference in the impact over the area considered; and individual preferences must be homogeneous to prevent locational sorting. The detection of the capitalization requires that the negative factor's net effect is stronger than any offsetting influences. This study uses hedonic regression techniques with distance from the refinery as a proxy for the environmental effect. Two refineries in St. Bernard Parish are denoted by their owners; Mobil and Murphy. The Mobil refinery has residential neighbors on one side, and these neighbors are separated from the processing equipment by an internal buffer zone, a wide street right-of-way, and a strip of commercial properties. The Murphy refinery has neighbors on the west and east sides with negligible buffer zones. Negative publicity regarding Cancer Alley in 1982 and an explosion in 1983 are environmental events. The study uses transaction data on single-family residences between 1979 and 1991. Three models are used to search for a significant proximity effect and determine if the environmental events changed the level of impact. A short-term negative impact is detected for the Mobil area in the 1982-83 period, but there is no significant negative effect in any of the other time segments. A significant and persistent negative effect is detected on the western side of the Murphy refinery after 1983.

  19. Ghrelin Modulates the fMRI BOLD Response of Homeostatic and Hedonic Brain Centers Regulating Energy Balance in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Deli, Levente; Gajári, Dávid; Dávid, Szabolcs; Pozsgay, Zsófia; Hegedűs, Nikolett; Tihanyi, Károly; Liposits, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    The orexigenic gut-brain peptide, ghrelin and its G-protein coupled receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1A) are pivotal regulators of hypothalamic feeding centers and reward processing neuronal circuits of the brain. These systems operate in a cooperative manner and receive a wide array of neuronal hormone/transmitter messages and metabolic signals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed in the current study to map BOLD responses to ghrelin in different brain regions with special reference on homeostatic and hedonic regulatory centers of energy balance. Experimental groups involved male, ovariectomized female and ovariectomized estradiol-replaced rats. Putative modulation of ghrelin signaling by endocannabinoids was also studied. Ghrelin-evoked effects were calculated as mean of the BOLD responses 30 minutes after administration. In the male rat, ghrelin evoked a slowly decreasing BOLD response in all studied regions of interest (ROI) within the limbic system. This effect was antagonized by pretreatment with GHS-R1A antagonist JMV2959. The comparison of ghrelin effects in the presence or absence of JMV2959 in individual ROIs revealed significant changes in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens of the telencephalon, and also within hypothalamic centers like the lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. In the female rat, the ghrelin effects were almost identical to those observed in males. Ovariectomy and chronic estradiol replacement had no effect on the BOLD response. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid signaling by rimonabant significantly attenuated the response of the nucleus accumbens and septum. In summary, ghrelin can modulate hypothalamic and mesolimbic structures controlling energy balance in both sexes. The endocannabinoid signaling system contributes to the manifestation of ghrelin's BOLD effect in a region specific manner. In females, the estradiol milieu does

  20. Transitionality in addiction: A "temporal continuum" hypotheses involving the aberrant motivation, the hedonic dysregulation, and the aberrant learning.

    PubMed

    Patrono, Enrico; Gasbarri, Antonella; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a chronic compulsion and relapsing disorder. It involves several brain areas and circuits, which encode vary functions such as reward, motivation, and memory. Drug addiction is defined as a "pathological pattern of use of a substance", characterized by the loss of control on drug-taking-related behaviors, the pursuance of those behaviors even in the presence of negative consequences, and a strong motivated activity to assume substances. Three different theories guide experimental research on drug addiction. Each of these theories consider singles features, such as an aberrant motivation, a hedonic dysregulation, and an aberrant habit learning as the main actor to explain the entire process of the addictive behaviors. The major goal of this study is to present a new hypotheses of transitionality from a controlled use to abuse of addictive substances trough the overview of the three different theories, considering all the single features of each single theory together on the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances. Recently, it has been suggested that common neural systems may be activated by natural and pharmacological stimuli, raising the hypotheses that binge-eating disorders could be considered as addictive behaviors. The second goal of this study is to present evidences in order to highlight a possible psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction". Finally, interesting questions are brought up starting from last findings about a theoretical/psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction" and their possibly same transitionality along the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances in order to investigate new therapeutic strategies based on new therapeutic strategies based on the individual moments characterizing the transition from the voluntary intake of substances to the maladaptive addictive behavior. PMID:27372858

  1. Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G H; Saravis, S; Schacher, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A

    1989-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted, each with 20 healthy 9-10-year-old children. After an overnight fast, subjects were given a standardized breakfast at 0830 hrs, the treatments at 1030 hrs, and a lunch containing an excess of foods at 1200 hrs. Visual analog scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat were administered 5 min before and 20 and 85 min after treatment. Lunch-time food intake was measured. In experiment 1, either aspartame (34 mg/kg), or the equivalent sweetness of sodium cyclamate, was given in an ice slurry (300 ml) of unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid with carbohydrate (1.75 g/kg polycose). In experiment 2, drinks (300 ml) contained either sucrose (1.75 g/kg) or aspartame (9.7 mg/kg). In both experiments, significant meal- and time-dependent effects were observed for subjective feelings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. Treatments, however, did not affect either subjective feelings of appetite or lunch-time food intake. Thus, aspartame consumed without or with carbohydrate, did not affect either hunger or food intake of children when compared with the sweeteners sodium cyclamate and sucrose, respectively.

  2. a Spatial Analysis on Gis-Hedonic Pricing Model on the Influence of Public Open Space and House Price in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainora, A. M.; Norzailawati, M. N.; Tuminah, P.

    2016-06-01

    Presently, it is noticeable that there is a significant influence of public open space about house price, especially in many developed nations. Literature suggests the relationship between the two aspects give impact on the housing market, however not many studies undertaken in Malaysia. Thus, this research was initiated to analyse the relationship of open space and house price via the techniques of GIS-Hedonic Pricing Model. In this regards, the GIS tool indicates the pattern of the relationship between open space and house price spatially. Meanwhile, Hedonic Pricing Model demonstrates the index of the selected criteria in determining the housing price. This research is a perceptual study of 200 respondents who were the house owners of double-storey terrace houses in four townships, namely Bandar Baru Bangi, Taman Melawati, Subang Jaya and Shah Alam, in Klang Valley. The key research question is whether the relationship between open space and house price exists and the nature of its pattern and intensity. The findings indicate that there is a positive correlation between open space and house price. Correlation analysis reveals that a weak relationship (rs < 0.1) established between the variable of open space and house price (rs = 0.91, N = 200, p = 0.2). Consequently, the rate of house price change is rather small. In overall, this research has achieved its research aims and thus, offers the value added in applying the GIS-Hedonic pricing model in analysing the influence of open space to the house price in the form of spatially and textually.

  3. Analysis of the non-market benefits of protecting salt pond water quality in southern Rhode Island: an application of the hedonic price and contingent valuation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    Rhode Island is confronted with conflicts between the private use of its coastal zone and the public use of continuous water bodies. Property ownership along its southern shore offers many highly valued environmental amenities and services. However, sewage derived from residential cesspools has been polluting the salt water ponds. Unless steps are taken, further reductions in water quality due to imminent development of the remaining residential land would prohibit shell fishing and swimming, and probably fishing and boating. This dissertation considers the use conflicts between residential growth and recreation in the salt ponds region from an economic standpoint. Given the policy orientation, it contains normative as well as positive analyses. A hedonic price equation for housing properties was estimated using the Box-Cox maximum likelihood procedure. Log, semi-log, and linear functional forms were rejected statistically. Tests for market segmentation revealed a temporal segmentation. Water view, water frontage, and distances to the nearest ocean beach and salt water pond were significant determinants of property value. Implicit prices derived from the hedonic price equation were used to estimate a model for compensating variation.

  4. Effects of environmental amenities and locational disamenities on home values in the Santa Cruz watershed: a hedonic analysis using census data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arora, Gaurav; Frisvold, George; Norman, Laura

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we used the hedonic pricing method to measure the effects of natural amenities on home prices in the U.S-side of the Santa Cruz Watershed. We employed multivariate spatial regression techniques to estimate how difference factors affect median home values in 613 census block groups of the 2000 Census, accounting for spatial autocorrelation, spatial lags, and/or spatial heterogeneity in the data. Diagnostic tests suggest that failure to account for the hedonic model can be classified as (1) physical features of the housing stock, (2) neighborhood characteristics, and (3) environmental attributes. Census data was combined with GIS data for vegetation and land cover, land administration, measures of species richness and open space, and proximity to amenities and disamenities. Census block groups close to the US-Mexico border of airports/air bases were negative. Results suggest that policies to maintain biodiversity and open space provide economic benefits to homeowners, reflected in higher home values. Future research will quantify the marginal effects of regression explanatory variables on home values to assess their economic and policy significant. These marginal effects will be used as input indicators to discern potential economic impacts of various scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM). Future research will also expand this effort into the Mexican-portion of the watershed.

  5. Advances in nonmarket valuation econometrics: Spatial heterogeneity in hedonic pricing models and preference heterogeneity in stated preference models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jin Woo

    Counties. The spatial-lag (SLM), the spatial error (SEM) and the spatial error component (SEC) models were compared. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is estimated to study the spatial heterogeneity of the marginal implicit prices of ACE impact within each county. New hybrid spatial hedonic models, the GWR-SEC and a modified GWR-SEM, are estimated such that both spatial autocorrelation and heterogeneity are accounted. The results show that the coefficient of land under easement contract varies spatially within one county, but not within the other county studied. Also, ACE's are found to have both positive and negative impacts on the values of nearby residential properties. Among global spatial models, the SEM fit better than the SLM and the SEC. Statistical goodness of fit measures showed that the GWR-SEC model fit better than the GWR or the GWR-SEC model. Finally, the GWR-SEC showed spatial autocorrelation is stronger in one county than in the other county.

  6. Proposal of a New SI Base Unit for Value. An Hedonic Estimation of the Physical Purchasing Power (PhPP) of Money.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defilla, Steivan

    2006-03-01

    Hitherto, the purchasing power of money, i.e. its transaction value, has been measured in terms of inflation index numbers and consumer baskets. Consumer baskets are variable phenomena and their use as measurement units for value confuses the measuring with the measurand. We propose an invariant numeraire, or value unit, based on the market value of a Planck energy (1956 MJ). Planck units form a natural system of units independent of any civilization. The hedonic estimation of the PhPP of a currency differentiates energy by product as well as by thermodynamic quality (exergy). Following SI rules, we propose to name the value unit walras (Wal) in honour of the economist Leon Walras (1834 - 1910). One Wal can also be interpreted as the minimum cost of physiological life of a reference person during one year. The study uses official disaggregated Swiss Producer and Consumer Price Index data and estimates the PhPP of the Swiss franc in 2003.

  7. Understand after like, viewer's delight? A fNIRS study of order-effect in combined hedonic and cognitive appraisal of art.

    PubMed

    Pelowski, Matthew; Oi, Misato; Liu, Tao; Meng, Shuang; Saito, Godai; Saito, Hirofumi

    2016-10-01

    We investigate neural and behavioral aspects of the interrelation between 'liking' and 'understanding' when both appraisals are made within one judgment task. Our goal was to explore questions regarding how these appraisals combine, and specifically whether there is an order-effect when both are employed in sequence. To this end, we tested a hypothesis derived from new models in neuroaesthetics, and concerning processing of art, which suggest that perception may involve a natural sequence from first processing for hedonic quality (i.e., liking) followed by processing for understanding. Thus, due to the initial liking assessment's capacity to prime deepened cognitive involvement, a Liking-Understanding order may show key differences in final assessments or brain activation when compared to an Understanding-Liking sequence. Thirty-two participants evaluated a range of paintings, balanced for visual appeal and understandability, in a two-part task in which half evaluated for understanding followed by liking and the other half had question order reversed. Brain activity was recorded via functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Results showed no assessment interrelation or order effect in artwork evaluations. However, participants who began with evaluation for liking, and who came to incongruent combinations (i.e., "I like, but I don't understand" or "I don't like, but I understand"), showed significantly higher activation in left medial prefrontal cortex. This area is functionally associated with attention and integration of hedonic/informational elements. Findings provide tentative support for a liking-driven order-effect, as well as for physiological connection between appraisals, which may not appear in behavioral evidence, and suggest need for further consideration of this topic in appraisal research. PMID:27393913

  8. Understand after like, viewer's delight? A fNIRS study of order-effect in combined hedonic and cognitive appraisal of art.

    PubMed

    Pelowski, Matthew; Oi, Misato; Liu, Tao; Meng, Shuang; Saito, Godai; Saito, Hirofumi

    2016-10-01

    We investigate neural and behavioral aspects of the interrelation between 'liking' and 'understanding' when both appraisals are made within one judgment task. Our goal was to explore questions regarding how these appraisals combine, and specifically whether there is an order-effect when both are employed in sequence. To this end, we tested a hypothesis derived from new models in neuroaesthetics, and concerning processing of art, which suggest that perception may involve a natural sequence from first processing for hedonic quality (i.e., liking) followed by processing for understanding. Thus, due to the initial liking assessment's capacity to prime deepened cognitive involvement, a Liking-Understanding order may show key differences in final assessments or brain activation when compared to an Understanding-Liking sequence. Thirty-two participants evaluated a range of paintings, balanced for visual appeal and understandability, in a two-part task in which half evaluated for understanding followed by liking and the other half had question order reversed. Brain activity was recorded via functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Results showed no assessment interrelation or order effect in artwork evaluations. However, participants who began with evaluation for liking, and who came to incongruent combinations (i.e., "I like, but I don't understand" or "I don't like, but I understand"), showed significantly higher activation in left medial prefrontal cortex. This area is functionally associated with attention and integration of hedonic/informational elements. Findings provide tentative support for a liking-driven order-effect, as well as for physiological connection between appraisals, which may not appear in behavioral evidence, and suggest need for further consideration of this topic in appraisal research.

  9. Children's hedonic response to berry products: Effect of chemical composition of berries and hTAS2R38 genotype on liking.

    PubMed

    Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Vaarno, Jenni; Sandell, Mari; Lehtonen, Henna-Maria; Tahvonen, Raija; Viikari, Jorma; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    The hedonic response of 104 healthy children, recruited from day-care centres and schools, to 12 different berry products with varying content of added sugar was studied. The berries used as ingredients were blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum), sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). Another aim of the study was to study the effects of the chemical composition of berries as well as children's hTAS2R38 taste receptor genotypes on liking. The most liked product was bilberry with yoghurt, followed by bilberry juice, dried bilberries, and lingonberry rye bread. The most disliked products were sea buckthorn juice, sea buckthorn berries with yoghurt, and oatmeal with blackcurrant powder and berry oil. High total organic acid concentration was strongly related with a poor average liking score of the berries/berry products. A total of four different alleles of hTAS2R38 gene were observed in the study. Of the genotyped children, 45% were bitter taste insensitive individuals of the genotype AVI/AVI, and 40% were of the genotype PAV/AVI. Children of the genotype PAV/AVI were reported using more vegetables, but not berries, than the AVI/AVI children. The results also show that the liking scores of the children of the AVI/AVI, PAV/AVI, and PAV/PAV genotypes differed from each other, and that the familiarity of a berry product is likely to be an important factor in liking. PMID:22953845

  10. "Beyond the Hedonic Treadmill: Revising the Adaptation Theory of Well-Being": Comment on Diener, Lucas, and Scollon (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykken, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by E. Diener, R. E. Lucas, and C. N. Scollon (see record 2006-05893-003) which cited a study by Tellegen et al. in which the Well-Being scale of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), administered to 44 pairs of monozygotic reared-apart (MZA) twins, yielded a within-pair correlation of 0.48. I contend that,…

  11. Development and validation of the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS) in a community sample and individuals with major depression.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-09-30

    Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's α=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS. PMID:26250147

  12. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier.

  13. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. PMID:25916624

  14. Disruption of the ErbB signaling in adolescence increases striatal dopamine levels and affects learning and hedonic-like behavior in the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Golani, Idit; Tadmor, Hagar; Buonanno, Andres; Kremer, Ilana; Shamir, Alon

    2014-11-01

    The ErbB signaling pathway has been genetically and functionally implicated in schizophrenia. Numerous findings support the dysregulation of Neuregulin (NRG) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether alterations of these pathways in the adult brain or during development are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Herein we characterized the behavioral profile and molecular changes resulting from pharmacologically blocking the ErbB signaling pathway during a critical period in the development of decision making, planning, judgments, emotions, social cognition and cognitive skills, namely adolescence. We demonstrate that chronic administration of the pan-ErbB kinase inhibitor JNJ-28871063 (JNJ) to adolescent mice elevated striatal dopamine levels and reduced preference for sucrose without affecting locomotor activity and exploratory behavior. In adulthood, adolescent JNJ-treated mice continue to consume less sucrose and needed significantly more correct-response trials to reach the learning criterion during the discrimination phase of the T-maze reversal learning task than their saline-injected controls. In addition, JNJ mice exhibited deficit in reference memory but not in working memory as measured in the radial arm maze. Inhibition of the pathway during adolescence did not affect exploratory behavior and locomotor activity in the open field, social interaction, social memory, and reversal learning in adult mice. Our data suggest that alteration of ErbB signaling during adolescence resulted in changes in the dopaminergic systems that emerge in pathological learning and hedonic behavior in adulthood, and pinpoints the possible role of the pathway in the development of cognitive skills and motivated behavior. PMID:25451700

  15. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.

  16. Prosocial behavior leads to happiness in a small-scale rural society.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Lara B; Broesch, Tanya; Hamlin, J Kiley; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W

    2015-08-01

    Humans are extraordinarily prosocial, and research conducted primarily in North America indicates that giving to others is emotionally rewarding. To examine whether the hedonic benefits of giving represent a universal feature of human behavior, we extended upon previous cross-cultural examinations by investigating whether inhabitants of a small-scale, rural, and isolated village in Vanuatu, where villagers have little influence from urban, Western culture, survive on subsistence farming without electricity, and have minimal formal education, report or display emotional rewards from engaging in prosocial (vs. personally beneficial) behavior. In Study 1, adults were randomly assigned to purchase candy for either themselves or others and then reported their positive affect. Consistent with previous research, adults purchasing goods for others reported greater positive emotion than adults receiving resources for themselves. In Study 2, 2- to 5-year-old children received candy and were subsequently asked to engage in costly giving (sharing their own candy with a puppet) and non-costly giving (sharing the experimenter's candy with a puppet). Emotional expressions were video-recorded during the experiment and later coded for happiness. Consistent with previous research conducted in Canada, children displayed more happiness when giving treats away than when receiving treats themselves. Moreover, the emotional rewards of giving were largest when children engaged in costly (vs. non-costly) giving. Taken together, these findings indicate that the emotional rewards of giving are detectable in people living in diverse societies and support the possibility that the hedonic benefits of generosity are universal.

  17. Prosocial behavior leads to happiness in a small-scale rural society.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Lara B; Broesch, Tanya; Hamlin, J Kiley; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W

    2015-08-01

    Humans are extraordinarily prosocial, and research conducted primarily in North America indicates that giving to others is emotionally rewarding. To examine whether the hedonic benefits of giving represent a universal feature of human behavior, we extended upon previous cross-cultural examinations by investigating whether inhabitants of a small-scale, rural, and isolated village in Vanuatu, where villagers have little influence from urban, Western culture, survive on subsistence farming without electricity, and have minimal formal education, report or display emotional rewards from engaging in prosocial (vs. personally beneficial) behavior. In Study 1, adults were randomly assigned to purchase candy for either themselves or others and then reported their positive affect. Consistent with previous research, adults purchasing goods for others reported greater positive emotion than adults receiving resources for themselves. In Study 2, 2- to 5-year-old children received candy and were subsequently asked to engage in costly giving (sharing their own candy with a puppet) and non-costly giving (sharing the experimenter's candy with a puppet). Emotional expressions were video-recorded during the experiment and later coded for happiness. Consistent with previous research conducted in Canada, children displayed more happiness when giving treats away than when receiving treats themselves. Moreover, the emotional rewards of giving were largest when children engaged in costly (vs. non-costly) giving. Taken together, these findings indicate that the emotional rewards of giving are detectable in people living in diverse societies and support the possibility that the hedonic benefits of generosity are universal. PMID:26030168

  18. Homans on Exchange: Hedonism Revived

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamsson, Bengt

    1970-01-01

    George C. Homan's theory on social exchange is critically examined and found to have serious shortcomings with regard to its deductive and inductive aspects. An expecially prominent shortcoming concerns the tautological character of his concept of reward," which makes his theory deductively unclear and empirically untestable. Homan's critique…

  19. Hiltonism, Hedonism and the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2008-01-01

    In her 2006 bestseller about the rise of "raunch culture" and of such self-ascribed "Female Chauvinist Pigs" as the tawdry socialite Paris Hilton, Ariel Levy describes these phenomena as being indicative of a drastic cultural shift. Serious concerns have been raised, most recently by the American Psychological Association, about the effects of…

  20. Scale and scaling in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  1. Millimeter Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvill, Leo M.

    This absolute scale contains nine times, each of which consists of a 100 millimeter vertical line with small division marks every 25 millimeters with the words "high" at the top and "low" at the bottom of the line. Above each of the vertical lines is a word or phrase. For the second grade scale these words are: arithmetic, counting, adding,…

  2. Activity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Larry C.; Weiner, Michael J.

    This twenty-four item scale assesses students' actual and desired political-social activism in terms of physical participation, communication activities, and information-gathering activities. About ten minutes are required to complete the instrument. The scale is divided into two subscales. The first twelve items (ACT-A) question respondents on…

  3. How do consumer attitudes influence acceptance of a novel wild blueberry-soy product?

    PubMed

    Teh, T; Dougherty, M P; Camire, M E

    2007-09-01

    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores.

  4. How do consumer attitudes influence acceptance of a novel wild blueberry-soy product?

    PubMed

    Teh, T; Dougherty, M P; Camire, M E

    2007-09-01

    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores. PMID:17995666

  5. Direct comparison of the generalized Visual Analog Scale (gVAS) and general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS).

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Allen, Alissa L; Bennett, Samantha M

    2013-04-01

    Hundreds of studies have used the generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) to collect intensity data. Recent work on generalized affective scales like the Labeled Affective Magnitude (LAM) scale and Labeled Hedonic Scale (LHS) suggest a substantial proportion of participants fail to use the entire range of generalized scales, marking only at the adjective labels. This categorical behavior (i.e., clustering) is not limited to affective ratings, as it is well known anecdotally among users of the gLMS. One way to stop this behavior would be to retain a generalized top anchor and cross modal orientation procedure while stripping away the internal adjectives. Several published studies have already used this variant, the generalized Visual Analog Scale (gVAS). Because there are no reports directly comparing the gVAS and gLMS head to head, we did so in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants (n=87) were randomized to 1 of 3 conditions to test effects of scaling instructions and scale structure. In Experiment 2, participants (n=58) assessed perceived ease of use and resolving power for each scale in a two-session crossover design. gLMS data showed evidence of categorical behavior, while gVAS data did not. Explicitly instructing participants to rate between adjectives did not reduce this behavior. The gLMS was easier to use according to participants, but resulted in non-normal data due to clustering near the adjective labels. gVAS data did not show categorical behavior, as there are no adjectives to cluster around, but the gVAS sacrifices semantic information about the magnitude of response. Regardless of scale type, participants felt the cross-modal orientation procedure helped them understand how to use the scale. Both scales were able to discriminate between sucrose samples in a concentration series. Relative tradeoffs between the two methods suggest the choice of one scale over the other depends on the specific goals and context of the project. PMID:23175601

  6. Scale interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, John T.

    Since the time of the first world war, investigation of synoptic processes has been a major focus of atmospheric research. These are the physical processes that drive the continuously evolving pattern of high and low pressure centers and attendant frontal boundaries that are to be seen on continental-scale weather maps. This effort has been motivated both by a spirit of scientific inquiry and by a desire to improve operational weather forecasting by national meteorological services. These national services in turn have supported the development of a global observational network that provides the data required for both operational and research purposes. As a consequence of this research, there now exists a reasonable physical understanding of many of the phenomena found at this synoptic scale. This understanding is reflected in the numerical weather forecast models used by the national services. These have shown significant skill in predicting the evolution of synoptic-scale features for periods extending out to five days.

  7. Scaling Rules!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkinson, Dan; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Scaling is a fundamental issue in any spatially or temporally hierarchical system. Defining domains and identifying the boundaries of the hierarchical levels may be a challenging task. Hierarchical systems may be broadly classified to two categories: compartmental and continuous ones. Examples of compartmental systems include: governments, companies, computerized networks, biological taxonomy and others. In such systems the compartments, and hence the various levels and their constituents are easily delineated. In contrast, in continuous systems, such as geomorphological, ecological or climatological ones, detecting the boundaries of the various levels may be difficult. We propose that in continuous hierarchical systems a transition from one functional scale to another is associated with increased system variance. Crossing from a domain of one scale to the domain of another is associated with a transition or substitution of the dominant drivers operating in the system. Accordingly we suggest that crossing this boundary is characterized by increased variance, or a "variance leap", which stabilizes, until crossing to the next domain or hierarchy level. To assess this we compiled sediment yield data from studies conducted at various spatial scales and from different environments. The studies were partitioned to ones conducted in undisturbed environments, and those conducted in disturbed environments, specifically by wildfires. The studies were conducted in plots as small as 1 m2, and watersheds larger than 555000 ha. Regressing sediment yield against plot size, and incrementally calculating the variance in the systems, enabled us to detect domains where variance values were exceedingly high. We propose that at these domains scale-crossing occurs, and the systems transition from one hierarchical level to another. Moreover, the degree of the "variance leaps" characterizes the degree of connectivity among the scales.

  8. Scaling satan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.

  9. Scaling satan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others. PMID:11577971

  10. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  11. Evaluation of anhedonia with the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Byerly, Matthew J; Carmody, Thomas J; Grannemann, Bruce D; Bernstein, Ira H; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-06-01

    Anhedonia or inability to experience pleasure not only is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), but also is identified as an important component of the positive valence system in the NIMH Research Domain Criteria. The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) has been developed for the assessment of hedonic experience or positive valence, but has not been well-studied in depressed outpatient populations. The current study examined the reliability and validity of the SHAPS using a sample of adult outpatients with treatment resistant MDD. Data for the current study were obtained from 122 adult outpatients with a diagnosis of MDD and non-response to adequate treatment with an SSRI and who participated in Project TReatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression (TREAD). A Principal Components Analysis was used to define the dimensionality of the SHAPS. Convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated via correlations of the SHAPS total score with "gold standard" measures of depression severity and quality of life. The SHAPS was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = .82). A Principal Components Analysis suggests that the SHAPS is mainly "unidimensional" and limited to hedonic experience among adult outpatients with MDD. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by examining the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient between the SHAPS total score and the HRSD17 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), IDS-C30 (rs = 0.26, p < .01), IDS-SR30 (rs = 0.23, p < .02), QIDS-C16 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), QIDS-SR16 (rs = 0.17, p < .10), QLES-Q (rs = -0.32, p < .002), and the pleasure/enjoyment item (sub-item 21) of the IDS-C (rs = 0.44, p < .0001) and IDS-SR (rs = 0.38, p < .0002). The self-administered SHAPS showed modest sensitivity (76%) and specificity (54%) with the self-administered pleasure/enjoyment single item (sub-item 21) of IDS-SR30. The current study shows that the SHAPS is a reliable and valid

  12. Optical Measurements in a Combustor Using a 9-Point Swirl-Venturi Fuel Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Locke, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper highlights the use of two-dimensional data to characterize a multipoint swirl-venturi injector. The injector is based on a NASA-conceived lean direct injection concept. Using a variety of advanced optical diagnostic techniques, we examine the flows resultant from multipoint, lean-direct injectors that have nine injection sites arranged in a 3 x 3 grid. The measurements are made within an optically-accessible, jet-A-fueled, 76-mm by 76-mm flame tube combustor. Combustion species mapping and velocity measurements are obtained using planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH and fuel, planar laser scatter of liquid fuel, chemiluminescence from CH*, NO*, and OH*, and particle image velocimetry of seeded air (non-fueled). These measurements are used to study fuel injection, mixedness, and combustion processes and are part of a database of measurements that will be used for validating computational combustion models.

  13. Investigations of a Combustor Using a 9-Point Swirl-Venturi Fuel Injector: Recent Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Heath, Christopher M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Tacina, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores recent results obtained during testing in an optically-accessible, JP8-fueled, flame tube combustor using baseline Lean Direct Injection (LDI) research hardware. The baseline LDI geometry has nine fuel/air mixers arranged in a 3 x 3 array. Results from this nine-element array include images of fuel and OH speciation via Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), which describe fuel spray pattern and reaction zones. Preliminary combustion temperatures derived from Stokes/Anti-Stokes Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy are also presented. Other results using chemiluminescence from major combustion radicals such as CH* and C2* serve to identify the primary reaction zone, while OH PLIF shows the extent of reaction further downstream. Air and fuel velocities and fuel drop size results are also reported.

  14. Sensory and nutritional quality of split peas (Pisum sativum) stored up to 34 y in residential storage.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J S; Jefferies, L K; Pike, O A

    2010-04-01

    The sensory and nutritional quality of split peas stored up to 34 y was determined. Nine samples of split peas representing 5 retail brands packaged in Nr 10 cans and stored at room temperature were obtained from donors. Duplicate cans of a fresh sample of split peas were purchased as controls. Can head space oxygen ranged from 0.255% to 20.1%. Water activity of the raw split peas ranged from 0.41 to 0.56. The green color of the raw split peas decreased over time as shown by increasing CIE a* values. Flavor, appearance, texture, and overall liking hedonic scores (9-point scale) of split-pea soup made from each sample ranged from 3.7 to 6.7 and decreased over time. Hedonic scores for appearance were correlated with the decrease in raw product green color (r(2)= 0.65). Hedonic scores for soup texture declined over time, which corresponded with increasing hardness of the cooked peas as measured by a TA.XT2 texture analyzer. All samples were judged to be acceptable in an emergency situation by over 75% of sensory panelists. Available thiamin was significantly lower in older samples while riboflavin remained unchanged. The results indicate that split pea quality declines over time, but the product maintains sufficient sensory acceptance to be considered for potential use in emergency storage and other applications where minimal stock rotation is a common practice. PMID:20492313

  15. Educational Scale-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the complexities of educational scale-making. "Educational scales" are defined as the spatial and temporal orders generated as pupils and teachers move and are moved through educational systems; scales are "envelopes of spacetime" into which certain schoolbased identities (and not others) can be folded. Scale is thus both an…

  16. Raters & Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Winifred A.; Stone, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    The first article in this section, "Rating Scales and Shared Meaning," by Winifred A. Lopez, discusses the analysis of rating scale data. The second article, "Rating Scale Categories: Dichotomy, Double Dichotomy, and the Number Two," by Mark H. Stone, argues that dichotomies in rating scales are more useful than multiple ratings. (SLD)

  17. Occupational Cohort Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318

  18. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  19. Weak scale supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-12

    An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.

  20. On Quantitative Rorschach Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Ernest A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quantitative Rorschach scales are discussed: first, those based on the response categories of content, location, and the determinants, and second, global scales based on the subject's responses to all ten stimulus cards. (Author/JKS)

  1. Cross-scale morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Holling, Crawford S.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; El-Shaarawi, Abdel H.; Piegorsch, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    The scaling of physical, biological, ecological and social phenomena is a major focus of efforts to develop simple representations of complex systems. Much of the attention has been on discovering universal scaling laws that emerge from simple physical and geometric processes. However, there are regular patterns of departures both from those scaling laws and from continuous distributions of attributes of systems. Those departures often demonstrate the development of self-organized interactions between living systems and physical processes over narrower ranges of scale.

  2. Reading Graduated Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lucien T., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Ways of teaching students to read scales are presented as process instructions that are probably overlooked or taken for granted by most instructors. Scales on such devices as thermometers, rulers, spring scales, speedometers, and thirty-meter tape are discussed. (MP)

  3. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

  4. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  5. Belt scales user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.I. )

    1993-02-01

    A conveyor-belt scale provides a means of obtaining accurate weights of dry bulk materials without delaying other plant operations. In addition, for many applications a belt scale is the most cost-effective alternative among many choices for a weighing system. But a number of users are not comfortable with the accuracy of their belt scales. In cases of unsatisfactory scale performance, it is often possible to correct problems and achieve the accuracy that was expected. To have a belt scale system that is accurate, precise, and cost effective, practical experience has shown that certain basic requisites must be satisfied. These requisites include matching the scale capability to the needs of the application, selecting durable scale equipment and conveyor idlers, adopting improved conveyor support methods, employing superior scale installation and alignment techniques, and establishing and practicing an effective scale testing and performance monitoring program. The goal of the Belt Scale Users' Guide is to enable utilities to reap the benefits of consistently accurate output from their new or upgraded belt scale installations. Such benefits include eliminating incorrect payments for coal receipts, improving coal pile inventory data, providing better heat rate results to enhance plant efficiency and yield more economical power dispatch, and satisfying regulatory agencies. All these benefits can reduce the cost of power generation.

  6. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  7. Scaled models, scaled frequencies, and model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxburgh, Ian W.

    2015-12-01

    I show that given a model star of mass M, radius R, and density profile ρ(x) [x = r/R], there exists a two parameter family of models with masses Mk, radii Rk, density profile ρk(x) = λρ(x) and frequencies νknℓ = λ1/2νnℓ, where λ,Rk/RA are scaling factors. These models have different internal structures, but all have the same value of separation ratios calculated at given radial orders n, and all exactly satisfy a frequency matching algorithm with an offset function determined as part of the fitting procedure. But they do not satisfy ratio matching at given frequencies nor phase shift matching. This illustrates that erroneous results may be obtained when model fitting with ratios at given n values or frequency matching. I give examples from scaled models and from non scaled evolutionary models.

  8. Salzburger State Reactance Scale (SSR Scale)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This paper describes the construction and empirical evaluation of an instrument for measuring state reactance, the Salzburger State Reactance (SSR) Scale. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported a hypothesized three-factor structure: experience of reactance, aggressive behavioral intentions, and negative attitudes. Correlations with divergent and convergent measures support the validity of this structure. The SSR Subscales were strongly related to the other state reactance measures. Moreover, the SSR Subscales showed modest positive correlations with trait measures of reactance. The SSR Subscales correlated only slightly or not at all with neighboring constructs (e.g., autonomy, experience of control). The only exception was fairness scales, which showed moderate correlations with the SSR Subscales. Furthermore, a retest analysis confirmed the temporal stability of the scale. Suggestions for further validation of this questionnaire are discussed. PMID:27453806

  9. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  10. Parabolic scaling beams.

    PubMed

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2014-06-15

    We generalize the concept of diffraction free beams to parabolic scaling beams (PSBs), whose normalized intensity scales parabolically during propagation. These beams are nondiffracting in the circular parabolic coordinate systems, and all the diffraction free beams of Durnin's type have counterparts as PSBs. Parabolic scaling Bessel beams with Gaussian apodization are investigated in detail, their nonparaxial extrapolations are derived, and experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  11. Multi-scale renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, C.; Wiesendanger, C.

    1997-02-01

    The standard MS renormalization prescription is inadequate for dealing with multi-scale problems. To illustrate this we consider the computation of the effective potential in the Higgs-Yukawa model. It is argued that it is natural to employ a two-scale renormalization group. We give a modified version of a two-scale scheme introduced by Einhorn and Jones. In such schemes the beta functions necessarily contain potentially large logarithms of the RG scale ratios. For credible perturbation theory one must implement a large logarithms resummation on the beta functions themselves. We show how the integrability condition for the two RG equations allows one to perform this resummation.

  12. The Family Constellation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemire, David

    The Family Constellation Scale (FC Scale) is an instrument that assesses perceived birth order in families. It can be used in counseling to help initiate conversations about various traits and assumptions that tend to characterize first-born, middle-born children, youngest-born, and only children. It provides both counselors and clients insights…

  13. INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

  14. Scaling up as Catachresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The metaphor of scaling up is the wrong one to use for describing and prescribing educational change. Many of the strategies being employed to achieve scaling up are counter-productive: they conceive of practitioners as delivery agents or consumers, rather than as co-constructors of change. An approach to educational innovation based on the…

  15. Thoughts on Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    This essay reflects on the challenges of thinking about scale--of making sense of phenomena such as continuous professional development (CPD) at the system level, while holding on to detail at the finer grain size(s) of implementation. The stimuli for my reflections are three diverse studies of attempts at scale--an attempt to use ideas related to…

  16. Premarital Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancouver Board of School Trustees (British Columbia). Dept. of Planning and Evaluation.

    The thirty-one item questionnaire was developed to measure how prepared high school students are for marriage. The students are directed to read each statement and to select a response on a five point scale ranging from agreeing strongly to disagreeing strongly. The scale is scored to indicate three factors which are considered important for a…

  17. Everyday Scale Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Elizabeth A.; Uttal, David H.; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2010-01-01

    Young children occasionally make "scale errors"--they attempt to fit their bodies into extremely small objects or attempt to fit a larger object into another, tiny, object. For example, a child might try to sit in a dollhouse-sized chair or try to stuff a large doll into it. Scale error research was originally motivated by parents' and…

  18. Teaching Satisfaction Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Chung-Lim; Au, Wing-Tung

    2006-01-01

    The present study proposes a teaching satisfaction measure and examines the validity of its scores. The measure is based on the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Scores on the five-item Teaching Satisfaction Scale (TSS) were validated on a sample of 202 primary and secondary school teachers and favorable psychometric properties were found. As…

  19. Teacher Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The Teacher Observation Scales include four instruments: Observer Rating Scale (ORS), Reading Strategies Check List, Arithmetic Strategies Check List, and Classroom Description. These instruments utilize trained observers to describe the teaching behavior, instructional strategies and physical characteristics in each classroom. On the ORS, teacher…

  20. New scale factor measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2012-07-01

    The computation of probabilities in an eternally inflating universe requires a regulator or “measure.” The scale factor time measure truncates the Universe when a congruence of timelike geodesics has expanded by a fixed volume factor. This definition breaks down if the generating congruence is contracting—a serious limitation that excludes from consideration gravitationally bound regions such as our own. Here we propose a closely related regulator which is well defined in the entire spacetime. The new scale factor cutoff restricts to events with a scale factor below a given value. Since the scale factor vanishes at caustics and crunches, this cutoff always includes an infinite number of disconnected future regions. We show that this does not lead to divergences. The resulting measure combines desirable features of the old scale factor cutoff and of the light-cone time cutoff, while eliminating some of the disadvantages of each.

  1. The inflationary energy scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddle, Andrew R.

    1994-01-01

    The energy scale of inflation is of much interest, as it suggests the scale of grand unified physics, governs whether cosmological events such as topological defect formation can occur after inflation, and also determines the amplitude of gravitational waves which may be detectable using interferometers. The COBE results are used to limit the energy scale of inflation at the time large scale perturbations were imprinted. An exact dynamical treatment based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equations is then used to translate this into limits on the energy scale at the end of inflation. General constraints are given, and then tighter constraints based on physically motivated assumptions regarding the allowed forms of density perturbation and gravitational wave spectra. These are also compared with the values of familiar models.

  2. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D; Williams, Mark L; Bowman, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  3. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  4. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  5. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  6. Scaling in sensitivity analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2002-01-01

    Population matrix models allow sets of demographic parameters to be summarized by a single value 8, the finite rate of population increase. The consequences of change in individual demographic parameters are naturally measured by the corresponding changes in 8; sensitivity analyses compare demographic parameters on the basis of these changes. These comparisons are complicated by issues of scale. Elasticity analysis attempts to deal with issues of scale by comparing the effects of proportional changes in demographic parameters, but leads to inconsistencies in evaluating demographic rates. We discuss this and other problems of scaling in sensitivity analysis, and suggest a simple criterion for choosing appropriate scales. We apply our suggestions to data for the killer whale, Orcinus orca.

  7. Lifshitz scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2015-02-01

    We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.

  8. Large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolin, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    Classes of large scale dynamic systems were discussed in the context of modern control theory. Specific examples discussed were in the technical fields of aeronautics, water resources and electric power.

  9. Reconsidering earthquake scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J.; Wech, A.; Creager, K.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D.

    2016-06-01

    The relationship (scaling) between scalar moment, M0, and duration, T, potentially provides key constraints on the physics governing fault slip. The prevailing interpretation of M0-T observations proposes different scaling for fast (earthquakes) and slow (mostly aseismic) slip populations and thus fundamentally different driving mechanisms. We show that a single model of slip events within bounded slip zones may explain nearly all fast and slow slip M0-T observations, and both slip populations have a change in scaling, where the slip area growth changes from 2-D when too small to sense the boundaries to 1-D when large enough to be bounded. We present new fast and slow slip M0-T observations that sample the change in scaling in each population, which are consistent with our interpretation. We suggest that a continuous but bimodal distribution of slip modes exists and M0-T observations alone may not imply a fundamental difference between fast and slow slip.

  10. Scaling in Columnar Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Columnar jointing is a fracture pattern common in igneous rocks in which cracks self-organize into a roughly hexagonal arrangement, leaving behind an ordered colonnade. We report observations of columnar jointing in a laboratory analog system, desiccated corn starch slurries. Using measurements of moisture density, evaporation rates, and fracture advance rates, we suggest an advective-diffusive system is responsible for the rough scaling behavior of columnar joints. This theory explains the order of magnitude difference in scales between jointing in lavas and in starches. We investigated the scaling of average columnar cross-sectional areas in experiments where the evaporation rate was fixed using feedback methods. Our results suggest that the column area at a particular depth is related to both the current conditions, and hysteretically to the geometry of the pattern at previous depths. We argue that there exists a range of stable column scales allowed for any particular evaporation rate.

  11. Digital scale converter

    DOEpatents

    Upton, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    A digital scale converter is provided for binary coded decimal (BCD) conversion. The converter may be programmed to convert a BCD value of a first scale to the equivalent value of a second scale according to a known ratio. The value to be converted is loaded into a first BCD counter and counted down to zero while a second BCD counter registers counts from zero or an offset value depending upon the conversion. Programmable rate multipliers are used to generate pulses at selected rates to the counters for the proper conversion ratio. The value present in the second counter at the time the first counter is counted to the zero count is the equivalent value of the second scale. This value may be read out and displayed on a conventional seven-segment digital display.

  12. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  13. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. S.; Gao, Y. P.; Zhao, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observational data are not evenly sampled, and the internals between data points range from several hours to more than half a month. What's more, these data sets are sparse. And all these make it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, we use cubic spline interpolation to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points even. Then, we employ the Vondrak filter to smooth the data set, and get rid of high-frequency noise, finally adopt the weighted average method to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The pulsar timing residuals represent clock difference between the pulsar time and atomic time, and the high precision pulsar timing data mean the clock difference measurement between the pulsar time and atomic time with a high signal to noise ratio, which is fundamental to generate pulsar time. We use the latest released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set is from the newest NANOGRAV data release, which includes 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars using the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and 305-meter Arecibo telescope. We find that the algorithm used in this paper can lower the influence caused by noises in timing residuals, and improve long-term stability of pulsar time. Results show that the long-term (> 1 yr) frequency stability of the pulsar time is better than 3.4×10-15.

  14. The Improbability scale

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, David J.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    The Improbability Scale (IS) is proposed as a way of communicating to the general public the improbability (and by implication, the probability) of events predicted as the result of scientific research. Through the use of the Improbability Scale, the public will be able to evaluate more easily the relative risks of predicted events and draw proper conclusions when asked to support governmental and public policy decisions arising from that research.

  15. Scaling, Universality, and Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.

    Theories of scaling apply wherever similarity exists across many scales. This similarity may be found in geometry and in dynamical processes. Universality arises when the qualitative character of a system is sufficient to quantitatively predict its essential features, such as the exponents that characterize scaling laws. Within geomorphology, two areas where the concepts of scaling and universality have found application are the geometry of river networks and the statistical structure of topography. We begin this review with a pedagogical presentation of scaling and universality. We then describe recent progress made in applying these ideas to networks and topography. This overview leads to a synthesis that attempts a classification of surface and network properties based on generic mechanisms and geometric constraints. We also briefly review how scaling and universality have been applied to related problems in sedimentology-specifically, the origin of stromatolites and the relation of the statistical properties of submarine-canyon topography to the size distribution of turbidite deposits. Throughout the review, our intention is to elucidate not only the problems that can be solved using these concepts, but also those that cannot.

  16. Earthquake Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.; Boettcher, M.; Richardson, E.

    2002-12-01

    Using scaling relations to understand nonlinear geosystems has been an enduring theme of Don Turcotte's research. In particular, his studies of scaling in active fault systems have led to a series of insights about the underlying physics of earthquakes. This presentation will review some recent progress in developing scaling relations for several key aspects of earthquake behavior, including the inner and outer scales of dynamic fault rupture and the energetics of the rupture process. The proximate observations of mining-induced, friction-controlled events obtained from in-mine seismic networks have revealed a lower seismicity cutoff at a seismic moment Mmin near 109 Nm and a corresponding upper frequency cutoff near 200 Hz, which we interpret in terms of a critical slip distance for frictional drop of about 10-4 m. Above this cutoff, the apparent stress scales as M1/6 up to magnitudes of 4-5, consistent with other near-source studies in this magnitude range (see special session S07, this meeting). Such a relationship suggests a damage model in which apparent fracture energy scales with the stress intensity factor at the crack tip. Under the assumption of constant stress drop, this model implies an increase in rupture velocity with seismic moment, which successfully predicts the observed variation in corner frequency and maximum particle velocity. Global observations of oceanic transform faults (OTFs) allow us to investigate a situation where the outer scale of earthquake size may be controlled by dynamics (as opposed to geologic heterogeneity). The seismicity data imply that the effective area for OTF moment release, AE, depends on the thermal state of the fault but is otherwise independent of fault's average slip rate; i.e., AE ~ AT, where AT is the area above a reference isotherm. The data are consistent with β = 1/2 below an upper cutoff moment Mmax that increases with AT and yield the interesting scaling relation Amax ~ AT1/2. Taken together, the OTF

  17. Fast ignition breakeven scaling.

    SciTech Connect

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2005-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E{sub T} = 7.5({rho}/100){sup -1.87} kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E{sub UT} = 15.3({rho}/100){sup -1.5} kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even.

  18. Scaling of Thermoacoustic Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zeegers, J. C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2008-03-01

    The possibility of scaling-down thermoacoustic refrigerators is theoretically investigated. Standing-wave systems are considered as well as traveling-wave. In the former case, a reference system is taken that consists of a resonator tube (50 cm) with a closed end and a PVC stack (length 5 cm). Helium is used at a mean pressure of 10 bar and an amplitude of 1 bar. The resulting operating frequency is 1 kHz. The variation of the performance of the refrigerator when scaled down in size is computed under the prerequisites that the temperature drop over the stack or the energy flux or its density are fixed. The analytical results show that there is a limitation in scaling-down a standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator due to heat conduction. Similar scaling trends are considered in traveling-wave refrigerators. The traveling-wave reference system consists of a feedback inertance tube of 0.567 m long, inside diameter 78 mm, a compliance volume of 2830 cm3 and a 24 cm thermal buffer tube. The regenerator is sandwiched between two heat exchangers. The system is operated at 125 Hz and filled with 30 bar helium gas. Again, the thermal conductance forms a practical limitation in down-scaling.

  19. Universities scale like cities.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  20. Fire toxicity scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, E.; Levin, B.C.; Paabo, M.; Gurman, J.; Holt, T.

    1987-02-01

    The toxicity of the thermal-decomposition products from two flexible polyurethane foams (with and without a fire retardant) and a cotton upholstery fabric was evaluated by a series of small-scale and large-scale tests single mock-up upholstery chair tests during smoldering or flaming decomposition. In addition other fire property data such as rates of heat release, effective heats of combustion, specific gas species yields, and smoke obscuration were measured. The degree of toxicity observed during and following the flaming tests (both large-scale room burns and the NBS Toxicity Tests) could be explained by a 3-Gas Model which includes the combined toxicological effects of CO, CO/sub 2/, and HCN. Essentially, no animal deaths were noted during the thirty minute exposures to the non-flaming or smoldering combustion products produced in the NBS Toxicity Test Method or the large-scale room test. In the large-scale room tests, little toxicological difference was noted between decomposition products from the burn room and a second room 12 meters away.

  1. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  2. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level.

  3. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:27386298

  4. No-scale inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on R+{R}2 gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: {n}s∼ 0.96, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r\\lt 0.1, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  5. Scales of rock permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, Y.; Gavrilenko, P.; Le Ravalec, M.

    1996-05-01

    Permeability is a transport property which is currently measured in Darcy units. Although this unit is very convenient for most purposes, its use prevents from recognizing that permeability has units of length squared. Physically, the square root of permeability can thus be seen as a characteristic length or a characteristic pore size. At the laboratory scale, the identification of this characteristic length is a good example of how experimental measurements and theoretical modelling can be integrated. Three distinct identifications are of current use, relying on three different techniques: image analysis of thin sections, mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption. In each case, one or several theoretical models allow us to derive permeability from the experimental data (equivalent channel models, statistical models, effective media models, percolation and network models). Permeability varies with pressure and temperature and this is a decisive point for any extrapolation to crustal conditions. As far as pressure is concerned, most of the effect is due to cracks and a model which does not incorporate this fact will miss its goal. Temperature induced modifications can be the result of several processes: thermal cracking (due to thermal expansion mismatch and anisotropy, or to fluid pressure build up), and pressure solution are the two main ones. Experimental data on pressure and temperature effects are difficult to obtain but they are urgently needed. Finally, an important issue is: up to which point are these small scale data and models relevant when considering formations at the oil reservoir scale, or at the crust scale? At larger scales the identification of the characteristic scale is also a major goal which is examined.

  6. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  7. Scale invariance in biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2000-06-01

    In this general talk, we offer an overview of some problems of interest to biophysicists, medical physicists, and econophysicists. These include DNA sequences, brain plaques in Alzheimer patients, heartbeat intervals, and time series giving price fluctuations in economics. These problems have the common feature that they exhibit features that appear to be scale invariant. Particularly vexing is the problem that some of these scale invariant phenomena are not stationary-their statistical properties vary from one time interval to the next or form one position to the next. We will discuss methods, such as wavelet methods and multifractal methods, to cope with these problems. .

  8. xi-scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Gunion, J.F.

    1980-04-01

    A class of purely kinematical corrections to xi-scaling is exposed. These corrections are inevitably present in any realistic hadron model with spin and gauge invariance and lead to phenomenologically important M/sub hadron//sup 2//Q/sup 2/ corrections to Nachtmann moments.

  9. Scale, Composition, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Scale (gross domestic product), composition (goods and services), and technology (impacts per unit of goods and services) in combination are the proximate determinants in an economy of the resources used, wastes generated, and land transformed. In this article, we examine relationships among these determinants to understand better the contribution…

  10. Scaling the Salary Heights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1986-01-01

    Federal cutbacks have created new demand for fund-raisers everywhere. Educational fund-raisers are thinking about "pay for performance"--incentive-based pay plans that can help them retain, reward, and motivate talented fund raisers within the tight pay scales common at colleges and universities. (MLW)

  11. Build an Interplanetary Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students use a bathroom scale and a long board to see how their weight changes on other planets and the moon. Materials list, procedures, tables of planet radii, comparative values, and gravitational ratios are provided. (DDR)

  12. Fundamentals of Zoological Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    The following animal characteristics are considered to determine how properties and characteristics of various systems change with system size (scaling): skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing-flapping, and maximum sizes of flying and hovering…

  13. Allometric scaling of countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Tongkui

    2010-11-01

    As huge complex systems consisting of geographic regions, natural resources, people and economic entities, countries follow the allometric scaling law which is ubiquitous in ecological, and urban systems. We systematically investigated the allometric scaling relationships between a large number of macroscopic properties and geographic (area), demographic (population) and economic (GDP, gross domestic production) sizes of countries respectively. We found that most of the economic, trade, energy consumption, communication related properties have significant super-linear (the exponent is larger than 1) or nearly linear allometric scaling relations with the GDP. Meanwhile, the geographic (arable area, natural resources, etc.), demographic (labor force, military age population, etc.) and transportation-related properties (road length, airports) have significant and sub-linear (the exponent is smaller than 1) allometric scaling relations with area. Several differences of power law relations with respect to the population between countries and cities were pointed out. First, population increases sub-linearly with area in countries. Second, the GDP increases linearly in countries but not super-linearly as in cities. Finally, electricity or oil consumption per capita increases with population faster than cities.

  14. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  15. Scaling up Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains several projects, each addressing different questions with different techniques. In chapter 1, I argue that they are unified thematically by their goal of "scaling up psycholinguistics"; they are all aimed at analyzing large data-sets using tools that reveal patterns to propose and test mechanism-neutral hypotheses about…

  16. The Infant Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the usefulness of the Infant Rating Scale (IRS) in the early identification of learning difficulties. Thirteen hundred five-year-olds were rated by their teachers after one term in school. The structure of the IRS, its reliability, and predictive validity are examined. (Author/SJL)

  17. The Spiritual Competency Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which was based on the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's original Spiritual Competencies. Participants were 662 counseling students from religiously based and secular universities nationwide. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 22-item,…

  18. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars.

  19. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars. PMID:22308949

  20. Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

    2014-04-01

    Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

  1. Scales of mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Akber-Knutson, S.; Konter, J.; Kellogg, J.; Hart, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    A long-standing question in mantle dynamics concerns the scale of heterogeneity in the mantle. Mantle convection tends to both destroy (through stirring) and create (through melt extraction and subduction) heterogeneity in bulk and trace element composition. Over time, these competing processes create variations in geochemical composition along mid-oceanic ridges and among oceanic islands, spanning a range of scales from extremely long wavelength (for example, the DUPAL anomaly) to very small scale (for example, variations amongst melt inclusions). While geochemical data and seismic observations can be used to constrain the length scales of mantle heterogeneity, dynamical mixing calculations can illustrate the processes and timescales involved in stirring and mixing. At the Summer 2004 CIDER workshop on Relating Geochemical and Seismological Heterogeneity in the Earth's Mantle, an interdisciplinary group evaluated scales of heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a combined analysis of geochemical data, seismological data and results of numerical models of mixing. We mined the PetDB database for isotopic data from glass and whole rock analyses for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR), projecting them along the ridge length. We examined Sr isotope variability along the East Pacific rise by looking at the difference in Sr ratio between adjacent samples as a function of distance between the samples. The East Pacific Rise exhibits an overall bowl shape of normal MORB characteristics, with higher values in the higher latitudes (there is, however, an unfortunate gap in sampling, roughly 2000 km long). These background characteristics are punctuated with spikes in values at various locations, some, but not all of which are associated with off-axis volcanism. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly spaced data was utilized to construct a power spectrum of the scale lengths of heterogeneity along both ridges. Using the same isotopic systems (Sr, Nd

  2. Scaling Applications in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2010-05-01

    Besides downscaling applications, scaling properties of hydrological fields can be used to address a variety of research questions. In this presentation, we will use scaling properties to address questions related to satellite evapotranspiration algorithms, precipitation-streamflow relationships, and hydrological model calibration. Most of the existing satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms have been developed using fine-resolution Landsat TM and ASTER data. However, these algorithms are often applied to coarse-resolution MODIS data. Our results show that applying the satellite-based algorithms, which are developed at ASTER resolution, to MODIS resolution leads to ET estimates that (1) preserve the overall spatial pattern (spatial correlation in excess of 0.90), (2) increase the spatial standard deviation and maximum value, (3) have modest conditional bias: underestimate low ET rates (< 1 mm/day) and overestimate high ET rates; the overestimation is within 20%. The results emphasize the need for exploring alternatives for estimation of ET from MODIS. Understanding the relationship between the scaling properties of precipitation and streamflow is important in a number of applications. We present the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River basin in Georgia in the United States with focus on effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 22 km2 to 19,606 km2. Results show that large watersheds have more persistent flow fluctuations and stronger long-term (time greater than scale break point) memory than small watersheds while precipitation time series shows weak long-term correlation. We conclude that a watershed acts as a 'filter' for a 'white noise' precipitation with more significant filtering in case of large watersheds. Finally, we compare the scaling properties of simulated and observed spatial soil

  3. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  4. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  5. ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS

    DOEpatents

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1958-11-18

    Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

  6. An elastica arm scale.

    PubMed

    Bosi, F; Misseroni, D; Dal Corso, F; Bigoni, D

    2014-09-01

    The concept of a 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248

  7. Fundamentals of zoological scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses emphasize highly idealized problems with unique well-defined answers. Though many textbooks complement these problems with estimation problems, few books present anything more than an elementary discussion of scaling. This paper presents some fundamentals of scaling in the zoological domain—a domain complex by any standard, but one also well suited to illustrate the power of very simple physical ideas. We consider the following animal characteristics: skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing flapping, and maximum sizes of animals that fly and hover. These relationships are compared to zoological data and everyday experience, and match reasonably well.

  8. The Extragalactic Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Donahue, Megan; Panagia, Nino

    1997-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Early history of the distance scale problem, S. van den Bergh; Cosmology: From Hubble to HST, M. S. Turner; Age constraints nucleocosmochronology, J. Truran; The ages of globular clusters, P. Demarque; The linearity of the Hubble flow M. Postman; Gravitational lensing and the extragalactic distance scale, R. D. Blandford andT . Kundic; Using the cosmic microwave background to constrain the Hubble constant A. Lasenby and T M. Jones; Cepheids as distance indicators, N. R. Tanvir; The I-band Tully-Fisher relation and the Hubble constant, R. Giovanell; The calibration of type 1a supernovae as standard candles, A. Saha; Focusing in on the Hubble constant, G. A. Tammann & M. Federspiel; Interim report on the calibration of the Tully-Fisher relation in the HST Key Project to measure the Hubble constant, J. Mould et al.; Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the extragalactic distance scale, W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore and T R. C. Kennicutt; Novae as distance indicators, M. Livio; Verifying the planetary nebula luminosity function method, G. H. Jacoby; On the possible use of radio supernovae for distance determinations, K. W. Weiler et al.; Post-AGB stars as standard candles, H. Bond; Helium core flash at the tip of the red giant branch: a population II distance indicator, B. F. Madore, W. L. Freedman and T S. Sakai; Globular clusters as distance indicators, B. C. Whitmore; Detached eclipsing binaries as primary distance and age indicators, B. Paczynski; Light echoes: geometric measurement of galaxy distances, W. B. Sparks; The SBF survey of galaxy distances J. L. Tonry; Extragalactic distance scales: The long and short of it, V. Trimble.

  9. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Mayeda, K.; Ruppert, S.

    2002-12-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by analyzing aftershock sequences in the Western U.S. and Turkey using two different techniques. First we examine the observed regional S-wave spectra by fitting with a parametric model (Walter and Taylor, 2002) with and without variable stress drop scaling. Because the aftershock sequences have common stations and paths we can examine the S-wave spectra of events by size to determine what type of apparent stress scaling, if any, is most consistent with the data. Second we use regional coda envelope techniques (e.g. Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al, 2002) on the same events to directly measure energy and moment. The coda techniques corrects for path and site effects using an empirical Green function technique and independent calibration with surface wave derived moments. Our hope is that by carefully analyzing a very large number of events in a consistent manner using two different techniques we can start to resolve this apparent stress scaling issue. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  10. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeda, K.; Walter, W. R.

    2003-04-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by applying the same methodology to a series of datasets that spans roughly 10 orders in seismic moment, M0. We will summarize recent results using a coda envelope methodology of Mayeda et al, (2003) which provide the most stable source spectral estimates to date. This methodology eliminates the complicating effects of lateral path heterogeneity, source radiation pattern, directivity, and site response (e.g., amplification, f-max and kappa). We find that in tectonically active continental crustal areas the total radiated energy scales as M00.25 whereas in regions of relatively younger oceanic crust, the stress drop is generally lower and exhibits a 1-to-1 scaling with moment. In addition to answering a fundamental question in earthquake source dynamics, this study addresses how one would scale small earthquakes in a particular region up to a future, more damaging earthquake. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  11. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E; Potok, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  12. Beyond the Planck Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2009-12-15

    I outline motivations for believing that important quantum gravity effects lie beyond the Planck scale at both higher energies and longer distances and times. These motivations arise in part from the study of ultra-high energy scattering, and also from considerations in cosmology. I briefly summarize some inferences about such ultra-planckian physics, and clues we might pursue towards the principles of a more fundamental theory addressing the known puzzles and paradoxes of quantum gravity.

  13. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    PubMed

    Leitão, J C; Miotto, J M; Gerlach, M; Altmann, E G

    2016-07-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼x (β) ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)-(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764

  14. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼xβ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)–(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764

  15. Scaling body size fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Carrara, Francesco; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The size of an organism matters for its metabolic, growth, mortality, and other vital rates. Scale-free community size spectra (i.e., size distributions regardless of species) are routinely observed in natural ecosystems and are the product of intra- and interspecies regulation of the relative abundance of organisms of different sizes. Intra- and interspecies distributions of body sizes are thus major determinants of ecosystems’ structure and function. We show experimentally that single-species mass distributions of unicellular eukaryotes covering different phyla exhibit both characteristic sizes and universal features over more than four orders of magnitude in mass. Remarkably, we find that the mean size of a species is sufficient to characterize its size distribution fully and that the latter has a universal form across all species. We show that an analytical physiological model accounts for the observed universality, which can be synthesized in a log-normal form for the intraspecies size distributions. We also propose how ecological and physiological processes should interact to produce scale-invariant community size spectra and discuss the implications of our results on allometric scaling laws involving body mass. PMID:23487793

  16. Urban scaling in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  17. Urban scaling in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  18. Mechanism for salt scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  19. The Practicality of Behavioral Observation Scales, Behavioral Expectation Scales, and Trait Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersma, Uco; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    The practicality of three appraisal instruments was measured in terms of user preference, namely, behavioral observation scales (BOS), behavioral expectation scales (BES), and trait scales. In all instances, BOS were preferred to BES, and in all but two instances, BOS were viewed as superior to trait scales. (Author/ABB)

  20. Comparing the theoretical versions of the Beaufort scale, the T-Scale and the Fujita scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaden, G. Terence; Kochev, S.; Kolendowicz, L.; Kosa-Kiss, A.; Marcinoniene, Izolda; Sioutas, Michalis; Tooming, Heino; Tyrrell, John

    2007-02-01

    2005 is the bicentenary of the Beaufort Scale and its wind-speed codes: the marine version in 1805 and the land version later. In the 1920s when anemometers had come into general use, the Beaufort Scale was quantified by a formula based on experiment. In the early 1970s two tornado wind-speed scales were proposed: (1) an International T-Scale based on the Beaufort Scale; and (2) Fujita's damage scale developed for North America. The International Beaufort Scale and the T-Scale share a common root in having an integral theoretical relationship with an established scientific basis, whereas Fujita's Scale introduces criteria that make its intensities non-integral with Beaufort. Forces on the T-Scale, where T stands for Tornado force, span the range 0 to 10 which is highly useful world wide. The shorter range of Fujita's Scale (0 to 5) is acceptable for American use but less convenient elsewhere. To illustrate the simplicity of the decimal T-Scale, mean hurricane wind speed of Beaufort 12 is T2 on the T-Scale but F1.121 on the F-Scale; while a tornado wind speed of T9 (= B26) becomes F4.761. However, the three wind scales can be uni-fied by either making F-Scale numbers exactly half the magnitude of T-Scale numbers [i.e. F'half = T / 2 = (B / 4) - 4] or by doubling the numbers of this revised version to give integral equivalence with the T-Scale. The result is a decimal formula F'double = T = (B / 2) - 4 named the TF-Scale where TF stands for Tornado Force. This harmonious 10-digit scale has all the criteria needed for world-wide practical effectiveness.

  1. Small-scale strength

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    In the world of power project development there is a market for smaller scale cogeneration projects in the range of 1MW to 10MW. In the European Union alone, this range will account for about $25 Billion in value over the next 10 years. By adding the potential that exists in Eastern Europe, the numbers are even more impressive. In Europe, only about 7 percent of needed electrical power is currently produced through cogeneration installations; this is expected to change to around 15 percent by the year 2000. Less than one year ago, two equipment manufacturers formed Dutch Power Partners (DPP) to focus on the market for industrial cogeneration throughout Europe.

  2. Reconsidering Fault Slip Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J. S.; Wech, A.; Creager, K. C.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The scaling of fault slip events given by the relationship between the scalar moment M0, and duration T, potentially provides key constraints on the underlying physics controlling slip. Many studies have suggested that measurements of M0 and T are related as M0=KfT3 for 'fast' slip events (earthquakes) and M0=KsT for 'slow' slip events, in which Kf and Ks are proportionality constants, although some studies have inferred intermediate relations. Here 'slow' and 'fast' refer to slip front propagation velocities, either so slow that seismic radiation is too small or long period to be measurable or fast enough that dynamic processes may be important for the slip process and measurable seismic waves radiate. Numerous models have been proposed to explain the differing M0-T scaling relations. We show that a single, simple dislocation model of slip events within a bounded slip zone may explain nearly all M0-T observations. Rather than different scaling for fast and slow populations, we suggest that within each population the scaling changes from M0 proportional to T3 to T when the slipping area reaches the slip zone boundaries and transitions from unbounded, 2-dimensional to bounded, 1-dimensional growth. This transition has not been apparent previously for slow events because data have sampled only the bounded regime and may be obscured for earthquakes when observations from multiple tectonic regions are combined. We have attempted to sample the expected transition between bounded and unbounded regimes for the slow slip population, measuring tremor cluster parameters from catalogs for Japan and Cascadia and using them as proxies for small slow slip event characteristics. For fast events we employed published earthquake slip models. Observations corroborate our hypothesis, but highlight observational difficulties. We find that M0-T observations for both slow and fast slip events, spanning 12 orders of magnitude in M0, are consistent with a single model based on dislocation

  3. Soil organic carbon across scales.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sharon M; Angers, Denis A; Holden, Nicholas M; McBratney, Alex B

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic understanding of scale effects is important for interpreting the processes that control the global carbon cycle. Greater attention should be given to scale in soil organic carbon (SOC) science so that we can devise better policy to protect/enhance existing SOC stocks and ensure sustainable use of soils. Global issues such as climate change require consideration of SOC stock changes at the global and biosphere scale, but human interaction occurs at the landscape scale, with consequences at the pedon, aggregate and particle scales. This review evaluates our understanding of SOC across all these scales in the context of the processes involved in SOC cycling at each scale and with emphasis on stabilizing SOC. Current synergy between science and policy is explored at each scale to determine how well each is represented in the management of SOC. An outline of how SOC might be integrated into a framework of soil security is examined. We conclude that SOC processes at the biosphere to biome scales are not well understood. Instead, SOC has come to be viewed as a large-scale pool subjects to carbon flux. Better understanding exists for SOC processes operating at the scales of the pedon, aggregate and particle. At the landscape scale, the influence of large- and small-scale processes has the greatest interaction and is exposed to the greatest modification through agricultural management. Policy implemented at regional or national scale tends to focus at the landscape scale without due consideration of the larger scale factors controlling SOC or the impacts of policy for SOC at the smaller SOC scales. What is required is a framework that can be integrated across a continuum of scales to optimize SOC management.

  4. Soil organic carbon across scales.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sharon M; Angers, Denis A; Holden, Nicholas M; McBratney, Alex B

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic understanding of scale effects is important for interpreting the processes that control the global carbon cycle. Greater attention should be given to scale in soil organic carbon (SOC) science so that we can devise better policy to protect/enhance existing SOC stocks and ensure sustainable use of soils. Global issues such as climate change require consideration of SOC stock changes at the global and biosphere scale, but human interaction occurs at the landscape scale, with consequences at the pedon, aggregate and particle scales. This review evaluates our understanding of SOC across all these scales in the context of the processes involved in SOC cycling at each scale and with emphasis on stabilizing SOC. Current synergy between science and policy is explored at each scale to determine how well each is represented in the management of SOC. An outline of how SOC might be integrated into a framework of soil security is examined. We conclude that SOC processes at the biosphere to biome scales are not well understood. Instead, SOC has come to be viewed as a large-scale pool subjects to carbon flux. Better understanding exists for SOC processes operating at the scales of the pedon, aggregate and particle. At the landscape scale, the influence of large- and small-scale processes has the greatest interaction and is exposed to the greatest modification through agricultural management. Policy implemented at regional or national scale tends to focus at the landscape scale without due consideration of the larger scale factors controlling SOC or the impacts of policy for SOC at the smaller SOC scales. What is required is a framework that can be integrated across a continuum of scales to optimize SOC management. PMID:25918852

  5. Questionnaire design: carry-over effects of overall acceptance question placement and pre-evaluation instructions on overall acceptance scores in central location tests.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Mauresa; Eggett, Dennis L; Jefferies, Laura K

    2015-02-01

    Question placement and usage of pre-evaluation instructions (PEI) in questionnaires for food sensory analysis may bias consumers' scores via carry-over effects. Data from consumer sensory panels previously conducted at a central location, spanning 11 years and covering a broad range of food product categories, were compiled. Overall acceptance (OA) question placement was studied with categories designated as first (the first evaluation question following demographic questions), after nongustation questions (immediately following questions that do not require panelists to taste the product), and later (following all other hedonic and just-about-right [JAR] questions, but occasionally before ranking, open-ended comments, and/or intent to purchase questions). Each panel was categorized as having or not having PEI in the questionnaire; PEI are instructions that appear immediately before the first evaluation question and show panelists all attributes they will evaluate before receiving test samples. Postpanel surveys were administered regarding the self-reported effect of PEI on panelists' evaluation experience. OA scores were analyzed and compared (1) between OA question placement categories and (2) between panels with and without PEI. For most product categories, OA scores tended to be lower when asked later in the questionnaire, suggesting evidence of a carry-over effect. Usage of PEI increased OA scores by 0.10 of a 9-point hedonic scale point, which is not practically significant. Postpanel survey data showed that presence of PEI typically improved the panelists' experience. Using PEI does not appear to introduce a meaningful carry-over effect.

  6. Scaling in Transportation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Louf, Rémi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about subway systems and more than railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

  7. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle inmore » motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.« less

  8. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.

  9. Aging scaled Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Jafari, Gholamreza R; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Scaled Brownian motion (SBM) is widely used to model anomalous diffusion of passive tracers in complex and biological systems. It is a highly nonstationary process governed by the Langevin equation for Brownian motion, however, with a power-law time dependence of the noise strength. Here we study the aging properties of SBM for both unconfined and confined motion. Specifically, we derive the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements and analyze their behavior in the regimes of weak, intermediate, and strong aging. A very rich behavior is revealed for confined aging SBM depending on different aging times and whether the process is sub- or superdiffusive. We demonstrate that the information on the aging factorizes with respect to the lag time and exhibits a functional form that is identical to the aging behavior of scale-free continuous time random walk processes. While SBM exhibits a disparity between ensemble and time averaged observables and is thus weakly nonergodic, strong aging is shown to effect a convergence of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacement. Finally, we derive the density of first passage times in the semi-infinite domain that features a crossover defined by the aging time. PMID:25974439

  10. Returns to Scale and Economies of Scale: Further Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Gregory M.; Mitchell, Douglas W.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that most economics textbooks continue to repeat past mistakes concerning returns to scale and economies of scale under assumptions of constant and nonconstant input prices. Provides an adaptation for a calculus-based intermediate microeconomics class that demonstrates the pointwise relationship between returns to scale and economies of…

  11. Global scale precipitation from monthly to centennial scales: empirical space-time scaling analysis, anthropogenic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of precipitation scaling regimes represents a key contribution to the improved understanding of space-time precipitation variability, which is the focus here. We conduct space-time scaling analyses of spectra and Haar fluctuations in precipitation, using three global scale precipitation products (one instrument based, one reanalysis based, one satellite and gauge based), from monthly to centennial scales and planetary down to several hundred kilometers in spatial scale. Results show the presence - similarly to other atmospheric fields - of an intermediate "macroweather" regime between the familiar weather and climate regimes: we characterize systematically the macroweather precipitation temporal and spatial, and joint space-time statistics and variability, and the outer scale limit of temporal scaling. These regimes qualitatively and quantitatively alternate in the way fluctuations vary with scale. In the macroweather regime, the fluctuations diminish with time scale (this is important for seasonal, annual, and decadal forecasts) while anthropogenic effects increase with time scale. Our approach determines the time scale at which the anthropogenic signal can be detected above the natural variability noise: the critical scale is about 20 - 40 yrs (depending on the product, on the spatial scale). This explains for example why studies that use data covering only a few decades do not easily give evidence of anthropogenic changes in precipitation, as a consequence of warming: the period is too short. Overall, while showing that precipitation can be modeled with space-time scaling processes, our results clarify the different precipitation scaling regimes and further allow us to quantify the agreement (and lack of agreement) of the precipitation products as a function of space and time scales. Moreover, this work contributes to clarify a basic problem in hydro-climatology, which is to measure precipitation trends at decadal and longer scales and to

  12. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  13. [Research progress on hydrological scaling].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianmei; Pei, Tiefan

    2003-12-01

    With the development of hydrology and the extending effect of mankind on environment, scale issue has become a great challenge to many hydrologists due to the stochasticism and complexity of hydrological phenomena and natural catchments. More and more concern has been given to the scaling issues to gain a large-scale (or small-scale) hydrological characteristic from a certain known catchments, but hasn't been solved successfully. The first part of this paper introduced some concepts about hydrological scale, scale issue and scaling. The key problem is the spatial heterogeneity of catchments and the temporal and spatial variability of hydrological fluxes. Three approaches to scale were put forward in the third part, which were distributed modeling, fractal theory and statistical self similarity analyses. Existing problems and future research directions were proposed in the last part.

  14. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  15. Earthquake impact scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  16. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  17. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  18. Biological scaling and physics.

    PubMed

    Rau, A R P

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  19. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  20. L-Scaling: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankmeyer, Eric

    L-scaling is introduced as a technique for determining the weights in weighted averages or scaled scores for T joint observations on K variables. The technique is so named because of its formal resemblance to the Leontief matrix of mathematical economics. L-scaling is compared to several widely-used procedures for data reduction, and the…

  1. The Gains from Vertical Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

  2. Westside Test Anxiety Scale Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Westside Test Anxiety Scale is a brief, ten item instrument designed to identify students with anxiety impairments who could benefit from an anxiety-reduction intervention. The scale items cover self-assessed anxiety impairment and cognitions which can impair performance. Correlations between anxiety-reduction as measured by the scale and…

  3. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  4. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  5. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  6. The Cross-Scale Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Horbury, T.; Schwartz, S.; Canu, P.; Roux, A.; Vaivads, A.

    2009-06-16

    Collisionless space plasmas exhibit complex behavior on many scales. Fortunately, one can identify a small number of processes and phenomena, essentially shocks, reconnection and turbulence that play a predominant role in the dynamics of a plasma. These processes act to transfer energy between locations, scales and modes, a transfer characterized by variability and three-dimensional structure on at least three scales: electron kinetic, ion kinetic and fluid scale. The nonlinear interaction between physical processes at these scales is the key to understanding these phenomena. Current and upcoming multi-spacecraft missions such as Cluster, THEMIS, and MMS only study three-dimensional variations on one scale at any given time, but one needs to measure the three scales simultaneously to understand the energy transfer processes and the coupling and interaction between the different scales. A mission called Cross-Scale would comprise three nested groups, each consisting of up to four spacecraft. Each group would have a different spacecraft separation, at approximately the electron and ion gyro radii, and at the larger magnetohydrodynamic or fluid scale. One would therefore be able to measure simultaneously variations on all three important physical scales, for the first time. With the spacecraft traversing key regions of near-Earth space, namely solar wind, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause and magnetotail, all three aforementioned processes can be studied.

  7. Composite Health Plan Quality Scales

    PubMed Central

    Caldis, Todd

    2007-01-01

    This study employs exploratory factor analysis and scale construction methods with commercial Health Plan Employers Data Information Set (HEDIS®) process of care and outcome measures from 1999 to uncover evidence for a unidimensional composite health maintenance organization (HMO) quality scale. Summated scales by categories of care are created and are then used in a factor analysis that has a single factor solution. The category of care scales were used to construct a summated composite scale which exhibits strong evidence of internal consistency (alpha= 0.90). External validity of the composite quality scale was checked by regressing the composite scale on Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®) survey results for 1999. PMID:17645158

  8. Coastal erosion risk assessment using natural and human factors in different scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change, including sea-level rise and increasing storms, raise the threats of coastal erosion. Mitigating and adapting to coastal erosion risks in areas of human interest, like urban areas, culture heritage sites, and areas of economic interest, present a major challenge for society. In this context, decision making needs to be based in reliable risk assessment that includes environmental, social and economic factors. By integrating coastal hazard and risk assessments maps into coastal management plans, risks in areas of interest can be reduced. To address this, the vulnerability of the coast to sea level rise and associated erosion, in terms of expected land loss and socioeconomic importance need to be identified. A holistic risk assessment based in environmental, socioeconomic and economics approach can provide managers information how to mitigate the impact of coastal erosion and plan protection measures. Such an approach needs to consider social, economic and environmental factors, which interactions can be better assessed when distributed and analysed along the geographical space. In this work, estimations of climate change impact to coastline are based on a combination of environmental and economic data analysed in a GIS database. The risk assessment is implemented through the estimation of the vulnerability and exposure variables of the coast in two scales. The larger scale estimates the vulnerability in a regional level, with the use environmental factors with the use of CVI. The exposure variable is estimated by the use of socioeconomic factors. Subsequently, a smaller scale focuses on highly vulnerable beaches with high social and economic value. The vulnerability assessment of the natural processes to the environmental characteristics of the beach is estimated with the use of the Beach Vulnerability Index. As exposure variable, the value of beach width that is capitalized in revenues is implemented through a hedonic pricing model. In this

  9. Solar system to scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwig López, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important successes in astronomical observations has been to determine the limit of the Solar System. It is said that the first man able to measure the distance Earth-Sun with only a very slight mistake, in the second century BC, was the wise Greek man Aristarco de Samos. Thanks to Newtońs law of universal gravitation, it was possible to measure, with a little margin of error, the distances between the Sun and the planets. Twelve-year old students are very interested in everything related to the universe. However, it seems too difficult to imagine and understand the real distances among the different celestial bodies. To learn the differences among the inner and outer planets and how far away the outer ones are, I have considered to make my pupils work on the sizes and the distances in our solar system constructing it to scale. The purpose is to reproduce our solar system to scale on a cardboard. The procedure is very easy and simple. Students of first year of ESO (12 year-old) receive the instructions in a sheet of paper (things they need: a black cardboard, a pair of scissors, colored pencils, a ruler, adhesive tape, glue, the photocopies of the planets and satellites, the measurements they have to use). In another photocopy they get the pictures of the edge of the sun, the planets, dwarf planets and some satellites, which they have to color, cut and stick on the cardboard. This activity is planned for both Spanish and bilingual learning students as a science project. Depending on the group, they will receive these instructions in Spanish or in English. When the time is over, the students bring their works on their cardboard to the class. They obtain a final mark: passing, good or excellent, depending on the accuracy of the measurements, the position of all the celestial bodies, the asteroids belts, personal contributions, etc. If any of the students has not followed the instructions they get the chance to remake it again properly, in order not

  10. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  11. Tipping the scales.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    In the US, the October 1998 murder of a physician who performed abortions was an outward manifestation of the insidious battle against legal abortion being waged by radical Christian social conservatives seeking to transform the US democracy into a theocracy. This movement has been documented in a publication entitled, "Tipping the Scales: The Christian Right's Legal Crusade Against Choice" produced as a result of a 4-year investigation conducted by The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy. This publication describes how these fundamentalists have used sophisticated legal, lobbying, and communication strategies to further their goals of challenging the separation of church and state, opposing family planning and sexuality education that is not based solely on abstinence, promoting school prayer, and restricting homosexual rights. The movement has resulted in the introduction of more than 300 anti-abortion bills in states, 50 of which have passed in 23 states. Most Christian fundamentalist groups provide free legal representation to abortion clinic terrorists, and some groups solicit women to bring specious malpractice claims against providers. Sophisticated legal tactics are used by these groups to remove the taint of extremism and mask the danger posed to US constitutional principles being posed by "a well-financed and zealous brand of radical lawyers and their supporters." PMID:12294553

  12. Scaling of structural failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chen, Er-Ping

    1997-01-01

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  13. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    SciTech Connect

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  14. Scaling and Urban Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benguigui, L.; Czamanski, D.; Marinov, M.

    This paper presents an analysis of the growth of towns in the Tel Aviv metropolis. It indicates a similarity in the variation of populations so that the population functions can be scaled and superposed one onto the other. This is a strong indication that the growth mechanism for all these towns is the same. Two different models are presented to interpret the population growth: one is an analytic model while the other is a computer simulation. In the dynamic analytic model, we introduced the concept of characteristic time. The growth has two parts: in the first, the derivative is an increasing function, the town is very attractive and there is short delay between decision to build and complete realization of the process. At this time, there is no shortage of land. However, around a specific time, the delay begins to increase and there is lack of available land. The rate of the population variation decreases until saturation. The two models give a good quantitative description.

  15. Industrial scale gene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery.

  16. Appreciation as Audience Response: Exploring Entertainment Gratifications beyond Hedonism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary Beth; Bartsch, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates upon the notion of media enjoyment in the context of film viewing by proposing a complementary type of gratification that we conceptualize as appreciation. Three studies were conducted to tap into the multidimensionality of viewers' entertainment gratifications with a special focus on the domain of more serious, poignant,…

  17. Plague and Climate: Scales Matter

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Gage, Kenneth L.; Kreppel, Katharina; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Plague is enzootic in wildlife populations of small mammals in central and eastern Asia, Africa, South and North America, and has been recognized recently as a reemerging threat to humans. Its causative agent Yersinia pestis relies on wild rodent hosts and flea vectors for its maintenance in nature. Climate influences all three components (i.e., bacteria, vectors, and hosts) of the plague system and is a likely factor to explain some of plague's variability from small and regional to large scales. Here, we review effects of climate variables on plague hosts and vectors from individual or population scales to studies on the whole plague system at a large scale. Upscaled versions of small-scale processes are often invoked to explain plague variability in time and space at larger scales, presumably because similar scale-independent mechanisms underlie these relationships. This linearity assumption is discussed in the light of recent research that suggests some of its limitations. PMID:21949648

  18. Mechanically reliable scales and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Alexander, K.B.

    1995-07-01

    As the first stage in examining the mechanical reliability of protective surface oxides, the behavior of alumina scales formed on iron-aluminum alloys during high-temperature cyclic oxidation was characterized in terms of damage and spallation tendencies. Scales were thermally grown on specimens of three iron-aluminum composition using a series of exposures to air at 1000{degrees}C. Gravimetric data and microscopy revealed substantially better integrity and adhesion of the scales grown on an alloy containing zirconium. The use of polished (rather than just ground) specimens resulted in scales that were more suitable for subsequent characterization of mechanical reliability.

  19. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  20. Limitations in thermal scale modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    Thermal scale modeling limitations for radiation- conduction system of unmanned spacecraft, discussing material thermal properties, model dimensions, instrumentation effects and environment simulation

  1. Mixed scale joint graphical lasso.

    PubMed

    Pircalabelu, Eugen; Claeskens, Gerda; Waldorp, Lourens J

    2016-10-01

    SummaryWe have developed a method for estimating brain networks from fMRI datasets that have not all been measured using the same set of brain regions. Some of the coarse scale regions have been split in smaller subregions. The proposed penalized estimation procedure selects undirected graphical models with similar structures that combine information from several subjects and several coarseness scales. Both within-scale edges and between-scale edges that identify possible connections between a large region and its subregions are estimated. PMID:27324414

  2. Validating Large Scale Networks Using Temporary Local Scale Networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA NRCS Soil Climate Analysis Network and NOAA Climate Reference Networks are nationwide meteorological and land surface data networks with soil moisture measurements in the top layers of soil. There is considerable interest in scaling these point measurements to larger scales for validating ...

  3. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH SIX DIFFERENT MATERIALS. MIX SIFTED DOWN FROM SILOS ABOVE. INGREDIENTS: SAND, SODA ASH, DOLOMITE LIMESTONE, NEPHELINE SYENITE, SALT CAKE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. Drift Scale THM Model

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist

    2004-10-07

    This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a

  5. Nonrelativistic scale anomaly, and composite operators with complex scaling dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, Sergej

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > Nonrelativistic scale anomaly leads to operators with complex scaling dimensions. > We study an operator O={psi}{psi} in quantum mechanics with 1/r{sup 2} potenial. > The propagator of the composite operator is analytically computed. - Abstract: It is demonstrated that a nonrelativistic quantum scale anomaly manifests itself in the appearance of composite operators with complex scaling dimensions. In particular, we study nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with an inverse square potential and consider a composite s-wave operator O={psi}{psi}. We analytically compute the scaling dimension of this operator and determine the propagator <0|TOO{sup +}|0>. The operator O represents an infinite tower of bound states with a geometric energy spectrum. Operators with higher angular momenta are briefly discussed.

  6. Scale invariance vs conformal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this review article, we discuss the distinction and possible equivalence between scale invariance and conformal invariance in relativistic quantum field theories. Under some technical assumptions, we can prove that scale invariant quantum field theories in d = 2 space-time dimensions necessarily possess the enhanced conformal symmetry. The use of the conformal symmetry is well appreciated in the literature, but the fact that all the scale invariant phenomena in d = 2 space-time dimensions enjoy the conformal property relies on the deep structure of the renormalization group. The outstanding question is whether this feature is specific to d = 2 space-time dimensions or it holds in higher dimensions, too. As of January 2014, our consensus is that there is no known example of scale invariant but non-conformal field theories in d = 4 space-time dimensions under the assumptions of (1) unitarity, (2) Poincaré invariance (causality), (3) discrete spectrum in scaling dimensions, (4) existence of scale current and (5) unbroken scale invariance in the vacuum. We have a perturbative proof of the enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance based on the higher dimensional analogue of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem, but the non-perturbative proof is yet to come. As a reference we have tried to collect as many interesting examples of scale invariance in relativistic quantum field theories as possible in this article. We give a complementary holographic argument based on the energy-condition of the gravitational system and the space-time diffeomorphism in order to support the claim of the symmetry enhancement. We believe that the possible enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance reveals the sublime nature of the renormalization group and space-time with holography. This review is based on a lecture note on scale invariance vs conformal invariance, on which the author gave lectures at Taiwan Central University for the 5th Taiwan School on Strings and

  7. The Callier-Azusa Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillman, Robert D., Ed.

    Presented is the Callier-Azusa Scale designed to aid in the assessment of deaf-blind and multihandicapped children in the areas of motor development, perceptual abilities, daily living skills, language development, and socialization. The scale is said to be predicated on the assumption that given the appropriate environment all children follow the…

  8. A Scale of Mobbing Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop the Mobbing Impacts Scale and to examine its validity and reliability analyses. The sample of study consisted of 509 teachers from Sakarya. In this study construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities and item analysis of the scale were examined. As a result of factor analysis for…

  9. Rating scales for musician's dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Berque, Patrice; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart; Frucht, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a focal adult-onset dystonia most commonly involving the hand. It has much greater relative prevalence than non-musician’s focal hand dystonias, exhibits task specificity at the level of specific musical passages, and is a particularly difficult form of dystonia to treat. For most MD patients, the diagnosis confirms the end of their music performance careers. Research on treatments and pathophysiology is contingent upon measures of motor function abnormalities. In this review, we comprehensively survey the literature to identify the rating scales used in MD and the distribution of their use. We also summarize the extent to which the scales have been evaluated for their clinical utility, including reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity to MD, and practicality for a clinical setting. Out of 135 publications, almost half (62) included no quantitative measures of motor function. The remaining 73 studies used a variety of choices from among 10 major rating scales. Most used subjective scales involving either patient or clinician ratings. Only 25% (18) of the studies used objective scales. None of the scales has been completely and rigorously evaluated for clinical utility. Whether studies involved treatments or pathophysiologic assays, there was a heterogeneous choice of rating scales used with no clear standard. As a result, the collective interpretive value of those studies is limited because the results are confounded by measurement effects. We suggest that the development and widespread adoption of a new clinically useful rating scale is critical for accelerating basic and clinical research in MD. PMID:23884039

  10. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  11. Contrast Analysis for Scale Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olejnik, Stephen F.; And Others

    Research on tests for scale equality have focused exclusively on an overall test statistic and have not examined procedures for identifying specific differences in multiple group designs. The present study compares four contrast analysis procedures for scale differences in the single factor four-group design: (1) Tukey HSD; (2) Kramer-Tukey; (3)…

  12. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Adams, Cheryll M.; Cross, Tracy L.; Dixon, Felicia A.; Pierce, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the…

  13. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), the state-of-the-art production techniques for computer chips, promises such powerful, inexpensive computing that, in the future, people will be able to communicate with computer devices in natural language or even speech. However, before full-scale VLSI implementation can occur, certain salient factors must be…

  14. Scale Shrinkage in Vertical Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three potential causes of scale shrinkage (measurement error, restriction of range, and multidimensionality) in item response theory vertical equating are discussed, and a more comprehensive model-based approach to establishing vertical scales is described. Test data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress are used to illustrate the…

  15. Multi-scale Material Appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongzhi

    Modeling and rendering the appearance of materials is important for a diverse range of applications of computer graphics - from automobile design to movies and cultural heritage. The appearance of materials varies considerably at different scales, posing significant challenges due to the sheer complexity of the data, as well the need to maintain inter-scale consistency constraints. This thesis presents a series of studies around the modeling, rendering and editing of multi-scale material appearance. To efficiently render material appearance at multiple scales, we develop an object-space precomputed adaptive sampling method, which precomputes a hierarchy of view-independent points that preserve multi-level appearance. To support bi-scale material appearance design, we propose a novel reflectance filtering algorithm, which rapidly computes the large-scale appearance from small-scale details, by exploiting the low-rank structures of Bidirectional Visible Normal Distribution Functions and pre-rotated Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions in the matrix formulation of the rendering algorithm. This approach can guide the physical realization of appearance, as well as the modeling of real-world materials using very sparse measurements. Finally, we present a bi-scale-inspired high-quality general representation for material appearance described by Bidirectional Texture Functions. Our representation is at once compact, easily editable, and amenable to efficient rendering.

  16. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  17. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  18. Children's Scale Errors with Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Krista; Eshleman, Angelica; Greene, Kimberly; Terziyan, Treysi

    2011-01-01

    Children sometimes make "scale errors," attempting to interact with tiny object replicas as though they were full size. Here, we demonstrate that instrumental tools provide special insight into the origins of scale errors and, moreover, into the broader nature of children's purpose-guided reasoning and behavior with objects. In Study 1, 1.5- to…

  19. Spiritual Competency Scale: Further Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…

  20. Convergent Validity of Four Innovativeness Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    Four scales of innovativeness were administered to two samples of undergraduate students: the Open Processing Scale, Innovativeness Scale, innovation subscale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. Intercorrelations indicated the scales generally exhibited convergent validity. (GDC)

  1. Important Scaling Parameters for Testing Model-Scale Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the effects of aerodynamic and aeroelastic scaling parameters on model scale helicopter rotors has been conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The effect of varying Reynolds number, blade Lock number, and structural elasticity on rotor performance has been studied and the performance results are discussed herein for two different rotor blade sets at two rotor advance ratios. One set of rotor blades were rigid and the other set of blades were dynamically scaled to be representative of a main rotor design for a utility class helicopter. The investigation was con-densities permits the acquisition of data for several Reynolds and Lock number combinations.

  2. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuela, A.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in present-day hydrological sciences is to enhance the performance of existing distributed hydrological models through a better description of subgrid processes, in particular the subgrid connectivity of flow paths. The Relative Surface Connection (RSC) function was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outflow boundary (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrograph at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 × 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 × 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses were used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (l) or width (w) of the field. To different extents depending on the microtopography, border effects were observed for the smaller scales when decreasing l or w, which resulted in a strong decrease or increase of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing w, but a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing l. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as l increased, the change in C being inversely proportional to the change in l. However, this observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which no

  3. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity, at the interill scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penuela Fernandez, A.; Bielders, C.; Javaux, M.

    2012-04-01

    The relative surface connection function (RSC) was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outlet (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrogram at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 x 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 x 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses was used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (L) or width (l) of the field. Border effects were observed for the smaller scales. In most of cases, for L or l smaller than 750mm, increasing L or l, resulted in a strong increase or decrease of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing l. On the contrary, a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing L. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as L increased. This change in C was inversely proportional to the change in L. This observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which no correlation was found between C and L. The results of this study help identify the critical scale to study overland flow connectivity. At scales larger than the critical scale, the RSC function showed a great potential to be extrapolated to other scales.

  4. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuela, A.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C. L.

    2012-06-01

    A major challenge in present-day hydrological sciences is to enhance the performance of existing distributed hydrological models through a better description of subgrid processes, in particular the subgrid connectivity of flow paths. The relative surface connection function (RSC) was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outflow boundary (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrogram at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 × 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 × 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses were used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (l) or width (w) of the field. Border effects, at different extents depending on the microtopography, were observed for the smaller scales, when decreasing l or w, which resulted in a strong decrease or increase of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing w. On the contrary, a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing l. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as l increased. This change in C was inversely proportional to the change in l. This observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which

  5. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. Methods The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Results Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38–81% individuals, 50–100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. Conclusion The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a ‘leniency error’ in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station. PMID:26004993

  6. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  7. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  8. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  9. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  10. Scale-dependent halo bias from scale-dependent growth

    SciTech Connect

    Parfrey, Kyle; Hui, Lam; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2011-03-15

    We derive a general expression for the large-scale halo bias, in theories with a scale-dependent linear growth, using the excursion set formalism. Such theories include modified-gravity models, and models in which the dark energy clustering is non-negligible. A scale dependence is imprinted in both the formation and evolved biases by the scale-dependent growth. Mergers are accounted for in our derivation, which thus extends earlier work which focused on passive evolution. There is a simple analytic form for the bias for those theories in which the nonlinear collapse of perturbations is approximately the same as in general relativity. As an illustration, we apply our results to a simple Yukawa modification of gravity, and use Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurements of the clustering of luminous red galaxies to constrain the theory's parameters.

  11. Concordance among anticholinergic burden scales

    PubMed Central

    Naples, Jennifer G.; Marcum, Zachary A.; Perera, Subashan; Gray, Shelly L.; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Shorr, Ronald I.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no gold standard to assess potential anticholinergic burden of medications. Objectives To evaluate concordance among five commonly used anticholinergic scales. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants 3,055 community-dwelling older adults aged 70–79 with baseline medication data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Measurements Any use, weighted scores, and total standardized daily dosage were calculated using five anticholinergic measures (i.e., Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden [ACB] Scale, Anticholinergic Drug Scale [ADS], Anticholinergic Risk Scale [ARS], Drug Burden Index anticholinergic component [DBI-ACh], and Summated Anticholinergic Medications Scale [SAMS]). Concordance was evaluated with kappa statistics and Spearman rank correlations. Results Any anticholinergic use in rank order was 51% for the ACB, 43% for the ADS, 29% for the DBI-ACh, 23% for the ARS, and 16% for the SAMS. Kappa statistics for all pairwise use comparisons ranged from 0.33 to 0.68. Similarly, concordance as measured by weighted kappa statistics ranged from 0.54 to 0.70 among the three scales not incorporating dosage (ADS, ARS, and ACB). Spearman rank correlation between the DBI-ACh and SAMS was 0.50. Conclusions Only low to moderate concordance was found among the five anticholinergic scales. Future research is needed to examine how these differences in measurement impact their predictive validity with respect to clinically relevant outcomes, such as cognitive impairment. PMID:26480974

  12. Estimating Plot Scale Impacts on Watershed Scale Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.; Huwe, B.

    2010-12-01

    Over recent decades, land and resource use as well as climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, agricultural and forest products). The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, biology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a catchment of South Korea. A variety of models (Erosion-3D, HBV-Light, VS2DH, Hydrus, PIXGRO, DNDC, and Hydrogeosphere) are being used to simulate plot and field scale measurements within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. The experimental field data throughout the catchment was integrated with the spatially-distributed SWAT2005 model. Typically, macroscopic homogeneity and average effective model parameters are assumed when upscaling local-scale heterogeneous measurements to the watershed. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources.

  13. SCALING PROPERTIES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUCTUATIONS IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Jean Carlos; Mason, Joanne; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Cattaneo, Fausto E-mail: j.mason@exeter.ac.uk E-mail: cattaneo@flash.uchicago.edu

    2014-09-20

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scale—the Alfvén velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this also imposes stringent conditions on numerical studies of MHD turbulence. In contrast with the hydrodynamic case, the discretization scale in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence should decrease faster than the dissipation scale, in order for the simulations to remain resolved as the Reynolds number increases.

  14. High performance oilfield scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Duccini, Y.; Dufour, A.; Hann, W.M.; Sanders, T.W.; Weinstein, B.

    1997-08-01

    Sea water often reacts with the formation water in offshore fields to produce barium, calcium and strontium sulfate deposits that hinder oil production. Newer fields often have more difficult to control scale problems than older ones, and current technology scale inhibitors are not able to control the deposits as well as needed. In addition, ever more stringent regulations designed to minimize the impact of inhibitors on the environment are being enacted. Three new inhibitors are presented that overcome many of the problems of older technology scale inhibitors.

  15. Semi-scaling cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2010-11-01

    We develop a model of string dynamics with back-reaction from both scaling and non-scaling loops taken into account. The evolution of a string network is described by the distribution functions of coherence segments and kinks. We derive two non-linear equations which govern the evolution of the two distributions and solve them analytically in the limit of late times. We also show that the correlation function is an exponential, and solve the dynamics for the corresponding spectrum of scaling loops.

  16. Scaling of graphene integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Massimiliano; Guerriero, Erica; Fiocco, Marco; Alberti, Ruggero; Polloni, Laura; Behnam, Ashkan; Carrion, Enrique A; Pop, Eric; Sordan, Roman

    2015-05-01

    The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing. PMID:25873359

  17. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws

    PubMed Central

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably. PMID:25411405

  18. Scale locality of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Aluie, Hussein; Eyink, Gregory L

    2010-02-26

    We investigate the scale locality of cascades of conserved invariants at high kinetic and magnetic Reynold's numbers in the "inertial-inductive range" of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where velocity and magnetic field increments exhibit suitable power-law scaling. We prove that fluxes of total energy and cross helicity-or, equivalently, fluxes of Elsässer energies-are dominated by the contributions of local triads. Flux of magnetic helicity may be dominated by nonlocal triads. The magnetic stretching term may also be dominated by nonlocal triads, but we prove that it can convert energy only between velocity and magnetic modes at comparable scales. We explain the disagreement with numerical studies that have claimed conversion nonlocally between disparate scales. We present supporting data from a 1024{3} simulation of forced MHD turbulence.

  19. Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

  20. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Rick L.; Fox, Don T.; Archiblad, Kip E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  1. Inflation in the scaling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Matarrese, S.; Ortolan, A.; Lucchin, F.

    1989-07-15

    We investigate the stochastic dynamics of the/ital inflaton/ for a wide class of potentials leading either tochaotic or to power-law inflation.At late times the system enters a /ital scaling/ /ital regime/where macroscopic order sets in: the field distribution sharply peaksaround the classical slow-rollover configuration and curvature perturbationsoriginate with a non-Gaussian scale-invariant statistics.

  2. Distributional Scaling in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsinelli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    An investigation is undertaken into the fractal scaling properties of the piezometric head in a heterogeneous unconfined aquifer. The governing equations for the unconfined flow are derived from conservation of mass and the Darcy law. The Dupuit approximation will be used to model the dynamics. The spatially varying nature of the tendency to conduct flow (e.g. the hydraulic conductivity) is represented as a stochastic process. Experimental studies in the literature have indicated that the conductivity belongs to a class of non-stationary stochastic fields, called H-ss fields. The uncertainty in the soil parameters is imparted onto the flow variables; in groundwater investigations the potentiometric head will be a random function. The structure of the head field will be analyzed with an emphasis on the scaling properties. The scaling scheme for the modeling equations and the simulation procedure for the saturated hydraulic conductivity process will be explained, then the method will be validated through numerical experimentation using the USGS Modflow-2005 software. The results of the numerical simulations demonstrate that the head will exhibit multi-fractal scaling if the hydraulic conductivity exhibits multi-fractal scaling and the differential equations for the groundwater equation satisfy a particular set of scale invariance conditions.

  3. Scale-free primordial cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe suggests that the physics underlying its early evolution is scale-free. This was the historic motivation for the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles spectrum and for inflation. Based on a hydrodynamical approach, we identify scale-free forms for the background equation of state for both inflationary and cyclic scenarios and use these forms to derive predictions for the spectral tilt and tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial density perturbations. For the case of inflation, we find three classes of scale-free models with distinct predictions. Including all classes, we show that scale-free inflation predicts tensor-to-scalar ratio r >10-4. We show that the observationally favored class is theoretically disfavored because it suffers from an initial conditions problem and the hydrodynamical form of an unlikeliness problem similar to that identified recently for certain inflaton potentials. We contrast these results with those for scale-free cyclic models.

  4. Color constancy and hue scaling.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Sven; Doerschner, Katja; Maloney, Laurence T

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we used a hue scaling technique to examine human color constancy performance in simulated three-dimensional scenes. These scenes contained objects of various shapes and materials and a matte test patch at the center of the scene. Hue scaling settings were made for test patches under five different illuminations. Results show that subjects had nearly stable hue scalings for a given test surface across different illuminants. In a control experiment, only the test surfaces that belonged to one illumination condition were presented, blocked in front of a black background. Surprisingly, the hue scalings of the subjects in the blocked control experiment were not simply determined by the color codes of the test surface. Rather, they depended on the sequence of previously presented test stimuli. In contrast, subjects' hue scalings in a second control experiment (with order of presentations randomized) were completely determined by the color codes of the test surface. Our results show that hue scaling is a useful technique to investigate color constancy in a more phenomenological sense. Furthermore, the results from the blocked control experiment underline the important role of slow chromatic adaptation for color constancy.

  5. Scale-Dependent Dispersivity Explained Without Scale-Dependent Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaliwal, P.; Engdahl, N. B.; Fogg, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    The observed scale-dependence of dispersivity has often been attributed to the scale-dependence of porous media heterogeneity. However, mass transfer between areas of high and low hydraulic conductivity and preferential solute migration may provide an alternative explanation for this phenomenon. To illustrate this point, we used geostatistical models representing the heterogeneity and interconnectedness of a typical aquifer system and plume modeling via a highly accurate random walk particle tracking method. The apparent dispersivity values were calculated using the statistical moments of the plumes. Apparent dispersivity was seen to grow from 0.01(m)to 100(m) over length scales of 0.06(m) to 500(m) even though heterogeneity scales and facies proportions were stationary and invariant with scale in the simulations. The results suggest that the increase in dispersivity was due solely to a stretching of the plume by two mechanisms. The first mechanism results from the diffusion of solute into areas of low conductivity and the second comes from the movement of solute through well-connected high K zone channels. Under such conditions, an "asymptotic dispersivity" may never be reached.

  6. Scaling of extreme rainfall areas at a planetary scale.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Naresh; Lall, Upmanu; Xi, Chen; Ward, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Event magnitude and area scaling relationships for rainfall over different regions of the world have been presented in the literature for relatively short durations and over relatively small areas. In this paper, we present the first ever results on a global analysis of the scaling characteristics of extreme rainfall areas for durations ranging from 1 to 30 days. Broken power law models are fit in each case. The past work has been focused largely on the time and space scales associated with local and regional convection. The work presented here suggests that power law scaling may also apply to planetary scale phenomenon, such as frontal and monsoonal systems, and their interaction with local moisture recycling. Such features may have persistence over large areas corresponding to extreme rain and regional flood events. As a result, they lead to considerable hazard exposure. A caveat is that methods used for empirical power law identification have difficulties with edge effects due to finite domains. This leads to problems with robust model identification and interpretability of the underlying relationships. We use recent algorithms that aim to address some of these issues in a principled way. Theoretical research that could explain why such results may emerge across the world, as analyzed for the first time in this paper, is needed. PMID:26232980

  7. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  8. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-05-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or perceived noise level (PNL) noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10(exp 6) based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using a small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  9. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or PNL noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10 exp 6 based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  10. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or PNL noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10 exp 6 based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  11. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or perceived noise level (PNL) noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10(exp 6) based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using a small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  12. Hidden scale invariance of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Pedersen, Ulf R.

    2015-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general "hidden" scale invariance of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant inverse power-law (IPL) pair interactions. However, crystal packings of several transition metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, and Hg), most post-transition metals (Ga, In, Sn, and Tl), and the metalloids Si and Ge cannot be explained by the IPL assumption. The virial-energy correlation coefficients of iron and phosphorous are shown to increase at elevated pressures. Finally, we discuss how scale invariance explains the Grüneisen equation of state and a number of well-known empirical melting and freezing rules.

  13. Strength Scaling in Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Morton, John

    1990-01-01

    A research program was initiated to study and isolate the factors responsible for scale effects in the tensile strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates. Four layups were chosen with appropriate stacking sequences so as to highlight individual and interacting failure modes. Four scale sizes were selected for investigation including full scale size, 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4, with n = to 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively. The full scale specimen sizes was 32 piles thick as compared to 24, 16, and 8 piles for the 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4 specimen sizes respectively. Results were obtained in the form of tensile strength, stress-strain curves and damage development. Problems associated with strength degradation with increasing specimen sizes are isolated and discussed. Inconsistencies associated with strain measurements were also identified. Enhanced x ray radiography was employed for damage evaluation, following step loading. It was shown that fiber dominated layups were less sensitive to scaling effects compared to the matrix dominated layups.

  14. Featured Invention: Laser Scaling Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    In September 2003, NASA signed a nonexclusive license agreement with Armor Forensics, a subsidiary of Armor Holdings, Inc., for the laser scaling device under the Innovative Partnerships Program. Coupled with a measuring program, also developed by NASA, the unit provides crime scene investigators with the ability to shoot photographs at scale without having to physically enter the scene, analyzing details such as bloodspatter patterns and graffiti. This ability keeps the scene's components intact and pristine for the collection of information and evidence. The laser scaling device elegantly solved a pressing problem for NASA's shuttle operations team and also provided industry with a useful tool. For NASA, the laser scaling device is still used to measure divots or damage to the shuttle's external tank and other structures around the launchpad. When the invention also met similar needs within industry, the Innovative Partnerships Program provided information to Armor Forensics for licensing and marketing the laser scaling device. Jeff Kohler, technology transfer agent at Kennedy, added, "We also invited a representative from the FBI's special photography unit to Kennedy to meet with Armor Forensics and the innovator. Eventually the FBI ended up purchasing some units. Armor Forensics is also beginning to receive interest from DoD [Department of Defense] for use in military crime scene investigations overseas."

  15. Scaling Effect In Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Lin, X.; Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.; Reimer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Scaling is an important issue in the physical sciences. Economic trade is increasingly of interest to the scientific community due to the natural resources (e.g. water, carbon, nutrients, etc.) embodied in traded commodities. Trade refers to the spatial and temporal redistribution of commodities, and is typically measured annually between countries. However, commodity exchange networks occur at many different scales, though data availability at finer temporal and spatial resolution is rare. Exchange networks may prove an important adaptation measure to cope with future climate and economic shocks. As such, it is essential to understand how commodity exchange networks scale, so that we can understand opportunities and roadblocks to the spatial and temporal redistribution of goods and services. To this end, we present an empirical analysis of trade systems across three spatial scales: global, sub-national in the United States, and county-scale in the United States. We compare and contrast the network properties, the self-sufficiency ratio, and performance of the gravity model of trade for these three exchange systems.

  16. Visions of Atomic Scale Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T. F.; Miller, Michael K; Rajan, Krishna; Ringer, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    A microscope, by definition, provides structural and analytical information about objects that are too small to see with the unaided eye. From the very first microscope, efforts to improve its capabilities and push them to ever-finer length scales have been pursued. In this context, it would seem that the concept of an ultimate microscope would have received much attention by now; but has it really ever been defined? Human knowledge extends to structures on a scale much finer than atoms, so it might seem that a proton-scale microscope or a quark-scale microscope would be the ultimate. However, we argue that an atomic-scale microscope is the ultimate for the following reason: the smallest building block for either synthetic structures or natural structures is the atom. Indeed, humans and nature both engineer structures with atoms, not quarks. So far as we know, all building blocks (atoms) of a given type are identical; it is the assembly of the building blocks that makes a useful structure. Thus, would a microscope that determines the position and identity of every atom in a structure with high precision and for large volumes be the ultimate microscope? We argue, yes. In this article, we consider how it could be built, and we ponder the answer to the equally important follow-on questions: who would care if it is built, and what could be achieved with it?

  17. Definition of a nucleophilicity scale.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Paula; Pérez, Patricia; Contreras, Renato; Tiznado, William; Fuentealba, Patricio

    2006-07-01

    This work deals with exploring some empirical scales of nucleophilicity. We have started evaluating the experimental indices of nucleophilicity proposed by Legon and Millen on the basis of the measure of the force constants derived from vibrational frequencies using a probe dipole H-X (X = F,CN). The correlation among some theoretical parameters with this experimental scale has been evaluated. The theoretical parameters have been chosen as the minimum of the electrostatic potential V(min), the binding energy (BE) between the nucleophile and the H-X dipole, and the electrostatic potential measured at the position of the hydrogen atom V(H) when the complex nucleophile and dipole H-X is in the equilibrium geometry. All of them present good correlations with the experimental nucleophilicity scale. In addition, the BEs of the nucleophiles with two other Lewis acids (one hard, BF(3), and the other soft, BH(3)) have been evaluated. The results suggest that the Legon and Millen nucleophilicity scale and the electrostatic potential derived scales can describe in good approximation the reactivity order of the nucleophiles only when the interactions with a probe electrophile is of the hard-hard type. For a covalent interaction that is orbital controlled, a new nucleophilicity index using information of the frontier orbitals of both, the nucleophile and the electrophile has been proposed.

  18. The scaling of attention networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Jun; Wu, Lingfei

    2016-04-01

    We use clicks as a proxy of collective attention and construct networks to study the temporal dynamics of attention. In particular we collect the browsing records of millions of users on 1000 Web forums in two months. In the constructed networks, nodes are threads and edges represent the switch of users between threads in an hour. The investigated network properties include the number of threads N, the number of users UV, and the number of clicks, PV. We find scaling functions PV ∼ UV θ1, PV ∼N θ3, and UV ∼N θ2, in which the scaling exponents are always greater than 1. This means that (1) the studied networks maintain a self-similar flow structure in time, i.e., large networks are simply the scale-up versions of small networks; and (2) large networks are more "productive", in the sense that an average user would generate more clicks in the larger systems. We propose a revised version of Zipf's law to quantify the time-invariant flow structure of attention networks and relate it to the observed scaling properties. We also demonstrate the applied consequences of our research: forum-classification based on scaling properties.

  19. SCALE FORMATION IN CHRYSOPHYCEAN ALGAE

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R. Malcolm; Franke, Werner W.; Kleinig, Hans; Falk, Heinz; Sitte, Peter

    1970-01-01

    The cell wall of the marine chrysophycean alga Pleurochrysis scherfellii is composed of distinct wall fragments embedded in a gelatinous mass. The latter is a polysaccharide of pectic character which is rich in galactose and ribose. These wall fragments are identified as scales. They have been isolated and purified from the vegetative mother cell walls after zoospore formation. Their ultrastructure is described in an electron microscope study combining sectioning, freeze-etch, and negative staining techniques. The scales consist of a layer of concentrically arranged microfibrils (ribbons with cross-sections of 12 to 25 x 25 to 40 A) and underlying radial fibrils of similar dimensions. Such a network-plate is densely coated with particles which are assumed to be identical to the pectic component. The microfibrils are resistant to strong alkaline treatment and have been identified as cellulose by different methods, including sugar analysis after total hydrolysis, proton resonance spectroscopical examination (NMR spectroscopy) of the benzoylated product, and diverse histochemical tests. The formation and secretion of the scales can be followed along the maturing Golgi cisternae starting from a pronounced dilated "polymerization center" as a completely intracisternal process which ends in the exocytotic extrusion of the scales. The scales reveal the very same ultrastructure within the Golgi cisternae as they do in the cell wall. The present finding represents the first evidence on cellulose formation by the Golgi apparatus and is discussed in relation to a basic scheme for cellulose synthesis in plant cells in general. PMID:5513606

  20. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.